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Chapter 20

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20:1 And I beheld a messenger descending * (א*), having the key of the abyss and a great chain in (א,* א) his hand.

Word for word (16 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus prima manus): And (i/I)-beheld (a)-messenger descending having the key (of)-the (of)-abyss and (a)-chain great in the hand his.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The boys/servants) took the key and opened. And behold, their lord being (and having been) fallen against the earth (and) being (and having been) deceased. (Judges 3:25b, Greek OT)

(Solomon said:) “All (in Egypt) were bound (with) one (and the same) chain of darkness.” (Wisdom of Solomon 17:16b or 17:18a)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to Simon Peter:) "The gates of Hades shall not be entirely stable (with regard to My assembly of called out). I will give you the keys of the kingdom of the heavens." (Matt 16:18b-19a)

And behold … having descended out of heaven and come to (the grave) a messenger of the Lord rolled off the stone. (Matt 28:2a)

(The man with an unclean spirit continually) had the dwelling-place in/among the tombs. No one was ‘no longer’/longer able to bind him, nor (with) a chain. (Mark 5:3)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

I have the keys of (the) death and (the) Hades. (Rev 1:18b)

The fifth messenger sounded the trumpet, and I beheld a star out of the heaven, having fallen (and falling) into/to the earth, and the key of the well of the abyss was given to him. (Rev 9:1)

I beheld another stable messenger descending out of the heaven, being (and having been) wrapped up in a cloud. (Rev 10:1a)


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “the key of the abyss”, see also Rev 9:1. Concerning “I beheld a messenger descending”, see also Rev 10:1a.


Greek words:

halysis (chain) Wisdom of Solomon 17:16(18); Mark 5:3; Rev 20:1 - The Prayer of Azariah v 26; Mark 5:4; Luke 8:29; Acts 12:6-7; 21:33; 28:20; Eph 6:20; 2 Tim 1:16.


Additional studies:

2 Pet 2:4.


R. Fowler White "Making Sense of Rev 20:1-10: Harald Hoehner versus Recapitulation"; Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 37.4 (Dec. 1994): 539-551.

R. Fowler White "On the Hermeneutics and Interpretation of Rev 20:1-3: A Preconsummationist Perspective"; Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 42.1 (March 1999): 53-66.

R. Fowler White "Reexamining of the Evidence for Recapitulation in Rev 20:1-10"; Westminster Theological Journal 51.2 (1989): 319-344.

R.J. Korner "'And I saw . . .' An Apocalyptic Literary Convention for Structural Identification in the Apocalypse"; (the journal) Novum Testamentum 42.2 (2000): 160-183.

D. Mathewson "A re-examination of the millenium in Rev 20:1-6: consummation and recapitulation"; Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 44.2 (June 2001): 237-251.

Sydney H.T. Page "Revelation 20 and Pauline eschatology"; Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 23.1 (March 1980): 31-43.

Vem Polythress "Genre and Hermeneutics in Rev 20:1-6"; Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 36.1 (1993): 41-54.

Paul A. Rainbow "Millenium as Metaphor in John's Apocalypse"; Westminster Theological Journal 58.2 (1996): 209-221.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-08-09; 2012-07-27; 2015-10-20)

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20:2 And he got power over the dragon, the serpent of (a) beginning, who is the (א,* א) slanderer and the adversary, and he bound him (for) a thousand years.

Word for word (20 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus): and (he)-got-power-over the dragon, the serpent the-(one) of-beginning, who is the slanderer and the adversary, and (he)-bound him a-thousand years.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The army of the Chaldeans) bound (the king of Judas) in/with fetters and led him into Babylon. (2 Kings 25:7b, Greek OT)

(Moses said to God:) “A thousand years in Your eyes (are) as the day yesterday, whichever came through/by and (as) a watch in a night.” (Ps 90:4, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said:) “To bind the kings (of the nations) in fetters and their glorious ones in handfetters of iron … is a glory (for) all the pious (of the Lord).” (Ps 149:8,9b, Greek OT)

The messenger bound (the little demon). (Tobit 8:3b, BA)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) ”Either ten or a hundred or a thousand years – in Hades it/there is not a conviction of life.” (Sir 41:4b)

(God said to Israel:) “Having so come into, into Babylon (as captives) you will be there more/several years and a great/long time till/’as long as’ seven generations, but after this I shall lead you out from there in company with peace.” (Epistle of Jeremiah v 2)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to the Pharisees:) “How is anyone able to come into the habitation of the stable one and rape his vessels throughout (א,* א), if – according to the circumstances – he may not first bind the stable one? And then he may (א,* א) rape his habitation throughout.” (Matt 12:29)

(The lord said to the slaves:) ”Let both (the darnels and the bread-stuff) be to increase together until (א*) the harvest. And in the (א*) seasonable time of the harvest I will speak to the harvesters: ‘First collect the darnels and bind them into bundles towards/to burn them down, but lead together the bread-stuff into my granary.” (Matt 13:30)

(The man with an unclean spirit continually) had the dwelling-place in/among the tombs. No one was ‘no longer’/longer able to bind him, nor (with) a chain. (Mark 5:3)

(The Lord said:) "This (woman), being a daughter of Abraham, whom the adversary had bound (for), behold, eighteen years, had she not to be loosened from this band (on) the sabbath day?" (Luke 13:16)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

The great dragon was thrown (out), * (א,*א) a serpent, he of (a) beginning, he being called a slanderer, * (א,*א) the adversary, he leading the whole (inhabited) world astray, he was thrown into/'down to' the earth, and his messengers were thrown (down) in company with him. (Rev 12:9)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 - about 1500

I wept and asked (Jonatan): "How can such as Katla exist? Is it . . . a monster or what is it?" "Yes, she is a monster", Jonatan said. "A female dragon, risen from prehistoric times, this is what she is and as cruel as Tengil himself." "Where has he got her", I asked. "She came out of the Katla-cave, this is what people think", Jonatan said. "Down there she fell asleep some time away in the primeval night, then she slept for thousands and thousands of years and no one knew where she was. But one morning she woke up." . . . "I am so afraid, Jonatan, Katla will kill us." Again he tried to calm me. "But she is bound, you know. She can not come longer than the chain reaches. Not longer than to that rock where you saw her." (Astrid Lindgren "Bröderna Lejonhjärta" p 164-166; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

An old Jewish seer . . . had foretold, that a time of peace some time would descend over the earth. During a period of one thousand years no blood would be poured out, no war be made, but the men would love one another as brothers. When the soldier thought that something so horrible could be put into effect, a shiver sped through his body, and he firmly seized his spear like in order to seek a support. (Selma Lagerlöf "Betlehems barn" p 27; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

The witch brings (the children) into a hall (in the Brocken), where the prince of the darkness, to the sight huge and terrible, but still bound with a chain, sits in a seat of honour. The witch leads up the newcomers, kneels to the devil calling him lord, grand duke, god and so on. (Viktor Rydberg "Fribytaren på Östersjön II" p 295; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


about 1500 and time before

Another milestone in history is the year 1.000 A.D. The christianized mankind also had a presentiment that something new and great would happen, for the whole century before people waited for the ruin of the world and the arrival of the Millenium (chiliasm). The fear was increased the more one was drawing near the appointed day. The men gave away their properties, the activity ceased, they resorted to penance and prayers. The caesar himself was afraid; went on a pilgrimage to Adalvard's grave in Gnesen and opened the grave of Charlemagne in Aachen and took out the golden cross. Then the legendary caesar woke up, and his spirit somehow continues his ceasing activity. A new enormous kingdom is incorporated with christianity, when Russia during Vladimir takes the baptism. And almost the same year Europe stretches itself, grows out towards north, when the named king of Sweden as christianized gets in touch with Rome. Hungary, border guard against islam gets an apostolic crown by the pope Sylvester II. France is established and the capetingers make Paris of Lutetia. Germany receives the Roman imperial crown, and the German Otto III settles down in Rome. The margrave county with the name Austria begins to be trained to the great part it later would play. The Scandinavians become Europeans and settle down in France, Spain and Italy, after they have founded the Russian Kingdom. Iceland adopts christianity and plants the cross on the other side in the Atlantic, in America, but - here the conscious will seems to have changed decision! It must be made more preparatory works before America was allowed to be discovered in earnest, or perhaps the outflow to the west was not needed yet, and that Leif Eriksen only would spy upon the new land of Canaan before the new Israel was allowed to draw in, find out its existence and hide the secret, until the man came who owned the calling. In the Far East, without knowledge of the chiliasm of the Revelation, they seem to have experienced unrest towards the end of the century, for the caesar Tchin-Tsoung, warned by a comet, came to terms with his conscience, quite as Caesar Otto. He published an edict, asked that people would say his faults and submitted to penance, released 3000 prisoners and remitted taxes. (August Strindberg "Världshistoriens Mystik" p 21-22; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

In as many days as this world was made, in so many thousand years shall it be concluded. ... For the day of the Lord is as a thousand years. (Irenaeus, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol I, p 557)

There is in this beast, when he comes, a recapitulation made of all sorts of iniquity and of every deceit, in order that all apostate power, flowing into and being shut up in him, may be sent into the furnace of fire. Fittingly, therefore, shall his name possess the number six hundred and sixty-six, since he sums up in his person all the commixture of wickedness which took place previous to the deluge, due to the apostasy of the angels. For Noah was six hundred years old when the deluge came upon the earth. ... (and) that image which was set up by Nebuchadnezzar had indeed a height of sixty cubits, while the breadth was six cubits. ... (These numbers) indicate the number of the name of that man in whom is concentrated the whole apostasy of six thousand years. (Irenaeus, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol I, p 558)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Charles Dickens, Fjodor Dostojevskij, Bo Frid, Carl Grimberg, Verner von Heidenstam, Alf Henrikson, Viktor Hugo, Bengt Hägglund, Arnold Lindman, Fredrik Nielsen, Hugo Odeberg, Harry Sjöman, A.M. Strinnholm, Jesper Svartvik, Folke Thorell, Anton Tjechov, Paul Wilstadius.


My own comments and speculations:

In connection with the quotation of Irenaeus above about the conclusion of the world in seven days or periods of a thousand years this could be applied to the Revelation in the following way: The first day: God and His judgment upon His people, ch. 1-5. The second day: The age of the seals = The judgment of God upon a fourth of the earth, ch. 6-7. The third day: The age of the trumpets = The judgment of God upon a third of the earth, ch. 8-14. The fourth day: The age of the bowls = The judgment of God upon the whole earth. The fifth day: The judgment of God upon Babylon, ch. 17-18. The sixth day: The judgment of God upon the little wild animal. The seventh day: The judgment of God upon the slanderer, death and Hades, ch. 20. The eighth day and the first day in a new creation: A world filled with the glory of God, ch. 21-22.

The adversary having bound many (Luke 13:16), he now becomes himself bound.

Concerning “the dragon, the serpent of (a) beginning, who is the (א,* א) slanderer and the adversary”, see also Rev 12:9.


Additional studies:

Wisdom of Solomon 17:16(18); Mark 3:27; John 18:12; 2 Pet 3:8; Rev 12:3.


David L. Baker "The Jubilee and the Millenium"; Themelios 24.1 (October 1998): 44-69.

R. Fowler White "Making Sense of Rev 20:1-10: Harald Hoehner versus Recapitulation"; Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 37.4 (Dec. 1994): 539-551.

R. Fowler White "On the Hermeneutics and Interpretation of Rev 20:1-3: A Preconsummationist Perspective"; Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 42.1 (March 1999): 53-66.

R. Fowler White "Reexamining of the Evidence for Recapitulation in Rev 20:1-10"; Westminster Theological Journal 51.2 (1989): 319-344.

D. Mathewson "A re-examination of the millenium in Rev 20:1-6: consummation and recapitulation"; Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 44.2 (June 2001): 237-251.

Vem Polythress "Genre and Hermeneutics in Rev 20:1-6"; Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 36.1 (1993): 41-54.

Paul A. Rainbow "Millenium as Metaphor in John's Apocalypse"; Westminster Theological Journal 58.2 (1996): 209-221.

P.G.R. Villiers "Prime evil and its many faces in the Book of Revelation"; Neotestamentica 34.1 (2000): 57-86.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-08-09; 2012-07-27; 2015-10-20)

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20:3a And he threw him into the abyss and shut and sealed above him …

Word for word (12 words in the Greek text): and (he)-threw him into the abyss and shut and sealed above him


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Moses said to God:) “A thousand years in Your eyes (are) as the day yesterday, whichever came through/by and (as) a watch in a night.” (Ps 90:4, Greek OT)

The king spoke, and they led Daniel and threw him in, into the den of the lions (for a night). … And they carried a stone and put/laid it against, against the mouth of the den, and the king sealed (it). (Dan 6:16a,17a, Greek OT, Theod)

(Solomon said:) ‘Taking (and having taken) from below’/’drawing (and having drawn) away’ to ‘have sovereignity down’/’tyrannize over’ a holy nation lawless ones (continually) lay fettered of darkness and fettered of a long night having been shut in (under) thatched roofs (as) fugitives of/through the agelong ‘understanding beforehand’/foresight. ... Alone/only on/over those (Egyptians) a weighty night (continually) was stretched/spread. (Wisdom of Solomon 17:2,20a or 17:2,21a)

(Baruch said: “Our people) became/came below and not above, because we had missed (the mark of God) (before) the Lord, our God.” (Baruch 2:5a)

Having come out of (the tempel of the idol Daniel's very little boys) shut the door and sealed (it). … (Bel and the Dragon v 14b)

(Manasseh said to the Lord:) “You have shut the abyss and sealed (it) (with) Your fearful and glorious name.” (The Prayer of Manasseh v 3b)


The Latter Revelation:

Having got power over John Herod bound (him) and put (him) away in a watch/custody. (Matt 14:3a)

The ready ones came in, in company with (the bridegroom), into the wedding banquets, and the door was shut. (Matt 25:10b)

Having sealed the stone (the priest leaders and the Pharisees) secured the grave in company/co-operation with the custodia/guard. (Matt 27:66b)

(The little demons continually) called (Jesus) to the side of, in order that He might not to 'arrange on'/order them to go away into the abyss. (Luke 8:31)

(Jesus said to the Pharisees:) “... You are as the unmanifested memorial tombs, and the men, the ones walking about above, do not know (of it).” (Luke 11:44a)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

In ch. 12 (the dragon) lost his place in heaven, and in ch. 20 he is sent even below the earth. (J. Massyngberde Ford "Revelation" p 330)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Nils Tägt.


My own comments and speculations:

Compare the night of Daniel in the sealed den with the thousand years of the dragon in the sealed abyss in the light of Ps 90:4.

The Greek word “abyssos” for “abyss” here occurs for the sixth and the last time in the Revelation (א,*א). Perhaps this is an accidental occurrence, but it fits the number six as a symbol of imperfection.


Additional studies:

Is 24:21-22; John 3:24; 6:27; 2 Pet 2:4.


David L. Baker "The Jubilee and the Millenium"; Themelios 24.1 (October 1998): 44-69.

R. Fowler White "Making Sense of Rev 20:1-10: Harald Hoehner versus Recapitulation"; Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 37.4 (Dec. 1994): 539-551.

R. Fowler White "On the Hermeneutics and Interpretation of Rev 20:1-3: A Preconsummationist Perspective"; Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 42.1 (March 1999): 53-66.

R. Fowler White "Reexamining of the Evidence for Recapitulation in Rev 20:1-10"; Westminster Theological Journal 51.2 (1989): 319-344.

D. Mathewson "A re-examination of the millenium in Rev 20:1-6: consummation and recapitulation"; Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 44.2 (June 2001): 237-251.

Vem Polythress "Genre and Hermeneutics in Rev 20:1-6"; Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 36.1 (1993): 41-54.

Paul A. Rainbow "Millenium as Metaphor in John's Apocalypse"; Westminster Theological Journal 58.2 (1996): 209-221.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-08-09; 2012-07-27; 2015-10-21)

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20:3b … in order that he may not lead the nations astray any longer, until the thousand years may be ended. After these things he must be loosened/released (for) a small/little time.

Word for word (18 words in the Greek text; the sequence of the words according to Sinaiticus): in-order-that not (he)-may-lead-astray any-longer the nations until may-be-ended the thousand years. after these-(things) '(it-is-necessary)'/must him/he be-loosened little (a)-time.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The first/chief cook said to the prophet:) “Behold, I have loosened you from the handfetters (being) against your hands.” (Jer 40:4a, Greek OT)


The Latter Revelation:

Having brought every test to a consummation, the slanderer stood aloof from Him until a seasonable time. (Luke 4:13)

(The Lord said:) "This (woman), being a daughter of Abraham, whom the adversary had bound (for), behold, eighteen years, had she not to be loosened from this band (on) the sabbath day?" (Luke 13:16)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

After these things Jesus and His disciples came into the Jewish earth/land. (John 3:22a)

Jesus spoke (to the Pharisees): “Still a small/little time I am in company with you. And I withdraw towards the One having sent Me.” (John 7:33)

It was spoken to (the ones in the white dresses), in order that they might (א,* א) ‘be brought to rest’/rest still a small/little time. ... (Rev 6:11b)

The great dragon was thrown (out), * (א,*א) a serpent, he of (a) beginning, he being called a slanderer, * (א,*א) the adversary, he leading the whole (inhabited) world astray. (Rev 12:9a)

(The messenger) got power over the dragon, the serpent of (a) beginning, who is the (א,* א) slanderer and the adversary, and he bound him (for) a thousand years. (Rev 20:2)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: Anders Blomquist, Vilhelm Moberg, Erich Sauer.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “lead the nations astray”, see also Rev 12:9. Concerning “any longer … a small/little time”, see also John 7:32-34. Concerning “the thousand years”, see also Rev 20:2. Concerning “after these things”, see also John 3:22-24.

If we – according to the circumstances – may speak, that we have not a/any miss (of the mark of God), we lead ourselves astray and the truth is not in us. (1 John 1:8)


Additional studies:

Rev 20:8,10.


David L. Baker "The Jubilee and the Millenium"; Themelios 24.1 (October 1998): 44-69.

R. Fowler White "Making Sense of Rev 20:1-10: Harald Hoehner versus Recapitulation"; Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 37.4 (Dec. 1994): 539-551.

R. Fowler White "On the Hermeneutics and Interpretation of Rev 20:1-3: A Preconsummationist Perspective"; Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 42.1 (March 1999): 53-66.

R. Fowler White "Reexamining of the Evidence for Recapitulation in Rev 20:1-10"; Westminster Theological Journal 51.2 (1989): 319-344.

D. Mathewson "A re-examination of the millenium in Rev 20:1-6: consummation and recapitulation"; Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 44.2 (June 2001): 237-251.

Vem Polythress "Genre and Hermeneutics in Rev 20:1-6"; Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 36.1 (1993): 41-54.

Paul A. Rainbow "Millenium as Metaphor in John's Apocalypse"; Westminster Theological Journal 58.2 (1996): 209-221.

P.G.R. Villiers "Prime evil and its many faces in the Book of Revelation"; Neotestamentica 34.1 (2000): 57-86.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-08-09; 2012-07-27; 2015-10-21)

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20:4a And I beheld thrones, and they sat down against them, and a judicial verdict was given to them ...

Word for word (11 words in the Greek text): And (i/I)-beheld thrones and (they)-sat-down against them, and (a)-judicial-verdict was-given (to)-them


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The prophet said:) “I (continually) looked at ... when thrones were put/’set up’ and an Old of days (continually) was seated ... till (the time in) which the Old of the days came and He gave the judicial verdict to holy ones of a Highest One, and the seasonable time was in advance, and the holy ones ‘kept down’/’took possession of’ the kingdom. ... The kingdom and the (judicial) authority and their magnificense and the beginning of all the kingdoms underneath the heaven (the judgment) gave to a holy people of a Highest One to be kings (over) an agelong kingdom, and all (judicial) authorities will arrange themselves to Him and obey Him. (Dan 7:9,22,27, Greek OT, v 22 Theod)

The king sat down upon a throne of his kingdom, and the earth was quiet in the very eyes of him. (1 Macc 11:52)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said: “The ones believing/trusting in their hands) will not understand a covenant of a judicial verdict throughout.” (Sir 38:33b)


The Latter Revelation:

Jesus spoke to (His disciples): ”Amen I say to you that/: ‘You, the ones having followed Me in the regeneration, when the Son of the Man may – according to the circumstances – sit down upon His throne of glory, and/also you yourselves (א,*א) will be seated against twelve thrones, judging the twelve tribes of Israel.’” (Matt 19:28)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "Do not fear, small/little, little flock, because your Father has been pleased with giving you the kingdom." (Luke 12:32)

(One of the badmen said to the other:) “Do you not fear God, because you are in/under the same judicial verdict? And we (suffer) indeed righteously, for worthy we ‘take away’/receive the things which we practised/did. But this One has practised/done nothing ‘out of place’/improper.” (Luke 23:40b-41)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

The one conquering, I will give him to sit down in company with Me in/at My throne, as and/also I conquered and sat down in company with My Father in/at His throne. (Rev 3:21, ”Laodicea”)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: Nils Beltzén, Olof Pettersson.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “sat down against (thrones)”, see also Rev 3:21.


Paul said to the believers in Corinth: “Do you not know, that the holy ones will judge the adornment/’adorned world’?” (1 Cor 6:2a)


Additional studies:

2 Sam 15:4; 1 Kings 3:9; 1 Macc 7:4; Wisdom of Solomon 12:12; Luke 22:30; John 5:28-29; 19:13.


David L. Baker "The Jubilee and the Millenium"; Themelios 24.1 (October 1998): 44-69.

R. Fowler White "Making Sense of Rev 20:1-10: Harald Hoehner versus Recapitulation"; Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 37.4 (Dec. 1994): 539-551.

R. Fowler White "Reexamining of the Evidence for Recapitulation in Rev 20:1-10"; Westminster Theological Journal 51.2 (1989): 319-344.

A. Gelston "The Royal Priesthood"; The Evangelical Quarterly 31.3 (1959): 152-163.

James A. Hughes "Revelation 20:4-6 and the Question of the Millennium"; Westminster Theological Journal 35.3 (1973): 281-302.

R.J. Korner "'And I saw . . .' An Apocalyptic Literary Convention for Structural Identification in the Apocalypse"; (the journal) Novum Testamentum 42.2 (2000): 160-183.

D. Mathewson "A re-examination of the millenium in Rev 20:1-6: consummation and recapitulation"; Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 44.2 (June 2001): 237-251.

Vem Polythress "Genre and Hermeneutics in Rev 20:1-6"; Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 36.1 (1993): 41-54.

Paul A. Rainbow "Millenium as Metaphor in John's Apocalypse"; Westminster Theological Journal 58.2 (1996): 209-221.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-08-09; 2012-07-27; 2015-10-21)

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20:4b ... and the souls of the ones having been (and being) beheaded with an axe because of the evidence of Jesus and because of the saying of God, and whoever/who have not prostrated (towards) the little wild animal (in adoration of it), nor (towards) its image (in adoration of it), and they have not taken the mark against the forehead and against their hand. And they lived/’came to life’ and were kings in company with Christ (for) a thousand years.

Word for word (47 words in the Greek text): and the souls (of)-the-(ones) having-been-(and-being)-beheaded-with-an-axe because-of the evidence (of)-Jesus and because-of the saying (of)-the (of)-god and whoever not '(kissed-towards)'/prostrated (towards)-the little-wild-animal nor (towards)-the image its and not took the mark against the forehead and against the hand their and (they)-lived and were-kings in-company-with the Anointed/Christ a-thousand years.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

The spirit came into, into (the bones), and they lived/’came to life’ and stood on their feet. … (Ezek 37:10b, Greek OT)

The kingdom and the (judicial) authority and their magnificense and the beginning of all the kingdoms underneath the heaven (the judgment) gave to a holy people of a Highest One to be kings (over) an agelong kingdom, and all (judicial) authorities will arrange themselves to Him and obey Him. (Dan 7:27, Greek OT)

(Uzziah said to Judith:) “Blessed (is) the Lord God, who created the heavens and the earth, who entirely straightened/directed you to the ‘wound of the head’/beheading of the leader of our enemies.” (Judith 13:18b)

(The Persian leader) put (king) Demetrius in watch/custody. And the earth/land of Judas was quiet all the days of (the priest leader) Simon. … Elders were seated in the streets. All reasoned in common on account of good things. … (Simon) made peace upon the earth, and Israel was cheerful (with) great cheerfulness. ... And he ‘set fast’/confirmed all the humble of his people. He sought out (in) the law and lifted out all lawless and evil ones. (1 Macc 14:3b-4a,9a,11,14)

The king of the adornment/’adorned world’ will cause us, having died in favour/defence of the laws (of the Lord), to stand up into an agelong revival. (2 Macc 7:9b)

(Solomon said: “The wicked ones) have not judged/’believed in’ a gift of honour of unblemished souls.” (Wisdom of Solomon 2:22)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples: “Pray in this way: ‘Our Father,) become/’be ... done’ Your will, as in heaven and/also upon earth.’” (Matt 6:10b)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "The one having been sown against the rocky (ground), this is the one hearing the saying and straight off taking it in company with joy, but has not a root in himself, however/but is transitory. But/and having become oppression or pursuit because of the saying, he straight off is caused to stumble." (Matt 13:20-21)

(Jesus said: “The lord of the happy slave) will ‘cause him to stand down’/’set him’ on/over all his ‘things beginning under’/properties. (Matt 24:47b)

Having gone away (the executioner) beheaded (John the Baptist) in the watch/custody. (Mark 6:27b)

(John the Baptist said:) ”Already the axe lies towards the root of the trees.” (Luke 3:9a)

The ones so having come together indeed (continually/repeatedly) asked (Jesus) saying: “Lord, if/’is it’ in this time You restore the kingdom to Israel?” But He spoke towards them: “It ‘is not for’/’does not belong’ you to have knowledge of times and seasonable times, which the Father has put/fixed in the own (judicial) authority.” (Acts 1:6-7)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(John) was a witness to the saying of God and the evidence of Jesus Christ, as many things as he beheld. (Rev 1:2)

(I, John, …) became/appeared in/on the island being called Patmos because of the saying of God and because of (א,*א) the evidence of Jesus. (Rev 1:9b)

To the one conquering * (א,* א) I will give to eat out of the wood of the life, which is in the ‘place by the side of apprehension’/Paradise of God. (Rev 2:7b)

The one conquering, I will give him to sit down in company with Me in/at My throne, as and/also I conquered and sat down in company with My Father in/at His throne. (Rev 3:21, ”Laodicea”)

You have made them a kingdom and a priestly office (א,* א) to our God, and they will be kings upon the earth. (Rev 5:10)

When It opened the fifth seal, I beheld below the sacrificial altar the souls of the men (א,* א) having been (and being) slaughtered because of the saying of God and because of the evidence which they (continually) had. (Rev 6:9)

And I beheld, and behold. The little Ram (was) standing against the mountain Zion and in company with It one hundred and forty-four thousand, having Its name and Its Father’s name having been (and being) written upon their foreheads (Rev 14:1)

Another messenger, a third one, followed them, saying in/with a great/loud voice: “If any one prostrates himself (towards) the little wild animal (in adoration of it) and (towards) its image (in adoration of it) and takes a mark upon his forehead or against his hand, he and/also will drink out of the wine of the passion of God, of the one being (and having been) blended/filled undiluted in the cup of His wrath.” (Rev 14:9-10a)

(The messenger) got power over the dragon, the serpent of (a) beginning, who is the (א,* א) slanderer and the adversary, and he bound him (for) a thousand years. (Rev 20:2)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

Several Christian writers in the early period thought Christ would reign a thousand years at Jerusalem before the last judgement. The Epistle of Barnabas 15:4-9 is fervently millenarist. Papias is a naïve, extravagant millenarist. … Justin Martyr … thinks that millenarism is orthodox. Irenaeus … followed by Tertullian … accepts (this) belief. (J. Massyngberde Ford "Revelation" p 350)

A voice was heard, not from the grave but from the outskirts of the multitude. It was a woman's voice sounding thin and shrilling, but which in any case was wondrous audible and distinct. . . . (She) spoke in raptures. . . . "I see (the dead ones) enter into a large hall. I see their anxiety. They are afraid and trembling as all who will be taken to examination. Then a man steps to their meeting. He is clothed in long clothes. . . . He speaks to them: 'I am the one being lord over Death and over Life. . . . Because Death has made himself to a lord in stead of a servant, I want to pursue him. For I do not love, that the corn is harvested before the ripeness. Nor that the young bird is brought down by the hunter, before it has been allowed to build its nest and get offspring. . . . You, souls, return to the earth and teach the men to keep my fifth commandment, which is the commandment about love to the neighbour and the key to all the others! Say them, that my millenium hangs in the east as a red sky at dawn.'" (Selma Lagerlöf "Bannlyst" p 219-220; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

The geologist: On our earth the work of remoulding has not reached higher than to human intelligence and beauty. But it is of course imaginable, that a coming age will populate it with a more wise and beautiful generation . . . The aesthetician: Yes, imaginable, that the present mankind bears within it this more noble form type, as the chrysalis the butterfly, until the time has come and the "milieu" so changed, that it can appear. (Viktor Rydberg "I skymningen" p 37; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

"Child, child", (Ebba Dohna's) grandmother said in order to console her, "there are those who think that (the good king) will come again. Then he will bring the earth under his domination and rule it. The beautiful earth will become a glorious kingdom. It will stand for a thousand years. Then the evil animals will become good, little children will play at the den of the viper, and bears and cows will graze together. No one will more hurt or destroy the other one, the spears will be bent to scythes and the swords be forged to ploughs. And everything will be play and joy, for the good ones will possess the earth." . . . Evening after eveing through many winters these both sat at the log-fire speaking about the good king and his kingdom. The little one dreamt about the Millenium both night and days. She never got tired to adorn it with all beautiful things, which she could think out. (Selma Lagerlöf "Gösta Berlings saga" p 184; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

I and others, who are right-minded Christians on all points, are assured that there will be a resurrection of the dead, and a thousand years in Jerusalem, which will then be built, adorned and enlarged, (as) the prophets Ezekiel and Isaiah and others declare. ... As Adam was told that in the day he ate of the tree he would die, we know that he did not complete a thousand years. We have perceived, moreover that the expression “The day of the Lord is as a thousand years” is connected with this subject. And further, there was a certain man with us, whose name was John, one of the apostles of Christ, who prophesied, by a revelation that was made to him, that those who believed in our Christ would dwell a thousand years in Jerusalem; and that thereafter the general, and, in short, the eternal resurrection and judgment of all men would likewise take place. (Justin Martyr, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol I, p 239-240)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Åke Andrén, D.O. Belfrage, Karl-Erik Bergh, Elisabeth Beskow, Claes Claesson, Emilia Fogelklou, Carl Grimberg, Krister Hanell, Dick Harrison, David Hedegård, Alf Henrikson, Sören Kierkegaard, Severin Larsen, Göran Lennartsson, Ebba L. Lewenhaupt, C.S. Lewis, Gunnar Lindqvist, Carl Henrik Martling, Vilhelm Moberg, Ingun Montgomery, Fredrik Nielsen, Bertil Nilsson, Fritiof Nilsson Piraten, Bernth Olofsson, Martin P:n Nilsson, Pansy, Anders Piltz, Arvid Rydén, Gösta Sandberg, Henrik Schück, William B. Silverman, Rune Storck, Margareta Strömstedt, Lennart Thörn, J.R.R. Tolkien, Nils Tägt, P. Waldenström, N.P. Wetterlund, Gustaf Wikner, Gustaf Wingren, Eric Wärenstam, Eva Österberg.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “the souls of the ones having been (and being) beheaded with an axe”, see also Rev 6:9. Concerning “because of the evidence of Jesus and because of the saying of God”, see also Rev 1:2. Concerning “whoever/who have not prostrated (towards) the little wild animal (in adoration of it), nor (towards) its image (in adoration of it), and they have not taken the mark against the forehead and against their hand”, see also Rev 14:9-10a. Concerning “they … were kings in company with Christ”, see also Rev 3:21. Concerning “a thousand years”, see Rev 20:2’


Greek words:

pelekizô (behead with an axe) Rev 20:4. Cf. pelekys (axe) 1 Kings 6:7; Epistle of Jeremiah v 14.


Additional studies:

Is 26:14; 65:17-25; 66:19-22; Dan 2:44; 7:14,18,22; Amos 9:11-15; Micah 4:1-4; Judith 13:7-8; 2 Macc 15:30; John 4:23; 11:16; 14:19; 15:26-27; 16:2; 17:6; Rom 8:17; 2 Tim 2:12; Rev 13:15-17; 20:6; 22:5.


David L. Baker "The Jubilee and the Millenium"; Themelios 24.1 (October 1998): 44-69.

R. Fowler White "Making Sense of Rev 20:1-10: Harald Hoehner versus Recapitulation"; Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 37.4 (Dec. 1994): 539-551.

R. Fowler White "Reexamining of the Evidence for Recapitulation in Rev 20:1-10"; Westminster Theological Journal 51.2 (1989): 319-344.

A. Gelston "The Royal Priesthood"; The Evangelical Quarterly 31.3 (1959): 152-163.

James A. Hughes "Revelation 20:4-6 and the Question of the Millennium"; Westminster Theological Journal 35.3 (1973): 281-302.

Beate Kowalski "Martyrdom and Resurrection in the Revelation to John"; Andrews University Seminary Studies 10.1 (Jan. 1972): 55-64.

D. Mathewson "A re-examination of the millenium in Rev 20:1-6: consummation and recapitulation"; Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 44.2 (June 2001): 237-251.

Vem Polythress "Genre and Hermeneutics in Rev 20:1-6"; Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 36.1 (1993): 41-54.

Paul A. Rainbow "Millenium as Metaphor in John's Apocalypse"; Westminster Theological Journal 58.2 (1996): 209-221.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-08-09; 2012-07-27; 2015-10-21)

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20:5-6 * (א,* א) This is the first resurrection. Happy and holy the one having part in the first resurrection. Upon/’with regard to’ these the second death has not (any) (judicial) authority, however/but they will be priests of God and of Christ and they will be kings in company with Him (for) the thousand years.

Word for word: 20:5 (5 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus) This the resurrection the first. 20:6 (34 words in the Greek text) happy and holy the-(one) having part in the resurrection the first. upon these the second death not has (judicial)-authority, however (they)-will-be priests (of)-the (of)-god and (of)-the 'anointed-(one)'/Christ and (they)-will-be-kings in-company-with him the thousand years.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

A light and the sun stuck up and the humble ones were heightened and ate down/up the glorious ones. (Esther 1:1k/A10, Greek OT)

(The prophet said to the people in Jerusalem:) “You will be called priests of the Lord.” (Is 61:6a, Greek OT)

(Raguel) blessed the God saying: “Blessed are You, God, in/with every clean and holy blessing, and let all Your holy ones bless You and all Your creations and all Your messengers and let Your chosen ones bless You into/for all the ages.” (Tobit 8:15a, BA)

(Judas practised) townlike/polite (things) ‘counting throughout’/reflecting in favour of a resurrection. (2 Macc 12:43b)


The Latter Revelation:

Descending from (א,*א,A) the mountain (Jesus) ‘dispatched throughout’/commanded (His disciples) ‘in order that’/that not anything describe which/what things they had beheld ‘if not’/until when – according to the circumstances – the Son of the Man might stand up out of dead (bodies). And they ‘got power over’/embraced the saying, seeking together with (one another) towards themselves what the thing to stand up out of dead (bodies) is. (Mark 9:9-10)

(Jesus said to His diciples:) “Happy (are) those slaves whom, on (their) lord's having come, he will find being awake. Amen I say to you, that he will gird himself around and cause them to ‘lean back’/’lay down (at table)’. * (א*).” … Happy they * (א*) are.” (Luke 12:37,38b)

(The lord of a faithless slave will) put his part in company with the faithless ones. (Luke 12:46b)

(Jesus said to the one who had called/invited Him:) “You will be happy ... (and) it will in stead be given back to you in/at the resurrection of the righteous ones.” (Luke 14:14)

(Jesus said to some of the Sadducees:) “The ones having been thought entirely worthy to reach that age and the resurrection out of dead (bodies), ‘and not’/neither take to wife, ‘and not’/nor are wed.” (Luke 20:35)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Jesus said to the Jews:) “Do not wonder (over/at) this, because it comes an hour, in which all the ones in the memorial tombs may (P66, א,* א) hear His voice. And they shall go out, the ones having made/done the good things into a resurrection of life.” (John 5:28-29a)

(Jesus said to the Jews:) “The one chewing My flesh and drinking My blood has agelong life, and I will cause him to stand up the last day.” (John 6:54)

Jesus says to (Martha): “Your brother will stand up.” Martha says to Him: “I know, that he will stand up in the resurrection in/at the last day.” (John 11:23-24)

(Jesus Christ) has made us a kingdom, priests to His God and Father. (Rev 1:6a)

The one conquering may not/certainly not be treated unrighteously ‘out of’/’in consequence of’ the second death. (Rev 2:11b, ”Smyrna”)

You have made them a kingdom and a priestly office (א,* א) to our God, and they will be kings upon the earth. (Rev 5:10)

(The messenger) got power over the dragon, the serpent of (a) beginning, who is the (א,* א) slanderer and the adversary, and he bound him (for) a thousand years. (Rev 20:2)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

The apostles and the first believers did not regard the arrival of the Lord as something dangerous or horrifying, no, on the contrary as something longed for, full of consolation and blessed. Their longing for that was so ardent, that they regarded it as a great loss, if their dear deceased ones were not allowed to be present, but had to bide in their graves to the last day. Yes, the apostle says himself fight for, that he, if possible, might arrive to the first resurrection, the resurrection from the dead ones, that is from the other dead ones, who will rise in the last general resurrection. (Karl Palmberg "Ur livskällan. Tredje årgången." p 14; Karl Palmberg /1842-1920/ was from 1883 a Lutheran clergyman in Månsarp in the diocese of Växjö and president in Jönköpings Missionsförening (Missionary Society) 1886-1911; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

"How sadly", Master Gudmund said, "that the new part of the world did not become shut off from the corruption of the old one and made a reformatory school, in which more noble generations were educated, far from the evil examples, which everywhere and daily storm into our children!" "And far from the class prejudices which poison the society life", the guardian (Mattias in his grey monk's frock with rope round his waist) said, "and delay the appearance of the aristocracy of Jesus Christ, the aristocracy of the spiritual poor ones, the modest ones, the renouncing ones! Nevertheless this aristocracy by the Lord is detemined to flower in the promised kingdom of God on the earth." (Viktor Rydberg "Vapensmeden" p 106; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

"When the church owns everything", (the monastery pater) said, "so also everything is common, the whole mankind a brotherhood, united round the table of Christ; then no one is rich, but nor any is poor; then the millenium is come. Yes, may it come! Amen! Erland, it is this goal, to which a confederation, spread out over the whole Christianity, strives." (Viktor Rydberg "Singoalla" p 109; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Lars Hartman, Martin Luther, Olaf Moe, Fabian Månsson, Grant R. Osborne, Efraim Palmqvist, Karl Ramstrand, Erich Sauer, Milton Steinberg, Kerry Usher.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “the second death”, see Rev 2:11. Concerning “they will be priests of God and of Christ and they will be kings in company with Him”, see Rev 1:6a; 5:10. Concerning “will be kings in company with Him”, see Rev 5:10; 20:4. Concerning “the thousand years”, see Rev 20:2.

But if we – according to the circumstances – may walk about in the light, as He is in the light, we have communion in company with one another, and the blood of Jesus, His Son, makes us clean from every miss (of the mark of God). (1 John 1:7)


Additional studies:

Is 66:21; John 6:39-40,44; 13:8,17; 20:29; 1 Cor 15:20-24; Phil 3:11; 1 Thess 4:16; Heb 4:9; Rev 3:21; 20:14; 21:8; 22:5.


David L. Baker "The Jubilee and the Millenium"; Themelios 24.1 (October 1998): 44-69.

R. Fowler White "Making Sense of Rev 20:1-10: Harald Hoehner versus Recapitulation"; Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 37.4 (Dec. 1994): 539-551.

R. Fowler White "Reexamining of the Evidence for Recapitulation in Rev 20:1-10"; Westminster Theological Journal 51.2 (1989): 319-344.

A. Gelston "The Royal Priesthood"; The Evangelical Quarterly 31.3 (1959): 152-163.

James A. Hughes "Revelation 20:4-6 and the Question of the Millennium"; Westminster Theological Journal 35.3 (1973): 281-302.

Meredith G. Kline "First Resurrection"; Westminster Theological Journal 37.3 (Spring 1975): 366-375.

Beate Kowalski "Martyrdom and Resurrection in the Revelation to John"; Andrews University Seminary Studies 10.1 (Jan. 1972): 55-64.

D. Mathewson "A re-examination of the millenium in Rev 20:1-6: consummation and recapitulation"; Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 44.2 (June 2001): 237-251.

Vem Polythress "Genre and Hermeneutics in Rev 20:1-6"; Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 36.1 (1993): 41-54.

Paul A. Rainbow "Millenium as Metaphor in John's Apocalypse"; Westminster Theological Journal 58.2 (1996): 209-221.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-08-09; 2012-07-27; 2015-10-21)

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20:7 And when – according to the circumstances – the thousand years may be ended, the adversary will be loosened/released out of his watch/custody.

Word for word (13 words in the Greek text): And when-according-to-the-circumstances may-be-ended the thousand years, will-be-loosened the adversary out-of the watch his.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The Persian leader) put (king) Demetrius in watch/custody. And the earth/land of Judas was quiet all the days of (the priest leader) Simon. … Elders were seated in the streets. All reasoned in common on account of good things. … And (the released) Demetrius made Simon (one) of his friends and glorified him with great glory. … (But the son of Demetrius, Antiochus) (continually) alienated (Simon). (1 Macc 14:3b-4a,9a;39; 15:27b)

The Latter Revelation: (Pilate) 'loosened from'/'let ... loose' the one having been (and being) thrown into watch/custody because of standing/stand and murder. (Luke 23:25a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(The messenger) got power over the dragon, the serpent of (a) beginning, who is the (א,* א) slanderer and the adversary, and he bound him (for) a thousand years. (Rev 20:2)

(The slanderer) may not lead the nations astray any longer, until the thousand years may be ended. After these things he must be loosened/released (for) a small/little time. (Rev 20:3b)


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “the thousand years may be ended, the adversary will be loosened/released”, see also Rev 20:3b. Concerning “the thousand years”, see also Rev 20:2.


Additional studies:

John 3:24.


R. Fowler White "Making Sense of Rev 20:1-10: Harald Hoehner versus Recapitulation"; Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 37.4 (Dec. 1994): 539-551.

R. Fowler White "Reexamining of the Evidence for Recapitulation in Rev 20:1-10"; Westminster Theological Journal 51.2 (1989): 319-344.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-08-10; 2012-07-27; 2015-10-22)

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20:8a And he will come out to lead astray all (א,* א) the nations * (א,* א) in the four corners * (א*), Gog and Magog, and (א,* א) lead them together into the war ...

Word for word (28 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus prima manus): and (he)-will-come-out (to)-lead-astray all the nations in the four corners, Gog and Magog, (to)-lead-together them into the war


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Balaam said:) “A man will come out, out of the seed of (Israel), and He will be lord of many nations, and His kingdom will be heightened if/’more than’ Gog, and His kingdom will 'be increased'/grow.” (Num 24:7, Greek OT)

… Nebuchadnezzar, (the) king of Babylon and every/all his encampment(s) and every/all his leader(s) (on) the earth waged war against/with Jerusalem and against/with all the cities of Judas. (Jer 34:1a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to the prophet/Israel:) “’A goal’/’an ultimate objective’ arrives! The goal/’ultimate objective’ arrives against the four wings/corners of the earth.” (Ezek 7:2b, Greek OT)

A saying of the Lord became towards (the prophet) saying: “Son of man, set your face against Gog and the earth/land of Magog … and prophecy against him.” (Ezek 38:1-2, Greek OT)

(The two lying elders said: ”We were) in the corner of the ‘place by the side of apprehension’/Paradise.” (Susanna v 38a, Theod)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “When you (א* sing.) – according to the circumstances – may pray, you (א* sing.) shall not be as the hypocrites, because they ‘are friends with’/like to pray in the synagogues and in the corners of the streets.” (Matt 6:5a)

(Jesus said to His disciples: “The Son of the Man) will dispatch away His messengers ‘in company’/together with a great trumpet. And they will lead together against/’in quest of’ His chosen ones out of the four winds from borders (in one end) of heavens till (the other end of) their borders.” (Matt 24:31)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

I beheld four messengers standing against the four corners of the earth. (Rev 7:1a)

The great dragon was thrown (out), * (א,*א) a serpent, he of (a) beginning, he being called a slanderer, * (א,*א) the adversary, he leading the whole (inhabited) world astray. (Rev 12:9a)

(The unclean spirits) are spirits of little demons, making signs (which) (P47, א*) go out against/to the kings of the whole (inhabited) world, to lead them together into the war of the great day of God, the All-powerful. (Rev 16:14)

(The messenger) threw (the dragon) into the abyss and shut and sealed above him, in order that he may not lead the nations astray any longer. (Rev 20:3a)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

In the Jerusalem Targum Eldad and Medad prophesy that at the end of days Gog and Magog and armies will rise against Jerusalem and will be vanquished by the Messiah. … The drama is heightened, because the Jewish reader would know that thrice Ezekiel predicts Gog will come when Israel is living in security (Ezek 38:8,11,14). (J. Massyngberde Ford "Revelation" p 356-357)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Carl Grimberg, Peter Hallberg, Alf Henrikson, Håkan Håkansson, Martin Luther, Olaf Moe, Fredrik Nielsen, John Ongman, Isaac Basjevis Singer, Harry Sjöman, Sven Stolpe, August Strindberg, P. Waldenström.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “will come out to lead astray all (א,* א) the nations”, see also Rev 12:9; 16:14; 20:3b. Concerning “the four corners”, see also Rev 7:1. Concerning “lead them together into the war”, see also Rev 16:14.


Greek words:

Gôg (Gog) (in the NT + examples in the OT) Num 24:7; Ezek 38:2; Rev 20:8 – 1 Chron 5:4; Ezek 38:3,14,16(17),18; 39:1,11.

Magôg (Magog) (in the NT + examples in the OT) Ezek 38:2; Rev 20:8 – Gen 10:2; 1 Chron 1:5.


Additional studies:

Ezek 38:1-23; 39:1-16; John 11:52.


M.C. Astour "Ezekiel's Prophecy of Gog and the Cuthaean Legend of Naram-Sin"; Journal of Biblical Literature 95 (1976): 567-579.

Daniel I. Block "Gog and the Pouring Out of the Spirit: Reflections on Ezekiel XXXIX:21-29"; Vetus Testamentum 37 (1987): 257-270.

R. Fowler White "Making Sense of Rev 20:1-10: Harald Hoehner versus Recapitulation"; Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 37.4 (Dec. 1994): 539-551.

R. Fowler White "Reexamining of the Evidence for Recapitulation in Rev 20:1-10"; Westminster Theological Journal 51.2 (1989): 319-344.

Gillis Gerleman "Hesekielbokens Gog"; Svensk Exegetisk Årsbok 12 (1947): 148-162.

Nicholas M. Railton "Gog and Magog: The History of a Symbol"; The Evangelical Quarterly 75.1 (Jan.-Mar. 2003): 23-43.

J. Paul Tanner "Rethinking Ezekiel's Invasion by Gog"; Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 39.1 (March 1996): 28-45.

P.G.R. Villiers "Prime evil and its many faces in the Book of Revelation"; Neotestamentica 34.1 (2000): 57-86.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-08-10; 2012-07-27; 2015-10-22)

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20:8b ... ‘whose their’/whose number (is) as the sand of the sea.

Word for word (9 words in the Greek text): whose the number their as the sand (of)-the (of)-sea.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Jacob said to God:) “You spoke: ‘I will … put/make your seed as the sand of the sea, which will not be numbered ‘from the multitude’/’because of the magnitude’.” (Gen 32:12, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to the prophet:) "The number of the sons of Israel (continually) was as the sand of the sea, which will not (be able to) be measured out, nor be counted up the number out of." (Hos 1:10a, Greek OT)

The many abilities of the king of Egypt assembled as the sand to the side of the lip of the sea. (1 Macc 11:1a)

(The three males said to the Lord:) “You talked towards (Abraham, Isaac and Jacob) saying to make their seed full as the stars of the heaven and as the sand to the side of the lip of the sea.” (The Prayer of Azariah v 13)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(The little wild animal) stood against the sand of the sea. (Rev 12:18/13:1a)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

Richer aunt (than his grandmother's grandmother) never has existed Abbe declares. She had rings of diamonds on every finger, and when she baked her figure-of-eight biscuits it sometimes happened that some diamonds came loose and came into the dough. . . . "And you would see that it grated between the false teeth of the old women, when they ate her bisquits. . . . And she was not niggardly. "Keep them", she said, when they came wanting to give back. "What I have placed in the dough, I have placed. And diamonds are here as many as the sand of the sea, no niggardliness, she said!" (Astrid Lindgren "Madicken och Junibackens Pims" p 42; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

During the winter Erland was a more diligent disciple with pater Henrik than usually. Daily he set his face to the monastery. . . . One winter evening nearer spring it happened, that, after the teacher and the disciple having studied together, the old man placed his hands upon the shoulders of the young one, and his eyes shone of the fire of the exultation. With half whispering voice, sounding solemn and mysterious in the vault illuminated by the lamp, he spoke about the mastery of the spirit over the bodily, about the mastery of the invisible word over sinewy arms and defiant minds, over princes and lords, over all the armies of the world, also if they were innumerable as the sand of the sea. (Viktor Rydberg "Singoalla" p 30; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: Werner Aspenström, Olof von Dalin, Grazia Deledda, Dick Harrison, Alf Henrikson, Amy Le Feuvre, Fredrik Nielsen, Tomas Sjödin, Eric Sköld, Paul Wern.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “the sand of the sea”, see also Rev 12:18(13:1a).


Additional studies:

The Prayer of Manasseh v 9; Rom 9:27.


R. Fowler White "Making Sense of Rev 20:1-10: Harald Hoehner versus Recapitulation"; Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 37.4 (Dec. 1994): 539-551.

R. Fowler White "Reexamining of the Evidence for Recapitulation in Rev 20:1-10"; Westminster Theological Journal 51.2 (1989): 319-344.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-08-10; 2012-07-27; 2015-10-22)

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20:9a And they ascended against the breadth of the earth/land and encircled (א,* א) the (walled) camp of the holy ones and the city, the one being (and having been) welcomed/’treated kindly’.

Word for word (18 words in the Greek text): and (they)-ascended against the breadth (of)-the (of)-earth and encircled the (walled)-camp (of)-the (of)-holy-(ones) and the city the-(one) being-(and-having-been)-welcomed


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The Lord said to Moses:) “You shall burn down (the meat) (with) fire outside the (walled) camp, for it is a ‘miss (of My mark)’/’sin offering’.” (Ex 29:14b, Greek OT)

(Moses said to Israel:) “The Lord your God walks about in your (walled) camp to take you out for Himself… and your (walled) camp shall be holy.” (Deut 23:14a, Greek OT)

Behold, a day of darkness and ... oppression and ... great trouble upon the earth. (Esther 1:1g/A7, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said:) “The Lord welcomes the gates of Zion over/’more than’ all the dwelling-tents of Jacob.” (Ps 87:2, Greek OT)

(In procession to the temple Israel sang:) "All the nations encircled me, and (in) the name of the Lord I resisted them. Having encircled they encircled me, and (in) the name of the Lord I resisted them." (Ps 118:10-11, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to the prophet:) “The (walled) camp of (the king of the Assyrians) ... may complete/fill the breadth of your district, God in company with us.” (Is 8:8b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to the prophet:) “What abomination has the one being (and having been) welcomed in my house made/done?” (Jer 11:15a, Greek OT)

… Nebuchadnezzar, (the) king of Babylon and every/all his encampment(s) and every/all his leader(s) (on) the earth waged war against/with Jerusalem and against/with all the cities of Judas. (Jer 34:1a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Gog:) “You may ascend against My people Israel as a cloud to veil earth … in order that all the nations may have knowledge of Me ‘in the thing to be made holy Me’/’when I am made holy’ in you in the very eyes of them.” (Ezek 38:16, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to the prophet:) “Behold, I arouse against (you My people) the Chaldeans, the combatants, the bitter/cruel and swift nation, the one going against the breadth (A) of the earth.” (Hab 1:6a, Greek OT)

(Tobit said to Jerusalem:) “All the ones welcoming You will be blessed into the (coming) age.” (Tobit 13:14a, BA)

(The Assyrian king, the lord of ‘every the’/’the whole earth, said about the countries against ‘the setting’/west:) “I will veil/cover every/all the face of the earth in/with the feet of my ability/army, and I will give them into their throughout/complete raping/plundering.” (Judith 2:7b)

(The enemies) ascended ... (and) encircled (the sons of Israel), and it (continually) was not (possible) to flee through out of a middle of them. (Judith 7:18a,19b)

(Antiochus) ascended against Israel and ascended into (a disgraced) Jerosolyma/Jerusalem in/with a weighty/strong crowd. (1 Macc 1:20b)

(The enemies of the Jews threw up a wall) against the border/castle in Jerusalem to take it down/up. … (1 Macc 6:26b)

The ones out of the (walled) camp of the king ascended into/to a meeting together with (the Jews) into/in Jerusalem, and the king threw in/up (a wall) into Judea by the side of (the city) and into/’up to’ the mountain Zion. (1 Macc 6:48)

(Tryphon) dispatched away ’an ability’/’a military force’ and a horse/cavalry . . . to the great plain (to) the thing to perish all the ones (coming) from the side of Jonathan ... (but) they turned ‘next to’/back. (1 Macc 12:49-51)

(Antiochus) encircled the city. (1 Macc 15:14a)

(Wisdom said:) “In a city being (and having been) welcomed/’treated kindly’ (the highest One) 'caused . . . to cease'/put me to rest entirely, and my (judicial) authority is in Jerusalem.” (Sir 24:11)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Broad * (א*) and spacious (is) the way leading away into the perdition.” (Matt 7:13b)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Behold, we ascend into (a disgraced) Jerosolyma/Jerusalem.” (Matt 20:18a)

(Some of the elders of the Jews said about the “leader of a hundred men”:) “He welcomes/’treats ... kindly’ our nation.” (Luke 7:5a)

(Jesus said to the Pharisees:) “It will come days against you, and/when your enemies will by the side of you throw in/up a wall (with) pales (before) you and encircle you around and ‘hold ... together’/press you from all (directions).” (Luke 19:43)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “It will be a great necessity upon the earth and a wrath to this people.” (Luke 21:23b)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

One major device used by the nobles in their policy of territorial expansion was to found cities and towns. On countless occasions between the twelfth and fourteen centuries feudal lords all over Europe granted knights and merchants the right to establish such urban communities, which adjoined a nobleman's fortress, a bishopric or a monastery and offered artisans and tradesmen a secure site where they could store their goods and hold fairs. For its overlord a town served as a source of revenue; it also had strategic value as a military camp and was a centre where justice could be administered. (Dieter Fahrni "An Outline History of Switzerland" p 19-20)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Jan Agertz, Märta Ahlbom, David Bellingham, Harry Bergenblad, Ingmar Brohed, Barthold Carlson, Krister Hanell, Jens Heimdahl, Eric Herz, K.W. Johansson, Bo E. Karlson, Olle Larsson, Anders Lindahl, Vilhelm Moberg, Axel Mollstadius, Petrus M. Nicander, Martin P:n Nilsson, Claes Pettersson, Viktor Rydberg, Enar Skillius, Per Stolpe, Carl Peter Thunberg, Gösta Weiler.


Greek words:

parembolê (/walled/ camp) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) 1 Macc 4:20; Rev 20:9 – Judith 6:11; 7:12,17,20; 10:18; 12:7; 13:10; 14:3,19; 15:5-6,11; 16:2; 1 Macc 3:3,15,17,23,27,41,57; 4:1-2,4-5,7,10,13,21,23,30-31,34,37; 5:28,34,37-38,40,49; 6:5-6,32-33,38,40,42; 7:35,38,42-44; 9:6-7,11,13-14; 10:49,53,78,80; 11:67-68,73; 12:26-28; 13:20,43; 14:3; 16:8; 2 Macc 13:15-16; 15:22; Wisdom of Solomon 19:7; Sir 43:8; 48:21. Acts 21:34,37; 22:24; 23:10,16,32; Heb 11:34; 13:11,13.

platos (breadth) Hab 1:6; Rev 20:9 - Gen 6:15; Prov 3:3(A); 7:3; 22:20; Dan 12:2, Judith 1:4; Sir 1:3; Eph 3:18, Rev 21:16.


Additional studies:

Lev 4:12,21; Ps 27:3; 78:68; Jer 12:7; Ezek 38:9; Tobit 1:4; Luke 21:20; John 11:48; Heb 13:11-13.


R. Fowler White "Making Sense of Rev 20:1-10: Harald Hoehner versus Recapitulation"; Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 37.4 (Dec. 1994): 539-551.

R. Fowler White "Reexamining of the Evidence for Recapitulation in Rev 20:1-10"; Westminster Theological Journal 51.2 (1989): 319-344.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-08-10; 2012-07-27; 2015-10-22)

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20:9b And fire descended out of the heaven and ate them down/up.

Word for word (9 words in the Greek text): and descended the fire out-of the heaven and ate-down them.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The Lord said to Moses:) “You shall burn down (the meat) in/with fire outside the (walled) camp, for it is a ‘miss (of My mark)’/’sin offering’.” (Ex 29:14b, Greek OT)

The fire ate down/up the 250 ones, and they ‘became in’/became a sign. (Num 26:10b, Greek OT)

Elijah answered and spoke towards the leader of fifty (men): “And if I (am) a man of God, fire may descend out of the heaven and eat down/up you and your fifty (men).” And fire descended out of the heaven and ate him down/up and his fifty (men). (2 Kings 1:10, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to the prophet: “Jerusalem) will be given ‘to the side of’/over into hands of (the) king of Babylon, and he will burn it down in/with fire.” (Jer 21:10b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) “I shall judge (Gog) (with) death/pestilence and blood and inundate (it with) rain and stones of hail, and I shall ‘give wet’/’let rain’ fire and sulphur against it and against all the ones in company with him and against many nations in company with him.” (Ezek 38:22, Greek OT)

(The Lord God said:) “I will dispatch away fire against Gog, and the islands will be dwelt upon/’in a time of’ peace.” (Ezek 39:6a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to the prophet:) “In that day I will put the leaders of a thousand (men) of Judas as a billet of wood of fire in/among woods/'pieces of wood' and as torches of fire in a reed, and they will eat down/up out of (the) right (parts) and out of (the parts) of a good name all the peoples ‘in a circle from’/all around’.” (Zech 12:6a, Greek OT)

(Judas said:) “It is not ability in multitude (which gives) conquest of a war, however/but the stability out of the heaven.” (1 Macc 3:19)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to the crowds:) “Having come the flying creatures and/also (א,* א) ate down/up (the sowing).” (Matt 13:4b)

John answered and said to all: "I indeed baptize you (with) water, but it comes the One (being) more stable than I, whose thong of His sandals I am not fit to loosen. He will baptize you in holy spirit and fire." (Luke 3:16)

Having beheld (that the Samaritans did not receive Jesus) the disciples James and John spoke: "Lord, do You want, we may speak/bid fire to descend from the heaven and use them up?" But having turned Himself He blamed them. (Luke 9:54-55)

(Jesus said to His disciples: ”On) the day Lot came ‘out of’/out from Sodom fire and sulphur ‘gave wet/rained from heaven and perished all of them (א,*א,A).” (Luke 17:29)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(The second little wild animal) makes great signs. It may make ‘in order’/so that and/also fire (may) descend out of the heaven into/to the earth in the very eyes of the men. (Rev 13:13)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

At the departure from the hotel (in Paris) I sling a curse over the heads of the evil-doers, appealing to heaven to send its fire down on this haunt of robbers, if rightly or not, who can say this? (August Strindberg "Inferno" p 70; The hell; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: H.C. Andersen, Bo Frid, Carl Grimberg, Jesper Svartvik, Zakaria Tamir, Paul Wern.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “fire descended out of the heaven”, see also Rev 13:13.


Additional studies:

Judges 5:19-20; 2 Kings 1:12; Job 20:26; Ps 78:63; Jer 32:29; 37:10; Zech 12:9; 1 Macc 1:31; 4:20; 5:28; 2 Macc 1:12; 2:10; Wisdom of Solomon 10:5-6; Sir 45:19; Baruch 1:2; Mark 4:4; Luke 8:5.


R. Fowler White "Making Sense of Rev 20:1-10: Harald Hoehner versus Recapitulation"; Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 37.4 (Dec. 1994): 539-551.

R. Fowler White "Reexamining of the Evidence for Recapitulation in Rev 20:1-10"; Westminster Theological Journal 51.2 (1989): 319-344.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-08-10; 2012-07-27; 2015-10-22)

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20:10a And the slanderer, the one leading them astray, was thrown into the lake of the fire and of the (א,* א) sulphur, whereat/where * (א,* א) the little wild animal and the false prophet (are).

Word for word (21 words in the Greek text): and the slanderer the-(one) leading-astray them was-thrown into the lake (of)-the (of)-fire and (of)-the (of)-sulphur whereat the little-wild-animal and the false-prophet


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

The little wild animal was seized, and in company with it the false prophet, the one having made the signs in the very eyes of it, in/with which he led astray the ones having taken the mark of the little wild animal and the ones prostrating themselves towards its image (in adoration of it) (א*). Living the two ones were thrown into the lake of the fire, the one burning in/with sulphur. (Rev 19:20)

(The adversery) will come out to lead astray all (א,* א) the nations * (א,* א) in the four corners * (א*), Gog and Magog, and (א,* א) lead them together into the war. (Rev 20:8a)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

There were deep and wide crevices in several places. The largest one of them was called The Hole of Hell. . . . It was ghastly down here, because they everywhere came across dead sheep. It was here the foxes had had their meals. . . . But of the foxes they (now) did not see anything more. Next morning the lighthouse keeper in Stora Karlsön found a bit bark stuck in under the door to the entrance hall and in it there was engraved with slanting, angular letters: "The foxes in Lillön are fallen down in The Hole of Hell. Take care of them!" And this the lighthouse keeper also did. (Selma Lagerlöf "Nils Holgerssons underbara resa genom Sverige" p 154-157; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

In the flames (of the world conflagration) the movable heavens and the earth will be destroyed. The movement, the activity, the struggle, the history then are ended. Of the old world building the two contrasts still remain: the Empyrean (that is the highest heaven) and the hell. . . . (The world conflagration) always separates the gold from the slag. The kingdom of the devil continues to exist, only because an eternal existence is an eternal punishment for its ruler as well as for its subjects. (Viktor Rydberg "Medeltidens magi" p 20-21; the ideology of the Middle Ages)

It is one and the same God the Father who has prepared good things with Himself for those who desire His fellowship, and who remain in subjection to Him; and who has prepared the eternal fire for the ringleader of the apostasy, the devil, and those who revolted with him. (Irenaeus, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol I, p 523)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Bo Giertz, Verner von Heidenstam, Fabian Månsson, Erich Sauer, W. Graham Scroggie, N.P. Wetterlund.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “the slanderer, the one leading them astray”, see Rev 20:8a. Concerning “was thrown into the lake of the fire and the (א,* א) sulphur, whereat, where * (א,* א) the little wild animal and the false prophet (are)”, see Rev 19:20.


If we – according to the circumstances – may speak, that we have not a/any miss (of the mark of God), we lead ourselves astray and the truth is not in us. (1 John 1:8)


Additional studies:

John 15:6; 16:11; Rev 12:9; 16:13; 20:14-15.


R. Fowler White "Making Sense of Rev 20:1-10: Harald Hoehner versus Recapitulation"; Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 37.4 (Dec. 1994): 539-551.

R. Fowler White "Reexamining of the Evidence for Recapitulation in Rev 20:1-10"; Westminster Theological Journal 51.2 (1989): 319-344.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-08-10; 2012-07-27; 2015-10-23)

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20:10b And they will be tormented day and night into the (coming) ages of the (coming) ages.

Word for word (10 words in the Greek text): and (they)-will-be-tormented day and night into the ages (of)-the (of)-ages.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Judith said:) ”Woe nations standing on/against my descent/people! The Lord, (the) All-powerful, will procure justice for them in a day of judgment, give fire and worms into their flesh, and they will weep in notice/discomfort till/’as long as’ an age.” (Judith 16:17)

(Solomon said:) “When (righteous ones) were tried … they gained knowledge, how wicked ones, being judged in company with wrath, (continually) were tormented.” (Wisdom of Solomon 11:9)


The Latter Revelation:

Through/during every night and day in the tombs and in the mountains (the man with an unclean spirit continually) was shouting and cutting ‘down himself’/’himself entirely’ (with) stones. (Mark 5:5)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

To (Jesus Christ is) the glory and the power into the (coming) ages of the (coming) ages. Amen. (Rev 1:6b)

(The four living beings) have not rest, day and night saying: “Holy, holy, holy, holy, holy, holy, holy, holy (א*) the Lord God, the All-powerful, the One who (continually) was and the One who is and the One who comes.” (Rev 4:8b)

The smoke of their tormenting ascends into/for (coming) ages of (coming) ages. And day and night they have not rest, the ones prostrating themselves (towards) the little wild animal (in adoration of it) and (towards) its image (in adoration of it) and if anyone takes the mark of its name. (Rev 14:11)


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “day and night”, see Rev 4:8b. Concerning “the ages of the ages”, see Rev 1:6b.


Additional studies:


R. Fowler White "Making Sense of Rev 20:1-10: Harald Hoehner versus Recapitulation"; Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 37.4 (Dec. 1994): 539-551.

R. Fowler White "Reexamining of the Evidence for Recapitulation in Rev 20:1-10"; Westminster Theological Journal 51.2 (1989): 319-344.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-08-10; 2012-07-27; 2015-10-23)

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20:11 And I beheld a great white throne and the One being seated above (א,* א) it, from whose face the earth and the heaven fled. And it/there was not found a place (for) them.

Word for word (25 words in the Greek text): And (i/I)-beheld (a)-throne great white and the-(one) being-seated above it, whose from the face fled the earth and the heaven and (a)-place not was-found (for)-them.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

The king (Solomon) made a great throne of ivory. (1 Kings 10:18a, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said to the Lord:) “(The heavens) will perish, but You stay throughout/on.” (Ps 102:26a or 102:27a, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said:) “The sea beheld and fled. … What is it (with) you, sea, because you fled? … The earth moved to and fro from/’away from’ face of the Lord.” (Ps 114:2-3a,5a,7a, Greek OT)

… (The prophet) beheld the Lord being seated upon a throne, high and being lifted upon/up. (Is 6:1a, Greek OT)

(Daniel said:) “I (continually) looked at ... when thrones were put/’set up’ and an Old of days (continually) was seated, having a wrapper as if (it was) white (Theod) snow and the growth of hair of His head as if (it was) white clean wool. The throne (was) as if (it was) a flame of fire. (Dan 7:9, Greek OT)

Before face (of the Jews) all the nations ... fled. … (1 Macc 5:43b)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to the scribes and the Pharisees:) “When – according to the circumstances – the unclean spirit may come out from the man, it 'comes through'/passes through waterless places, seeking rest, and does not find. Then it says: ‘I will turn myself next to, into my house, from which I came out.’ And having come it finds (it) being at leisure and (א,*א) being (and having been) swept and being (and having been) adorned. Then it goes and takes in company with itself by its side seven other spirits more evil than itself. And (on) their having come in it dwells there. And the last things of that man become worse than the first things." (Matt 12:43-45a)

(Jesus said to the twelve:) “A place which – according to the circumstances – may not receive you but/and may not hear you, on your going out from there, shake off the gravel below/under your feet into/for a testimony to them.” (Mark 6:11)

(Mary) brought forth her first-born son, and she swaddled Him and caused Him to lean up/back in a manger, for the reason that there was (continually) not a place for them in the inn. (Luke 2:7)

(Jesus said to the crowds:) “Hypocrites! You know to prove the face/countenance of the earth and the heaven/sky, but this seasonable time you do not know how to prove.” (Luke 12:56)

The slave spoke: “Lord, which/what you 'arranged on'/ordered has become (and becomes), and still it/there is a place.” (Luke 14:22)

God thrust out (the nations) from the face of our fathers till the days of David. (Acts 7:45b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

Behold, a throne (continually) lay in the heaven, and (One) being seated against the throne. (Rev 4:2b)

They say to the mountains and to the rocks: “Fall against us and hide us from a face/presence of the One being seated on (א,* א) the throne.” (Rev 6:16a)

It became a war in the heaven; Michael and his messengers waged war ‘in company with’/with the dragon. And the dragon and his messengers waged war. And they were not stable towards/’in comparison with’ him (א,* א), nor a place was found any longer * (א*) in the heaven. (Rev 12:7-8)

The One being seated against it being/is called Faithful and True. And in/with righteousness He judges and wages war. (Rev 19:11b)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: Olof von Dalin, Alf Henrikson, Erik Axel Karlfeldt, Efraim Palmqvist.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “throne and the One being seated above (א,* א) it”, see Rev 4:2b; 6:16a. Concerning “it/there was not found a place (for) them”, see Rev 12:7-8.


Additional studies:

Dan 2:35; Luke 9:29; 2 Pet 3:7; Rev 6:14; 16:20; 21:1; 22:4.


R.J. Korner "'And I saw . . .' An Apocalyptic Literary Convention for Structural Identification in the Apocalypse"; (the journal) Novum Testamentum 42.2 (2000): 160-183.

Jan Lambrecht "Final Judgments and Ultimate Blessings: The Climatic Visions of Revelation 20:11-21:8"; Biblica 81 (2000): 362-385.

Carol J. Rotz-J.A. du Rand "The One who sits on the throne: towards a theory of theocentric characterisation according to the Apocalypse of John"; Neotestamentica 33.1 (1999): 91-112.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-08-10; 2012-07-28; 2015-10-23)

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20:12a And I beheld the dead (bodies), the great and the small, standing ‘in the very eyes of’/before the throne.

Word for word (13 words in the Greek text): and (i/I)-beheld the dead, the great and the small, 'standing-(and-having-stood)'/standing in-the-very-eyes-of the throne.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

Many of the ones sleeping entirely/soundly in/on the breadth of the earth will stand up, ‘the ones’/these indeed into agelong life, but the ones/others into asunderspread sowing and agelong shame. (Dan 12:2, Greek OT)


The Latter Revelation:

(Paul said to the king:) “Why is it judged/considered faithless/incredible ‘by the side of’/among you, if God raises dead (bodies)?” (Acts 26:8)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(I beheld a much/many-headed crowd) standing ‘in the very eyes of’/before the throne and in the very eyes of the little Ram, being (and having been) wrapped up in white dresses and (with) date-twigs in their hands. (Rev 7:9b)

(And the time has come) to give the wage to Your slaves the prophets and to the holy ones and to the ones fearing Your name, the small ones and the great ones. … (Rev 11:18b)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: Bo Giertz, Alf Henrikson, Efraim Palmqvist.


My own comments and speculations: Concerning “the great and the small”, see “the small and the great” in Rev 11:18. Observe the possibility to read the words in a restoration perspective (cf. My own comments and speculations to Rev 20:10b). Concerning “standing ‘in the very eyes of’/before the throne”, see Rev 7:9b.


Additional studies:


Meredith G. Kline "First Resurrection"; Westminster Theological Journal 37.3 (Spring 1975): 366-375.

Jan Lambrecht "Final Judgments and Ultimate Blessings: The Climatic Visions of Revelation 20:11-21:8"; Biblica 81 (2000): 362-385.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-08-10; 2012-07-28; 2015-10-24)

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20:12b And scrolls were opened. And another scroll was opened, which is (the one) of the life. And the dead (bodies) were judged out/’on the basis’ of the things having been (and being) written in the books (א,* א), ‘according to’/concerning their works.

Word for word (25 words in the Greek text): and scrolls were-opened. and another scroll was-opened, which is (of)-the (of)-life, and were-judged the dead out-of the-(things) having-been-(and-being)-written in the books according-to the works their.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(David said to the Lord:) “Give (the missers of Your mark) according to their works.” (Ps 28:4a, Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) “All the ones having been written into/’for the purpose of’ life in Jerusalem will be called holy.” (Is 4:3b, Greek OT)

A thousand of a number of one thousand (continually) performed public duties to (the Old of Days), and ten thousand of a number of ten thousand stood (and had stood) by the side of Him. And a court of justice sat down, and books were opened. (Dan 7:10b, Greek OT, Theod)

That day (will be a day) of oppression, such as not has become from the (time when the people) became till that day. And in that day 'every the'/’all the’ people, who – according to the circumstances – may be found having been (and being) written in, in the scroll (Greek OT Theod.: “in the book”), will be heightened. (Dan 12:1b, Greek OT)

A scroll of remembrance has been written in the very eyes of (the Lord) (with) the ones fearing the Lord and standing in awe of His name. (Mal 3:16b, Greek OT)

(The Jews) spread out the scroll of the law. (1 Macc 3:48a)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "Do not judge, in order that you may not be judged." (Matt 7:1)

(Jesus said to the seventy:) “Rejoice because your names are (and have been) written in, in the heavens.” (Luke 10:20b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Jesus said to the Jews:) ”Do not wonder (over/at) this, because it comes an hour, in which all the ones in the memorial tombs may (P66, א,* א) hear His voice. And they shall go out ... the ones having practised the worthless things into a resurrection of judgment.” (John 5:28-29)

(Jesus said:) “And if – according to the circumstances – anyone may hear My words and may not watch/keep (them), I do not judge him. For I did not come in order that I might judge the adornment/’adorned world’, however/but in order that I might save the adornment/’adorned world’. The one not adopting Me and not taking My words has the one judging him; that saying, which I have talked, will judge him in/at the last day.” (John 12:47-48)

I will give you, everyone, according to * (א*) the works. (Rev 2:23b, ”Thyatira”)

(The messenger said:) “Who (is) worthy to open the scroll and loosen its seals?” And no one in the heaven and not (א,*א) upon the earth * (א,*א) was able to open the scroll, and not (א,*א) to see (into) it. (Rev 5:2b-3)

The nations was/were (P47, א*) wrathful, and/but Your wrath came and the seasonable time of the dead (bodies) to be judged. (Rev 11:18a)

The ones dwelling upon the earth will wonder, (the ones) whose names (א,* א) are not (and have not been) written against the scroll of the life from a foundation of an adornment/’adorned world’, seeing the little wild animal, that it (continually) was and is not and again (א*) will be ‘by the side of’/near. (Rev 17:8b)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 - about 1500

Alma Svensson in Katthult, who was mother to Emil, wrote down all his mischiefs in blue exercise-books which she hid in her drawer. At last the drawer was so stuffed with exercise-books that one barely could draw it out. There always was some exercise-book which was battered and got struck crossways. But they are there kept in the same old chest of drawers still up to this day, those blue exercise-books, without three which Emil once, when he needed money, tried to sell to the woman teacher in the Sunday-school. When she did not want to buy them he took and made paper boats of them and let them sail in the brook of Katthult, and then no one has seen anything of them. The teacher in the Sunday-school did not understand why she would buy some exercise-books by Emil. "To what would I have them", she said surprised. "To learn the children so that they do not become as ghastly as I", Emil said. Yes, to be sure, Emil surely himself knew what kid he was, and if he would happen to forget it so always Lina was found, she who was maid in Katthult, she could remind him. "It is not good use having you in any Sunday-school", she said, "for it has not any effect on you and you never come to heaven in any case . . . yes, it would of course then be if they need some help with the thunder!" Lina meant that it always was thunder and crash where Emil went on. (Astrid Lindgren "Än lever Emil i Lönneberga" p 5-8; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

That I was ill I discovered the Christmas Day (1911) of this, that I was so tired that I could not rise, and that I did not want to drink coffe. I had not any pains, experienced only a great rest, an indifference to the outer world, and a feeling that I at last had been at rest. Otherwise my usual is that at seven o'clock in the morning spring out of bed, go out in order to come home driven by a burning longing for activity. Now this unrest was away; I thought myself have completed the day's work of my life, had said all what I wanted to say, and the unprinted thing lay in well arranged cardboards. . . . Now I have, it is true, for twelve years, since an Inferno-night in Paris 1896, when my older ego was executed, been busy with a balance sheet of my life, scrutinized closely and rebuked, judged and condemned all my bad actions, tried by patiently suffering offset the ones I have committed, not always successfully, often with relapse of course. . . . The old thing in the now of the reality, which was not passed away, followed as the shadow, and life lay heavy, dark behind me; not a light point; also memories which before had been harmless now were changed into guilt. What I before had regarded as my merit I found be relatively vain, also the good deeds only were duties, which should be fulfilled without reward; the talent I had been proud of and many (not all) had admired was not mine, but a present, perhaps simply a loan. . . . There was nothing to boast of. When I heard that they in a pompous way wanted to celebrate my coming birthday, I wanted to tear my clothes to rags, and I saw in letters of fire: Woe You, when all men praise You!" (August Strindberg "Betraktelser på Födelsedagen med anledning av Sjukdomen" p 192-194; Afton-Tidningen 1912-01-22; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Colonel (Beerencreutz) sat there quite alone trying to come to some kind of agreement with Our Lord. . . . One troublesome memory after the other arose within him. There were great things and there were little. Some he outright could bear in mind saying what worth they had, but there also was some with which it was more awkward. In what column of the account book would he draw up such things he had carried out by order, or such he himself never had counted among any sin, but which looked to should be called so after (the old bible of his mother)? He probably also had a good deal of things to note on the income side, but it went in the same way with these things. The more he thought of the matter, the less sure he was of what he would be allowed to write in his favour. He saw no possibility to be able to appear with entirely clear and orderly accounts. . . . He who rolled the sun forward in its course, he was one who did not count as we counted, and not measured as we measured. It was not good use sitting here and be anxious and horror-struck. All would fall short before him, who was power and light and richness and pleasure and joy and wonder. (Selma Lagerlöf "Vägen mellan himmel och jord" p 460-461; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

(Colonel) Beerenscreutz . . . was about to weave carpets to his two rooms: large, many-coloured carpets with richly and wonderfully worked out patterns. . . . While (he) strived to get the pattern to fit, and while he was busied with warp shed and weft, he often sat thinking of Our Lord. He was probably sitting in a still larger loom, he, and had a still more wonderful pattern to weave after. And the colonel understood that it had to be both light and dark in that weave, in order that it would look well. But Beerencreutz sometimes could sit pondering upon this for so long time that he thought himself see how his life, and the life of the men he had known and accompanied, formed a little part of God's large web; and he saw that passage so plainly spread out, that he could see both contours and colours. And if one now had asked Beerencreutz very closely, he would have admitted that he wove in his own life and the life of his friends in the carpet in a little imitation of what he meant he had seen produced in God's loom . . . where the weave was woven of the fates of men. And he thought he saw the check which was the one of sergeant-major Vestblad and saw it surrounded with darkness on three sides. And he realized, he who understood weaving and patterns, that the fourth side also had to be covered with darkness. It was not all right otherwise, else the weave proved a failure. The cold sweat broke out in his forehead. He thought he beheld down to the most implaceable and hardest thing in the whole world. He saw how the fate a man had created for himself in his bygone life pursued him. And it was this which one and other thought that he would be able to escape. (Selma Lagerlöf "Vägen mellan himmel och jord" p 84-85,91-92; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


about 1500 and time before

Christ Jesus ... (is) the Saviour of those who are saved, and the Judge of those who are judged. (Irenaeus, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol I, p 417)

We may add, as a comment of the Talmud, that on New Year's Day three books were opened – that of life, for those whose works had been good; another of death, for those who had been thoroughly evil: and a third, intermediate, for those whose case was to be decided on the Day of Atonement (ten days after New Year), the delay being granted for repentance, or otherwise, after which their names would be finally entered, either in the book of life, or in that of death. (Alfred Edersheim “The Temple” p 296)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Eric S. Alexandersson, Ann-Charlotte Alverfors, Per Block, C. Brockelmann, Tage Danielsson, Fjodor Dostojevskij, Hillis Grane, Hjalmar Gullberg, Krister Hanell, Alf Henrikson, Ingrid Hesslander, Jakob Otto Hoof, Gunnlaug Leifsson, Sven Lidman, Lennarth Magnusson, Margareta Malmgren, Carl Henrik Martling, Vilhelm Moberg, Thomas More, Arvid Mörne, Richard Newton, Fredrik Nielsen, Bertil Nilsson, Anders Nohrborg, Thorsten Nunstedt, Runa Ohlander, Martin P:n Nilsson, Efraim Palmqvist, Niklas Piensoho, Gavin Reid, Viktor Rydberg, Gösta Sandberg, Gunnar E. Sandgren, Isaac Basjevis Singer, Harry Sjöman, Enar Skillius, Yrsa Stenius, Ambrosius Stub, Edith Södergran, Ragnar Thoursie, Anton Tjechov, Abraham Wickbom.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “scrolls were opened … scroll was opened”, see Rev 5:2b-3. Concerning “(the scroll) of the life”, see Rev 17:8b. Concerning “the dead (bodies) were judged”, see Rev 11:18a. Concerning “’according to’/concerning their works”, see Rev 2:23bb.


The one having the Son has the life. The One not having the Son of God has not the life. (1 John 5:12)


Additional studies:

2 Sam 24:2-9; Ezra 2:62; Ps 87:6; Is 3:11; Jer 17:1; 22:30; 2 Cor 5:10; Rev 3:5; 20:13,15; 21:27; 22:12.


René Kieffer "Kristi uppståndelse och den allmänna uppståndelsen"; Svensk Exegetisk Årsbok 46 (1981): 111-127.

Meredith G. Kline "First Resurrection"; Westminster Theological Journal 37.3 (Spring 1975): 366-375 (Rev. 20:12-13).

Werner Georg Kümmel "Futurisk och presentisk eskatologi i den äldsta urkristendomen"; Svensk Exegetisk Årsbok 24 (1959): 54-71.

Jan Lambrecht "Final Judgments and Ultimate Blessings: The Climatic Visions of Revelation 20:11-21:8"; Biblica 81 (2000): 362-385.

Chuck Lowe "'There is No Condemnation' (Romans 8:1): But Why Not?" Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 42.2 (June 1999): 231-250.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-08-10; 2012-07-28; 2015-10-24)

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20:13 And the sea gave the dead (bodies), the ones (being) in it. And the death and the Hades gave the dead (bodies), the ones (being) in them. And they were ‘judged down’/condemned (א,*א), everyone, according to their works.

Word for word (28 words in the Greek text): and gave the sea the dead the-(ones) in it and the death and the hades gave the dead the-(ones) in them, and (they)-were-judged-down everyone according-to the works their.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The king) recollected as many things as he had talked and as/when he had ‘judged down’/condemned (Vashti). (Esther 2:1b, Greek OT)

(This song will be sung upon the earth/land of Judas: "Lord), Your dead (bodies) will stand up, and the ones in the memorial tombs will rise." (Is 26:19a, Greek OT)

(Solomon said to the Lord:) “You have a (judicial) authority of life and death, and You lead down into gates of Hades and You lead up.” (Wisdom of Solomon 16:13)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said: “God) will find everyone according to his works.” (Sir 16:14b)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to the scribes and Pharisees:) “Males of Nineveh will stand up in company with this generation in/at the judgment and will ‘judge ... down’/condemn it. … A queen of 'south wind'/south will rise in company with this generation in/at the judgment and will ‘judge ... down’/condemn it.” (Matt 12:41a,42a)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “The Son of the Man is about to come in the glory of His Father in company with His messengers and will then give back to everyone according to his works (א*). (Matt 16:27)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

I have the keys of (the) death and (the) Hades.(Rev 1:18b)

I will give you, everyone, according to * (א*) the works. (Rev 2:23b, ”Thyatira”)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

Pelle Dieden was here a while before Christmas and told a little from Norway. Pontus de la Gardie's daughter is married in Norway. She had told Pelle, that her grandfather, count Löwenskiöld, had become brought to forced labour in north Norway together with several other trusted men from his district as a retribution because some Norwegians in a village in the nearness had murmured, when a German soldier in a cinema queue had pushed his way before all others and moreover behaved insolently. The poor count had not even a notion that a cinema performance had taken place. Such is the German justice. And after the count had been brought away, two lorries drove up to the castle and a crowd of German soldiers stalked in taking all what they got hold of, among other things 2.000 bottles of wine, all tinned food, all soap, not even a single little piece of soap to an infant baby they were allowed to keep.. Then soldiers got helplessly drunk and forced the old countess to make tea at three o'clock in the night. In (the prison) Grini Pelle declared, that according to what she had heard Norwegians being there protest, they are beaten at best three times a day, otherwise four times a day. Woe them when the day of retribution comes. (Astrid Lindgren "Krigsdagböcker 1939-1945" p 151; 1942-12-25; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

An autumn morning year 1914, during the first years of the great war, a rather intense mist extended over the little peaceful and of events of world-wide importance practically unaffected district, where The peaceable one had his habitation. . . . For the first time he during this morning heard a sound from out of the world. A loud and rough voice cried inside in the mist: The Lord God, be merciful and help the belligerent ones! Yes, yes, yes, be merciful to the belligerent ones, for they have it after all rather difficult. The blood flows in the ditches as water. Yes, yes, yes, the Lord God! . . . The heaps of corpses lie on the field, big as straw-stacks. Yes, yes, yes, help belligerent ones!" . . . (The peaceble) stretched out his arms speaking in the mist: "Remain, mist, remain! . . . Let me and my people go here in the mist still at our work without being disturbed with rumours about the adversities of strange men!" . . . At heart in the depth of the soul . . . he (nevertheless) thought with despair of the while, when he would have to leave the eathly and be led before his judge. And he knew, that in that while the woman who went crying in the road would stand beside him before the throne of God. And God father would say to him in a strict voice: "I let a storm loose over the earth in your time. How came that thought to your heart, that you would hide yourself away from the tempest?" Then the peaceable wanted to defend himself saying: "It was a superhuman thing, which you demanded me to do. I still was silent, because I saw no expedient. It did not belonged to my task to subdue your wrath. I feared that I would more hurt than be of use." Then the highest judge would say: "I know, that I have not given you intellect enough to subdue the storm. But I had given you abilities enough to show compassion and practise mercy." (Selma Lagerlöf "Dimman" p 503-511; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Rabbi Aqiba (died c. A.D. 135) used to say: " ... the judgement of the generation of the Flood endured twelve months; the judgement of Job endured twelve months; the judgement of God and Magog which is to come shall endure twelve months; and the judgement of the unrighteous in Gehenna shall endure twelve months." (cf. C.K. Barrett "The Gospel according to St John" p 263)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Carl Jonas Love Almqvist, Karin Alvtegen, Birger Gerhardsson, Röl Gording, Carl Grimberg, Eyvind Johnson, Carl Henrik Martling, Vilhelm Moberg, Olaf Moe, Pelle Molin, Björn Palmgren, Carl Fr. Peterson, Viktor Rydberg, Milton Steinberg, Anton Tjechov.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “the death and the Hades”, see Rev 1:18b. Concerning “according to their works”, see Rev 2:23bb.


Greek words:

katakrinô (judge down) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Esther 2:1; Matt 12:41-42; Rev 20:13(א,* א) – Wisdom of Solomon 4:16; Susanna v 41(Theod),48(Theod),53; Matt 20:18; 27:3; Mark 10:33; 14:64; Luke 11:31-32; John (8:10-11); Rom 2:1; 8:3,34; 14:23; 1 Cor 11:32; Heb 11:7; Jas 5:9; 2 Pet 2:6.


Additional studies:

John 5:29; 1 Cor 15:26; Rev 21:4.


René Kieffer "Kristi uppståndelse och den allmänna uppståndelsen"; Svensk Exegetisk Årsbok 46 (1981): 111-127.

Meredith G. Kline "First Resurrection"; Westminster Theological Journal 37.3 (Spring 1975): 366-375.

Werner Georg Kümmel "Futurisk och presentisk eskatologi i den äldsta urkristendomen"; Svensk Exegetisk Årsbok 24 (1959): 54-71.

Jan Lambrecht "Final Judgments and Ultimate Blessings: The Climatic Visions of Revelation 20:11-21:8"; Biblica 81 (2000): 362-385.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-08-11; 2012-07-28; 2015-10-24)

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20:14 And the death and the Hades were thrown into the lake of the fire. And (א,*א) this is the second death, the lake of the fire.

Word for word (22 words in the Greek text): and the death and the hades were-thrown into the lake (of)-the (of)-fire. and this the second death is, the lake (of)-the (of)-fire.


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

I have the keys of (the) death and (the) Hades.(Rev 1:18b)

The one conquering may not/certainly not be treated unrighteously ‘out of’/’in consequence of’ the second death. (Rev 2:11b, ”Smyrna”)

Living (the little wild animal and the false prophet) were thrown into the lake of the fire, the one burning in/with sulphur. (Rev 19:20b)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: Kjell Espmark, Bo Frid, Selma Lagerlöf, Martin Luther, Vilhelm Moberg, D.L. Moody, Joanne Kathleen Rowling, Bo Setterlind, Jesper Svartvik.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “the Death and the Hades”, see Rev 1:18b. Concerning “thrown into the lake of the fire”, see Rev 19:20. Concerning “the second death”, see Rev 2:11.


Additional studies:

1 Cor 15:26,54-55, Rev 20:15; 21:4,8.


Werner Georg Kümmel "Futurisk och presentisk eskatologi i den äldsta urkristendomen"; Svensk Exegetisk Årsbok 24 (1959): 54-71.

Jan Lambrecht "Final Judgments and Ultimate Blessings: The Climatic Visions of Revelation 20:11-21:8"; Biblica 81 (2000): 362-385.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-08-11; 2012-07-28; 2015-10-25)

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20:15 And if anyone was not found having been (and being) written in the book of the life, he was thrown into the lake of the fire.

Word for word (17 words in the Greek text): and if anyone not was-found in the book (of)-the (of)-life having-been-(and-being)-written, (he)-was-thrown into the lake (of)-the (of)-fire.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(David said to God:) “Let (my adversaries) be wiped out, out of a book of living ones and let them not be written in company with righteous ones.” (Ps 69:28 or 69:29, Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) “The dwelling-tents (of Babylon) were set on fire. Their bars were crushed.“ (Jer 51:30b, Greek OT)

That day (will be a day) of oppression, such as not has become from the (time when the people) became till that day. And in that day 'every the'/’all the’ people, who – according to the circumstances – may be found having been (and being) written in, in the scroll (Greek OT Theod.: “in the book”), will be heightened. (Dan 12:1b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) “Behold, the day of the Lord comes, burning as a baking oven, and it will inflame (the ones being not the slaves of God), and all the ones of other descent and all the ones making/doing lawless things will be a stalk.” (Mal 4:1a, Greek OT)

(Solomon said:) “If having been ‘struck out’/overwhelmed (with) ability and activity of (the created things but having not knowledge of how much more good the Master is than these) ... all the same on/’for the sake of’ these (men) it/there is a few discontent, for themselves they and/also quickly go astray, seeking God and wanting to find (Him). … But nor (these men are) ’knowledge together with’/excused.” (Wisdom of Solomon 13:4a,6,8a)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “The synagogue of lawless ones and their consummation (is) a flame of fire.” (Sir 21:9b)


The Latter Revelation:

(John the Baptist said to the Pharisees and Sadducees: “The One who comes behind me) will baptize you in holy spirit and fire and ... will burn down the chaff (in) an unquenchable fire.” (Matt 3:11b,12b)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "Fear ... the One being able to perish and/both soul and body in Gehenna." (Matt 10:28b)

(The King) will speak to the ones out/’on the basis’ of the ‘(parts) of a good name’/left: “Go from/’away from’ Me, (the ones) (א,* א, B) having been (and being) cursed, into the agelong fire, the one having been (and being) made ready for the slanderer and his messengers.” (Matt 25:41)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

The one coming into/in through the door is a shepherd of the sheep. To this one the doorkeeper opens, and the sheep hear his voice, and he raises his voice (towards) his own sheep ‘according to name’/’after their names’, and he leads them out. (John 10:2-3)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) " If – according to the circumstances – a certain (person) may not have stayed in Me, he has been thrown outside as the twig and been dried. And they lead it (א,*א) together (with other twigs) and throw (them) into the fire, and it is burnt." (John 15:6)

And I will not/certainly not wipe out his name out of the book of the life, and I will confess his name in front of (א,*א) My Father and in the very eyes of His messengers. (Rev 3:5b)

Living (the little wild animal and the false prophet) were thrown into the lake of the fire, the one burning in/with sulphur. (Rev 19:20b)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 - about 1500

The cosmological model (in Third Baruch) consists of five heavens. Baruch visits only the first four. These four divide mankind into three groups. Sinners who planned and built the Tower of Babel are found in the first two heavens. These sinners appear to be exceptionally evil, bearing as they do, obvious signs of having been demonized. Those sinners destined for Hades are found in the third heaven. These should not be confused with the groups in the first two heavens. ... The righteous dwell in the fourth heaven. The fifth heaven is “the kingdom of heaven” ... and is reserved for the righteous. However, no one can enter this heaven before the final judgment has taken place. (Leif Carlsson “Round Trips to Heaven” p 353)

Our Lord understood, that it was impossible for St. Peter to grasp, that his mother had been so avaricious, that she could not be allowed to enjoy the blessedness. "St. Peter", he said, "how can you so certainly know, that your mother would get on well with us?" "See, such you only say, in order that you will not need to hear my prayer", St. Peter said. "Who would not get on well in Paradise?" "The one who do not feel joy at the joy of others, cannot get on well there", Our Lord said. . . . "What did I more want than to furnish you all a paradise of mere light happiness?" he said. "Do you not understand, that it was because of this I descended to the men learning them to love their neighbour as themselves? For as long as they do not do this, there is no place of refuge, neither in heaven nor on earth, where the pain and the distress cannot reach them." (Selma Lagerlöf "Vår Herre och Sankte Per" s 123,127; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Be ordered: . . . A Swedish ABC-book with pictures but without Our Father and other Hellish doctrine! (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev IV 1884 p 305; letter 1884-08-22 to Claës Looström; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

"Margit", (Master Gudmund) said, "it is stated, that this house has become built by heathen forefathers. Where are they now? In their lifetime they never had heard about the Lord Jesus. Would they because of this involuntary ignorance have become judged to torments resting for ever? Away with this, Margit! It has existed heathens, which, when they in outward sense had not the law, nevertheless did what the law ordered, because God - please, observe: God himself - had written his law in their hearts and consciences. . . . Glory to God, who in his severity is just, merciful and of great mildness." (Viktor Rydberg "Vapensmeden" p 79-80; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


about 1500 and time before

While we say that there will be a burning up of all, we shall seem to utter the doctrine of the Stoics. (Justin Martyr, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol I, p 170)

Communion with God is life and light, and the enjoyment of all the benefits which He has in store. ... Separation from God is death, and separtion from light is darkness; and separation from God consists in the loss of all the benefits which He has in store. ... Now, good things are eternal and without end with God, and therefore the loss of these is also eternal and never-ending. ... Those who have blinded themselves, or have been blinded by others, are for ever deprived of the enjoyment of light. (Irenaeus, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol I, p 556)

(The school of Shammai) arranged all mankind into three classes: the perfectly righteous, who are ‘immediately written and sealed to eternal life;’ the perfectly wicked, who are ‘immediately written and sealed to Gehenna;’ and an intermediate class ‘who go down to Gehinnom, and moan, and come up again.’ Substantially the same, as regards Eternity of Punishment, is the view of the School of Hillel. In regard to sinners of Israel and of the Gentiles it teaches indeed, that they are tormented in Gehenna for twelve months, after which their bodies and souls are burnt up and scattered as dust under the feet of the righteous; but it significantly excepts from this number certain classes of transgressors ‘who go down to Gehinnom and are punished there to ages of ages.’ (Alfred Edersheim "The Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah Part II" p 792)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Eric S. Alexandersson, Ann-Charlotte Alverfors, Oloph Bexell, Rune W. Dahlén, Sven Danell, Bo Frid, Stefan Gustavsson, Alice Hulting, Karl Kilsmo, Christofer Klasson, May Stina Kylberg, Lars Levi Laestadius, Sven Lidman, Lars Lindberg, Astrid Lindgren, Martin Luther, Olaf Moe, D.L. Moody, Fabian Månsson, Stephen Neill, John Ongman, Efraim Palmqvist, Harald Rasmussen, Einar Rimmerfors, Sven Edvin Salje, Ola Sigurdson, Isaac Basjevis Singer, Sven Stolpe, Jesper Svartvik, Einar Thomassen, Anton Tjechov, P. Waldenström.


My own comments and speculations:

In the Greek OT the word ”katakrinô” (Rev 20:13) has the meaning of “be sentenced to death” (jfr Rehkopf p 156). Compare with Matt 10:28 where it said that God can perish both body and soul in Gehenna. Compare also the words here in Rev 20:15 about being thrown (dead?) into the lake of the fire with Rev 19:20, where it is spoken of being thrown living into the lake of the fire. Nor anything here is said about any torments. Compare moreover with what is said in Rev 20:10. See also Rev 14:11.

These ones who here are thrown into fire can be compared with the chaff which John the Baptist is speaking about in Matt 3:12 (cf. John 1:11; 6:66; 9:22). The chaff also can be compared with efficient kernels of bread-stuff (cf. John 15:5; Rev 14:1-5,14-16), inefficient kernels of bread-stuff (cf. John 15:6, Rev 14:17-20) and (kernels of) weed (cf. John 11:53; Rev 14:9-11).

Concerning “the book of the life”, see Rev 3:5b. Concerning “thrown into the lake of the fire”, see Rev 19:20.


For on our missing (the mark of God) volontarily after 'the take'/'having taken' the additional knowledge of the truth, it/there is not any longer left a sacrifice on account of misses (of the mark of God), but a certain fearful expectation of judgment and fire being about to (with) zeal eat/consume the hostile ones. (Heb 10:26-27)


Additional studies:

Matt 23:33; Luke 3:17.


Werner Georg Kümmel "Futurisk och presentisk eskatologi i den äldsta urkristendomen"; Svensk Exegetisk Årsbok 24 (1959): 54-71.

Jan Lambrecht "Final Judgments and Ultimate Blessings: The Climatic Visions of Revelation 20:11-21:8"; Biblica 81 (2000): 362-385.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-08-11; 2012-07-28; 2015-10-25)

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