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Chapter 22

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22:1-2a And he showed me a river of water of life, shining as rock crystal, going out, out of a (א,* א) throne of God and of the little Ram, in a middle of its street.

Word for word: 22:1 (17 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus): And (he)-showed me (a)-river (of)-water (of)-life shining as rock-crystal, going-out out-of (the)-throne (of)-the (of)-god and (of)-the little-ram. 22:2a (5 words in the Greek text) in middle (of)-the street its


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

A river goes out, out of Eden to give the ‘place by the side of apprehension’/Paradise to drink. (Gen 2:10a, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said: “There is a) river, whose stormings/’quick motions’ cheer the city of God. It has made the dwelling-tent of the highest One holy. God is in its middle.” (Ps 46:4-5a or 46:5-6a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) “Now I shall call Zion to the side of, and I shall call all her desolate (districts) to the side of, and I shall put/order her desolate (districts) as a ‘place by the side of apprehension’/Paradise of the Lord.” (Is 51:3a, Greek OT)

(The man) ‘led ... into’/brought Me against the front doors of the house. And behold, water went out from below. (Ezek 47:1a, Greek OT)

In that day living water will come out, out of Jerusalem. (Zech 14:8, Greek OT)

(Solomon prayed to the Lord:) “Give me the wisdom sitting by the side of Your thrones." (Wisdom of Solomon 9:4a)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to the scribes and the Pharisees:) “The one having sworn in/by the heaven swears in/by the throne of God and in/by the One being seated above it.” (Matt 23:22)

(Jesus said to His disciples: “At the desolation of a disgraced Jerosolyma/Jerusalem) … let the ones (being) in its middle have/get room out of (it).”(Luke 21:21a)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “You may eat and drink … in My kingdom.” (Luke 22:30a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Jesus said to the woman:) “If you knew the benefit of God and who the One is saying to you: ‘Give to drink’, you had – according to the circumstances - demanded/asked Him, and He had – according to the circumstances – given you living water.” (John 4:10)

(Those in the white dresses) are ‘in the very eyes of’/before the throne of God, and they serve Him day and night in His temple. (Rev 7:15a)

The little Ram, the One upwards/above a middle of the throne, will be a shepherd to them, and He will show them the way upon springs of waters of life. (Rev 7:17a)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

Rabbi Akiva … thought that the throne of David would be beside the throne of the Holy One. (J. Massyngberde Ford "Revelation" p 422)

It is possible that the 'river' (in Ps 46:4/5) was used as a symbol of God's presence (cf. Isa. 8:6f., 33:21). The word-picture itself may have been borrowed from the 'Garden of Paradise' concept. It is likely that the presence of Yahweh was associated with this primeval garden just as it was also linked with Zion, and consequently the descriptions of the one place could be applied to the other. As a river flowed out of Eden (Gen. 2:10), so a similar river would give joy and blessing to the city of God, and from here to the whole world. ... Also in the Ugaritic texts the dwelling of El is situated at the springs of the rivers. (A.A. Anderson "Psalms 1-72" p 357)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Erik Gustaf Geijer, Bo Giertz, Solveig Hansson, Martin Lönnebo, Vilhelm Moberg, Petrus M. Nicander, Torsten Nilsson, Efraim Palmqvist, F. Voltaire, P. Waldenström.


My own comments and speculations:

The springs of water of life (Rev 7:17) now have flowed together in a river of water of life. Compare My own comments and speculations to Rev 21:4a.

Concerning “water of life”, see Rev 7:17a. Concerning “throne of God and of the little Ram”, see Rev 7:15a.


Additional studies:

Ezek 36:35; 47:1-5,8-11; Dan 7:10; Joel 3:18; Judith 11:19; John 4:10,14; 7:38; Rev 7:17; 21:6,21; 22:17.


Paul B. Decock "The Scriptures in the Book of Revelation"; Neotestamentica 33.2 (1999): 373-410.

Donald Guthrie "The Lamb in the Structure of the Book of Revelation"; Vox Evangelica 12 (1981): 64-71.

Norman Hillyer "'The Lamb' in the Apocalypse"; The Evangelical Quarterly 39.4 (Oct.-Dec. 1967): 228-236.

J.A. du Rand "The imagery of the heavenly Jerusalem (Revelation 21:9-22:5)"; Neotestamentica 22.1 (1988): 65-86.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-08-16; 2012-07-30; 2015-11-12)

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22:2b And (in a middle) of the river, from here and from there, (was) a wood of life, making/giving twelve fruits, giving back its fruits (א,* א) ‘according to’/during everyone/every month. And the leaves of the woods (א,* א) (were) into/’purposed for’ attendance of * (א,* א) nations.

Word for word (26 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus): and (of)-the river from-here and from-there (a)-wood (of)-life making fruits twelve according-to month everyone giving-back the fruits its, and the leaves (of)-the (of)-woods into attendance (of)-nations.


The Gospel of John and the Book of Revelation: The one who in Jerusalem was a Middle among crucified ones - from here and from here - (John 19:18) can in a new Jerusalem perhaps very well be seen as a wood of life in a middle - from here and from there - of a river of water of life (Rev 22:1-2). Jesus is the one who "must increase" (John 3:30).


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

God let … every wood seasonable/’suitable for fruits of the season’ stick up out of, out of the earth into/to beholding and fine into/to consumption and the wood of the life in a middle of the ‘place by the side of apprehension’/Paradise and the wood of the thing to know, ‘known of’/’acquainted with’ fine and evil. But/and a river goes out, out of Eden to give the ‘place by the side of apprehension’/Paradise to drink. From there it is divided by a boundary-line into four beginnings. (Gen 2:9-10, Greek OT)

(When the first men had missed the mark of God) the eyes of the two were opened throughout, and they gained knowledge, that they (continually) were naked. And they sewed leaves of a fig tree and made themselves (clothes) girded (them) around. (Gen 3:7, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said: “The righteous one) will be as the wood having been (and being) planted to the side of the passages/ways of the waters, which will give the fruit in its seasonable time, and its leaf will not flow/float away.” (Ps 1:3a, Greek OT)

(Wisdom) is a wood of life to all the ones holding themselves next to her. (Prov 3:18a, Greek OT)

(In the coming days) the (inhabited) world will be fulfilled of the fruit (of Jacob/Israel). (Is 27:6b, Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) “Upon the lip of the river (there were) extremely many trees ‘in from’/’from here’ and ‘in from’/’from /there’.” (Ezek 47:7b, Greek OT)

Upon the river, upon its lip, ‘in from’/’from here’ and ‘in from’/’from there’, will ascend every consumable wood (with leaves which) not/certainly not may be made longstanding/old upon it, nor/and its fruit may not/certainly not ‘leave out’/disappear. … Their waters goes out, out of these holy things and their fruit will be into/for consumption and their ascent/(leaves) into/for health. (Ezek 47:12, Greek OT)

The name of (the new Jerusalem) from (that) day may – according to the circumstances - become: “It will be her name.” (Ezek 48:35b, Greek OT)

The leaves of (the tree which was the proud king of Babylon came) in a seasonable hour, and its fruit (was) much, and nourishment of all things (was) in it. (Dan 4:9a or 4:12a, Greek OT, Theod)

I beheld, I Daniel, and behold, two others stood, one ‘in from’/’from here’ of the river and one ‘in from’/’from there’. (Dan 12:5, Greek OT)

I beheld, I Daniel, and behold, two others stood, one from here of the lip of the river and one from here/there of the lip of the river. (Dan 12:5, Greek OT Theod)

(The Lord/the prophet said:) “Make a fasting holy, proclaim ‘an attendance’/’a service’.” (Joel 1:14a, Greek OT)

(The Jew Jonathan said to his men:) “Behold, the war (is) opposite and backwards/behind us, and the water of Jordan ‘in from’/’from here’ and ‘in from’/’from there’ and marsh and oak-wood.” (1 Macc 9:45a)

The woods of the plains (gave) their fruit. (1 Macc 14:8b)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said to the misser of the mark of God:) “'Eat down'/'you eat up' your leaves and you will perish your fruits and let yourself be as a dried out wood.” (Sir 6:3)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His discipels:) “Every good tree makes/gives fine fruits, but the rotten/decayed tree makes/gives evil/bad fruits.” (Matt 7:17b)

(Jesus) retired from there, and many followed Him, and He attended them all. (Matt 12:15b)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “The Son of the Man is about to come in the glory of His Father in company with His messengers and will then give back to everyone according to his works (א*). (Matt 16:27)

(The priest leaders and the elders) say to (Jesus: “The owner of the vineyard) will give/rent out the vineyard to other farmers, whoever/who will give him the fruits back in their seasonable time.” (Matt 21:41b)

(Jesus said to the priest leaders and the elders of the people:) “The kingdom of God will be lifted from you and be given to a nation making/giving its fruits.” (Matt 21:43b)

(On Jesus') having come against (the fig tree) he found nothing ‘if not’/except leaves, for it (continually) was not the seasonable time of figs. (Mark 11:13b)

(Jesus said to the crowd:) “The other (sowing) fell into the good earth … and made/gave a hundredfold fruit.“ (Luke 8:8a)

The ones having need of attendance (Jesus) (continually/repeatedly) healed. (Luke 9:11b)

(Abraham said to the rich man:) “In all these things a great chasm between us and you has been (and is) set fast, in that way (that) the ones wanting to step through/across ‘in from’/’from here’ towards you may not be able, ‘but not’/nor may (anyone) penetrate through from there towards us.” (Luke 16:26)

(The ship with Paul and the other ones on board) ’having fallen among’/’fell into’, into a place (between) two seas. ... In this way it became (that) all be/were saved throughout ‘against the earth’/’up to land’. (Acts 27:41a,44b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "Do you not say that/: 'It/there is yet a space of four months, and/’and so’ the harvest comes?' Behold, I say to you, lift your eyes against and view the districts/fields, that they are white towards a harvest. Already the one harvesting takes wage and leads together fruit into/for agelong life, in order that and/both (א,* א, A) the one sowing and the one harvesting may rejoice together." (John 4:35-36)

They crucified (Jesus), and in company with Him two others, from here and from here/there, but Jesus (is) a middle One. (John 19:18)

To the one conquering * (א,* א) I will give to eat out of the wood of the life, which is in the ‘place by the side of apprehension’/Paradise of God. (Rev 2:7b, “Ephesos”)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: Nils Beltzén, C. Brockelmann, Albert Engström, Bo Frid, Röl Gording, Carl Grimberg, Stefan Gustavsson, Homeros, Aleksis Kivi, Lars Levi Laestadius, C.S. Lewis, Sven Lidman, Margareta Malmgren, Watchman Nee, Olof Pettersson, A.F. Runstedt, Viktor Rydberg, Vladimir Solovjov, John Stott, Jesper Svartvik, Ragnar Thoursie, Touma El-Khouri, John Törnquist, Herman Vendell, P. Waldenström.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “from here and from there”, compare My own comments and speculations to John 19:18. In the light of this verse we can compare Jesus, a Middle One, with the Wood of Life. Concerning “wood of life”, see also Rev 2:7b.


Greek words:

therapeia (attendance) (the NT + examples in the OT) Joel 1:14; Luke 9:11; Rev 22:2 – Gen 45:16; Esther 5:1(D1),2b(D16); Luke 12:42.

fyllon (leaf) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Sir 6:3; Mark 11:13; Rev 22:2 – Sir 14:18; Matt 21:19; 24:32; Mark 13:28.


Additional studies:

Prov 11:28; Ezek 17:9; 19:14; Judith 7:12-13; 2 Macc 6:7; John 4:36; 6:67,70; 15:5; Rev 22:14,19.


D. Mathewson "The Destiny of the Nations in Revelation 21:1-22:5: A reconsideration"; Tyndale Bulletin 53.1 (2002): 121-142.

J.A. du Rand "The imagery of the heavenly Jerusalem (Revelation 21:9-22:5)"; Neotestamentica 22.1 (1988): 65-86.

P. Watson "The Tree of Life"; Restoration Quarterly 23 (1980): 232-238.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-08-16; 2012-07-30; 2015-11-12; change of my own comments and speculations 2016-07-17)

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22:3a And every accursed thing will not be * (א*).

Word for word (5 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus prima manus): and every accursed-(thing) not will-be.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The Lord God said to the male Adam:) "Because you heard the voice of your woman and ate from the wood, which I enjoined you: 'Alone/only this (you may) not eat from it', on/’under the rule of’ the cursed (is) the earth in your works. In/with sorrows you may eat it all the days of your life. Thorns and tistles it will (let) stick up to you." (Gen 3:17-18a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Moses: “With) an execration you shall execrate (your enemies).” (Deut 20:17a, Greek OT)

(The prophet said: “The people) will dwell in (Jerusalem), and an execration will not be any longer.” (Zech 14:11a, Greek OT)

(Judas) execrated (the bad sons of Baian) and set their towers on fire. … (1 Macc 5:5b)


The Latter Revelation:

(Peter) began to accurse and swear that/: “I do not know the Man!” (Matt 26:74a)

(Peter) began to execrate and swear: “I do not know this Man.” (Mark 14:71a)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: Röl Gording, John Stott.


Greek words:

katathema (accursed thing) Rev 22:3. Cf. katathematizô in Matt 26:74 with anathematizô in Mark 14:71. In a restoration perspective we can compare especially with anathema in Zech 14:11 but also with anathema-anathematizô in Deut 20:17 and anathematizô in 1 Macc 5:5. Cf. also the Greek word “eparatos” (accursed) which in the Bible only occurs in John 7:49.


Additional studies:

Num 18:14; 21:2-3; Deut 13:16; Joshua 6:21; 1 Sam 15:3; Jer 23:10; Acts 23:12,14,21.


J.A. du Rand "The imagery of the heavenly Jerusalem (Revelation 21:9-22:5)"; Neotestamentica 22.1 (1988): 65-86.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-08-16; 2012-07-30; 2015-11-13)

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22:3b And the throne of God and of the little Ram will be in it, and His slaves will serve Him.

Word for word (17 words in the Greek text): and the throne (of)-the (of)-god and (of)-the (of)-little-ram in it will-be, and the slaves his will-serve him.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

... In/at that seasonable time they will call Jerusalem: “Throne of the Lord.” (Jer 3:17a, Greek OT)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(The man who had been blind said to the Jews:) “If not this One (continually) was from the side of God, He (continually) was not able to make/do nothing/anything.” (John 9:33)

(Those in the white dresses) are ‘in the very eyes of’/before the throne of God, and they serve Him day and night in His temple. (Rev 7:15a)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: Gösta Sandberg, Henrik Schartau, John Stott, P. Waldenström.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “the throne of God and of the little Ram”, see also Rev 7:15a.


Additional studies:

John 12:26; 19:13; Rev 3:21; 7:9-10; 21:3,23.


J.A. du Rand "The imagery of the heavenly Jerusalem (Revelation 21:9-22:5)"; Neotestamentica 22.1 (1988): 65-86.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-08-16; 2012-07-30; 2015-11-13)

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22:4 And they will behold His face, and His name (will) and/also (א,* א) (be) upon their foreheads.

Word for word (14 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus): and (they)-will-behold the face his and the name his and upon the foreheads their.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

Jacob called the name of that place “Form of God”, for “I have beheld God face towards face, and my soul has been saved.” (Gen 32:30, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Moses:) "You may behold My ‘things behind’/back, but My face will not be beheld for you." (Ex 33:23b, Greek OT)

(David said to the Lord:) “You gave me knowledge of ways of life. You will complete me (with) cheerfulness in company with Your face.” (Ps 16:11a, Greek OT)

(David said to the Lord:) “In righteousness I shall behold Your face.” (Ps 17:15a, Greek OT)

(The Psalmist said:) “My soul thirsted towards the living God. When will I arrive and behold the face of God?” (Ps 42:2 or 42:3, Greek OT)

This is what the Lord, (the) All-powerful says: “Many peoples will still arrive (in Jerusalem) ... and many peoples and many nations will seek out the face of the Lord.” (Zech 8:20-22a, Greek OT)

(Tobit said to the sons of Israel:) “When you – according to the circumstances – may turn yourselves next to (God) towards Him in/with ‘your whole’/’all your’ heart and in/with ‘your whole’/’all your’ soul to make/do truth in the very eyes of Him, then He will turn Himself next to (you) towards you and He may ‘not not’/certainly not any longer hide His face from you.” (Tobit 13:6 or 13:6a, S)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Happy the clean ones (in) the heart, because they will behold God.” (Matt 5:8)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Behold/’take heed’ (that) you may not ‘consider down’/downgrade one of these small/little ones (who believe into Me), for I say to you, that their messengers in heavens ‘through every thing’/always see the face of My Father, the One (being) in heavens.” (Matt 18:10)

(David says into/’for the purpose of’ Jesus:) ”You have given me knowledge of ways of life. You will complete me (with) cheerfulness in company with Your face.” (Acts 2:28)

(The elders) are no longer about/destined to look at the face of (Paul). ... (Acts 20:38b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

No one has ever beheld (and beholds) God. An only descendant, a God, the One being into/in the bosom of the Father, that One has ‘been in command out’/explained Him. (John 1:18)

(There) (continually) were some Greeks out of the ones ascending in order that they might prostrate themselves in/at the feast. So these came to Philip, the one (being) from Bethsaida of Galilee, and they (continually/repeatedly) asked him, saying: “Lord, we want to behold Jesus.” (John 12:20-21)

(Jesus said to His Father:) “I have made Your name visible to the men whom You gave Me out of the adornment/’adorned world’. (Continually) they were to You, and to Me You gave them, and they kept/observed (א,*א) Your saying.” (John 17:6)

(The messenger) said (to the four messengers): “You may not act unrighteously (against) the earth, ‘but not’/nor (א,*א) (against) the sea, ‘but not’/nor (א,*א) (against) the trees, till we may have sealed the slaves of our God upon their foreheads.” (Rev 7:3)

In company with It one hundred and forty-four thousand, having Its name and Its Father’s name having been (and being) written upon their foreheads. (Rev 14:1b)

And I beheld a great white throne and the One being seated above (א,* א) it, from whose face the earth and the heaven fled. And it/there was not found a place (for) them. (Rev 20:11)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 - about 1500

All of us (in the editorial office of the newspaper Handelstidningen) hope to soon see your face, without whose sight it would become rather empty in life for your friend Victor Rydberg. (Viktor Rydbergs brev I "Viktor Rydbergs och S.A. Hedlunds brevväxling" p 4; letter 1862-06-04 to S.A. Hedlund; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

In an elegant drawing-room in the first floor of Grabow's palace (in Rastatt) a seventeen-year-old girl sat in front of a little easel and painted. The dark with white strings of pearls plaited locks, the finely pencilled eyebrows, the almost black flashing eyes, the somewhat bent but extraordinarily well-formed nose, the sweet blush, contending with the alabaster white, almost transparent dye of the complexion, had a predominance on the cheeks and celebrated its complete triumph on the small coral lips. . . . It was Miss Ida, the youngest daughter of Baron von Grabow. . . . She was woken up out of her dreams by the noise from the door being opened. It was her sister Therese who stepped in. Seldom two sisters were more unlike each other than these ones. . . . The hair (of Therese) was shot with red, the eyes lay deeply in their pits, the nose was big and pointed and the rather considerable mouth was almost always drawn to a disagreeable smile or more right a grin, which probably was not taken into account to let the few, uneven teeth be visible. (Viktor Rydberg "Positivspelarne" p 52-53, translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

While (Liljecrona) is playing, (his wife) rises putting on her clothes without rightly know what she is doing. She is so entirely engaged in his play. . . . She draws the curtain aside throwing the window open, and he sees her beautiful, good face. She is good, and she is wise. Her looks come blessed as the ones of the sun on all they meet. She manages the house. Where she is, all must grow and thrive. She has the happiness within herself. He swings himself up on the window-sill to her and is happy as a young lover. Then he lifts her out into the garden and carries her down under the apple-trees. (Selma Lagerlöf "Gösta Berlings saga" s 249; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Leonardo was commisioned to paint (The Holy Communion) in (the dining-room of) the convent (Santa Maria della Grazie in Milano), and he did it so that his work excited the greatest admiration among the artists as well as among the public. . . . Nevertheless he himself was not satisfied with it. With the composition in its whole and with the figures of the individual disciples he might has been it all the same. Not so with the head of Christ. In his imagination he had fashioned himself a divine type of Christ of such a beauty that he disallowed what his paint-brush here had been able to produce and never he gave up the thought of reworking it. (Viktor Rydberg "En underbar man - Leonardo da Vinci" p 70-71; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


about 1500 and time before

The first thing that strikes the eye is that usually the heads (of the coins in the Roman Empire) are startingly well done at every epoch. ... Julius Caesar had himself portrayed in his lifetime. Then followed that wonderful series of heads of emperors and empresses, mostly far better executed than portraits on the world's coinage today (1968). This very high standard is one good reason for saying that Roman coinage, like Greek coinage, was intended to be looked at, and was looked at. ... Particular efforts were made to show everyone the features (of the emperor). ... The portraits of the ruler ... were respected and venerated by the Romans for religious reasons. ... So a Roman emperor ensured that there should be a variety of sculptured figures and portrait heads of himself in very many a town and village of the empire. ... Coin-portraits had their share of the veneration accorded to imperial statues; for the coinage was itself under divine patronage, and was, in due course, even described as 'sacred'. ... Sometimes the actual features (of the emperor) were drastically idealized and rejuvenated. Augustus, particularly, was given this treatment, and various attempts were made to deal with Nero's heavy features. (Michael Grant "Roman History from coins" p 12-14)

Rome is a true America where everything is mixed and cooked, all kinds of people are received as citizens, all gods are added to the collection. The Roman history is uninteresting till Caesar and Augustus, when it becomes a novel. The caesars are complete cosmopolitans. . . . The caesar portraits therefore form an ethnographical collection of great interest. Caesar has a Germanic face and with well-known features as if we met him yesterday, in the Chamber of the Riksdag or in a teacher's desk. His nose is not Roman, but has been; his mouth has a feature of humanity, indulgent goodness smiling at the human weakness; it is not the mouth of the nobleman but of the learned man. Nero as a young man (in the Louvre) looks as an intelligent Israelite with his cheek beard; a little later on he is beautiful with broad forehead and small lower part of the face, perhaps a young Dionysus. Later he resembles a lady of a gambling house coming from Melbourne. Vitellius one can see at the Theatre of Palais Royal in Paris; by the way a bon vivant, rather harmless externally. Vespasian with protruding lower jaw is a fright; Nerva is much Roman; Marcus Aurelius has neither Roman nor Greek nose but a northern, almost Scandinavian, with Esops as starting-point. Julianus Apostata from Illyria has something Phoenician or Assyrian in his longish cranium. Augustus is the most beautiful, with modern, rich, fine expressions, not so much Roman, but he is also volskler (BG Ask-comment: From Volsk?). Among the subjects Marcenas is the exponent of the head of Goethe and Humboldt. Virgil has a Greek and Germanic likeness. Marcus is the Greek centaur and satyr, and besides he is very like his kindred spirit Marat. (August Strindberg "Världshistoriens Mystik" p 49-50; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Samuel Josef Agnon, Svetlana Aleksijevitj, Elisabeth Beskow, Nils Bolander, Bo Brander, Atle Burman, Stig Dagerman, Annica Dahlström, A. van Deursen, Fjodor Dostojevskij, Carl Dymling, Ylva Eggehorn, E.J. Ekman, Ruth Elliott, Per Ericsson, Yousuf Esh-Sharouni, Otto Funcke, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Nikolaj Gogol, Michael Grant, Carl Grimberg, Torsten Gunnarsson, Verner von Heidenstam, Jarl Hemmer, Eric Hertz, Victor Hugo, Kazuo Ishiguro, Liselotte J Andersson, Henry Johansson, Viktor Johansson, Pär Lagerkvist, Signe Lagerlöw, Hans Larsson, Harry Lenhammar, C.S. Lewis, Jonas Lie, Hj. Löfgren, Edin Lövås, Helge Lööf, Naguib Mahfouz, Nils-Eric Magnusson, Margareta Malmgren, Vilhelm Moberg, D.L. Moody, Stephen Neill, Tore Nilsson, Bertil Nordenstam, K.G. Ossiannilsson, Efraim Palmqvist, Patrik Reuterswärd, Johan Ludvig Runeberg, Curt Runnö, Bo Setterlind, Martin Sjöstrand, Eyvor Skantze, Patricia Stacey, John Stott, A.M. Strinnholm, Bengt Söderberg, Esaias Tegnér, Olof Thulin, Valentina Timofejevna Panasevitj, Anton Tjechov, Leo Tolstoj, P. Waldenström, Paul Wern, Torsten Wiberg, Owe Wikström, Fredrik Wislöff, Ingrid Vist, Anna Ölander.


My own comments and speculations:

Moses beheld God from behind (Ex 33:23). The disciples beheld the rib of the glorified Christ (John 20:20-27). John beheld the head, hair and countenance of the glorified Christ (Rev 1:14-16). But first now in the new Jerusalem it is possible to behold the face of God.

Concerning “His name ... upon their foreheads”, see also Rev 7:3 and 14:1b.


(Paul said to the believers in Corinth:) “Just now we see through/’by means of’ a mirror in a riddle, but then face towards face.” (1 Cor 13:12a)

Welcomed, now we are children of God, and it has not yet been made visible, what we will be. We know, that if – according to the circumstances – He may be made visible, we will be like Him, because we will behold Him entirely as He is. (1 John 3:2)


Additional studies:

1 John 3:3; Rev 3:12; 7:3.


J.A. du Rand "The imagery of the heavenly Jerusalem (Revelation 21:9-22:5)"; Neotestamentica 22.1 (1988): 65-86.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-08-16; 2012-07-31; 2015-11-14)

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22:5a And it/there will not be night any longer. And they will not have need of light of a lamp and light of sun, because the Lord God will give light against them.

Word for word (21 words in the Greek text): and night not will-be any-longer and not (they)-will-have need (of)-light (of)-(a)-lamp and (of)-light (of)-sun, because 'lord the god'/'the Lord God' will-give-light against them.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

A light and the sun stuck up. (Esther 1:1ka/A10a, Greek OT)

(David said to the Lord God:) “In Your light we will behold light.” (Ps 36:9b or 36:10b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Jerusalem:) “The sun will not for you be into/’pruposed for’ a light of a day, nor an upsticking of a moon will give you light (during) the night. However the Lord will for you be an agelong light, and God your glory. For the sun will not sink for you, and the moon will not ‘leave out’/disappear for you, for the Lord will for you be an agelong light, and the days of your grief will be ‘completed upwards’/upcompleted.” (Is 60:19-20, Greek OT)

It will be one (unique) day, and that day (is) known to the Lord, and (it is) not day and not night, and towards evening it/there will be light. (Zech 14:7, Greek OT)

(Solomon said: “Wisdom) is more comely than sun and (has) a putting/placing over ‘every of’/all constellations. Being judged together with light it is found former, for night indeed receives/succeeds throughout to this one, but badness is not entirely strong (against) wisdom.” (Wisdom of Solomon 7:29-30)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples: “Straightaway after the great oppression) the sun will be gloomed, and the moon will not give its splendour, and the stars will fall out of (א,* א) the heaven, and the abilities/powers of the heavens will move to and fro.” (Matt 24:29b)

(Jesus said to the crowd:) "No one having fastened/ignited a lamp puts it into a hiding-place, nor underneath the corn-measure (about 9 litres), however/but against the lampstand, in order that the ones going into/in may see the light. (Luke 11:33)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

And the city has not need of the sun, nor of the moon, in order that they may ‘bring ... to’/give it light, for the glory of God has given it light, and its lamp (is) the little Ram. … And its gateways may not/certainly not be shut (during) day, night will for/certainly not to be there. (Rev 21:23,25)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: H. Martensen-Larsen.


Additional studies:

Esther 10:3c(F3); John 1:5; 5:35; 8:12; 13:30; 20:28.


J.A. du Rand "The imagery of the heavenly Jerusalem (Revelation 21:9-22:5)"; Neotestamentica 22.1 (1988): 65-86.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-08-16; 2012-07-31; 2015-11-15)

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22:5b And they will be kings into the (coming) ages of the (coming) ages.

Word for word (7 words in the Greek text): and (they)-will-be-kings into the ages (of)-the (of)-ages.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(David said: “God authorizes) the heavenly thing (to be) kings upon (the earth).” (Ps 68:14a or 68:15a, Greek OT)

(The prophet said about the situation in Jerusalem:) “Slaves were our lords.” (Lam 5:8a, Greek OT)

Holy ones of a highest one will take the kingdom to the side (them) and ‘keep ... down’/possess the kingdom till/’as long as’ the age and till/’as long as’ the age of the ages. (Dan 7:18, Greek OT)

The kingdom and the (judicial) authority and their magnificense and the beginning of all the kingdoms underneath the heaven (the judgment) gave to a holy people of a Highest One to be kings (over) an agelong kingdom, and all (judicial) authorities will arrange themselves to Him and obey Him. (Dan 7:27, Greek OT)

(Solomon said:) “The reflection of (righteous ones is) by the side of a highest one. Because of this they will take the royal palace of the comely appearance and the fine diadem out of a hand of the Lord. (Wisdom of Solomon 5:15b-16a)

(Solomon said: “The kings) are rowers/servants of the kingdom (of the Lord).” (Wisdom of Solomon 6:4a)

(Solomon said:) “If so you, absolute monarchs of peoples, enjoy yourselves on/'under the rule of' thrones and sceptres, honour wisdom in order that you may be kings into the (coming) age.” (Wisdom of Solomon 6:21)

(Baruch said:) “Stand up, Jerusalem, and stand upon the high and see round about towards upsticking/east and behold your children being (and having been) led together from settings of sun till (its) upstickings with the holy word rejoicing at the mention/renown of God. ... God leads them towards, into you being lifted in company with glory as a throne of a king.” (Baruch 5:5,6b)


The Latter Revelation:

Jesus spoke to (His disciples): ”Amen I say to you that/: ‘You, the ones having followed Me in the regeneration, when the Son of the Man may – according to the circumstances – sit down upon His throne of glory, and/also you yourselves (א,*א) will be seated against twelve thrones, judging the twelve tribes of Israel.’” (Matt 19:28)

(Jesus said: “The lord of the happy slave) will ‘cause him to stand down’/’set him’ on/over all his ‘things beginning under’/properties. (Matt 24:47b)

(Jesus said: "The ones being thought entirely worthy to reach ... the resurrection out of dead bodies) are not any longer able to die, for they are sons of the resurrection, equal (with) messengers, being sons of God." (Luke 20:36)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

Jesus answered: “My kingdom is not out of this adornment/’adorned world’. If My kingdom (continually) was out of this adornment/’adorned world’, My rowers/servants (continually) had – according to the circumstances – fought, in order that I might not had been given ‘to the side of’/’over to’ the Jews. But now My kingdom is not from here. (John 18:36)

To (Jesus Christ is) the glory and the power into the (coming) ages of the (coming) ages. Amen. (Rev 1:6b)

You have made them a kingdom and a priestly office (א,* א) to our God, and they will be kings upon the earth. (Rev 5:10)

(The loud voices) said: “The kingdom of the adornment/’adorned world’ has become (the kingdom) of our Lord and of His Anointed (Christ), and He will be king into the (coming) ages of the (coming) ages. Amen (א,* א). (Rev 11:15b)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

Eliahu already had found time to see many kinds of men, but not such as these (gordonists in Jerusalem). They behaved very simply, and Eliahu did not believe, that they in their country were in possession of high dignities or enjoyed great esteem, but he nevertheless felt the greatest respect for them. He thought, that there was something of the magnificence and the authority over them, which belong to such ones who are born to govern men. This might had been due to that they all showed a great mastery over themselves. They never let a unkindly word fall, neither to one another, nor to the lowest of the Syrian servants. They never showed dissatisfaction, never showed bad temper, endured rain and heat with the same equanimity. There prevailed such a joy and such a fresh courage among them, that Eliahu many times said to himself: "Oh, that all travellers were as these!" (Selma Lagerlöf "Jerusalem II" p 262; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Since the Lord has power to infuse life into what He has fashioned, and since the flesh is capable of being quickened, what remains to prevent its participating in incorruption, which is a blissful and never-ending life granted by God? (Irenaeus, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol I, p 530)

It was said that, according to Prov. viii. 15, the sages were to be saluted as kings (Gitt. 62a); nay, in some respects, they were higher – for, as between a sage and a king, it would be duty to give the former priority in redemption from captivity, since every Israelite was fit to be king, but the loss of a Rabbi could not easily be made up (Horay. 13a). (Alfred Edersheim "The Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah Part II" p 409)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Lars Ahlberg, François Fénelon, Bo Frid, Martin Luther, Elvy Nilbratt, Jesper Svartvik, Rabindranath Tagore, Stig Tornehed.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “they will be kings”, see also Rev 5:10. Concerning “the ages of the ages”, see also Rev 1:6b.


Additional studies:

Rom 5:17; 2 Tim 2:12; Rev 20:4.


J.A. du Rand "The imagery of the heavenly Jerusalem (Revelation 21:9-22:5)"; Neotestamentica 22.1 (1988): 65-86.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-08-16; 2012-07-31; 2015-11-15)

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22:6a And he spoke to me: “These sayings (are) faithful and true.”

Word for word (9 words in the Greek text): And (he)-spoke (to)-me: these the sayings faithful and true.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The prophet said to the king:) ”The great God has given the king knowledge of the things which must become/’come about’ after these things, and the dream (is) true, and its ‘judgment together’/interpretation (is) faithful.” (Dan 2:45b, Greek OT, Theod)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

This is what the Amen says and (א*) the faithful Witness and the True One (א,* א) ... . (Rev 3:14b)

He says to me (א,* א): “Write, because these sayings are faithful and true.” (Rev 21:5b)


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “faithful and true”, see also Rev 3:14ba.


Additional studies:

John 16:13; 21:24; Rev 19:9.


Paul B. Decock "The Scriptures in the Book of Revelation"; Neotestamentica 33.2 (1999): 373-410.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-08-17; 2012-07-31; 2015-11-16)

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22:6b And the Lord, the God of the spirits of the prophets, dispatched away me (א*), His messenger, to show His slaves the things which must become in/with quickness.

Word for word (23 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus prima manus): and the lord the god (of)-the spirits (of)-the prophets dispatched-away me the messenger his (to)-show the slaves his (the-things)-which must become in quickness.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

Moses spoke towards the Lord: "Let the Lord, the God of the spirits and every flesh, inspect a man upon/’with regard to’ this synagogue." (Num 27:15-16a, Greek OT)

A judgment of God has been given back to (Haman) through quickness. (Esther 8:12rb/E18b, Greek OT)


The Latter Revelation:

A beginning of the good little message of Jesus Christ * (א*) entirely as it has been (and is) written in the prophet Isaiah : “Behold, I dispatch away My messenger before your face, who entirely will prepare your way.” ... John, the one baptizing ... , became. (Mark 1:1-2,4a)

(Simeon was) a righteous and reverent (א*) man ‘receiving towards’/’waiting for’ a calling to the side of Israel, and holy spirit (continually) was against/over him. It (continually/repeatedly) had been (and was) given him a matter by the Holy Spirit to not behold death till/until (א*) he – according to the circumstances – might behold the christ/'anointed one' of a lord. And he came into the sanctuary in/with the Spirit. … And it/there (continually) was a prophetess, Anna. … She (continually) talked on account of (the child Jesus) to all ‘receiving towards’/‘waiting for’ the redemption of Jerusalem. (Luke 2:25b-27a,28a,36a,38b)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “I say to you, that (God) will make the procuration of justice of (His chosen ones) in/with quickness.” (Luke 18:8a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

A revelation of Jesus Christ which God gave Him to show to His holy ones (א*) the things which must become/’come about’ in/with quickness. (Rev 1:1a)


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “things which must become in/with quickness”, see also Rev 1:1a.


(Paul said to the believers in Corinth:) “Spirits of prophets ‘are arranged’/’arrange themselves’ under prophets.” (1 Cor 14:32)


Additional studies: John 4:23-24; 1 Cor 12:10; 14:12; Heb 12:9; Rev 22:16.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-08-17; 2012-07-31; 2015-11-16)

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22:7 And behold, I come quickly. Happy the one keeping the sayings of the prophecy of this scroll.

Word for word (14 words in the Greek text): and behold (i/I)-come quickly. happy the-(one) keeping the sayings (of)-the (of)-prophecy (of)-the (of)-scroll this.


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

A revelation of Jesus Christ which God gave Him to show to His holy ones (א*) the things which must become/’come about’ in/with quickness. (Rev 1:1a)

Happy the one reading and the ones hearing the saying (א,*א) of the prophecy and keeping the things having been (and being) written in it, for the seasonable time (is) near. (Rev 1:3)

(The voice) said: “Write into a scroll what you see.” (Rev 1:11a)

Change your mind * (א,*א). But if not, I come to you quickly, and I will wage war ‘in company with’/with them in/with the large sword of My mouth. (Rev 2:16)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

The risen Jesus' warning, ‘I come quickly’ (cf. Luke 18:7f.; Rev. 3:11; 22:7), is not a chronological marker but a pointer to the suddenness of the coming judgment. (Earle Ellis "The Gospel of Luke" p 182)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: P. Fjellstedt, Gösta Sandberg.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “I come quickly”, see also Rev 2:16. Concerning “happy the one ... keeping the sayings of the prophecy”, see also Rev 1:3.


Additional studies: John 13:17; 17:6; 20:29; Rev 22:9-10,12,18-20.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-08-17; 2012-07-31; 2015-11-17)

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22:8 And I, John, (is) the one seeing and hearing (א,* א) these things. And when I heard and saw, I fell/’sank down’ to prostrate myself before, in front of the feet of the messenger showing me these things.

Word for word (23 words in the Greek text): And-(i/I) John the-(one) seeing and hearing these-(things): and when (i/I)-heard and saw, (i/I)-fell (to)-prostrate-myself in-front-of the feet (of)-the messenger (of)-the-(one) showing me these-(things).


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The king of Babylon) … prostrated himself before Daniel (in honour of him). (Dan 2:46a, Greek OT)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

A revelation of Jesus Christ which God gave Him to show to His holy ones (א*) the things which must become/’come about’ in/with quickness. (Jesus) gave a sign having dispatched away (the revelation) through His messenger to His slave John. (Rev 1:1b)

I, John, your brother and a companion together with (you) in the oppression and a kingdom and an endurance in Jesus. (Rev 1:9a)

The twenty-four elders will and/also (א,* א) fall/’sink down’ in the very eyes of the One being seated upon the throne, and they will prostrate themselves before the One living into the (coming) ages of the (coming) ages (in honour of Him). Amen (א,* א). (Rev 4:10a)

I fell/’sank down’ in front of the feet (of the messenger) to prostrate myself before him (in honour of him). (Rev 19:10a)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

I took my hymn-book and opened it with a mood of festival in my soul seeing a woodcut - and I see it still, faithful kept in my memory. It represents king David himsel by Kidron or by the river of Jordan, he plays a psalm for the Lord with joy, the contour in the distance is the height of Zion. - It was artistically a strangely thing in Lundström's manner, from his workshop, the one of the old Lundström in Jönköping. . . . But then, what beauty I saw in it! With what colours on the hour my trembling imagination of devotion had coated the blurred ground! What meads of sapphire and what blue mountains! King David's strings have the colour of the sun, there from the harp sparks spring forth, which sound and ring and at last die in the mighty roar of the billows of the organ. To the strokes of the harp I heard the voice of the crowned son of Isai. . . . I heard his voice in the song of the people: "my saved soul will some time swing itself to the heavenly mountain, where the harps of the angels ring." I looked at my leaf, how the contour of the mountain in the bath of the sun rose towards the azure; I heard and saw of the multitude of larks a jubilant procession to a blessed mead. My longing also got a pair of wings and soared, she also, in the flock of larks towards Zion shining in ether clear. (Viktor Rydberg "Träsnittet i psalmboken" p 20-22; depicted time: 1838-1845; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “I, John”, see Rev 1:9aa. Concerning “fell/’sank down’ to prostrate”, see also Rev 4:10a. Concerning “fell/’sank down’ to prostrate myself before, in front of the feet of the messenger”, see Rev 19:10a.


Additional studies: John 12:20; 15:27; 21:24.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-08-17; 2012-07-31; 2015-11-18)

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22:9 And he says to me: “Do not behold/’take heed’! I am your together-/fellow-slave and of your brothers the prophets and of the ones keeping the sayings of this scroll. Prostrate yourself before God (in honour of Him)!”

Word for word (25 words in the Greek text): and (he)-says (to)-me: behold not. together-slave your (i/I)-am and (of)-the brothers your (of)-the (of)-prophets and the-(ones) keeping the sayings (of)-the (of)-scroll this. (to)-the god prostrate-(before).


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The Lord said to Jehu:) “You shall destruct wholly the house of Ahab your lord, ‘out of’/’away from’ My face and you shall out of a hand of Jezebel procure justice for the bloods/blood of My slaves the prophets, and for the bloods/blood of all the slaves of the Lord.” (2 Kings 9:7, Greek OT)

The Lord God may not/certainly not make/do a concern/thing, if – according to the circumstances – He may not reveal His education towards His slaves the prophets. (Amos 3:7, Greek OT)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Behold/’take heed’ (that) you may not ‘consider down’/downgrade one of these small/little ones (who believe into Me), for I say to you, that their messengers in heavens ‘through every thing’/always see the face of My Father, the One (being) in heavens.” (Matt 18:10)

(Zacharias said: “The Lord God of Israel) has raised a horn of saving for us in a house of His boy David, entirely as He talked through (the) mouth of His holy prophets from an age … to remember His holy covenant.” (Luke 1:69-70,72b)

(Jesus said to the apostles:) “When you – according to the circumstances – may have made/done all the things having been throughout arranged to you, say that/: “We are useless slaves. We have made/done (and makes/does) what we (continually) were indebted to make/do.” (Luke 17:10b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Jesus said to the Jews:) “Amen, amen I say to you, if – according to the circumstances – anyone may keep My saying, He will (א,* א) not/certainly not look at death into the (coming) age.” The Jews * (P66,א,* א, B) spoke to Him: “Now we have gained (and gain) knowledge, that You have a little demon. Abraham died and the prophets, and You say: ‘If – according to the circumstances – anyone may keep My saying, He may not/certainly not taste death into the (coming) age.’” (John 8:51-52)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “If they have kept My saying, they will keep yours and/also.” (John 15:20b)

Happy the one reading and the ones hearing the saying (א,*א) of the prophecy and keeping the things having been (and being) written in it, for the seasonable time (is) near. (Rev 1:3)

In the days of the voice of the seventh messenger, when he – according to the circumstances – may be about to sound the trumpet, the mystery of God and/also was ended, as He gave a good little message to His 'of Himself'/own slaves and (P47, P85, א,* א) the prophets. (Rev 10:7)

(The time has come) to give the wage to Your slaves the prophets and to the holy ones and to the ones fearing Your name, the small ones and the great ones. ... (Rev 11:18b)

(The messenger) says to me: “Do not behold/’take heed’! I am your together-/fellow-slave and of * (א*) the brothers who have the evidence of Jesus. Prostrate yourself before God (in honour of Him). … (Rev 19:10b)

The Lord, the God of the spirits of the prophets, dispatched away me (א*), His messenger, to show His slaves the things which must become in/with quickness. (Rev 22:6b)


My own comments and speculations:

Not only all glory but also all honour belong to God.

Concerning “(The messenger) says to me: “Do not behold/’take heed’! I am your together-/fellow-slave and of your brothers … Prostrate yourself before God (in honour of Him)!”, see also Rev 19:10. Concerning ”keeping the sayings of this scroll”, see also Rev 1:3.


Additional studies: Acts 14:13-15; Rev 1:1,11; 22:10,18-19.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-08-17; 2012-07-31; 2015-11-19)

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22:10 And he says to me: “You may not seal the sayings of the prophecy of this scroll, for the seasonable time is near.”

Word for word (17 words in the Greek text): And (he)-says (to)-me: not (you)-may-seal the sayings (of)-the (of)-prophecy (of)-the (of)-scroll this, the seasonable-time for near is.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The man set/clothed in linen said to Daniel:) “The sayings (have been) sealed till a seasonable goal/end time.” (Dan 12:9b, Greek OT, Theod)


The Latter Revelation:

Having sealed the stone (the priest leaders and the Pharisees) secured the grave in company/co-operation with the custodia/guard. (Matt 27:66b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

Happy the one reading and the ones hearing the saying (א,*א) of the prophecy and keeping the things having been (and being) written in it, for the seasonable time (is) near. (Rev 1:3)

(The voice) said: “Write into a scroll what you see. And send (it) to the seven (assemblies) of called out, into Ephesos and into Smyrna and into Pergamos and into Thyatira * (א*) and into Philadelphia and into Laodicea.” (Rev 1:11b)

As many things as (א,* א) the seven peals of thunder talked, I (continually) was about to write. And I heard a voice out of the heaven, saying: ”Seal as many things as (P47, א,* א) the seven peals of thunder have talked and you may not write them.” (Rev 10:4)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: P. Fjellstedt, I. Strandh.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “the sayings of the prophecy of this scroll” and “the seasonable time is near”, see also Rev 1:3.


Additional studies: Dan 8:26; 12:4; Luke 12:42; 21:8; Rev 22:18-19.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-08-17; 2012-07-31; 2015-11-20)

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22:11 Let the one acting unrighteously still act unrighteously. And let the dirty one still be dirty. And let the righteous one still make/practise righteousness. And let the holy one still be made holy.

Word for word (20 words in the Greek text): the-(one) acting-unrighteously let-act-unrighteously still and the dirty-(one) let-be-dirty still, and the righteous-(one) righteousness let-make still and the holy-(one) let-be-made-holy still.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The Lord said to Moses: "'Dispatch throughout'/separate) 'upwards middle'/between the holy things and the profane things and 'upwards middle'/between the unclean things and the clean things." (Lev 10:10, Greek OT)

(David said:) “Let (my enemies) ‘put to’/add lawlessness against/’up to’ their lawlessness.” (Ps 69:27 or 69:28, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Babylon:) “Stand/’stand fast’ ... (in) your much poisoning which you have learnt ‘out of’/since your youth.” (Is 47:12a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) “Let the one hearing hear. And let the one disobeying disobey, for the reason that (Jerusalem) is a house making bitter by the side of (itself).” (Ezek 3:27b, Greek OT)

(The man set/clothed in linen said:) “Many may be tried and made holy, and the missers (of the mark of God) may miss (His mark).” (Dan 12:10a, Greek OT)

(The priest leader) Jesus (continually) was (and had been) set/clothed in dirty garments, and he stood before (the) face of the messenger. And (the messenger) answered and spoke towards the ones standing before his face saying: “Take off the dirty garments from (the priest leader).” And he spoke towards him: “Behold, I have taken (and take) off your lawlessnesses and set/clothe him in a robe reaching to the feet.” (Zech 3:3-4, Greek OT)

(Tobit said to his son:) “Make/do righteousness (in) all the days of your life and you may not go the ways of the unrighteousness.” (Tobit 4:5b, BA)

(The Lord has) made the chosen fathers (of Israel) and made them holy. (2 Macc 1:25b)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said: “The Lord) has created (and creates) good things to the good ones from a beginning. In this way (also) bad things to the missers (of the mark of God).” (Sir 39:25)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples: “Your Father who is in heavens) gives wet against righteous ones and unrighteous ones.” (Matt 5:45b)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Give heed to not make/practise your righteousness in front of the men towards/’in regard to’ be viewed (among) them.” (Matt 6:1a)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Pray you so in this way: ‘Our Father, the One in the heavens. Let your name be made holy.’” (Matt 6:9)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “You may not give the holy thing to the dogs but/and you may not throw your pearls in front of the pigs, (so that) they may (א,*א) not at any time tread them down in/with their feet and having turned themselves (about) they may break you in pieces.” (Matt 7:6)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "Whoever has, to him it will be given, and it will be ‘over and above’/’more than enough’. But whoever has not, and/also what he has will be lifted/’taken away’ from him." (Matt 13:12)

(Jesus said to the scribes and the Pharisees:) "Foolish and blind ones, for which is greater, the gold (of the temple) or the temple, the one having made the gold holy, ... the gift or the sacrificial altar, the thing making the gift holy?" (Matt 23:17,19b)

(Jesus') garments became glittering, exceedingly white, such as a fuller upon the earth is not able to whiten in this way. (Mark 9:3)

Both (Zacharias and Elizabeth) (continually) were righteous opposite God, going/walking blameless in all the commandments and fundamental laws of the Lord. (Luke 1:6)

We (might) serve (the Lord God) in piety and righteousness in the very eyes of Him (to/till) (א,* א, A) all our days. (Luke 1:74b-75a)

Having beheld (that the Samaritans did not receive Jesus) the disciples James and John spoke: "Lord, do You want, we may speak/bid fire to descend from the heaven and use them up?" But having turned Himself He blamed them. ( 9:54-55)

(Jesus said:) “From (the time in) which the master of the house – according to the circumstances – may have risen and shut up the door, you may begin * (א*) to knock at the door, saying: ‘Lord, open to us.’ And ‘having answered’/’he will answer and’ speak to you: ‘I do not know you, from where you are.’” (Luke 13:25)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Jesus said to Nicodemus:) "What having been (and being) begotten out of the flesh is flesh, and what has been (and is) begotten out of the Spirit is spirit. You may not wonder, that I spoke to you: 'You must be begotten from above.'" (John 3:6-7)

But this is the judgment, that the light has come (and comes) into the adornment/’adorned world’ and the men welcomed the darkness rather than the light, for their works (continually) were evil. For every/everyone practising the worthless hates the light and does not come towards the light, in order that his works may not be convicted. But the one making/doing the truth comes towards the light, in order that it may be made visible, that it is in God his works having been (and being) worked. (John 3:19-21)

It became so a searching ‘out of’/of the disciples of John in company with Jews (P66,א*) on account of purification. (Joh 3:25)

(Jesus said:) “* (P75,א*) Into/’for the purpose of’ a judicial verdict I came into this adornment/’adorned world’, in order that the ones not seeing may see and the ones seeing may become blind.” The ones out of the Pharisees being in company with Him heard * (א*) and spoke to Him: “Not are and/also we blind?” Jesus spoke to them: “If you may be blind, you (continually) had – according to the circumstances – not (any) miss (of the mark of God). But now you say that/: ‘We see.’ Your miss (of the mark of God) stays.” (John 9:39-41)

Every twig in Me carrying/producing not/no fruit, He lifts/’takes ... up’ it. And every (twig) carrying/producing fruit, He cleans it, in order that it may carry/produce more fruit. (John 15:2)

(Jesus) says to (the eleven): “Take holy spirit. According to the circumstances you may let the misses (of the mark of God) of some (persons) be. It will be (א*) let be (alone) to them. According to the circumstances you may ‘get power over’/seize (the misses of the mark of God) of some (persons). They/'these misses' have been (and are) ‘got power over’/seized.” (John 20:22b-23)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

The teacher taught: A man can live a very long life, think himself being a respectable man and even be held in esteem as such a man. So a day comes, when you so to say wake up out of a sleep, see yourself as a ghost, and you shrink back answering: Is this one me? You discover acts being committed which now appear indefensible, and you ask yourself: How could I? ... Yes, once you glided into the crime, another time you were dragged at the hair, another time you fell into the trap. - But there are men so heavy with sleep, that they never wake up, and so little intelligent, that they are not able to realize how black they are. I just had a friend being sixty years old; in an outburst of stupid astonishment he said: Why are men so crossed with me? I am thinking I am a nice fellow! - and this man was a tyrant trampling the fortunes of men, an executioner executing on payment, a murderer telling lies about innocent ones, taking bribes, making use of simony and all sorts of vices. ... (He) was an evil nature, who, when he acted in accordance with his nature found this natural or right. He lived in full harmony with his nature and it seemed his equal ones that he was as a nice fellow, "sound", naive, and therefore was "nice in parties". When he died, I sketched out his character for an acquaintance. This one, being of the black wool, answered wholly in a naive way: "You are unjust to him, for I thought he was a nice fellow." This I must write down: "for I thought ..." (August Strindberg "En blå bok I" p 66; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Read Job's Book! "Oh, happy is the man who God punishes!" This is plain seriousness, and probably means: God cares for him. The others he leaves alone in the wretchedness. And this: "Job drinks humiliations as water." He has understood the intention with the humiliations and is proud of being subject of the attention and shows in good spirits how he can swallow. Jeremiah also is sublime: "Oh, I almost have forgotten what happiness is!" Yes, I have. (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev XI maj 1895-nov 1896" p 289; letter 1896-07-23 to Torsten Hedlund; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

(The teacher) now understood this love for dirt and crimes, this inclination for all kind of putrefaction and this sympathy for unclean animals. In this way the wise Manu wrote (in his Indian code of laws . . . how Tschandala, the lowest Indian caste would be treated) with regard to through humiliation create a race of humble ones, who should lie at the very bottom as warming and nourishing manure, in order that the noble tribe of Aryan would be able to put off and form bloom every hundred year . . . : "Tschandala, the fruit of adultery, incest and crimes, may only eat garlic and onion with a taste of putrefaction, and no one may bring him cerials and fruits or water and fire. Tschandala may not fetch water out of rivers, springs or wells, but only out of marshes and those pools having arisen in the tracks of the cattle. Tschandala may never wash, inasmuch as the water only may be granted him to slake his thirst. Tschandala may never set up house; may dress only in clothes after corpses, only use ragged vessels to eat on, old scrap iron to jewellery and to divine service only evil spirits." So the wise Manu wrote (in the 10th book, verse 51 and the following). (August Strindberg "Svenska öden och äventyr 2" p 375-376; the short story "Tschandala" from 1889; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Ronny Ambjörnsson, Sven Danell, Charles Dickens, Fjodor Dostojevskij, Bo Frid, Peter Halldorf, Viktor Johansson, Lars Levi Laestadius, Martin Luther, Hedvig Charlotta Nordenflycht, Viktor Rydberg, Josef Rydén, John Stott, Jesper Svartvik.


Having bathed/’washed itself’ a swine (turns itself next to) into a rolling of/in mud. (2 Pet 2:22b)

If we – according to the circumstances – may confess our misses (of the mark of God), He is faithful and righteous, in order that He may let our (א,* א) misses (of His mark) be to us and make us clean from every unrighteousness. (1 John 1:9)

If – according to the circumstances – you may know, that He is righteous, you have and/also knowledge, that 'every the'/everyone making/practising the righteousness is (and has been) begotten out of Him. (1 John 2:29)

We know, that if – according to the circumstances – He may be made visible, we will be like Him, because we will behold Him entirely as He is. And 'every the'/everyone having this hope on Him purifies himself, entirely as that One is pure. (1 John 3:2b-3)

Little children, let no one lead you astray. The one making/practising the righteousness is righteous, entirely as that One is righteous. (1 John 3:7)

In this it is visible, (who are) the children of God and the children of the slanderer. 'Every the'/everyone not making/practising righteousness is not out of God, and/nor the one not welcoming his brother. (1 John 3:10)


Greek words:

rypainô (be dirty) Rev 22:11

ryparos (dirty) Zech 3:3-4; Rev 22:11 – Jas 2:2


Additional studies: Judges 2:3; Ps 81:12(13); Prov 1:31; Is 51:6; Rom 1:26; 6:20-22; 2 Tim 3:13.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-08-18; 2012-07-31; 2015-11-21)

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22:12 Behold, I come quickly, and My wage (is) in company with Me to be given (א*) back/away to everyone as his work is.

Word for word (16 words in the Greek text): Behold (i/I)-come quickly, and the wage my in-company-with me (to)-be-given-back (to)-everyone as the work is his.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The prophet said to Jerusalem:) “Behold, (the) Lord comes in company with stability. … Behold, His wage (is) in company with Him and the work opposite/before Him.” (Is 40:10, Greek OT)

(The prophet said to Jerusalem:) “Behold, your Saviour becomes/comes to the side of you having ‘the wage of Himself’/’His wage’ and the work before His face.” (Is 62:11b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) “I, the Lord, (is the One letting) hearts (undergo tests) and proving kidneys (on the basis) of the thing to give to everyone according to his ways and according to the fruits of his pursuits.” (Jer 17:10, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) “O/woe (the unrighteous one who) … not/certainly not may give back/away to (his neigbour) his wage.” (Jer 22:13, Greek OT)

(Solomon said: “Wisdom) gave back/away to pious ones wage of their bothers.” (Wisdom of Solomon 10:17a)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "Rejoice and exult, because your wage (is) much/great in the heavens, for in this way they pursued the prophets, the ones (being) before you." (Matt 5:12)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "The one receiving a prophet into/'for the purpose of' a name of a prophet will take (the) wage of a prophet, and the one receiving a righteous one into/'for the purpose of' a name of a righteous one will take (the) wage of a righteous one. And the one who - according to the circumstances - may give to one of these small ones (following Me) only a cup of cold (water) to drink, into/'for the purpose of' a name of a disciple, amen, I say to you, he may not/certainly not perish/lose his wage." (Matt 10:41-42)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “The Son of the Man is about to come in the glory of His Father in company with His messengers and will then give back to everyone according to his works (א*). (Matt 16:27)

Having become evening the lord of the vineyard says to his trustee: “Call the workers and give back/away the wage.” (Matt 20:8a)

(Jesus said to His disciples: "When the Son of the Man is coming it is) as a man having let his habitation be (to go) abroad and having given his slaves the (judicial) authority to everyone his work, and he enjoined the doorkeeper ‘in order that’/that he may be awake." (Mark 13:34)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "Already the one harvesting takes wage and leads together fruit into/for agelong life, in order that and/both (א,* א, A) the one sowing and the one harvesting may rejoice together." (John 4:36)

(Jesus said to the crowd:) “This, it is the work of God, in order that you may believe into the One whom that One has dispatched away.” (John 6:29)

Change your mind * (א,*א). But if not, I come to you quickly, and I will wage war ‘in company with’/with them in/with the large sword of My mouth. (Rev 2:16, “Pergamos”)

I will give you, everyone, according to * (א*) the works. (Rev 2:23b, ”Thyatira”)

And scrolls were opened. And another scroll was opened, which is (the one) of the life. And the dead (bodies) were judged out/’on the basis’ of the things having been (and being) written in the books (א,* א), ‘according to’/concerning their works. (Rev 20:12b)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

When (Mr. Nilsson) sees Alva, he does not cry more but only wails and groans. "I have got some devilry round the leg which I cannot get rid of. God knows what it is but it gives pain." Alva at once launches. She has strong fingers and soon she has got Mr. Nilsson loose out of the fox-trap. Then he weeps for thankfulness. "The angel of Junibacken, your wage will become great in heaven and on earth, be sure of this!" (Astrid Lindgren "Madicken och Junibackens Pims" p 142-143; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

The coming retribution . . . will be given, as one gives to ardently beloved friends. If it therefore is given a repentance in that day, how will we not repent, that we did not here give more abundant and willingly and without ever demand again! Lord, teach us already now to carefully bear this in mind. (Karl Palmberg "Ur livskällan. Tredje årgången." p 293-294; Karl Palmberg /1842-1920/ was from 1883 a Lutheran clergyman in Månsarp in the diocese of Växjö and president in Jönköpings Missionsförening (Missionary Society) 1886-1911; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Eric S. Alexandersson, Ann-Charlotte Alverfors, Johann Alrecht Bengel, Peter Gillgren, Lennart Gustavsson, Hugo Linder, Vilhelm Moberg, Gustav Mosesson, Milton Steinberg, Knut Svensson, Esaias Tegnér, Thomas a Kempis, Carl Wilson, Carl Fr. Wislöff, Alf Åberg.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “I come quickly”, see Rev 2:16.


Additional studies: Ps 28:4; 62:12(13); Prov 24:12; Is 59:18; Jer 12:14; Sir 36:15(18); Luke 6:23; Rom 2:6; 14:12; 2 Cor 11:15; 1 Pet 1:17.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-08-18; 2012-07-31; 2015-11-22)

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22:13 I, the Alpha and the Ô/Omega, the First (One) and the Last (One), the Beginning and the End.

Word for word (16 words in the Greek text): i/I the alpha and the Ô, the first and the last, the beginning and the end.


The Gospel of John and the Book of Revelation:


The one who in the Gospel of John is addressed "Nazoraean" (John 18:7), a word which vowels in the Greek text begin with alpha and omega, is in the Revelation named "the Alpha and the Omega" (Rev 22:13). Jesus is the one who "must increase" (John 3:30).

The one who John the Baptizer describes as "my first (one)" (John 1:15,30) is in the Revelation named "the First (One) (and the Last One)". (Rev 1:17b; 22:13). Jesus is the one who "must increase" (John 3:30).

The one who in the Gospel of John is described as the one of the brothers who comes last up to the feast (John 7:2-10) is in the Book of Revelation named "(the First One and) the Last (One)" (Rev 1:17b; 22:13). Jesus is the one who "must increase" (John 3:30).

The one who in the Gospel of John is the one of the Jews who comes last to Mary (John 11:30-31) is in the Revelation named "(The First One and) the Last (One)" (Rev 1:17b; 22:13). Jesus is the one who "must increase" (John 3:30).

The one who in the Gospel of John "was in a beginning" (John 1:1) is in the Revelation named "The Beginning and the End" (Rev 22:13). Jesus is the one who "must increase" (John 3:30).

The one who in the Gospel of John "welcomed into an end" (John 13:1) is in the Revelation named "(the Beginning and) the End" (Rev 22:13). Jesus is the one who "must increase" (John 3:30).


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Jesus said to the Jews): “If – according to the circumstances – you may not believe Me (א,*א), that I am, you will die in your misses (of the mark of God).” They * (א,* א) (continually) said to Him: “Who are You?” Jesus spoke to them: “(One towards) the beginning, (of) which I and/also talk (with) you.” (John 8:24b-25)

“I am the Alpha and the Ô/Omega, a beginning and an end (א*),” says the Lord God. (Rev 1:8a)

He (who was like a son of a man) said: “ * (א*) I am the First (One) and the Last (One).” (Rev 1:17b)

He says (א,* א) to me: “I (א,* א) have become (and become) the Alpha and the Ô/Omega, the Beginning and the End.” (Rev 21:6a)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: Charles Dickens, Sven Lidman, Olov Olsson, Bertil Ölme.


My own comments and speculations:

Observe the step by step higher confession in Sinaiticus prima manus from "the Alpha and the Omega, a beginning and an end" in Rev 1:8 via "the Alpha and the Omega, the Beginning and the End" in Rev 21:6a to the highest point in Rev 22:13 "the Alpha and the Omega, the First One and the Last One, the Beginning and the End".

Concerning “the Alpha and the Ô/Omega … the Beginning and the End”, see Rev 1:8a. Concerning “the First (One) and the Last (One)”, see Rev 1:17b.


Additional studies: Heb 3:14.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-08-18; 2012-07-31; 2015-11-23)

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22:14 Happy the ones cleansing their dresses, in order that their (judicial) authority will be against the wood of the life and that they may come into, into the city, (through) the gateways.

Word for word (23 words in the Greek text): Happy the-(ones) cleansing the dresses their, in-order-that will-be the (judicial)-authority their against the wood (of)-the (of)-life and the gateways (they)-may-come-into into the city.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The psalmist said:) "Open to me gates of righteousness … This (is) the gate of the Lord. Righteous ones will come into, in it." (Ps 118:19-20, Greek OT)

Uncircumcised and unclean ones will no longer be ‘put to’/added (to the population) to come through, through (Jerusalem). (Is 52:1b, Greek OT)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

Happy the one reading and the ones hearing the saying (א,*א) of the prophecy and keeping the things having been (and being) written in it, for the seasonable time (is) near. (Rev 1:3)

To the one conquering * (א,* א) I will give to eat out of the wood of the life, which is in the ‘place by the side of apprehension’/Paradise of God. (Rev 2:7b, “Ephesos”)

(One of the elders) spoke to me: “These are the ones coming out of the great oppression, and they have cleansed their dresses and whitened them in the blood of the little Ram.” (Rev 7:14b)

I heard a voice out of the heaven, saying: “Write: ‘Happy the dead (bodies), the ones dying in a lord from just now * (P47, א*), says the Spirit, ‘in order that they may rest out of their bothers, for their works follow in company with them.’” (Rev 14:13)

He (א*) comes as a thief. Happy is the one being awake and keeping his garments, in order that he may not walk about naked and they/people may see his indecency. (Rev 16:15)

(The messenger) says to me: “Write: ‘Happy the ones being (and having been) called into the * (א*) chief meal of the little Ram.’” (Rev 19:9a)

This is the first resurrection. Happy and holy the one having part in the first resurrection. (Rev 20:6a)

(The city had) a great and high wall having twelve gateways. (Rev 21:12a)

Every/all common (people), and the one who makes abomination and lie, may not/certainly not come into her, ‘if not’/except the ones having been (and being) written they in the scroll of the life of the heaven (א,* א). (Rev 21:27)

(In a middle) of the river, from here and from there, (was) a wood of life, making/giving twelve fruits, giving back its fruits (א,* א) ‘according to’/during everyone/every month. And the leaves of the woods (א,* א) (were) into/’purposed for’ attendance of * (א,* א) nations. (Rev 22:2b)

Behold, I come quickly. Happy the one keeping the sayings of the prophecy of this scroll. (Rev 22:7)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: Bo Giertz, Amy Le Feuvre.


My own comments and speculations: Here we have the seventh “Happy ...” in the Revelation. See also Rev 1:3.

Concerning “cleansing their dresses”, see also Rev 7:14b. Concerning “the wood of the life”, see also Rev 22:2b.


Additional studies: John 1:12-13; 13:5,17; 20:29.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-08-18; 2012-07-31; 2015-11-24)

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22:15 Outside (are) the dogs and the poisoners and the fornicators and the murderers and the idolaters and every/everyone making/practising and being friends with (א,* א) lie.

Word for word (21 words in the Greek text; the sequence of the words according to Sinaiticus): outside the dogs and the poisoners and the fornicators and the murderers and the idolators and every making and being-friends-with lie.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The Lord said to Moses:) "In/among all of the sons of Israel a dog shall not utter a sound ... in that way you may know as much as (the) Lord shall glorify from the side of (Him) 'upwards (the) middle of'/between the Egyptians and Israel." (Ex 11:7, Greek OT)

(Moses said to Israel:) “You shall not carry a hire/’stipulated pay’ of a harlot, nor the change of a dog (that is, a male prostitute) into the house of the Lord your God towards/’in regard to’ every/any vow, because both and/namely are an abomination to the Lord your God.” (Deut 23:18, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) “The ones, (belonging to) Ahab, having been (and being) deceased in the city, the dogs shall eat.” (1 Kings 21:24a, Greek OT)

(David said:) “Many dogs encircled me, a synagogue of (the) ones doing evil surrounded me … Deliver … my only descendant out of a hand of a dog.” (Ps 22:16a,20b or 22:17a,21b, Greek OT)

(Solomon said:) “A male being friends with wisdom cheers his father.” (Prov 29:3a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) “The dogs ... are evil ... All followed/went out in their (own) ways.” (Is 56:11a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to His people:) ”You will turn next to (Me) and behold ‘upwards middle’/between a righteous and ‘upwards middle’/- a lawless and ‘upwards middle’/between and the one being a slave to God and the one being not a slave.” (Mal 3:18, Greek OT)

(Judith said to Holophernes:) “… I will put your chariot in a middle of (Jerusalem). ... A dog will not utter a sound (with) its tongue ‘over against’/against you.” (Judith 11:19a)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said: “Never it will be) peace (with/between) a hyena towards/and a dog ... (with) a rich towards a needy.” (Sir 13:18)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples: "Happy are you when – according to the circumstances - men) may speak every/all evil ‘down from’/against you lying with respect to Me. Rejoice and exult, because your wage (is) much/great in the heavens." (Matt 5:11b-12a)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "Let your saying be 'Yes, yes', 'Not, not'. But (what is) over and above these things is out of the evil." (Matt 5:37)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “You may not give the holy thing to the dogs.” (Matt 7:6a)

(Jesus said to the ones who followed Him:) "Many will arrive from upstickings/east and settings/west and ‘be caused to lay down’/’lean back’ in company with Abraham and Isaac and Jacob in the kingdom of the heavens, but the sons of the kingdom will come (א*) out into the outer darkness.” (Matt 8:11-12a)

(Jesus said to the woman:) ”It is not fine to take the bread of the children and throw (it) to the little dogs.” (Matt 15:26b)

(Judas said to the crowd:) ”Whom I – according to the circumstances - may ‘be friends with’/kiss, it is He; ‘get power over’/seize him.” (Matt 26:48b)

All in the synagogue were fulfilled (with) passion hearing (Jesus say) these things. And having stood up they threw/hurried Him out, outside the city and led Him till the brow of the mountain upon which their city was (and had been) built, so that (they could) throw Him down a precipice. (Luke 4:28-29)

The coming dogs (continually) licked against the sores (of the beggarly one). (Luke 16:21b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

This is the judgment, that the light has come (and comes) into the adornment/’adorned world’ and the men welcomed the darkness rather than the light, for their works (continually) were evil. For every/everyone practising the worthless hates the light and does not come towards the light, in order that his works may not be convicted. But the one making/doing the truth comes towards the light, in order that it may be made visible, that it is in God his works having been (and being) worked. (John 3:19-21)

(Jesus said to those Jews who to begin with believed Him:) “You are out of the father of ‘the slanderer’/Judas, and you want to make/do the desires of your father. That one (continually) was a man-slayer from a beginning, and he does not stand (and has not stood) in the truth, because it/there is not truth in him. When he – according to the circumstances – may talk the lie, he talks out of the own things, because he is a liar and ‘its father’/’the father of the lie’.” (John 8:44)

Pilate spoke so to (Jesus): “(Is it) not so (that) You are a king?” Jesus answered: “You say, that I am a king. Into/’for the purpose of’ this I am (and have been) begotten, and into/’for the purpose of’ this I have come (and come) into the adornment/’adorned world’, in order that I may be a witness to the truth. 'Every the'/everyone being out of the truth hears My voice. Pilate says to Him: “What is truth?” And having spoken this he again came out towards the Jews, and he says to them: “I find 'no one'/no cause/guilt in Him.” (John 18:37-38)

But for the cowardly and the faithless and the ones being (and having been) abominated and for the murderers and the fornicators and the poisoners and the idolaters and for all the false (ones), their part (is) in the lake burning (with) fire and sulphur, which is the second death. (Rev 21:8)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

The commandment against stealing includes lying, according to the Talmud. Lying is simply stealing another's mind. Thus lying to either a Jew or a non-Jew is forbidden. (Michael E. Williams ”Exodus-Joshua” p 95; Plaut p 560)

(The night) was long as an eternity and full of horrors. But when one becomes tired enough, then one has not the strength to mind anything. Not even if it comes bloodhounds, yes, of course I heard the dogs come, howling and barking, but I had not the strength to be scared. Moreover they soon became silent. Not even bloodhounds venture very long into the abysses, where we crawled around. (Astrid Lindgren "Bröderna Lejonhjärta" p 184; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

(Grandfather) has so bad eyes so he sees almost nothing. He cannot read in any books or newspapers, but it does not matter, for he still knows everything which is written in the books. He tells for us out of the biblical history and about how it was in the olden days, when grandfather was a little boy. We read the newspaper for him, Britta and Anna and I. . . . Think, that it can exist such a kind grandfather! I like him so much. I would rather have him than a dog. (Astrid Lindgren "Alla vi barn i Bullerbyn" p 51,54; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

The kingdom of heaven is built on truth, the gateway into it is truth and all who are allowed to enter through it have in time become the children of the light or the truth. (Karl Palmberg "Ur livskällan. Tredje årgången." p 309; Karl Palmberg /1842-1920/ was from 1883 a Lutheran clergyman in Månsarp in the diocese of Växjö and president in Jönköpings Missionsförening (Missionary Society) 1886-1911; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

In this night (Skugge's) soul will be taken from him and be thrown down in Dimona to the black Magi. You have seen the dark world down there resembling a ball sewed up with variegated patches of different colours. There magicians and witches live, who throw dust in the eyes of one another and arouse false ideas. They could not think, but throw up out of the memory with influence by interests and passions. It is a prison where all watch and pain one another with enviousness, there is a secret, invisible convenant, called Armageddon, ruling in the hidden; they worship no other god than themselves, they only love the evil which they call good and the lie which they call truth; and woe the one who does not want to serve their selfish interests. Strife and zeal, murder and stealing, faithlessness, falseness, fraud are their life. . . . Armageddon, the cursed convenant, which now is sitting in the government, has lost every memory o its high origin; they think themselves be descended from a wart-hog; the earth they regard has been developed out of a poisonous gas having made itself; the purpose of life is to eat, sleep and rule. . . . Friends are secret enemies being forged together by a common antipathy to a third; truth is called lie, the evil good! . . . Epher is the worst of the seven great worlds: a prison and a lunatic asylum of many names, but first and last Coseba or The Lie City, where everything is so mendacious, all ideas so destroyed, that also the one who with a sincere mind tries to say the truth, entangle himself in hereditary lies and becomes caught. (August Strindberg "Armageddon - Början till En Roman" p 106-108; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

After having been pained for 60 years my theophobia has abated. . . . God became man, yes, and therefore he understands how difficult it is, and therefore he overlooks pieces of folly, but not with the well considered evil, the premeditated lie! (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev XVII 13 juli 1908-april 1909; letter 1908-11-05 to the preacher Axel B Svensson; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Be on Your guard against F. With his many good qualities he is born with one or two terrible. He can not speak one true word; and can not hand over anything. If he borrow a book, only a page of a publication, so I must expend day's works on getting it back. And when he at last is obliged to pay, so he always leaves a rest, which he elects another to pay. (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev XVII 13 juli 1908-april 1909" p 40-41; letter 1908-08-20 to Karl Börjesson; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

The teacher went on: . . . On the other hand the one lacking faith and hope, this one can adopt a certain honest way to be, but when he has worldly interests and advantages as his object he slings all honour; also when he has to save a comrade as his object; then he can witness falsely and think it be a beautiful act; to promote an unmerited friend or relative does not bother him, and can he attack a believer, so he swears falsely; he regards all be allowed from his side against others, and he does not regret anything; the one being taken in, he means, the one may have it. If a religious one faults, he generally is ashamed and punishes himself, and sometimes he is enough naive to confess his faults or crimes; the Louse king hurrahs! For this was to him too silly. Nevertheless, when a believer falls 7 and 70 times, he rises again and confesses his fault. This is the difference! (August Strindberg "En blå bok I" p 47; translation from the Swedish book: BG Ask)

When the teacher wandered in Kvalhem he came to a school, which was called The Mutual Instruction (in Swedish: växelundervisningen), because the parts here were confused (in Swedish: förväxlade), so that the unlearned pupils sat in the teacher's desk and taught their teachers. - Well, my boy, the pupil said to the senior master in mathematics, how much is 6 times 8? It is exactly 48, the senior master answered. - No, the pupil said, it is 78. - The senior master protested. - Indeed, you answer snappishly, the pupil said, then you have to get! - But I can prove that 6 times 8 is 48, the senior master protested, I can prove it with addition. - Teaching-staff was called together and was inquired how much 6 times 8 was. As no one knew it, the teacher-pupil informed that it was 78. The senior master was convicted of his mistake, but not convinced, so he was victimized (in a special "beating-class"). - The wandering teacher came into a division, where it was taught in moral law. The pupil, graduated from an anchor smithy, sat in the desk with a rattan in his hand. - The seventh commandment? the anchor smithy asked. - You shall not steal! the disciple answered. - That is the old text, which is an overcome standpoint. Our text-book commission has developed the Decalogue after modern conceptions, so that the seventh commandment nowadays reads after the proposal of the government: You shall not steal when someone sees it! The wandering teacher exclaimed: This, to be sure, is the plain hell! - Yes, certainly, the leader answered. (August Strindberg "En blå bok I" s 87; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

The teacher spoke: When anthropology became zoology, so the zoologists began to treat the animals as men ought to be treated. Dog associations were formed to breed the race by the introduction of monogamy and genuin faithfulness in the dog world. But at the same time the louse-queen preached obligatory unfaithfulness in the human marriage. . . . The other day I saw the so called whore-bride with her children in a saloon. There they played a party game consisting in guessing the father of each one of the children. The association was called The Kennel Club but has now got a process by the real Dog Club, which is ashamed of the association. - The disciple asked: Is this true? Then, to be sure, this is the hell! - Yes, certainly! the teacher said. (August Strindberg "En blå bok I" p 116; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

The teacher went on: But the apemen ("äfflingarne") also have made themselves a theology with dogmata, which are parodies or variety items of the Christian's doctines of faith. They consequently have a satisfaction theory proclaiming the reconciliation to the life, and which is a compromise with the dirt of the whole life, dirt which people usually leave in secret in a secret room or scrape from themselves on the passage mat. They teach the men to be tolerant with the meanness and the evil, describe the men as good-natured, carefree beings which in the bottom are so good; "there is no evil in them". The good men, which can not do evil, appear to the apemen so strict. Why must one pain oneself in one's only life? they ask, quite conscious that they will be annihilated in death, as larval stages. There their gospel begins preaching freedom: freedom to do evil, to be animals, to deceive, falsify, oppress. According to this gospel - backwards it is inmoral that in a poem show how things are going badly for the evil one, the liar, the impostor, the procurer; one has to forgive the remorseless, the hardened, while Christianity teaches forgiveness to the remorseful one who repents. In the gospel of the apemen one has falsified Christ's doctrines, and all Magdalenes are nice, unguilty martyrs of the social conditions, while Christ only received the Magdalena having left the vile behind herself. (August Strindberg "En blå bok I" p 259; the word "apeman" Strindberg uses to describe the followers of the out-of-date naturalistic and darwinistic views of the eighties of the nineteenth century; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

(1907 May 19th) I am reading Swedenborg: He finds during his visits to the other earths that (our) earth is the worst of all the planets, because the men there do not say what they think or say other things than what they think. Therefore they have governments and princes, that are not on the other planets, where one only live in families, and there they cannot lie. Swedenborg says . . . that the Swedish nation on the whole is worse than the others and with the exception of Russians and Italians "the worst one in Europe, for the Swedes do no say what they think". (August Strindberg "Ockulta dagboken" p 261; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Why do the black dogs howl in the court of the tobacco-planter? They tramp and search in the groves; they watch well and preserve. What are the black dogs singing? Surely they do not sing out a corpse? They sit in a cluster howling and singing, the necks stretched, the ears stopped . . . The noses hot and dry . . . Now they are heard growl, when the owls begin their cry. . (August Strindberg "Chrysaetos" p I:491; out of "Ordalek och småkonst" 1905; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Now the door-bell was ringing. It was Brunte and Pirre who arrived with the bitch. Hanna had forgotten the boys, and dogs were her horror. . . . The dogs are not born to obey but to command; and the bitch now barked consistent with her station, so that it resounded in the passage. . . . Now the door-bell was ringing and a male voice was heard thunder in competition with the furious barking of the dog. It was the landlord who at once asked that the dog would be removed or silenced, otherwise police had to be sent for. . . . The command of the animal of the man was demonstrated, and with this it remained. Silent he was, but he stank, and in the sofa he would lie. (August Strindberg "Svarta fanor" p 127-129; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

The hostess (to the Lady): "I prayed to God that he would send me help from the height - for here from down I expected nothing. - - - Then this man came - Besides the thing that he gave me double compared with what I demanded, he brought happiness with him - and my house became blessed! - - - God bless you, good lord!" The unknown rise indignant: "Be quiet woman, you blaspheme!" The lady: "He does not believe! Oh, God, he does not believe! - Look at me!" The unknown: "Now when I see you, I believe! - She blesses me! - - - And I the condemned one have brought blessing with me. How shall I be able to believe it?" . . . The hostess: "It was only one thing I did not understand with the lord; I do not want to say anything evil therefore. . . . It was a little thing, but in any case . . . He could not stand my dogs!" The lady: "This I find beautiful with him that he has dislike to that unclean animal. I abhor all animally, with myself and with other men. Therefore I do not hate animals, for I hate no created thing." (August Strindberg "Till Damaskus III" p 324-325; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

In (Viktor) Rydberg I read: "The divine with the man consisted in brain-power, manly courage, love of truth and mercy, but no other humility than the one to patiently be content with such adversities which not with human power are able to be averted." (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev XI maj 1895-nov 1896" s 309-310; brev 31 aug 1896 till Torsten Hedlund; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

After all what I have been able to sum up, the pronounced dog lover, where he is not a hunter, shepherd or otherwise can have some visible use of his cur, a little despot, who always wants to be reminded of his supremacy and gets slave-obedience every two hours in the daytime. . . . When I see a fanatical dog lover boast of his big Heart, so I always ask myself: what does this man want to hide? . . . In towns, where there are police, cleaning, fire-brigade and kerbs, there the dog is a remnant of a barbarism and should be forbidden as the swine. The one wanting to have company has men to keep company with, and the one standing so low that he more sympathize with animals, this one would not have the right to vote, at the very least in the matter of dogs. (August Strindberg "Djurens och växternas förstånd" p 260-263; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Here in Denmark man almost is defenceless before the giantdogs. One of them recently has eaten up a whole kitchen-maid living in a backyard (weep for it!) and nevertheless the dog-owners with success petition for the abolishing of the muzzle, which is compulsary in Germany! (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev VII febr 1888-dec 1889" p 73; letter 1888-04-14 to Verner von Heidenstam, translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Among the animals the dog has been praised for his faithfulness. The dog originally was a wolf. When the bag was scarce because of the competition of man, this wolf adopted a compromise with man: they would hunt together. Man, who was more intelligent than the wolf, also was more faithless, and the wolf hunted up, but the hunter brought down the quarry. The hunter took the flesh, and the wolf got the bones and a chain of iron round his neck. The present dog is to a certain grade faithful to his master. The hunger drives him to that. Therefore it is not better off with the faithfulness of a dog than that whatever thief receives permission to break into the court of the master, if he throws a piece of meat to him. (August Strindberg "Kvarstadsresan" p 166; Stockholm, November 1884; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

French Academy distributes, as you know, also the Montenska prize of virtue for noble deeds or writings promoting such ones. Emile Zola should have got this prize several times for example for "The Dream" . . . but also for "Nana", a book which in the scourging manner of a Juvenalis describes the terrible dog's life, which was lived during the Second Empire. (August Strindberg "Litteratur-pris och Dygdepris" p 165; Afton-Tidningen 1911-05-30; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

In autumn (the sheep) come down again (from the mountains) in flocks of till 10,000, led and driven by the shepherds and their helpers, the white, shaggy dogs of the Campagna, being excellent in their service but unpopular by strangers, who go out in the plain, because of the white set of teeth and the angry bark, with which they greet everybody being not clothed in sheep's pelt or in pointed hat and leggings. (Viktor Rydberg "Campagna di Roma" p 282; Rome 1874; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Sintram is the name of the evil foundry proprietor in Fors, he with the lumbering apebody and the long arms, with the bald head and the ugly, grinning face, he, whose inclination is to cause evil. Sintram is the name of him who only takes cheats and fighters to farm-hands and only has quarrelsome, lying maids in his service, he who incites dogs to rage by sticking needles in their nose and who lives happy in the midst of spiteful men and savage animals. Sintram is the name of him whose highest joy is to clothe himself in the form of the evil enemy, with horns and tail and horse's hoof and hairy body, and suddenly appearing out of dusky corners, out of oven or woodshed, scare afraid children and superstituous women. Sintram is the name of him who rejoices at changing old frienship into new hatred and poisoning the heart with lie. Sintram is his name, and once he came to Ekeby. (Selma Lagerlöf "Gösta Berlings saga" p 29; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

There the big yard dog comes. He sneaks up on the outermost tips of his toes, holds his eyes towards the ground waving his tail a little, as if he was going away in the most insignificantly errand. All at once he eagerly begins to dig in the snow. Most certainly the old rogue has hidden unjust property there. But just as he lifts his head to see if he now can eat it in quiet, he becomes baffled to see two magpies in front of him. "Receiver of stolen property!" the magpies say looking as the conscience itself. "We are police constables, we. Here with the stolen property!" (Selma Lagerlöf "Gösta Berlings saga" s 130; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Ugh, these men of horror, who the evil spirits seek! What big, black dog would it be appearing in Fors in Sintram's time? He had terrible eyes emitting sparks and a bloody tongue hanging far out of the panting throat. One day, just when the farm-hands had been indoors in the kitchen and had had dinner, he had scratched on the kitchen-door, and all the maids had screamed of horror, but the tallest and strongest of the farm-hands had taken a burning log piece of wood, pulled the door open tossing it in the jaws of the dog. Then he had fled with a terrible roaring, flames and smoke had stood him out of the mouth, sparks whirled round him and his footprints on the way shone as fire. (Selma Lagerlöf "Gösta Berlings saga" p 165; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

In the year 1897 a German writes about d:r Faust something like the following: D:r F. lived in the middle of the sixteenth century and was descended from Kundlingen in Schwaben according to an information by Melanchton, who known him. . . . After several preparations and a visit in Wittenberg 1530 he made an alliance with the evil one, who in the shape a dog followed and served him but at last put him to death during terrible circumstances. . . . Of the devil he demands to agree that this one has to reply to all his questions and not to say any lying (is called the desire for the truth!). In doing so he is informed that the world is eternal, but the inmortality of the soul is denied. His falling away from God is compared with the falling away of Lucifer and the Titans. (August Strindberg "En blå bok II" p 629; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Now it is searched for me in Sweden. . . . They wants me to come home and love my rotten country and its rotten inhabitants. They are afraid that Garmer is loose and that the revenge will take its course. (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev IX 1892-jan 1894" p 373-375; letter 1894-01-27 to Bengt Lidforss; Strindberg compares himself to the dog Garm, who according to the Nordic mythology watches the lower regions)

The journeyman took a step forward. Lars seized him in the back of the head, lifting him at arm's length and tossed him away so violently that he rolled on the ground. . . . "Up, you dog!" Lars cried giving the fallen a kick. (Viktor Rydberg "Vapensmeden" p 159; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

If I see you persisting (in the habit of using oaths), I will forbid you for the future to set foot on this sacred threshold, and partake of the inmortal mysteries; as we do fornicators and adulterers, and persons charged with murder. Yea, for it is better to offer our accustomed prayers, with two or three, who keep the laws of God, than to sweep together a multitude of transgressors and corrupters of others. (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers X:123)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Stig Abrahamsson, Samuel Josef Agnon, Eskil Albertsson, Eric S. Alexandersson, Ann-Charlotte Alverfors, Bengt Anderberg, H.C. Andersen, Werner Aspenström, Augustinus, Samira Azzam, Honoré de Balzac, David Bellingham, Ingmar Bergman, Elisabeth Beskow, Björnstjerne Björnson, Erik Blomberg, Lars-Ola Borglid, Gunnar Broberg, Driss Chraibi, Winston Churchill, Joseph Conrad, Stig Dagerman, William Dalrymple, Sven Danell, Henry Daniel-Rops, Fjodor Dostojevskij, Bob Dylan, Carl August Ehrensvärd, E.J. Ekman, LarsOlov Eriksson, Fuad et-Tekerli, Nils Ferlin, Erik Floderus, Sven Gabriel Fovelin, Bo Frid, John Galsworthy, Bo Giertz, Nikolaj Gogol, Pontus Grate, Elsa Grave, Carl Grimberg, Axel Gustafsson, Stefan Gustavsson, Peter Halldorf, Krister Hanell, Ola Hansson, Dick Harrison, Olov Hartman, David Hedegård, Alf Henrikson, C.G. Hjelm, Homeros, Victor Hugo, Alice Hulting, Henrik Ibsen, Kazuo Ishiguro, Eyvind Johnson, Stanley Jones, Ragnar Järhult, Eeva Kilpi, Lars Levi Laestadius, Pär Lagerkvist, Hans Larsson, Amy Le Feuvre, Sven Lidman, Lars Lindberg, Ebba Lindqvist, Claes Lindskog, Ingemar Lindstam, Martin Luther, Sune Lyxell, Maurice Maeterlinck, Olaus Magnus, Mouloud Mammeri, Vilhelm Moberg, Thomas More, Fabian Månsson, Fredrik Nielsen, Anders Nohrborg, J.P. Norberg, Hedvig Charlotta Nordenflycht, J. Nyrén, Kenzaburo Oe, Martin P:n Nilsson, Leslie Paul, Olaus Petri, Laurence Rees, Viola Renvall, Stig Rossner, Arundhati Roy, Göran Sahlberg, Gösta Sandberg, Giorgos Seferis, Bo Setterlind, William Shakespeare, Ignazio Silone, Isaac Basjevis Singer, Olof Sjöstrand, Alexander Solsjenitsyn, John Steinbeck, Yrsa Stenius, Georg Stiernhielm, Herman Stolpe, Sven Stolpe, Margareta Strömstedt, Jesper Svartvik, Hjalmar Söderberg, Nathan Söderblom, Rabindranath Tagore, Esaias Tegnér, Anton Tjechov, Zacharias Topelius, Johan Turi, P.G. Vejde, Ruben Wagnsson, P. Waldenström, Charlottta Wallin, Jöran Wibling, Magnus Widell, Virginia Woolf, Emile Zola.


My own comments and speculations:

In the new Jerusalem there will be no dogs, because in this city there are no prostitutes (Deut 23:18), no needy/beggarly (cf. Sir 13:18; Luke 16:21), dead (1 Kings 21:24) or evil (Ps 22:17,21) men. Nor there are any dogs who walk in their own ways (Is 56:11).

Concerning “the poisoners and the fornicators and the murderers and the idolaters and every/everyone making/practising and being friends with (א,* א) lie”, see Rev 21:8.


Paul said to the believers in Rome: “(Men keeping down the truth in unrighteousness) exchanged the truth of God in/for the lie and showed reverence to and served the creation ‘to the side of’/’in comparison with’ the One having created (it).” (Rom 1:25a)

If we – according to the circumstances – may speak, that we have communion in company with Him, and we may walk about in the darkness, we lie and do not make/do the truth. (1 John 1:6)

If – according to the circumstances – we may speak, that we have not missed (and do not miss) (the mark of God), we make Him a liar, and His saying is not in us. (1 John 1:10)

The one saying (himself) be in the light and hating his brother is a liar (א,* א) and is in the gloom till just now. (1 John 2:9)

I have not written to you, that you do not know the truth, however/but that you know it, and that every lie is not out of the truth. Who is the liar, if not the one denying that/: ”Jesus is not the christ/'anointed one'.”? This is the antichrist, the one denying the Father and the Son. (1 John 2:21-22)

And you, the ointment, which you have taken from Him, it stays in you, and you have not need, in order that anyone may teach you. However, as His Spirit (א*) teaches you on account of all things and is true and is not a lie, and entirely as It has taught you, you stay in Him. (1 John 2:27)

We are out of God. The one having knowledge of God hears us. The one who is not out of God does not hear us. Out of this we have knowledge of the spirit of the truth and the spirit of the going astray. (1 John 4:6)


Greek words:

kyôn (dog) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Judith 11:19; Sir 13:18; Matt 7:6; Luke 16:21; Rev 22:15 – Tobit 11:4; Sir 26:25; Phil 3:2; 2 Pet 2:22; Rev 21:27.


Additional studies: Lev 14:40; 1 Kings 14:11; 16:4; 21:19; Prov 26:11; Luke 22:47; John 16:13; 1 Cor 6:9-10; Gal 5:19-21.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-08-18; 2012-07-31; 2015-11-25)

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22:16 I, Jesus, have sent My messenger to be a witness to you (about) these things on/’for the sake of’ the (assemblies) of called out. I am the root and the descendant of David, the shining morning star.

Word for word (26 words in the Greek text): I Jesus sent the messenger my (to)-be-a-witness (to)-you these-(things) on the (assemblies)-of-called-out. i/I (i/I)-am the root and the descendant (of)-David the star the shining the morning-.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(David said:) "The Lord spoke to my Lord: 'Be seated 'out of'/at My right (parts), till I - according to the circumstances - may put Your enemies a footstool of Your feet.'" (Ps 110:1, Greek OT)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said: “David) gave/presented in/at feasts a comely appearance, and he adorned seasonable times as long as to a consummation … and from early (he) caused the holy place to sound (by praise). (Sir 47:10)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “A seed of the ones having welcomed (the Lord) He does not/certainly not 'lift out'/'take away' ... and (He gave) to David a root out of him.” (Sir 47:22b)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said: “The great priest Simon was) as a star early in the morning in a middle of clouds, as a moon filled in days.” (Sir 50:6)


The Latter Revelation:

(All the crowds) (continually) said (about Jesus): "Surely is not this One the Son of David?" (Matt 12:23b)

Jesus questioned (the Pharisees) saying: "What does it seem to you on account of the Christ/'anointed One'? Whose son is He?" They say to Him: "David's." He says to them: "How does David so in spirit call Him 'Lord'?" (Matt 22:41b-43a)

The woman (continually) was a Greek, a Syrophoenician (in) the descent. (Mark 7:26a)

Joseph ascended from Galilee, out of (the) city Nazaret, into Judea, into (the) city of David, whichever/which is called Bethlehem, because of 'be him'/'his being' out of (the) house and lineage of David. (Luke 2:4)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Jesus) gave a sign having dispatched away (the revelation) through His messenger to His slave John. (Rev 1:1b)

(The voice) said (to John): “Send (the scroll) to the seven (assemblies) of called out, into Ephesos and into Smyrna and into Pergamos and into Thyatira * (א*) and into Philadelphia and into Laodicea.” (Rev 1:11b)

I will give him the morning star. The one having an ear, let him hear what the Spirit says to the (assemblies) of called out. (Rev 2:28-29/28b-29, “Thyatira”)

Behold, the Lion * (א,* א) out of the tribe of Judas, the Root of David, has conquered to open the scroll and loosen (א,* א) its seven seals. (Rev 5:5b)

And the Lord, the God of the spirits of the prophets, dispatched away me (א*), His messenger, to show His slaves the things which must become in/with quickness. (Rev 22:6b)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: Daniel Baker, Nils Bolander.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “the root … of David”, see also Rev 5:5b. Concerning “the morning star”, see also Rev 2:28-29/28b-29.


Greek words:

genos (descent/descendant) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha, the NT) Mark 7:26; Rev 22:16 – Esther 2:10; 3:7,13; 6:13; 8:12t(E21); Tobit 5:9; Judith 6:5,19; 8:20,32; 11:10; 12:3; 13:20; 15:9; 16:17; 2 Macc 5:22; 6:12; 7:16; 8:9; 12:31; 14:8-9; Sir 13:16; Baruch 2:15; Epistle of Jeremiah v 2; Matt 13:47; Mark 9:29; Acts 4:6,36; 7;13,19; 13:26; 17:28-29; 18:2,24; 1 Cor 12:10,28; 14:10; 2 Cor 11:26; Gal 1:14; Phil 3:5; 1 Pet 2:9.


Additional studies:

Mark 12:35-37; Luke 20:41-44; John 7:42; 15:26; Rev 1:4; 3:22.


David E. Aune "The Prophetic Circle of John of Patmos and the Exegesis of Revelation 22:16"; Journal for the Study of the New Testament 37 (1989): 103-116.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-08-18; 2012-07-31; 2015-11-26)

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22:17a And * (א,* א) Spirit and * (א,* א) bride say: “Come.” And let the one hearing speak: “Come.”

Word for word (11 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus): And spirit and bride say: come. and the-(one) hearing let-speak: come.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The bride said:) “Come, my niece/loved.” (Song of Solomon 7:11a, Greek OT)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples: “Pray in this way: ‘Our Father,) let Your kingdom come.’” (Matt 6:10a)

(Jesus said:) "Come here towards Me, all being bothered and being (and having been) burdened, and I will bring you to rest." (Matt 11:28)

(Jesus said to the priest leaders and the Pharisees:) “The kingdom of the heavens has been made like a man, a king, whoever made wedding banquets/festivals for his son. And he dispatched away his slaves to call the ones being (and having been) called into the wedding banquets/festivals, and/but (continually/repeatedly) they did not want to come.” (Matt 22:2-3)

The bridegroom came, and the ready ones came in, in company with Him, into the wedding banquets, and the door was shut. (Matt 25:10b)

Having come to/forward Jesus talked (with the eleven disciples) saying: "Every/all (judicial) authority in heaven and upon earth has been given to Me. Having gone * (א,* א, A) be/make disciples (of) all the nations, baptizing them/'the disciples' into the name of the Father and the Son and the Holy Spirit, teaching them to keep all things as many as I have enjoined you; and behold, I am in company with you all the days till the consummation of the age." (Matt 28:18-20; BG Ask-comment: Walter Bauer says in his Greek-English lexicon - p 485 - that the Greek word for "be or become a disciple" - as a transitive verb has the meaning of "make a disciple". Perhaps no translator has another meaning. But I am not sure that this is the johannine view. To be disciples in a company of all nations can cause the crowd of disciples to increase. Cf. John 17:21-23.)

(The man) dispatched away his slave (in) the hour of the chief meal to speak to the ones being (and having been) called to come (א,*א,A): “Come, because they/things (P75, א*) already are ready.” (Luke 14:17)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

In this way God welcomed the adornment/’adorned world’, so that He gave the Son, the only descendant. (John 3:16a)

(Jesus said to the Jews:) “No one is able to come towards Me, if – according to the circumstances – not the Father having sent Me may draw him.” (John 6:44a)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “No one is able to come towards Me, if – according to the circumstances – it may not have been (and is) given him out of the Father.” (John 6:65b)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “A new commandment I give you, in order that you may welcome one another, entirely as I have welcomed you, in order that and/also you may welcome one another.” (John 13:34)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “The one having My commandments and keeping them, that one is the one welcoming Me, but The one welcoming Me will be welcomed by My Father. And I will welcome him and make Myself conspicuous to him.” (John 14:21)

Jesus answered and spoke to (Judas – not Iscariot): “If – according to the circumstances – anyone may welcome Me, he will keep My saying, and My Father will welcome him, and We will come towards him and make an abode by the side of him.” (John 14:23)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "I have still many things to say to you. However you are not able to bear (them) just now. But when – according to the circumstances – that One, the Spirit of the truth, may come, It will show you the way in * (א*) the truth. For It will not talk from Itself, however/but as many things as It * (א,*א) hears, It will talk, and It will bring up a message to you (about) the coming things." (John 16:12-13)

The one having an ear, let him hear what the Spirit says to the (assemblies) of called out. (Rev 2:7a)

I heard a voice out of the heaven, saying: “Write: ‘Happy the dead (bodies), the ones dying in a lord from just now * (P47, א*), says the Spirit, ‘in order that they may rest out of their bothers, for their works follow in company with them.’” (Rev 14:13)

One out of the seven messengers, the ones having the seven bowls, the ones being full of the seven last blows, came and talked in company with me, saying: “Come here! I will show you the bride, the woman of the little Ram.” (Rev 21:9)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

God has prepared a rich feast, but what is wanting is guests. Therefore it always will be called: Here still is room. Come then you feeling your poorness and your hunger and therefore is in need of coming. You are ardently welcome. The Spirit and the bride say: Come! And the one hearing it, he says: Come! And the one who thirsts, he may come, and the one who wants, he takes the water of life for nothing. (Karl Palmberg "Ur livskällan. Första årgången." p 175-176; Karl Palmberg /1842-1920/ was from 1883 a Lutheran clergyman in Månsarp in the diocese of Växjö and president in Jönköpings Missionsförening (Missionary Society) 1886-1911; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Erik Bernspång, Sven Danell, Petter Dass, Håkan Håkansson, V.J. Ljunggren, Viktor Rundgren, Ragnar Samuelsson, Lina Sandell, Knut Svensson, Evert Taube, Anton Tjechov, Carl Fr. Wislöff.


Additional studies:

Luke 11:2; John 1:39,46; 3:29; Rom 8:23.


Richard J. Bauckham "The Role of the Spirit in the Apocalypse"; The Evangelical Quarterly 52.2 (1980): 66-83.

G.R. Beasley-Murray "The second coming in the Book of Revelation"; The Evangelical Quarterly 23.1 (1951): 40-45.

Werner Georg Kümmel "Futurisk och presentisk eskatologi i den äldsta urkristendomen"; Svensk Exegetisk Årsbok 24 (1959): 54-71.

Ruben Zimmerman "Nuptial Imagery in the Revelation of John"; Biblica 84 (2003): 153-183.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-08-19; 2012-07-31; 2015-11-27)

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22:17b And let the one thirsting come; let the one wanting take water of life as a benefit.

Word for word (10 words in the Greek text): and the-(one) thirsting let-come, the-(one) wanting let-take water (of)-life as-a-benefit.


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

Jesus answered and spoke to her: "'Every the'/everyone drinking out of this water will thirst again, but the one drinking (א*) out of the water, which I will give him, will not/certainly not thirst into the (coming) age, however/but the water, which I will give him, will in him become a spring of water, springing/’welling up’ into an agelong life." The woman says towards Him: “Lord, give me this water, in order that I may not thirst but/and not may come through hitherward to ladle out.” (John 4:13-15)

But in/on the last day, the great (day) of the feast, Jesus stood and (continually/repeatedly) (P66, א,* א) shouted, saying: “If – according to the circumstances – anyone may thirst: ‘Come * (P66,א*) and drink!’ The one believing into Me – entirely as the writing spoke – out of his belly rivers of living water will flow.” (John 7:37-38)

(Jesus) (א,*א) so spoke to (the ten) again: “Peace to you. Entirely as the Father has dispatched (and dispatches) Me away, and/also I will (א*) send you.” And having spoken this He puffed in/on (them), and He says to them: “Take holy spirit.” (John 20:21-22)

They will not be hungry * (א,* א), nor they will thirst any longer. (Rev 7:16a)

The little Ram, the One upwards/above a middle of the throne, will be a shepherd to them, and He will show them the way upon springs of waters of life. (Rev 7:17a)

I will as a benefit give to the one thirsting out of the spring of the water of the life. (Rev 21:6b)

(The messenger) showed me a river of water of life, shining as rock crystal, going out, out of a (א,* א) throne of God and of the little Ram. (Rev 22:1)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: Elisabeth Beskow, Helena Boberg Oscarsson, Sven Danell, Lars Levi Laestadius, Vilhelm Moberg, Gösta Nicklasson.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “the one thirsting … water of life as a benefit”, see Rev 21:6b. Concerning “water of life”, see also Rev 7:17a.


Additional studies: John 4:10-11.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-08-19; 2012-07-31; 2015-11-28)

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22:18-19 I am a witness to 'every the'/everyone hearing the sayings of the prophecy of this scroll: if – according to the circumstances – anyone may ‘put upon’/add against them, God will ‘put upon’/add against him the blows, the ones having been (and being) written in this scroll. And if – according to the circumstances – anyone may take off/away from these (א,* א) sayings of the scroll of this prophecy, God will take off/away his part from the wood of the life and out of the holy city, the things having been (and being) written in this scroll.

Word for word: 22:18 (30 words in the Greek text; the sequence of the words according to Sinaiticus) Am-witness i/I (to)-every the hearing the sayings (of)-the (of)-prophecy (of)-the (of)-scroll this: if-according-to-the-circumstances anyone may-put-upon against them, will-put-upon against him the god the blows the-(ones) having-been-(and-being)-written in the scroll this 22:19 (36 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus) and if-according-to-the-circumstances anyone takes-off from the sayings these (of)-the (of)-scroll (of)-the (of)-prophecy this, will-take-off the god the part his from the wood (of)-the (of)-life and out-of the city the holy the-(things) having-been-(and-being)-written in the scroll this.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Moses said to Israel:) “You shall not ‘put to’/add towards/’in regard to’ the word, which I enjoin you, and you shall not take off/away from it.” (Deut 4:2a, Greek OT)

(Moses said to Israel:) “These words the Lord talked towards every/all your synagogue/gathering … and He did not put/laid to.” (Deut 5:22a, Greek OT)

(Moses said to Israel:) “Every word which I enjoin you to-day, this you may watch (and) make/do. You shall not put/lay to against it, nor you shall take off/away from it.” (Deut 12:32, Greek OT)

(Moses said to Israel:) “The Lord may not/certainly not be very propitious to (a man whose mind bends aside from Him) … all the vengeances of this covenant which is (and have been) written in this scroll of the law will attach themselves in/to him, and the Lord will wipe out his name out of the thing (being) underneath the heaven.” (Deut 29:20, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said to the Lord:) “A beginning of Your sayings (is) truth, and into the (coming) age all the judicial verdicts of Your righteousness.” (Ps 119:160, Greek OT)

(Solomon said:) “You may not put/lay to the sayings (of God).” (Prov 30:6a, Greek OT)

(The people of Judas) spoke to Jeremiah: “Let the Lord be in us into/’with the purpose of’ a righteous and faithful witness, if we will not make/act in this way according to every saying, which the Lord – according to the circumstances – may dispatch you away towards us.” (Jer 42:5, Greek OT)

(What saying the Jews and the Romans) – according to the circumstances – may put/lay to or may take off/away (after these sayings), it will be mistress/valid. (1 Macc 8:30b)


The Latter Revelation:

The slanderer takes (Jesus) to the side of (himself) into the holy city. (Matt 4:5a)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Amen I say to you: ‘Till – according to the circumstances - the heaven and the earth may come by the side of, not one “iota” (the smallest letter) or one tittle, may not/certainly not come by the side of from the law, till – according to the circumstances – all things may become/’come about’. Who – if according to the circumstances – may loosen one of the least of these commandments (of the law), and in this way may teach the men, will be called least in the kingdom of the heavens * (א*).’ For I say to you that/: ‘If – according to the circumstances – your righteousness may not be over and above, more than (the one) of the scribes and the Pharisees, you may not/certainly not come into, into the kingdom of the heavens.’” (Matt 5:18-20)

(Jesus said to the Pharisees:) Who – according to the circumstances – may speak ‘down from’/against the Holy Spirit, it will not/certainly not (א*) be ‘let be’/left (alone) to him, ‘and not’/neither in this age ‘and not’/nor in the (one) being about (to come).” (Matt 12:32)

(Jesus said to the crowds and to His disciples: “The scribes and the Pharisees) fetter great (א,* א), weighty/painful little burdens and put/lay on, against the shoulders of the men.” (Matt 23:4a)

(Jesus said to Peter:) “The one having had not knowledge but/and having made (things) worthy blows will be flayed (with) few (blows).” (Luke 12:48a)

The householder spoke in/with himself: “What shall I do, because my lord takes off/away the household from me?” (Luke 16:3a)

(The ones having received Peter's saying continually) 'were being patient'/adhered to the teaching of the apostles. (Acts 2:42a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Jesus said:) "The writing is not able to be loosened." (John 10:35b)

Jesus answered (Simon Peter): “If – according to the circumstances – I may not wash you, you have not part in company with Me.” (John 13:8b)

Happy the one reading and the ones hearing the saying (א,*א) of the prophecy and keeping the things having been (and being) written in it, for the seasonable time (is) near. (Rev 1:3)

“I am the Alpha and the Ô/Omega, a beginning and an end (א*),” says the Lord God. (Rev 1:8a)

To the one conquering * (א,* א) I will give to eat out of the wood of the life, which is in the ‘place by the side of apprehension’/Paradise of God. (Rev 2:7b, “Ephesos”)

(The court) has and/namely (P47, א*) been given to the nations. And they will tread the holy city (for) forty-two months. (Rev 11:2b)

The dead (bodies) were judged out/’on the basis’ of the things having been (and being) written in the books (א,* א), ‘according to’/concerning their works. (Rev 20:12b)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 - about 1500

All indications are that behind this heavenly journey text (The Martyrdom and Ascension of Isaiah) lies a Tradition Group with exclusive claims. They considered themselves to have received heavenly status through their heavenly journeys. That gave them indisputable precedence in interpretation in comparison to other Christian groups. (Leif Carlsson ”Round trips to heaven” p 260)

“takes off/away” Cf. the remark of Rabbi Meir (Sotah 20a) “My son, be careful; for it is a divine work: if thou writest, were it but a word more or less, it is as if you were destroying the word.” (J. Massyngberde Ford "Revelation" p 364)

In what way would God have proclaimed us a more credible witness of himself than through his own son? In reality we thereforwe is, as someone has said, "at the end of the knowledge" in the matter of God; well then, not so, that we have understood all the revealed thing about God, but so, that nothing further can be revealed to us about him. The sun needs not become clearer than she is, but the clouds need to be scattered, so that her light is perceived as clearly under as above them. So we need to be taught, but God does not need to speak further to us. It is enough, because the only begotten son had revealed or "interpreted" him. (Karl Palmberg "Ur livskällan. Första årgången." p 497; Karl Palmberg /1842-1920/ was from 1883 a Lutheran clergyman in Månsarp in the diocese of Växjö and president in Jönköpings Missionsförening (Missionary Society) 1886-1911; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

When paternal aunt and the house keeper tell that paternal grandfather had read the bible fifty times, I lift my head. "Does the house keeper think, that God likes grandfather, because he read the bible so many times?" I ask. "This Selma surely can understand, that he did." . . . I fold my hands making God the promise, that if he lets father recover, so I shall read the whole bible. I shall read from cover to cover without skipping one single word. . . . Just as I best read, I see maternal uncle come going. . . . (He) asks what it is I read. . . . I of course answer, that I read the bible, and when he wonders how long I have come, I tell that I read it from the beginning and that I now am doing The Revelation. . . . Kristofer (then) tells (father and mother and the others what I have said). . . . Later in the night I wake up (hearing) father and mother being speaking about me. . . . "Yes, you see", mother explains (to father), "I think, that she wants to read the whole bible, in order that you are to be healthy." . . . (After that) I never more take down (the bible) out of the corner-cupboard finishing the couple of pages in The Revelation. See, when the secret was revealed, there was no more power in what I had promised. There was no use in going on with the reading. There was no use of all of it. (Selma Lagerlöf "Ett barns memoarer" s 34-36,49-52; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

The witness of the Holy Spirit adds nothing to the Scripture; he tells us nothing about it that it does not already contain; in a word, that witness is no new revelation disclosed in addition to the scriptural texts. ... (Calvin) drew his own inspiration as much from the Old as from the New Testament, but did so by making every effort to find in the one as much as in the other, what he regarded as the end and aim of the Scriptures, namely Jesus Christ. This attitude was perfectly consistent with his notion of Scriptural revelation and of the books of the Bible. (F. Wendel "Calvin" p 157,159; The Theological Doctrine of Calvin)


about 1500 and time before

The writings (of John) shine brighter day by day. ... (His) doctrines are clearer than the sunbeams. ... It is plain, that nothing of this man's is human, but divine and heavenly are the lessons which come to us by this divine soul. (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers XIV:6)

When the sacred band of apostles had in various ways closed their lives, and that generation of men to whom it had been vouchsafed to listen to the Godlike Wisdom, with their own ears had passed away, then did the confederacy of godless error take its rise through the treachery of false teachers, who seeing that none of the apostles any longer survived, at length attempted with bare and uplifted head to oppose the preaching of the truth by preaching “knowledge falsely so called”. ... Therefore (before this time) was the Church called a virgin, for she was not as yet corrupted by worthless teaching. (Hegesippus, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol VIII, p 764)

If (a certain statement) is nowhere written, then let it fear the woe which impends on all who add to or take away from the written word. (Tertullian, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol III, p 490)

Any one of the rulers in the Churches, however highly gifted he may be in point of eloquence, will not teach doctrines different from these ... neither does one who is able at great length to discourse regarding it, make any addition to it, nor does one, who can say but little, diminish it. (Irenaeus, the Anti-Nicene Fathers Vol I, p 331)

Since the tradition from the apostles does thus exist in the Church, and is permanent among us, let us revert to the Scriptural proof furnished by those apostles who did also write the Gospel, in which they recorded the doctrine regarding God, pointing out that our Lord Jesus Christ is the truth, and that no lied is in Him. ... There shall be no light punishment (inflicted) upon him who either adds or subtracts anything from the Scripture. (Irenaeus, the Anti-Nicene Fathers Vol I, p 417,559)

The elders ... set up their own law in opposition to (the law of God). ... In this they suppress certain things, add others, and interpret others, again, as they think proper, which their teachers use, each one in particular. (Irenaeus, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol I, p 475)

True knowledge is (that which consists in) the doctrine of the apostles ... neither receiving addition nor (suffering) curtailment (in the truths which she believes); and (it consists in) reading (the word of God) without falsification, and a lawful and diligent exposition in harmony with the Scriptures, both without danger and without blasphemy; and (above all, it consists in) the pre-eminent gift of love, which is more precious than knowledge, more glorious than prophecy, and which excels all the other gifts (of God). (Irenaeus, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol I, p 508)

I adjure thee, who shalt transcribe this book, by our Lord Jesus Christ, and by His glorious appearing, when He comes to judge the living and the dead, that thou compare what thou hast transcribed, and be careful to set it right according to this copy from which thou hast transcribed; also, that thou in like manner copy down this adjuration, and insert it in the transcript. (Irenaeus quoted by Eusebius, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol I, p 568)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Karen Bang Svensson, Anders Bengtsson, Oloph Bexell, Björnstjerne Björnson, August Bondeson, Lars-Ola Borglid, Ingmar Brohed, Rune W Dahlén, Ulf Ekman, P. Fjellstedt, Bo Giertz, Carl Grimberg, Joel Halldorf, David Hedegård, Gunnar Hillerdal, Bengt Hägglund, Ulrik Josefsson, Signe Lagerlöw, Annty Landherr, Hans Larsson, Harry Lenhammar, Cai Lundberg, Martin Luther, Henning Mankell, H. Martensen-Larsen, Carl Henrik Martling, Vilhelm Moberg, Richard Newton, Fredrik Nielsen, Hugo Odeberg, René Pache, Lewi Pethrus, Olaus Petri, Harald Rasmussen, Abraham Rundbäck, Viktor Rydberg, Milton Steinberg, Alf Tergel, Einar Thomassen, Ragnar Thoursie, Leo Tolstoj, Bertil Torekull, P. Waldenström, Kallistos Ware, John Wesley.


My own comments and speculations:

The apostle is a part of The Latter Revelation beginning with the ministry of Jesus. In the holy books of John the apostle weaves together words from The former revelation in the OT and the latter revelation in the Synoptics and the Acts. Moreover he – with the inspiration of the Holy Spirit - adds words which do not occur everywhere in those writings. With the last apostle John the fundamental apostolic teaching has come to an end. There is nothing to add and nothing to take away.

Concerning “the sayings of the prophecy of this scroll”, see also Rev 1:3. Concerning these (א,* א) sayings of the scroll of this prophecy, see also Rev 1:3. Concerning “the wood of the life”, see also Rev 2:7b. Concerning “the holy city”, see also Rev 11:2b.


Paul said to the believers in Galatia: “If – according to the circumstances – we or a messenger out of heaven may (א*,A) bring a good little message to the side of which we have brought a good little message to you, let him be an execration.” (Gal 1:8)


Greek words:

afaireô (take off) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) 1 Macc 8:30; Luke 16:3; Rev 22:19 – Judith 13:8-9; 1 Macc 7:47; 8:30; 2 Macc 1:16; 14:7; Sir 47:11; Epistle of Jeremiah v 32-33; Matt 26:51; Mark 14:47; Luke 1:25; 10:42; 22:50; Rom 11:27; Heb 10:4.


Additional studies:

Sir 42:21; Mark 3:29; Luke 12:10; John 5:47; 21:15-17; 1 Cor 11:2; Gal 1:9; 3:15; Rev 9:18,20; 11:6; 13:3,12,14; 15:1,6-16:21; 18:4,8; 21:9,10-22:5.


Robert L. Thomas "The spiritual gift of prophecy in Rev 22:18"; Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 32.2 (June 1989): 201-216.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-08-19; 2012-07-31; 2015-11-29)

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22:20-21 The One being a witness to these things says: “Yes, I come quickly.” * (א,* א) Come, Lord Jesus. The joybringing (grace) of the Lord Jesus (may be) in company with the holy ones. Amen (א,* א).

Word for word: 22:20 (10 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus): Says the-(one) being-a-witness-(to) these-(things): yes, (i/I)-come quickly, come lord Jesus. 22:21 (9 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus): the joybringing-(grace) (of)-the (of)-lord (of)-Jesus in-company-with the holy-(ones). amen.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Judith said to the Lord:) “Yes, yes, the God of my father and (the) God of an inheritance of Israel … listen to my prayer.” (Judith 9:12)

(Solomon said to the Lord:) “You have arranged every thing throughout (with) measure and number and standing-place/balance.” (Wisdom of Solomon 11:20b)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples: “Pray in this way: ‘Our Father,) let Your kingdom come.’” (Matt 6:10a)

The bridegroom came, and the ready ones came in, in company with Him, into the wedding banquets, and the door was shut. (Matt 25:10b)

All (in the synagogue continually) were witnesses to (Jesus) and (continually) wondered on/at the sayings of joybringing (grace), (sayings) going out, out of His mouth. (Luke 4:22a)

Having come into (the memorial tomb) (the women) did not find the body of the Lord Jesus. (Luke 24:3)

Having been given ‘by the side of’/’over to’ the joybringing (grace) of the Lord by the brothers (Paul) came/went out. (Acts 15:40b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

We have all taken out of His complement and joybringing (grace) instead of joybringing (grace). Because/for the law was given through Moses, the joybringing (grace) and the truth became through Jesus Christ. (John 1:16-17)

(Jesus said to the disciples:) “If I – according to the circumstances – may go and make a place ready to you, I come again and I will take you towards Myself to the side of (Me), in order that whereat I am, you may and/also be.” (John 14:3)

This is the disciple being a witness on account of these things and having written these things. And we know that his evidence is truthful. * (א*). (John 21:24)

A revelation of Jesus Christ which God gave Him to show to His holy ones (א*) the things which must become/’come about’ in/with quickness. (Rev 1:1a)

(John) was a witness to the saying of God and the evidence of Jesus Christ, as many things as he beheld. (Rev 1:2)

Change your mind * (א,*א). But if not, I come to you quickly. (Rev 2:16a, “Pergamos”)

I come quickly. (Rev 3:11a, “Philadelphia”)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 - about 1500

(The) petition (“Thy Kingdom come” in Matt 6:10), along with the previous clause (in Matt 6:9), recalls the Qaddish (‘sanctification’), an Aramaic prayer which formed the conclusion of every synagogue service. In its oldest form this probably ran: ‘Hallowed be his great name in the world which he created according to his will: may he establish his Kingdom during your life, even speedily and soon. So say Amen.’ The petition (“Thy Kingdom come”) desires the final establishment of the divine rule over the lives of men which had been inaugurated in the coming of Jesus: cf. the Aramaic prayer in 1 C. 16:22: Maranatha (‘Our Lord, come’), and Rev. 22:20. (David Hill "The Gospel of Matthew" p 136-137)

All God's promises are "yes" in (Christ), therefore also "amen" in him, God to glory through us, the apostle says. The apostle with this aims at a beautiful custom in the congregations of the first Christians, adopted from the Jewish synagogue. When the official had read a part of the old testament or later out of the gospels or the letters of the apostles, and especially when he had prayed the prayer of the Lord or expressed the words of institution to the holy supper, so the whole congregation loudly said amen to what had been read, spoken or prayed, in the assurance or confirmation of it. So - the apostle wants to say - Christ is in his person the embodied word or the promise itself, to whom the whole believing congregation on earth, perhaps also the one in heaven, says its amen, full of implicit faith. (Karl Palmberg "Ur livskällan. Andra årgången." p 43-44; Karl Palmberg /1842-1920/ was from 1883 a Lutheran clergyman in Månsarp in the diocese of Växjö and president in Jönköpings Missionsförening (Missionary Society) 1886-1911; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

"Perhaps it is already now today (Jesus) will come", (Gertrud) thought. She folded her hands looking up towards the morningsky, being covered with light clouds like downs. In the same moment these adopted a red shade, and a reflection of it seemed to flame up Gertrud's face. - He comes, she said, it is sure, that he comes. . . . It seemed to Gertrud, that she had heard, that Christ would come in the sunrise on the wings of the aurora. She realized, that she could not expect that he would come this day. But she did not for the sake of this feel oppressed or restless. - He will come tomorrow in stead, she said with the greatest confidence. She went down from the mountain and came back to the colony with her face shining of happiness. But she did not entrusted anyone the great, joyful certainty filling her. The whole day she sat as usually at his work speaking of indifferent things. Next morning she again stood on the Mount of Olives in the early morning hour. And morning after morning she came back, because she wanted to be the first one of all men, who saw Christ coming walking along in the glory of the morning. (Selma Lagerlöf "Jerusalem II" p 301-302; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

The illness and death of the mother was a great event in the life of the family (Strindberg). She deceased the 20th of March 1862 in pulmonary tuberculosis. Accordingly August two months earlier had been thirteen years old. To his brother Oscar, staying behind in Paris, . . . he reported on the death the 22nd of March . . . on the thing that upon the chest there was a verse of a hymn with the hopeful text: "My day of bliss, I wait for you, I ready am, I dress myself in the white festival attire. Come, Jesus! 'Yes, I come soon', you answer me: I clearly hear your voice in the morn." (Olof Lagercrantz "August Strindberg"p 22-23; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


about 1500 and time before

"When the church owns everything", (the monastery pater) said, "so also everything is common, the whole mankind a brotherhood, united round the table of Christ; then no one is rich, but nor any is poor; then the millenium is come. Yes, may it come! Amen! Erland, it is this goal, to which a confederation, spread out over the whole Christianity, strives." (Viktor Rydberg "Singoalla" p 109; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Often have pregnant women when sporting, or at their meals, or in the bath or market-place, and foreseeing nothing of what was coming, be seized in a moment by their pains. Now since our case is like theirs, let us ever be prepared, for we shall not always have power to (repent). (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers XIV:121-122)

It is interesting to know that, at the close of his address, the preacher (in the Synagogue) very generally referred to the great Messianic hope of Israel. The service closed with a short prayer, or what we would term an ‘ascription.’ (Alfred Edersheim "The Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah Part I" p 449)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Martin S. Allwood, Werner Aspenström, Sven Danell, E.J. Ekman, Elisabeth Falk Nilsson, Bo Giertz, Berndt Gustafsson, O. Hallesby, Otto Högfeldt, Martin Luther, Evald Lövestam, Vilhelm Moberg, Ingun Montgomery, Efraim Palmqvist, G.H. Pember, Olaus Petri, Inga-Britt Ranemark, Göran Sahlberg, Lina Sandell, Gunnar E. Sandgren, Magnus Sundell, Zacharias Topelius, Edvin Wirén.


My own comments and speculations:

This is the first and the last time John uses the combination ”Lord Jesus”. At the same time it is the seventh time John in the Revelation uses the word “kyrios” about Jesus (7:14; 11:4,8, 17:14,14; 22:20,21). Concerning “kyrios”, see also My own comments and speculations to John 21:20-23. In the Gospel of John “kyrios” is used 48 times. Here in the Revelation we find the word 25 times. In the OT (see for example Ezek 26:19) and in the Synoptics “kyrios” sometimes is written doubly. If we double the number 25 we get the 50, the highest point and terminal point for what is possible to reach in the present age. Compare also with "My own comments and speculations" to John 1:51a.

The Revelation begins and ends by telling about Jesus, the One being the Alpha and the Omega, the First One and the Last One.

Concerning “I come quickly”, see also Rev 2:16. Concerning “holy ones”, see also Rev 1:1a.

Concerning "amen", see "My comments and speculations" to John 1:51a.


Paul said to the believers in Corinth: “Maranatha (= our Lord, come). The joybringing (grace) of the Lord Jesus (may be) in company with you. My welcome (may be) in company with you all in Christ Jesus. Amen (א,* א, A) .” (1 Cor 16:22b-24)


Additional studies:

Luke 11:2; John 3:11; 8:14; Acts 15:11; Rom 16:20; 1 Cor 11:26; 2 Cor 13:14; Gal 6:18; Eph 6:24; Phil 4:23; Col 4:18; 1 Thess 5:28; 2 Thess 3:18; 1 Tim 6:21; 2 Tim 4:22; Tit 3:15; Philemon v 25; Heb 13:24-25.


Werner Georg Kümmel "Futurisk och presentisk eskatologi i den äldsta urkristendomen"; Svensk Exegetisk Årsbok 24 (1959): 54-71.

Paul Treblico "What Shall We Call Each Other? Part Two: The Issue of Selfdesignation in the Johannine Letters and Revelation"; Tyndale Bulletin 54.1 (2003): 51-75.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-08-19; 2012-07-31; 2015-11-30)

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