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Chapter 21

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21:1a And I beheld a new heaven and a new earth, for the first heaven and the first earth had gone away.

Word for words (16 words in the Greek text): And (i/I)-beheld (a)-heaven new and (an)-earth new, the for first heaven and the first earth went-away.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The Lord God said to the male:) “You shall go away into earth.” (Gen 3:19b, Greek OT)

A man having fallen asleep may not/certainly not stand up. Till/’as long as’ – according to the circumstances - the heaven may not/certainly not clash together, they will and/namely not be roused out of sleep, out of their sleep. (Job 14:12, Greek OT)

(Eliphaz said:) “Heaven (is) not clean opposite/’in the presence of’ (God).” (Job 15:15b, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said to the Lord:) “(The heavens) will perish, but You stay throughout/on.” (Ps 102:26a or 102:27a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) “It will be the new heaven and the new earth, and they may not/certainly not remember the former ones.” (Is 65:17a, Greek OT)

(Solomon said to God:) "The whole creation was again (continually) typed/transformed throughout in an own descent/birth from above obeying Your orders, in order that Your boys (and girls) may be watched/kept unhurt." (Wisdom of Solomon 19:6)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Amen I say to you: ‘Till – according to the circumstances - the heaven and the earth may come by the side of, not one “iota” (the smallest letter) or one tittle, may not/certainly not come by the side of from the law, till – according to the circumstances – all things may become/’come about’.’” (Matt 5:18)

(Jesus said to the disciples of John:) "Nor do they/people throw/pour young/fresh wine into old leather bags. 'But if not'/otherwise the leather bags are at any rate broken in pieces, and the wine is poured out. However young/fresh wine (is such) which should be thrown/poured (א,* א) into new leather bags." (Matt 9:17)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

But as the threebedleader had tasted the water having become (and becoming) wine, and he did not know from where it is/was – but the servants, the ones having ladled (and ladling) out the water, knew – the threebedleader raises his voice to(wards) the bridegroom and says to him: "Every man puts/’puts out’ the fine wine first and when they – according to the circumstances – may have been made drunk the less/inferior. You have kept (and keep) the fine wine till just now." (John 2:9-10)

The heaven was ’separated away from’/separated, being wound as a scroll (א,* א). And every mountain and hill (א,* א) were stirred out of their places. (Rev 6:14)

And I beheld a great white throne and the One being seated above (א,* א) it, from whose face the earth and the heaven fled. And it/there was not found a place (for) them. (Rev 20:11)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

Let . . . type-setters be ready and then rush off a double booklet. However, collision should be avoided with my new work with Bonnier, which will pull up heaven and earth! (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev IV 1884" p 263; letter 1884-07-18 to Claës Looström; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

(The knight) at last felt standing free to his fate. He was devastated on everything but did not murmur; it would in this world of transformation, dissolution and death be preposterous to urgently insist upon a lasting right of possession to temporal happiness. The one playing in the motley play of the life of senses may understand the meaning of the play. The cloud, shining like gold, swimming in the red sky at dawn, is in all its beauty not the right object to eternal feelings. The sparkle on the surface of the water, the billow, raising itself and sinking, the sough in the top of the oak, do you want to demand from them an eternity, which they do not own, do you want to crystallize them in forms, being beyond weathering? And if not, so do not demand eternity from castles with towers and pinnacles, not from richness and glory, not from domestic happiness, not from anything among all things after which the inexperienced seizes and which decease he gives useless tears. The one once having got foothold on the rock of the eternal thing is not afraid, if the spheres of the world burst, heaven and earth fall to pieces in atoms. It is only a sparkle having gone out, a billow having sunk, a sough having become silent. (Viktor Rydberg "Singoalla" p 212; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

(The Nordic divinely lays) describe a world drama, to which no other people has created a counterpart. Völuspå leads us from the beginning of time out of Eden . . . through the never resting struggle between good and evil to the devinely twilight, yes out over it to a reborn world of innocense and peace. (Viktor Rydberg "Fornnordiskt" s 234-235; Göteborgs Handelstidning 1872-12-30; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of orher quoted authors in the Swedish version: Olle Adolfsson, Svetlana Aleksijevitj, Valentin Aleksijevitj Borisevitj, Elin V. Anderson, Werner Aspenström, Nils Bolander, Alfr. Bredin, Colin Brown, Sven Danell, Folke Edsmyr, Tore Fasth, Bo Frid, Bo Giertz, Göran Greider, Carl Grimberg, Sive Hallgren, Kazuo Ishiguro, J.P. Jacobsen, Lars Krumlinde, Hans Larsson, Sven Lidman, Lars Lindberg, Carl von Linné, Martin Luther, Stephen Neill, Torsten Nilsson, René Pache, K.J. Pettersson, Bertrand Russell, Nelly Sachs, Erich Sauer, A.M. Strinnholm, Jesper Svartvik, Ragnar Thoursie, Anton Tjechov, Lennart Thörn, Gunnar Westin Silverstolpe, P.G. Vejde.


The adornment/’adorned world’ is led by the side of, and its desire, but the one making/doing the will of God stays/abides into the (coming) age. (1 John 2:17)


Additional studies:

Is 66:22, Joel 3:16; Haggai 2:21(22); Matt 5:14; 6:10; Luke 16:17; John 3:31; Rom 8:19-22; 2 Pet 3:10,13.


K.M. Campbell "The New Jerusalem in Matthew 5:14"; Scottish Journal of Theology 31 (1978): 385-.

Paul B. Decock "The Scriptures in the Book of Revelation"; Neotestamentica 33.2 (1999): 373-410.

Gale Z. Heide "What is New about the New Heaven and the New Earth? A Theology of Creation from Revelation 21 and 2 Peter 3"; Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 40.1 (March 1997): 37-56.

R.J. Korner "'And I saw . . .' An Apocalyptic Literary Convention for Structural Identification in the Apocalypse"; (the journal) Novum Testamentum 42.2 (2000): 160-183.

Jan Lambrecht "Final Judgments and Ultimate Blessings: The Climatic Visions of Revelation 20:11-21:8"; Biblica 81 (2000): 362-385.

G. Lindeskog "Förnyelse, nyskapelse, nyfödelse"; Svensk Exegetisk Årsbok 8 (1943): 12-29.

J.A. du Rand "'. . . Your kingdom come . . . on earth as it is in heaven . . .' The theological motif of the Apocalypse of John"; Neotestamentica 31.1 (1997): 59-76.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-08-11; 2012-07-28; 2015-10-26)

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21:1b And the sea is not any longer.

Word for word (6 words in the Greek text): and the sea not is any-longer.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

The Lord withdrew the sea in/with a violent south wind the whole night, and He made the sea dried out, and the water was split/divided. And the sons of Israel came into, into a middle of the sea ‘according to’/over the dried out thing. (Ex 14:21b-22a, Greek OT)

The Lord spoke: “ ... I will turn next to (My enemies) in depths of sea.” (Ps 68:22 or 68:23, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said to the Lord:) “From/’owing to’ Your ‘honour on’/blame (the waters) will fly. From/’owing to’ the voice of Your thunder they will be cowardly.” (Ps 104:7, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) “’Still once’/’once more’ I shall shake the heaven and the earth and the sea and the dried out. I shall shake (them) together with all the nations.” (Haggai 2:6b or 2:7b, Greek OT)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) ”The ones ‘going by sea the sea’/’going by sea’ describe its danger.” (Sir 43:24a)

(Baruch said:) “God has ‘arranged together’/systematized to humble every high mountain … and (that) ravines (shall) be completed.” (Baruch 5:7a)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus) 'honoured on'/blamed the winds and the sea, and it became a great calm. (Matt 8:26b)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “The one who – according to the circumstances – may cause one of these small/little ones believing into Me to stumble, it ‘carries together’/’is profitable’ to him ‘in order that’/that an upper millstone may be hung around his neck and he may be drowned in the ‘pelago of the sea’/’open sea’.” (Matt 18:6)

… Every mountain and hill will be humbled/’made low’. And every/all flesh will behold the means of saving of God. (Luke 3:5a,6)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

Both/further the sea (continually) was aroused of/’because of’ (the) great/strong wind (which was) blowing. (John 6:18)

And every island fled, and mountains were not found. (Rev 16:20)

(The messenger) saying: “In this way the great city Babylon will be thrown (with) storming/violence, and she may not/certainly not be found any longer in it/’the sea’ (א,* א).” (Rev 18:21b)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

So we were in Pegli. . . . I woke up in the night thinking me hear a giant who snored. Regular, dull breathes, which sometimes toned up and ended in a pant. It was the sea going for the southeast wind or the sirocco. . . . In west I saw Genoa's lighthouse twinkling as regularly as the waves breathed. . . . I saw the excited surface of the sea like a river of melted silver which seemed to come in through the window, towards me, over me. . . . It is undeniably very beautiful, but one must not sleep! (August Strindberg "Från det vaknande Italien" p 80-82; 1884-03-05; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

General outcry: "The sea!" It was the Mediterranean which lay there blue, yes blue as Vättern, being beheld between factory chimneys, pit-coal smoke and railway materials, and so it disappeared behind the horrible station-house, where hotel-portières and bearers stood as unpicturesquely as in Bremen or Nässjö! . . . I asked for being led down to the seashore to go and see my old friend, the sea. (August Strindberg "Från det vaknande Italien" p 77; between Turin and Savona 1884-03-04; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

I worship nature and have lived at sea this summer, have just returned to town, where I languish. (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev II 1877-1882" p 181; letter 1880-09-06 to the Norwegian author Alexander Kielland; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Down the alley (Johan) saw Klara Sjö and the bridges at the rocks. There it looked new and mysterious, but he was afraid of the sea. He had in the silent winter-evenings heard calls of distress for help from drowning ones. . . . This occured rather often. One sat round the lamp in the nursery. - Be quiet! one of the maids said. All listened. Long, prolonged cries were heard. - It is somebody drowning, one said. One listened, until it was silent. And so a row of stories followed about men having drowned. (August Strindberg "Tjänstekvinnans son" p 20; the fifties of the nineteenth century; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Eric S. Alexandersson, Hjalmar Alving, Dan Andersson, Karl-Erik Andersson, Fredrik Böök, Sven Danell, Charles Dickens, E.J. Ekman, T.S. Eliot, Hilding Fagerberg, Kai Friis Møller, Carl Grimberg, Stefan Gustavsson, Agne Hamrin, Gudmar Hasselberg, Ernest Hemingway, Liselotte J Andersson, Carl Vilhelm Jakobowsky, Rudyard Kipling, Pär Lagerkvist, Joachim G. Leithäuser, Jonas Lie, Martin Luther, Vilhelm Moberg, Henrietta Mullens, Jerri Nielsen, Alfred Nilsson, Nathan Odenvik, Göran Palm, Efraim Palmqvist, Alexandr Pusjkin, Johan Ludvig Runeberg, Viktor Rydberg, Nelly Sachs, Bo Setterlind, Egil Skallagrimsson, Erik Johan Stagnelius, John Stott, Wislawa Szymborska, Evert Taube, Olof Thulin, Zacharias Topelius, Marina Tsvetajeva, Gustaf Ullman, Jules Verne, Jakob Wallenberg, Johan Olof Wallin, Derek Walcott, P. Waldenström, Paul Wern, Per Wirtén, Vasilij Zjukovskij.


My own comments and speculations:

The deathbringing sea which earlier had received and annihilated the condemned Babylon now itself ceases to exist.


Additional studies:

John 6:16-21; Rev 12:18.


Jan Lambrecht "Final Judgments and Ultimate Blessings: The Climatic Visions of Revelation 20:11-21:8"; Biblica 81 (2000): 362-385.

D. Mathewson "New Exodus as a Background for 'The Sea Was No More' in Revelation 21:1C"; Trinity Journal 24.2 ns (Fall 2003): 243-258.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-08-11; 2012-07-28; 2015-10-26)

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21:2 And I beheld the holy city, a new Jerusalem, descending out of the heaven from God (and) having been (and being) made ready as a bride having been (and being) adorned for her male.

Word for word (22 words in the Greek text): and the city the holy Jerusalem (a)-new (i/I)-beheld descending out-of the heaven from the god having-been-(and-being)-made-ready as (a)-bride having-been-(and-being)-adorned (for)-the male her.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The slave of the Lord said:) "Let my soul exult on/’for the sake of’ the Lord, for He has set/clothed me in a garment of means of saving and (in) a tunic of cheerfulness as a bridegroom (and) put round about me a head-dress and adorned me entirely as a bride (with) adornment." (Is 61:10, Greek OT)

(Tobit said:) ”(Disgraced) Jerosolyma/Jerusalem, holy city, (God) will whip you against the works of your sons, and/but again He will have mercy on the sons of the righteous ones.” (Tobit 13:9 or 13:10, BA)

(Jonathan) made (Jerusalem) new. (1 Macc 10:10b)

(Judas practised) townlike/polite (things) ‘counting throughout’/reflecting in favour of a resurrection. (2 Macc 12:43b)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “The ones fearing the Lord make their hearts ready.” (Sir 2:17a)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said: “The Lord) adorned His works into/'for the purpose of' a (coming) age.” (Sir 16:27)


The Latter Revelation:

(The slaves of the king said to the ones having been called:) “Come here into the wedding banquets!” (Matt 22:4b)

All those virgins rose and adorned/’put ... in order’ their torches. (Matt 25:7)

Having come out, out of the memorial tombs after (Jesus') raising (many bodies of the holy ones having been and being fallen asleep) came into, into the holy city and they were made conspicuous to many. (Matt 27:53)

(Some said) on account of the sanctuary, that it was (and had been) adorned (with) fine stones and consecrated gifts. (Luke 21:5a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

Against (the pillar) I will write the name of My God and the name of the city of My God, the new Jerusalem, the one descending out of the heaven from My God, and My name, the new one. (Rev 3:12b, ”Philadelphia”)

(The nations) will tread the holy city (for) forty-two months. (Rev 11:2b)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

The idea of the city of Jerusalem as a bride occurs also in the Targum to Ps 48. The Targum on the Song of Songs sees the bride as the assembly of Israel. (J. Massyngberde Ford "Revelation" p 361)

Tegnér called Stockholm "this Sodom and Abdera". May be - but I long from here! Not to the country, for I must have men. Book-shop and wine-shop! Accordingly: a court in Lund with a large old garden, greenhouse and sun. (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev XX juni 1911-maj 1912" p 69-70; letter 1911-07-10 to Nils Andersson; Abdera = during classical antiquity a vicious, rich city state in Thrace)

Are you now going to move again? No permanent city we have here, this I know best. And do not hope of such a city on this side of the pit. Live well, in the hope of something better, Jenseits! (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev XIX juni 1910-maj 1911" s 153; letter 1910-10-08 to Gustaf Brand; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

(August) Strindberg tried his hand at the painting during three periods of his life. . . . Since (1914) Strindberg has in a growing degree come to be numbered to the Swedish history of art. . . . A main theme (in his art) is the sky and the sea. . . . (The painting) Staden (The City) belongs to Strindberg's last period of painting (1900-07). According to reports it represents a mirage at sea and would with this naturally connect to Strindberg's interest in visions and dream images. (Torsten Gunnarsson "August Strindberg" p 52; BG Ask-comment: In the background of a dark landscape with sky and sea a city with a light cupola is visible, a cupola which ascends higher than other buildings and which is reflected in the water; farther away a streak of intensive light is seen, perhaps an intimation of a new light city with connection to the light cupola - perhaps a church building - in a present dark world; compare also the letter quotations above from 1910 and 1911)

Do you notice what a wonderful seriousness there is over all concerning Jerusalem, one thinks to touch upon it lightly or sentimentally or satirically, nothing goes, it is so fearfully serious, burning consciences and souls throwing all in the hope of becoming saved. (Selma Lagerlöf "Du lär mig att bli fri - Selma Lagerlöf skriver till Sophie Elkan" p 146; letter 1900-06-03; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Miss Lovisa Lagerlöf used to cloth brides. . . . Formerly, when the priest lived in Mårbacka, it had probably belonged to the duties of the parsonage women to adorn the brides, above all such ones, who would get married in a church. Mother and grandmother and grandmother's mother and grandmother's grandmother probably had had the same task before her. It was only an old custom which she had inherited. She also had inherited all the bride-show which in the course of time had been gathered in Mårbacka. She owned a big old cupboard, where she in one of the drawers kept long necklaces with pearls of glass, coral or amber. She had a collection of old turtle shell combs sticking up a quarter (= about 15cm) above the head. . . . She also owned a high bridal crown of pasteboard . . . all kinds of broaches, bracelets and shoe clasps of brass and which were set with false rubies, amethysts and sapphires. . . . And although almost all the show was not genuine, so one can understand that a peasant bride with a big, high crown and broad flower garland on her head, with a lot of many-coloured strings of pearls round her neck, with a gaudy silk sash and gaudy bands around her shirt, with adorned wrists and clasps in the shoes was the most gaudy sight one could behold. . . . For the bridegroom she appeared on the wedding day as a queen, a goddess of richness. . . . But when Miss Lovisa now clothed brides, then she had not to use the old bride-show. Now it would be a little , thin crown of myrtle and a little, thin garland, also of myrten, and a large, white veil, and this almost was all of it. Sometimes she could fasten a red silk band slender-waisted on the smooth, black woolen clothing and golden broach, golden chain, golden bracelet and golden watch she used to lend to her brides in order to light up the simplicity a little. (Selma Lagerlöf "Mårbacka" p 124-125; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Adolf opened his heart for the friend during a long conversation, made a drawing of his life and painted in sad colours his present mental state. "My friend", Göran said, "you resemble the soldier having left the battle-field with a bleeding wound. . . . Why complain, if you all at once cannot transform the world? What is the length of life of the individual man compared with the endless future of mankind? Work, while you are living, and die with the hope, that the kingdom of God in the fullness of time will descend to the earth! . . . The best healing for a depressed soul still is the thought, that the earthly life only is an antehall to eternity. Life down here with its little worries is, you know, soon over . . . the short day is ebbing out, and then . . . then . . . the morning of eternity lights purple candles round the countries of the night. (Viktor Rydberg "De vandrande djäknarne" p 156-158; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

(Schoolmaster Lars said:) "The whole ceiling (in the monastery chapel) is to be whitewashed and remain white." . . . When Lars some days later looked at his work, he was glad and said to the gardian John: "The chapel stands clothed as a bride." (Viktor Rydberg "Vapensmeden" p 134; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

The situation of Jerusalem was entirely unique. Pitched on a height of about 2,610 feet above the level of the sea, its climate was more healthy, equable, and temperate than that of any other part of the country. From the top of Mount Olivet an unrivalled view of the most interesting localities in the land might be obtained. ... But, above all, just at your feet, the Holy City would lie in all her magnificence, like ‘a bride adorned for her husband.’ (Alfred Edersheim “The Temple”, p 26)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Elisabeth Beskow, Colin Brown, Fredrik Böök, Peter Carelli, Allan Ellenius, Hilding Fagerberg, Berndt Gustafsson, Stefan Gustavsson, Peter Halldorf, Olov Hartman, Eyvind Johnson, Lars-Olof Larsson, Sven Lidman, Sigurd Lindgren, Martin Luther, Vilhelm Moberg, Olaf Moe, Petrus M. Nicander, David Nyvall, L. Passarge, Hilding Pleijel, Nina Pleijel, Erich Sauer, Elias Sehlstedt, David A. Schank, Milton Steinberg, Sven Stolpe, Morris Stuart, P. Waldenström, Carl Fr. Wislöff, Emile Zola, N.P. Ödman.


My own comments and speculations:

The existence in the new Jerusalem above all is characterized of this, that the beginning light - more or less obvious - of the kingdom of God in the present age now at last shine in all its glory. The beauty is there, but the innermost quality of the kingdom of God is rather mutual community than beauty.

Concerning “the holy city”, see also Rev 11:2b. Concerning “a new Jerusalem descending out of the heaven from God”, see also Rev 3:12b. Concerning “descending out of the heaven”, see also John 6:45-51a. Concerning “made ready as a bride having been (and being) adorned for her male”, see also Rev 19:7.


Greek words:

kosmeô (adorn) (in the NT + examples in the OT) Sir 16:27; Matt 25:7; Luke 21:5; Rev 21:2 – 2 Chron 3:6; Esther 1:6; 1 Macc 4:57; 2 Macc 9:16; Sir 29:26; 42:21; 50:9,14; Matt 12:44; 23:29; Luke 11:25; 1 Tim 2:9; Tit 2:10; 1 Pet 3:5; Rev 21:19.


Additional studies:

Is 49:18; Tobit 13:11,14; John 1:32; 3:13,29; 2 Cor 11:2; Gal 4:26; Eph 2:6; 5:26-27; Phil 3:20-21; Col 3:3-4; Heb 11:10,16; 12:22; 13:14; Rev 21:9-10; 22:17,19.


R.J. Korner "'And I saw . . .' An Apocalyptic Literary Convention for Structural Identification in the Apocalypse"; (the journal) Novum Testamentum 42.2 (2000): 160-183.

Jan Lambrecht "Final Judgments and Ultimate Blessings: The Climatic Visions of Revelation 20:11-21:8"; Biblica 81 (2000): 362-385.

D. Mathewson "Assessing Old Testament Allusions in the Book of Revelation"; The Evangelical Quarterly 75.4 (Oct.-Dec. 2003): 311-325.

Ruben Zimmerman "Nuptial Imagery in the Revelation of John"; Biblica 84 (2003): 153-183.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-08-11; 2012-07-28; 2015-10-26)

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21:3 And I heard a great/loud voice out of the throne, saying: “Behold, the tent of God (is) in company with the men, and He has dwelt (א*) in a tent in company with them, and they will be His peoples, and God Himself will be in company with them.

Word for word (32 words in the Greek text): and (i/I)-heard (a)-voice great out-of the throne saying: behold the tent (of)-the (of)-god in-company-with the men, and (he)-dwelt-in-a-tent in-company-with them, and they peoples his will-be, and he/himself the god in-company-with them will-be.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The Lord said to Israel:) “I shall take you My people to Myself, and I shall be your God.” (Ex 6:7a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Israel:) "I shall walk about in/among, in/among you, and I shall be your God, and you will be My people." (Lev 26:12, Greek OT)

(The Moabite woman Ruth spoke to her Jewish mother-in-law Naomi): “Your people (is) my people, and your God (is) my God.” (Ruth 1:16b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Solomon:) “I shall pitch a tent in a middle of the sons of Israel, and I shall not entirely leave the people, My Israel, in (a place).” (1 Kings 6:13, Greek OT)

(Solomon said to God:) “Will God truly dwell in company with men upon the earth?” (1 Kings 8:27a, Greek OT)

(Solomon said to the Lord:) "And the alien one, who is not from this Your people, and/also they will arrive and pray in this place, and You shall listen to (him) out of the heaven, out of Your ready dwelling, and You shall make/do according to all things, as many as the alien one – according to the circumstances – may call against You, in that way (that) all the peoples may have knowledge of Your name and fear You entirely as Your people Israel, and You may have knowledge, that Your name has been (and is) called against, against this house, which I have built.” (1 Kings 8:41-43, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to the prophet:) “The (walled) camp of (the king of the Assyrians) ... may complete/fill the breadth of your district, God in company with us.” (Is 8:8b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to the prophet:) “I shall be into/’purposed to be’ a God to the descent/kindred of Israel, and they shall be into/’purposed for’ a people to Me.” (Jer 31:1b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) "My resting place will be in/among (Judas and Israel). And I will be a God to them, and they will be My people." (Ezek 37:27, Greek OT)

(The prophet said: “The voice) spoke towards me: ‘You, son of man, behold (and have beheld) the place of My throne and the place of the footsteps of My feet, ‘in which’/where My name will pitch a tent in a middle of the house of Israel (into) the (coming) age.” (Ezek 43:7a, Greek OT)

"Amuse yourself and be cheerful, daughter of Zion; for the reason, behold, that I come and will pitch a tent in your middle", says the Lord. And many nations will ‘flee down against’/’resort to’ the Lord in that day, and they will be to Him into/’purposed for’ a people, and they will pitch a tent in a middle of you.” (Zech 2:10-11a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said: “I) will pitch a tent in a middle of Jerusalem, and they will be into/’purposed for’ a people to Me and I will be into/’purposed for’ a God to them in truth and in righteousness.” (Zech 8:8b, Greek OT)

(Tobit said Jerusalem:) “Again the tent (of the Lord) may be built to You in company with joy.” (Tobit 13:10b or 13:11b)

(God said to Wisdom:) ”Pitch a tent in Jacob, and 'inherit entirely'/’have the inheritance’ in Israel.” (Sir 24:8b)


The Latter Revelation:

(The Lord said to the prophet:) "They will call the name of (the son of the virgin) ‘Emmanuel’” (which, being translated, is/means 'God in company with us'). (Matt 1:23b)

(Jesus said to the eleven disciples:) “Having gone * (א,* א, A) be/make disciples (of) all the nations.” (Matt 28:19a; BG Ask-comment: Walter Bauer says in his Greek-English lexicon - p 485 - that the Greek word for "be or become a disciple" - as a transitive verb has the meaning of "make a disciple". Perhaps no translator has another meaning. But I am not sure that this is the johannine view. To be disciples in a company of all nations can cause the crowd of disciples to increase. Cf. John 17:21-23.)

Both Herod and Pontius Pilate together with nations and peoples of Israel (were led together against Jesus). (Acts 4:27b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

The Saying became flesh and dwelt in a tent in/among us. (John 1:14a)

Every (nation?) which the Father gives Me will arrive towards Me, and the one coming towards Me I may not/certainly not throw out * (א*), because I have descended (and descend) out of (א,*א) the heaven, not in order that I might make/do My will, however/but the will of the One having sent Me, *(א*) in order that every (nation?) which He has given (and gives) Me, (that) I may not perish out/’in consequence’ of it, however/but (that) I may cause it to stand up in/on the last day. For this is the will of My Father, in order that 'every the'/everyone looking at the Son and believing into Him may have agelong life. And I Myself will cause him to stand up in/on the last day. (John 6:37-40)

Having spoken these things, (Jesus) screamed (with) a great/loud voice: “Lazarus, come here outside.” (John 11:43)

Rays of light and voices and peals of thunder go out, out of the throne. (Rev 4:5a)

A great/loud voice and/also came out, out of the temple of God (א,* א), (a voice) saying: “It becomes/’comes about’ (and has become/’come about’).” (Rev 16:17b)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: Leif Carlsson, Stefan Gustavsson, Olaf Moe, John Stott.


My own comments and speculations:

In the present age it is the Spirit who on the earth shows the way in the truth. In the heavenly world it is Jesus Himself (the Son) who shows the way upon springs of waters of life (Rev 7:17). In the New Jerusalem there is no need of showing the way to any such springs of water. A river of water of life is in the middle of the street of the city (Rev 22:1-2). And the inhabitants of the city will behold the face of Jesus (Rev 22:4). And God Himself (the Father) will be in company with them (Rev 21:3)

Concerning “a great/loud voice”, see also John 11:43-44. Concerning “voice out of the throne”, see also Rev 4:5a. Concerning “dwelt in a tent”, see also John 1:14a.


Additional studies:

Ps 95:7; Is 7:14; 33:20; Ezek 11:20; 48:35; Zech 13:9; Baruch 2:35; John 1:14,26-27; 11:43; 14:23; 20:17; 2 Cor 6:16; Rev 7:15.


Gordon Campbell "Antithetical Feminine-Urban Imagery and a Tale of Two Women-Cities in the Book of Revelation"; Tyndale Bulletin 55.1 (2004): 81-108.

Jan Lambrecht "Final Judgments and Ultimate Blessings: The Climatic Visions of Revelation 20:11-21:8"; Biblica 81 (2000): 362-385.

D. Mathewson "The Destiny of the Nations in Revelation 21:1-22:5: A reconsideration"; Tyndale Bulletin 53.1 (2002): 121-142.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-08-11; 2012-07-28; 2015-10-27)

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21:4a And He will wipe out every teardrop out of their eyes. And * (א,* א) death will not be any longer and not grief and not scream * (א,* א) .

Word for word (17 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus): and (he)-will-wipe-out every teardrop out-of the eyes their, and death not will-be any-longer and-not grief and-not scream.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

The Lord spoke towards Moses: "Behold, I have beheld the ill-treatment of My people in Egypt, and I have heard (and hear) their scream.” (Ex 3:7a, Greek OT)

In every district where the letters (of the alphabet) were put out, (there were) scream and mourning and great grief (among) the Jews. (Esther 4:3a, Greek OT)

(The Lord) drank down the death ... and again God took off/away every teardrop from every face ... And it will be spoken (on) that day: "Behold our God, on whom we (continually) hoped", and we may exult and we shall be cheerful on/’for the sake of’ our saving.” (Is 25:8-9, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Jerusalem:) “The days of your grief will be ‘completed upwards’/upcompleted.” (Is 60:20b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said about Jerusalem:) “Not/certainly it may no longer be heard in her a voice/sound of weeping and not a voice/sound of scream.” (Is 65:19b, Greek OT)

(Baruch said to the inhabitants of Jerusalem:) “I sent you out in company with griefs and weeping.” (Baruch 4:23a)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Happy the ones grieving, because they will be called to the side of.” (Matt 5:4)

Jesus spoke to (the disciples of John): "The sons of the bride chamber are not able to grieve against/’up to’ as long (time) as the bridegroom is in company with them, (are they)? But days will come, when – according to the circumstances - the bridegroom may be lifted away from them, and then they will fast." (Matt 9:15)

(Jesus said:) "(In) a middle of a night it becomes (and has become) a scream: 'Behold, the bridegroom! Come out into a meeting (א,* א, B).'" (Matt 25:6a)

(Paul said to the elders in Ephesos: “During) a space of three years, night and day, I did not cease bringing to mind ‘one every’/’each one’ in company with tears.” (Acts 20:31b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

God will wipe out every teardrop from (א,* א) their eyes. (Rev 7:17b)

They threw gravel upon (א,*א) their head/heads (א,*א) and shouted, weeping and grieving. (Rev 18:19a)

The death and the Hades were thrown into the lake of the fire. And (א,*א) this is the second death, the lake of the fire. (Rev 20:14)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

Well, I ain't a-gonna grieve no more, no more Ain't a-gonna grieve no more, no more Ain't a-gonna grieve no more, no more And ain't a-gonna grieve no more ... Come on brothers, join the band Come on sisters, clap your hands Tell everybody that's in the land You ain't a gonna grieve no more. (Bob Dylan "Ain't Gonna Grieve" p 25; 1963)

Today, Master Olof Day, Swedenborg comes home to Sweden! - Now we get a new time! The old is passed! . . . . . . It is not often a work of art affects me, friend of nature; but this (the colossal statue of Vilhelm II by the sculptor Coubillier) is the most beautiful work of art I have seen! . . . The meeting again, after death, on the other shore, on the greening island! In the clean sea! . . . And God will wipe away all tears . . . for the former is passed. (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev 16, maj 1907-12 juli 1908" p 273,276; letter 1908-04-19 to Karl Börjesson and letter 1908-04-24 to Emil Schering; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

The wild-geese followed Tabergsån (through Norrahammar and Hovslätt where BG Ask lived in the nearness of this river 1942-1961) down towards Munksjön (and perhaps over the place in Jönköping on the other side of the lake where BG and K Ask moved year 2013). . . . In a while the geese came to Sanna nursing home. Some of the ill ones had gone out on a verandah to rejoice at the spring air. . . . "Where are you going to? Where are you going to?" one of the patients asked in such a faint voice, that it hardly was heard. - "To the land, where there is neither sorrow or illness", the boy answered. - "Let us accompany!" the patients said. - "Not this year", the boy answered. "Not this year." When they had gone still a bit forward, they came to Huskvarna. . . . In the middle of the valley the school was. . . . "Where are you going? Where are you going?" the children cried, when they heard the wild-geese. - "Where, where there neither are books, nor lessons", the boy answered. "Bring us!" the childre cried. "Bring us!" - "Not this year, but to the year", the boy cried. "Not this year, but to the year." (Selma Lagerlöf "Nils Holgerssons underbara resa genom Sverige" s 211-213; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Do you not think that the following could be interpolated in the final scene of Spöksonaten, or be sighted in letters of fire above Toten-Insel: "And God will wipe away all tears from their eyes, and no death will be then, nor weeping, nor cry, nor any pain (Leiden) become more, for the first thing is passed away!" (Apocalyps 21:4). (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev XV april 1904-april 1907" p 360; letter 1907-04-07 to Emil Schering; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

The teacher, a tall white-clothed man with Zeus-head, but white hair and white beard, steps forward out of the cypress avenue, goes down to the bridge. A black boat with a black rower, bringing a white coffin at which a white figure stands, comes in from the left. The teacher: Who? The figure: Take and read! The teacher takes the plate from the coffin reading: I know! - A poor man who was worried to death by life. . . . No, do not scare him. . . . (The coffin is put to land.) (The teacher:) Sixtytwo years of troubles, duties, sorrows . . . No flowers, no garlands . . . The figure: Say the words! The teacher: First the greeting! Invisible chorus: "And God will wipe away all tears from their eyes, and no death will be then, nor weeping, nor cry, nor any pain become more, for the first thing is passed away!" The teacher to the dead one: Wake up. (August Strindberg "Toten-Insel" p 329-330; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

It comes a moment when letters cross each other, when new events shoot between, and what was three days ago is not more. (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev X febr 1894-april 1895" p 161; letter 1894-07-26 to Leopold Littmansson; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

"Adolf, our friendship is eternal", (Göran said). . . . "An imperishable band of brothers joins our souls. . . . The memory of the past and the hope of the future they have common, and in a far distance a harbour at last signs to them, a place where a separation no more will call forth the tears of regret, where related souls are united in an eternal sworn brotherhood, witnessed by God and sworn at the fountain-head of love." . . . The upper-school scholars embraced each other, Göran tried to prove strong and glad, but nevertheless his tears were flowing, when Adolf weeping pressed himself to his breast. So they were standing for a long time, but at last Adolf nerved himself, whispered farewell and hurried away. (Viktor Rydberg "De vandrande djäknarne" p 144-145; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Svetlana Aleksijevitj, Björne Erixon, N.F.S. Grundtvig, Stefan Gustavsson, Britt G. Hallqvist, Knut Hamsun, Verner von Heidenstam, Martin Luther, Boris Pasternak, Henrik Schartau, Anthony C. Thiselton, Gustaf Ullman.


My own comments and speculations:

The tears which God previously in heaven had wiped from their eyes (Rev 7:17, Sinaiticus), He will now still more close wipe out of them. Compare My own comments and speculations to Rev 22:1-2a.

Concerning “He will wipe out every teardrop out of their eyes”, see also Rev 7:17b. Concerning “death will not be any longer”, see also Rev 20:14.


Greek words:

kraugê (scream) (in the NT + examples in the OT) Ex 3:7; Esther 4:3; Is 65:19; Matt 25:6; Rev 21:4 - Gen 18:20; Ex 11:6; 12:30; Ps 18:6(7); Is 58:4; Jonah 2:2(3); Judith 14:19; 1 Macc 5:31; 2 Macc 15:29; Susanna v 26(Theod); Luke 1:42; Acts 23:9; Eph 4:31; Heb 5:7.


Additional studies:

Is 35:10; 51:11; Jer 31:16; John 11:31-33; 16:20; 1 Cor 15:26,54.


Beate Kowalski "Martyrdom and Resurrection in the Revelation to John"; Andrews University Seminary Studies 10.1 (Jan. 1972): 55-64.

Jan Lambrecht "Final Judgments and Ultimate Blessings: The Climatic Visions of Revelation 20:11-21:8"; Biblica 81 (2000): 362-385.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-08-12; 2012-07-28; 2015-10-27)

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21:4b Not it will be any longer (that) the sheep (א*) has/have gone away.

Word for word (6 words in the Greek text): not (it)-will-be any-longer the sheep went-away.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

Sheep (were) 'left out'/away from consumption/'the fold'. ... (Hab 3:17b, Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) “In that day the Lord will save them, His people, as sheep.” (Zech 9:16a, Greek OT)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus) was moved in His inward vital parts on account of (the crowds), because they (continually) were (and had been) rent and tossed, as if (they were) sheep not having a shepherd. (Matt 9:36b)

(Jesus said to His disciples: "The cursed he-goats who have not done anything to the least of My brothers) will go away into an agelong chastisement, but the righteous (sheep who have done something to the least of My brothers) into an agelong life." (Matt 25:46)

(Jesus) spoke this parable towards (the Pharisees), saying: “What man out of you having a hundred sheep and having perished/lost one out of them, does he not entirely leave the ninety-nine in the desolate (district) and goes against the perished one till (the place) where (א,*א,A) he may find it? And having find it he put/lay (it) against, against his shoulders, rejoicing.” (Luke 15:3-5)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

But (א,*א) the ‘paschal lamb’/Passover of the Jews (continually) was near, and Jesus ascended into/to the (disgraced) Jerosolyma/Jerusalem. And he found in the sanctuary the ones selling cattles/cattle and sheep and pigeons, and the smallcoin-changers being seated. And having made a scourge out of little ropes He threw all out, out of the sanctuary, both the sheep and the cattles/cattle. (John 2:13-15a)

(Jesus said to the Pharisees:) "I am the fine shepherd. The fine shepherd gives (P45,א*) His soul in favour of the sheep." (John 10:11)

I beheld a new heaven and a new earth, for the first heaven and the first earth had gone away. (Rev 21:1a)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

It was a Christmas Day, when all had gone to church except grandmother and I. . . . When we sat there in our loneliness, grandmother began to tell. "There was a man", she said, "who went out in the dark night to borrow fire. . . . A multitude of white sheep lay sleeping around the fire, and an old shepherd sat watching over the flock. . . . The sheep lay so close up to one another, back to back, that he could not come up to the fire. And none of the animals woke up or moved. . . . (When the shepherd) . . . saw all these things, he began to wonder for himself: 'What night can this be, because the dogs do not bite, the sheep are not afraid, the spear does not kill and the fire does not burn?'" (Selma Lagerlöf "Den heliga natten" p 6-8; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Additional studies:


Jan Lambrecht "Final Judgments and Ultimate Blessings: The Climatic Visions of Revelation 20:11-21:8"; Biblica 81 (2000): 362-385.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-08-12; 2012-07-28; 2015-10-27)

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21:5a And the One being seated on the throne spoke: “Behold, I make all things new.”

Word for word (11 words in the Greek text): And spoke the-(one) being-seated on the throne: behold new (i/I)-make all-(things)


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Solomon said:) “Being one (wisdom) is able all things, and staying/remaining in herself she makes all things new.” (Wisdom of Solomon 7:27a)


The Latter Revelation:

(The people in the synagogue) were all of them amazed, so that seek/'they sought' themselves together with * (א,* א, B) themselves, saying: “What is this? A new teaching!” (Mark 1:27a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

The living beings may (א,* א) – according to the circumstances – give glory and honour and thankfulness to the One being seated on the throne. (Rev 4:9a)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

My family is dissolved and I live board and lodge alone with a farm foreman in Vermdö. My economy is in despair and soon I make something altogether new! (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev VIII jan 1890-dec 1891" p 128-129; letter 1890-11-20 to Ola Hansson; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Jerram Barrs, Ingmar Brohed, Hillis Grane, Andrew Kirk, Margareta Malmgren, Stephen Neill, Karl Nilenius.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “the One being seated on the throne”, see also Rev 4:9a.


Additional studies:

Is 43:18-19; John 13:34; 19:41; 1 Cor 15:28; 2 Cor 5:17.


Jan Lambrecht "Final Judgments and Ultimate Blessings: The Climatic Visions of Revelation 20:11-21:8"; Biblica 81 (2000): 362-385.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-08-12; 2012-07-28; 2015-10-28)

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21:5b And He says to me (א,* א): “Write, because these sayings are faithful and true.”

Word for word (12 words in the Greek text): and (he)-says (to)-me: write, because these the sayings faithful and true are.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

An intelligent man believe in a law, and the law (is) for him faithful as manifest (words as answer to) a question. (Sir 33:3)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(The voice) said: “Write into a scroll what you see.” (Rev 1:11a)

This is what the Amen says and (א*) the faithful Witness and the True One (א,* א) and (א,*א) the Beginning of the (assembly) of called out (א*) of God. (Rev 3:14)

(The messenger) says to me: “Write: ‘Happy the ones being (and having been) called into the * (א*) chief meal of the little Ram.’ * (א*) These my true sayings are of God (א*).” (Rev 19:9)


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “write … these sayings are ... true”, see Rev 19:9. Concerning “faithful and true”, see Rev 3:14ba.


Additional studies:

Matt 22:16; Mark 12:14; Luke 4:25; 20:21; John 21:24; Rev 22:6.


Jan Lambrecht "Final Judgments and Ultimate Blessings: The Climatic Visions of Revelation 20:11-21:8"; Biblica 81 (2000): 362-385.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-08-12; 2012-07-28; 2015-10-28)

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21:6a And He says (א,* א) to me: “I (א,* א) have become (and become) the Alpha and the Ô/Omega, the Beginning and the End.”

Word for word (15 words in the Greek text): and (he)-says (to)-me: (i/I)-have-become-(and-becomes) i/I the alpha and the ô, the beginning and the end.


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

All things became through (the Saying), and separate from It nothing (P66, א*) became that has become (and becomes). (John 1:3)

(Jesus said to the Jews): “If – according to the circumstances – you may not believe Me (א,*א), that I am, you will die in your misses (of the mark of God).” They * (א,* א) (continually) said to Him: “Who are You?” Jesus spoke to them: “(One towards) the beginning, (of) which I and/also talk (with) you.” (John 8:24b-25)

“I am the Alpha and the Ô/Omega, a beginning and an end (א*),” says the Lord God. (Rev 1:8a)

This is what the Amen says and (א*) the faithful Witness and the True One (א,*א) and (א,*א) the Beginning of the (assembly) of called out (א*) of God. (Rev 3:14)

And when * (א*) (the messenger) poured out his bowl against the air, a great/loud voice and/also came out, out of the temple of God (א,* א), (a voice) saying: “It becomes/’comes about’ (and has become/’come about’).” (Rev 16:17)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: Isak Collijn.


My own comments and speculations:

Observe the step by step higher confession in Sinaiticus prima manus from "the Alpha and the Omega, a beginning and an end" in Rev 1:8 via "the Alpha and the Omega, the Beginning and the End" in Rev 21:6a to the highest point in Rev 22:13 "the Alpha and the Omega, the First One and the Last One, the Beginning and the End".

Concerning “the Alpha and the Ô/Omega, the Beginning and the End”, see also Rev 1:8a.


Additional studies:

Heb 3:14; Rev 22:13.


Jan Lambrecht "Final Judgments and Ultimate Blessings: The Climatic Visions of Revelation 20:11-21:8"; Biblica 81 (2000): 362-385.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-08-12; 2012-07-28; 2015-10-28)

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21:6b I will as a benefit give to the one thirsting out of the spring of the water of the life.

Word for word (12 words in the Greek text): i/I (to)-the thirsting will-give out-of the spring (of)-the (of)-water (of)-the (of)-life (a)-benefit.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(David said to the Lord:) “You will give (the sons of men) to drink the torrent of Your delicacy. By the side of You (is) a spring of life.” (Ps 36:8b-9a or 36:9b-10a, Greek OT)

The ones thirsting, go against/’in quest of’ water and as many as have not silvermetal/money, having advanced, buy and drink without silvermetal/money and honour/price wine and tallow. (Is 55:1, Greek OT)

(The king said:) “Every (Jude) … I let be free as a benefit.” (1 Macc 10:33a)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “I opened my mouth and talked. Acquire (things) to yourselves without silvermetal/money.” (Sir 51:25)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to the twelve:) “You took as a benefit, as a benefit give.” (Matt 10:8b)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “The one who – according to the circumstances – may give you a cup of water to drink in My (א*) name, because you are of Christ, amen I say to you that/: 'He may not/certainly not perish/lose his wage.'” (Mark 9:41)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Jesus said to the woman:) “If you knew the benefit of God and who the One is saying to you: ‘Give to drink’, you had – according to the circumstances - demanded/asked Him, and He had – according to the circumstances – given you living water." (John 4:10)

They will not be hungry * (א,* א), nor they will thirst any longer. (Rev 7:16a)

The little Ram, the One upwards/above a middle of the throne, will be a shepherd to them, and He will show them the way upon springs of waters of life. (Rev 7:17a)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

When we came home, Jonatan unpacked Sofia's basket on the kitchen table. There was a piece of bread in it and a bottle of milk and a little pot with honey and a couple of pancakes. "Does Sofia keep us with food", I said surprised. "I had not in detail thought of how we would get something to eat." "Sometimes she does so", Jonatan said. "Quite free", I asked. "Free, yes, perhaps one can call it so", Jonatan said. "Here in Cherry Valley (in Nangijala) everything is free. We give to one another and help one another as it is needed." (Astrid Lindgren "Bröderna Lejonhjärta" p 35-36; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Lennart Johansson, Eva Spångberg.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “the one thirsting”, see also Rev 7:16a. Concerning “spring of the water of the life”, see also Rev 7:17a.


Additional studies:

Is 1:30; 12:3; Jer 2:13; 14:3; Lam 5:4; Ezek 4:16-17; Zech 14:8; John 4:11,14; 7:37-38; Rev 22:1,17.


Jan Lambrecht "Final Judgments and Ultimate Blessings: The Climatic Visions of Revelation 20:11-21:8"; Biblica 81 (2000): 362-385.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-08-12; 2012-07-28; 2015-10-28)

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21:7 The one conquering will inherit these things, and I will be a God for him, and he will be a son for Me.

Word for word (13 words in the Greek text): the-(one) conquering will-inherit these-(things) and (i/I)-will-be (for)-him (a)-god and he will-be (for)-me (a)-son.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The Lord said about Israel:) “I shall be into/’purposed to be’ a father to him, and he will be into/’purposed to be’ a son to Me.” (2 Sam 7:14a, Greek OT)

This (is) the covenant, which I shall put asunder/’in order’ for the house of Israel after those days, utters the Lord: “Giving I shall give My laws into their mind and upon their heart I shall write them, and I shall be for them into/’purposed to be’ a God, and they will be for Me into/’purposed to be’ a people.” (Jer 31:33, Greek OT)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “The one ‘getting power over’/keeping (the wisdom) will inherit glory, and where she goes in, the Lord blesses.” (Sir 4:13)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Happy the meek ones, because they will inherit the earth.” (Matt 5:5)

(The Son of the Man will say:) "Come here, the ones having been (and being) blessed of My Father, inherit the kingdom having been (and being) made ready for you from a foundation of an adornment/’adorned world’." (Matt 25:34b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Jesus said to Mariam:) “Go towards the (א*) brothers and speak to them: “I ascend towards 'the Father My'/'My Father' and your Father and My God and your God.” (John 20:17b)

To the one conquering * (א,* א) I will give to eat out of the wood of the life, which is in the ‘place by the side of apprehension’/Paradise of God. (Rev 2:7b)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: Sven Danell, Carl Grimberg, Sven Lidman, Eva Spångberg, Kekke Stadin, N.P. Wetterlund.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “the one conquering”, see also Rev 2:7b.


Greek words:

klêronomeô (inherit) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Sir 4:13; Matt 5:5; 25:34; Rev 21:7 – Tobit 3:15,17; 4:12(BA); 6:12; 14:13; Judith 5:15; 1 Macc 1:32; 2:10,57; Sir 10:11; 20:25; 37:26; Matt 19:16(א,*א); Matt 19:29; Mark 10:17; Luke 10:25; 18:18; 1 Cor 6:9-10; 15:50; Gal 4:30; 5:21; Heb 1:4,14; 6:12; 12:17; 1 Pet 3:9.


Additional studies:

Gen 17:7; Lev 26:12; Ps 2:7; 89:26-27(27-28); Ezek 11:20; Zech 8:8; 2 Cor 6:16,18; Rev 21:3.


Matthijs den Dulk "The Promises to the Conquerors in the Book of Revelation"; Biblica 87 (2006): 516-522.

Stephen L. Homcy "'To Him Who Overcomes': A Fresh Look at What 'Victory' Means for the Believer According to the Book of Revelation"; Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 38.2 (June 1995): 193-201.

Jan Lambrecht "Final Judgments and Ultimate Blessings: The Climatic Visions of Revelation 20:11-21:8"; Biblica 81 (2000): 362-385.

James E. Rosscup "The 'overcomer' of the Apocalypse"; Grace Theological Journal 3.2 (Fall 1982): 261-286.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-08-12; 2012-07-29; 2015-10-29)

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21:8 But for the cowardly and the faithless and the ones being (and having been) abominated and for the murderers and the fornicators and the poisoners and the idolaters and for all the false (ones), their part (is) in the lake burning (with) fire and sulphur, which is the second death.

Word for word (36 words in the Greek text): the but cowardly and faithless and being-(and-having-been)-abominated and murderers and fornicators and poisoners and idolators and (for)-all the false the part their in the lake the-(one) burning (with)-fire and (with)-sulphur, which is the death the second.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Eliphaz said:) “Heaven (is) not clean opposite/’in the presence of’ (God). ‘But allow’/’how much less’ the one being abominated and unclean, a male drinking unrighteousness equally (with) a drink.” (Job 15:15b-16, Greek OT)

(David said: “The Lord) perishes all the ones talking the lie. The Lord abominates a male of bloods/bloodshed and deceit.” (Ps 5:6 or 5:7, Greek OT)

(The Lord/the prophet said to Damascus:) “You plant a faithless plant and a faithless seed.” (Is 17:10b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) “… I will be a quick witness against the poisoners and against the adulteresses and against the ones swearing (in) My name on/to lie.” (Mal 3:5a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to His people:) ”You will turn next to (Me) and behold ‘upwards middle’/between a righteous and ‘upwards middle’/- a lawless and ‘upwards middle’/between and the one being a slave to God and the one being not a slave.” (Mal 3:18, Greek OT)

(Tobit said to Tobias:) “Give heed to yourself, little boy, (be) from/’far from’ all fornication.” (Tobit 4:12a, BA)

(Tobit said:) “All the nations, the ones in/on the whole earth … will fear God in truth and let all their idols be, the ones leading them astray.” (Tobit 14:6a, S)

The males being cowardly and faithless has run (and run) through/’away from’ the justice of God. (2 Macc 8:13a)

(Solomon said to the Lord:) “You have arranged every thing throughout (with) measure and number and standing-place/balance.” (Wisdom of Solomon 11:20b)

(Solomon said:) “Evil (is) coward, being ‘entirely administered justice’/’given judgment against’ (with) ‘an own’/’itself as a’ witness. (Wisdom of Solomon 17:10a or 17:11:a)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “Woe, cowardly hearts and hands having stood by the side of and a misser (of the mark of God) stepping against, against two paths.” (Sir 2:12)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “A man, a fornicator in a body of his flesh, may not/certainly not cease till/until – according to the circumstances – fire may have burnt (him) out. (For) a man (being) a fornicator, every bread (is) sweet. He may not/certainly not grow tired, till/until he – according to the ciracumstances – may have come to an end.” (Sir 23:16b-17 or 23:17b)

(Baruch said to Jerusalem:) “Cowardly (were) the cities, (in) which your children were slaves. Cowardly the one having received your sons.” (Baruch 4:32)

(Jeremiah said: “The idol) … is false.” (Epistle of Jeremiah v 50a)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “I say to you, that 'every the'/everyone ‘loosening from’/divorcing his woman, besides a saying of fornication, make/cause her commit adultery.” (Matt 5:32a)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "Give heed from/to the false prophets, whoever/who come towards you in clothes of sheep but from inside are rapacious wolves." (Matt 7:15)

(Jesus said:) “O generation, faithless and having been (and being) turned aside, till when shall I be in company with you, till when shall I hold up/’out with’ you?” (Matt 17:17a)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “The king (who gave a wedding banquet) was wrathful and having sent his armies/soldiers he perished those murderers and set their city on fire.” (Matt 22:7)

Jesus uttered to (a lawyer): “You shall welcome your lord God in/with your whole heart and in/with your whole soul and in/with your whole mind.” (Matt 22:37)

Jesus spoke to (His disciples): ”Why are you cowardly? Have you not yet faith?” (Mark 4:40)

Having suffered many things by many physicians and having spent all the things from the side of herself and having been helped nothing however/but rather having/’(the woman who had been in a blood stream for twelve years) had come’ into the/a worse (state). (Mark 5:26)

(Jesus) spoke to (the Pharisees): "You are the ones justifying yourselves in the very eyes of the men, but God has knowledge of your hearts, because the thing (being) high in/among men (is) an abomination in the very eyes of God." (Luke 16:15)

As the barbarians/’not Greeks’ beheld the little wild animal hanging up out of the hand (of Paul), they (continually) said towards one another: “This man is altogether a murderer, whom having been saved throughout out of the sea, the justice did not allow to live.” (Acts 28:4)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "Peace I ‘let ... be’/leave to you. My peace I give to you. Not entirely as the adornment/’adorned world’ gives, I give to you. Let not your heart be troubled, but/and let it not be cowardly." (John 14:27)

The one conquering may not/certainly not be treated unrighteously ‘out of’/’in consequence of’ the second death. (Rev 2:11b, ”Smyrna”)

The rest of the men, who were not killed in these their (P47, א,* א) blows, nor changed their minds out/’in consequence’ of the works of their hands, ‘in order’/so that they will not prostrate themselves (in adoration of) the little demons and the golden idols and the ones of silver and of copper and of stone and of wood, which ‘and not’/neither are able to see, ‘and not’/nor to hear, ‘and not’/nor to walk about. (Rev 9:20)

He (who prostrates himself towards the little wild animal) will be tormented in fire and sulphur in the very eyes of holy messengers and in the very eyes of the little Ram. (Rev 14:10b)

Living (the little wild animal and the false prophet) were thrown into the lake of the fire, the one burning in/with sulphur. (Rev 19:20b)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 - about 1500

"You may not think that it is heard, when it comes a cannibal", Madicken explains to Lisabet who only is five years old and do not understand so much. "He comes sneaking silent, silent in the jungle, where a missionary walks, and - gobble - so the cannibal digs his teeth into him, before the missionary has heard so much as a sound." Lisabet shivers. It is ghastly to behave in that way to a poor missionary having not done anything evil. "That cannibal, he probably never comes to heaven", Lisabet hinks. "No, this you can settle on the slopes of that he will not do", Madicken assures. Lisabet nods contented. But so she begins to ponder. "Yes, this he will do in any case, that wretch", she at last says. "Do what", Madicken wonders. "Comes to heaven, yes, for he of course has the missionary in his stomach, and the missionary must come to heaven, you surely understand?" This also Madicken realizes, and they agree that it is nasty of the cannibal to cheat himself into heaven so insidiously. "But only wait, when God knows what he had done", Madicken says menacingly. "'Pilutta him', then he is turned out", Lisabet says. And then they do not care a bit about the cannibal. (Astrid Lindgren "Madicken och Junibackens Pims" p 10-12; BG Ask-comment: The words "pilutta him' is an own word-formation by the author, perhaps meaning something like "poor little shrimp"; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

(The heathen) must abstain from fornication. It has been said that chastity was the only completely new virtue that Christianity brought into the world. In an impure world the Christian had to be pure. (William Barclay “The Acts of the Apostles” p 116 commenting Acts 15:13-21)

When I served in Kungliga Biblioteket it was openly told for me that the half of Högsta Domstolen was constituted of pederasts. Is it now these who will judge me (in the press-law suit concerning the book "Giftas")? (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev IV 1884" s 335; letter 1884-09-04 to Albert Bonnier; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


about 1500 and time before

All these affections were vile, but chiefly the mad lust (of males) after males. ... For no one, (Paul) means, can say that it was by being hindered of legitimate intercourse that they came to this pass, or that it was from having no means to fulfil their desire that they were driven into this monstrous insaneness. ... Not only was their doctrine Satanical, but their life too was diabolical. ... And a yet more disgraceful thing ... it is, when even the women seek after these intercourses. ... Everything which transgresseth the laws by God appointed, lusteth after monstrous things and not those which be customary. ... They both dishonored nature, and trampled on the laws. ... (The devil) sundered the sexes from one another, and made the one to become two parts in opposition to the law of God. ... And name what sin you will, none will you mention equal to (this) lawlessness. (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers XI:355-357 commenting Rom 1:24-32)

I beseech you flee fornication, and the mother of it, drunkenness. (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers XI:520 commenting Rom 13:11-14)

Among all the castaways, nay, taking precedence of them all, are the fearful. ‘But the fearful,’ says John – and then come the others – ‘will have their part in the lake of fire and brimstone.’ Thus fear, which, as stated in his epistle, love drives out, has punishment. (Tertullianus, The Anti-Nicene Fathers Vol III, p 646)

The way of darkness is crooked, and full of cursing; for it is the way of eternal death with punishment, in which way are the things that destroy the soul, viz., idoltry, over-confidence, the arrogance of power, hypocrisy, double-heartedness, adultery, murder, rapine, haughtiness, transgression, deceit, malice, self-suffiency, poisoning, magic, avarice, want of the fear of God. (In this way, too) are those who persecute the good, those who hate truth, those who love falsehood, those who know not the reward of righteousness, those who cleave not to that which is good, those who attend not with just judgment to the widow and orphan, those who watch not to the fear of God, (but incline) to wickedness, from whom meekness and patience are far off; persons who love vanity, follow after a reward, pity not the needy, labour not in aid of him who is overcome with toil; who are prone to evil-speaking, who know not Him that made them, who are murderers of children, destroyers of the workmanship of God; who turn away him that is in want, who oppress the afflicted, who are advocates of the rich, who are unjust judges of the poor, and who are in every respect transgressors. (Epistle of Barnabas, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol I, p 149)

Although they who were of the circumcision still did not obey the words of God, for they were despisers, yet they were previously instructed not to commit adultery, nor fornication, nor theft, nor fraud; and that whatever things are done to our neighbours' prejudice, were evil, and detested by God. Wherefore also they did readily agree to abstain from these things, because they had been thus instructed. But (the apostles) were bound to teach the Gentiles also this very thing, that works of such a nature were wicked, prejudicial, and useless, and destructive to those who engaged in them. (Irenaeus, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol I, p 495)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Margit Assarsson, Augustinus, Bo Brander, Charles Dickens, E.J. Ekman, Bo Giertz, Carl Grimberg, Astrid Gustafsson, J.P. Jacobsen, Hans Johansson, Lars Levi Laestadius, Lars Lindberg, Claes Lindskog, Martin Luther, Olaus Magnus, Vilhelm Moberg, Petrus M. Nicander, Bruce Nicholls, Fredrik Nielsen, Hedvig Charlotta Nordenflycht, Harald Rasmussen, Arvid Rydén, Carl-Erik Sahlberg, Göran Sahlberg, William Shakespeare, Göran Skytte, John Stott, Einar Thomassen, Rudolf Vrba.


My own comments and speculations:

This is the sixth and last time the lake of the fire and sulphur is mentioned in the Revelation. The number six is the number of imperfection (compare with the abyss in Rev 20:3). In the next verse the word “seven” is dominant (see My own comments and speculations to this verse), and in Rev 21:10 the word “oros” (mountain) occurs the eighth and the last time in the Revelation (cf. Rev 21:7 where we the eighth time have the expression “the one conquering”). The number eight is a symbol of a new age/situation, separated from the preceding.

The “sixth” imperfect situation with the lake of the fire and sulphur (Rev 21:8) is followed by a saying with “sevens” and then by an “eighth” situation with a great and high mountain, from where the apostle beholds a new Jerusalem, the holy city descending out of heaven from God (Rev 21:10). And the Greek word “ouranos” (heaven) here occurs for the 51st time, once more than the number 50, the most perfect number in the old world. The city John beholds represents what is better than the highest point of the old Jerusalem. Compare also with My own comments and speculations to Rev 17:9b-11.

Concerning the 50th day, see My own comments and speculations to John 20:20. Concerning "idolators", see also Rev 9:20. Concerning the lake burning (with) fire”, see also Rev 19:20b. Concerning “fire and sulphur”, see also Rev 14:10b. Concerning ”the second death”, see also Rev 2:11.


Paul said to the believers in Corinth: "Do you not know that unrighteous ones will not inherit a kingdom of God? Do not ‘be led’/go astray! ’And not’/not fornicators and not idolaters and not adulterers and not soft/cowardly ones and not homosexual males and not thieves and not (such) ones urging more, not drunken ones, not insulting ones, not raping ones will not inherit a kingdom of God." (1 Cor 6:9-10)

Little children, watch/'keep ... away' yourselves from the idols. (1 John 5:21)


Greek words:

bdelyssomai (abominate) (in the NT + examples in the OT) Job 15:16; Rev 21:8 – Gen 26:29; Lev 11:11,13; 18:30; Esther 4:17u-w(C26-27); Prov 8:7; Judith 9:4; 1 Macc 1:48; Rom 2:22

deilos (cowardly) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Wisdom of Solomon 17:10(11); Sir 2:12; Baruch 4:32; Mark 4:40; Rev 21:8 – 1 Macc 3:56; Wisdom of Solomon 9:14; Sir 22:18; 37:11; Matt 8:26.

eidôlolatrês (idolater) Rev 21:8 – 1 Cor 5:10-11; 6:9; 10:7; Eph 5:5; Rev 22:15.

pornos (fornicator) Sir 23:16(17); 1 Cor 6:9; Rev 21:8 – Sir 23:17; 1 Cor 5:9-11; Eph 5:5; 1 Tim 1:10; Heb 12:16; 13:4; Rev 22:15.

farmakos (poisoner) (in the NT + examples in the OT) Mal 3:5; Rev 21:8 – Ex 7:11; 9:11; Rev 22:15.

foneus (murderer) Wisdom of Solomon 12:5; Matt 22:7; Acts 28:4; Rev 21:8 – Acts 3:14; 7:52; 1 Pet 4:15; Rev 22:15.


Additional studies:

Ps 140:8-10(9-11); Is 30:33; 1 Macc 1:43; 4:32; Wisdom of Solomon 12:4; Sir 23:23; Epistle of Jeremiah v 72; Matt 10:33; 15:19; 19:9; Mark 12:30; Luke 10:27; John 8:41; 15:6; 20:27; Rom 1:29; 1 Cor 6:10; Gal 5:19-21; Eph 5:6; Tit 1:16; Heb 10:38; Rev 2:2,14,20-21; 9:20-21; 14:8; 17:2; 18:3,9; 21:27; 22:15.


Jan Lambrecht "Final Judgments and Ultimate Blessings: The Climatic Visions of Revelation 20:11-21:8"; Biblica 81 (2000): 362-385.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-08-12; 2012-07-30; 2015-10-29)

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21:9 And one out of the seven messengers, the ones having the seven bowls, the ones being full of the seven last blows, came and talked in company with me, saying: “Come here! I will show you the bride, the woman of the little Ram.”

Word for word (33 words in the Greek text): And came one out-of the seven messengers (of)-the-(ones) having the seven bowls (of)-the-(ones) being-full-of (of)-the seven blows the last and (they)-talked in-company-with me saying: come-here, (i/I)-will-show you the bride, the woman (of)-the little-ram.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

In the seventh day (the king) spoke to … (his) seven eunuchs, the servants of the king … to lead into/in the queen towards him … to show her for all the leaders and her beauty for the nations, because she (continually) was fine/beautiful. And/but (the queen) did not listen to him. (Esther 1:10-12a, Greek OT)


The Latter Revelation:

... Again the slanderer takes (Jesus) to the side of (himself) into/to an exceedingly high mountain and shows Him all the kingdoms of the adornment/’adorned world’ and their glory. (Matt 4:8)

(The slaves of the king said to the ones having been called:) “Come here into the wedding banquets!” (Matt 22:4b)

(The Son of the Man will say:) "Come here, the ones having been (and being) blessed of My Father, inherit the kingdom having been (and being) made ready for you from a foundation of an adornment/’adorned world’." (Matt 25:34b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(John said to his disciples:) “The one having the bride is bridegroom, but the friend of the bridegroom standing and hearing him, rejoices (with) joy because of the voice of the bridegroom.” (John 3:29)

Golden bowls being full of incenses which (א,*א) are (the) (א*) prayers of the holy ones. (Rev 5:8b)

I beheld the seven messengers who stand in the very eyes of God, and seven trumpets were given to them. (Rev 8:2)

(I beheld) seven messengers having seven blows, the last ones, because in them the passion of God was ended. (Rev 15:1b)

No one was able to come into, into the temple, until the seven blows of the seven messengers may be ended. (Rev 15:8b)

One * (א,* א) of the seven messengers, of the ones having the seven bowls, came and talked in company with me saying: “Come here! I will show you the judicial verdict of the great harlot, the one being seated upon many waters.” (Rev 17:1)

We may rejoice and exult and give the glory to Him, because the wedding banquet of the little Ram has come, and His woman has made herself ready. (Rev 19:7)

I beheld the holy city, a new Jerusalem, descending out of the heaven from God (and) having been (and being) made ready as a bride having been (and being) adorned for her male. (Rev 21:2)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: W. Graham Scroggie.


My own comments and speculations:

The Greek word “gemô” (be full of) here occurs the seventh time in the Revelation. This fits the three “sevens” in this verse. The number seven is a symbol of fulfilment. After this a new situation is described. Cf. My own comments and speculations to Rev 21:8.

Concerning “seven messengers”, see also Rev 8:2. Concerning seven bowls”, see also Rev 15:8b. Concerning “bowls, the ones being full of”, see also Rev 5:8b. Concerning Come here! I will show you”, see also Rev 17:1. Concerning “the woman of the little Ram”, see also Rev 19:7.


Additional studies:


Gordon Campbell "Antithetical Feminine-Urban Imagery and a Tale of Two Women-Cities in the Book of Revelation"; Tyndale Bulletin 55.1 (2004): 81-108.

Donald Guthrie "The Lamb in the Structure of the Book of Revelation"; Vox Evangelica 12 (1981): 64-71.

Norman Hillyer "'The Lamb' in the Apocalypse"; The Evangelical Quarterly 39.4 (Oct.-Dec. 1967): 228-236.

Ruben Zimmerman "Nuptial Imagery in the Revelation of John"; Biblica 84 (2003): 153-183.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-08-12; 2012-07-30; 2015-10-30)

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21:10-11a And he carried me away in spirit against a great and high mountain and showed me the holy city, Jerusalem, descending out of the heaven from God, (a city) having the glory of God.

Word for word: 21:10 (25 words in the Greek text): and (he)-carried-away me in spirit against (a)-mountain great and high, and (he)-showed me the city the holy Jerusalem descending out-of the heaven from the god. 21:11a (5 words in the Greek text): having the glory (of)-the (of)-god.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

And Moses ascended . . . against the mountain Nebo, against the top of Pisgah . . . and the Lord showed him the every/whole earth/land . . . which He had sworn (to give) Abraham and Isaac and Jacob. (Deut 34:1a,4a; Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) “Give light, give light Jerusalem, for your light arrives, and the glory of the Lord sticks (and has stuck) up against you. Behold, darkness and dusk will veil earth against nations. But the Lord will ‘bring to’/give light against you, and His glory will be beheld against you.” (Is 60:1-2, Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) “In a beholding God led me into the earth/land of Israel and put/set me upon an extremely high mountain and upon it (there was) as if (it was) an act of building, a city from opposite (the mountain).” (Ezek 40:2, Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) “Behold, the glory of the God of Israel came (continually) ... towards upstickings/east. (Ezek 43:2a, Greek OT)

(The sons of Israel) took beforehand down/up all the tops of the high mountains. (Judith 4:5a)


The Latter Revelation:

... Again the slanderer takes (Jesus) to the side of (himself) into/to an exceedingly high mountain and shows Him all the kingdoms of the adornment/’adorned world’ and their glory. (Matt 4:8)

Having ‘loosened up ... from’/dismissed the crowds, (Jesus) ascended into/to the mountain to pray ‘according to’/concerning (the) own (thing). (Matt 14:23a)

(Jesus) carries (Peter, James and John) up into/to a high mountain ‘according to’/concerning (the) own (thing). (Matt 17:1b)

Having gazed into the heaven (Stephen) beheld a glory of God, and Jesus standing out of the right (parts) of God. (Acts 7:55b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Jesus said to the Jews:)This One is the bread, the one descending out of the heaven, in order that a certain one may eat out of it and not die. I am the living bread, the one having descended out of the heaven. (John 6:50-51a)

(Jesus said:) “This weakness is not towards/’in regard to’ death, however/but in favour of the glory of God, in order that the Son of God may be glorified through it.” (John 11:4b)

(The court) has and/namely (P47, א*) been given to the nations. And they will tread the holy city (for) forty-two months. (Rev 11:2b)

He carried me away in spirit into a desolate (district). (Rev 17:3a)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

Switzerland is glorious country where one gets on well! Silent and still. No vanity! Joyfull and kind men! (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev IV 1884" p 77; letter 1884-03-13 to the brother Axel Strindberg; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Håkan Bengtsson, August Bondeson, Magnus Jacob Crusenstolpe, P. Fjellstedt, Axel Forsström, Bo Frid, Johan Hagner, Bengt Hägglund, Erik Johannesson, Viktor Johansson, Arthur Koestler, Fredrik Nielsen, Efraim Palmqvist, Olof Petersson, Laurence Rees, Viktor Rydberg, Håkan Sjögren, Jesper Svartvik, Johan Turi.


My own comments and speculations: See My own comments and speculations to Rev 21:8.

Concerning “carried me away in spirit”, see also Rev 17:3a. Concerning “the holy city”, see also Rev 11:2b. Concerning “descending out of the heaven”, see also John 6:45-51a. Concerning “the glory of God”, see also John 11:3-5.


Greek words:

(h)ypselos (high) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Judith 4:5; Matt 17:1; Rev 21:10 – Judith 2:24; 3:6; 5:1; 7:4; 16:6; 1 Macc 4:60; 6:7,40; 9:50; 13:33; 2 Macc 8:30; Sir 24:4; 50:2; Baruch 2:11; 3:25; 5:5,7; Matt 4:8; Mark 9:2; Luke 16:15; Acts 13:17; Rom 11:20; 12:16; 1 Tim 6:17(א,*א); Heb 1:3; 7.26; Rev 21:12.


Additional studies:

Ex 40:34; 1 Kings 8:10-11; Is 58:8; Ezek 43:5; Heb 12:22; 13:14; Rev 1:10.


W.B. Barrick "What do we really know about 'high-places'?"; Svensk Exegetisk Årsbok 45 (1980): 50-57.

Richard J. Bauckham "The Role of the Spirit in the Apocalypse"; The Evangelical Quarterly 52.2 (1980): 66-83.

Gordon Campbell "Antithetical Feminine-Urban Imagery and a Tale of Two Women-Cities in the Book of Revelation"; Tyndale Bulletin 55.1 (2004): 81-108.

Paul B. Decock "The Scriptures in the Book of Revelation"; Neotestamentica 33.2 (1999): 373-410.

J.A. du Rand "The imagery of the heavenly Jerusalem (Revelation 21:9-22:5)"; Neotestamentica 22.1 (1988): 65-86.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-08-13; 2012-07-30; 2015-10-30)

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21:11b Its luminary (was) like a most valuable stone, as a jasper stone being transparent as rock crystal ...

Word for word (10 words in the Greek text): the luminary its like (a)-stone most-valuable as (a)-stone (of)-jasper being-transparant-as-rock-crystal.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The Lord said to Jerusalem:) “I will put/make your parapets (of) jasper and your gates of stones/blocks of rock crystal and your surrounding wall of chosen stones.” (Is 54:12, Greek OT)

(The man set/clothed in linen said to the prophet:) “The ones perceiving/understanding will ‘bring to’/give light as luminaries of the heaven.” (Dan 12:3a, Greek OT)

(Baruch said to Jerusalem:) “God will show your lustre for every thing underneath heaven.” (Baruch 5:3)


The Latter Revelation: Jesus was transformed in front of (James, John and Peter), and His face shone as the sun. (Matt 17:2a)

(Some said) on account of the sanctuary, that it was (and had been) adorned (with) fine stones and consecrated gifts. (Luke 21:5a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

The One being seated (is) like a jasper stone and a carnelian (in) beholding, and (there are) priests (א*,A) in a circle from the throne, like of emerald (in) beholding. (Rev 4:3)

‘in the very eyes of’/before the throne (there is) as a sea of crystal, like rock crystal. (Rev 4:6a)

(Continually) the woman was (and had been) wrapped up in purple and scarlet and was (and had been) gilded (with) gold (א,* א) and valuable stone and pearls. (Rev 17:4a)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: Ruth Elliot, Martin Luther, Folke Nordangård.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “valuable stone”, see also Rev 17:4a. Concerning “jasper stone”, see also Rev 4:3.


Greek words: krystallizô (be transparent as rock crystal) Rev 21:11. Cf. krystallos Rev 4:6a.

fôstêr (luminary) (in the NT + examples in the OT) Dan 12:3; Rev 21:11 – Gen 1:14,16; Wisdom of Solomon 13:2; Sir 43:7; Phil 2:15.


Additional studies:

1 Chron 20:2; Rev 21:18-19,23.


J.A. du Rand "The imagery of the heavenly Jerusalem (Revelation 21:9-22:5)"; Neotestamentica 22.1 (1988): 65-86.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-08-13; 2012-07-30; 2015-10-31)

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21:12 ... having a great and high wall having twelve gateways and on/in the gateways (were) twelve messengers. And their (א,*א) names having been (and being) written (א,*א), which are the ones * (א,* א) of the twelve tribes of (the) sons of Israel.

Word for word (25 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus prima manus): having (a)-wall great and high, having gateways twelve and on/in the gateways messengers twelve and names their having-been-(and-being)-written, which is/are (of)-the-(ones) twelve (of)-tribes (of)-sons (of)-Israel.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The sons of Israel except Joseph were) in the gateway of the house (of Joseph). (Gen 43:19b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Moses:) “The stones (will be) ... twelve ‘according to’/after the names (of the sons of Israel), carved (as) seals, ... everyone ’according to’/after the name ... (of) twelve tribes.” (Ex 28:21, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said:) “The Lord welcomes the gates of Zion over/’more than’ all the dwelling-tents of Jacob.” (Ps 87:2, Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) “In that time they will sing this song upon earth of Judas, saying: “Behold a firm city, and a wall, and/namely a wall around, will put/cause our means of saving. Open gates, let a people watching righteousness and watching truth come into (the city).” (Is 26:1-2, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Jerusalem:) “I will put/make your parapets (of) jasper and your gates of stones/blocks of rock crystal and your surrounding wall of chosen stones.” (Is 54:12, Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) “Behold, a surrounding wall ‘from outside of’/outside the house in a circle from/around.” (Ezek 40:5a, Greek OT)

(In the temple) the width of the gateway was ten cubits. (Ezek 41:2a, Greek OT)

The gates of the city (were made) on/’for the sake of’ names of tribes of Israel, three gates towards ‘north wind’/north … Towards upstickings/east … three gates … towards ‘south wind’/south … three gates … towards sea/west … three gates. (Ezek 48:31-34a, Greek OT)

They built the city of David (with) a great and firm wall. (1 Macc 1:33a)

They built in that seasonable time high walls ‘in a circle from’/’all around’ the mountain of Zion. (1 Macc 4:60a)


The Latter Revelation: The slanderer takes (Jesus) to the side of (himself) into the holy city. And he caused Him to stand against the little wing of the sanctuary. (Matt 4:5)

Jesus spoke to (His disciples): ”Amen I say to you that/: ‘You, the ones having followed Me in the regeneration, when the Son of the Man may – according to the circumstances – sit down upon His throne of glory, and/also you yourselves (א,*א) will be seated against twelve thrones, judging the twelve tribes of Israel.’” (Matt 19:28)

Having come out into the gateway (Peter) beheld another (young girl/’female slave’). (Matt 26:71a)

Having taken (Paul) his disciples let him go down through (an opening in) the wall. (Acts 9:25a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

However I have few/’a few’ things ‘down from’/against you, because you have (some) there ‘getting power over’/embracing the teaching of Balaam who taught * (א*) to throw/lay a stumbling block in the very eyes of the sons of Israel, to eat things sacrificed to idols and to fornicate. (Rev 2:14)

I heard the number of the ones having been (and being) sealed, one hundred and forty-four of the number of one thousand having been (and being) sealed out of every tribe of (the) sons of Israel. (Rev 7:4)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: Einar Adell, Erika André, Gunnar Bolin, Göran Dahlbäck, Carl Grimberg, Dick Harrison, Bo E. Karlson, Sven Larsson, Sigurd Lindgren, Thede Palm, Lewi Pethrus, Henry M. Stanley, August Strindberg, P. Waldenström, Göran Åberg, Lars Ågren.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “twelve tribes of (the) sons of Israel”, see also Rev 7:4-8. Concerning “sons of Israel”, see also Rev 2:14-15.


Greek words:

pylôn (gateway) (in the NT + examples in the OT) Gen 43:19; Ezek 41:2; Matt 26:71; Rev 21:12 – Judges 18:16-17; 19:26; 1 Kings 6:33; 14:27; 1 Chron 19:9; 2 Chron 12:10; Luke 16:20; Acts 10:17; 12:13; 14:13; Rev 21:13,15,21,25; 22:14.

teichos (wall) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) 1 Macc 1:33; 4:60; Acts 9:25; Rev 21:12 – Tobit 1:17; 13:12(14),16(17); Judith 1:2; 7:32; 14:1,11; 1 Macc 6:7; 9:50,54; 10:11,45; 12:36-37; 13:10,33,45; 14:37; 2 Macc 3:19; 5:5; 6:10; 10:17,35; 11:9; 12:13-15,27; 14:43; Sir 49:13; 2 Cor 11:33; Heb 11:30; Rev 21:14-15,17-19.


Additional studies:

Gen 3:24; Ex 28:9,11; 39:14; Sir 44:23; Luke 4:9; Rev 21:15,21,25; 22:14.


J.A. du Rand "The imagery of the heavenly Jerusalem (Revelation 21:9-22:5)"; Neotestamentica 22.1 (1988): 65-86.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-08-13; 2012-07-30; 2015-10-31)

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21:13 From upsticking/east three gateways and from ‘north wind’/north three gateways and from ‘south wind’/south three gateways and from settings/west three gateways.

Word for word (19 words in the Greek text): from upsticking gateways three and from north-wind gateways three and from south-wind gateways three and from settings gateways three.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

The gates (of the house of God) (continually) were ‘according to’/opposite the four winds, ‘according to’/opposite upstickings/east, sea/west, ‘north wind’/north, ‘south wind’/south. (1 Chron 9:24, Greek OT)

The gates of the city (were made) on/’for the sake of’ names of tribes of Israel, three gates towards ‘north wind’/north … Towards upstickings/east … three gates … towards ‘south wind’/south … three gates … towards sea/west … three gates. (Ezek 48:31-34a, Greek OT)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said:) “(Men) will arrive from upstickings/east and settings/west and * (א,*א,A) ‘north wind’/north and ‘south wind’/south and lean up/back in the kingdom of God.” (Luke 13:29)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: Ingvar Andersson, Håkan Håkansson, Vilhelm Moberg, Bertil Nilsson, Einar Persson, Martha Sandwall-Bergström, A.M. Strinnholm.


Greek words:

borras (‘north wind’/north) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Luke 13:29; Rev 21:13 – Judith 16:3; Sir 43:17,20.

dysmê (setting/west) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Luke 13:29; Rev 21:13 – Tobit 1:2; Judith 1:7; 2:6,19; 5:4; Baruch 4:37; 5:5; Matt 8:11; 24:27; Luke 12:54.

notos (‘south wind’/south) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Luke 13:29; Rev 21:13 – Judith 2:23,25; 7:18; 1 Macc 3:57; 5:65; Sir 43:16; Matt 12:42; Luke 11:31; 12:55; Acts 27:13; 28:13. An alternative translation of “notos” is “south-west wind”, which is the best translation of the word in the Greek OT.


Additional studies:


J.A. du Rand "The imagery of the heavenly Jerusalem (Revelation 21:9-22:5)"; Neotestamentica 22.1 (1988): 65-86.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-08-13; 2012-07-30; 2015-11-01)

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21:14 And the wall of the city (was) (א*) twelve bases and upon them (were) twelve names of the twelve apostles of the little Ram.

Word for word (17 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus prima manus): and the wall (of)-the (of)-city bases twelve and upon them twelve names (of)-the twelve apostles (of)-the (of)-little-ram.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

Elijah took twelve stones ’according to’/after a number of the tribes of Israel, as the Lord had talked towards him saying: “Israel shall be your name.” And he built the stones in name of the Lord. (1 Kings 18:31-32, Greek OT)

(God) made two shares of inheritance, one to the people of God and one to all the nations. (Esther 10:3gb/F7b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) “Behold, I throw/lay in, into the bases of Zion, an expensive stone, a chosen, noble top cornerstone into its bases, and the one believing on/in it will not/certainly not be put to shame.” (Is 28:16b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Babylon:) “They may not/certainly not take from you … a stone into/’purposed for’ a base.” (Jer 51:26a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) ”I shall dispatch out a fire against Judas, and it will ’eat down’/consume bases of Jerusalem.” (Amos 2:5, Greek OT)

(The king) based the breadth (of the wall) into/’purposed for’ 60 cubits. (Judith 1:3b)

(Solomon said to the Lord:) “You have arranged every thing throughout (with) measure and number and standing-place/balance.” (Wisdom of Solomon 11:20b)

(The wall of the temple) was based (with) a double height. (Sir 50:2a)


The Latter Revelation:

The names of the twelve apostles are these: (Matt 10:2a)

Jesus spoke to (His disciples): ”Amen I say to you that/: ‘You, the ones having followed Me in the regeneration, when the Son of the Man may – according to the circumstances – sit down upon His throne of glory, and/also you yourselves (א,*א) will be seated against twelve thrones, judging the twelve tribes of Israel.’” (Matt 19:28)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “'Every the'/everyone coming towards Me and hearing My sayings and making/doing them, I will underneath/secretly show you whom he is like. He is like a man building a habitation, who dug and deepened and put/laid a base against the rock.” (Luke 6:47-48a)

(The ones having received Peter's saying continually) 'were being patient'/adhered to the teaching of the apostles and the communion, to the fragmenting/breaking of the bread and the prayers. (Acts 2:42)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(The city had) a great and high wall having twelve gateways and on/in the gateways (were) twelve messengers. And their (א,*א) names having been (and being) written (א,*א), which are the ones * (א,*א) of the twelve tribes of (the) sons of Israel. (Rev 21:12)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

I have conditionally promised this newspaper that some time write about my memories from two general strikes, and how I discovered what helpless, superfluous luxaries we nonworkers are, and how the whole society with culture, with the flowers art, poetry and sterile erudition, only exist in mercy, in their mercy being the bases and the walls. (August Strindberg "Människans Rättigheter i ett civiliserat och kristet samhälle" p 184-185; Social-Demokraten 1912-01-22; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

I do not sign my name in blank under what I do not know what it will contain. There's nothing to prevent that it can be written a praise of the campaign of (Maximilian Harden) against Christianity, and I hold as You know Christianity as one of the bases of our Western culture. (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev XIV 1901-mars 1904" p 209; letter 1902-09-08 to Emil Schering; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

In a foreign country were the twelve tribes born, the race of Israel, inasmuch as Christ was also, in a strange country, to generate the twelve-pillared foundation of the church. (Irenaeus, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol I, p 493)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Galileo Galilei, Bo Giertz, Pär Lagerkvist, Martin Luther, Viktor Rydberg, Birgit Th Sparre, John Stott.


My own comments and speculations:

The twelve apostles represent the Christian Church in a way which no other christian can do, and have therefore their own place in the new Jerusalem. Perhaps it is in this light we must see the tension beginning in Christianity in connecion with the death of the apostle Peter. How would his successors in Rome - Linus, Anacletus and Clemens - behave to the still living apostle John? Had Peter an authority standing over the other apostles? Had therefore also his successors, who not belonged to the twelve apostles, an authority which could be maintained against John? With other words, was Peter the first one of the twelve, but still one of these ones, or was he an apostle standing over the other apostles, one which could be seen as the vicar of Christ? In the Revelation no special place is given to Peter in the new Jerusalem. The twelve apostles stand out as placed side by side. Concerning the tension between the apostle John and other authorities in the Church, compare the tension between Diotrephes and John in 3 John v 9-10.


Greek words:

themelios/themelion (base) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Luke 6:48; Rev 21:14 – Judith 16:15; Sir 1:15; 3:9; 10:16; 16:19; 50:15; Luke 6:49; 14:29; Acts 16:26; Rom 15:20; 1 Cor 3:10-12; Eph 2:20; 1 Tim 6:19; 2 Tim 2:19; Heb 6:1; 11:10; Rev 21:19.


Additional studies:

Job 38:4; Ps 24:2; 102:25(26); Prov 3:19; Matt 7:25; Acts 1:26; Eph 3:17; Col 1:23; Heb 1:10; 1 Pet 5:10.


C.K. Barrett "The Apostles in and after the New Testament"; Svensk Exegetisk Årsbok 21 (1956): 30-49.

A.S. Geyser "Jesus, the Twelve and the twelve tribes in Matthew"; Neotestamentica 12.1 (1978): 1-19.

D. Mathewson "A Note on the Foundation Stones in Revelation 21.14,19-20"; Journal for the Study of the New Testament 25.4 (2003): 487-498.

J.A. du Rand "The imagery of the heavenly Jerusalem (Revelation 21:9-22:5)"; Neotestamentica 22.1 (1988): 65-86.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-08-13; 2012-07-30; 2015-11-01)

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21:15 And the one talking in company with me (continually) had a measure, a golden reed, in order that he might measure the city and its gateways and its wall.

Word for word (21 words in the Greek text): And the-(one) talking in-company-with me (continually)-had (a)-measure (a)-reed golden, in-order-that (he)-might-measure the city and the gateways its and the wall its.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

Behold a male … and in his hand ... a measure reed, and he stood upon/at the gate (of the temple). (Ezek 40:3b, Greek OT)

In the hand of the male (was) a reed. The measure (was) six cubits and in/with a cubit of a wrestler. And he measured the forewall throughout, a breadth equally (with) the reed and its height equally (with) the reed. And he came into, into the gateway. (Ezek 40:5b-6a, Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) “Behold, a male and in his hand a little land-surveyingrope. And I spoke towards him: “Where do you go?” And he spoke towards me: “To measure Jerusalem throughout.” (Zech 2:1b-2a, Greek OT)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “In/with what measure you measure, it will be measured to you.” (Matt 7:2b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

Jesus spoke (to) (the one who had been blind but now saw): "And you have beheld (and behold) (the Son of the Man) and the One talking in company with you, that One it is." (John 9:37)

It was given me a reed like a rod, saying: “Rise and measure the temple of God and the sacrificial altar and the ones prostrating themselves in/at it.” (Rev 11:1)

(The city had) a great and high wall having twelve gateways and on/in the gateways (were) twelve messengers. (Rev 21:12a)


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “the city and its gateways and its wall”, see also Rev 21:12.


Additional studies:

Ezek 40:48; Rev 21:21,25.


Paul B. Decock "The Scriptures in the Book of Revelation"; Neotestamentica 33.2 (1999): 373-410.

Daniel M. Swanson "Expansion of Jerusalem in Jer 31:38-40: Never, Already, or Not Yet"; The Master's Seminary Journal 17.1 (Spring 2006): 17-34.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-08-13; 2012-07-30; 2015-11-02)

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21:16 And the city lies quadrangular, and its length (is) * (א,* א) as much/great as the breadth. And he measured the city (with) the reed, upon/’with regard to’ stadia, twelve of the number of one thousand, the length and the breadth and its height is equal.

Word for word (33 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus): and the city quadrangular lies and the length its as-much-as the breadth. and (he)-measured the city (with)-the reed upon stadia twelve (of)-the-number-of-one-thousand, the length and the breadth and the height its equal is.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(God said to Noah:) “Make for yourself a(n) chest/ark quadrangular out of woods/’pieces of wood’ … And in this way you shall make the chest/ark: the length of the chest/ark three hundred cubits and the breadth fifty cubits and its height thirty cubits.” (Gen 6:14a,15, Greek OT)

In a middle of the house (of the temple) ‘from inside’/within, there David (gave/placed) the chest/ark of a covenant of the Lord, (and this room had) a length of twenty cubits and a breadth of twenty cubits and and its height (was) twenty cubits. (1 Kings 6:19b-20a, Greek OT)

(The king) made sacrificial altars for himself in every corner in Jerusalem. (2 Chron 28:24b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to His people:) ”A city shall be built against the height (of Jerusalem) … (Jer 30:18b, Greek OT)

In the hand of the male (was) a reed. The measure (was) six cubits and/namely in/with a cubit of a wrestler. And he measured the forewall althrough, a breadth equally (with) the reed and its height equally (with) the reed. And he came into, into the gateway. (Ezek 40:5b-6a, Greek OT)

The hearth of God/’the sacrificial altar’ (shall be) quadrangular, twelve cubits of/in length against twelve cubits of/in breadth … (Ezek 43:16b, Greek OT)

The measures/mesurements (of Jerusalem shall be) these: From the ones towards ‘north wind’/north 4500 (cubits) and from the ones towards ‘south wind’/south side 4500 (cubits) and from the ones towards upstickings/east 4500 (cubits) and from the ones towards sea/west 4500 (cubits). (Ezek 48:16, Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) “Behold, a male and in his hand a little land-surveyingrope. And I spoke towards him: “Where do you go?” And he spoke towards me: “To measure Jerusalem throughout.” (Zech 2:1b-2a, Greek OT)

They built the city of David (with) a great and firm wall (with) firm towers, and it became for them into/to a border/castle. (1 Macc 1:33)

The walls of Jerusalem (would be) heightened still more and a great height be heightened ‘upwards middle’/between the border/castle and the city 'into the thing'/to separate (the border/castle) altogether (from) the city, ... so that (the men in the border/castle) neither might buy nor sell. (1 Macc 12:36a)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “You are the light of the adornment/’adorned world’. A city lying above a mountain is not able to be hidden/concealed, (is it)? (Matt 5:14)

Jesus says to (the priest leaders and the elders): “Did you nor at any time read in the writings: ‘A stone which the ones building rejected … is wondrous in our eyes?’” (Matt 21:42)

(Zacharias said:) "'An upsticking'/'a sunrise' will inspect us out of a height." (Luke 1:78b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

I beheld four messengers standing against the four corners of the earth. (Rev 7:1a)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

Song of Song R 7:5 … says that Jerusalem will be enlarged until it reaches the gates of Damascus and exalted until it reaches the throne of God. (J. Massyngberde Ford "Revelation" p 334)

The thought that there is a land above resembling this in fact beautiful earth, makes me overjoyed, for to directly go over to an endless land has gone me against the grain. . . . Strabo meant that the big pyramid was so wonderful that it had to be immersed from heaven. It is as a crystal of alum or Ammoniacalum. Job: XXXVIII and XXVI are regarded to indicate the pyramid; also Leviticus' XIX 35-37 where God says that he himself has given measure, capacity and weight, which as we know were settled by the pyramid. (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev XI maj 1895-nov 1896 p 271-272; letter 1896-07-18 to Torsten Hedlund; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Tage Aurell, Viktor Johansson, Lewi Pethrus.


My own comments and speculations:

Twelve thousand stadia are about 1500 English miles. The distance from Jerusalem to Damascus (cf. Exegetes, evangelists and others above) is about 100 English miles longer, that is about the same distance. However, with this comparison I do not maintain that the number twelve thousand could not be symbolic.

Usually the exegetes imagine, that the city in its measures is like a cube. But an alternative interpretation, which I mean is to prefer, is to see the height as a kind of high mountain (cf. Rev 21:10). The original text can very well be rendered in the light of for example Jer 30:18 (a height in the city) or 1 Macc 12:36 (a height outside the city). At the same time it is probable that there is an allusion to the inner room of the house of the temple (cf. 1 Kings 6:19-20). Compare also with the measures of the wall in Rev 21:17.


Greek words:

mêkos (length) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Rev 21:16 – Judith 1:2; 7:3; Eph 3:18.

tetragônos (quadrangular) (in the NT + examples in the OT) Gen 6:14; Ezek 43:16; Rev 21:16.

(h)ypsos (height) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Judith 16:7; 1 Macc 12:36; Luke 1:78; Rev 21:16 – Judith 1:2; 7:10; 13:20; 16:7; 1 Macc 1:40; 10:24; Sir 1:3; 16:17; 17:32; 46:9; 50:2; 51:19; The Prayer of Manasseh v 9; Luke 24:49; Eph 3:18; 4:8; Jas 1:9.


Additional studies:

Ex 27:1-2; 28:16; 30:2; 39:9; 1 Kings 7:34; Job 1:19; Matt 5:14; 6:5; Mark 12:10; Luke 20:17.


J.A. du Rand "The imagery of the heavenly Jerusalem (Revelation 21:9-22:5)"; Neotestamentica 22.1 (1988): 65-86.

Daniel M. Swanson "Expansion of Jerusalem in Jer 31:38-40: Never, Already, or Not Yet"; The Master's Seminary Journal 17.1 (Spring 2006): 17-34.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-08-14; 2012-07-30; 2015-11-02)

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21:17 And he measured its wall, a hundred and forty-four cubits, a measure of a man, which is of a messenger.

Word for word (14 words in the Greek text): and (he)-measured the wall its, a-hundred forty four cubits (a)-measure (of)-(a)-man, which is (of)-(a)-messenger.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The bed of Og) ... in the border/castle of the sons of Ammon, its length (was) nine cubits and its width four cubits in a cubit of a male. (Deut 3:11b, Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) “Behold, a surrounding wall ‘from outside of’/outside the house in a circle from/around. And in the hand of the male (was) a reed. The measure (was) six cubits and/namely in/with a cubit of a wrestler.” (Ezek 40:5a, Greek OT)

These are the measures of the sacrificial altar in a cubit of the cubit and/namely of a wrestler. (Ezek 43:13a, Greek OT)

(The king) made the height of the wall seventy cubits and its breadth fifty cubits. (Judith 1:2b)

The flame (continually) had/reached throughout against/'up to' 49 cubits above the furnace. (The Prayer of Azariah v 24)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “In/with what/the measure you measure, it will be measured to you and it will be ‘put to’/added to you.” (Mark 4:24b)

(Jesus said: "The ones being thought entirely worthy to reach ... the resurrection out of dead bodies) are not any longer able to die, for they are sons of the resurrection, equal (with) messengers, being sons of God." (Luke 20:36)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

The rowers/servants came so towards the priest leaders and Pharisees, and those say (P66, א,* א) to them: “Because of what did you not lead/bring Him?” The rowers/servants answered: “’Nor at any time’/never has a man talked in this way as this One, the Man, talks (P66,א*)!” (John 7:45-46)

Jesus came so out outside, wearing the thorny crown and the purple garment. And He says to them: “Behold, the Man!” (John 19:5)

I heard the number of the ones having been (and being) sealed, one hundred and forty-four of the number of one thousand having been (and being) sealed out of every tribe of (the) sons of Israel. (Rev 7:4)

It is a number of a man, * (P47, א,* א) six hundred and sixtysix (א,* א: feminine). (Rev 13:18b)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: Lennart Davidsson, Hans Larsson, E. Melander, Erich Sauer, Mikael Tellbe.


My own comments and speculations:

In the Prayer of Azariah v 24 it is said, that the flame reached 49 cubits = 7 times 7 or (3 + 4) times (3 + 4). Here in Rev 21:17 the height of the wall is 144 cubits = 12 times 12 or (3 times 4) times (3 times 4).


Additional studies:


J.A. du Rand "The imagery of the heavenly Jerusalem (Revelation 21:9-22:5)"; Neotestamentica 22.1 (1988): 65-86.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-08-14; 2012-07-30; 2015-11-03)

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21:18 And a (א*) building material of its wall (continually) was (א*) jasper, and the city (was/consisted of) clean/pure goldmetal like clean/clear crystal.

Word for word (15 words in the Greek text): and (continually)-was (a)-building-material (of)-the (of)-wall its jasper and the city goldmetal clean like crystal clean.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The Lord said to Moses:) “You shall gild (the ark) down/entirely with clean/pure goldmetal, ‘from outside’/outside and ‘from inside’/inside you shall gild it.” (Ex 25:11a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Moses:) “You shall make a lampstand out of clean/pure goldmetal.” (Ex 25:31a, Greek OT)

(Moses said to Israel:) “If you – according to the circumstances – may build a new habitation, you shall and/also make a wreath/parapet for your building.” (Deut 22:8, Greek OT)

(Job said:) “Goldmetal and crystal will not be equal (with wisdom).” (Job 28:17a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Jerusalem:) “I will put/make your parapets (of) jasper.” (Is 54:12a, Greek OT)

(The prophet said about Jerusalem:) “… The goldmetal will be/become tarnished!” (Lam 4:1a, Greek OT)

The towers of Jerusalem will be built (with) goldmetal and their ramparts (with) clean/pure goldmetal. ... (Tobit 13:16b or 13:17b, S)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His apostles:) “What you hear into the ear, proclaim upon the buildings.” (Matt 10:27b)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Do not let the one upon the building descend to lift/’take away’ the thing (א*)/property out of his habitation.” (Matt 24:17)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

I give you counsel to buy from the side of Me goldmetal 'having been (and being) caused to glow'/'having glown (and glowing)' out of fire, in order that you may be rich. (Rev 3:18a, "Laodicea")

The One being seated (is) like a jasper stone and a carnelian (in) beholding. (Rev 4:3a)

‘In the very eyes of’/before the throne (there is) as a sea of crystal, like rock crystal. (Rev 4:6a)

The luminary (of new Jerusalem was) like a most valuable stone, as a jasper stone being transparent as rock crystal. (Rev 21:11b)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

There is a City of Gold Far from the rat race that eats at your soul Far from the madness and the bars that hold There is a City of Gold. ... There is a City of Light Raised up in the heavens and the streets are bright Glory to God - not by deeds or by might There is a City of Light. ... ... There is a City of Peace Where all foul forms of destruction cease Where the mighty have fallen and there are no police There is a City of Peace. ... ... I'm heading for the City of Gold Before it's too late, before it gets too cold Before I'm too tired, before I'm too old I'm heading for the City of Gold. (Bob Dylan "City Of Gold" p 434; 1980)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Alf Ahlberg, Dick Harrison, Richard Newton, Göran Palm, Patrik Reuterswärd, Bertrand Russell, Sven Edvin Salje, Isaac Basjevis Singer.


Greek words:

endômêsis (building material) Rev 21:18. Usually this word, which does not occur elsewhere in the Bible, is spelt “endomêsis”. So John chooses an “ô” rather than an “o”. Cf. My own comments and speculations to Rev 4:9a.

(h)yalos (crystal) Job 28:17; Rev 21:18 – Rev 21:21.


Additional studies:

2 Chron 3:4-8; Jer 6:28-30; Ezek 13:10-12; 40:13; Mark 13:15; Luke 5:19; 12:3; 17:31; John 13:10; Acts 10:9.


D. Mathewson "Assessing Old Testament Allusions in the Book of Revelation"; The Evangelical Quarterly 75.4 (Oct.-Dec. 2003): 311-325.

J.A. du Rand "The imagery of the heavenly Jerusalem (Revelation 21:9-22:5)"; Neotestamentica 22.1 (1988): 65-86.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-08-14; 2012-07-30; 2015-11-03)

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21:19-20 And (א*) the bases of the city wall having been (and being) adorned (with) every valuable stone. The first base jasper, the second sapphire, the third chalcedony, the fourth emerald, the fifth sardonyx, the sixth carnelian, the seventh chrysolite, the eighth beryl, the ninth topaz, the tenth chrysoprase, the eleventh hyacinth, the twelfth of (א*) amethyst.

Word for word: 21:19 (25 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus prima manus) and the bases (of)-the (of)-wall (of)-the (of)-city (with)-every stone valuable having-been-(and-being)-adorned. the base the first jasper, the second sapphire, the third calcedony, the fourth emerald, 21:20 (24 words in the Greek text) the fifth sardonyx, the sixth carnelian, the seventh chrysolite, the eighth beryl, the ninth topaz, the tenth chrysoprase, the eleventh hyacinth, the twelfth of-amethyst.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

Underneath the feet (of God there was) as if a work of brick of sapphire and just as a form/kind of a firmament of the cleanliness/purity of the heaven. (Ex 24:10b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Moses:) ”You shall weave down/entirely a web in (the breast-shield of the judgments) (with) stone down/entirely (in) four rows; a row of stones shall be carnelian, topaz and emerald, the row the one; and the second row: coal and sapphire and jasper; and the third row: amber and agate and amethyst; and the fourth row chrysolite and little beryl and onyx; being (and having been) veiled/covered around (with) goldmetal.” (Ex 28:17-20a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Jerusalem:) “I will make ... your bases ready (in regard to) sapphire.” (Is 54:11b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to the king of Tyre:) "In the delicacy of the ‘place by the side of apprehension’/Paradise of God you became. And 'to be (and have been)'/'you were (and had been)' set/clothed in every beneficial stone: 'Carnelian and topaz and emerald and coal and sapphire and jasper and silvermetal and goldmetal and amber and agate and amethyst and chrysolite and little beryl and onyx.'" (Ezek 28:13a, Greek OT)

(Tobit said:) “The doors of Jerusalem will be built (with) sapphire and (with) emerald and all your walls (with) a valuable stone. The towers of Jerusalem will be built (with) goldmetal and their ramparts (with) clean/pure goldmetal.” . . . (Tobit 13:16b or 13:17b, S)


The Latter Revelation:

Having sat down entirely opposite the treasury (Jesus) (continually) looked at how the crowd throws copper into the treasury. (Mark 12:41a)

On someones’ saying on account of the sanctuary, that it was (and had been) adorned (with) fine stones and consecrated gifts, (Jesus) spoke (to His disciples): “(Concerning) these things which you look at, days will come in which it/there shall not be ‘let be’/left stone on stone here (א,* א, B) which will not be loosened down/up.” (Luke 21:5-6)

Making temples of silver (Demetrius continually) did not offer/bring ‘a few’/little occupations/business to the artists. (Acts 19:24b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

The One being seated (is) like a jasper stone and a carnelian (in) beholding, and (there are) priests (א*,A) in a circle from the throne, like of emerald (in) beholding. (Rev 4:3)

(Jerusalem's) luminary (was) like a most valuable stone, as a jasper stone being transparent as rock crystal. (Rev 21:11b)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

It is uncertain what is meant by the term (“chalkêdôn”) in Rev. (Walter Bauer "A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature" p 874)

The evening came on very quickly in Kirjath-Arim or the guardian city, for the day and the night up here did not last more than six hours. . . . The hills consisted of granite, but as seen through magnifying glass and polarized light, so that the otherwise small crystals appeared n larger scale and in broken up colours. The gleaming seemed as big mountains of gold and silver; the quartz as light blue or rosy-red hexagons and the meat-coloured felspar in clusters marked with lines. And the simplest varieties of stone presented an eternally varying sight for the eye; admixed grains of the worthless hornblende seemed as precious stones in reed-green and deep purple, the banal olivine in faint yellow as turmeric or saffron thistles. . . . There was a steep mountain of the deep, strong Burgundy-coloured garnet, the most beautiful purple being given and which exceeds the faint superficial ruby of the pigeon-blood colour. On the garnet-rock, with its strong iron-colour, oaks got on well, but of more noble kind and of a height as the highest cathedrals. The base topaz, which is more beautiful than the noble, because it has a softened down yellow Sauterne-tone, in a minor key or mellow, which is more beautiful than major or harsh, formed another height, and on this one gigantic magnolias grew with their white-violet flowers in beautiful contrast to the yellow variety of stone. A glen was shut with two ridges of white marble overgrown with fruit-trees being in bloom, and in the marble veins of mountain-fine silver were seen. . . . In the bottom of the glen a mountain chain was seen in the distance of the chaste amethyst, perhaps the sweetest of all stones which one makes light of. . . . But highest of all heights a mountain rose, on one side steeply, on the other side a little slanting with huts and vineyards, and the mountain consisted of rock crystal. On its plateau an endlessly large building lay which was a group of palaces, temples, castles, convents, museums, libraries, porticoes, gardens, all of it built by the purest varieties of stone, alabaster and white marble, agates, beryl or aquamarine, garnet, topaz, amethyst, turquoises. But there was no malachite with its verdigris earth which is poisonous, neither the green or black marble, nor any of the cyanogen-blue, turbid, ochrous or rusty ones. And the building-stones were not joined with lime, sand or clay, but rivet together with bolts of the two pure metals, gold and silver, but the platinum, a variety of aluminium, was, as that, metal counted among the alkaline earths and was impure. . . . On all sides the sea was seen, which slowly undulated against shores of aquamarine-stone, so that the water and the shore seemed to have borrowed the colour from one another. (August Strindberg "Armageddon - Början till En Roman" p 102-103; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

The Cabbalistic stone is the Amethyst. It has always been my stone, which has infatuated me, and I at last got one a year ago (but pledged in Paris for 3 Francs). Amethyst (faintly violet) and Zinc-yellow were my life-colours when I painted. Were also the colours of my first wife, colours which suited best. (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev XI maj 1895-nov 1896" p 281; letter 1896-07-20 to Torsten Hedlund; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

(Mrs. Falk) dusted the ink-pot of agate, lay the penholder of silver on the turtleshell-holder, turned the seal with the holder of chrysoprase so that the impress of bourgeois would not be seen. . . . The director lent (Rehnhjelm) his big middle finger with the ring of cornelian saying: Welcome! (August Strindberg "Röda rummet" p 143,169; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Miss Lovisa Lagerlöf used to cloth brides. . . . She also had inherited all the bride-show which in the course of time had been gathered in Mårbacka. She owned a big old cupboard, where she in one of the drawers kept long necklaces with pearls of glass, coral or amber. . . . all kinds of broaches, bracelets and shoe clasps of brass and which were set with false rubies, amethysts and sapphires. . . . But when Miss Lovisa now clothed brides, then she had not to use the old bride-show. Now it would be a little , thin crown of myrtle and a little, thin garland, also of myrten, and a large, white veil, and this almost was all of it. Sometimes she could fasten a red silk band slender-waisted on the smooth, black woolen clothing and golden broach, golden chain, golden bracelet and golden watch she used to lend to her brides in order to light up the simplicity a little. (Selma Lagerlöf "Mårbacka" p 124-125; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

I took my hymn-book and opened it with a mood of festival in my soul seeing a woodcut - and I see it still, faithful kept in my memory. It represents king David himsel by Kidron or by the river of Jordan, he plays a psalm for the Lord with joy, the contour in the distance is the height of Zion. - It was artistically a strangely thing in Lundström's manner, from his workshop, the one of the old Lundström in Jönköping. . . . But then, what beauty I saw in it! With what colours on the hour my trembling imagination of devotion had coated the blurred ground! What meads of sapphire and what blue mountains! King David's strings have the colour of the sun, there from the harp sparks spring forth, which sound and ring and at last die in the mighty roar of the billows of the organ. To the strokes of the harp I heard the voice of the crowned son of Isai. . . . I heard his voice in the song of the people: "my saved soul will some time swing itself to the heavenly mountain, where the harps of the angels ring." I looked at my leaf, how the contour of the mountain in the bath of the sun rose towards the azure; I heard and saw of the multitude of larks a jubilant procession to a blessed mead. My longing also got a pair of wings and soared, she also, in the flock of larks towards Zion shining in ether clear. (Viktor Rydberg "Träsnittet i psalmboken" p 20-22; depicted time: 1838-1845; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Carl Jonas Love Almqvist, Innokentij Annenskij, Konstantin Balmont, Hilding Fagerberg, P. Fjellstedt, Gustave Flaubert, John Galsworthy, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Maksim Gorkij, Maria Gripe, Alf Henrikson, Johannes V. Jensen, Oscar Krook, Ulla Linder, Harriet Löwenhjelm, Harry Martinson, Kerstin Midnäs, Olaf Moe, Folke Nordangård, Hedvig Charlotta Nordenflycht, Efraim Palmqvist, Harald Rasmussen, Nelly Sachs, Bo Setterlind, William Shakespeare, Karl Erik Steneberg, Hjalmar Söderberg, Einar Thomassen, Anton Tjechov, Arwid Wickström, Gustaf Wikner, Arne Wirdenäs.


My own comments and speculations:

In the Bible the Greek words sapfiros (sapphire; cf. the usual spelling “sapfeiros”), chalkêdôn (chalcedony), sardonyx (sardonyx) and chrysoprasos (chrysoprase) only occur here in Rev 21:19-20 and can as new words/spellings be connected with a new Jerusalem.

The word “sapphire” in Greek is spelt “sapfeiros”, but John spells it “sapfiros”. It is quite possible, that we here have an allusion to Tobit 13:17 “stone (Greek: “lithô/lithos”) out of Ophir (Greek “Soufir”) and perhaps also to the name Sappfira (Sapfira) in Acts 5:1.

The Greek word “chalkêdôn” (chalcedony) only occurs here in the Bible. The word can possible have a Synoptic background in the words “chalkion” (Mark 7:4; cf. 1 Sam 2:14) and “chalkos” (Matt 10:9; Mark 6:8; 12:41; cf. Rev 18:12).

The Greek word “sardonyx” can allude to “onyx” (cf. Ex 28:17-20 and Ezek 28:13). The Greek word “chrysoprasos” can allude to “chrysos” (gold).

We can (and probably should) read Rev 21:20 in a restoration perspective. In Ex 28:17 and in Ezek 28:13 carnelian is enumerated as the first stone, emerald as the third one and jasper as the sixth stone. Here in Rev 21:20 jasper i enumerated as the first stone (this first stone probably can be the one shining in Rev 21:11), emerald as the fourth and carnelian as the sixth stone. Jasper, emerald and carnelian also get the total perfect number seven if one of the two Ex 28:17 and Ezek 28:13 is added up with Rev 21:20. Both the Law and the Prophets is perfected in a new Jerusalem. Furthermore, it is worth noting that it is just the three named stones – jasper, carnelian and emerald – which also are mentioned in Rev 4:3, which give a hint, that the number seven is followed by the number eight, the number characterizing a new age.


Greek words:

amethystos (amethyst) Ex 28:19; Ezek 28:13; Rev 21:20 – Ex 36:19.

bêryllos (beryl) Tobit 13:17; Rev 21:20.

dôdekatos (twelfth) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Rev 21:20 – Esther 2:16; 3:7,13,13f(B6); 8:12,12s(E20); 9:1; Judith 1:1; 2 Macc 15:36.

enatos (ninth) (in the NT + one example in the Apocrypha) Rev 21:20 – 1 Macc 4:52; Matt 20:5; 27:45-46; Mark 15:33-34; Luke 23:44; Acts 3:1; 10:3,30.

endekatos (eleventh) (in the NT + one example in the Apocrypha) Rev 21:20 – 1 Macc 16:14; Matt 20:6,9.

sappfiros/sapfeiros (sapphire) (in the NT + examples in the OT) Ex 24:10; 28:18; 39:11; Is 54:11; Ezek 28:13; Tobit 13:16; Rev 21:19 – Job 28:6,16; Song of Solomon 5:14; Lam 4:7. See My own comments and speculations.

sardonyx (sardonyx) Rev 21:20. See My own comments and speculations.

smaragdos (emerald) (in the NT + examples in the OT) Ex 28:17; 39:10; Ezek 28:13; Tobit 13:16(17); Rev 21:19 - Ex 28:9; Judith 10:21; Sir 32:6.

topazion (topaz) Ex 28:17; 39:10; Ezek 28:13; Rev 21:20 – Job 28:19; Ps 119:127.

(h)yakinthos (hyacinth) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Rev 21:20 – 1 Macc 4:23; Sir 45:10.

chalkêdôn (chalcedony) Rev 21:19. See My own comments and speculations.

chrysolithos (chrysolite) Ex 28:20; Ezek 28:13; Rev 21:20 - Ex 36:20.

chrysoprasos (chrysoprase) Rev 21:20. See My own comments and speculations.


Additional studies:

Ex 39:11; 2 Chron 3:6; Is 54:12; Sir 50:9; Matt 10:9; Mark 6:8; John 17:24; Acts 5:1.


D. Mathewson "A Note on the Foundation Stones in Revelation 21.14,19-20"; Journal for the Study of the New Testament 25.4 (2003): 487-498.

D. Mathewson "Assessing Old Testament Allusions in the Book of Revelation"; The Evangelical Quarterly 75.4 (Oct.-Dec. 2003): 311-325.

J.A. du Rand "The imagery of the heavenly Jerusalem (Revelation 21:9-22:5)"; Neotestamentica 22.1 (1988): 65-86.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-08-14; 2012-07-30; 2015-11-04)

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21:21 And the twelve gateways (were) twelve pearls, ‘one everyone’/’each one’ of the gateways (continually/-) was upwards/throughout out of one pearl. And the street of the city (was) clean/pure goldmetal, as transparent crystal.

Word for word (25 words in the Greek text):and the twelve gateways twelve pearls, upwards one everyone (of)-the (of)-gateways (continually)-was out-of one pearl. and the street (of)-the (of)-city goldmetal clean as crystal transparent.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The Lord said to Jerusalem:) “I will put/make your parapets (of) jasper and your gates of stones/blocks of rock crystal and your surrounding wall of chosen stones.” (Is 54:12, Greek OT)

The streets of Jerusalem will be (paved with mosaic with) beryl ... and stone out of Ophir. (Tobit 13:17, BA)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “You may not change ... a genuine brother in/for goldmetal of Ophir.” (Sir 7:18)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "The kingdom of the heavens is like * (א*, B) a trader seeking fine pearls, but/and having find one much valuable pearl (and) having gone away he has disposed (and disposes) all things as many as he (continually) had, and he bought it." (Matt 13:45-46)

Having come the ones (hired) around the eleventh hour took/got upwards/each a denarius. But (א,* א) the first ones adopted as a law, that they will/would take/get more (denarii) (א,* א). And/but they took upwards/each the denarius and/also they. (Matt 20:9-10)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

‘In the very eyes of’/before the throne (there is) as a sea of crystal, like rock crystal. (Rev 4:6a)

(The city had) a great and high wall having twelve gateways and on/in the gateways (were) twelve messengers. And their (א,* א) names having been (and being) written (א,* א), which are the ones * (א,* א) of the twelve tribes of (the) sons of Israel. (Rev 21:12)

The city (was/consisted of) clean/pure goldmetal like clean/clear crystal. (Rev 21:18b)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: Martin Buber, Alexander Daumont, Charles Dickens, Bo Frid, Thorbjörn Gunnarsson, Alice Hulting, Olaus Magnus, Vilhelm Moberg, Johan Ludvig Runeberg, Ragnar Samuelson, Harry Sjöman, A.M. Strinnholm, Jesper Svartvik, Kerry Usher, P. Waldenström.


My own comments and speculations:

According to Sir 7:18 the streets of Jerusalem will be paved among other things with stone of Ophir. And Ophir was famous because of its gold. Cf. the OT-references in “Additional studies”.

Concerning “clean/pure goldmetal”, see Rev 21:18.


Greek words:

diaugês (transparent) Rev 21:21.


Additional studies:

1 Kings 9:28; 10:11; 22:49; 1 Chron 29:4; 2 Chron 8:18; 9:10; Job 28:16; Ps 45:9(10); Is 13:12; John 6:67,70; 13:10; Rev 17:4; 21:15,25.


J.A. du Rand "The imagery of the heavenly Jerusalem (Revelation 21:9-22:5)"; Neotestamentica 22.1 (1988): 65-86.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-08-14; 2012-07-30; 2015-11-05)

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21:22 And I did not behold a temple in it, for the Lord God, the All-powerful, is its temple and the little Ram.

Word for word (19 words in the Greek text): And (a)-temple not (i/I)-beheld in it, 'the for lord the god'/'for the Lord God' the all-powerful temple its is and the little-ram.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

They will no longer speak “The chest/ark of the holy covenant of Israel”. ... In/at that seasonable time they will call Jerusalem: “Throne of the Lord.” (Jer 3:16b-17a, Greek OT)

The temple of the resting-place of God was made holy and was built in (Jerusalem) into/for all the generations of the age. (Tobit 1:4b, S)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “To the Lord they heightened up a holy temple having been (and being) made ready into/for a glory of an age.” (Sir 49:12b)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said about the sanctuary:) “Here may not/certainly not be ‘let be’/left stone against stone, which will not be loosened down/up.” (Matt 24:2b)

Having stood up some (continually) were false witness ‘down from’/against (Jesus), saying that/: "We heard Him saying: 'I will loosen down/up this temple, the one made by hand, and through/during three days I will build another not made by hand.'" (Mark 14:57-58)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

Jesus says to (the woman): “Believe Me, woman, that an hour comes, when you ‘and not’/neither in/on this mountain ‘and not’/nor in (a disgraced) Jerosolyma/Jerusalem will prostrate yourselves (before) the Father (in honour of Him).” (John 4:21)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

I bring the reader into the big unknown city. It is night, but from a huge tower, competing in height with Cheops' pyramid, an electric sun spreads its bluewhite shine over the enormous housemasses and the surroundings. . . . In front of us there is a broad, straight-lined street, which collonades perspectively meet in the background. High palaces on both sides. Throng of people in the streets, but the men seem to sneak with soundless steps. All this in bluewhite illumination. We wander forward and reach an extensive open place, where spring sources throw rains of pearls, shimmering in the colours of the rainbow. . . . Above all our attention is called to a giant building in the background, a building resembling a temple. . . . A man greets us kindly saying: " . . . What does the city seem to you? Allow me to remark, that if you have come here to look at this eighth wonder - at these words he pointed to the building like a temple - in this case you have chosen your time pretty well, for its bigness is best displayed in the artificial shine of our nightly sun. . . . It is the widely known temple of the Matter. . . . The enormous cupola is a symbol of the circulation of the matter." "Aha, it was remarkable", I said. "Does one conduct service in this church?" "Yes, certainly", the man answered, "and do you want to visit such a service, so follow me. It begins just now, for the midnight hour has come. You will hear a sermon by professor Athan, the great scientist." . . . The background of the nave formed a sanctuary with altar; here the starlight could not force its way, but it got its own light from one over the altar placed sun, which flickering beams, like the ones of the northern lights, still only were able to dispel the shadows from its nearest surroundings. . . . Suddenly the first tones of a glorious song were sounded through the vault. . . . What I was astonished at was that the ones as a matter of fact disconsolated and dreadful words, which the song contained, were set in a melody, which by no means answered to the content, for it was extremely sweet. It caressed and enchanted in order to the more sure be able to open the otherwise refractory heart for the doctrine itself. It reminded of those capsules, in which the doctors give us bitter medicine. We do not feel the bitterness, when we take the medicine, but once having reached its decided place the capsule dissolves, and the remedy immediately works in all its sharpness. . . . (In the next song) I recognized the following words, swelling through the temple on the wings of a giddy and storming melody: "What tomorrow is going to you, do not ask! Enjoy happy-go-lucky the while, The fate now grants you, and do not, boy, shun the nectar of grape, the amusements of love and the frenzy of dance." I looked round about at the hearers, who were nearest me, and discovered an odd contrast between the exhortation of this high-spirited song and their faces. Their eyes looked as gloomy as usual. Nevertheless the song did not seem to be without influence: they listened to it, and I read in the face of many a decision in despair to live after its philosophy. . . . The opening speech (of the sermon) was: No force without matter, no matter without force. The words were to read with one of the holy authors of the materialism . . . I now do not remember the name, as little as I recall the chapter and the verse. They were interpreted extraordinarily well and easily comprehensible, and out of this dogma, which seemed to be the fundamental doctrine of materialism, the speaker derived with sharpest consequence the thesis that nothing supersensual has existence, that everything is matter, that the soul of man consequently only is the flower of the bodily organism, the flame of the wick, which goes out as soon as it has been burnt down. . . . The ones demanding or hoping for a personal existence after death, the speaker called the worst egoists, who the world has brought forth, and in comparison with these irreligious men he described the pious materialist, who enjoys the life which nature has presented him, as long as it reaches, and after that without murmuring - for murmuring still is to no use - gives back to nature its loan. (Viktor Rydberg "Stenmänniskan" p 192-199; translation from the Swedish text. BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Krister Hanell, Martin P:n Nilsson, Paul Wern.


My own comments and speculations:

This is the seventh and last time we in the Revelation have an expression with the words “Lord”, “God” and “All-powerful”. Cf. Rev 1:8; 4;8; 11:17; 15:3; 16:7 and 19:6.

Observe the contrast between the All-powerful God and the little Ram.


Additional studies:

2 Kings 25:8; 2 Macc 14:35; John 20:28; Heb 9:8; Rev 7:15.


R.J. Korner "'And I saw . . .' An Apocalyptic Literary Convention for Structural Identification in the Apocalypse"; (the journal) Novum Testamentum 42.2 (2000): 160-183.

J.A. du Rand "The imagery of the heavenly Jerusalem (Revelation 21:9-22:5)"; Neotestamentica 22.1 (1988): 65-86.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-08-15; 2012-07-30; 2015-11-06)

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21:23 And the city has not need of the sun, nor of the moon, in order that they may ‘bring ... to’/give it light, for the glory of God has given it light, and its lamp (is) the little Ram.

Word for word (27 words in the Greek text): and the city not need has (of)-the sun nor (of)-the moon in-order-that (they)-may-bring-to-light it, the for glory (of)-the (of)-god gave-light it, and the lamp its the little-ram.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(David said to God:) "You will give my lamp light, Lord, my God, You will give my darkness light." (Ps 18:28(29), Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) “Give light, give light Jerusalem, for your light arrives, and the glory of the Lord sticks (and has stuck) up against you. Behold, darkness and dusk will veil earth against nations. But the Lord will ‘bring to’/give light against you, and His glory will be beheld against you.” (Is 60:1-2, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Jerusalem:) “The sun will not for you be into/’pruposed for’ a light of a day, nor an upsticking of a moon will give you light (during) the night. However the Lord will for you be an agelong light, and God your glory. For the sun will not set for you, and the moon will not ‘leave out’/disappear for you, for the Lord will for you be an agelong light, and the days of your grief will be ‘completed upwards’/upcompleted.” (Is 60:19-20, Greek OT)

It will be one (unique) day, and that day (is) known to the Lord, and (it is) not day and not night, and towards evening it/there will be light. (Zech 14:7, Greek OT)

A shining light will shine into all the goals/ends of the earth. (Tobit 13:11a or 13:13a, S)

(Solomon said:) “I ‘took ... for myself before’/preferred (wisdom) in stead of ‘to have’/having light (of the sun), because the splendour (is) nonsleeping out of this/wisdom. (Wisdom of Solomon 7:10b)

(Solomon said: “Wisdom) is a reflection of an eternal light.” (Wisdom of Solomon 7:26a)

(Solomon said: “Wisdom) is more comely than sun and (has) a putting/placing over ‘every of’/all constellations. Being judged together with light it is found former, for night indeed receives/succeeds throughout to this one, but badness is not entirely stable (against) wisdom.” (Wisdom of Solomon 7:29-30)

(Baruch said to Jerusalem:) “Just as the outstanding women of Sion now have beheld (and behold) your captivity, in this way they will in/with quickness behold your saving from the side of God, which will come on you in company with great glory and greatest lustre of the Agelong One.” (Baruch 4:24)

(Baruch said:) “God has ‘arranged together’/systematized to humble every high mountain and inexhaustible mound and (that) ravines (shall) be completed into/’for the purpose of’ a levelling of the earth, in order that Israel may advance in a securely way (with) the glory of God. ... For God will be Israel in command in company with cheerfulness (in) the light of His glory together with mercy and righteousness by the side of Him.” (Baruch 5:7,9)

Sun and moon and stars being shining and dispatching away against needs ‘are well-hearing’/’obey willingly’. (Epistle of Jeremiah v 59a)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples: “Straightaway after the great oppression) the sun will be gloomed, and the moon will not give its splendour, and the stars will fall out of (א,* א) the heaven, and the abilities/powers of the heavens will move to and fro.” (Matt 24:29b)

(Jesus said to the crowd:) "If so your whole body (is) bright, having not any dark part, it will be wholly bright, as when the lamp – according to the circumstances – may give you light (with) the ray of light." (Luke 11:36)

Having gazed into the heaven (Stephen) beheld a glory of God, and Jesus standing out of the right (parts) of God. (Acts 7:55b)

The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven: (The light) (continually) was the true light, which gives light to every man coming into the adornment/'adorned world'. (John 1:9)

(Jesus said to the Jews: “John the Baptist) (continually) was the lamp being burning and ‘bringing to’/giving light, but/and you wanted towards/’in regard to’ an hour exult in its light.” (John 5:35)

His sight/countenance ‘brings to’/gives light as the sun (א,*א) in its ability. (Rev 1:16b)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 - about 1500

The wild geese followed Tabergsån (through Norrahammar and Hovslätt) down towards Munksjön (in Jönköping) . . . and went first over Munksjö paper-mill. . . . "Where are you going to? Where are you going to?" a worker cried. The wild geese did not understand what he said, but the boy answered in stead of them: ""There, where there are neither machines, nor steam boilers." . . . "Let us accompany!" a whole multitude of them cried. - "Not this year", the boy answered. "Not this year." Next the geese went up over the renowned match factory. . . . "Where are we going to?" (a woman worker cried). . . . (The boy answered:) "To the land, where it neither is needed light or matches." . . . She cried answering: "Let me accompany! Let me accompany!" - "Not this year", the boy answered. "Not this year." (Selma Lagerlöf "Nils Holgerssons underbara resa genom Sverige" p 211-212; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Among the travellers to Jerusalem there was a smith being called Birger Larsson. He had all time been very pleased at the journey. None of them had had so easy to separate from the home as he, and no one had as he rejoiced to be allowed to see the glory of Jerusalem. . . . Birger now turned his eyes to the direction, where Jerusalem would lie. It seemed, as if he then could not take his eyes off it. (Selma Lagerlöf "Jerusalem II" p 236-237; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

I take the Edda reading Canticle of the Sun, time and again and do not read it as other people but let the fancy go off searching illustrations to it. . . . Or to learn to find examples of what blessedness is. When it is said in it that the holy ones ar rewarded with . . . to be allowed to lie and straighten themselves out on beds, where the soft mattresses are upholstered with sunbeams (in stead of straw) . . . I really like that heaven. (Selma Lagerlöf "Du lär mig att bli fri - Selma Lagerlöf skriver till Sophie Elkan" p 27; letter 1894-09-10; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

I bring the reader into the big unknown city. It is night, but from a huge tower, competing in height with Cheops' pyramid, an electric sun spreads its bluewhite shine over the enormous housemasses and the surroundings. . . . A man greets us kindly saying: " . . . What does the city seem to you? Allow me to remark, that if you have come here to look at this eighth wonder - at these words he pointed to the building like a temple - in this case you have chosen your time pretty well, for its bigness is best displayed in the artificial shine of our nightly sun. . . . The background of the nave formed a sanctuary with altar; here the starlight could not force its way, but it got its own light from one over the altar placed sun, which flickering beams, like the ones of the northern lights, still only were able to dispel the shadows from its nearest surroundings. . . . While I approached the altar, I had had my eyes directed above there towards the sun like the northern lights and to my surprise had found, that the same at nearer viewing did not resemble a son, but rather the corolla of a sensitiva, trembling as at the contact by an intrusive hand. While I still viewed this sun or corolla, its dull light turned pale in exchange for a much more intense, which suddenly had blazed up. The temple servants, clothed in white, had around the altar lit artificial fires, which with the most white light illuminated everything around me. The stars in the cupola went out, the pale faces of the men became paler. (Viktor Rydberg "Stenmänniskan" p 192-200; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


about 1500 and time before

Deep in the Christian time among Scandinavians the idea lived that their heathen fathers believed in the existence of an Eden, from which sorrow, pain, defects, old age, illness and death were shut out. This Eden was called . . . "Not field of dead ones . . . earth of living men". It was situated not in heaven, but down there, neither on the surface of the earth, nor in the nether world, but separated from the built-up countries of men in a way, which did it not impossible, but nevertheless extremely venturesome to come there. A fairy-tale from the fourteenth century, taken up in the Flatö-book, and with some corrections in "Fornald. Sag. III", tells: Erik, the son of a Norwegian king of a little country, one Christmas Eve gave the promise to visit Odains-aker, and this rumour became known over all Norway. In company with a Danish prince, who also was called Erik, he first went to Miklagård (Constantinople), which king took the young men in his service and had much use of their warlike competence. One day the king conversed in believed questions with the Norwegian Erik with the consequence that the king left the faith of his fathers letting baptize himself. He told his royal teacher the promise he has given to seek out Odains-aker . . . asking him, if he knew, where it was situated. The king thought, that Odains-aker was the same place which the Christians call Paradise, saying that it was situated to the east beyond the districts farthest out, but that nobody is likely to come there, because it is shut off with a wall of fire reaching up to the sky. However Erik was bound by his promise and went on the journey with his Danish namesake. . . . On the bridge of stone (over a river) a dragon lay with open jaws. . . . When Erik and his compatriot had been swallowed by the dragon, they thought themselves enveloped in smoke, but it was dispersed, and they were unhurt seeing in front of them the large plain sunlit and flower shrouded. Rivers of honey flew there, the air was still, but nearest the ground breathes were noticed, which brought around the sweet smell of the flowers. It never is dark in this country, and the objects do not throw any shadow. But the country seemed to be depopulated. However at a distance they saw a tower. In that direction they continued to go, and they found, when they had come nearer, that the tower stood free in the air without foundation or posts. A ladder brought up to it. In the tower there was a room, arrayed with velvet, and there was a beautiful table with delicious dishes on silver plates and wine in golden drinking-vessels. There also were excellently made beds. The two men now were convinced that they had come to Odains-aker and they thanked God that they had achieved their goal. They refreshed themselves and went to sleep. In the sleep a beautiful boy came to Erik. The boy mentioned him by name, said himself be one of the angels watching the gate-way of Paradise, and also Erik's guardian angel, who was at his side, when he gave the promise to seek out Odains-aker. . . . The angel informed him that Odains-aker . . . where he now stayed was not the same place as Paradise, for to this only spirits are allowed to come, and this is the kingdom of spirits, Paradise, so glorious, that Odains-aker, in comparison with it, is as a waste. Nevertheless these two different districts border next to each other, and the river, which Erik had seen, has in Paradise its spring. (Viktor Rydberg "Mythen om underjorden" p 235-237; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

As those who see the light are within the light, and partake of its brilliancey; even so, those who see God are in God, and receive of its splendour. But (His) splendour vivifies them; those, therefore, who see God, do receive life. (Irenaeus, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol I, p 489)

In Messianic times God would ... kindle for (Israel) the Great Light, and the nations of the world would point to them, who had lit the light for Him Who lightened the whole world. But even this is not all. The Rabbis speak of the original light in which God had wrapped Himself as in a garment (Ber.R.3), and which could not shine by day, because it would have dimmed the light of the sun. From this light that of the sun, moon, and stars had been kindled (Bemidb.R.15). It was now reserved under the throne of God for the Messiah (Yalk. on Is.lx), in Whose days it would shine forth once more. (Alfred Edersheim "The Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah Part II" p 166)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Bo Brander, Jacob Frese, Homeros, Thomas Kingo, Amy Le Feuvre, Vilhelm Moberg, Alfred Nilsson, Pansy, Bo Setterlind, William Shakespeare, Isaac Basjevis Singer, Milton Steinberg, Fredrik Wislöff, Elin Wägner.


And this is the message which we have heard (and hear) from Him and (which) we bring up a message to you, that God is light and (that) gloom is not ‘not anything’/’at all’ in Him. (1 John 1:5)

The one welcoming his brother stays in the light, and it/there is not a/any stumbling block in him. (1 John 2:10)


Additional studies:

Is 24:23; Rev 21:25; 22:5.


Paul B. Decock "The Scriptures in the Book of Revelation"; Neotestamentica 33.2 (1999): 373-410.

J.A. du Rand "The imagery of the heavenly Jerusalem (Revelation 21:9-22:5)"; Neotestamentica 22.1 (1988): 65-86.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-08-15; 2012-07-30; 2015-11-07)

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21:24 And the nations will walk about through/’by means of’ its light, and the kings of the earth will carry their glory into it.

Word for word (19 words in the Greek text): and will-walk-about the nations through the light its, and the kings (of)-the (of)-earth will-carry the glory their into it.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The king of the Chaldeans) carried all the heaps/treasures of (the) king (of Judas) and of great men into, into Babylon. (2 Chron 36:18b, Greek OT)

(David said to God:) “From/’owing to’ Your temple against/’up to’ Jerusalem kings will carry gifts to You.” (Ps 68:29b or 68:30b, Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) “It will be/happen in the last days … (that) all the nations will arrive against (the mountain of the Lord and the house of God of Jacob). And many nations will go and speak: ‘Come here and we may ascend into/to the mountain of the Lord and into the house of God of Jacob.’” (Is 2:2-3a, Greek OT)

(The prophet said to Jerusalem:) ”Kings will go (in) your light and nations (in) your lustre. … Riches of ... nations and peoples will arrive to you.” (Is 60:3a,5b, Greek OT)

The kingdom and the (judicial) authority and their magnificense and the beginning of all the kingdoms underneath the heaven (the judgment) gave to a holy people of a Highest One to be kings (over) an agelong kingdom, and all (judicial) authorities will arrange themselves to Him and obey Him. (Dan 7:27, Greek OT)

Upon/’with regard to’ the last days the mountain of the Lord will be conspicuous ... and peoples haste towards it. Many nations will go and speak: "Come here, let us ascend into/to the mountain of the Lord ... because law will come out, out of Zion and a saying of the Lord out of Jerusalem.” (Micah 4:1-2, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) “All the nations ... will arrive (with) all the chosen things of the nations. And I will fulfil this house (with) glory. … “ (Haggai 2:7b or 2:8b, Greek OT)

This is what the Lord, (the) All-powerful says: “Many peoples will still arrive (in Jerusalem) ... and many peoples and many nations will seek out the face of the Lord.” (Zech 8:20-22a, Greek OT)

Many nations will arrive from afar ... towards the holy name of the Lord God. (Tobit 13:11b or 13:13a BA)

What kind of nation has not inherited/’come into possession of’ (the) kingdom of (Jerusalem) and got power (over) its spoils? (1 Macc 2:10)

(Jonathan) went into Ptolemais in company with glory ... and he gave (the kings) silvermetal and goldmetal and to their friends many gifts. (1 Macc 10:60a)


The Latter Revelation:

(The soothsayers) carried to (Jesus) gifts; gold and olibanum/frankincense and myrrh. (Matt 2:11b)

(Jesus said:) “What does it seem to you, Simon? From whom do the kings of the earth take ends/toll or tax, from their sons or from the aliens?” (Matt 17:25b)

(The blind said:) “I see the men, because I behold (them) walking about as trees.” (Mark 8:24b)

(Jesus said to the Pharisees and the Herodians:) “Carry a denarius to Me in order that I may behold.” … But Jesus spoke to them: “Give back to Caesar the things (that are) Caesar's.” (Mark 12:15b,17a)

(Simeon said: "My eyes have beheld) a light into a revelation of nations and a glory of Your people Israel." (Luke 2:32)

The slanderer spoke to (Jesus): “I will give You this (judicial) authority, all of it, and their glory.” (Luke 4:6a)

(The brothers in a disgraced Jerosolyma/Jerusalem said to Paul: ”Jews believing and having believed say, that you teach the nations not to) walk about (by means of) the customs.” (Acts 21:21b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

In (the Saying) is (א,*א) life, and the life (continually) was the light of the men. (John 1:4)

Every (nation?) which the Father gives Me will arrive towards Me, and the one coming towards Me I may not/certainly not throw out * (א*), because I have descended (and descend) out of (א,*א) the heaven, not in order that I might make/do My will, however/but the will of the One having sent Me, *(א*) in order that every (nation?) which He has given (and gives) Me, (that) I may not perish out/’in consequence’ of it, however/but (that) I may cause it to stand up in/on the last day. (John 6:37-39)

Again Jesus so talked (with the Pharisees), saying: “I am the light of the adornment/’adorned world’. The one following Me may not/certainly not walk about in the gloom, however/but will have the light of the life.” (John 8:12)

And the sixth (messenger) poured out his bowl against the river, the great * (א,* א) Euphrates. And its water was dried, in order that the way of/for the kings, the ones from ‘an upsticking of a sun’/east, might be made ready. (Rev 16:12)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

It is practically impossible to copy a manuscript without making a mistake. ... In most cases ... errors can be easily corrected. ... Worst case of all is when the scribe disagree with what he sees in the text, and deliberately alters the text to suit his own understanding of orthodoxy. So, where the Seer of the Apocalypse wrote in Rev. 21.24 that 'the nations shall walk in the light of' the heavenly city, some less genrous-hearted scribe turned it into 'the nations of them which are saved' - and you will find this error in your Authorized Version. (Stephen Neill "The interpretation of the New Testament 1861-1961" p 62-63)

To (Christ) shall be given of the gold of Arabia. (Justin Martyr, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol I, p 211)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Carl Grimberg, Krister Hanell, Verner von Heidenstam, Eyvind Johnson, Olaf Moe, Martin P:n Nilsson, Anna Maria Roos, Isaac Bashevis Singer, Alexander Solsjenitsyn, Milton Steinberg.


My own comments and speculations:

Rev 21:24b can in a restoration perspective be read in the light of 2 Chron 36:18b. Earthly treasures which an earthly king and great men once carried into Babylon are now replaced by the heavenly glory which earthly kings carry into the new Jerusalem.


And this is the message which we have heard (and hear) from Him and (which) we bring up a message to you, that God is light and (that) gloom is not ‘not anything’/’at all’ in Him. (1 John 1:5)


Additional studies:

Ps 72:10-11; Is 10:14; 45:14; 49:23; 60:11; 61:6; Jer 3:17; Joel 3:4-5; Tobit 14:6; 1 Macc 11:24; 2 Macc 3:2; 5:16; John 12:35; Rev 21:26; 22:2.


D. Mathewson "The Destiny of the Nations in Revelation 21:1-22:5: A reconsideration"; Tyndale Bulletin 53.1 (2002): 121-142.

J.A. du Rand "The imagery of the heavenly Jerusalem (Revelation 21:9-22:5)"; Neotestamentica 22.1 (1988): 65-86.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-08-15; 2012-07-30; 2015-11-08)

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21:25 And its gateways may not/certainly not be shut (during) day, night will for/certainly not to be there.

Word for word (13 words in the Greek text): and the gateways its not/certainly not may-be-shut day, night for not (it)-will-be there.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

The gates (of Jerusalem) will be opened ‘through every’/continually, day and night they will not be shut. (Is 60:11a, Greek OT)

It will be one (unique) day, and that day (is) known to the Lord, and (it is) not day and not night, and towards evening it/there will be light. (Zech 14:7, Greek OT)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(The four living beings) have not rest, day and night saying: “Holy, holy, holy, holy, holy, holy, holy, holy (א*) the Lord God, the All-powerful, the One who (continually) was and the One who is and the One who comes.” (Rev 4:8b)

… (These being wrapped up in the white dresses) serve (God) day and night in His temple. (Rev 7:15a)

The accuser of our brothers has been thrown (out), he accusing them in the very eyes of our God day and night.” (Rev 12:10b)

Day and night they have not rest, the ones prostrating themselves (towards) the little wild animal (in adoration of it) and (towards) its image (in adoration of it) and if anyone takes the mark of its name. (Rev 14:11b)

And the city has not need of the sun, nor of the moon, in order that they may ‘bring ... to’/give it light, for the glory of God has given it light, and its lamp (is) the little Ram. (Rev 21:23)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

First (beyond the boundary of time) the beginning and the end are met. Then no holy times are more needed, nor any temporary tabernacles, tempels or churches. Then all boundary is away. Then the eighth day dawns, the last and the greatest day of this age, or if you so want, the first day in the new. That day never turns into night. (Göran Larsson "Tid för Gud, Judiska och kristna perspektiv på de judiska högtiderna" p 174; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Dodik did not left me alone. "No, be silent", he said. "Not in order that I know if it is forbidden to whistle, but I would think that it is so. I do not think that Tengil likes it. And for the rest you have to hold the door shut, do you not understand this?" "Does Tengil not like that one has the door open", I asked. "You have not to interfere in this", Dodik said. "Do as I say. But give me a scoop of water first. I go up there on the wall, until I die of thirst. (Astrid Lindgren "Bröderna Lejonhjärta" p 117; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

After we had put up at the hotel, we steer our course to the palace in order to visit Mr. Godin, who is prepared for our visit. There the main building of the familistère now lay in front of us in full light, and however subjectively one may be regarded to take the things, so there was no doubt that this wall colossus was full reality. (It was also therefore I travelled with a witness.) . . . We go in through the big gateway. This like the other gateways of the house turns round an axis to what side one wishes, a device, which except making the way out easy in case of fire, spares the inhabitants the noise of a banging door. (August Strindberg "Familistären i Guise" p 223-224; Politiken 1885-11-02 - 1885-11-14; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Werner Aspenström, Henrik Elmgren, Odysseus Elytis, Stefan Gustavsson, Alf Henrikson, Ingrid Hesslander, Harry Martinson, Olaus Magnus, Vilhelm Moberg, Alexandr Pusjkin, Nelly Sachs, Dieter Schröder, Peter Wieselgren.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “day, night”, see also Rev 4:8b.


Additional studies:

Is 60:20; 1 Macc 12:48; John 12:35-36; 13:30; Rev 21:12,15; 22:5.


J.A. du Rand "The imagery of the heavenly Jerusalem (Revelation 21:9-22:5)"; Neotestamentica 22.1 (1988): 65-86.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-08-15; 2012-07-30; 2015-11-09)

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21:26 And they will carry the glory and the honour of the nations into it.

Word for word (11 words in the Greek text): and (they)-will-carry the glory and the honour (of)-the (of)-nations into it.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(David said to God:) “From/’owing to’ Your temple against/’up to’ Jerusalem kings will carry gifts to You.” (Ps 68:29b or 68:30b, Greek OT)

(The prophet said to Jerusalem:) ”The riches of ... nations and peoples will arrive to you.” (Is 60:5b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) “All the nations ... will arrive (with) all the chosen things of the nations. And I will fulfil this house (with) glory. … “ (Haggai 2:7b or 2:8b, Greek OT)

The honour (of Jerusalem was treated) into/'for the purpose of' a despising way. According/answering to the glory (of Jerusalem) her dishonour was made full. (1 Macc 1:39b-40a)

(The elders) had brought away a message to (the Spartans) on account of the glory and honour (of Jerusalem) … (1 Macc 14:21b)

(The foreign king took) the holy vessels (with his) stained hands and dragged (with) the prafane hands together the things having been put/set up by other kings towards/to (the) increase and glory and honour of the place. (2 Macc 5:16)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to the Pharisees and the Herodians:) “Carry a denarius to Me in order that I may behold.” … But Jesus spoke to them: “Give back to Caesar the things (that are) Caesar's.” (Mark 12:15b,17a)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

The days pass away, and the ball draws nearer. . . . So it becomes Saturday. . . . Already they hear the brass-band music at a distance and they see how festively it shines in the pavilion being situated there between the trees in the middle of the dark hotel-garden. Chinese lanterns hang in a row round the open veranda, where it looks so beautiful, and it burns cressets at the stairs, yes, it is as to come to a fairy-tale palace, Madicken thinks. What a festivity it must be in a so wonderful place! And what a lot of men who are going there. . . . All they know one another. . . . They are finely clothed all of them. . . . The gentlemen have dress suit or uniform and the ladies long gowns and pearls and jewels and beautiful coiffures. But also we are fine, Madicken thinks, mother in red low-necked velvet gown, Alva in the white and she himself and Lisabet in their embroidered dresses. . . . Alva looks . . . round with wide eyes. And then Madicken also does so, oh, what it is fine here in the pavilion with mirrors and lamps and gildings everywhere and a large dance floor, shiny and fine, the one who cannot dance there, he has only himself to blame. Around about the whole dance floor there are tables ready laid in long rows. One will, it is true, also have supper of course. . . . Up on the platform the brass band of the regiment sits performing so gloriously, everything is glorious, Madicken thinks. (Astrid Lindgren "Madicken och Junibackens Pims" p 175-179; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Lars Levi Laestadius, Paul Wern.


Additional studies:

Gen 15:14; Ps 72:10-11; Is 66:12; Tobit 13:11; 2 Macc 3:2; John 12:12-13.


J.A. du Rand "The imagery of the heavenly Jerusalem (Revelation 21:9-22:5)"; Neotestamentica 22.1 (1988): 65-86.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-08-15; 2012-07-30; 2015-11-10)

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21:27 And every/all common (people), and the one who makes abomination and lie, may not/certainly not come into onto it, ‘if not’/except the ones having been (and being) written they in the scroll of the life of the heaven (א,* א).

Word for word (25 words in the Greek text): and not/certainly not may-come-into into it every common and the-(one) making abomination and lie, if not the-(ones) having-been-(and-being)-written in the scroll (of)-the (of)-life (of)-the (of)-heaven.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The king said to the queen:) “What is it, Esther? I (am) your brother. Be confident, you may not/certainly not die, because our command is (against) common (people).” (Esther 5:1f/D9-10b, Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) “All the ones having been written into/’for the purpose of’ life in Jerusalem will be called holy.” (Is 4:3b, Greek OT)

Water flowed in the desolate (district) ... And it will be a clean way there. And it will be called a holy way. An unclean may not/certainly come 'to the side of'/forward there. ... The ones being (and having been) redeemed will go in it. (Is 35:6b,8a,9b, Greek OT)

Uncircumcised and unclean ones will no longer be ‘put to’/added (to the population) to come through, through Jerusalem). (Is 52:1b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) “The undutiful Judas did not turn himself next to, towards Me in all these things out of her whole heart, however/but on/’was under the rule of’ a lie.” (Jer 3:10b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said about the people in Jerusalem:) “I will make their earth/land desolate, and it will be desolated because of all their abominations, which they have made/committed.” (Ezek 33:29b, Greek OT)

A court of justice sat down, and books were opened. (Dan 7:10b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Israel:) “Jerusalem will be a holy city, and (men) of other descent will not come through, no longer through it.” (Joel 3:17b, Greek OT)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “The Lord has hated every abomination, and it is not welcomed (among) the ones fearing Him.” (Sir 15:13)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “A thief (is) takable/preferable or/’more than’ the one persisting (in) a lie, but both will inherit perdition.” (Sir 20:25)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Come into/in through the narrow gate, because broad * (א*) and spacious (is) the way leading away into perdition, and many (are) (א*) the ones coming into/in through it, because (א*) narrow (is) the gate and being (and having been) oppressed the way leading away into life, and few are the ones finding it.” (Matt 7:13-14)

(Jesus said to the crowd:) “The thing going out, out of the mouth, this makes the man common/unclean.” (Matt 15:11b)

(Jesus said to the seventy:) “Rejoice because your names are (and have been) written in, in the heavens.” (Luke 10:20b)

Someone spoke to (Jesus): “Lord if/: ‘(Are) the ones being saved few?’” But/and He spoke towards them: “Fight to come into/in through the narrow door, because many, I say you, will seek to come into/in and will not be stable (enough).” (Luke 13:23-24)

(Jesus said to the Pharisees:) “The thing (being) high in/among men (is) an abomination in the very eyes of God.” (Luke 16:15b)

Peter uttered towards (the ones having come together in the habitation of Cornelius): “You have insight in as/’in what way’ it is illicit for a Jewish male to attach himself to or come to (anyone) of another tribe. And to me God has shown to not say/call anyone/any man common (people) or unclean. (Acts 10:28)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

John to the seven (assemblies) of called out, the ones in Asia. (Rev 1:4a)

However, this you have, that you hate the works of the Nicolaitans, which and/also I hate. (John 2:6, "Ephesos")

The ones dwelling upon the earth will wonder, (the ones) whose names (א,* א) are not (and have not been) written against the scroll of the life from a foundation of an adornment/’adorned world’, seeing the little wild animal, that it (continually) was and is not and again (א*) will be ‘by the side of’/near. (Rev 17:8b)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

Let us not desire any others to applaud us. For this is to insult (God). ... To be unhonoured and contemptible, and void of all authority seems ... unto the most part a matter of great shame and vileness. This we ... flee; not condemning the thing itself, but because of the sentence of our masters. ... God threatening and admonishing day by day is not heard; but the common people, full of disorder. ... “But how,” says some one, “is a man to flee from these masters?” By getting a mind greater than their's; by looking into the nature of things; by condemning the voice of the multitude; before all, by training himself ... to fear not men, but the unsleeping Eye; and again, in all good things, to seek the crowns which come from Him. Wouldest thou know the judgments of the greater part of men, how corrupt they are, how useless, and worthy of ridicule? ... Blasphemy by legislators in general is accounted nothing terrible. ... And if a man seduce a female servant when he hath a wife, it seems nothing to the heathen laws nor to men in general. (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers XII:67-68)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Dan Andersson, Natanael Beskow, Barthold Carlson, Björne Erixon, Bo Giertz, Bengt Gierup, Carl Grimberg, Alf Henrikson, Kazuo Ishiguro, Sigurd Lindgren, Egil Lönnberg, Lars Magnusson, Vilhelm Moberg, D.L. Moody, Richard Newton, Viktor Rydberg, Henrik Schartau, Torgny Segerstedt, Karin Sennefelt, A.M. Strinnholm, Nathan Söderblom, Anton Tjechov, Bertil Torekull, Gustaf Wikner.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “the scroll of the life”, see also Rev 17:8b.


If we – according to the circumstances – may speak, that we have communion in company with Him, and we may walk about in the darkness, we lie and do not make/do the truth. (1 John 1:6)


Greek words:

koinos (common) (in the NT + examples in the OT) Esther 5:1f(D10); Acts 10:28; Rev 21:27 – Prov 1:14; 21:9; 1 Macc 1:47,62; 2 Macc 9:21,26; 10:8; 12:4; 15:36; Matt 15:20; Mark 7:2,5; Acts 2:44; 4:32: 10:14; 11:8; Rom 14:14; Tit 1:4; Heb 10:29; Jude v 3.


Additional studies:

Ezek 44:9; Zech 14:21; Sir 41:5; Matt 6:24; Luke 16:13; John 3:5; 8:44; 10:3; Rev 2:15; 22:14-15.


J.A. du Rand "The imagery of the heavenly Jerusalem (Revelation 21:9-22:5)"; Neotestamentica 22.1 (1988): 65-86.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-08-15; 2012-07-30; 2015-11-11)

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