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Chapter 19

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19:1 After these things I heard as a great/loud voice of a much/many-headed crowd in the heaven, saying: “Hallelujah! The saving and * (א*) the ability (are) of our God ...”

Word for word (21 words in the Greek text): After these-(things) (i/I)-heard as (a)-voice (of)-(a)-crowd much in the heaven saying: hallelujah the saving and the ability (of)-the (of)-god our.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The psalmist said:) “Hallelujah! … Praise the Lord out of the heavens. Praise Him in the highest things!” (Ps 148:1, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said:) “Hallelujah! Sing to the Lord a new song, His praise in an (assembly) of called out of pious ones.” (Ps 149:1, Greek OT)

(Tobit said: “From) all the lanes of (Jerusalem people) will speak: ‘Hallelujah!’ And they will praise (God) saying: ‘Blessed (is) God!’” (Tobit 13:18a, BA)

(Judith) spoke towards the Jews (in) a great/loud voice: “Praise God, praise! Praise God, who did not let His mercy stand aloof from the house of Israel, however/but quake our enemies through my hand in this night.” (Judith 13:14)

(The prophet said to Zion:) “Having led on you the bad things (God) will lead on you the agelong cheerfulness in company with your saving.” (Baruch 4:29)


The Latter Revelation:

All ‘of them’/together of the multitude of the disciples began rejoicing to praise God (with) a great/loud voice on account of all the (works of) ability which they beheld, saying: “Being (and having been) blessed * a (א*) king in a name of a lord. Peace in heaven and glory in highest things.” (Luke 19:37b-38)

(Jesus said:) “From the now the Son of the Man will 'be be'/be seating ‘out of’/at the right (hand side) of the ability of God.” (Luke 22:69)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

A much/many-headed crowd (continually) followed (Jesus), because they (continually/repeatedly) beheld (P66, א,* א) the signs which He (continually/repeatedly) made upon/’with regard to’ the weak. (John 6:2)

I heard behind me a great/loud voice as a trumpet. (Rev 1:10b)

Write so the things which you have beheld, and the things which are and the things which must (א*) be about to become after these things. (Rev 1:19)

(Worthy are … the Lord and our God) to take the glory and the honour and the ability ... (Rev 4:11b)

(The messengers said: “Worthy is the little Ram, the One having been – and being – slaughtered) to take the ability and riches and wisdom ...” (Rev 5:12b)

After these things I beheld, and behold, a much/many-headed crowd, which no one (continually/never) was able to number it, out of every nation and (out of) tribes and peoples and tongues. (Rev 7:9a)

(The much/many-headed crowd) shout (with) a great/loud voice, saying: “The saving (belongs) to our God, the One being seated on the throne and to the little Ram into the (coming) ages of the (coming) ages. Amen (א*).” (Rev 7:10)

(The twenty-four elders said:) “We are thankful to You, the Lord God, the All-powerful, the One who is and the One who (continually) was, and (P47, א*) that You have taken (and take) Your great ability and have been/’begun to be’ king.” (Rev 11:17)

I heard a great/loud voice in the heaven, saying: ”Just now the saving and the ability and the kingdom of our God and the (judicial) authority of His christ/'anointed one' have become (established).” (Rev 12:10a)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

"Here on the rock Jaffa lies with its five hundred orange gardens", (Hellgum) said. "The plain behind is the Sharon plain, where the lilies grow, and the mountains afar off is the mountains of Judah." In the same moment he pronounced these names, the Swedes observed something which before had escaped them. They saw, that the sun spread a richer shine over the sky here than in their country and that the plain and the mountains had a shimmer over themselves of pink and light blue and silverwhite, which they had not noticed elsewhere. "Hallelujah!" they said, all of them, with a great joy. "Think that we are so long come!" It seemed to them absolutely incredible, that they really had overcome all difficulties, that it had been managed for poor farmers from Dalecarlia, who they all were, to be allowed to behold the Sharon plain and the mountains of Judah. (Selma Lagerlöf "Jerusalem II" p 236; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Here a new education is needed and here times of wolves come! Times when a pianoforte with its cracks will not more suppress hunger; when the silkworms will stop spinning and the vineyard be sown again with bread plants, when sucklings will die at the drying breast of the culture mothers and the cows go before the plough; it will come days when you are glad to have a high boot to clean yourself and you do not find a fellow-being wanting to carry out your uncleanliness; then the revolution is running, the ones having degenerated will die; nature closes the books and the avalanche goes!" And the merchants on the earth will weep and grieve over her, (Babylon, the great city) that no one buys their goods more. And the voice of harpists and singers and pipers and trumpets will not more be heard in you; and all craftsmen, whatever craft it is, will not more be found in you! Then I heard a loud voice of a great crowd in heaven, saying: Hallelujah, blessedness and praise, glory and power be to the Lord our God; for his judgments are true and right; for he has judged the great harlot, the one who with her fornication have destroyed the earth, and has avenged the blood of his servants out of her hand." Have you heard the devil prophesy before? Well, it is not difficult to be a prophet when one is sitting in the centre of Europe, a day and night from Paris, London, Berlin and Rome! (August Strindberg "Kvarstadsresan" p 124-125; Ouchy, April 1884; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


(When) the priest at the altar ... jerked (the blood of the Paschal lambs) in one jet at the base of the altar ... a most solemn ‘hymn’ of praise was raised, the Levites leading in song, and the offerers either repeating after them or merely responding. Every first line of a Psalm was repeated by the people, while to each of the others they responded by a ‘Hallelujah,’ or ‘Praise ye the Lord.’ This service of song consisted of the so-called ‘Hallel,’ which comprised Psalms cxiii. till cxviii. Thus –


The Levites began: ‘Hallelu Jah’ (Praise ye the Lord).

The people repeated: ‘Hallelu Jah.’

The Levites: ‘Praise (Hallelu), O ye servants of Jehovah.’

The people responded: ‘Hallelu Jah.’

The Levites: ‘Praise (Hallelu) the name of Jehovah.’

The people responded: ‘Hallelu Jah.’


Similarly, when Psa. cxiii. had been finished – Psa. cxiv.:


The Levites: ‘When Israel went out of Egypt.’

The people repeated: ‘When Israel went out of Egypt.’

The Levites: ‘The house of Jacob from a people of strange language.’

The people responded: ‘Hallelu Jah.’


And in the same manner, repeating each first line and responding at the rest, till they came to Psa. cxviii., when, besides the first, these three lines were also repeated by the people (verses 25-26):


‘Save now, I beseech Thee, Jehovah.’

‘O Jehovah, I beseech Thee, send now prosperity;’ and

‘Blessed be He that cometh in the name of Jehovah.’


May it not be that to this solemn and impressive ‘hymn’ corresponds the Alleluia song of the redeemed Church in heaven, as described in Rev. xix. 1,3,4,6? (Alfred Edersheim “The Temple” p 223-224)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Stig Abrahamsson, Eskil Albertsson, Margit Assarsson, Tage Aurell, Majgull Axelsson, Johann Albrecht Bengel, Björn Berglund, Magnus Bergman, Chas. E. Cowman, William Dalrymple, Sven Danell, Ylva Eggehorn, Hilding Fagerberg, A.P. Franklin, Einar Fritzell, Carl Grimberg, Olov Hartman, Alf Henrikson, John Kron, Pär Lagerkvist, Karl Larsson, Haldor K. Laxness, Elin Lindberg, Carl Henrik Martling, Bertil Melkersson, Olof Nicklason, Fredrik Nielsen, Magnus Ottosson, Efraim Palmqvist, Mats Paulson, Lewi Pethrus, Ebba Ramsay.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “after these things”, see Rev 1:19. Concerning “a great/loud voice”, see Rev 1:10b. Concerning “a much/many-headed crowd”, cf. Rev 7:9a.


Greek words:

hallêlouïa (hallelujah) (in the NT + examples in the OT) Ps 148:1; 149:1; Tobit 13:18; Rev 19:1 – Ps 104:35; 105:45; 106:1,48; 111:1; 112:1; 113:1,9; 115:18; 116:19; 117:2; 135:1,21; 146:1; 147:1; 149:1; 150:1,6; Rev 19:3-4,6.

aineô (praise; examples for the purpose of ’praise the Lord/God’): Ps 148:1; Luke 19:37 - 1 Chron 16:4,25,36; 23:30; 29:13; 2 Chron 5:13; 20:19,21; 29:30; Ezra 3:10; Neh 5:13; 12:24; Ps 22:23(24),26(27); 35:18; 48:1(2); 69:30(31),34(35); 74:21; 84:4(5); 96:4; 102:18(19); 107:32; 109:30; 113:1; 117:1; 119:164,175; 135:1,3; 146:1-2; 147:12; 148:1-5,7,13; 149:3; 150:1-6; Is 62:9; 64:11; Jer 20:13; Joel 2:26; Luke 2:13,20; Acts 2:47; 3:8-9; Rom 15:11.


Additional studies:

Jer 51:48; The Prayer of Manasseh v 15; John 4:22; 11:43; 12:28; Rev 11:15.


David J. MacLeod "Heaven's Hallelujah Chorus: An Introduction to the Seven 'Last Things'."; Bibliotheca Sacra 156 (1999): 72-84.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-08-04; 2012-07-26; 2015-10-16)

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19:2a ... because His judgments (are) true and righteous, because He has judged the great harlot, whoever/who ruined the earth in/with her fornication.

Word for word (21 words in the Greek text): because true and righteous the judgments his, because (he)-judged the harlot the great whoever ruined the earth in the fornication her


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

The earth was ruined opposite God. (Gen 6:11a, Greek OT)

(David said:) “God (is) a righteous judge.” (Ps 7:11a or 7:12a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to the prophet:) “In this way I shall ruin the insolence of Judas and the insolence of Jerusalem.” (Jer 13:9, Greek OT)

(Tobit said:) “Righteous are You, Lord, and all Your works (are) righteous … You judge into the (coming) age.” (Tobit 3:2, BA)

… The righteous judgment of God came (and had come) against, against (the foreign king). (2 Macc 9:18a)

(Solomon said to God:) “I shall ‘judge asunder’/judge Your people righteously, and I shall be the thrones of my father worthy.” (Wisdom of Solomon 9:12b)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “The Lord alone will be justified/'pronounced as righteous'.” (Sir 18:2)

(Azariah said to the Lord:) “Righteous are You on/in all things which You have made/done (with) us. And all Your works (are) true and Your ways straight and all Your judgments true and You have made/done judicial verdicts of truth.” (The Prayer of Azariah v 4-5a)


The Latter Revelation:

(The master of the house said to the idle ones:) ”Which/what – if according to the circumstances – may be righteous, I will give you.” (Matt 20:4b)

(Jesus said to His disciples: “Make yourselves) an inexhaustible heap/treasure in the heavens, whereat ... moth does not ruin throughout.” (Luke 12:33)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Jesus said to the Jews:) “I am not able to make/do nothing/anything from/'owing to' Myself. Entirely as I hear, I judge. And My judgment is righteous, because I do not seek My will however/but the will of the One having sent Me.” (John 5:30)

(Jesus said to the Jews:) “Do not judge according to sight, however/but judge the righteous judgment.” (John 7:24)

(Jesus said to the Pharisees:) “And/also if I – according to the circumstances – may judge, My judgment is truthful (P66, א,* א), because I am not alone, however/but I and the One having sent Me * (א*).” (John 8:16)

However I have a much/great thing (א,* א) ‘down from’/against you, that you let the woman Jezebel be, the one saying herself be (א,* א) a prophetess, and she teaches and leads My slaves astray to fornicate and eat (things) sacrificed to idols. (Rev 2:20)

Till when do You not judge and procure justice for our blood out of the ones dwelling upon the earth? (Rev 6:10b)

The nations was/were (P47, א*) wrathful, and/but Your wrath came and the seasonable time of the dead (bodies) to be judged and to give the wage to Your slaves the prophets and to the holy ones and to the ones fearing Your name, the small ones and the great ones and to ruin throughout the ones ruining the earth throughout. (Rev 11:18)

(The messenger brought the good little message ) * (א,* א) in/with a great/loud voice: “Fear God, and give Him glory, because the hour of His judgment has come.” (Rev 14:7a)

Another * (P47, א*), a second one, followed, saying: “She has fallen * (א,* א), the great Babylon, who gives (and has given) all the nations to drink out of the wine of the passion of her fornication.” (Rev 14:8)

(The ones who had conquered said:) “Great and wondrous (are) Your works, the Lord God, the All-powerful. Righteous and true (are) Your ways, * (א*) King of the ages (P47, א*).” (Rev 15:3b)

I heard the messenger of the waters saying: “Righteous are You, the One who is and the One who (continually) was, the pious/sacred One, because You have judged these things.” (Rev 16:5)

I heard the sacrificial altar saying: “Yes, the Lord God, the All-powerful, true and righteous (are) Your judgments.” (Rev 16:7)

And the great city became into three parts. (Rev 16:19a)

I will show you the judicial verdict of the great harlot, the one being seated upon many waters. (Rev 17:1b)

Be cheerful on/’for the sake of’ (Babylon), heaven and the holy ones and the apostles and the prophets, because God has judged your judicial verdict out/’on the basis’ of her. (Rev 18:20)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: Sven Danell, Stefan Gustavsson.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “His judgments (are) true and righteous”, see Rev 16:7. Concerning “the great harlot”, see Rev 16:19 and Rev 17:1b.


Paul said to the believers in Corinth: “Bad beings together ruin beneficial/fina habits.” (1 Cor 15:33b)


Greek words:

ftheirô (ruin) (in the NT + one example in the Apocrypha) 1 Cor 15:33; Rev 19:2 – Wisdom of Solomon 16:27; 1 Cor 3:17; 2 Cor 7:2; 11:3; Eph 4:22; 2 Pet 2:12; Jude v 10.


Additional studies:

Ps 19:9(10); 119:137; Jer 51:25; John 16:8,11.


Joel Nobel Musvosi "The concept of vengeance in the book of Revelation in its Old Testament and Near Eastern context"; Andrews University Seminary Studies 26.1 (Spring 1988): 83-84.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-08-04; 2012-07-26; 2015-10-16)

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19:2b And He has procured justice for the blood of His slaves out of her hand.

Word for word (10 words in the Greek text): and (he)-procured-justice-(for) the blood (of)-the (of)-slaves his out-of hand her.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Lamech spoke to his women:) “It has been (and is) procured justice seven times ‘out of’/for Cain, but ‘out of’/for Lamech seventy seven times.” (Gen 4:24, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Moses): "I have descended to take (My people) out for Myself, out of the hand of Egyptians and to lead them out, out of that earth/land and to lead them into, into a good and ‘much earth’/’large land’." (Ex 3:8a, Greek OT)

Be cheerful, heavens, together (with the Lord) and prostrate before Him (in honour of Him) all sons of God. Be cheerful nations, in company with His people, ... because (the Lord) will procure justice for the blood of His sons … (on) His enemies.” (Deut 32:43a, Greek OT)

(David said to Saul:) “The Lord who took me out, out of a hand of the lion and out of a hand of the bear, He will take me out, out of the hand of this uncircumcised of another tribe.” (1 Sam 17:37a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Jehu:) “You shall destruct wholly the house of Ahab your lord, ‘out of’/’away from’ My face and you shall out of a hand of Jezebel procure justice for the bloods/blood of My slaves the prophets, and for the bloods/blood of all the slaves of the Lord.” (2 Kings 9:7, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said to the Lord: "The nations) have poured out the blood (Your slaves) as water (in) a circle (round) Jerusalem. . . . Not at any time may the nations speak: 'Where is their God?' And let it be gained knowledge in/among the nations in the 'very eyes'/sight of our eyes of the procuration of justice of the blood of Your slaves, the one's being (and having been) poured out." (Ps 79:3a,10, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said: “The Lord) will deliver (the ones welcoming Him) out of a hand of missers (of His mark).” (Ps 97:10b, Greek OT)

(The wicked ones say:) "If the righteous is a son of God, (God) will take 'in stead of'/'part with' him and deliver him out of a hand of (the ones) standing (and having stood) (him) against." (Wisdom of Solomon 2:18)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to the scribes and the Pharisees:) "Against you may come every/all righteous blood being poured out upon the earth from the blood of righteous Abel till the blood of Zechariah * (א*) whom you murdered meanwhile/between the temple and the sacrificial altar." (Matt 23:35)

(Zacharias said: “The Lord has raised a horn of saving for us) … out of a hand of all the ones hating us … to give/allow us, having been delivered out of a hand of enemies, to serve Him without fear.” (Luke 1:71b,73b-74)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “May not/certainly not God make a procuration of justice for His chosen crying to Him day and night, and is (not) He long-suffering on/’for the sake of’ them? I say to you, that He will make the procuration of their justice in/with quickness.” (Luke 18:7b-8a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

Till when do You not judge and procure justice for our blood out of the ones dwelling upon the earth? (Rev 6:10b)

They poured out the bloods (א,* א) of holy ones and prophets, and You gave (P47, א,* א) them blood to drink, which they just (א,* א) are worthy. (Rev 16:6)

I beheld the woman being drunk (with) (א*) the blood of the holy ones and out of the blood of the witnesses to Jesus. (Rev 17:6a)

Be cheerful on/’for the sake of’ her, heaven and the holy ones and the apostles and the prophets, because God has judged your judicial verdict out/’on the basis’ of (Babylon). (Rev 18:20)

In (Babylon) was found (the) blood of prophets and holy ones and of all the ones having been (and being) slaughtered upon the earth. (Rev 18:24)


Additional studies:

Jer 5:9,29; 9:9; John 8:33-34,41; 16:2; Rev 1:1.


Michelle V. Lee "A Call to Martyrdom: Function as Method and Message in Revelation"; (tidskriften) Novum Testamentum 40.2 (1998): 164-194.

Joel Nobel Musvosi "The concept of vengeance in the book of Revelation in its Old Testament and Near Eastern context"; Andrews University Seminary Studies 26.1 (Spring 1988): 83-84.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-08-04; 2012-07-26; 2015-10-16)

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19:3 And a second (time) they speak (and have spoken): “Hallelujah! And her smoke ascends into the (coming) ages of the (coming) ages.”

Word for word (14 words in the Greek text): And (a)-second (they)-speak-(and-have-spoken): hallelujah. and the smoke her ascends into the ages (of)-the (of)-ages.


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

Nicodemus says towards (Jesus): “How is a man able to be begotten being an old person? He is not able to come into his mother’s belly a second time and be begotten, is he?" (John 3:4)

To (Jesus Christ is) the glory and the power into the (coming) ages of the (coming) ages. Amen. (Rev 1:6b)

Smoke ascended out of the well, as smoke of a great furnace. (Rev 9:2a)

The smoke of their tormenting ascends into/for (coming) ages of (coming) ages. (Rev 14:11)

The kings of the earth, the ones having fornicated * (א*) in company with (Babylon), will weep and will ‘cut themselves against’/mourn her, when they – according to the circumstances – may behold (א,* א) the smoke of her falling (א*). (Rev 18:9)

Seeing the smoke of (the) conflagration (of Babylon) they (continually/repeatedly) shouted, saying: “What (was) like the great city?” (Rev 18:18)

After these things I heard as a great/loud voice of a much/many-headed crowd in the heaven, saying: “Hallelujah!” (Rev 19:1a)


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “second (time)”, see John 3:4-5. Concerning “hallelujah”, see Rev 19:1. Concerning “smoke ascends”, see Rev 9:2. Concerning “the ages of the ages”, see Rev 1:6b.


Additional studies: Jer 7:20, 15:14, 17:4; John 12:3; Rev 19:4,6.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-08-05; 2012-07-26; 2015-10-16)

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19:4 And the twenty-four elders and the four living beings fell/’sank down’ and prostrated themselves before God (in honour of Him), the One being seated on the throne, saying: “Amen. Hallelujah!”

Word for word (23 words in the Greek text): and fell the elders the twenty four and the four living-beings and '(kissed-towards)'/'prostrated-(before)' the god the-(one) being-seated on the throne saying: amen hallelujah


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

To (Jesus Christ is) the glory and the power into the (coming) ages of the (coming) ages. Amen. (Rev 1:6b)

Behold, I will make them, ‘in order’/so that they will arrive and prostrate themselves before, ‘in the very eyes of’/before your feet and you will gain knowledge (א,*א), that I have welcomed you. (Rev 3:9b, “Philadelphia”)

In a middle of the throne and (in) a circle of/from the throne (were) four living beings, being full of eyes in front of and ‘from behind’/behind. (Rev 4:6b)

The living beings – according to the circumstances – may (א,* א) give glory and honour and thankfulness to the One being seated on the throne. (Rev 4:9a)

The twenty-four elders will and/also (א,* א) fall/’sink down’ in the very eyes of the One being seated upon the throne, and they will prostrate themselves before the One living into the (coming) ages of the (coming) ages (in honour of Him). Amen (א,* א). (Rev 4:10a)

The four living beings (continually) said: “Amen.” And the elders fell/’sank down’ and they prostrated themselves. (Rev 5:14)

After these things I heard as a great/loud voice of a much/many-headed crowd in the heaven, saying: “Hallelujah! The saving and * (א*) the ability (are) of our God.” (Rev 19:1)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: Phil. G. Goulding, Lars Levi Laestadius, Gunnar E. Sandgren.


My own comments and speculations:

In Rev 4:10 and 5:14 the elders fall/sank down and prostrate themselves before God. Now also the four living beings do the same thing.

Concerning “the twenty-four elders … fell/’sank down’ and prostrated themselves before God, the One being seated on the throne”, see Rev 4:9a and 4:10a. Concerning “prostrated themselves before”, see also Rev 3:9b. Concerning “the four living beings”, see Rev 4:6b. Concerning “in honour of”, see Rev 13:8.


Additional studies:

1 Chron 16:36; Ps 106:48.


Carol J. Rotz-J.A. du Rand "The One who sits on the throne: towards a theory of theocentric characterisation according to the Apocalypse of John"; Neotestamentica 33.1 (1999): 91-112.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-08-05; 2012-07-26; 2015-10-16)

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19:5 And out of (א*) the throne voices (א*) came out saying: “Praise our God, all His slaves, the ones fearing Him, the small and the great.”

Word for word (23 words in the Greek text): And voices came-out out-of the throne saying: praise the lord our all the slaves his the-(ones) fearing him, the small-(ones) and the great-(ones).


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(David said:) “The ones fearing the Lord, praise Him, the seed of Jacob all of them/you.” (Ps 22:23a or 22:24a, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said: “The Lord) blessed the ones fearing the Lord, the small ones in company with the great ones.” (Ps 115:13, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said:) “Praise the name of the Lord. Slaves, praise the Lord.” (Ps 135:1, Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) “Sing to the Lord. Praise Him.” (Jer 20:13, Greek OT)

All (in the city) ran/came together from a small one till a great one … But (Judith) spoke towards them (with) a great/loud voice: “Praise God, praise. Praise God.” (Judith 13:13a,14a)


The Latter Revelation:

Suddenly it became/appeared together with the messenger a multitude of an heavenly army praising God. (Luke 2:13a)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “The one (being) smaller in/among all (of) you (concerning) things beginning/being under/’under his power’, this one is great.” (Luke 9:48b)

All ‘of them’/together of the multitude of the disciples began rejoicing to praise God (with) a great/loud voice on account of all the (works of) ability which they beheld. (Luke 19:37b)

... All (among the people in the city) from a small till a great said (about Simon:) “This is the ability of God, the one being called Great.” (Acts 8:10)

(Paul said to the king:) “I stand being a witness to both small one and great one ... (Acts 26:22b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Jesus) gave a sign having dispatched away (the revelation) through His messenger to His slave John. (Rev 1:1b)

Rays of light and voices and peals of thunder go out, out of the throne. (Rev 4:5a)

(The souls of the slaughtered witnesses might rest) till they will complete (א,* א), and/both their together-/fellow-slaves and their brothers, the ones being about to be slain as and/also they (themselves). (Rev 6:11b)

(The messenger) said (to the four messengers): “You may not act unrighteously (against) the earth, ‘but not’/nor (א,*א) (against) the sea, ‘but not’/nor (א,*א) (against) the trees, till we may have sealed the slaves of our God upon their foreheads.” (Rev 7:3)

(The stable messenger) shouted (with) a great/loud voice, just as a lion lows, and when he had shouted, * (א*) seven peals of thunder talked (with their) 'of selves'/own voices. (Rev 10:3)

In the days of the voice of the seventh messenger, when he – according to the circumstances – may be about to sound the trumpet, the mystery of God and/also was ended, as He gave a good little message to His 'of Himself'/own slaves and (P47, P85, א,* א) the prophets. (Rev 10:7)

The seventh messenger sounded the trumpet. And they/it became great/loud voices in the heaven. (Rev 11:15a)

(The time has come) to give the wage to Your slaves the prophets and to the holy ones and to the ones fearing Your name, the small ones and the great ones. … (Rev 11:18b)

They/it became rays of light and voices and peals of thunder and a shaking and a great hail. (Rev 11:19b)

(The second little wild animal) makes (so that) all, the small and the great and the rich and the beggarly and the free and the slaves, ‘in order that they may give them’/’that they may be given’ a mark upon their right hand or against their forehead. (Rev 13:16)

(The messenger brought the good little message ) * (א,* א) in/with a great/loud voice: “Fear God, and give Him glory, because the hour of His judgment has come “ (Rev 14:7a)

It became peals of thunder and rays of light and voices (א,* א). (Rev 16:18a)

After these things I heard as a great/loud voice of a much/many-headed crowd in the heaven, saying: “Hallelujah! The saving and * (א*) the ability (are) of our God.” (Rev 19:1)

He has procured justice for the blood of His slaves out of the hand (of Babylon). (Rev 19:2b)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: Gunnar Fjellestad, Carl Grimberg, Sven Danell, J.P. Jacobsen, Birger Olsson, Harald Rasmussen, Einar Thomassen.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning "fearing Him", see also Rev 14:7. Concerning “the small and the great”, see also Rev 11:18ba. Concerning “praise our Lord”, see also Rev 19:1. Concerning “voices out of the throne”, see also Rev 4:5a.


Greek words:

aineô (praise; Rehkopf: loben) (in the NT + examples in the OT) Ps 22:23(24); 135:1; Jer 20:13; Judith 13:14; Luke 2:13; 19:37 – Gen 49:8; 1 Chron 16:4,25,36; 23:30; 29:13; 2 Chron 5:13; 20:19,21; 29:30; 30:21; Ezra 3:10; Neh 5:13; 12:24; Esther 4:17o/C20; Ps 22:26(27); 35:18; 48:1(2); 69:30(31),34(35); 74:21; 84:4(5); 96:4; 102:18(19); 107:32; 109:30; 113:1; 117:1; 119:164,175; 135:3; 146:1-2; 147:12; 148:1-5,7,13; 149:3; 150:1-6; Is 62:9; 64:11; Joel 2:26; Dan 5:23; 1 Macc 4:33; Wisdom of Solomon 10:20; 19:9; Sir 11:2; 17:10, 27-28; 24:1; 39:9,14-15; 44:1; 47:6,10; 50:18; 51:1,11-12,22,29; Baruch 2:32; 3:6-7; The Prayer of Manasseh v 15; Luke 2:20; Acts 2:47; 3:8-9; Rom 15:11.


Additional studies:

Ps 134:1; 135:20; John 8:33-34; Rev 4:11; 21:3.


Paul Treblico "What Shall We Call Each Other? Part Two: The Issue of Selfdesignation in the Johannine Letters and Revelation"; Tyndale Bulletin 54.1 (2003): 51-75.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-08-05; 2012-07-26; 2015-10-17)

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19:6 And I heard as a voice of a much/many-headed crowd and as a voice of many waters and as a voice of stable peals of thunder, saying: “Hallelujah, because God (literally: the God) the Lord our (א*), the All-powerful, has been/’begun to be’ king.”

Word for word (27 words in the Greek text): And (i/I)-heard as (a)-voice (a)-crowd much and as (a)-voice (of)-waters many and as (a)-voice (of)-peals-of-thunder many saying: hallelujah, because was-king 'the god the lord'/'God the Lord' our the all-powerful


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(David said:) “Give to the Lord, lineages of the nations, give to the Lord glory and stability. … Let the heaven be cheerful and let the earth exult, and let them speak in/among the nations: ‘The Lord being/is king.’” (1 Chron 16:28,31, Greek OT)


The Latter Revelation:

A (א,*א) much/many-headed crowd heard (Jesus) gladly. (Mark 12:37b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

A much/many-headed crowd (continually) followed (Jesus), because they (continually/repeatedly) beheld (P66, א,* א) the signs which He (continually/repeatedly) made upon/’with regard to’ the weak. (John 6:2)

Thomas answered and spoke to (Jesus): "'The Lord my'/'My Lord' and 'the God my'/'my God'!" (John 20:28)

(The Lord God), the One who is and the One who (continually) was and the One who comes, the All-powerful. (Rev 1:8b)

His voice (was) as a voice/sound of many waters. (Rev 1:15b)

Rays of light and voices and peals of thunder go out, out of the throne. (Rev 4:5a)

I beheld, when the little Ram opened one out of the seven seals, and I heard one out of the four living beings saying, as a voice of thunder: “Come and behold (א,*א)!” (Rev 6:1)

After these things I beheld, and behold, a much/many-headed crowd, which no one (continually/never) was able to number it, out of every nation and (out of) tribes and peoples and tongues. (Rev 7:9a)

They/it became peals of thunder and voices and rays of light and a shaking. (Rev 8:5b)

(The stable messenger) shouted (with) a great/loud voice, just as a lion lows, and when he had shouted, * (א*) seven peals of thunder talked (with their) 'of selves'/own voices. (Rev 10:3)

(The loud voices) said: “The kingdom of the adornment/’adorned world’ has become (the kingdom) of our Lord and of His Anointed (Christ), and He will be king into the (coming) ages of the (coming) ages. Amen (א,* א). (Rev 11:15b)

(The twenty-four elders said:) “We are thankful to You, the Lord God, the All-powerful, the One who is and the One who (continually) was, and (P47, א*) that You have taken (and take) Your great ability and have been/’begun to be’ king.” (Rev 11:17)

They/it became rays of light and voices and peals of thunder and a shaking and a great hail. (Rev 11:19b)

I heard a great/loud voice in the heaven, saying: ”Just now the saving and the ability and the kingdom of our God and the (judicial) authority of His christ/'anointed one' have become (established). (Rev 12:10a)

I heard a voice/sound out of the heaven, as a voice/sound of many waters and as a voice/sound of a great/loud thunder. (Rev 14:2a)

(The ones who had conquered said:) “Great and wondrous (are) Your works, the Lord God, the All-powerful. Righteous and true (are) Your ways, * (א*) King of the ages (P47, א*).” (Rev 15:3b)

It became peals of thunder and rays of light and voices (א,* א). (Rev 16:18a)

(Babylon) will be burned down in fire, because God (literally: the God) the Lord (א*), the One having judged her, (is) stable. (Rev 18:8b)

After these things I heard as a great/loud voice of a much/many-headed crowd in the heaven, saying: “Hallelujah! The saving and * (א*) the ability (are) of our God.” (Rev 19:1)

A second (time) they speak (and have spoken): “Hallelujah! And her smoke ascends into the (coming) ages of the (coming) ages.” (Rev 19:3)

The twenty-four elders and the four living beings fell/’sank down’ and prostrated themselves before God (in honour of Him), the One being seated on the throne, saying: “Amen. Hallelujah!” (Rev 19:4)


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “I heard as a voice of a much/many-headed crowd” and “hallelujah”, see Rev 19:1. Concerning “voice/sound of many waters”, see Rev 1:15b. Concerning “the God the Lord our (א*), the All-powerful”, see Rev 1:8b and Rev 15:3b. Concerning “has been/’begun to be’ king”, see Rev 11:15b and Rev 11:17.


Additional studies:

John 3:23; 12:28-30; Rev 4:11.


J. Paul Tanner "The 'Marriage Supper of the Lamb' in Rev 19:6-10. Implications for the Judgment Seat of Christ."; Trinity Journal 26.1 (Spring 2005): 47-68.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-08-05; 2012-07-26; 2015-10-17)

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19:7 We may rejoice and exult and give the glory to Him, because the wedding banquet of the little Ram has come, and His woman has made herself ready.

Word for word (20 words in the Greek text): (we)-may-rejoice and (we)-may-exult and (we)-may-give the glory (to)-him, because came the wedding-banquet (of)-the (of)-little-ram and the woman his made-ready herself.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(David said to the Lord:) “You have made Your people Israel ready for Yourself, a people (for You) till a (coming) age.” (2 Sam 7:24a, Greek OT)

(David said:) “Give to the Lord, lineages of the nations, give to the Lord glory and stability. … Let the heaven be cheerful and let the earth exult.” (1 Chron 16:28,31a, Greek OT)

(The woman said:) “Come out (daughters of Zion) and behold in/at king Solomon in/with the crown, in/with which his mother has crowned him in/on a day of his marriage and in/on a day of a cheerfulness of his heart.” (Solomon said to his woman:) “Behold, you are fine … Behold, you are fine.” (Song of Solomon 3:11-4:1a, Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) “The Lord of hosts will make (a feast) for all the nations against/over this mountain (Zion). They will drink cheerfulness. They will drink wine. They will anoint ointment oil.” (Is 25:6b, Greek OT)

(The Lord) drank down the death ... and again God took off/away every teardrop from every face ... And it will be spoken (on) that day: "Behold our God, on whom we (continually) hoped", and we may exult and we shall be cheerful on/’for the sake of’ our saving.” (Is 25:8-9, Greek OT)

(The prophet said to Jerusalem:) "Rejoice extremely, daughter of Zion! Proclaim, daughter of Jerusalem: 'Be cheerful ... .'" (Zeph 3:14a, Greek OT)

(Tobit said to Jerusalem:) “Rejoice and exult on/’for the sake of’ the sons of the righteous ones.” (Tobit 13:15a, BA)

(Baruch said to Jerusalem:) “Behold, your sons come … having been (and being) led together … (in) the word of the holy One rejoicing (in) the glory of God.” (Baruch 4:37)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples: "Happy are you when – according to the circumstances - men) may speak every/all evil ‘down from’/aginst you lying with respect to Me. Rejoice and exult, because your wage (is) much/great in the heavens." (Matt 5:11b-12a)

(Jesus said to the priest leaders and the Pharisees:) “The kingdom of the heavens has been made like a man, a king, whoever made wedding banquets/festivals for his son. (Matt 22:2)

(Jesus said: “The king) says to his slaves: ‘The wedding banquet is indeed ready, but the ones being (and having been) called were (continually) not worthy.’” (Matt 22:8)

The ready ones came in, in company with (the bridegroom), into the wedding banquets, and the door was shut. (Matt 25:10b)

(The messenger said to Zacharias:) “It will be joy to you and exultation, and many will rejoice on/’for the sake of’ the origin of (your son).” (Luke 1:14)

All ‘of them’/together of the multitude of the disciples began rejoicing to praise God (with) a great/loud voice on account of all the (works of) ability which they beheld. (Luke 19:37b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Jesus said to the Jews:) “Your father Abraham exulted, in order that he might/would know (א,* א, A, B*) My day, and He beheld and rejoiced.” (John 8:56)

The living beings may (א,* א) – according to the circumstances – give glory and honour and thankfulness to the One being seated on the throne. (Rev 4:9a)

I beheld ‘in a middle of’/’between (on one hand)’ the throne and the four living beings and ‘in a middle of’/’(on the other hand)’ the elders a little Ram standing as having been (and being) slaughtered. (Rev 5:6a)

The ones dwelling upon the earth rejoice on/’for the sake of’ (the two witnesses) and are cheerful. (Rev 11:10a)

A woman being (and having been) wrapped up in the sun and (with) the moon below her feet and upon her head a crown of twelve stars. (Rev 12:1b)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

The second redemption of the Israelites was to be modelled on the first, namely, the escape from Egypt and the destruction of their enemies in the water of the sea, like a stone sinking down; cf. Rev 18:21. After this the theocracy was established on Mount Sinai. In rabbinic tradition this was seen as the espousals of Yahweh and his people, Israel. Mose took the place of the best man; cf. the Baptist's relationship to Jesus. (J. Massyngberde Ford "Revelation" p 317)

Nicke shut the door after himself with a bang. Eva-Lotta heard the key be turned in the lock, and she heard Nicke swear outside. But just after she heard something else. Something filling her with boundless jubilation. She heard the signal of Vita Rosen (The White Rose) be whistled outside the window. Endlessly faint but in any case - the signal of Vita Rosen. Sweeter than tones of harps from heaven! (Astrid Lindgren "Kalle Blomkvist och Rasmus" p 52; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Leif Carlsson, Alf Härdelin, Ulrik Josefsson, Fabian Månsson, Fredrik Nielsen, John Stott, Gunnar Söderström, Anton Tjechov, Carl Fr. Wislöff, Torsten Åhman.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “give the glory”, see Rev 4:9a. Concerning “His woman”, see Rev 12:1b.


Additional studies:

Ps 118:24; Is 54:1-5; Jer 51:48; Hos 2:19; Sir 49:12; Matt 9:15; 25:1-12; Mark 2:19; Luke 12:36; John 1:14; 2:1-2; 3:29; 9:24; 16:22; 2 Cor 11:2; Eph 5:23,25,32; Rev 11:13; 19:9; 21:9.


Donald Guthrie "The Lamb in the Structure of the Book of Revelation"; Vox Evangelica 12 (1981): 64-71.

Norman Hillyer "'The Lamb' in the Apocalypse"; The Evangelical Quarterly 39.4 (Oct.-Dec. 1967): 228-236.

J. Paul Tanner "The 'Marriage Supper of the Lamb' in Rev 19:6-10. Implications for the Judgment Seat of Christ."; Trinity Journal 26.1 (Spring 2005): 47-68.

Ruben Zimmerman "Nuptial Imagery in the Revelation of John"; Biblica 84 (2003): 153-183.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-08-05; 2012-07-26; 2015-10-17)

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19:8 And it was given to her ‘in order that’/that she might wrap up herself in fine linen, shining (and) clean, for the fine linen is the fundamental laws of the holy ones.

Word for word (16 words in the Greek text): and (it)-was-given (to)-her in-order-that (she)-might-be-wrapped-up-in fine-linen shining clean, the for fine-linen the fundamental-laws (of)-the (of)-holy-(ones) is.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Mordecai) came out being dressed up in the kingly dress and having a golden crown and a purple diadem of fine linen. But beholding (him) the ones (being) in Susa rejoiced. (Esther 8:15, Greek OT)

(The slave of the Lord said:) "Let my soul exult on/’for the sake of’ the Lord, for He has set/clothed me in a garment of means of saving and (in) a tunic of cheerfulness as a bridegroom (and) put round about me a head-dress and adorned me entirely as a bride (with) adornment." (Is 61:10, Greek OT)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said: ”The wisdom) will try (her sons) in her fundamental laws.” (Sir 4:17b)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “If you – according to the circumstances – may pursue/hunt the righteous thing, you may take (it) down/up and set/clothe yourself in it as (in) a robe of glory reaching to the feet.” (Sir 27:8)

(Baruch said to Jerusalem:) “Wrap up yourself in the double (garment) of righteousness, the one from the side of God.” (Baruch 5:2a)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said:) “Having come in to view the ones lying up/’down to table’, (the king) beheld there a man having not been (and being not) set/clothed in clothes of wedding banquet. And he says to him: ‘Comrade, how did you come in here not having clothes of wedding banquet?’ But 'the one'/he was gagged/nonplussed. Then the king spoke to the servants: ‘Having bind his feet and hands, throw him out into the outer darkness.’” (Matt 22:11-13a)

A certain youth being (and having been) wrapped up in a linen sheet upon (the) naked (body) (continually) followed together with (Jesus). (Mark 14:51a)

(Cornelius said to Peter:) “A male stood in the very eyes of me in a shining clothing.” (Acts 10:30b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “If – according to the circumstances – you may welcome Me, you may keep (P66,א,*א) My commandments.” (John 14:15)

A revelation of Jesus Christ which God gave Him to show to His holy ones (א*) the things which must become/’come about’ in/with quickness. (Rev 1:1a)

They will walk about in company with Me in white (things), because they are worthy. The one conquering will in this way be wrapped up in white garments. (Rev 3:4b-5a)

(I beheld a much/many-headed crowd) standing 'in the very eyes of'/before the throne and in the very eyes of the little Ram, being (and having been) wrapped up in white dresses and (with) date-twigs in their hands. (Rev 7:9b)

All the nations will arrive and prostrate themselves before You (in honour of You), for the fundamental laws have been made visible in the very eyes of (א,* א) You. (Rev 15:4b)

The seven messengers having the seven blows came out, out of the temple, being (and having been) set/clothed in (clothes) of (P47,א,*א) linen, clean (and) shining, and being (and having been) girded around, around the breasts, (with) golden girdles. (Rev 15:6)

A load of gold and silver and a valuable stone and pearls and (things א,* א) of fine linen and purple cloth and silk and scarlet. (Rev 18:12a)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

(The inhabitants in Campagna) has a saint over all saints, and it is Garibaldi. He is the new St. Joseph, and the heavenly bride, to whom he has been betrothed, is honesty. I have never heard a Roman praise him because of his valour and his exploits, but because of his honesty and his disinterestedness. . . . Brave men are not rare, the man in Campagna says; disinterested ones are so its more, but Garibaldi has shown, that Italy can bring forth also such ones. (Viktor Rydberg "Campagna di Roma" p 284; Rome 1874; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Honoré de Balzac, Nils Beltzén, Charles Dickens, Olof Pettersson, A.M. Strinnholm, P. Waldenström.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “shining (and) clean”, see Rev 15:6.


Additional studies:

Ps 45:13-14 or 45:14-15; Ezek 16:10; John 13:4-5; 19:40; Rev 19:14.


J. Paul Tanner "The 'Marriage Supper of the Lamb' in Rev 19:6-10. Implications for the Judgment Seat of Christ."; Trinity Journal 26.1 (Spring 2005): 47-68.

Ruben Zimmerman "Nuptial Imagery in the Revelation of John"; Biblica 84 (2003): 153-183.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-08-05; 2012-07-26; 2015-10-17)

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19:9 And he says to me: “Write: ‘Happy the ones being (and having been) called into the * (א*) chief meal of the little Ram.’ * (א*) These my true sayings are of God (א*).”

Word for word (20 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus prima manus): And (he)-says (to)-me: Write: Happy the-(ones) into the chief-meal (of)-the (of)-little-ram being-(and-having-been)-called. These the sayings my true (they)-are (of)-the (of)-god.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(David said to the Lord:) " ... You are God, and Your sayings will be true." (2 Sam 7:28a, Greek OT)

Absalom called all the sons of the king. (2 Sam 13:23b, Greek OT)

(Haman) spoke: “The queen (Esther) has not called (and does not call) in company with the king ‘no one’/anyone into the banquet ‘however or’/except me.” (Esther 5:12a, Greek OT)

(Solomon said:) “If you – according to the circumstances – may sit down to take the chief meal upon/’with regard to’ a table of sovereigns … “ (Prov 23:1a, Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) “The Lord of hosts will make (a feast) for all the nations against/over this mountain (Zion). They will drink cheerfulness. They will drink wine. They will anoint ointment oil.” (Is 25:6b, Greek OT)

The king made a great chief meal for his a thousand great men. (Dan 5:1b, Greek OT Theod.)

When (the guests) had bathed and washed themselves and 'fallen up'/'lain back' to take the chief meal, Tobias spoke to Raphael: “Brother Azariah, speak to Raguel in that way that he may give me my sister Sarah (to wife).” (Tobit 7:9, S)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to the priest leaders and the Pharisees: “A king) dispatched away his slaves to call the ones being (and having been) called into the wedding banquets/festivals, and/but (continually/repeatedly) they did not want to come.” (Matt 22:3)

Having come out into the ways those slaves (of the king) led together all whom they found, both evil and good. And the bridechamber (א,* א, B*) was fulfilled with (the) ones lying up/’down to table’. (Matt 22:10)

(Jesus said to the people in the synagogue:). “Upon/’with regard to’ truth I say to you: …” (Luke 4:25a)

Having heard these things a certain one of the ones lying up/’down to table’ together with (Jesus) spoke to Him: “Happy whoever will eat bread in the kingdom of God!” But 'the One'/He spoke to him: “A certain man (continually) made a great chief meal, and he called many.” (Luke 14:15-16)

(Jesus took) the cup after the thing to take/'have taken' the chief meal. (Luke 22:20a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

And the third day it became a wedding banquet in Cana of Galilee and the mother of Jesus (continually) was there. But Jesus and/also was called and His disciples into the wedding banquet. (John 2:1-2)

Jesus spoke (א,*א) to him: "Because you have beheld (and behold) Me, you have believed (and believe)? Happy the ones having not beheld Me (א*) and having believed." (John 20:29)

Happy the one reading and the ones hearing the saying (א,*א) of the prophecy and keeping the things having been (and being) written in it, for the seasonable time (is) near. (Rev 1:3)

(The voice) said: “Write into a scroll what you see.” (Rev 1:11a)

Write so the things which you have beheld, and the things which are and the things which must (א*) be about to become after these things. (Rev 1:19)

This is what the True One, the Holy One, says: ... (Rev 3:7b, “Philadelphia”)

You have small/little ability and you have kept My saying and have not denied My name. (Rev 3:8b, “Philadelphia”)

Behold, I stand against the door, and I knock. If – according to the circumstances – anyone may hear My voice, I will (א,* א) and/both open the door and come into/in towards him, and I will take the chief meal in company with him and he in company with Me. (Rev 3:20, “Laodicea”)

I beheld ‘in a middle of’/’between (on one hand)’ the throne and the four living beings and ‘in a middle of’/’(on the other hand)’ the elders a little Ram standing as having been (and being) slaughtered. (Rev 5:6a)

I heard a voice out of the heaven, saying: “Write: ‘Happy the dead (bodies), the ones dying in a lord from just now * (P47, א*), says the Spirit, ‘in order that they may rest out of their bothers, for their works follow in company with them.’” (Rev 14:13)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: Ronald Edwin Davies, Gunnar Fjellestad, Fredrik Nielsen.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “true sayings are of God”, see Rev 3:7ba.


Additional studies:

Ps 119:43,86,142,151,160; Prov 8:7; Is 45:19; Dan 10:21; Zech 8:16; Matt 22:9; 23:6; Mark 6:21; 12:39; Luke 7:39; 14:7-10,12-13,17,24; 20:46; 22:16; John 20:30-31; 21:24; Rev 9:17; 21:5; 22:6.


J. Paul Tanner "The 'Marriage Supper of the Lamb' in Rev 19:6-10. Implications for the Judgment Seat of Christ."; Trinity Journal 26.1 (Spring 2005): 47-68.

Ruben Zimmerman "Nuptial Imagery in the Revelation of John"; Biblica 84 (2003): 153-183.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-08-06; 2012-07-26; 2015-10-17; 2015-10-18)

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19:10 And I fell/’sank down’ in front of his feet to prostrate myself before him (in honour of him). And he says to me: “Do not behold/’take heed’! I am your together-fellow-slave and of * (א*) the brothers of the ones having the evidence of Jesus. Prostrate yourself before God (in honour of Him), for the evidence of Jesus is the spirit of the prophecy.

Word for word (36 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus prima manus): and (i/I)-fell in-front-of the feet his (to)-'(kiss-towards)'/prostrate-myself-(before) him. and (he)-says (to)-me: behold not. together-fellow-slave your (i/I)-am and (of)-the (of)-brothers (of)-the-(ones) having the evidence (of)-Jesus. (to)-the god '(kiss-towards)'/'prostrate-yourself-(before)'. the for evidence (of)-Jesus is the spirit (of)-the (of)-prophecy.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

A spirit of God will ‘be brought’/come to rest against (a rod out of the root of Jesse); a spirit of wisdom and understanding, a spirit of counsel and stability, a spirit of knowledge and reverence. (Is 11:2, Greek OT)

The two (males) were troubled (when they heard the messenger), and they fell against their face/faces and they feared. (Tobit 12:16b, S)

(Judith) prostrated before (God in honour of Him). ... Having fallen/’sank down’ against (her) face (Judith) prostrated before (Holophernes in honour of him), and/but his slaves raised her. ... (Achior) fell/’sank down’ towards the feet of Judith and prostrated before her face (in honour of her). (Judith 10:8b(9a),23b; 14:7a)

Daniel spoke: “I shall prostrate before the Lord my God (in honour of Him).” (Bel and the Dragon v 25a, Theod)


The Latter Revelation:

Having been baptized Jesus straight/’straight off’ ascended from the water; and behold, the heavens were opened, and (John) beheld a (א,*א,B) spirit of God descending as if (it was) a pigeon * (א*,B) coming against Him. (Matt 3:16)

Behold! Having come to (Jesus) a leper prostrated himself before Him (in honour of Him) saying: “Lord, if You – according to the circumstances – may want, You are able to make me clean.” (And the leper was made clean.) Jesus says to him: “Behold! You may ‘speak to no one’/’not speak to anyone’.” (Matt 8:2,4a)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "Do not fear from the ones slaying the body but being not able to kill the soul; but rather fear the One being able to perish and/both soul and body in Gehenna." (Matt 10:28)

(The disciples) fell/’fell down’ against/on their face/faces and feared extremely. And/but Jesus came forward and having touched them He spoke: “Rise and do not fear!” (Matt 17:6b-7a)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Behold/’take heed’ (that) you may not ‘consider down’/downgrade one of these small/little ones (who believe into Me), for I say to you, that their messengers in heavens ‘through every thing’/always see the face of My Father, the One (being) in heavens.” (Matt 18:10)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) ”You will be about to hear (of) wars and hearsays of wars. Behold, be not upset.” (Matt 24:6a)

Having come to (Jesus) (Mariam (א*) from Magdala and the another/other Mary) ‘got power over’/seized His feet and prostrated themselves before Him (in honour of Him). (Matt 28:9b)

Having falling/’falling down’ against the feet (of Peter) Cornelius prostrated himself before (him). But Peter raised him, saying: “Stand up! And/also I myself am a man.” (Acts 10:25b-26)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Jesus said to the Jews:) “Investigate the writings, because you think, (that) you in them have agelong life. And those are the ones which are witnesses on account of Me.” (John 5:39)

(John) was a witness to the saying of God and the evidence of Jesus Christ, as many things as he beheld. Happy the one reading and the ones hearing the saying (א,*א) of the prophecy and keeping the things having been (and being) written in it, for the seasonable time (is) near. (Rev 1:2-3)

(I, John, …) became/appeared in/on the island being called Patmos because of the saying of God and because of (א,*א) the evidence of Jesus. (Rev 1:9b)

I will not/certainly not wipe out his name out of the book of the life, and I will confess his name in front of (א,*א) My Father and in the very eyes of His messengers. (Rev 3:5b)

Behold, I will make them, ‘in order’/so that they will arrive and prostrate themselves before, ‘in the very eyes of’/before your feet and you will gain knowledge (א,*א), that I have welcomed you. (Rev 3:9b, “Philadelphia”)

(The souls of the slaughtered witnesses might rest) till they will complete (א,* א), and/both their together-/fellow-slaves and their brothers, the ones being about to be slain as and/also they (themselves). (Rev 6:11b)

The dragon was wrathful on/with the woman and went away to make war ‘in company with’/with the rest of her seed of the ones keeping the commandments of God and having the evidence of Jesus. (Rev 12:17 or 12:17a)

And they will prostrate themselves before (the little wild animal) (in honour of it) (א,*א), all the ones dwelling upon the earth, whose names (P47,א,*א) are * (א*) (and have * (א*) been) written in a (א*) book (P47,א,*א) of the life of the little Ram, being (and having been) slaughtered from a foundation of an adornment/’adorned world’. (Rev 13:8)

The twenty-four elders and the four living beings fell/’sank down’ and prostrated themselves before God (in honour of Him), the One being seated on the throne, saying: “Amen. Hallelujah!” (Rev 19:4)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: Miguel de Cervantes, Sven Danell, Charles Dickens, Carl Grimberg, Homeros, J.P. Jacobsen, Martin Luther, Karl Palmberg, Hjalmar Söderberg, Anton Tjechov, Zacharias Topelius, N.P. Wetterlund.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “fell/’sank down’ to prostrate”, see Rev 4:10a. Concerning “his feet to prostrate themselves before”, see also Rev 3:9b. Concerning “together-/fellow-slave and of the brothers”, see Rev 6:11bb. Concerning “evidence of Jesus”, see Rev 1:2. Concerning “in honour of”, see Rev 13:8.


Additional studies:

Joshua 5:14; Judges 13:20; Dan 8:17; Mark 1:44; Luke 12:4-5; John 4:24; 20:17; Acts 12:22-23; 14:13-15; Rev 6:9; 22:8-9.


J. Paul Tanner "The 'Marriage Supper of the Lamb' in Rev 19:6-10. Implications for the Judgment Seat of Christ."; Trinity Journal 26.1 (Spring 2005): 47-68.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-08-06; 2012-07-26; 2015-10-18)

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19:11a And I beheld the heaven being (and having been) opened. And behold, a white horse.

Word for word (9 words in the Greek text): And (i/I)-beheld the heaven being-(and-having-been)-opened, and behold (a)-horse white.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

The heavens were opened, and (the prophet) beheld beholdings of God. (Ezek 1:1b, Greek OT)

(A male) on a horse ‘was brought to light’/appeared in a white (clothing and in) ... a golden full armour. (2 Macc 11:8b)


The Latter Revelation:

Having been baptized Jesus straight/’straight off’ ascended from the water; and behold, the heavens were opened. (Matt 3:16a)

(On Jesus') praying, the heaven be/was opened. (Luke 3:21b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Jesus said to Nathanael): "You will behold the heaven being (and having been) opened, and the messengers of God ascending and descending against the Son of the Man." (John 1:51b)

After these things I beheld, and behold, a door being (and having been) opened in the heaven. (Rev 4:1a)

I beheld, and behold, a white horse. (Rev 6:2a)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: Olaf Moe, Harry Sjöman, Eric Wärenstam.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “behold, a white horse”, see Rev 6:2a.


Additional studies:

Mark 1:10; Acts 10:11.


R.J. Korner "'And I saw . . .' An Apocalyptic Literary Convention for Structural Identification in the Apocalypse"; (the journal) Novum Testamentum 42.2 (2000): 160-183.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-08-06; 2012-07-26; 2015-10-18)

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19:11b And the One being seated against it being/is called Faithful and True. And in/with righteousness He judges and wages war.

Word for word (15 words in the Greek text; the sequence of the words according to Sinaiticus): and the-(one) being-seated against it faithful being-called and true, and in righteousness (he)-judges and wages-war.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

David (continually) was making/exercising judicial verdict and righteousness against/over every/all his people. (2 Sam 8:15b, Greek OT)

(Solomon said:) “God, give Your judicial verdict to the king and Your righteousness to the son of the king to judge Your people in/with righteousness.” (Ps 72:1-2a, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said: “The Lord comes) to judge the earth. He will judge the (inhabited) world in/with righteousness and peoples in/with His truth.” (Ps 96:13b, Greek OT)

(The Lord) will make weapons to the creation into/’for the purpose of’ a revenge of enemies. He will set/clothe himself in righteousness (as) a breastplate and put an unhypocritical judgment round about (as) a helmet. He will take piety (as) an invincible shield but/and he will sharpen (His) severe wrath into a large sword but/and the adornment/’adorned world’ will wage war out of (heaven) together with Him with, against the insane ones. Missiles of rays of light will sure in aim go (off) and they will spring/fly as from a well-circled/’well drawn’ bow of the clouds against a guardian. (Wisdom of Solomon 5:17b-21)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “Fight till death on account of the truth, and the Lord God will wage war in favour of you.” (Sir 4:28)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “If – according to the circumstances – your righteousness may not be over and above, more than (the one) of the scribes and Pharisees, you may not/certainly not come into the kingdom of the heavens.” (Matt 5:20b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “And on (the Spirit's) having come, He will convict the adornment/’adorned world’ on account of miss (of the mark of God) and on account of righteousness and on account of judgment.” (John 16:8)

Change your mind * (א,*א). But if not, I come to you quickly, and I will wage war ‘in company with’/with them in/with the large sword of My mouth. (Rev 2:16)

… This is what the Amen says and (א*) the faithful Witness and the True One (א,* א). (Rev 3:14a, ”Laodicea”)

The One being seated against (the white horse) having a bow and a crown was given to Him. And He came out conquering and He conquered (א,* א). (Rev 6:2b)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: Elisabeth Beskow, Sven Danell, Fredrik Franson, Carl Grimberg, Henrik Ibsen, Hugo Linder.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “The One being seated against (the white horse)”, see Rev 6:2ba. Concerning “Faithful and True”, see Rev 3:14ba.

If we – according to the circumstances – may confess our misses (of the mark of God), He is faithful and righteous, in order that He may let our (א,* א) misses (of His mark) be to us and make us clean from every unrighteousness. (1 John 1:9)


Additional studies: Ps 9:8(9); 98:9; Is 11:4; 2 Macc 3:25; 11:8; Matt 12:20; John 12:14-15; 16:8-11; Rev 1:5; 3:7; 6:2; 19:14,19,21; 22:6.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-08-06; 2012-07-26; 2015-10-18)

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19:12 But/and His eyes (are) a flame of fire, and against His head (are) many diadems, having/’and He has’ a name having been (and being) written, which no one knows ‘if not’/except He (Himself) ...

Word for word (22 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus): the but eyes his (a)-flame (of)-fire, and against the head his diadems many, having (a)-name being-(and-having-been-written) which no-one knows if not he


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Moses said to the Lord:) “If You indeed let the miss (of Your mark) be for (Your people), let (it) be. But if not, wipe me out, out of Your book, which You have written.” (Ex 32:32, Greek OT)

(The prophet said to Jerusalem: “The Lord) will call you your new name, which the Lord Himself will name, and it will be a crown of beauty in a hand of the Lord and a diadem of a kingdom in a hand of your God.” (Is 62:2b-3, Greek OT)

(Ptolemaios) put two diadems around, around his head, the one of Egypt and (the one) of Asia. (1 Macc 11:13b)

(Solomon said:) “The reflection of (righteous ones is) by the side of a highest one. Because of this they will take the royal palace of the comely appearance and the fine diadem out of a hand of the Lord. (Wisdom of Solomon 5:15b-16a)

(Solomon said to God:) “Your greatness (was) upon the diadem of the head (of the blameless male).” (Wisdom of Solomon 18:24b)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said:) "All things have been given to the side of Me by the (א*) Father, and no one has additional knowledge of the Son ‘if not’/except the Father. Nor anyone has additional knowledge of the Father ‘if not’/except the Son, and (the one) to whom the Son – if according to the circumstances – may wish to reveal." (Matt 11:27)

Jesus says to (the priest leaders and the elders): “Did you nor at any time read in the writings: ‘A stone which the ones building rejected, this has become into a head/beginning of a corner, from the side of the Lord this became, and it is wondrous in our eyes?’” (Matt 21:42)

(Jesus said to the seventy:) “Rejoice because your names are (and have been) written in, in the heavens.” (Luke 10:20b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

His eyes (were) as a flame of fire. (Rev 1:14b)

Against the voting-stone a new name is (and has been) written, which no one knows ‘if not’/except the one taking (it). (Rev 2:17b)

Against (the pillar) I will write the name of My God and the name of the city of My God, the new Jerusalem, the one descending out of the heaven from My God, and My name, the new one. (Rev 3:12b, ”Philadelphia”)

Another sign was beheld in the heaven. And behold, a fire-coloured great dragon having seven heads and ten horns and against his heads seven diadems. (Rev 12:3)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: Sven Lidman.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “flame of fire”, see Rev 1:14b. Concerning “a name having been (and being) written which no one knows ‘if not’/except He (Himself)”, see also Rev 2:17b.


Additional studies: John 17:6; 19:2,5; Phil 2:9; Heb 4:13; Rev 2:18; 19:16.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-08-06; 2012-07-26; 2015-10-18)

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19:13 ... and being (and having been) wrapped up in a garment being (and having been) besprinkled around (א,*א) (with) blood. And His name is (and has been) called the Saying of God.

Word for word (14 words in the Greek text): and being-(and-having-been)-wrapped-up-in (a)-garment being-(and-having-been)-besprinkled-around (with)-blood, and being-(and-having-been)-called the name his the saying (of)-the (of)-god.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The Lord said to Moses: “The priest) shall besprinkle around (with blood) seven times against the one being to be made clean from the leprosy.” (Lev 14:7a, Greek OT)


The Latter Revelation:

(The Lord said to the prophet:) "They will call the name of (the son of the virgin) ‘Emmanuel’” (which, being translated, is/means 'God in company with us'). ... And (Joseph) called His name Jesus. (Matt 1:23b,25b)

And having taken a cup and having ‘been thankful’/’given thanks’, (Jesus) gave to (His disciples) saying: “Drink out of it, all (of you). For this is My blood of the covenant, which is poured out on account of many into/’for the purpose of’ a ‘letting be’/’leaving alone’ of misses (of the mark of God).” (Matt 26:27-28)

Herod together with his army/soldiers … having wrapped up Jesus in a shining clothing, he sent Him * (P75, א*) to Pilate. (Luke 23:11b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

In a beginning the Saying (continually) was, and the Saying (continually) was towards God, and the Saying (continually) was God. (John 1:1)

Amen, amen, I say to you, if – according to the circumstances – the scarlet kernel of the bread-stuff having fallen into the earth, may not die, it stays alone. But if – according to the circumstances – it may die, it carries/produces much fruit. (John 12:24)

Having plaited a crown out of thorns the soldiers put (it) on the head (of Jesus) and wrapped Him up in a purple garment. (John 19:2)

(John) was a witness to the saying of God and the evidence of Jesus Christ, as many things as he beheld. (Rev 1:2)

They will walk about in company with Me in white (things), because they are worthy. The one conquering will in this way be wrapped up in white garments. (Rev 3:4b-5a)

The name of the star is said/called the * little (א*) Wormwood (Rev 8:11a)

Woe, woe, the great city, the one being (and having been) wrapped up in (things) of fine linen and purple and scarlet and being (and having been) gilded in/with gold (א,* א) and a valuable stone and a pearl. (Rev 18:16)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

During the winter Erland was a more diligent disciple with pater Henrik than usually. Daily he set his face to the monastery. . . . One winter evening nearer spring it happened, that, after the teacher and the disciple having studied together, the old man placed his hands upon the shoulders of the young one, and his eyes shone of the fire of the exultation. With half whispering voice, sounding solemn and mysterious in the vault illuminated by the lamp, he spoke about the mastery of the spirit over the bodily, about the mastery of the invisible word over sinewy arms and defiant minds, over princes and lords, over all the armies of the world, also if they were innumerable as the sand of the sea. (Viktor Rydberg "Singoalla" p 30; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

"It is true", (the monastery pater said), "it is the master-builder, who clears land for his new house. Erland, when I saw you arrive home seeing the white mantle with the red cross, which covered your armour, then I said to myself: See there a soldier, who had consecrated his sword to the spreading of faith, his body to the mortification, his possessions to the church, his all to God! I thought, that you had completed a promise of a spiritual knightly order, that you were a monk and a soldier in one man." (Viktor Rydberg "Singoalla" p 107-108, translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

In all sin-offerings the blood was not thrown, but sprinkled ... but in the sacrifice ... of the Paschal Lamb, the blood was neither thrown nor sprinkled, and only poured out at the base of the altar. (Alfred Edersheim “The Temple” p 116)

Rabbi Gamaliel, the teacher of St. Paul, said: ‘Whoever does not explain three things in the Passover has not fulfilled the duty incumbent on him. These three things are: the Passover lamb, the unleavened bread, and the bitter herbs. The Passover lamb means that God passed over the blood-sprinkled place on the houses of our fathers in Egypt; the unleavened bread means that our fathers were delivered out of Egypt (in haste); and the bitter herbs mean that the Egyptians made bitter the lives of our fathers in Egypt.’ (Alfred Edersheim “The Temple” p 237)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Lars Ahlberg, Yngve Brilioth, Viktor Hugo, G. Kurze, Fredrik Nielsen, Johan Ludvig Runeberg, Ragnar Samuelson.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “wrapped up in a garment”, see Rev 3:4b-5a. Concerning “The Saying of God”, see Rev 1:2.


Greek words: perirainô (besprinkle around) Lev 14:7; Rev 19:13 – Lev 14:51; Num 8:7; 19:18-19,21.


Additional studies:

Ex 4:24-26; Num 19:13,20; Is 63:2-3; Mark 14:24; Luke 22:20; John 1:1-2; 1 John 1:1.


Ronald B. Allen "The Bloody Bridegroom in Exodus 4:24-26"; Bibliotheca Sacra 153 (1996): 259-269.

K.C. Hason "Blood and Purity in Leviticus and Revelation"; Listening: Journal of Religion and Culture 28 (1993): 215-230.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-08-06; 2012-07-26; 2015-10-18)

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19:14 And the armies * (א,* א, A) in the heaven (continually) followed Him on white horses, being (and having been) (א*) set/clothed in fine linen, white and (א,* א) clean.

Word for word (16 words in the Greek text): And the armies in the heaven (continually)-followed Him on white horses being-(and-having-been)-set-in fine-linen, white and clean.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Elisha said to Elijah:) “ … I shall follow behind you.” (1 Kings 19:20a, Greek OT)

(God said to Job:) “Have you put ability round about a horse, but/and have you set/clothed his neck in/with fear (New American Standard: “with ‘a mane’/hair”)? (Job 39:19 or 39:22, Greek OT)

(The prophet said: “The Lord) will arrange (His flock, the house of Judas) as His comely horse in war.” (Zech 10:3b, Greek OT)

(The Lord) will make weapons to the creation into/’for the purpose of’ a revenge of enemies. He will set/clothe himself in righteousness (as) a breastplate and put an unhypocritical judgment round about (as) a helmet. He will take piety (as) an invincible shield but/and he will sharpen (His) severe wrath into a large sword but/and the adornment/’adorned world’ will wage war out of (heaven) together with Him with, against the insane ones. Missiles of rays of light will sure in aim go (off) and they will spring/fly as from a well-circled/’well drawn’ bow of the clouds against a guardian. (Wisdom of Solomon 5:17b-21)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “The Son of the Man is about to come in the glory of His Father in company with His messengers.” (Matt 16:27a)

The crowds going before (Jesus) and the ones following Him (continually/repeatedly) shouted saying: "Hosanna to the Son of David. Being (and having been) blessed the one coming in a name of a lord. Hosannah in the highest things!" (Matt 21:9)

(The clothes of the messenger of the Lord was) white as snow. (Matt 28:3b)

(Two of Jesus' disciples) lead (א*) the foal towards (Him), and they throw their garments on it. (Mark 11:7a)

The father spoke towards his slaves: “Carry out the first dress and ‘set in’/clothe (my younger son).” (Luke 15:22a)

(Stephen said to the Jews in the council:) “God turned Himself (about) and gave (the Israelites) to the side of to serve the army of the heaven entirely as it has been (and is) written.” (Acts 7:42a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

They will walk about in company with Me in white (things), because they are worthy. The one conquering will in this way be wrapped up in white garments. (Rev 3:4b-5a)

Every creature which (is) in the heaven and upon the earth * (א,* א) and upon the sea, and the things in them, all I and/also (א,* א) heard saying. (Rev 5:13a)

I beheld, and behold, a white horse. (Rev 6:2a)

The number of the armies/soldiers, of the (soldiers) of horse, (was) two of the number of ten thousand (to/by) the number of ten thousand (א,* א). I heard the number of them. (Rev 9:16)

The seven messengers having the seven blows came out, out of the temple, being (and having been) set/clothed in (clothes) of (P47,א,*א) linen, clean (and) shining, and being (and having been) girded around, around the breasts, (with) golden girdles. (Rev 15:6)

A load of gold and silver and a valuable stone and pearls and (things א,* א) of fine linen and purple cloth and silk and scarlet. (Rev 18:12a)

It was given to (to the woman) ‘in order that’/that she might wrap up herself in fine linen, shining (and) clean, for the fine linen is the fundamental laws of the holy ones. (Rev 19:8)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

“dressed in clean white linen” This phrase may apply to the horses or to the riders; the position and the gender would suggest the former. (J. Massyngberde Ford "Revelation" p 314)

Jum-Jum and I . . . saw all the white horses with (the white horse) Miramis at the head rush there and back in the moonshine quite wild. "They are so merry", Jum-Jum said . . . , in order that Miramis has come home." . . . I tapped Miramis giving him a lump of sugar. . . . We rode through the wood, and the hundred white horses followed us on behind. . . . We rode so fast. My red mantle got caught in a branch of a tree. . . . In my mantle it became a big tear. . . . Knight Kato had caught (many) leading them to his castle. . . . Even the white horses in The Dusky Wood had some they mourned, and they wept tears of blood, if they only heard the name of the robber. . . . Beyond The Dusky Wood the border district began to the The Country Outside. And it was there I really was going to. I was going there struggling with knight Kato. . . . "Jum-Jum, I do not dare", I said. "Why does my father the king want that just I shall do it?" "A boy-child of royal blood is the only one who can", Jum-Jum said. (Astrid Lindgren "Mio, min Mio" p 75-84; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Werner Aspenström, Elisabet Dahr, Krister Hanell, Eyvind Johnson, John Ongman, Martin P:n Nilsson, Stig Wernefur.


My own comments and speculations:

In א* it is obvious that the garments belong to the horses.

Concerning “white horses”, see Rev 6:2a. Concerning “set/clothed … clean”, see also Rev 15:6.


Additional studies:

Sir 17:32; 43:8; Matt 25:31; John 18:36.


K.C. Hason "Blood and Purity in Leviticus and Revelation"; Listening: Journal of Religion and Culture 28 (1993): 215-230.

Tryggve Mettinger "Härskarornas Gud"; Svensk Exegetisk Årsbok 44 (1979): 7-21.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-08-07; 2012-07-26; 2015-10-19)

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19:15 And out of His mouth a sharp large sword goes out, in order that He may hit the nations in/with it, and He will be a shepherd to them in/with a rod of iron. And He treads the wine-press of the wrath of the passion (א,* א) of God, the All-powerful.

Word for word (36 words in the Greek version; the sequence of the words according to Sinaiticus): and out-of the mouth his goes-out (a)-large-sword sharp in-order-that in it (he)-may-hit the nations, and he will-be-a-shepherd (to)-them in (a)-rod of-iron, and he treads the press (of)-the (of)-wine (of)-the (of)-wrath (of)-the (of)-passion (of)-the (of)-god the all-powerful.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Moses said to the Lord:) “Cause/let Your wrath of passion cease. …” (Ex 32:12b, Greek OT)

The people (continually) was grumbling opposite the Lord (over their) evil things. And the Lord heard (it), and He was passionate (in) wrath. And it was ‘burnt out’/kindled fire in/among them from the side of the Lord and ate down/up a certain part (New American Standard: some of the outskirts) of the (walled) camp. (Num 11:1, Greek OT)

The Lord spoke to Moses: "Take all the rulers of the people and expose them to shame by the side of the Lord over against the sun, and the wrath of the passion of the Lord may turn away from Israel." (Num 25:4, Greek OT)

The garments of (the one coming from Edom was red) as from a winepressing wine-press. ... (He said:) “I trod (the nations) down in passion and I bruised them entirely and led down their blood into earth. For a day of 'giving back in stead'/requital had come on them, and a period of time of redemption ‘is by the side of’/’had come’. And I ‘saw on’/looked, and no one (came to) succour. … And my arm delivered them, and my passion stood on/near. And I trod them down in My wrath and led their blood down into earth.” (Is 63:2b-6, Greek OT)

(The Lord said: “I) will cause ‘the entirely’/’all the’ rests of the peace to cease from/’away from’ a face of My wrath of passion.” (Jer 25:37, Greek OT)

(The prophet said: ”The Lord) has in His wrath of passion ‘fragmented together’/’broken together to pieces’ every horn of Israel.” (Lam 2:3, Greek OT)

(Mattathias said to his sons:) ”It is a seasonable time of overturning and a wrath of passion.” (1 Macc 2:49b)

(The Lord) will make weapons to the creation into/’for the purpose of’ a revenge of enemies. He will set/clothe himself in righteousness (as) a breastplate and put an unhypocritical judgment round about (as) a helmet. He will take piety (as) an invincible shield but/and he will sharpen (His) severe wrath into a large sword but/and the adornment/’adorned world’ will wage war out of (heaven) together with Him with, against the insane ones. Missiles of rays of light will sure in aim go (off) and they will spring/fly as from a well-circled/’well drawn’ bow of the clouds against a guardian. (Wisdom of Solomon 5:17b-21)

(Solomon said to the Lord: “When) a still silence surrounded all the things, and a night reached the middle (of its course) in (its) own quickness, your ‘all-ably’ saying, a severe warrior, came from heavens out of thrones of kingdoms into a middle of the destructive earth (with) a sharp sword.” (Wisdom of Solomon 18:14-15a or 18:14-16a)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) ”Not has wrath of passion been (created for) products/fruits of women.” (Sir 10:18b)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “Many have fallen in a mouth of a dagger, but not (as many) as the ones having fallen (and falls) because of a tongue.” (Sir 28:18)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “Large swords procuring justice into/’purposed for’ destruction of wicked ones (have been created into/’for the purpose of’ a procuration of justice). (Sir 39:30b)


The Latter Revelation:

(The Lord said:) “Out of (Bethlehem) a commander will come out, whoever/who will be a shepherd to My people Israel.” (Matt 2:6b)

(Jesus said to His disciples: “This people) will fall (in) a mouth of a dagger and will be captured into all the nations. And Jerusalem will be, be trodden by nations until the (time in which the) seasonable times of nations may be completed.” (Luke 21:24)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

The one disobeying the Son shall not behold life, however/but the wrath of God stays against him. (John 3:36b)

(The Lord God), the One who is and the One who (continually) was and the One who comes, the All-powerful. (Rev 1:8b)

… Out of the mouth (of the Son of the Man) a two-mouthed sharp large sword going/went out. (Rev 1:16a)

The one conquering and the one keeping My works until (the) end, to him I will give (judicial) authority upon/'with regard to' the nations. And he will be a shepherd to them in/with a rod of iron. (Rev 2:26-27a, "Thyatira") (Rev 2:27a)

(The two witnesses) have (judicial) authority upon the waters to turn them into blood and to hit the earth in/with every blow, as many times ‘as if’/as they – according to the circumstances – may want. (Rev 11:6b)

The nations was/were (P47, א*) wrathful, and/but Your wrath came and the seasonable time of the dead (bodies) to be judged. (Rev 11:18a)

(The woman) brought forth a son, a (female) (P47, א,* א) male, who is about to be a shepherd to all the nations in/with a rod of iron. (Rev 12:5a)

Another messenger, a third one, followed them, saying in/with a great/loud voice: “If any one prostrates himself (towards) the little wild animal (in adoration of it) and (towards) its image (in adoration of it) and takes a mark upon his forehead or against his hand, he and/also will drink out of the wine of the passion of God, of the one being (and having been) blended/filled undiluted in the cup of His wrath.” (Rev 14:9-10a)

The messenger threw/’let ... fall’ his sickle upon (א,* א) the earth and gathered in the vine of the earth and threw (it) into the great wine-press of the passion of God. And the wine-press was trodden outside (א,* א) the city. (Rev 14:19-20a)

And the great Babylon was remembered in the very eyes of God to give her a (א,*א) cup of * (א,* א) wine of the passion of the (א,* א) wrath. (Rev 16:19b)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

"Knight Kato", (the Sword-smith) cried so that it roared in the mountain. "Knight Kato, death to him. . . . I sit here in my hole forging swords to knight Kato. Night and day I forge swords to him, this he knows. But there is one which he does not know, and it is this." The Sword-smith dragged himself away to the darkest corner of the hole and out of a hole in the mountain he took up a sword. It shone like a flame of fire in his hand. "And now this night I have at last succeeded, not until now this night." He lifted the sword cutting with one single cut up a big wound in the mountain-wall. "Oh, my sword, my flame of fire", he muttered. "My sword being able to cut through stone!" "Why must you have a sword being able to cut through stone", I asked. "This you are to know", the Sword-smith said. "This sword is not forged for the good and unguilty ones. This sword lies waiting for knight Kato himself. "It comes soon - knight Kato's last struggle." (Astrid Lindgren "Mio, min Mio" p 125-130; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Someone has remarked that You went the whole hog (cried and rampaged). Do not so! Force but senses, without in the great eruptions! (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev 16, maj 1907-12 juli 1908" p 203; letter 1908-02-21 to Ivar Nilsson; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Bo Frid, Carl Grimberg, Seamus Heaney, Michael Nazir-Ali, Anna Maria Roos, Milton Steinberg, Jesper Svartvik, Anton Tjechov.


My own comments and speculations:

The Greek word “orgê” for “wrath” here occurs for sixth and last time in the Revelation. In the Gospel of John this word occurs once. Any eighth time or still a first time will not come about in the new Jerusalem.

Observe the restoration contrast between “the passion of the wrath” in Rev 16:19 and “the wrath of the passion” here in Rev 19:15.

Concerning “out of His mouth a sharp large sword”, see also Rev 1:16ab, especially Greek Words: “distomos”. Concerning “will be a shepherd to them in/with a rod of iron”, see Rev 2:27a and 12:5a. Concerning “treads the wine-press”, see Rev 14:18b-19 and 14:20.


Additional studies:

Deut 32:41; John 3:36; Rev 2:12; 19:21.


Tremper Longman III "The Divine Warrior: The New Testament Use of an Old Testament Motif"; Westminster Theological Journal 44 (1982): 292-307.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-08-07; 2012-07-26; 2015-10-19)

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19:16 And against (His) garment and against His thigh/thigh-bone He has a name having been (and being) written: “King of kings and Lord of lords.”

Word for word (17 words in the Greek text): and (he)-has against the garment and and against the thigh his (a)-name having-been (and-being)-written: King (of)-kings and lord (of)-lords.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Abraham said to his boy/servant:) “Put/lay your hand underneath my thigh/thigh-bone, and I will bind you by oath to/by the Lord, the God of the heaven and the God of the earth.” (Gen 24:2-3a, Greek OT)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said: “As) a missile weapon being (and having been) fixed in/at a thigh of a flesh/body, in this way (is) a saying in a belly of a foolish (person).” (Sir 19:12)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "Behold My hands and My feet, that I am He Himself. Feel (on) Me and behold, that a spirit has not fleshes/’pieces of flesh’ (P75, א*) and bones entirely as you look at ‘Me having’/’that I have’." (Luke 24:39)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

“Carry your finger here and behold My hands and carry your hand and throw/lay (it) into/’up to’ My rib and do not become faithless however/but faithful. Thomas answered and spoke to Him: “'The Lord my'/'My Lord' and 'the God my'/'my God'!” (John 20:27-28)

(The ten kings) will wage war ‘in company with’/with the little Ram, and the little Ram will conquer them, because He is Lord of lords and King of kings. (Rev 17:14)

His eyes (are) a flame of fire, and against His head (are) many diadems, having/’and He has’ a name having been (and being) written, which no one knows ‘if not’/except He (Himself). (Rev 19:12)

(He is) wrapped up in a garment being (and having been) besprinkled around (א,*א) (with) blood. And His name is (and has been) called the Saying of God. (Rev 19:13)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: Anna Maria Roos, Olof Thulin.


My own comments and speculations:

As the weak female rib of Jesus bears witness, that He is the Man (cf. John 19:34), His strong “male” thigh-bone bears witness, that He is King of kings and Lord of lords.

Observe the restoration contrast in “Lord of lords and King of kings” (Rev 17:14) and “King of kings and Lord of lords” here in Rev 19:16.

Concerning “a name ... written”, see Rev 19:12. Concerning “King of kings and Lord of lords”, see Rev 17:13-14a.


Greek words:

mêros (thigh) (in the NT + examples in the OT) Gen 24:2; Sir 19:12; Rev 19:16 – Ps 45:3(4).


Additional studies: John 18:36; 19:2,5; Rev 2:17.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-08-07; 2012-07-26; 2015-10-19)

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19:17 And I beheld another (א,* א) messenger standing in the sun, and he shouted in/with a great/loud voice, saying to all the birds flying in midheaven: “Come here, be led together into the great chief meal of God ... ”

Word for word (30 words in the Greek text): And (i/I)-beheld another messenger 'standing-(and-having-stood)'/standing in the sun and (he)-shouted in (a)-voice great saying (to)-all the birds the-(ones) flying in midheaven: Come-here be-led-together into the chief-meal the great (of)-the (of)-god.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

Jacob spoke towards Laban: “Give back my woman, for my days are (and have been) completed, in that way that I may come ‘into towards’/’in to’ her. But Laban led together all the males of the place and made a wedding banquet.” (Gen 29:21-22, Greek OT)

The Lord spoke to Moses: "Take all the rulers of the people and expose them to shame by the side of the Lord over against the sun, and the wrath of the passion of the Lord may turn away from Israel." (Num 25:4, Greek OT)

(The male out of another tribe) spoke towards David: “Come here towards me, and I shall give your fleshes/’pieces of flesh’ to the flying creatures of the heaven and to the domestic animals of the earth.” (1 Sam 17:44, Greek OT)

The other/one (seraph) shouts (and has shouted) towards the other and he (continually/repeatedly) said: “Holy, holy, holy (is) the Lord of hosts. The every/whole earth (is) filled with His glory.” (Is 6:3, Greek OT)

(The Lord said about Judas:) “The dead (bodies) of (My) people will be into a consumption for the flying creatures of the heaven.” (Jer 7:33a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Gog:) “The nations (being) in company with you, will be given into/to a multitude of birds; to every flying creature and to all the little wild animals of the plain I have given (and give) you to be gobbled down.” … (The Lord said to the prophet:) “Speak to every bird (and) flying creature and towards all little beasts of the plain: ‘Be led together … and eat meat and drink blood. Eat meat of giants and drink blood of leaders of the earth.’” (Ezek 39:4b,17b-18a, Greek OT)

The king made a great chief meal for his a thousand great men. (Dan 5:1b, Greek OT Theod.)

(Judas) used the knife (to take) out the tongue of the wicked one ... to give to the birds. (2 Macc 15:33a)

(Baruch said to Jerusalem:) “Behold, your sons come … having been (and being) led together … (in) the word of the holy One rejoicing (in) the glory of God.” (Baruch 4:37)


The Latter Revelation:

(John the Baptist said: "The One who comes behind me) ... will lead together His bread-stuff into the granary." (Matt 3:12a)

Having again shouted (with) a great/loud voice Jesus ‘let ... be’/left the spirit. (Matt 27:50)

Having heard these things a certain one of the ones lying up/’down to table’ together with (Jesus) spoke to Him: “Happy whoever will eat bread in the kingdom of God!” But 'the One'/He spoke to him: “A certain man (continually) made a great chief meal, and he called many.” (Luke 14:15-16)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Signs will be in sun and moon and constellations.” (Luke 21:25a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Already the one harvesting takes wage and leads together fruit into/for agelong life, in order that and/both (א,* א, A) the one sowing and the one harvesting may rejoice together.” (John 4:36)

(The souls of the slaughtered witnesses) shouted (with) a great/loud voice. (Rev 6:10a)

(The messenger) shouted (with) a great/loud voice to the four messengers, to whom it was given to them to act unrighteously (against) the earth and the sea. (Rev 7:2b)

I beheld, and I heard (the sound of) an eagle flying in midheaven. (Rev 8:13a)

(Another stable messenger) shouted (with) a great/loud voice, just as a lion lows. (Rev 10:3a)

A woman being (and having been) wrapped up in the sun and (with) the moon below her feet and upon her head a crown of twelve stars. (Rev 12:1b)

(The unclean spirits) are spirits of little demons, making signs (which) (P47, א*) go out against/to the kings of the whole (inhabited) world, to lead them together into the war of the great day of God, the All-powerful. (Rev 16:14)

One * (א,* א) of the seven messengers, of the ones having the seven bowls, came and talked in company with me saying: “Come here!” (Rev 17:1a)

(Babylon) has become a dwelling of little demons and a watch/custody of every unclean spirit and a watch/custody of every bird, unclean * (א,* א) and having been (and being) hated/hateful. (Rev 18:2b)

(The messenger) says to me: “Write: ‘Happy the ones being (and having been) called into the * (א*) chief meal of the little Ram.’” (Rev 19:9a)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

Even if it is not expressly stated that the birds (in the fourth heaven of Third Baruch) are identical to the souls of the righteous, it is undoubtedly in just that way the text should be understood. The continuation of the lives of the dead in the form of birds was a common concept also in the Near East. (Leif Carlsson “Round Trips to Heaven” p 339 in comment to Third Baruch 10:1-10)

It is in Aftonbladet, that (Hitler and Mussolini) intend to bisect France, not for ever of course, but the country would until further notice and for incalculable time to come be occupied by German and Italian troops. That one Mussolini, coming as a Egyptian vulture to divide the prey, "that one I would speak with" as the maid of Ingrid in Brofall said. Poor France! . . . . . . Today there probably is hardly a country being called Jugoslavia. It happens quickly in our days. From all directions Egyptian vultures now come flocking to get a piece of the prey - Hungary, actively taking part in the war, Bulgaria and Roumania. (Astrid Lindgren "Krigsdagböcker 1939-1945" p 53,94; 1940-06-18 and Easter Sunday April 1941; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Now Young-Joel began telling, that he one of the days after the great North Sea struggle (during the first World War) had passed Skagen and that he had seen the hosts of the dead ones flow around on the surface of the sea. They had not lain stretched out in the water, but they had been hold in upright position by their waistcoats of cork. Their heads had been lifted up above the water, so that one had been able to discern features and facial expressions. And Young-Joel told, that the steamer had gone forward for hours and hours through thousands and again thousands of dead ones. The whole sea was covered by them. He described for the brother many visions of horror, which he had seen, but the thing, which most had seized him, was, that all the dead ones had got their eyes pecked out by the endless crowds of gulls circling over them. (Selma Lagerlöf "Bannlyst" p 198-199; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

"Give me the brown ham!" (the witch) repeats. "Otherwise things are going badly for you." "Rather I give it to the magpies than to such a one as you." Then the old woman trembles under the storm of the wrath. . . . "Yourself the magpies will eat!" she says at last. So she goes wildly waving with the staff. . . . (The countess Märta) cannot believe her eyes. She thinks, that she is dreaming, but there they are coming, the magpies being going to eat her. Out of park and garden they whizz down towards her, scores of magpies, with their claws tighted and their beaks held out to bite. They come yelling and laughing. (Selma Lagerlöf "Gösta Berlings saga" p 253-254; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Frans G. Bengtsson, Nikolaj Gogol, Homeros, Johannes V. Jensen, Herman Nyqvist, Adolf Thomander, Emile Zola.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “shouted in/with a great/loud voice”, see Rev 6:10a. Concerning “flying in midheaven”, see Rev 8:13a.


Additional studies: Jer 12:9; Baruch 5:5; Matt 6:26; 13:4; Mark 4:4; Luke 8:5; John 11:43; 21:12; Acts 10:12.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-08-08; 2012-07-26; 2015-10-19)

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19:18 ... in order that you may eat fleshes/’pieces of flesh’ of kings and fleshes/’pieces of flesh’ of leaders of a thousand (men) and fleshes/’pieces of flesh’ of stable (ones) and fleshes/’pieces of flesh’ of horses and of the ones being seated against (א,* א, A) them and fleshes/’pieces of flesh’ of all, both of free and slaves and of small ones and of the (א,* א) great ones.

Word for word (30 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus): in-order-that (you)-may-eat fleshes (of)-kings and fleshes (of)-leaders-of-a-thousand-(men) and fleshes (of)-stable-(ones) and fleshes (of)-horses and (of)-the-(ones) being-seated against them and fleshes (of)-all free both and (of)-slaves and (of)-small-(ones) and (of)-the great-(ones).


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Joseph said to the chief baker:) “The birds of the heaven will eat your fleshes/’pieces of flesh’ from you.” (Gen 40:19b, Greek OT)

(The king of Babylon) led the stable ones of the earth away from home out of Jerusalem into Babylon. (2 Kings 24:15b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) “Deceased (bodies) will be eating/food for the flying creatures of the heaven and for the little wild animals of the earth.” (Jer 34:20b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Gog:) “The nations Being) in company with you, will be given into/to a multitude of birds; to every flying creature and to all the little wild animals of the plain I have given (and give) you to be gobbled down.” … (The Lord said to the prophet:) “Speak to every bird (and) flying creature and towards all little beasts of the plain: ‘Be led together … and eat meat and drink blood. Eat meat of giants and drink blood of leaders of the earth …. and upon My table, into/on (it), horse and rider, giants and every (kind of) warrior male are smitten.’” (Ezek 39:4b,17b-18a,20a, Grekiska GT)

(The Lord said: “The leaders of Israel ate down/up) ... the fleshes/’pieces of flesh’ of My people.” (Micah 3:3a, Greek OT)

(Solomon said to the kings:) “Dreadfully and quickly (the Lord) will stand on/near you, because judgment becomes severe in/among the ones ‘having over’/’being above’.” (Wisdom of Solomon 6:5)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to the Pharisees:) “How is anyone able to come into the habitation of the stable one and rape his vessels throughout (א,* א), if – according to the circumstances – he may not first bind the stable one? And then he may (א,* א) rape his habitation throughout.” (Matt 12:29)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Whereat – if according to the circumstances - the fall/corpse may be, there the eagles will led together.” (Matt 24:28)

(Two of Jesus' disciples) lead (א*) the foal towards (Him), and they throw their garments on it. And they are seated (א*) against it. (Mark 11:7)

(The lord said to the ones standing by the side of him:) “‘More than’/however these my enemies having not wanted me to be king against/over them, lead (them) here and slaughter them entirely in front of me.” (Luke 19:27)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

As many as took him, to them He gave (judicial) authority to become children of God, to the ones believing into His name, who were begotten not out of bloods/blood, nor out of a will of flesh, nor out of a will of a male, however/but out of God. (John 1:12-13)

(Those Jews who to begin with believed Jesus said to Him:) “We are a seed of Abraham, and we have ever/never been (and are) slaves to ‘no one’/anyone. How do/’is it that’ You say that/: ‘You will become free?’” Jesus answered them: “Amen, amen I say to you that/: ‘'Every the'/everyone making/practising the miss (of the mark of God) is a slave of the miss (of the mark of God).’” (John 8:33-34)

The cohort and “the leader of a thousand (men)” and the rowers/servants of the Jews took so together Jesus and bound Him. (John 18:12)

I beheld, and behold (א,* א), another fire-coloured horse came out. And to the One being seated against it, it was given to Him to take the peace out of the earth, and in order that they might (א,* א) slaughter one another. And a great dagger was given to Him. (Rev 6:4)

I beheld, and behold, a light green horse. And the one being seated above it, a name to him (was) deathd (א,*א). And Hades (continually) followed * (א,* א) him. (Rev 6:8a)

The kings of the earth and the great men and the leaders of a thousand (men) and the rich and the stable and every slave and every (א*) free (man) hid themselves into the caves and into/among the rocks of the mountains. (Rev 6:15)

… The time has come to give the wage to Your slaves the prophets and to the holy ones and to the ones fearing Your name, the small ones and the great ones. (Rev 11:18a)

(The second little wild animal) makes (so that) all, the small and the great and the rich and the beggarly and the free and the slaves, ‘in order that they may give them’/’that they may be given’ a mark upon their right hand or against their forehead. (Rev 13:16)

(The ten horn and the little wild animal) will eat (the) fleshes/’pieces of flesh’ (of the harlot) and burn her down (in) (א,* א) fire. (Rev 17:16b)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: Robert Andersson, Bo Frid, Dick Harrison, Jesper Svartvik, Emile Zola.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “free and slaves”, see also Rev 13:16. Concerning “of small ones and of the great ones”, see also Rev 11:18ab; 13:16.


Additional studies: Lev 26:27-33; Deut 28:53; 1 Sam 17:44; 2 Kings 6:28-29; 9:36; Ps 79:2; Is 30:25; 34:2; 49:26; Jer 19:9; Ezek 5:10; 1 Macc 3:15; 2 Macc 9:15; Wisdom of Solomon 6:8; Matt 6:26; 13:4; Mark 4:4; Luke 8:5; 17:37; 24:39; John 6:51-58; Acts 10:12.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-08-08; 2012-07-26; 2015-10-20)

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19:19 And I beheld the little wild animal and the kings of the earth and their armies being (and having been) led together to make the war ‘in company with’/against the One being seated upon the horse, and ‘in company with’/against His army.

Word for word (28 words in the Greek text): And (i/I)-beheld the little-wild-animal and the kings (of)-the (of)-earth and the armies their being-(and-having-been)-led-together (to)-make the war in-company-with the-(one) being-seated upon the horse and in-company-with the army his.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Mordecai beheld in a dream) two great dragons. ... And (at) their (great/high) voice every nation made itself ready into/to a war, so that (they would) wage war with a nation of righteous ones. (Esther 1:1ea,f/A5a,6, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said:) "The kings of the earth stood ‘by the side of’/near and the leaders were led together ... ‘down from’/against the Lord and ‘down from’/against His Anointed (Christ)." (Ps 2:2a, Greek OT)

(The Assyrians came to Samaria) riding upon horses. (Ezek 23:6, Greek OT)


The Latter Revelation:

(The disciples) led the ass and the foal and put/laid the garments upon, upon them, and (Jesus) sat down upon, above them. (Matt 21:7)

Herod together with his army/soldiers … having wrapped up Jesus in a shining clothing, he sent Him * (P75, א*) to Pilate. (Luke 23:11b)

The kings of the earth stood ‘by the side of’/near and the leaders were led together ... ‘down from’/against the Lord and ‘down from’/against His Anointed (Christ). (Acts 4:26)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Joybringing grace and peace) from Jesus Christ, the faithful witness, the first-born of the dead (bodies) and the leader of the kings of the earth. (Rev 1:5a)

The twenty-four elders will and/also (א,* א) fall/’sink down’ in the very eyes of the One being seated upon the throne, and they will prostrate themselves before the One living into the (coming) ages of the (coming) ages (in honour of Him). Amen (א,* א). (Rev 4:10a)

When (the two witnesses) – according to the circumstances - may have ended their evidence, the little wild animal then (א*) ascending out of the abyss will make war ‘in company with’/against them and conquer them and kill them. (Rev 11:7)

I beheld a little wild animal ascending out of the sea, having ten horns and seven heads and upon his horns ten diadems and against his heads a (P47,א,*א) ‘name of blasphemy’/’blasphemous name’. (Rev 13:1 or Rev 13:1b)

(The unclean spirits) are spirits of little demons, making signs (which) (P47,א*) go out against/to the kings of the whole (inhabited) world, to lead them together into the war of the great day of God, the All-powerful. … And they led them together to a (א,*א) place, the one being (in) Hebrew called Armageddon (= Mountain of Megiddo). (Rev 16:14,16)

The One being seated against (the white horse) being/is called Faithful and True. And in/with righteousness He judges and wages war. (Rev 19:11b)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

I sometimes get letters from a prophetess of Norrland. She claims, that she has thought out in the Revelation, that this ("first") World War is the great war, which will precede the lucky millennium. Thus the matter in question is not the last judgment but the arrangement of a new world order. But before this happens a third of the men will be destroyed by the war and the things the war brings with it. Furthermore, it will, when the war barely is ended, come a natural phenomen, which will use up still a third, plague or something like that. The remaining third then will be so chastised and tried, that it can build a new world. And she, the prophetess, hopes that she will live till this occurs, so it will happen very soon. I do not think that it looks so unlike that she cannot be right. Perhaps it becomes the good with the new confusion in east, that the Western front offensive becomes suspended, at least from the side of Germany. (Selma Lagerlöf "Du lär mig att bli fri - Selma Lagerlöf skriver till Sophie Elkan" p 467; letter 1918-02-21; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Elisabeth Beskow, Carl Henrik Martling.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “beheld the little wild animal”, see Rev 13:1(1b). Concerning “the kings of the earth”, see Rev also 1:5a. Concerning “seated upon”, see Rev 4:10a. Concerning “seated (upon) the horse”, see Rev 19:11b.


Additional studies: Ezek 23:12,23; Rev 17:12-14; 19:21.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-08-08; 2012-07-26; 2015-10-20)

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19:20 And the little wild animal was seized, and in company with it the false prophet, the one having made the signs in the very eyes of it, in/with which he led astray the ones having taken the mark of the little wild animal and the ones prostrating themselves towards its image (in adoration of it) (א*). Living the two ones were thrown into the lake of the fire, the one burning in/with sulphur.

Word for word (43 words in the Greek text): and was-seized the little-wild-animal and in-company-with it the false-prophet the-(one) having-made the signs in-the-very-eyes-of (of)-it, in/with which (he)-led-astray the-(ones) having-taken the mark (of)-the (of)-little-wild-animal and the-(ones) '(kissing-towards)'/prostrating (towards)-the image '(of)-it'/its. living were-thrown the two into the lake (of)-the (of)-fire (of)-the-(one) 'being burnt'/burning in/with sulphur.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

The Lord ‘gave wet’/’let (it) rain’ sulphur and fire against Sodom and Gomorrah from the side of the Lord out of the heaven. And He turned down/over ... all the ones dwelling in the cities. (Gen 19:24-25a, Greek OT)

(Moses said:) “If these will die according to (the) death of all men, and if their visitation will be according to the inspection of all men, the Lord has by no means dispatched (and dispatches) me away. 'However or'/however, if the Lord will show in/with an appearance, opening its mouth the earth will drink down (these men) … and they will living descend into Hades, and you will gain knowledge that these men have provoked the Lord. As (Moses) ‘was caused to cease’/ceased talking all these sayings ... the earth was opened and drank down (the rebellious) and their houses and all the men being in company with Corah and (also) their domestic animals. And they and as many things as are theirs descended living into Hades. And the earth veiled them, and they perished out of a middle of the synagogue. And every/all Israel, the ones (being) in a circle of them fled from their voice/cry, because saying: "Not at any time may the earth drink us down!" And fire came out from the side of the Lord and the two hundred and fifty males, the ones ‘carrying to’/offering the incense. (Num 16:29-35, Greek OT)

(David said to the Lord:) “Let death come against (the ones who have deserted me), and let them living/alive descend into Hades.” (Ps 55:15a or 55:16a, Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) “A deep ravine has been prepared (for the king), (a ravine) ‘laying down’/’being fixed’ (with) woods/’pieces of wood’, fire and many woods/’pieces of wood’. The passion of the Lord is burning as a ravine by/with sulphur.” (Is 30:33b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said: “The sons of Judas) have built the raised place of Tophet, which is in the ravine of the son of Hinnom (for) the thing to burn down their sons and their daughters in fire.” (Jer 7:31a, Greek OT)

The king of Babylon roasted (the two false prophets) in fire on gridiron. (Jer 29:22b, Greek OT)

(The body of the little wild animal) perished and was given into a burnt up of a fire. (Dan 7:11b, Greek OT)

(Tobit said to his son Tobias: “... Nadab) carried down Achicar living/alive into the earth. And/but God gave back ... and Nadab came into, into the darkness of the (coming) age.” (Tobit 14:10a, S)

... (The king) exhorted to lead (the first of the seven pious Jewish brothers) ‘blowing in’/levande (in) the fire and roast (him). (2 Macc 7:5a)

Having taken down/up the city, (which was) the willing of God, (Judas) made an inexpressible slaughter, so that the lake, lying by the side of (the city) (and) having the breadth of two stadia, ‘be brought to light’/appeared being (and having been) filled (with) alluvial blood. (2 Macc 12:16)

(Solomon said:) “In the water quenching all things the fire was more active, for the adornment/’adorned world’ is a champion of righteous ones, for once/sometimes a flame indeed was tamed/subdued in order that it might not entirely inflame the living beings having been dispatched away against wicked ones, however/certainly seeing they might themselves behold that they were driven/chased (with) God's judgment, but once/sometimes between water it inflames/flames (with) ability/power over/’more than’ the fire, in order that it might ruin throughout the produces of an unrighteous earth.” (Wisdom of Solomon 16:17b-19)

(Solomon said:) "For (as) the elements changing/change in shape through themselves just as in a stringed instrument the sounds of the rhythm 'the name'/'one by one' are different'/interchange, (while) an echo/tone always staying/abides (the same) ... (so) living ones on dry land (continually) were thrown/turned about into living ones in water, and swimming beings stepped over upon earth/land. (Wisdom of Solomon 19:18a,19)

(Solomon said:) "Fire (continually) was stable/lasting in water of/’on account of’ the own ability, and water (continually) forgot (its) quenching nature." (Wisdom of Solomon 19:20)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “The ones who entirely leave the Lord will fall in, into (the flame), and in them all will be burnt out and may not/certainly not be quenched. (Sir 28:23a)

(The Babylonians) threw (Daniel) in, into the den of the lions. (Bel and the Dragon v 31a, Theod)


The Latter Revelation:

(John the Baptist said to the Pharisees and Sadducees:) "Every tree making/bearing not fine fruit is cut out and thrown into fire." (Matt 3:10b)

(The Lord said to His disciples:) “Many will speak to Me in that day, ‘Lord, Lord, did we not prophesy (in) Your name, and (in) Your name threw out many (א*) little demons, and in Your name make/do many abilities/’works of ability’?’ And then I will confess to them that/: ‘I have nor at any time had knowledge of you.’” (Matt 7:22-23a)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "Do not fear from the ones slaying the body but being not able to kill the soul; but rather fear the One being able to perish and/both soul and body in Gehenna." (Matt 10:28)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “The Son of the Man will dispatch away His messengers, and they will collect out of His kingdom all the stumbling blocks and the ones making the lawlessness, and they throw (א*) them into the furnace of the fire.” (Matt 13:41-42a)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "False Christs and false prophets will rise ... so that and/also the chosen ones, if able/possible, will be (א,* א) led astray." (Matt 24:24)

(The Son of the Man) will indeed cause the sheep to stand out/’on the basis’ of His right (parts) but the little he-goats out/’on the basis’ of the ’(parts) of a good name’/’left (parts)’. … (And) He will speak to the ones out/’on the basis’ of the ‘(parts) of a good name’/left: “Go from/’away from’ Me, (the ones) (א,* א, B) having been (and being) cursed, into the agelong fire having been (and being) made ready for the slanderer and his messengers.” (Matt 25:33,41)

(Jesus said:) “Many will come on/’for the sake of’ My name, saying that/: ‘I am’ and will lead many astray.” (Mark 13:6)

Having come out from the man the little demons came into, into the pigs, and the herd stormed ‘down from’/down the steep precipice into the lake and were ‘choked away’/stifled. (Luke 8:33)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) ”I will underneath/secretly show you whom you may fear, * (א,*א) the One after the thing to kill having (judicial) authority to throw in, into Gehenna. Yes, I say you, you may fear this One.” (Luke 12:5)

Having so shaken off the little wild animal into the fire (Paul) indeed suffered nothing bad. (Acts 28:5)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Jesus said:) “If – according to the circumstances – a certain (person) may not have stayed in Me, he has been thrown outside as the twig and been dried. And they lead it (א,*א) together (with other twigs) and throw (them) into the fire, and it is burnt.” (John 15:6)

I beheld a little wild animal ascending out of the sea, having ten horns and seven heads and upon his horns ten diadems and against his heads a (P47; א,* א) ‘name of blasphemy’/’blasphemous name’. (Rev 13:1 or Rev 13:1b)

(The second little wild animal) makes great signs. It may make ‘in order’/so that and/also fire (may) descend out of the heaven into/to the earth in the very eyes of the men. And it leads astray the ones dwelling upon the earth because of the signs which it was given to it to make in the very eyes of the little wild animal, saying to the ones dwelling upon the earth to make an image to the little wild animal, which (א,* א) has (the wound of) a blow of the dagger and has lived/’come to life’. (Rev 13:13-14)

It was given to (the second little wild animal) to give spirit (to) the image of the (first) little wild animal, in order that the image of the little wild animal and/also may talk. And it will (א,* א) make, (so that) as many as – if according to the circumstances – will (א,* א) not prostrate themselves before the image of the little wild animal (in honour of it), (that) they may be killed. (Rev 13:15)

(The second little wild animal) makes (so that) all, the small and the great and the rich and the beggarly and the free and the slaves, ‘in order that they may give them’/’that they may be given’ a mark upon their right hand or against their forehead. (Rev 13:16)

Another messenger, a third one, followed them, saying in/with a great/loud voice: “If any one prostrates himself (towards) the little wild animal (in adoration of it) and (towards) its image (in adoration of it) and takes a mark upon his forehead or against his hand, he and/also will drink out of the wine of the passion of God, of the one being (and having been) blended/filled undiluted in the cup of His wrath.” And he will be tormented in fire and sulphur in the very eyes of holy messengers and in the very eyes of the little Ram. (Rev 14:9-10)

I beheld * (א*) out of the mouth of the false prophet three unclean spirits as if (P47, א*) (they were) frogs. (Rev 16:13)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

(The Dead Sea) frightens by its terroring gloominess. The surface of the water is blueblack and the water bitterly salt, whereby the often used name the Salt Sea. The surrounding mountains are black, as having been burnt by fire. No vegetation lights up the shores. In the depth there is no fish, not even a shellfish or any other living being. On the contrary the fishes and other living creatures being led in there by the Jordan are killed. . . . The Dead Sea is the insatiable receiver and collector. It takes all what it gets but keeps it and devours or kills it. By this it becomes a curse and a plague for all the surroundings. No living being gets on well here, no birds here strike up their song. (Karl Palmberg "Pilgrims tillfälliga betraktelser" p 240-241; Karl Palmberg /1842-1920/ was from 1883 a Lutheran clergyman in Månsarp in the diocese of Växjö and president in Jönköpings Missionsförening (Missionary Society) 1886-1911; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Moses (to Corah, Dathan and Abiram): Why do you raise and murmur? Corah: Why do you raise over the congregation of the Lord? You do too much, you and Aron; for the whole congregation is holy and the Lord is among them. Moses: The Lord will make known who belong to him, who holy is and to him offer shall. Dathan: Is it not enough that you have deprived us the promised land to kill us in the desert? Are you in addition going to be Lord over us? Moses: Take your smoke-vessels and come up here! Abiram: We do not come! Moses (to the people): Because of this you will observe that the Lord has sent me: If you die as all men die, so the Lord has not sent me. But if the Lord here does otherwise, so that the earth opens its mouth, and devours them with everything they have, that the living ones go down in the hell, so you will undestand that Corah, Dathan and Abiram have sneered at the Lord! (The earth cracks; Corah, Dathan and Abiram are devoured in fire.) (August Strindberg "Genom öknar till arvland" p 56-57; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

The unknown: "I just met my Sylvia! I expected to see all the beautiful, good in the child in blossom in the virgin. . . . I found a faded rose seeming to have shed its blossoms too early. . . . Her bosom had sunk, her hair was knotty as the hair of a mismanaged child, and her teeth were eaten by worms. . . . Therefore do not grieve! Do not grieve the little one, you could have had to grieve the big one, as I have had to do!" The lady: "So this is the life!" The unknown: "Yes, this is the life! And therefore I go to bury myself living!" The lady: "Where?" The unknown points upward the monastery: "Up there!" (August Strindberg "Till Damaskus III" p 306; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

I have the evil thing, and I hate it! And you can know, if I now would choose burial, I want to be burnt - living, in order to be purified from the evil! Am I more evil than others? No! But I have had unright in the thing to wreak my vengeance on the demons who as their mission had to pain me up to the good thing! This was my unright! But do not believe that they were more good than I! (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev XI maj 1895-nov 1896 p 294-295; letter 1896-08-01 to Torsten Hedlund; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Being living snowed up without steamship and railway I hear nothing from the outer world. (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev VIII jan 1890-dec 1891" p 153-154; letter 1891-01-12 to Axel Strindberg; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

When . . . I in Nietzsche, the one I partly have anticipated, found the whole movement formulated, I took in his standpoint and am now going to henceforward experiment with that standpoint in order to see where it leads. The immediate consequence became an unmeasurable hatred towards Christ, and therefore I loved Voltaire, also in his capacity of Der Aristokrat des Geistes. . . . How deeply I have come into my new direction shows itself by my rapture over (Knut) Hamsun's book about America (Fra det modern Amerikas Aandsliv) where all the opinions, for which I have suffered halfdeath during the last five years, are openly and frankly expressed. And now it seems to me as if I only have been forced down to democracy by the mass-pressure from below and the trample of envy from above. Born aristocrat, but never having had means to show it, for this have been highly dangerous and is so still. Therefore my lot probably becomes to be ground living between the two millstones - as hitherto. (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev VIII jan 1890-dec 1891" p 26-27; letter 1890-04-12 to Georg Brandes; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

The following day I would be burnt living, because I did not want to believe in the nicaean doctrine. I asked respectful the oldest one, if their lenient doctrine had not any more lenient punishment for a crime as mine. They answered no. . . . Uffka, or the former pastor Axonius, . . . was sent out to preach the political or the hell religion. . . . All having not got land and who did not want to labour to others, they would be roasted in eternity. (August Strindberg "Svenska öden och äventyr 2" p 72-73,88; the short story "De lycksaliges ö" from 1890; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Here in Denmark man almost is defenceless before the giantdogs. One of them recently has eaten up a whole kitchen-maid living in a backyard (weep for it!) and nevertheless the dog-owners with success petition for the abolishing of the muzzle, which is compulsary in Germany! (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev VII febr 1888-dec 1889" p 73; letter 1888-04-14 to Verner von Heidenstam, translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Svetlana Aleksijevitj, Henry Daniel-Rops, Charles Dickens, Nikolaj Gogol, Carl Grimberg, Dick Harrison, Chojniki Viktor Iosifovitj Verzjikovskij (and 'Andrej and Vladimir'), G. Kurze, Selma Lagerlöf, K.E. Laman, Hans Larsson, Martin Luther, Olaus Magnus, Henning Mankell, Olaf Moe, Fredrik Nielsen, Bertil Nilsson, Sigurd Ohlsson, Laurence Rees, Per Richardson, Anders Runesson, Nelly Sachs, Erich Sauer, Alexander Solsjenitzyn, Zacharias Topelius.


My own comments and speculations:

Observe the difference between the ones prostrating before the image of the little wild animal in honour of it (Rev 13:15) and the ones prostrating themselves towards the image of the little wild animal in adoration of it (Rev 19:20).

In combination with water the fire is more active. Cf. Wisdom of Solomon 16:17-19.

The lake of the fire can be compared with the Dead Sea, where once Sodom and Gomorrah were situated (cf. Gen 19:24-25).

Concerning “the false prophet ... having made the signs in the very eyes of (the little wild animal)”, see also Rev 13:13. Concerning “the lake of the fire being burnt in/with sulphur”, see also Rev 14:10b. Concerning “led astray the ones having taken the mark of the little wild animal”, see also Rev 13:14,16; 14:9-10a. Concerning “the ones prostrating themselves towards its image (in adoration of it) (א*)”, see also Rev 13:15; 14:9-10a.


Greek words:

limnê (lake) (in the NT + one example in the Apocrypha) 2 Macc 12:16; Luke 8:33 - Luke 5:1-2; 8:22-23; Rev 20:10,14-15; 21:8.


Additional studies: Gen 19:24; Ex 3:2; Num 16:30-32; Deut 13:1; Ps 18:8(9); 50:3; 97:3; Is 27:1; Jer 19:13; Ezek 38:22; Dan 3:19-21; Tobit 14:10; 2 Macc 9:9; 10:36; Wisdom of Solomon 5:6; Sir 16:6; The Prayer of Azariah v 23; The Song of Praise of the Three Men v 65; Matt 5:22,29; 6:30; 13:47,50; 18:9; 21:21; Mark 9:22,42; 11:23; Luke 3:9; John 15:6; Rev 13:12,17; 20:10,14; 21:8.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-08-08; 2012-07-26; 2015-10-20)

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19:21 And the rest were killed in/with the large sword of the One being seated upon the horse, (with) the (sword) having come out, out of His mouth, and all the birds were fed out of their fleshes/’pieces of flesh’.

Word for word (27 words in the Greek text): and the rest were-killed in/with the large-sword (of)-the-one being seated upon the horse (with)-the-(sword) having-come-out out-of the mouth his, and all the birds were-fed out-of the fleshes their.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The psalmist said to the Lord:) “The earth is fed from the fruit of Your works.” (Ps 104:13b, Greek OT)

(The wisdom said:) “I came out from a mouth of a highest one.” (Sir 24:3a)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “Many have fallen in a mouth of a dagger.” (Sir 28:18a)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “Large swords procuring justice into/’purposed for’ destruction of wicked ones (have been created into/’for the purpose of’ a procuration of justice). (Sir 39:30b)


The Latter Revelation:

The rest … were insolent (against the slaves of the king), and they killed (them). (Matt 22:6)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Babylon) has become a dwelling of little demons and a watch/custody of every unclean spirit and a watch/custody of every bird, unclean * (א,* א) and having been (and being) hated/hateful. (Rev 18:2b)

Out of His mouth a sharp large sword goes out, in order that He may hit the nations in/with it. (Rev 19:15a)

I beheld another (א,* א) messenger standing in the sun, and he shouted in/with a great/loud voice, saying to all the birds flying in midheaven: “Come here, be led together into the great chief meal of God, in order that you may eat fleshes/’pieces of flesh’ of kings and fleshes/’pieces of flesh’ of leaders of a thousand (men) and fleshes/’pieces of flesh’ of stable (ones) and fleshes/’pieces of flesh’ of horses and of the ones being seated against (א,* א, A) them and fleshes/’pieces of flesh’ of all, both of free and slaves and of small ones and of the (א,* א) great ones. (Rev 19:17-18)

I beheld the little wild animal and the kings of the earth and their armies being (and having been) led together to make the war ‘in company with’/against the One being seated upon the horse, and ‘in company with’/against His army. (Rev 19:19)


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “the large sword ... having come out, out of His mouth”, see also Rev 19:15. Concerning “all the birds were fed out of their fleshes/’pieces of flesh’”, see also Rev 19:17; 19:18. Concerning “the One being seated upon the horse”, see also Rev 6:2ab and 19:19.


Additional studies: Ezek 14:17; John 6:51-58.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-08-08; 2012-07-26; 2015-10-20)

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