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Chapter 18

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18:1 After these things I beheld another messenger descending out of the heaven, having great (judicial) authority. And the earth was given light out of his glory.

Word for word (20 words in the Greek text): After these-(things) (i/I)-beheld another messenger descending out-of the heaven having (judicial)-authority great, and the earth was-given-light out-of the glory his.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(David said:) “The Lord (is) my enlighening.” (Ps 27:1a, Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) “Behold, the glory of the God of Israel came (continually) ... towards upstickings/east … and the earth shone out/forth in a circle from (Him) as a splendour from the glory.” (Ezek 43:2, Greek OT)


The Latter Revelation:

A messenger of the Lord stood near (the shepherds), and a glory of the Lord shone round about them. (Luke 2:9a)

(Jesus said to the crowd:) "If so your whole body (is) bright, having not any dark part, it will be wholly bright, as when the lamp – according to the circumstances – may give you light (with) the ray of light." (Luke 11:36)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(The light) (continually) was the true light, which gives light to every man coming into the adornment/'adorned world'. (John 1:9)

No one has ascended (and ascends) into the heaven ‘if not’/except the One having descended out of the heaven, the Son of the Man. (John 3:13)

(Jesus said to the Jews:) "This One is the bread, the one descending out of the heaven, in order that a certain one may eat out of it and not die. I am the living bread, the one having descended out of the heaven. If – according to the circumstances – anyone may eat out of My (א,*א) bread, He will live into the (coming) age." (John 6:50-51a)

(Jesus said to the Jews:) “This is the bread, the one descending (P66, א*) out of the (P66, א,* א) heaven, not entirely as the fathers ate and died. The one who chews this bread will live into the (coming) age.” (John 6:58)

Against (the pillar) I will write the name of My God and the name of the city of My God, the new Jerusalem, the one descending out of the heaven from My God, and My name, the new one. (Rev 3:12a, “Philadelphia”)

After these things I beheld, and behold, a door being (and having been) opened in the heaven. (Rev 4:1a)

I beheld another messenger ascending from ‘an upsticking of a sun’/east, having a seal of a living God. (Rev 7:2a)

The fourth messenger sounded the trumpet. And the third of the sun was struck and the third of the moon and the third of the stars, in order that the third of them might be gloomed, and (that) the day might not ‘be brought to’/give light (for) the third of it and the night likewise. (Rev 8:12)

Smoke ascended out of the well, as smoke of a great furnace. And the sun was gloomed (א,*א) and the air * (א*). (Rev 9:2)

I beheld another stable messenger descending out of the heaven, being (and having been) wrapped up in a cloud. (Rev 10:1a)

The dragon had given (the little wild animal) his ability and his throne and a great (judicial) authority. (Rev 13:2b)

The fifth (messenger) poured out his bowl against the throne of the little wild animal. And it became/’came about’, (that) its kingdom ‘being (and having been)’/’was (and had been)’ darkened. (Rev 16:10a)


My own comments and speculations:

In Rev 7:2a John beheld another messenger ascend, now he (in a restoration perspective?) sees a messenger descend.

Concerning “After these things I beheld”, see Rev 4:1a. Concerning “another messenger descending out of the heaven”, see Rev 10:1a. Concerning “descending out of the heaven”, see also John 6:45-51a. Concerning “great (judicial) authority, see Rev 13:2.

Concerning the possibility that this messenger would be the seventh messenger with the seventh bowl of the passion of God, see My own comments and speculations to Rev 16:17.


Additional studies: Ps 43:4; Ezek 1:28; 10:4; John 1:5,14; 8:12; Acts 12:7; Rev 17:1,7; 21:23; 22:5.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-31; 2012-07-23; 2015-10-04)

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18:2a And he shouted (with) (א,*א) a stable/firm voice, saying: “She has fallen * (א,*א), the great Babylon!”

Word for word (9 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus): and (he)-shouted (with)-stable voice saying: (she)-fell Babylon the great.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

The 'stepping forward'/forthbringing voices/sounds of the trumpet (continually) became extremely more stable. (Ex 19:19a, Greek OT)

(David said: “The) voice of the Lord (is) in/with stability.” (Ps 29:4a, Greek OT)


The Latter Revelation:

(The suborners) were not stable (enough) to take on/’hold of’ (Jesus) (by) His word opposite/’in the presence of’ the people. And having wondered on/at His answer, they were silent. (Luke 20:26)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

And I beheld a stable messenger proclaiming in/with a great/loud voice. (Rev 5:2a)

(The stable messenger) shouted (with) a great/loud voice, just as a lion lows, and when he had shouted, * (א*) seven peals of thunder talked (with their) 'of selves'/own voices. (Rev 10:3)

Another * (P47, א*), a second one, followed, saying: “She has fallen * (א,* א), the great Babylon, who gives (and has given) all the nations to drink out of the wine of the passion of her fornication.” (Rev 14:8)

And the great city became into three parts, and the cities of the nations fell. And the great Babylon was remembered in the very eyes of God to give her a (א,* א) cup of * (א,* א) wine of the passion of the (א,* א) wrath. (Rev 16:19)

The woman whom you beheld is the great city, the one having a kingdom upon/over the kingdoms (א,* א) of the earth. (Rev 17:18)


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “She has fallen, the great Babylon!”, see Rev 14:8.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-31; 2012-07-23; 2015-10-05)

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18:2b And it has become a dwelling of little demons and a watch/custody of every unclean spirit and a watch/custody of every bird, unclean * (א,* א) and having been (and being) hated/hateful ...

Word for word (16 words in the Greek text): and (it)-became (a)-dwelling (of)-little-demons and (a)-watch (of)-every spirit unclean and (a)-watch (of)-every bird unclean and having-been-(and-being)-hated


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Moses said to Israel:) “You shall not eat every/any clean bird. And these you shall not eat from them: ‘The eagle …’” (Deut 14:11-12a, Greek O)

(David said to God:) “Pour out Your wrath against (my adversaries), and let the passion of Your wrath take them down. Let their homestead become being desolate. Let not the dwelling one be in their dwelling-tents.” (Ps 69:24-25 or 69:25-26, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said: “In the desolate district Israel) did not find a way of/to a city of a dwelling.” (Ps 107:4b, Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) “Little demons will dance (in the habitations of Babylon).” (Is 13:21b, Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) “Birds will dwell in (the land of Edom) … and little demons will (be there).” (Is 34:11a,14a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) “From the flying creatures of the heaven till the domestic animals (Jerusaelm) stood ‘out of itself’/abandonned. They have departed (out of Jerusalem). And I shall give/make Jerusalem ... into a dwelling of dragons.” (Jer 9:10b-11a, Greek OT)

This is what the Lord, the Lord says (to Jerusalem): “Behold, I give you ‘to the side of’/over into hands of the ones whom you hate.” (Ezek 23:28a, Greek OT)

(Baruch said: “The city of the ones being enemies to Jerusalem) will be dwelt by little demons. … “ (Baruch 4:35b)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to the scribes and the Pharisees:) “When – according to the circumstances – the unclean spirit may come out from the man, it 'comes through'/passes through waterless places, seeking rest, and does not find." (Matt 12:43)

(Jesus said to the crowds:) “Having come the flying creatures and/also (א,* א) ate down/up (the sowing).” (Matt 13:4b)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Many will ‘be caused to stumble’/stumble and will give one another ‘to the side of’/over into oppression (א,*א).” (Matt 24:10b)

(The man with an unclean spirit continually) had the dwelling-place in/among the tombs. (Mark 5:3a)

(Joseph and Mary led Jesus up into a disgraced Jerusalem) to give a sacrifice according to the/what being (and having been) spoken in the law of the Lord: “A pair of turtledoves or two young ‘birds pigeons’/pigeons.” (Luke 2:24)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “How much rather/more ‘carry ... throughout’/different you are of/’in comparison with’ the flying creatures.” (Luke 12:24b)

(In a linen garment were) ... the flying creatures of the heaven. And a voice became/came towards (Simon Peter): “Having stood up, Peter, sacrifice and eat.” But Peter spoke: “Not at all, Lord, because I nor at any time have eaten every/anything common and unclean.” (Acts 10:12b-14)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

This you have, that you hate the works of the Nicolaitans, which and/also I hate. (Rev 2:6)

… Behold, the slanderer is about to throw (some) out of you into watch/custody, in order that you may be tried, and you will have oppression (for) ten days. (Rev 2:10a, “Smyrna”)

(The unclean spirits) are spirits of little demons, making signs (which) (P47, א*) go out against/to the kings of the whole (inhabited) world, to lead them together into the war of the great day of God, the All-powerful. (Rev 16:14)

The ten horns which you beheld and the little wild animal, these will hate the harlot and (on her) having been (and being) desolated/abandoned they will and/also make her naked. (Rev 17:16a)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

It lies an unpropitious fate over this beautiful estate. . . . If I was lord of Borg . . . I would a stormy night let the fire approach the bending woodwalls and let it devastate all, so that men might not more be enticed to live in the home of unhappiness. Then no one would be allowed to set foot on this condemned place, only the black jackdaws would be allowed to found a new building in the big chimney-wall, which blackened and ghastly raised itself over the desolate foundation. Nevertheless I would most certainly worry, when I would see the flames be put together over the roof. . . . On the blue tops of the flames I would think myself see disturbed ghosts hover. (Selma Lagerlöf "Gösta Berlings saga" p 176-177; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Svetlana Aleksijevitj, Enid Blyton, Berndt Gustafsson, Seamus Heaney, Eyvind Johnson, Lars Levi Laestadius, Pär Lagerkvist, Viktor Latun, Helga Lindberg, Vilhelm Moberg, Fritiof Nilsson Piraten, Nadezjda Petrovna Bygovskaja, Martin Sjöstrand, Anton Tjechov, William Butler Yeats, Tore Zetterholm.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “little demons … unclean spirit … unclean”, see also Rev 16:14. Concerning “watch/custody … watch/custody”, see Rev 2:10ab.


Greek words:

katoikêtêrion (dwelling) (in the NT + examples in the OT) Jer 9:10; Rev 18:2 – Ex 12:20; Eph 2:22.

orneon (bird) (in the NT + examples in the OT) Deut 14:11; Rev 18:2 – Gen 6:20; 2 Macc 15:33; Wisdom of Solomon 5:11; 17:17(18); 19:11; Baruch 3:17; Epistle of Jeremiah v 21,70; Rev 19:17,21.


Additional studies:

Lev 11:13-19; Deut 14:13-20; Jer 49:18; 50:40; Zeph 2:14; Zech 8:17; Baruch 4:7; Matt 5:25; 8:20; 13:32; 14:3,10; 18:30; 25:36,39,43-44; Mark 4:4,32; 6:17,27; Luke 8:5; 9:58; 11:24; 12:58; 13:19; 21:12; 22:33; 23:19,25; John 3:24; Eph 2:22; Rev 18:4; 19:17,21; 20:7.


Ian Provan "Foul Spirits, Fornication and Finance: Revelation 18 From an Old Testament Perspective"; Journal for the Study of the New Testament 64 (1996): 81-100.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-31; 2012-07-23; 2015-10-05)

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18:3a ... because all the nations have (and are) fallen (א,* א, A) ‘out of’/’in consequence of’ the wine of the passion of her fornication, and the kings of the earth have fornicated in company with her.

Word for word (21 words in the Greek text): because out-of the wine (of)-the (of)-passion (of)-the (of)-fornication her have-(and-are)-fallen all the nations and the kings (of)-the earth in-company-with her fornicated


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(God said to the ones being called gods:) “You fall as one of the leaders.” (Ps 82:7b, Greek OT)

(The prophet said: “Tyre) will be a trading-place to all the kingdoms of the (inhabited) world.” (Is 23:17b, Greek OT)

(In that day) the Lord will lead (His) hand against, against the adornment of the heaven and against the kings of the earth. (Is 24:21, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) “I trod down (the nations) (in) My wrath.” (Is 63:6a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Gog:) “You may fall against the mountains of Israel … and the nations (being) in company with you.” (Ezek 39:4a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said concerning Israel:) “All their kings have fallen. ...” (Hos 7:7b, Greek OT)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said:) “What does it seem to you, Simon? From whom do the kings of the earth take ends/toll or tax, from their sons or from the aliens?” (Matt 17:25b)

(Jesus said to the crowds:) “Every kingdom having been divided asunder against itself is made desolate and house falls against house.” (Luke 11:17b)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Signs will be in sun and moon and constellations, and upon the earth anguish of/among (the) nations.” (Luke 21:25a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Joybringing grace and peace) from Jesus Christ, the faithful witness, the first-born of the dead (bodies) and the leader of the kings of the earth. (Rev 1:5a)

However I have few/’a few’ things ‘down from’/against you, because you have (some) there ‘getting power over’/embracing the teaching of Balaam who taught * (א*) to throw/lay a stumbling block in the very eyes of the sons of Israel, to eat things sacrificed to idols and to fornicate. (Rev 2:14, “Pergamos”)

However I have a much/great thing (א,* א) ‘down from’/against you, that you let the woman Jezebel be, the one saying herself be (א,* א) a prophetess, and she teaches and leads My slaves astray to fornicate and eat (things) sacrificed to idols. (Rev 2:20, “Thyatira”)

The kings of the earth … hid themselves into the caves and into/among the rocks of the mountains. (Rev 6:15a)

Another * (P47, א*), a second one, followed, saying: “She has fallen * (א,* א), the great Babylon, who gives (and has given) all the nations to drink out of the wine of the passion of her fornication.” (Rev 14:8)

In company with (the great harlot) the kings of the earth have made fornication (א,* א), and the ones dwelling (against) the earth ‘were made’/got drunk out of the wine of her fornication. (Rev 17:2)

(The woman) having in her hand a golden cup being full of abominations and of the unclean things of her and the earth's (א,* א) fornication. (Rev 17:4b)

The seven heads are seven mountains, whereat/where the woman is seated upon them. And they are seven kings. The five have fallen, the one is, the another/other has not yet come. (Rev 17:9b-10)


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “the wine of the passion of her fornication”, see Rev 14:8. Concerning “the kings of the earth”, see Rev 1:5a, 6:15aa and 17:2.


Additional studies:

Joshua 6:5; Job 1:19; Is 8:9; 45:1; Jer 25:15-17,27; Ezek 38:18; Judith 13:2; Matt 7:25-27; Luke 6:49; 13:4; John 2:6-10; 8:3-4,41; Heb 11:30; Rev 18:9.


Ian Provan "Foul Spirits, Fornication and Finance: Revelation 18 From an Old Testament Perspective"; Journal for the Study of the New Testament 64 (1996): 81-100.

M.J. Selvidge "Powerful and powerless women in the Apocalypse"; Neotestamentica 26:1 (1992): 157-168.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-08-01; 2012-07-23; 2015-10-05)

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18:3b And the traders of the earth were rich ‘out of’/’in consequence of’ the ability of her voluptuousness.

Word for word (12 words in the Greek text): and the traders (of)-the (of)-earth out-of the ability (of)-the (of)-voluptuousness her were-rich.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The Lord said to the king of Assyria:) “Because of 'the thing to be you'/'your being' wrathful against Me and (that) your voluptuousness has ascended in/to My ears … I will turn you back in the way in which you came.” (2 Kings 19:28, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said:) “Do not fear when – according to the circumstances – a man may be rich and when – according to the circumstances – the glory of his house is made full, because all the things will not be taken (with him) in 'the thing to die him'/'his death'.” (Ps 49:16-17a or 49:17-18a, Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) “The traders (of Tyre were) glorious, leaders of the earth.” (Is 23:8b, Greek OT)

(The Lord God/the prophet said to Tyre:) “You enriched all kings of the earth.” (Ezek 27:33b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said: “Nineveh is struck) from/’owing to’ multitudes of fornications. A fine and graceful harlot, being in command of/to poisoners, selling/’giving up’ nations in/with her fornication and tribes in/with her poisons.” (Nahum 3:4, Greek OT)

The three times infamy Nikanor (had) led a thousand traders against/’in quest of’ the sale of the Jews. (2 Macc 8:34)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "The kingdom of the heavens is like * (א*, B) a trader seeking fine pearls, but/and having find one much valuable pearl (and) having gone away he has disposed (and disposes) all things as many as he (continually) had, and he bought it." (Matt 13:45-46)

Ones being rich (God) has dispatched out empty/empty-handed. (Luke 1:53b)

(Jesus said to the Pharisees:) “It/there was (continually) a certain rich man, and he (continually) was “inclothed”/’clothed in’ purple and fine linen being cheerful ‘according to day’/’day by day’ (in a) shining (way).” (Luke 16:19)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

The one liking art may pay this pleasure; does he want to have pictures he may buy them, does he want to have statues he may order them. Art is the luxury of the individual, not a need of the people, and when the government gives 100 lire to a painter by means taken from the people (who sweats, works and suffers to be able to pay them), then the government deceives (tradisce) the whole nation, because she takes the bread out of the mouth of the hungry ones to give it to the parasites of the state, who consume without produce. (August Strindberg "Från det vaknande Italien" p 99-100; Pegli-Genova March 1884; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Gösta Berg, J. Fjellstedt, Emilia Fogelklou, Nikolaj Gogol, Carl Grimberg, Torgny Lindgren, Fritiof Nilsson Piraten, Hilding Pleijel, Viktor Rydberg, Sven Stolpe, Mario Vargas Llosa.


Greek words:

emporos (trader) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) 2 Macc 8:34; Matt 13:45; Rev 18:3 – 1 Macc 3:41; Sir 26:29; 37:11; 42:5; Baruch 3:23; Rev 18:11,15,23.

strênos (voluptuousness) 2 Kings 19:28; Rev 18:3.


Additional studies:

Gen 37:28; Neh 13:20; Is 23:2-3; Ezek 27:3-27; Sir 11:18; 1 Tim 6:9; Rev 18:7,9,11,15,17,19,23.


Ian Provan "Foul Spirits, Fornication and Finance: Revelation 18 From an Old Testament Perspective"; Journal for the Study of the New Testament 64 (1996): 81-100.

M.J. Selvidge "Powerful and powerless women in the Apocalypse"; Neotestamentica 26:1 (1992): 157-168.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-08-01; 2012-07-23; 2015-10-06)

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18:4 And I heard another voice out of the heaven, saying: “Come out, my people, out of her in order that you may not have a thing in common together with her misses (of the mark of God) and in order that you may not take/suffer ‘out of’/’in consequence of’ her blows ...”

Word for word (28 words in the Greek text): And (i/I)-heard another voice out-of the heaven saying: come-out the people my out-of her in-order-that not (you)-may-have-a-thing-in-common-together-with the misses-(of-the-mark-of-god) her, and out-of the blows her in-order-that not (you)-may-take


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

The Lord spoke to Abram: “Come out, out of your earth/country and out of your kinsfolk and out of your house of your father into the earth/country, which I – according to the circumstances – may show you.” (Gen 12:1, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) “The misses (of My mark) (of Sodom and Gomorrah) is extremely great.” (Gen 18:20b, Greek OT)

(The messenger said to Lot:) “Haste the thing to save (you out of Sodom to Zoar).” (Gen 19:22a, Greek OT)

(The king of Judas) had a thing in common (with) … the (wicked) king of Israel. And this one acted contrary to law. (2 Chron 20:35b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to His people:) “Stand aloof, stand aloof! Come out of (Babylon) and do not touch (what is) unclean!” (Is 52:11a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to His people:) “Flee out of a middle of Babylon! And ‘save up’/save everyone his soul!” (Jer 51:6a, Greek OT)

(Tobit said to his son Tobias:) “Come/go out, out of Nineveh, and you may not stay here ... because much unrighteousness (is) in it.” (Tobit 14:9b-10a, S)

(God said to Israel:) “Having so come into, into Babylon (as captives) you will be there more/several years and a great/long time till/’as long as’ seven generations, but after this I shall lead you out from there in company with peace.” (Epistle of Jeremiah v 2)


The Latter Revelation:

(A messenger of the Lord said to Joseph about Mary:) "She will bring forth a Son and you will/shall call His name Jesus, for He will save His people from their misses (of the mark of God)." (Matt 1:21)

‘Every the’/’the whole’ city came out into a going to meet Jesus. (Matt 8:34a)

(Jesus said to the crowd:) “Not the thing coming into, into the mouth, makes the man common/unclean, however/but the thing going out, out of the mouth, this makes the man common/unclean.” (Matt 15:11)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Let the ones (being) in Judea flee against (א,* א) the mountains.” (Matt 24:16)

(Zacharias said: “The Lord God) has inspected us and made redemption for His people.” (Luke 1:68b)

(The priest leaders and the scribes and the first ones of the people) did not (continually) find the thing what/which they might make/do, for the people, all of them, (continually) hung upon hearing Him. (Luke 19:48)

(The Lord said to Moses:) “Having beheld I beheld the ill-treatment of My people in Egypt and I heard their sighing, and I descended to take them out for Myself.” (Acts 7:34a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

I, John, your brother and a companion together with (you) in the oppression and a kingdom and an endurance in Jesus. (Rev 1:9a)

(One of the elders) spoke to me: “These are the ones coming out of the great oppression, and they have cleansed their dresses and whitened them in the blood of the little Ram.” (Rev 7:14b)

From/’owing to’ these three blows, the third of the men was killed, out/’in consequence’ of the fire and the smoke and the sulphur, of the thing going out, out of their mouths. (Rev 9:18)

I heard a voice out of the heaven, saying: ”Seal as many things as (P47,א,*א) the seven peals of thunder have talked and you may not write them.” (Rev 10:4b)

They heard a great/loud voice out of the heaven saying to them: “Ascend here.” (Rev 11:12)

I heard a voice/sound out of the heaven, as a voice/sound of many waters and as a voice/sound of a great/loud thunder. (Rev 14:2a)

(The messenger) raised his voice (with) a great/loud voice to the one having the sharp sickle, saying: “Send your sharp sickle and gather in the bunches of grapes of the vine of the earth, because its grapes ‘have bloomed’/’have not borne ripe fruit’.” And the messenger threw/’let ... fall’ His sickle upon (א,* א) the earth and gathered in the vine of the earth and threw (it) into the great wine-press of the passion of God. (Rev 14:18b-19)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

"I draw away from the home of sin and vanity", squire Julius answered (the meeting girls). "I do not more want to sojourn among idlers and malefactors. I go home to mother. . . . As Lot fled from Sodom and Gomorrah, I flee from Ekeby. Now there is not any righteous man. But when the earth collapses and the sulphur rain clatters down out of the sky, then I shall rejoice at God's just sentences. Goodbye, girls, be on your guard against Ekeby!" . . . This was just the seventeenth time squire Julius had tried to leave Ekeby. (Selma Lagerlöf "Gösta Berlings saga" s 275,278; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Let there be a city of wicked; will it stand? But let them be wicked, not only with regard to the good, but towards each other. Why, it is impossible such a city should stand. Truly, “professing themselves to be wise, they became fools.” (Rom. i. 22) (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers XI:17)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Johann Arndt, Bo Giertz, Gunnar Hillerdal, Gustaf Linder, Helge Lööf, Vilhelm Moberg, Fabian Månsson, Jerker Rosén, Viktor Rydberg, Harry Sjöman, August Strindberg, N.P. Wetterlund.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “voice out of the heaven”, see Rev 10:4b. Concerning “my people”, cf. My comments and speculations to Rev !4:18b-19.


Greek words:

syngkoinôneô (have a thing in common together with) Rev 18:4 – Eph 5:11; Phil 4:14. Cf. syngkoinônos (companion) in Rev 1:9aa.


Additional studies: Gen 19:12,16; Num 16:21,26; Is 48:20; Jer 4:29; 50:8; 51:9,45; Luke 2:32; John 8:11,21,24; 12:28; 2 Cor 6:17; 1 Tim 5:22; 2 John v 11.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-08-01; 2012-07-23; 2015-10-06)

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18:5 ... because her misses (of the mark of God) have attached themselves until the heaven, and God has recollected her unrighteous works.

Word for word (15 words in the Greek text): because attached-themselves her the misses-(of-the-mark-of-God) until the heaven, and recollected the god the unrighteous-works her.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The men) spoke: “Come here, 'we may'/'let us' build for ourselves a city and a tower, which head/top shall be till the heaven.” (Gen 11:4a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) “The misses (of My mark) (of Sodom and Gomorrah) is extremely great.” (Gen 18:20b, Greek OT)

(Jacob said to Laban:) “What (is) my unrighteous work and what my misdeed, because you (have) hunted behind me?” (Gen 31:36b, Greek OT)

(Ezra said to the Lord:) “Our lawlessnesses have been made full over our heads, and our errors have made themselves great till into heaven.” (Ezra 9:6b, Greek OT)

(The king) recollected as many things as he had talked and as/when he had ‘judged down’/condemned (Vashti). (Esther 2:1b, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said to the Lord:) “I have attached myself to Your testimonies.” (Ps 119:31a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Israel:) “I am, I am the One wiping out your lawlessnesses and I will not/certainly not remember (them).” (Is 43:25b, Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) “The judicial verdict of (Babylon) has drawn near into/towards heaven, it has been lifted out till the stars.” (Jer 51:9b, Greek OT)

(Daniel said to the king of Babylon:) “ … Your greatness has made itself great and has 'been in advance of'/'beforehand come' into the heaven.” (Dan 4:19a or 4:22a, Greek OT Theod)

(Baruch said to the Lord: “The dead in Israel missed Your mark) opposite You ... and the bad things have attached themselves to us. May You not remember the unrighteousnesses of our fathers, however/but remember Your hand and Your name in this seasonable time.” (Baruch 3:4b)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to the seventy:) “What city you – according to the circumstances – may come into, and they may not receive you, having come out into its streets speak: ‘And/also the cloud of dust out of your city, the (cloud of dust) having attached itself into/to the feet we wipe away. …’ I say to you that/: ‘It will be more upheld/bearable for Sodom in that day than for that city.” (Luke 10:10-12)

(Jesus said to the Pharisees:) "The thing (being) high in/among men (is) an abomination in the very eyes of God." (Luke 16:15b)

Abraham spoke (to the rich man): “Child, remember that you took away/apart your good things in your life/lifetime, and Lazarus likewise the bad things. But now he here is called to the side of, but you ‘are caused’/feel pain. (Luke 16:25)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

The wine-press was trodden outside (א,* א) the city, and blood came out, out of the wine-press, until the bits of bridle of the horses, from/’in length’ one thousand two hundred (א*) stadia. (Rev 14:20)

And the great Babylon was remembered in the very eyes of God to give her a (א,* א) cup of * (א,* א) wine of the passion of the (א,* א) wrath. (Rev 16:19b)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

I reckon with that tests must come. Everything gets such a much more sharp relief, because the rest of the world is so full of adversities and misery, it is so concentrated miserable, that when I yesterday heard a children choir from Germany in clear voices sing "Stille Nacht, heilige Nacht" I went weeping out into the kitchen. These children with their angle-sweet voices are grown up in a country, where everything amounts to force against other men. This autumn it has been published a book written by a Czech. It is called "The dead ones will judge" and describes the obliteration of the Czechish village Lidice after the murder on Heydrich. Nobody in the village had anything with the murder to do, but the Germans would make an example. Consequently all men over 16 years old became shot after having had to dig their graves, all women brought away to forced labour and all children over 3 years old brought away to an unknown place by lorry, where 157 children were packed together in a space, which was intended for about the half, so that they had to stand all time. According to the book the travel took 7 hours, and several of the children were dead at the arrival. I do not know how true the information of the book is, but if only the half is true, it is so that the Germans have committed a bloody deed, which for eternal times will cry towards heaven. After that the whole village was blown; after 24 hours nothing was left being able to remind of the thing that there had been a little peaceful village with peaceful men in it. And this is done by the people having given rise to "Stille Nacht". (Astrid Lindgren "Krigsdagböcker 1939-1945" s 200; 1943-12-25; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

You have become so conservative, that it stinks towards heaven! (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev II" p 100; letter 1879-11-18 to editor Carl Henrik Atterling; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

It is soon one year since Your father lent himself to an act which he probably regarded right, namely to use sister Anna as a Chessman in a delusive play; the stepmother's desire for vengeance against (my friend) Philp. . . . Remember that (father's and your) crime already stinks towards heaven and I shall take justice in my hand on behalf of me and sister Anna. She has said it to me in the dream, and I am ashamed that I have let these infamies happen for so long time! (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev I 1858-1876" p 385,388; letter Christmas Eve 1876 to the brother Axel Strindberg; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Carl Jonas Love Almqvist, Augustinus, Elisabeth Bergstrand-Poulsen, Homeros, J.P. Jacobsen, Eyvind Johnson, Sven Lidman, Martin Luther, Fabian Månsson, Olaus Petri, Laurence Rees, Knut Svensson, Nathan Söderblom, P. Waldenström.


My own comments and speculations:

Here we can compare with the blood of the Christians without fruit (Rev 14:20). Their blood went until the bits of bridle of the horses, while the sins (misses of the mark of God) of Babylon have attached themselves until heaven.


Greek words:

adikêma (unrigheous work) (in the NT + one example in the Apocrypha) Rev 18:5 – Sir 28:2; Acts 18:14; 24:20.

kollaomai (attach oneself to) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Baruch 3:4; Luke 10:11; Rev 18:5 – Tobit 6:18(19); 1 Macc 3:2; 6:21; Sir 2:3; 19:2; Baruch 1:20; Luke 15:15; Acts 5:13; 8:29; 9:26; 10:28; 17:34; Rom 12:9; 1 Cor 6:16-17.


Additional studies: 2 Chron 28:9; Jer 14:10; 49:16; 51:53; Ezek 17:24; 31:10-11; Hos 8:13; 9:9; 2 Macc 6:14; Sir 50:16; Luke 12:29.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-08-01; 2012-07-23; 2015-10-06)

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18:6 Give her back as and/also she has given back. And double the double things according to her works. In her (א,* א) cup, (in) which she has blended/filled, blend/fill double for her.

Word for word (23 words in the Greek text): Give-back (to)-her as and she gave-back and double the double-(things) according-to the works her, in the cup her (in)-which (she)-blended blend (for)-her double


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

The Lord gave double as many things as it (continually) was in front of Job into/’purposed for’ doubling. (Job 42:10b, Greek OT)

(God said to the prophet: “Jerusalem) has received out of a hand of the Lord double (for) her misdeeds.” (Is 40:2b, Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) ”Entirely as (Babylon) has made/done, make/do (so) to her.” (Jer 50:15b, Greek OT)

(Solomon said:) “Double sorrow took/seized (the wicked ones).” (Wisdom of Solomon 11:12a)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “You will find bad things double in all good things, which you – according to the circumstances – may make/do (the wicked one), and that the highest One has hated missers (of His mark) and will give back a procuration of justice to the wicked ones.” (Sir 12:5-6)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “You may not/certainly not come out of (the watch/custody) till/until you – according to the circumstances – may have given back the last quadrant.” (Matt 5:26b)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “The Son of the Man is about to come in the glory of His Father in company with His messengers and will then give back to everyone according to his works (א*). (Matt 16:27)

(Jesus said to the scribes and the Pharisees:) ”You may – according to the circumstances – make (one who has come over to you) a son of Gehenna double more (compared with) yourselves.” (Matt 23:15b)

(Zaccheus said to the Lord:) “If I have been a fig-informer/’false accuser’ to anyone of anything, I give back fourfold.” (Luke 19:8b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

I will give you, everyone, according to * (א*) the works. (Rev 2:23b, “Thyatira”)

Another messenger, a third one, followed them, saying in/with a great/loud voice: “If any one prostrates himself (towards) the little wild animal (in adoration of it) and (towards) its image (in adoration of it) and takes a mark upon his forehead or against his hand, he and/also will drink out of the wine of the passion of God, of the one being (and having been) blended/filled undiluted in the cup of His wrath.” (Rev 14:9-10a)

(The woman) having in her hand a golden cup being full of abominations and of the unclean things of her and the earth's (א,* א) fornication. (Rev 17:4b)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: Carl Grimberg, Martin Luther, Kjell Åke Modéer, Fredrik Nielsen, John Törnquist.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “according to her works”, see Rev 2:23bb.


Greek words:

apodidômi (give back) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Sir 12:6; Matt 5:26; Luke 19:8; Rev 18:6 – Tobit 2:12,14; 1 Macc 9:70; 10:41; 12:17; 16:17; 2 Macc 2:17; 7:23; 9:16; Wisdom of Solomon 10:17; Sir 3:31; 11:26; 18:22; 29:2,5-6; 33:13; Epistle of Jeremiah v 34. Matt 5:33; 6:4,6,18; 12:36; 16:27; 18:25-26,28-30,34; 20:8; 21:41; 22:21; 27:58; Mark 12:17; Luke 4:20; 7:42; 9:42; 10:35; 12:59; 16:2; 20:25; Acts 4:33; 5:8; 7:9; 19:40; Rom 2:6; 12:17; 13:7; 1 Cor 7:3; 1 Thess 5:15; 1 Tim 5:4; 2 Tim 4:8,14; Heb 12:11,16; 13:17; 1 Pet 3:9; Rev 22:2,12.

diplous (double) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Wisdom of Solomon 11:12; Matt 23:15; Rev 18:6 – Sir 20:10; 50:2; 1 Tim 5:17.

diploô (double) Rev 18:6.


Additional studies: Ex 16:5; 22:4,7,9; Ps 137:8; Prov 24:12; Is 10:5,7; 33:1; 51:17-19; 61:7; Jer 16:18; 17:18; 50:29; Ezek 23:31; Zech 9:12; John 18:11; 2 Thess 1:6.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-08-01; 2012-07-23; 2015-10-07)

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18:7a As much as she glorified herself and was voluptuous, give her of such kind tormenting and grief ...

Word for word (11 words in the Greek text): as-'many-(things)'/much-as (she)-glorified herself and was-voluptuous give her tormenting and grief


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

In that day the saving became/’was turned’ into grief (among) every/all the people, because the people heard in that day saying that/: “The king is sorrowful on/’for the sake of’ his son.” (2 Sam 19:2, Greek OT)

(Mordocai said to the Lord:) “ ... Turn our grief into courage.“ (Esther 4:17ha/C10a, Greek OT)

(The Lord God said to the prophet:) “You, son of man, speak to the leader of Tyre: This is what the Lord says: ‘ ... Your heart was heightened/raised and you spoke: God, I am ... but you are a man and not a god. You have given/made your heart as a heart of a god.” (Ezek 28:2, Greek OT)

(The Lord said about His people:) “I shall put/change their glory into dishonour.” (Hos 4:7b, Greek OT)

(Solomon said: “The enemy of the righteous one) might gain knowledge that, (the things) through which anyone misses (the mark of God), through these things he will be chastised. (Wisdom of Solomon 11:16)

According/answering to the glory (of Jerusalem) her dishonour was made full, and her height was turned into grief. (1 Macc 1:40)

(Israel) grieved (for) Jonathan (for) many days. (1 Macc 13:26b)

(Baruch said to Jerusalem:) “Just as (the one receiving your sons) rejoiced on/’for the sake of’ your falling and was cheerful on/’for the sake of’ your fall, in this way she will be sorrowful on/’for the sake of’ ‘the desert of herself’/’her own desert’.” (Baruch 4:33)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to the crowds and to His disciples:) “Whoever will heighten himself will be humbled.” (Matt 23:12a)

(Jesus said:) “Woe the ones now laughing, because you will grieve and weep.” (Luke 6:25b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(The judicial authority) was given to (the locusts), in order that they might not kill them, however/but in order that they will be tormented (for) five months. (Rev 9:5a)

Their tormenting (was) as a tormenting of a scorpion, when it – according to the circumstances – may hurt a man. (Rev 9:5b)

The smoke of their tormenting ascends into/for (coming) ages of (coming) ages. And day and night they have not rest, the ones prostrating themselves (towards) the little wild animal (in adoration of it) and (towards) its image (in adoration of it) and if anyone takes the mark of its name. (Rev 14:11)

Who may not * (א,* א) fear You (P47, א,* א), Lord, and (who) will (not) glorify Your name? (Rev 15:4a)

The traders of the earth were rich ‘out of’/’in consequence of’ the ability of the voluptuousness (of Babylon). (Rev 18:3b)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: Lars Levi Laestadius, Sven Lidman, Martin Lönnebo, Hans Ostelius, Viktor Rydberg, Karl Erik Steneberg, August Strindberg, Samuel Ödmann.


Greek words:

penthos (grief) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Esther 4:17h(C10); 1 Macc 1:40; Rev 18:7 – Esther 4:3,17k(C13); 9:22; Tobit 2:5-6; 1 Macc 1:25,39; 3:51; 9:41; Wisdom of Solomon 14:15; Sir 22:6,12; 26:6; 41:11; Baruch 4:9,11,23,34; Jas 4:9; Rev 18:8, 21:4.

strêniaô (be voluptuous) Rev 18:7.


Additional studies:

Ezek 28:6-9; Hab 2:15-16; 1 Macc 12:52; 2 Macc 9:28; Matt 18:34; 23:6; 24:1-2; Mark 12:37; Luke 20:46; 21:5-6; John 7:18; 8:50,54; Rev 18:9.


Gordon Campbell "Antithetical Feminine-Urban Imagery and a Tale of Two Women-Cities in the Book of Revelation"; Tyndale Bulletin 55.1 (2004): 81-108.

M.J. Selvidge "Powerful and powerless women in the Apocalypse"; Neotestamentica 26:1 (1992): 157-168.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-08-01; 2012-07-23; 2015-10-07)

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18:7b ... because she says in her heart that/: “I am seated (as) a queen, and I am not a widow and may not/certainly not behold grief.”

Word for word (18 words in the Greek text): because in the heart her (she)-says that/: (i/I)-am-seated (a)-queen and (a)-widow not (i/I)-am and grief not not (i/I)-may-behold.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(David said: “The misser of the mark of God) spoke in his heart: ‘I may not/certainly not be moved to and fro.’” (Ps 10:6a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Babylon:) “ ... Come into, into the darkness … you may no longer be called a stable kingdom … And you spoke: ‘I will be beginning/’a leader’ into the (coming) age.’ … She (says) in her heart: ‘I am, and it/there is not ‘the other’/another. I shall not sit down (as) a widow.’” (Is 47:5,7-8a, Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) “How alone sat (Jerusalem) down. … She has become as a widow. ... Weeping she wept in a night, and her teardrops (were) upon her cheeks. From all the ones welcoming her, ‘it does not begin under’/’there is’ not (any) 'calling ... to the side of' consoling her. (Lam 1:1a,2a, Greek OT)

(The Lord God said to Edom: “You say) in your heart: ‘Who will lead me down against the earth?” (Obadiah v 3b, Greek OT)

The wedding banquet was ‘turned about’/changed into grief. (1 Macc 9:41a)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to the scribes and Pharisees:) "A queen of 'south wind'/south will rise in company with this generation in/at the judgment and will ‘judge ... down’/condemn it." (Matt 12:42a)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “If – according to the circumstances - the * (א*) bad slave may speak in his heart: ‘My lord “spends time”/tarries’ … the lord of that slave will arrive in/on a day, which he does not wait for, and in an hour, which he has not knowledge of.” (Matt 24:48,50)

Some of the scribes (continually) were there, being seated and ‘counting throughout’/considering in their hearts. (Mark 2:6)

(Jesus said to the much/many-headed crowd: “See from/’away from’ the scribes) eating down/up the habitations of the widows.” (Mark 12:40a)

(Simeon would) not behold death till/until (א*) he – according to the circumstances – might behold the christ/'anointed one' of a lord. … And it/there (continually) was a prophetess, Anna … a widow. (Luke 2:26b,36a,37a)

(Jesus) spoke to (the Pharisees): "You are the ones justifying yourselves in the very eyes of the men, but God has knowledge of your hearts, because the thing (being) high in/among men (is) an abomination in the very eyes of God." (Luke 16:15)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

As much as she glorified herself and was voluptuous, give her of such kind tormenting and grief. (Rev 18:7a)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

From Puetoli Paul went his way on to Rome. . . . At last Roma appeared for the eye of the apostle, Roma, the queen of the world, with her walls and her of glorious palaces and temples crowned hills. Through Porta Capena they marched into the eternal city. (Viktor Rydberg "Paulus i Neapel" p 24; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Elin V. Anderson, Werner Aspenström, C.J. Berg, Hjalmar Bergman, Carl-Martin Bergstrand, H. Berthold, Oloph Bexell, Hjalmar Bjurulf, August Bondeson, Lewis Carroll, Tage Danielsson, Esaias Ekedahl, Hilding Fagerberg, A.P. Franklin, Emil Frommel, Nikolaj Gogol, Carl Grimberg, Krister Hanell, Dick Harrison, Brynolf Hellner, Anders Jarlert, Erik Kjellberg, A.W. Larsson, Lars-Olof Larsson, Frideborg Lindquist, Amy Le Feuvre, Martin Luther, Carl Henrik Martling, Vilhelm Moberg, R.H. Moncrieff, Henrietta Mullens, Martin P:n Nilsson, Ole Riis, Sven Edvin Salje, Enar Skillius, Johanna Spyri, Kekke Stadin, Frances Stratton, August Strindberg, Carl Elof Svenning, Rabindranath Tagore, Frans Tiger, Anton Tjechov, Anders P. Tjellström, Tomas Tranströmer, Virginia Woolf, Yngve Ydreborg, Emile Zola, Anna Ölander.


‘Every the thing’/everything in the adornment/’adorned world’, the desire of the flesh and the desire of the eyes and the swaggering of the subsistence, is not out of the Father however/but is out of the adornment/’adorned world’. (1 John 2:16)


Greek words:

basilissa (queen) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Matt 12:42; Rev 18:7 – Esther 1:9,11-12,15-17,19; 4:4,17k(C12); 5:1d(D7),6,12; 7:1-2,6-8; 9:29; 10:3c(F3); Luke 11:31; Acts 8:27.

chêra (widow) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Mark 12:40; Luke 2:37; Rev 18:7 – Tobit 1:8; Judith 9:4,9; 2 Macc 3:10; 8:28,30; Wisdom of Solomon 2:10; Sir 35:14-15(17-18); Baruch 4:12,16; Epistle of Jeremiah v 37; Mark 12:42-43; Luke 4:25-26; 7:12; 18:3,5; 20:47; 21:2-3; Acts 6:1; 9:39,41; 1 Cor 7:8; 1 Tim 5:3-5,9,11,16; Jas 1:27.


Additional studies:

1 Kings 10:1; 2 Chron 9:1; Is 14:13; 47:10; 49:21; Jer 5:24; 13:22; Ezek 16:13; Zeph 2:15.


Gordon Campbell "Antithetical Feminine-Urban Imagery and a Tale of Two Women-Cities in the Book of Revelation"; Tyndale Bulletin 55.1 (2004): 81-108.

M.J. Selvidge "Powerful and powerless women in the Apocalypse"; Neotestamentica 26:1 (1992): 157-168.

F. Scott Spencer "Neglected Widows in Acts 6:1-7"; Catholic Biblical Quarterly 56.4 (1994): 715-733.

Bruce W. Winter "Providentia for the Widows of 1 Timothy 5:3-16"; Tyndale Bulletin 39 (1988): 83-99.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-08-01; 2012-07-24; 2015-10-07)

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18:8a Because of this in one day her blows will arrive, death/pestilence and grief and famine.

Word for word (14 words in the Greek text): because-of this in one dag will-arrive the blows her, death and grief and famine.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Moses said to Israel: "The Lord) treated you ill and let you famish.” (Deut 8:3a, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said to the Lord:) “A seasonable time has arrived.” (Ps 102:13b or 102:14b; Greek OT)

(The prophet said to Babylon:) “These two things will arrive against you suddenly in one day: widowhood and childlessness.” (Is 47:9a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to the priest leader:) “Behold, I shall dig a grope ... and I shall feel/’grope for’ every unrighteousness of that earth/land in one day.” (Zech 3:9b, Greek OT)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “The one making/doing evil, into him it will be rolled/’wallowed dirt’, and he will not/certainly not have additional knowledge from where it arrives to him.” (Sir 27:27)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “Fire and hail and famine and death/pestilence, all these things, it has been created into/’for the purpose of’ a procuration of justice.” (Sir 39:29)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “In company with every flesh from man till domestic animals, and upon missers (of the mark of God) sevenfold, be/being led on towards/’in regard to’ these things: death/pestilence and blood and quarrel and large sword, famine and crush and whip.” (Sir 40:8-9)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “This good little message of the kingdom will be proclaimed in the whole (inhabited) world into/’for a purpose of’ a testimony to all the nations, and then the end will arrive.” (Matt 24:14)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “If – according to the circumstances - the * (א*) bad slave may speak in his heart: ‘My lord “spends time”/tarries’ … the lord of that slave will arrive in/on a day, which he does not wait for, and in an hour, which he has not knowledge of. And he will split him in two (parts) and put/give his part in company with the hypocrites. There will be the weeping and the gnashing of teeth.” (Matt 24:48,50-51)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “You do not know the day, nor the hour.” (Matt 25:13b)

Having become a seasonable day ... Herod made a chief meal for his great men and for the leaders of a thousand (men) and for the first ones of Galilee. (Mark 6:21)

(Jesus said to the seventy:) “What city you – according to the circumstances – may come into, and they may not receive you, having come out into its streets speak: ‘And/also the cloud of dust out of your city, the (cloud of dust) having attached itself into/to the feet we wipe away. …’ I say to you that/: ‘It will be more upheld/bearable for Sodom in that day than for that city.” (Luke 10:10-12)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

Behold, I call (א*) (Jezebel) into a bed and the ones committing adultery in company with her into a great oppression, if – according to the circumstances – they will (א,* א, A) not change their minds ‘out of’/’away from’ her works, and her children I will kill in/with death/pestilence. (Rev 2:22-23a, “Thyatira”)

‘Get power over’/keep what you have until the (time in which) I - – according to the circumstances – - will arrive. (Rev 2:25b, “Thyatira”)

If you so – according to the circumstances – may not change your mind (א*), I will arrive against you (א,*א) as a thief, and you will (א,*א) not/certainly not have knowledge of what kind hour I will arrive against you. (Rev 3:3b, “Sardis”)

(Authority was given to death and Hades against the fourth/’fourth part’ of the earth) to kill in/with large sword and in/with famine and in/with death/pestilence and by the little wild animals of the earth. (Rev 6:8b)

(Hide us from a face/presence of the One being seated on the throne) and from the wrath of the little Ram, because the great day of their wrath has come and who is able to stand?” (Rev 6:16b-17)

From/’owing to’ these three blows, the third of the men was killed, out/’in consequence’ of the fire and the smoke and the sulphur, of the thing going out, out of their mouths. (Rev 9:18)

(The two witnesses) have (judicial) authority upon the waters to turn them into blood and to hit the earth in/with every blow, as many times ‘as if’/as they – according to the circumstances – may want. (Rev 11:6b)

One 'out of'/of the heads (of the first little wild animal was) as (if) having been (and being) slaughtered into/’for the purpose of’ death. And its (wound of) the blow of (the) death had been attended. (Rev 13:3a)

(I beheld) seven messengers having seven blows, the last ones, because in them the passion of God was ended. (Rev 15:1b)

(The unclean spirits) are spirits of little demons, making signs (which) (P47, א*) go out against/to the kings of the whole (inhabited) world, to lead them together into the war of the great day of God, the All-powerful. (Rev 16:14)

I heard another voice out of the heaven, saying: “Come out, my people, out of her in order that you may not have a thing in common together with her misses (of the mark of God) and in order that you may not take/suffer ‘out of’/’in consequence of’ her blows.” (Rev 18:4)

As much as she glorified herself and was voluptuous, give her of such kind tormenting and grief. (Rev 18:7a)


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “death/pestilence” and “famine”, see Rev 2:22-23a and 6:8bb.


Additional studies: Is 9:14; Jer 50:31; Matt 7:22; 24:36,42; Mark 13:32; Luke 12:46; 13:35; 17:27-31; 21:37; 2 Pet 3:12; Rev 18:10.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-08-01; 2012-07-24; 2015-10-08)

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18:8b And she will be burned down in fire, because God (literally: the God) the Lord (א*), the One having judged her, (is) stable.

Word for word (13 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus prima manus): and in fire (she)-will-be-burned-down, because stable the god the lord the-(one) having-judged her.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

The Lord ‘gave wet’/’let (it) rain’ sulphur and fire against Sodom and Gomorrah from the side of the Lord out of the heaven. (Gen 19:24, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Babylon:) ”Your day arrives … I shall fasten/fix up a fire in (your) oak-wood … The One redeeming (Israel) (is) stable.” (Jer 50:31b,32b,34a, Greek OT)

(The king) set (Jerusalem) on fire (in) fire. ... (1 Macc 1:31b)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said: “An alien nation) set a chosen city of a holy place on fire.” (Sir 49:6a)

The Chaldeans took Jerusalem and set her on fire ... (Baruch 1:2b)


The Latter Revelation:

God talked (with Abraham) (P74, א,* א), that his seed will be an outsider in an alien earth/land, and they will make it a slave and treat (it) badly (for) four hundred years. “And the nation, (in) which they – if according to the circumstances – may (P33, א,* א, B) be slaves, I will judge,” God spoke. (Acts 7:6-7a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(The messengers said: “Worthy is the little Ram, the One having been – and being – slaughtered to take the ability and riches and wisdom) and stability and honour and glory and blessing.” (Rev 5:12b)

Till when do You not judge and procure justice for our blood out of the ones dwelling upon the earth? (Rev 6:10b)

(The elders and the four living beings) said: “Amen, the blessing and the glory and the wisdom and the thankfulness and the honour and the ability and the stability to our God into the (coming) ages of the (coming) ages. Amen.” (Rev 7:12)

The second * (א,* א) (messenger) sounded the trumpet, and (something) as a great mountain, burning (in) fire, was thrown into the sea, and the third of the sea became blood. (Rev 8:8)

The nations was/were (P47, א*) wrathful, and/but Your wrath came and the seasonable time of the dead (bodies) to be judged. (Rev 11:18a)

(The messenger brought the good little message ) * (א,* א) in/with a great/loud voice: “Fear God, and give Him glory, because the hour of His judgment has come. And (in honour of Him) prostrate yourselves before the One having made the heaven and the earth and the (P47, א,* א) sea and springs of waters.” (Rev 14:7)

I heard the messenger of the waters saying: “Righteous are You, the One who is and the One who (continually) was, the pious/sacred One, because You have judged these things.” (Rev 16:5)

I heard the sacrificial altar saying: “Yes, the Lord God, the All-powerful, true and righteous (are) Your judgments.” (Rev 16:7)

I will show you the judicial verdict of the great harlot, the one being seated upon many waters. (Rev 17:1b)

(The ten horn and the little wild animal) will eat the flesh (of Babylon) and will burn her down (with) (א,* א) fire. (Rev 17:16b)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: Sten Selander.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “burned down in fire”, see also Rev 17:6b. Concerning “God the Lord … (is) stable”, see also Rev 5:12bb.


Additional studies: Is 47:14; Ezek 22:18-22; John 16:11; 20:28.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-08-01; 2012-07-24; 2015-10-08)

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18:9 And the kings of the earth, the ones having fornicated * (א*) in company with her, will weep and will ‘cut themselves against’/mourn her, when they – according to the circumstances – may behold (א,* א) the smoke of her falling (א*) ...

Word for word (21 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus prima manus): And will-weep and will-cut-themselves against her the kings (of)-the (of)-earth the-(ones) in-company-with her having-fornicated, when-according-to-the-circumstances (they)-may-behold the smoke (of)-the (of)-falling her


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The Lord said to Jerusalem:) “I have taken (and take) the cup of the falling out of your hand … And I will throw/lay in it into the hands of the ones having acted unrighteously against you and humbled you.” (Is 51:22b-23a, Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) “All at once Babylon has fallen and been crushed. Wail her!” (Jer 51:8a, Greek OT)

(Jonathan and Simon) wept (over) (Judas) and every/all Israel ‘cut themselves’/mourned a great mourning (over) him. (1 Macc 9:20a)

(Baruch said to Jerusalem:) “Cowardly (were) the ones having treated you ill and rejoiced on/at your falling.” (Baruch 4:31)


The Latter Revelation:

(The prophet said:) “A voice was heard in Ramah, weeping and much lamentation. (It was) Rachel weeping (for) her children.” (Matt 2:18a)

(Jesus said:) “'Every the'/everyone hearing these My sayings and not making/doing them will be like a foolish male, whoever built his habitation against the sand. And the wet descended, and the rivers came and * (א*) cut/struck towards that habitation and it fell and its falling (continually) was great. (Matt 7:26-27)

All (continually) wept and (continually) ‘cut themselves’/mourned (the daughter of the synagogue leader). (Luke 8:52a)

As (Jesus) drew near having beheld (a disgraced Jerosolyma/Jerusalem), He wept against/over (the city). (Luke 19:41)

Having turned Himself Jesus spoke towards (the women): “Daughters of Jerusalem, do not weep against/over Me, ‘more than’/but weep against/over yourselves and against/over your children.” (Luke 23:28)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

I (continually)wept much, because no one was found worthy to open the scroll ‘and not’/and to see (into) it. And one out of the elders says to me: “Do not weep!” (Rev 5:4-5a)

Smoke ascended out of the well, as smoke of a great furnace. (Rev 9:2a)

The smoke of their tormenting ascends into/for (coming) ages of (coming) ages. And day and night they have not rest, the ones prostrating themselves (towards) the little wild animal (in adoration of it) and (towards) its image (in adoration of it) and if anyone takes the mark of its name. (Rev 14:11)

In company with (the great harlot) the kings of the earth have made fornication (א,* א), and the ones dwelling (against) the earth ‘were made’/got drunk out of the wine of her fornication. (Rev 17:2)

All the nations have (and are) fallen (א,* א, A) ‘out of’/’in consequence of’ the wine of the passion of the fornication (of Babylon), and the kings of the earth have fornicated in company with her. (Rev 18:3a).


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “the kings of the earth, the ones having fornicated in company with her”, see Rev 18:3a.


Greek words:

ptôsis (falling) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Baruch 4:31; Matt 7:27; Rev 18:9 – Esther 4:17q(C22); Sir 1:22; 4:19; 5:13; 11:30; 20:18; 25:7; 27:29; Luke 2:34.


Additional studies:

Ex 19:18; Joshua 8:19-20; Judges 14:17; Jer 9:1; 31:15; Ezek 26:16-17; 27:30-32,35; 1 Macc 4:37-39; Mark 5:38-39; Luke 7:32; John 16:20; Rev 9:17; 18:18; 19:3.


Ian Provan "Foul Spirits, Fornication and Finance: Revelation 18 From an Old Testament Perspective"; Journal for the Study of the New Testament 64 (1996): 81-100.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-08-02; 2012-07-24; 2015-10-08)

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18:10a ... standing from afar because of the fear of her tormenting.

Word for word (9 words in the Greek text): 'from from-afar'/from-afar 'standing-(and-having-stood)'/standing because-of the fear (of)-the (of)-tormenting her


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

The Lord said to Mose: "In this day make a beginning to give trembling of you and fear of you against a face/presence of all the nations below the heaven." (Deut 2:25a, Greek OT)

The people screamed (in) a great/loud voice, and the voice (continually) was heard till from from afar. (Ezra 3:13b, Greek OT)

(David said:) “My neighbours stood from from afar.” (Ps 38:11b or 38:12b, Greek OT)

(David said: “The Lord) has knowledge of the high ones from, from afar.” (Ps 138:6b, Greek OT)

(Solomon said:) “Who will find a woman of manliness? But one of such kind is more valuable than expensive stones. ... She has become ‘as if’/as a ship ‘travelling to’/trading from afar ... (She makes clothes) for herself out of fine linen and purple cloth. ... The clothing of (the excellent wife) is fine linen and purple.” (Prov 31:10,14a,22b, Greek OT)

(Samaria and Jerusalem) dispatched out messengers to the males coming from afar. (Ezek 23:40a, Greek OT)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said to God:) “Throw ‘Your fear’/’the fear for You’ against, against all the nations.” (Sir 36:1b or 36:2a)

(Baruch said: “The aged One) led against, against (Jerusalem) a nation from afar.” (Baruch 4:15a)


The Latter Revelation:

Having beheld Jesus from, from afar (the man with the unclean spirit) … says: "What (is there that is) ‘to me and to’/’between me and’ you, Jesus, Son of the highest God? I adjure You (by) God, (that) you may not torment me!" (Mark 5:6,7b)

(Jesus said to His disciples: “There will be) upon the earth anguish of/among (the) nations, and (א,* א) in/during puzzle sounds of sea and surge, on men's stopping breathing from/’owing to’ fear and expectation of the things coming upon the (inhabited) world. (Luke 21:25b-26a)

All Jesus' ‘known (ones)’/acquaintances … (stood) 'from from afar'/’at a distance’ and (beheld) these things. (Luke 23:49)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(The judicial authority) was given to (the locusts), in order that they might not kill them, however/but in order that they will be tormented (for) five months. Their tormenting (was) as a tormenting of a scorpion, when it – according to the circumstances – may hurt a man. (Rev 9:5)

A great fear fell * (P47, א,* א) against the ones looking at (the two witnesses). (Rev 11:11b)

The smoke of their tormenting ascends into/for (coming) ages of (coming) ages. And day and night they have not rest, the ones prostrating themselves (towards) the little wild animal (in adoration of it) and (towards) its image (in adoration of it) and if anyone takes the mark of its name. (Rev 14:11)

As much as (Babylon) glorified herself and was voluptuous, give her so much tormenting and grief. (Rev 18:7a)


Greek words:

makrothen (from afar) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Baruch 4:15; Mark 5:6; Luke 23:49; Rev 18:10 – Tobit 13:11(13); Sir 21:7; Matt 26:58; 27:55; Mark 8:3; 11:13; 14:54; 15:40; Luke 16:23; 18:13; 22:54; Rev 18:15,17.


Additional studies:


Ian Provan "Foul Spirits, Fornication and Finance: Revelation 18 From an Old Testament Perspective"; Journal for the Study of the New Testament 64 (1996): 81-100.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-08-02; 2012-07-24; 2015-10-09)

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18:10b ... saying: “Woe, woe, the great city Babylon, the stable city, because (in) one hour your judgment has come.”

Word for word (19 words in the Greek text): saying: woe woe, the city the great, Babylon the city the stable, because (in)-one hour came the judgment your.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(God) made two shares of inheritance, one to the people of God and one to all the nations. And these two shares of inheritance came into an hour and a seasonable time and into a day of judgment in the very eyes of God and in all the nations. (Esther 10:3gb-h/F7b-8, Greek OT)

(The guardian) spoke: “It has fallen (and falls), Babylon. …” (Is 21:9b, Greek OT)

(This song will be sung in the land of Judas: “The Lord) leads down (the firm city) till the ground. And feet of mild and humble ones will tread (the ones inhabiting in high things).” (Is 26:5b-6, Greek OT)

(The prophet said to His people:) “Woe the ones causing you wretchedness.” (Is 33:1a, Greek OT)

(The leaders of the sea will say to Babylon: “You became) stable (in/on) the sea. …” (Ezek 26:17b, Greek OT, alternative reading)

(Baruch said to Jerusalem:) “Cowardly (were) the ones having treated you ill and rejoiced on/at your falling. Cowardly the cities (in) which your children were slaves, cowardly the one having received your sons.” (Baruch 4:31-32)


The Latter Revelation: (Jesus said:) “Woe to you, Chorazin! Woe to you, Bethsaida! ... I say to you: ‘It will be more upheld/bearable for Tyre and Sidon in a day of judgment or/than for you. And you, Capernaum, ‘not will’/will you be heightened till heaven? You will be precipitated (א,* א) till Hades.” (Matt 11:21-23a)

(Jesus said to the Pharisees:) “How is anyone able to come into the habitation of the stable one and rape his vessels throughout (א,* א), if – according to the circumstances – he may not first bind the stable one? And then he may (א,* א) rape his habitation throughout.” (Matt 12:29)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “You do not know the day, nor the hour.” (Matt 25:13b)

(Jesus said:) "When – according to the circumstances - the stable one, having been (and being) armed, may watch the 'of himself'/own court, his ‘things beginning under’/properties are in peace. But since – according to the circumstances – a more stable than he is (א*) having come against (him), may conquer him, he lifts/takes away’ from him his full armour on/in which he ‘was (and had been) persuaded’/’relied (and had relied)’ and ‘gives asunder’/distributes his spoils.” (Luke 11:21-22)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(An eagle) saying (with) a great/loud voice: “Woe, woe, woe, to the ones inhabiting upon the earth, out/’in consequence’ of the rest of voices of the trumpet of the three messengers being about to sound the trumpet.” (Rev 8:13b)

(The messenger brought the good little message ) * (א,* א) in/with a great/loud voice: “Fear God, and give Him glory, because the hour of His judgment has come.” (Rev 14:7a)

Another * (P47, א*), a second one, followed, saying: “She has fallen * (א,* א), the great Babylon, who gives (and has given) all the nations to drink out of the wine of the passion of her fornication.” (Rev 14:8)

And the great city became into three parts, and the cities of the nations fell. And the great Babylon was remembered in the very eyes of God to give her a (א,* א) cup of * (א,* א) wine of the passion of the (א,* א) wrath. (Rev 16:19)

The ten horns which you beheld are ten kings, whoever/who have not yet taken a kingdom, however/but they take (judicial) authority as kings (for) one hour in company with the little wild animal. (Rev 17:12)

The woman whom you beheld is the great city, the one having a kingdom upon/over the kingdoms (א,* א) of the earth. (Rev 17:18)

In one day the blows (of Babylon) will arrive, death/pestilence and grief and famine. (Rev 18:8a)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: Lars Ahlberg, E.J. Ekman, Bo Giertz, Carl Grimberg, Alf Henrikson.


My own comments and speculations:

In the Synoptics Jesus tells about a stable man guarding his habitation (Matt) and his court (Luke). In the Revelation John tells about a stable city. Neither the stable man, nor the stable city will be stable enough against Him who is the more stable One.

Concerning “woe, woe”, see also Rev 8:13b. Concerning “the great city Babylon”, see Rev 14:8 and Rev 16:19. Concerning “one hour your judgment has come”, see also Rev 14:7.


Additional studies:

Deut 1:28; 9:1; Joshua 14:12; Is 26:1; Luke 12:39-40; John 2:4; 7:30; 8:20; 12:27; 13:1; 17:1; Rev 18:16-21.


Ian Provan "Foul Spirits, Fornication and Finance: Revelation 18 From an Old Testament Perspective"; Journal for the Study of the New Testament 64 (1996): 81-100.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-08-02; 2012-07-24; 2015-10-09)

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18:11 And the traders of the earth weep and grieve against/over her, because no one buys their load any longer ...

Word for word (17 words in the Greek text): And the traders (of)-the (of)-earth weep and grieve against her, because the load their no-one buys 'not-any-longer'/'any-longer.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The Lord said to Moses/Israel:) “If you – according to the circumstances – may behold the beast of burden of your enemy having fallen/’sunk down’ (and falling/'sinking down') underneath its load, you may not come/go to the side of it, however/but you shall raise it in company together with him.” (Ex 23:5, Greek OT)

To Joab it was brought up a message saying: “Behold, the king (David) weeps and grieves against/over (his son) Absalom (because he been killed).” (2 Sam 19:1, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Tyre: “The sailors and all the look-out men of the sea) will weep on account of you in a bitterness of a soul and (with) a bitter mourning.” (Ezek 27:31b, Greek OT)

(The Lord God/the prophet said to Tyre:) “Traders from nations hissed you. You have become a perdition, and you will no longer be into the (coming) age.” (Ezek 27:36, Greek OT)

(Israel) grieved (for) Jonathan (for) many days. (1 Macc 13:26b)

(The foreign men) (continually) were hindered to go out and go into, out of the border/castle in Jerusalem into the district to buy and sell. (1 Macc 13:49a)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "The kingdom of the heavens is like * (א*, B) a trader seeking fine pearls, but/and having find one much valuable pearl (and) having gone away he has disposed (and disposes) all things as many as he (continually) had, and he bought it." (Matt 13:45-46)

Jesus came into, into the sanctuary, and (He) threw/drove out all the ones selling and buying in the sanctuary. (Matt 21:12a)

(Jesus said:) “Woe the ones now laughing, because you will grieve and weep.” (Luke 6:25b)

As (Jesus) drew near having beheld (a disgraced Jerosolyma/Jerusalem), He wept against/over (the city). (Luke 19:41)

Having turned Himself Jesus spoke towards (the women): “Daughters of Jerusalem, do not weep against/over Me, ‘more than’/but weep against/over yourselves and against/over your children.” (Luke 23:28)

(Luke said:) “We came down into Tyre, for thitherward/there the boat (continually) was ‘unburdening itself’/unloading the load.” (Acts 21:3b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

But (א,*א) the ‘paschal lamb’/Passover of the Jews (continually) was near, and Jesus ascended into/to (a disgraced) Jerosolyma/Jerusalem. And he found in the sanctuary the ones selling cattles/cattle and sheep and pigeons, and the smallcoin-changers being seated. And having made a scourge out of little ropes He threw all out, out of the sanctuary, both the sheep and the cattles/cattle. (John 2:13-15a)

I give you counsel to buy from the side of Me goldmetal ‘having been (and being) caused to glow’/’having glown (and glowing)’ out of fire, in order that you may be rich. (Rev 3:18a, “Laodicea”)

I (continually) wept much, because no one was found worthy to open the scroll ‘and not’/and to see (into) it. And one out of the elders says to me: “Do not weep!” (Rev 5:4-5a)

(The mark is given) ... * (א*) in order that anyone may not be able to buy or sell, ‘if not’/except the one having the mark of the little wild animal or its name (א,* א) or the number of its name. (Rev 13:17)

The traders of the earth were rich ‘out of’/’in consequence of’ the ability of the voluptuousness (of Babylon). (Rev 18:3b)

As much as (Babylon) glorified herself and was voluptuous, give her so much tormenting and grief. (Rev 18:7a)

The kings of the earth, the ones having fornicated * (א*) in company with her, will weep and will ‘cut themselves against’/mourn (Babylon). (Rev 18:9a)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

In the Septuagint “penthein” (“pentheô”) is the word which is used for Jacob's mourning when he thinks that Joseph is dead and gone for ever (Gen 37:34); and it is the word which is used for David's mourning when his son Absalom met his tragic death (II Sam 19:1). ... There is no stronger word of mourning in the Greek language than “penthein”. ... It describes not only a grief which brings an ache to the heart, but also a grief which brings tears to the eyes. “Penthein” describes the sorrow which cannot be concealed. (William Barclay ”New Testament Words” p 225-226)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Hjalmar Bergman, Bo Frid, Torsten Gårdlund, Krister Hanell, Dick Harrison, Lars Magnusson, Arthur Montgomery, Martin P:n Nilsson, Viktor Rydberg, Carl-Erik Sahlberg, Jesper Svartvik.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “the traders of the earth”, see Rev 18:3b.


Greek words:

gomos (load) Ex 23.5; Acts 21:3; Rev 18:11 – 2 Kings 5:17; Rev 18:12.

pentheô (grieve) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) 1 Macc 13:26; Luke 6:25; Rev 18:11 – Judith 16:24; 1 Macc 1:27; 2:14,39; 9:20; 12:52; Sir 7:34; 48:24; Bel and the Dragon v 40; Matt 5:4; 9:15; 1 Cor 5:2; 2 Cor 12:21; Jas 4:9; Rev 18:15,19.


Additional studies:

2 Chron 35:24; Neh 8:9; Is 47:15, Ezek 27:9-34; Rev 18:23.


Per Beskow "Mission, Trade and Emigration in the Second Century"; Svensk Exegetisk Årsbok 35 (1970): 104-114.

M. Elat "Monarkin och handelsutvecklingen i det gamla Israael"; Svensk Exegetisk Årsbok 45 (1980): 19-39.

Ian Provan "Foul Spirits, Fornication and Finance: Revelation 18 From an Old Testament Perspective"; Journal for the Study of the New Testament 64 (1996): 81-100.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-08-02; 2012-07-24; 2015-10-09)

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18:12a ... a load of gold and silver and a valuable stone and pearls and (things א,* א) of fine linen and purple cloth and silk and scarlet ...

Word for word (17 words in the Greek text): (a)-load (of)-gold and (of)-silver and (of)-stone valuable and (of)-pearls and (things)-of-fine-linen and (of)-purple-cloth and (of)-silk and (och)-scarlet


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(David) took the crown (of gold) (from the king) … And its standing-place/weight (was) a talent of gold, and (in it was) a valuable stone and (the crown) (continually) was upon David's head. (2 Sam 12:30a, Greek OT)

(Haman) spoke towards the king: “A man whom the king wants to glorify, let the boys of the king carry a dress of fine linen, which the king is wrapped up in.” (Esther 6:7-8a, Greek OT)

(Solomon said:) “Who will find a woman of manliness? But one of such kind is more valuable than expensive stones. ... She has become ‘as if’/as a ship ‘travelling to’/trading from afar ... (She makes clothes) for herself out of fine linen and purple cloth. ... The clothing of (the excellent wife) is fine linen and purple.” (Prov 31:10,14a,22b, Greek OT)

(The traders of Tyre sold) silvermetal and goldmetal. (Ezek 27:12b, Greek OT)

(The king who will be heightened against/’extending over’ every god) will honour a god, whom his fathers had not have knowledge of, in/with goldmetal and silvermetal and (with) a valuable (Theod) stone .... (Dan 11:38b, Greek OT)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to the twelve:) “You may not acquire gold but/and not silver but/and not copper into your girdles.” (Matt 10:9)

(Jesus said to the crowds about John the Baptist:) “What/why did you come out to behold? A man being (and having been) clad around in soft garments? Behold! The ones ‘beginning under’/’being the first’ in glorious clothing and delicacy are in the royal palaces.” (Luke 7:25)

(Jesus said to the Pharisees:) “It/there was (continually) a certain rich man, and he (continually) was “inclothed”/’clothed in’ purple and fine linen being cheerful ‘according to day’/’day by day’ (in a) shining (way).” (Luke 16:19)

(Paul said: “Having) a descent ‘beginning under’/’being the first’ of God we are not indebted to adopt as a law, (that) the deity be/is like goldmetal (א,* א, A) or silver or stone, ‘a mark of art’/’an artistically made mark’.” (Acts 17:29a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Jesus) puts (aside) the garments and having taken a linen cloth, He girded Himself throughout. Next He throws/pours water into the wash-basin and began to wash the feet of the disciples and to wipe off (with) the linen cloth (with) which He (continually) was (and had been) girded throughout. (John 13:4b-5)

(Continually) the woman was (and had been) wrapped up in purple and scarlet and was (and had been) gilded (with) gold (א,* א) and a valuable stone and pearls. (Rev 17:4a)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

Revelation 18:12,13 gives a description of the trade of Ephesus. She was known as “The Treasure House of Asia” and someone has called her, “The Vanity of Asia Minor.” (William Barclay “The Acts of the Apostles” p 140 commenting Acts 18:24-28)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Rudolf Björkman, Gunnar Broman, John Bunyan, Inger Estham, Carl Grimberg, Dick Harrison, Eli F. Heckscher, Alf Henrikson, Sven T. Kjellberg, Sven Lidman, Harry Martinson, Karl Modin, Fredrik Nielsen, Rune Norberg, Ann Resare, Viktor Rydberg, Heribert Seitz, Henry M. Stanley, Sigfrid Svensson, Kristina Söderpalm, Göran Åberg.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “gold … valuable stone and pearls … and purple cloth and scarlet”, see also Rev 17:4a. Concerning "linen", see also John 13:4b-5.


Greek words:

argyros (silver) (in the NT + one example in the Apocrypha) Matt 10:9; Acts 17:29; Rev 18:12 – Wisdom of Solomon 7:9; 13:10; Jas 5:3.

byssinos (of fine linen) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Rev 18:12 – Esther 1:6; 8:15; Rev 18:16; 19:8,14.

porfyra (purple cloth) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Luke 16:19; Rev 18:12 – Judith 10:21; 1 Macc 4:23; 8:14; 10:20,62,64; 11:58; 14:43-44; 2 Macc 4:38; Sir 45:10; Epistle of Jeremiah v 71; Mark 15:17,20.

sirikos (silk) Rev 18:12.


Additional studies: Is 3:23; Dan 10:5; 12:6; Matt 11:8; John 13:4-5; 19:2,5.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-08-02; 2012-07-24; 2015-10-10)

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18:12b ... and every (piece of) wood of citron tree and every vessel of ivory and every vessel out of most valuable wood and of copper and of iron * (א,*א) ...

Word for word (18 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus): and every wood of-citron-tree and every vessel of-ivory and every vessel out-of wood most-valuable and (of)-copper and (of)-iron


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Moses said to Israel:) "If – according to the circumstances – it may become in anyone a miss (of the mark of God) (deserving) a judicial verdict of death, and he may die, you may hang him up upon a (piece of) wood. His body shall not ‘fall asleep’/die upon, upon the (piece of) wood, however/but you shall bury him (in) a grave in that day, because every/everyone being hanged up upon a (piece of) wood is (and has been) cursed by God." (Deut 21:22-23a, Greek OT)

Behold, while one of them 'threw down'/fell the wooden beam, the iron tool fell ‘out of’/down into the water. (2 Kings 6:5a, Greek OT)

(Solomon said to his woman:) “Your neck (is) as a tower of ivory.” (Song of Solomon 7:4a, Greek OT)

(The people of God will say about the king of Babylon:) “The (pieces of) wood of Libanon will be cheerful on/’for the sake of’ you and the ceder of Libanon (will say): ‘From (the time) of your having been (and being) fallen asleep, the one cutting us did not ascend.’” (Is 14:8, Greek OT)

(The Lord God said to Tyre:) “A (house of) ceder ... was built to you … Your sanctuaries they made out of ivory ... (Your traders sold) iron ... Your trade gave vessels of copper … teeth/tusks of ivory.” (Ezek 27:5b-6,12-13,15, Greek OT)


The Latter Revelation:

(John the Baptist said:) “Already the axe/(iron) lies towards the root of the trees.” (Matt 3:10a)

(Jesus said to the twelve:) “You may not acquire gold but/and not silver but/and not copper into your girdles.” (Matt 10:9)

(Jesus said to the Pharisees:) “How is anyone able to come into the habitation of the stable one and rape his vessels throughout (א,* א), if – according to the circumstances – he may not first bind the stable one? And then he may (א,* א) rape his habitation throughout.” (Matt 12:29)

(Jesus said to the crowds:) “The kingdom of the heavens is like a scarlet kernel of mustard … . It is indeed smaller than all seeds but ... it becomes a tree.” (Matt 13:31b-32a)

On (Jesus') still talking, behold, Judas, one of the twelve, came and in company with him a much/many-headed crowd – ‘in company with’/with daggers and (pieces of) wood – from the priest leaders and elders of the people. (Matt 26:47)

(Jesus said to some present:) "Do you think that those eighteen against whom the tower in Siloam fell and killed them, that (only) they became debtors/obliged ‘to the side of’/’in comparison with’ all the (other) men dwelling in (א,* א, A) Jerusalem?" (Luke 13:4)

(Jesus said: “The kingdom of God) is like a scarlet kernel of mustard, which having taken a man threw/sowed into his garden. And it increased and became into/to a tree.” (Luke 13:19a)

(Jesus said to the daughters of Jerusalem:) ”If they make/do these things in/with the moist wood, what may it become in/with the dried out?” (Luke 23:31)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

He will be a shepherd to them in/with a rod of iron, as it is crushed vessels of a potter, as and/also I have taken (and take) (judicial authority) from the side of My Father. (Rev 2:27 or 2:27-28a, “Thyatira”)

(The locusts like horses continually/-) had breastplates as breastplates of iron. (Rev 9:9a)

The rest of the men, who were not killed in these their (P47, א,* א) blows, nor changed their minds out/’in consequence’ of the works of their hands, ‘in order’/so that they will not prostrate themselves (in adoration of) the little demons and the golden idols and the ones of silver and of copper and of stone and of wood, which ‘and not’/neither are able to see, ‘and not’/nor to hear, ‘and not’/nor to walk about. (Rev 9:20)

She brought forth a son, a (female) (P47,א,*א) male, who is about to be a shepherd to all the nations in/with a rod of iron. (Rev 12:5a)

(Continually) the woman was (and had been) wrapped up in purple and scarlet and was (and had been) gilded (with) gold (א,* א) and a valuable stone and pearls. (Rev 17:4a)

A load of gold and silver and a valuable stone and pearls and (things א,* א) of fine linen and purple cloth and silk and scarlet. (Rev 18:12a)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

“thyinos” of citrus (not lemon but a tree of African origin with fragrant wood). (Max Zerwick-Mary Grosvenor "A Grammatical Analysis of the Greek New Testament" p 770; the comment to Rev 18:12)

The people carried (at the feast of Tabernacles) with them bunches of leaves called lulabs. . . . Rabbi Ishmael laid down the requirement in these terms: "Three myrtle-branches (are needful) and two willow-branches and one palm-branch and one citron" (Sukk. 3:4). . . . Each worshiper in the procession would carry a lulab in the right hand and a citron in the left. (Leon Morris "The Gospel according to John" p 372)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Bengt Berglund, Raine Borg, Johan Cederlund, Fredrik Engman, J.E. Forssander, Gunilla Granberg, Carl Grimberg, Lennart Gustavsson, Torsten Gårdlund, Anna Götlind, Yngve Hamrin, Eli F. Heckscher, Alf Henrikson, Kristina Jansson, Per-Olof Jern, Gerhard Johansson, Lars-Olof Larsson, Olle Larsson, Sigurd Lindgren, Egil Lönnberg, Lars Magnusson, Axel Mollstadius, Arthur Montgomery, Elvy Nilbratt, Rune Norberg, Bertil Nordenstam, Einar Persson, Viktor Rydberg, Josef Rydén, Heribert Seitz, Johanna Svensdotter, Tom Söderberg, Helge Uhrus, Gösta Weiler, Peter Wieselgren.


Greek words:

elefantinos (of ivory) (in the NT + examples in the OT) Song of Solomon 5:14; Ezek 27:15; Rev 18:12 – 1 Kings 10:18,22; 2 Chron 9:17,21; Amos 6:4.

thyïnos (of citron tree) Rev 18:12.

sidêros (iron) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Rev 18:12 – Judith 6:6; 9:8; Wisdom of Solomon 13:15; Sir 22:15; 48:17; Prayer of Manasseh v 10.

chalkos (copper) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Matt 10:9; Rev 18:12 – 1 Macc 6:39; Sir 12:10; Mark 6:8; 12:41; 1 Cor 13:1.


Additional studies: Joshua 10:26-27; Esther 5:14; 6:4; Is 2:13; 37:24; Matt 17:20; Mark 4:31-32; Luke 3:9; 13:18-19; 17:6; Gal 3:13; Rev 19:15; 22:2,14,19.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-08-02; 2012-07-24; 2015-10-10)

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18:13a ... and (of) cinnamon and amomum and incenses and ointment oil and olibanum/frankincense and wine and olive oil and finest wheaten flour and bread-stuff ....

Word for word (18 words in the Greek text): and (of)-cinnamon and amomum and incenses and ointment-oil and olibanum and wine and olive-oil and finest-wheaten-flour and bread-stuff


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Abraham said to Sarah:) “Knead three measures of finest wheaten flour …” (Gen 18:6b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Moses:) “Take you sweet spices, the flower myrrh, chosen, five hundred shekels and of fragrant cinnamon the half of this.” (Ex 30:23a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Moses:) “Take for yourself sweet spices ... olibanum.” (Ex 30:34a, Greek OT)

(Some of the Levites were ‘set down’/appointed) upon/over the finest wheaten flour, the wine, the olive-oil, the olibanum censer and the spices. (1 Chron 9:29b, Greek OT)

(David said:) “I will be unblemished (Greek: amômos) in company with (my God).” (Ps 18:23a or 18:24a, Greek OT)

(David sang:) "Behold 'however or'/however presently/already, what fine or what amusing (it is) the thing 'to dwell brothers'/'that brothers dwell' 'against themselves'/together! (It is) as an ointment oil upon a head, the one descending against a beard, the beard (of) Aaron." (Ps 133:1-2a, Greek OT)

(Solomon said to his bride: “You are a garden with) cinnamon in company with all woods of olibanum/frankincense … (and) all first/first-class ointment oils.” (Song of Solomon 4:14b, Greek OT)

All ‘out of’/from Sheba will arrive carrying goldmetal, and they will carry olibanum/frankincense and bring a good little message, the means of saving of the Lord. (Is 60:6b, Greek OT)

(The Lord God said to Tyre:) ”Judas and the sons of Israel, these your traders practises/works in/with bread-stuff and ointment oils … and olive oil and ... wine ‘out of’/from Helbon … and they gave wine into your market-place. … The traders of Sheba and Raamah (paid with) the first/foremost of sweet spices.” (Ezek 27:17-19a,22a, Greek OT)

(Solomon said: “Wicked ones say:) ‘We may use the creation hastily as in youth, we may strike ourselves (with) expensive wine and (with) ointment oils.” (Wisdom of Solomon 2:6b-7a)

(Wisdom said:) “As cinnamon … I give (and have given) scent, and as chosen myrrh I 'gave asunder'/distributed fragrance … and as of olibanum/frankincense a haze in a tent.” (Sir 24:15)

(Every day Bel in Babylon got) twelve (Persian) bushels of finest wheaten flour. ... (Bel and the Dragon v 3b)


The Latter Revelation:

Manasseh begot Amos (Greek: Amôs), but/and Amos begot Josiah. (Matt 1:10b)

(The soothsayers) carried to (Jesus) gifts; gold and olibanum/frankincense and myrrh. (Matt 2:11b)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “The kingdom of the heavens is like leaven, which on a woman's having taken (it), she hid (it) in, into three corn-measures (about 13 litres each) of flour, till (the time in) which it was wholly leavened.” (Matt 13:33b)

The foolish (virgins) spoke to the sensible ones: “Give us out of your olive-oil, because our torches are quenched.” But the sensible answered saying: “They may not at any time ‘not (א,* א, A) be’/be enough for us and you.” (Matt 25:8-9a)

On His/Jesus' being in Bethany in the habitation of Simon the leper, on His lying down (at the table), a woman came having an alabaster of fragrance oil of expensive nard, connected with faith. Having crushed the alabaster, she poured (the oil) down (upon) His head. (Mark 14:3)

On the sabbath's having ‘become through’/elapsed Mary of Magdala and Mary of James and Salome bought spices, in order to having come they might smear (Jesus). (Mark 16:1)

Having stood herself weeping behind to/by the side of the feet of (Jesus), (the woman who was a misser of the mark of God) began to wet His feet (with) the teardrops and she * (P3, א*, A) wiped off (with) the hairs/hair of her head and ‘was entirely friends with’/kissed (continually/repeatedly) His feet and smeared (them continually with) the ointment oil. (Luke 7:38)

Having come to (the wounded man, a certain Samaritan) bound up his wounds, pouring olive oil and wine against (them). (Luke 10:34a)

Having returned (the women) made ready spices and ointment oils. (Luke 23:56a)

Throwing out the bread-stuff into the sea they (continually) lightened the boat, (so that they could be saved). (Acts 27:38b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

Having so taken a pound of a much honoured ointment oil of nard, connected with faith, Mary (P66,א,*א) smeared the feet of Jesus and wiped off His feet (with) her hairs/hair. But/and the habitation was completed out of the scent of the ointment oil. (John 12:3)

His feet (were) like copper from Lebanon (or: like copper similar olibanum/frankincense), as in a furnace glowing (and having glowed). (Rev 1:15a)

Golden bowls being full of incenses which (א,*א) are (the) (א*) prayers of the holy ones. (Rev 5:8b)

A corn-measure (about 1 litre) of bread-stuff for a silver-coin, and three corn-measures (about 1 litre each) of barleys/barley for a silver-coin. You may not act unrighteously (towards) the olive-oil and the wine. (Rev 6:6b)

Another messenger, having a golden olibanum censer, came and stood upon the sacrificial altar. (Rev 8:3a)

In their mouth it was not found (any) lie, for (P47, א,* א) they are unblemished (Greek: “amômoi/amômos”). (Rev 14:5)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

“Amômon” (is) an unidentified spice plant. (Max Zerwick-Mary Grosvenor "A Grammatical Analysis of the Greek New Testament" p 770)

The buying power (of Rome) was enormous. It is estimated that possibly 6,000 grain ships entered the Tiber each year, bringing 5,000,000 bushels from Egypt and twice as much from other granaries. The imports of other necessaries and luxuries must have been very large. ... Asia provided spices, incense, ointments, drugs, cotton, Indian metalware and precious stones, Chinese silk, dyes, horses, parrots, and wild beasts for the circus. ... Yet certain restraining factors must be kept in mind. The carriage of wine was limited by the supply of cheap earthenware or skin containers, though barrels seem to have come into use during the early Christian era. ... Oriental trade was restricted not only by high freight charges but also by Europe's inability to offer many goods which the East could not produce for itself. Amber, coral, some metals and metal goods, a few kinds of cloth, glass - the list was short. (Herbert Heaton "Economic History of Europe" p 50-51)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Åke Andersson, Jane Fredlund, Carl Grimberg, Dick Harrison, Eli F. Heckscher, Alf Henrikson, Lars-Olof Larsson, Joachim G. Leithäuser, H.M. Melin, Hugo Montgomery, John Albert Wallin, Andreas Önnerfors.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “amomum”, see Rev 14:5 (“amômos”). Perhaps we here in Rev 18:13 have an allusion to something unblemished, perhaps to the most unblemished of ointment oils and spices (cf. “first/foremost ointment oils”, Song of Solomon 4:14, Greek OT and “first/foremost spices”, Ezek 27:22, Greek OT). Cf. also Matt 1:10: ... Amô(s A)môs ... See also “Exegetes, evangelists and others” above.

Concerning “wine and olive oil”, see Rev 6:6bb.


Greek words:

amômon (amomum) Rev 18:13. See Exegetes, evangelists and others and My own comments and speculations.

kinnamômon (cinnamon) (in the NT + examples in the OT) Ex 30:23; Song of Solomon 4:14; Sir 24:15; Rev 18:13 – Prov 7:17.

libanos (olibanum) (in the NT + examples in the OT) Ex 30:34; Is 60:6; Sir 24:15; Matt 2:11; Rev 18:13 – Sir 39:14; 50:9; Baruch 1:10.

semidalis (finest wheaten flour) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Bel and the Dragon v 3; Rev 18:13 – 2 Macc 1:8; Sir 35:2(3); 38:11; 39:26.


Additional studies: Susanna v 17; Luke 13:21; John 2:10.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-08-02; 2012-07-24; 2015-10-10)

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18:13b ... and (of) ‘domestic animals’/’beasts of burden and draught’ and sheep and horses and carriages and bodies and souls of men.

Word for word (13 words in the Greek text): and domestic-animals and sheep, and horses and carriages and bodies and souls (of)-men


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

Esau took his women and the sons and the daughters and all the bodies of his house … and all the domestic animals … and went out of the earth/land of Canaan. (Gen 36:6a, Greek OT)

(The sons of Reuben and the Gadites and the half-tribe of Manasseh) captured … camels . . . sheep . . . asses . . . and 100000 souls of males. (1 Chron 5:21, Greek OT)

(The Lord God said to Tyre:) “In/with souls of men … Greece ‘travelled to’/traded (with) you ... Out of house of Togarmah they gave your market-place horses … The traders of Dedan (came) into/in wagons in company with chosen domestic animals. Arabia and all the leaders of Kedar, these your traders . . . ‘travelled to you’/’traded with you’ … ‘male sheep’/rams and lambs. (Ezek 27:13b-14a,20-21, Greek OT)

Raguel gave to (Tobias) his woman Sarah and the half of … bodies and domestic animals and silvermetal. (Tobit 10:10b, BA)

(Judith said to Holophernes: “The king) ... has dispatched you away into entirely uprightness of every soul.”(Judith 11:7)

(Nikanor) ... dispatched away (men) being beforehand called against/'in quest of' buying of Jewish bodies. (2 Macc 8:11a)

The three times infamy Nikanor (had) led a thousand traders against/’in quest of’ the sale of the Jews. (2 Macc 8:34)

(Every day the lions got) two bodies and two sheep. (Bel and the Dragon v 32a, Theod)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Do not care (in) your soul what you may eat * (א,* א), but/and not (about) your body, what you may set/clothe (yourselves) in. Is definitely not the soul more (than) the nourishment and the body (more than) the clothes?” (Matt 6:25b)

The names of the twelve apostles are these: First Simon, the one being said/called Peter; and Andrew his brother; * (א*) James, the one (being son) of Zebedee, and John his brother, Philip. (Matt 10:2-3a, the name Philip means “friend of horses”)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "Do not fear from the ones slaying the body but being not able to kill the soul; but rather fear the One being able to perish and/both soul and body in Gehenna. … Every/everyone whoever will confess in/with Me in front of the men, I will and/also confess in/with him in front of My Father, the One (being) in * (P19, א,* א) heavens." (Matt 10:28,32)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “What does it seem to you? If – according to the circumstances – it may become a hundred sheep to a certain man and one out of them may be led astray, having (א *, א) let the ninety-nine be * (א*) having gone he by no means seeks the one being led astray?” (Matt 18:12)

The memorial tombs were opened, and many bodies of the holy ones, having been (and being) fallen asleep, were raised. (Matt 27:52)

Having come to (the wounded man, a certain Samaritan) bound up (Greek: katedêsen) his wounds, pouring olive oil and wine against (them). But/and having caused him to mount against the own domestic animal, he led him into an inn, and he paid attention to him. (Luke 10:34)

(Paul said:) “I ‘look at’/perceive that the voyage be/is about to be in company with insolence/hardship and much damage, not only of/for the ‘little burden’/cargo and the boat, however/but and/also of/for our souls.” (Acts 27:10)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

Every living (P47, א,* א) soul upon (א,* א) the sea died. (Rev 16:3b)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

Can you (in Sveriges Författarförening?) now not use my cause with (the paper) Budkaflen and get the matter of Ownership for our work discussed and the stingy publishers, who so well guard their publishing houses (buy and sell men, cf. Seligmann och Geber having sold me and Snoilsky) trafficed, when they seek to prevent our ownership. (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev IX 1892-jan 1894" p 260; letter about 1893-08-01 to Pehr Staaff; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

The Chancellor, the priest of Mammon, comes, makes a ceremonious bow, takes up a paper out of the pocket of his coat. - Here, you good king Frode, here you in a round sum have account over what your Grotte now needs during year and day and hour. The sacrifice of the year of persons is not more than three miljon - not one in every second - sacrifices not reprehensible, when in countries, which you have conquered, workers we, as you know, have found almost inexhaustible, and moreover hunting for thralls now is held in every district over all the wide world by the might of Grotte's gold. Peoples against peoples have lifted the swords, and however the fate of feuds results, prisoners are got, prisoners are sold, women, men and children are sold to Grotte's holy mill. Not compensations are lacking for what we are falling to hit, masses of thralls every day are driven here in compensation. (Viktor Rydberg "Den nya Grottesången" p 241-242; published in the year of 1891; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Eric H. Anderek, Joel Andersson, Gösta Berg, Rudolf Björkman, Barthold Carlson, Per Ericsson, Bo Frid, N. Fries, Nikolaj Gogol, Röl Gording, Carl Grimberg, Lennart Gustavsson, Johan Hagner, Dick Harrison, Alf Henrikson, Åke Holmberg, Victor Hugo, Margit Häggström, Henrik Ibsen, Gunnar Jarring, Jonas Lie, Verner Malmsten, Kjell Åke Modéer, Fredrik Nielsen, Elvy Nilbratt, Ellery Queen j:r, Jens Erik Skydsgaard, Stig Stenström, Jesper Svartvik, Sigfrid Svensson, Rudolf Vrba, P. Waldenström, Walter Widerqvist, P. Widesheim, Gustaf Wikner, Ewert Wrangel, C.N. Östberg.


My own comments and speculations:

The Greek word “katadeô” in Luke 10:34 means “bind up”. The form is here aorist “katedêsen”. In the middle we have the letters “edê” similar “redê” (carriage) here in Rev 18:13. “Katadeô” only occurs here in the NT. In the OT we have this word seven times. So the occurrence here is the eighth, a number with a special meaning in the books of John. In Luke 10:34 we also have the Greek word “ktênos” (domestic animal). So the middle “edê” of the special word “katedêsen” and the word “ktênos” in Luke 10:34 have a likeness with the words “harmata” (wagons) and “ktênôn/ktênos” in Ezek 27:20 and furthermore with the words “redê” (carriage) and “ktênê/ktênos” here in Rev 18:13.

Of course this reasoning is far-fetched, but John can be far-fetched, why I mean that this is a possible train of thought. But as usual I am interested in better proposals to allude the Greek word “redê” to the Synoptics, the Acts and the OT.


Greek words:

ktênos (domestic animal) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Judith 11:7; Luke 10:34; Rev 18:13 – Tobit 1:6; Judith 4:10; 5:9; 8:7; 11:12; 1 Macc 1:32,47; 2:30,38; 10:33; 12:23; Sir 7:22; 40:8; Acts 23:24; 1 Cor 15:39.

redê (carriage) Rev 18:13.


Additional studies: Luke 12:22-23; 14:18-19; 15:4; John 2:14-15.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-08-02; 2012-07-25; 2015-10-11)

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18:14 And your mellow fruit, the desire of the soul, has gone away from you, and all the fat and shining things have perished/’been lost’ from you, and they will not/certainly no longer find them.

Word for word (27 words in the Greek text): and the mellow-fruit your (of)-the (of)-desire (of)-the (of)-soul went-away from you, and all the fat-(things) and the shining-(things) perished from you, and no-longer not not them (they)-will-find.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Nehemiah said to God:) “In the broad and fat earth/land which You gave in the very eyes of (our fathers) they were not slaves/servants to You, and they did not turn away from their evil pursuits.” (Neh 9:35b, Greek OT)

(Solomon said: “What) a wicked one carries about (will become) in perdition, but a desire of a righteous one (will be) receivable/received.” (Prov 10:24, Greek OT)

(The woman said:) “I shall seek the one whom my soul welcomed. I sought him, and I did not find him.” (Song of Solomon 3:2b, Greek OT)

(The prophet said to the people in Jerusalem:) “The bread of the product of your earth will be satiation and fat … ” (Is 30:23b, Greek OT)

(The Jews) led together wine and extremely much mellow fruit. .... (Jer 40:12b, Greek OT)

(The Lord/the prophet said to Moab:) “Against your mellow fruit ... destruction has fallen against.” (Jer 48:32b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to the prophet:) “I take from the side of (the people in Jerusalem) … the desirings of their eyes … the elevation of their soul …” (Ezek 24:25b, Greek OT)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “Do not go behind/after your desires ... If you – according to the circumstances – may lead a chorus (it is) a satisfaction of a desire to your soul, (which) will make you a malicious pleasure of your enemies. (Sir 18:30-31)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “The king (who gave a wedding banquet) was wrathful and having sent his armies/soldiers he perished those murderers and set their city on fire.” (Matt 22:7)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “The desires around/’in relation to’ the rest going into (a man) they choke up the saying, and it becomes fruitless.” (Mark 4:19b)

(On Jesus') having come against (the fig tree) he found nothing ‘if not’/except leaves, for it (continually) was not the seasonable time of figs. (Mark 11:13b)

(Jesus said:) “Woe to you, the ones now being (and having been) ‘fulfilled with (bread)’/satiated, because you will be hungry.” (Luke 6:25a)

(Jesus said:) “What does (א,*א) it help a man having gained the whole adornment/’adorned world’ but having perished/lost himself or having ‘been damaged’/’suffered damage’?” (Luke 9:25)

(A rich man) spoke to (his) soul: “Soul, you have many good things laying down into/for many years; ‘be brought’/come to rest, eat, drink, be cheerful.” But God spoke to him: “Thoughtless (man)! This night they demand back your soul from you.” (Luke 12:19-20a)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Do not seek what you may eat and what you may drink and do not place yourselves aloft. For all these things the nations of the adornment/’adorned world’ seek after.” (Luke 12:29b-30a)

(Jesus said to the Pharisees:) “It/there was (continually) a certain rich man, and he (continually) was “inclothed”/’clothed in’ purple and fine linen being cheerful ‘according to day’/’day by day’ (in a) shining (way).” (Luke 16:19)

Herod together with his army/soldiers … having wrapped up Jesus in a shining clothing, he sent Him * (P75, א*) to Pilate. (Luke 23:11b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

The seven messengers having the seven blows came out, out of the temple, being (and having been) set/clothed in (clothes) of (P47, א,* א) linen, clean (and) shining, and being (and having been) girded around, around the breasts, (with) golden girdles. (Rev 15:6)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

Today I have got letter from Sven Hedin having visited (Verner von) Heidenstam, and he describes his state as very sadly. He has quite gone out, the memory away, the thoughts away, the interest for the events of world away. The end can come at any time. Heidenstam is only one year younger than I. I am sorry about hearing of his state. He once was so brilliant as author and man. But away we all must. (Selma Lagerlöf "Brev 2 - 1903-1940" p 353; letter 1938-10-10 to Ida Bäckmann; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Do You permit that I let (Miss Bosse) read the play ("Påsk") in a copy? A part can never early enough be left out! By that it slowly grows up and gives ripe fruit! (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev XIII sept 1898-dec 1900" p 338; letter 1900-11-20 to Nils Personne; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

To the theatrical amusements I almost am forced to count the so called conferences, which are held in the lecture room at Boulevard des Italiens. The admission-ticket costs a couple of francer, and the hearers usually belong to a more distinguished house. One of the discourses, which your letter-writer heard there, was about some for the apprehension of nature instructive chemical phenomena. It was easily comprehensible, skilfully composed and supported by a beautiful voice and well performed experiments, but did nevertheless little impression, until the lecturer let turn down the gas-jets and the darkened hall brought forth a sudden "Bengalese" light effect. Then the enchantment had no boundaries. The hall was echoed with applause and cheers. . . . Bombast and a hasting to with all permitted or not permitted means catch the eyes stamp everything. (Viktor Rydberg "Strövtåg i Paris" p 238-239; year 1873; translation from Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Alf Ahlberg, Gunnar Ericsson, Carl Grimberg, Alf Henrikson, Carl Vilhelm Jakobowsky, Patrick Modiano.


Greek words:

liparos (fat) Neh 9:35; Is 30:23; Rev 18:14 – Judges 3:29(B).

opôra (mellow fruit) Jer 40:12; 48:32; Rev 18:14 – Jer 40:10.


Additonal studies:

Job 17:11; Song of Solomon 5:6; Matt 21:19; Luke 13:6-7; 15:8.


Ian Provan "Foul Spirits, Fornication and Finance: Revelation 18 From an Old Testament Perspective"; Journal for the Study of the New Testament 64 (1996): 81-100.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-08-02; 2012-07-25; 2015-10-11)

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18:15 The traders of these things, the ones having been rich from/’owing to’ her, will stand from afar because of the fear of her tormenting, weeping and grieving ...

Word for word (19 words in the Greek text): The traders (of)-these-(things) the-(ones) having-been-rich from her 'from from-afar'/'from-afar' will-stand because-of the fear (of)-the (of)-tormenting her weeping and grieving


The Latter Revelation:

(A rich man) spoke to (his) soul: “Soul, you have many good things laying down into/for many years; ‘be brought’/come to rest, eat, drink, be cheerful.” But God spoke to him: “Thoughtless (man)! This night they demand back your soul from you.” (Luke 12:19-20a)

(Jesus said to His disciples: “There will be) upon the earth anguish of/among (the) nations, and (א,* א) in/during puzzle sounds of sea and surge, on men's stopping breathing from/’owing to’ fear and expectation of the things coming upon the (inhabited) world. (Luke 21:25b-26a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

The traders of the earth were rich ‘out of’/’in consequence of’ the ability of the voluptuousness (of Babylon). (Rev 18:3b)

As much as (Babylon) glorified herself and was voluptuous, give her so much tormenting and grief. (Rev 18:7a)

(The kings of the earth) standing from afar because of the fear of the tormenting (of Babylon). (Rev 18:10a)

The traders of the earth weep and grieve against/over (Babylon), because no one buys their load any longer. (Rev 18:11)


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “the traders … being rich”, see Rev 18:3b. Concerning “stand from, from afar because of the fear of her tormenting”, see Rev 18:10a. Concerning “weeping and grieving”, see Rev 18:11.


Additional studies:

Jer 50:13; John 16:20; Rev 18:12-13,19.


Ian Provan "Foul Spirits, Fornication and Finance: Revelation 18 From an Old Testament Perspective"; Journal for the Study of the New Testament 64 (1996): 81-100.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2008-08-03; 2012-07-25; 2015-10-11)

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18:16 ... saying: “Woe, woe, the great city, the one being (and having been) wrapped up in (things) of fine linen and purple and scarlet and being (and having been) gilded in/with gold (א,* א) and a valuable stone and a pearl ... ”

Word for word (23 words in the Greek text): saying: woe, woe, the city the great, the-(one) being-(and-having-been)-wrapped-up-in of-fine-linen and purple and scarlet and being-(and-having-been)-gilded in gold and stone valuable and pearl


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(David) took the crown (of gold) (from the king) … And its standing-place/weight (was) a talent of gold, and (in it was) a valuable stone and (the crown) (continually) was upon David's head. (2 Sam 12:30a, Greek OT)

The ones (in Jerusalem) being nursed upon scarletkernels/scarlet were wrapped up in dung. (Lam 4:5b, Greek OT)

(The king who will be heightened against/’extending over’ every god) will honour a god, whom his fathers had not have knowledge of, in/with goldmetal and silvermetal and (with) a valuable (Theod) stone .... (Dan 11:38b, Greek OT)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach said: “Every man has great want of leisure) from (one) wearing ‘of hyacinth’/dark-blue and crown and till (one) being wrapped up in (what is) made of coarse linen. (Sir 40:4a)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said:) “Woe to you, Chorazin! Woe to you, Bethsaida! If the (works of) ability having become/’come about’ in you had become/’come about’ in Tyre and Sidon, they had – according to the circumstances - changed their minds long ago being seated (א,* א) in sack and ashes.” (Matt 11:21)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "The kingdom of the heavens is like * (א*, B) a trader seeking fine pearls, but/and having find one much valuable pearl (and) having gone away he has disposed (and disposes) all things as many as he (continually) had, and he bought it." (Matt 13:45-46)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) ”Woe to the adornment/’adorned world’ from/’owing to’ the stumbling blocks!” For it is (א,* א) a necessity (that) the stumbling blocks come, ‘more than’/but woe to the man through whom the stumbling block comes!” (Matt 18:7)

(Jesus said:) “Woe to you, the rich ones.” (Luke 6:24a)

(Jesus said to the Pharisees:) “It/there was (continually) a certain rich man, and he (continually) was “inclothed”/’clothed in’ purple and fine linen being cheerful ‘according to day’/’day by day’ (in a) shining (way).” (Luke 16:19)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(An eagle) saying (with) a great/loud voice: “Woe, woe, woe, to the ones inhabiting upon the earth, out/’in consequence’ of the rest of voices of the trumpet of the three messengers being about to sound the trumpet.” (Rev 8:13b)

Another * (P47, א*), a second one, followed, saying: “She has fallen * (א,* א), the great Babylon, who gives (and has given) all the nations to drink out of the wine of the passion of her fornication.” (Rev 14:8)

And the great city became into three parts, and the cities of the nations fell. And the great Babylon was remembered in the very eyes of God to give her a (א,* א) cup of * (א,* א) wine of the passion of the (א,* א) wrath. (Rev 16:19)

(Continually) the woman was (and had been) wrapped up in purple and scarlet and was (and had been) gilded (with) gold (א,* א) and a valuable stone and pearls. (Rev 17:4a)

(The kings of the earth) saying: “Woe, woe, the great city Babylon, the stable city, because (in) one hour your judgment has come.” (Rev 18:10b)

A load of gold and silver and a valuable stone and pearls and (things א,* א) of fine linen and purple cloth and silk and scarlet. (Rev 18:12a)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

My terrible doubts of culture have taken a new way! I have become optimist. I think that the towns will die, but I think they will fulfil their task first, for now I think that they have had a task, namely to civilize the world. The false culture will (go) away but the true will live. We will not go back to the savage, but to the civilized savage! (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev IV 1884" p 181; letter 1884-05-24 to Jonas Lie)

It sounds a silver-bell from the highway. Sergeant-major Karl von Wachenfeldt comes driving. Sergeant-major Karl von Wachenfeldt - was it not he, who once was regarded as the most beautiful man in Värmland, in order to not say in the whole Sweden? . . . Was it not he who was on familiar terms with counts and barons, while he outshone them both in chivalry and elegance. . . . Was he not the first, who drove in Stockholm's streets with harness and straps, on which there were a vast number of little . . . silver-bells? Was it not he, who the whole Stockholm knew, so that it was whispered where he appeared . . . : "See, there comes Vackerfeldt ('Beautiful'feldt)! Oh, oh, oh, see, there comes Vackerfeldt!" . . . Sergeant-major von Wachenfeldt drives hill up and hill down, while the single silver-bell jingles faintly, almost miserably. . . . He knows, that he is old and nothing to look at, such he now is, but he regards, that people at least should not so entirely have forgotten of what kind he has been. (Selma Lagerlöf "Mårbacka" p 134-136; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Mona Larsson.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “woe, woe”, see Rev 18:10b. Concerning “the great city”, see Rev 14:8 and Rev 16:19. Concerning “wrapped up in (things) of ... purple and scarlet and being (and having been) gilded in/with gold (א,* א) and a valuable stone and a pearl”, see Rev 17:4a. Concerning “fine linen”, see Rev 18:12a.


Additional studies:

John 12:24; 13:4-5; 19:2,5; Rev 18:18,19,21.


Ian Provan "Foul Spirits, Fornication and Finance: Revelation 18 From an Old Testament Perspective"; Journal for the Study of the New Testament 64 (1996): 81-100.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2008-08-03; 2012-07-25; 2015-10-16)

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18:17 ... because (in) one hour the riches of such kind have been made desolate.” And every steersman and 'every the'/everyone going by sea against the (א,* א) place and shipmen/seamen and as many as work (on) the sea stood from afar.

Word for word (27 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus): because (in)-one hour were-made-desolate the of-such-kind riches and every steersman and every the against the place going-by-sea and shipmen and as-many-as the sea work, 'from from-afar'/'from afar' stood


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Solomon said:) “The one having ‘been (and is) persuaded’/’relied (and relies)’ on riches, this one will fall.” (Prov 11:28a, Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) “Sing hymns to the Lord, (sing) a new hymn. Glorify the name of (the Lord) from the border of the earth, ‘the ones’/you descending into the sea and going by sea (on) it.” (Is 42:10a, Greek OT)

(The Lord God said to Tyre:) “Your steersmen (and other men who work on the sea) will fall in heart of sea in the day of your falling. … And all your oars will descend from the boats and sailors and look-out men of the sea will stand against the earth.” (Ezek 27:27b,29, Greek OT)

(Solomon said: “The wicked ones will say:) ‘What/how has riches in company with swaggering ‘thrown together’/’been ... useful’ (and ‘what do they throw together’/’how are they useful’) to us?’” (Wisdom of Solomon 5:8b)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) ”An act of violence and an insolence make riches desolate. In this way an overweening house will be made desolate.” (Sir 21:4)


The Latter Revelation:

(In) the fourth watch of the night (Jesus) came towards (His disciples being in the boat) walking about against the sea. (Matt 14:25)

(Jesus said to Jerusalem:) “Behold, your house is ‘let be’/left desolate to you.” (Matt 23:38)

(Luke said:) "The ones having become from a beginning eyewitnesses and rowers/servants of the saying have given (the things having been and being completed among us) ‘by the side of’/over to us." (Luke 1:2)

Having led down the boats against ‘the earth’/land and having let all things be (the disciples) followed (Jesus). (Luke 5:11)

(Jesus said to His disciples: “The sowing) having fallen into the thorns, these are the ones having heard, and going they are choked up by cares and riches and enjoyments of the subsistence, and they do not ‘wear to an end’/’bear ripe fruit’.” (Luke 8:14)

The “leadership af a hundred (men)” (continually) was rather persuaded (in/by) the steersman and the captain of the ship than (in/by) the things being said by Paul. … (The messenger said to Paul:) “God has given (and gives) you graciously all the ones going by sea in company with you.” ... But the shipmen/seamen (sought) to flee out of the boat. (Acts 27:11,24b,30a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(The messengers said: “Worthy is the little Ram, the One having been – and being – slaughtered) to take the ability and riches and wisdom. …” (Rev 5:12b)

The ten horns which you beheld and the little wild animal, these will hate the harlot and (on her) having been (and being) desolated/abandoned they will and/also make her naked. (Rev 17:16a)

(The kings of the earth) standing from afar because of the fear of the tormenting (of Babylon) saying: “Woe, woe, the great city Babylon, the stable city, because (in) one hour your judgment has come.” (Rev 18:10)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

Sweden seems me to be a country as Iceland, in which one cannot do otherwise than to emigrate. A country in Ödesmål (Destination of desert), after neither rye, pine nor iron more is profitable. . . . Here in Denmark with the Right in power, here I have written atheiststatements in Politiken! I regularly in writing use the word superstition in stead of religion! You understand, this one must not in the elementary school teacher democratic Norway and neither in the worker-goodtemplar-pietist-lady-Sweden! (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev VII febr 1888-dec 1889" p 70; letter 1888-04-11 to Hjalmar Branting; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Mörta Ahlbom, Andreas Bolinus, Axel Bäck, Hjalmar Börjeson, Barthold Carlson, Birger Creutz, Stig Dagerman, Alexander Daumont, Aug. Eckerberg, Carl Grimberg, Olle Gustafsson, Georg Hafström, Marianne Herrlin, Carl Hårleman, Erik Johannesson, Edvard Johansson, Stig R. Johansson, Sven Lidman, Sigvard Lindqvist, Josef Lundin, Edvard Rohde, Sigrid Rosell, Viktor Rydberg, Petrus Silfverbrand, Kristina Söderpalm, Olof Thulin, Gösta Weiler, Magnus Widell, Gustaf Wikner, Agne Ydrefelt.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “in one hour”, see Rev 18:10b. Concerning “stood from afar”, see Rev 18:10a.


Greek words:

kybernêtês (steersman) (in the NT + examples in the OT) Ezek 27:27; Acts 27:11; Rev 18:17 – Ezek 27:28.

nautês (shipman) Acts 27:30; Rev 18:17 – Acts 27:27.

pleô (go by sea) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Acts 27:24; Rev 18:17 – 1 Macc 13:29; Sir 43:24; Luke 8:23; Acts 21:3; 27:2,6.


Additional studies:

1 Kings 9:27; Ezek 27:12; Jonah 1:5; Matt 8:23-24; 14:22-33; Mark 4:36-37; 6:45-54; Luke 5:2-11; 12:21; John 2:4; 6:17-21; 7:30; 8:20; 12:27; 13:1; 17:1; 21:3-6; Rev 18:19.


Ian Provan "Foul Spirits, Fornication and Finance: Revelation 18 From an Old Testament Perspective"; Journal for the Study of the New Testament 64 (1996): 81-100.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2008-08-03; 2012-07-25; 2015-10-12)

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18:18 And seeing the smoke of her conflagration they (continually/repeatedly) shouted, saying: “What (was) like the great city?”

Word for word (15 words in the Greek text): and (they)-(continually)-shouted seeing the smoke (of)-the (of)-conflagration her saying: what like the city the great?


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

The Lord ‘gave wet’/’let (it) rain’ sulphur and fire against Sodom and Gomorrah from the side of the Lord out of the heaven. … (Abraham) beheld, and behold, a flame of/from the earth/land ascended as if (it was) a haze of/from a furnace. (Gen 19:24,28, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) “Nations will come through (Jerusalem) … (saying): “Because of what has the Lord made/done in this way (with) this great city?” (Jer 22:8, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Tyre: “The rowers and sailors and look-out men of the sea) will stand against the earth ... and shout loudly against you.” (Ezek 27:29b-30a, Greek OT)

(The Lord God said to Israel:) “I hit you in/with conflagation and in/with jaundice.” (Amos 4:9a, Greek OT)


The Latter Revelation:

The crowds going before (Jesus) and the ones following Him (continually/repeatedly) shouted saying: "Hosanna to the Son of David. Being (and having been) blessed the one coming in a name of a lord. Hosannah in the highest things!" (Matt 21:9)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “The king (who gave a wedding banquet) was wrathful and having sent his armies/soldiers he perished those murderers and set their city on fire.” (Matt 22:7)

(Jesus said to His disciples: “The one having heard (My sayings) and not having made/done (them) is like a man having built a habitation against the earth separate from a base, towards which the river broke in pieces and it straight/’straight off’ fell in and the breakdown of that habitation became great.” (Luke 6:49)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "I have come to throw a fire against the earth, and what I want if/that it already was/were fastened/fixed up!” (Luke 12:49)

(Jesus said to His disciples: ”On) the day Lot came ‘out of’/out from Sodom fire and sulphur ‘gave wet'/rained from heaven and perished all of them (א,*א,A).” (Luke 17:29)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(The souls of the slaughtered witnesses) shouted (with) a great/loud voice. (Rev 6:10a)

A (א*) smoke of the incenses, (with) the prayers of the holy ones, ascended in the very eyes of God out of a hand of the messenger. (Rev 8:4)

Smoke ascended out of the well, as smoke of a great furnace. And the sun was gloomed (א,*א) and the air * (א*). (Rev 9:2)

(The whole earth) had prostrated themselves before the little wild animal (in honour of it), saying: “Who is like the little wild animal, and who is able to wage war ‘in company with’/with it?” (Rev 13:4b)

Another * (P47, א*), a second one, followed, saying: “She has fallen * (א,* א), the great Babylon, who gives (and has given) all the nations to drink out of the wine of the passion of her fornication.” (Rev 14:8)

The smoke of their tormenting ascends into/for (coming) ages of (coming) ages. And day and night they have not rest, the ones prostrating themselves (towards) the little wild animal (in adoration of it) and (towards) its image (in adoration of it) and if anyone takes the mark of its name. (Rev 14:11)

The temple was filled of/with smoke out of the glory of God and out of His ability. (Rev 15:8a)

The great city became into three parts. (Rev 16:19a)

The kings of the earth, the ones having fornicated * (א*) in company with her, will weep and will ‘cut themselves against’/mourn (Babylon), when they – according to the circumstances – may behold (א,* א) the smoke of her falling (א*). (Rev 18:9)

(The kings of the earth) saying: “Woe, woe, the great city Babylon, the stable city ... ” (Rev 18:10b)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

Woe! This earth, where nothing goes right, but everything is distorted. If you sow in love, you harvest in hate; of faith you get doubt; when you plant your hope, you gather the fruit, misery. Twilight of the gods, the end of the powers, the great world conflagration may come. To that a flood, a cleaning with fire and with water; then it may be started afresh; in the ashes and the fertile mud is cultivated and sown. Then the golden age of the dreamers draws near. (August Strindberg "Ur Stadsresan" p I:489; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Nero: Rome burns, and they say that I have set on fire. This I have not, but they think that's like me. Hear how they cry! - Pallas, go out in the city saying that the Christians have done it. Pallas: This I do not want! Nero: Hear I right? Do you not know that the Christians are magicians living as rats down in the grave passages, that the whole Rome rests on Christians; I have thought to lead in the Tiber and drown them or open the walls of the sewers and set the catacombs under excrements; I hate them, for they undermine the temples of our gods so that we neither get oracles nor assistance. I met such a demon and I was not allowed to sleep in the night; their Sibylline Books have proclaimed the ruin of Rome, but they say Babel in stead of Rome - - - See, now the fire takes in the Capitol - - - Pallas go out in the city and blame the Christians - Go! Pallas: This I do not want, because it is untrue! (August Strindberg "Lammet och vilddjuret" p 217-218; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

The unknown one: "Listen to me, believe me and give me the respect I deserve, so I shall lift you and me high over this marsh of frogs, in which we have gone down! I shall blow on your sick conscience so that it will be healed as a wound. Who I am? I am the one having done what no one has done before; I am the one who will precipitate the colden calf and knock down the switchboards of the costers, I have the destiny of the earth in my platen, and in eight days the richest one of the rich ones is poor; the false standard of value, the gold, has ceased to rule, all are equally poor and the children of men will creep roving as the ants when the ant-hill is demolished!" The lady: "In what way are we helped with this?" The unknown one: "Do you think I made the gold to direct us and the other ones, no, to ruin the whole world order, to destroy, you know! I am the perisher, the dissolver, the world conflagrator, and when all things are in ashes, then I shall range hungering among the gravel-heaps rejoicing at the thought: this I have made, I, who has written the last page in the world history, which by that can be considered brought to an end." (August Strindberg "Till Damaskus II" p 204-205; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

I think that the world conflagration is near when we all will be perished in a single big fire which we ourselves light! I do not think that I get cheerful more! (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev IV 1884" p 358; letter about 1884-10-15 to Jonas Lie; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

It lies an unpropitious fate over this beautiful estate. . . . If I was lord of Borg . . . I would a stormy night let the fire approach the bending woodwalls and let it devastate all, so that men might not more be enticed to live in the home of unhappiness. Then no one would be allowed to set foot on this condemned place, only the black jackdaws would be allowed to found a new building in the big chimney-wall, which blackened and ghastly raised itself over the desolate foundation. Nevertheless I would most certainly worry, when I would see the flames be put together over the roof. . . . On the blue tops of the flames I would think myself see disturbed ghosts hover. (Selma Lagerlöf "Gösta Berlings saga" p 176-177; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

In Rome, the 19th of July in the year 64, a conflagration burst out, which made more than enough room for Nero's intended caesar-castle, for during eight days and nights the metropolis resembled a gigantic bonfire. Ten of his fourteen quarters were burnt down, and art treasures of unmentionable worth went to waste. . . . Earth, water and sky flamed. The cities and the castles on the slopes of the mountains, which surround Rome's horizon, could in the middle of the night more distinct be discerned than in the day, and on the high tops the eternal snow was seemed mixed with red streams of lava. . . . Intoxicated by this view Nero called for singer mantle, laurel wreath and zither, and he seized the strings singing with satanic exultation a song of the ruin of Troy. . . . The blame for the conflagration the caesar laid on . . . the Christians. In hundreds they were gone to law, and although no evidence for the truth of the accusation could be extorted from them, they still spoke such words about a heavenly judgment over a sinful city, that they were condemned to the most atrocious penalties. (Viktor Rydberg "Nero och hans älskarinna" p 56-58; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Einar Adell, Eric S. Alexandersson, Lennart Andersson, Rudolf Björkman, Barthold Carlson, Stig Dagerman, Gunnar Dinnetz, Wilh. Dreier, Per Ericsson, Hilding Fagerberg, Bo Frid, Peter Hallberg, Verner von Heidenstam, Alf Henrikson, Edvard Johansson, Bo E. Karlson, Pär Lagerkvist, Lars-Olof Larsson, Per Lindberg, Sigurd Lindgren, Gunnar Lindqvist, Hans Lustig, Thomas Mann, Elsa Millqvist, Axel Mollstadius, D.L. Moody, Fredrik Nielsen, James Innel Packer, John Samuelson, Harry Sjöman, Olof Sjöstrand, Sophie Stedt, Rune Storck, Jesper Svartvik, Anton Tjechov, Sigurd Wildte, Roger Williamson, Thecla Wrangel.


My own comments and speculations:

Here we for the first time in the Revelation meet “shouted” without “with a great/loud voice”.

Concerning “the great city”, see also Rev 14:8 and Rev 16:19.


Greek words:

pyrôsis (conflagration) Amos 4:9; Rev 18:18 – Prov 27:21; 1 Pet 4:12.


Additional studies:

Is 34:10; Ezek 27:29-33.


Ian Provan "Foul Spirits, Fornication and Finance: Revelation 18 From an Old Testament Perspective"; Journal for the Study of the New Testament 64 (1996): 81-100.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2008-08-03; 2012-07-25; 2015-10-12)

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18:19a And they threw gravel upon (א,*א) their head/heads (א,*א) and shouted, weeping and grieving.

Word for word (12 words in the Greek text): and (they)-threw gravel upon the head their and (continually)-shouted, weeping and grieving.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Joshua and the elders of Israel) (continually) threw gravel against, against their heads. (Joshua 7:6b, Greek OT)

The elders of the daughter of Zion … have caused gravel to go up against their head/heads. (Lam 2:10a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Tyre: “The men on the sea) will (with) their voice shout loudly against you and they will shout bitterly. And they will put earth against, against their head/heads. … And they will weep on account of you in a bitterness of a soul and (with) a bitter mourning.” (Ezek 27:30a,31b, Greek OT)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “On your fasting, smear your head.” (Matt 6:17a)

(Jesus said to the twelve:) “A place which – according to the circumstances – may not receive you but/and may not hear you, on your going out from there, shake off the gravel below/under your feet into/for a testimony to them.” (Mark 6:11)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

The kings of the earth, the ones having fornicated * (א*) in company with her, will weep and will ‘cut themselves against’/mourn (Babylon), when they – according to the circumstances – may behold (א,* א) the smoke of her falling (א*). (Rev 18:9)

The traders of the earth weep and grieve against/over (Babylon), because no one buys their load any longer. (Rev 18:11)

The traders of these things, the ones having been rich from/’owing to’ (Babylon), will stand from afar because of the fear of her tormenting, weeping and grieving. (Rev 18:15)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: Werner Aspenström, Honoré de Balzac.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “weeping and grieving”, see Rev 18:11.


Greek words:

chous (gravel) (in the NT + one example in the Apocrypha) Mark 6:11; Rev 18:19 – 1 Macc 2:63.


Additional studies: Job 2:12; Ps 137:1; Is 23:14; 1 Macc 4:37-39; 11:71; 2 Macc 10:25.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2008-08-03; 2012-07-25; 2015-10-13)

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18:19b ... saying: “Woe, * (א,*א) the great city, in which all the ones having the boats in/on the sea were rich out/'in consequence' of her value, because (in) one hour she has been made desolate.”

Word for word (25 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus): saying: woe, the city the great, in which were-rich all the-(ones) having the boats in the sea out-of the value her, because (in)-one hour (she)-was-made-desolated.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The Lord said to Moses:) “If - according to the circumstances - (the unclean, four-footed animal) may not be redeemed, it shall be practised/sold according to the valuation of it.” (Lev 27:27b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) “The grape (of our enemies is) a grape of gall, a bunch of grapes (being) bitter for them. Their wine (is) a passion of dragons and a passion of ... shields/adders. Have not these things ... been sealed in/among My heaps/treasures? In a day I will give back a procuration of justice.” (Deut 32:32b-35a, Greek OT)

A day of the Lord of hosts (will come) against every insolent overweening (man), against every/everyone (being) high and aloft, and they will be humbled. … against every boat of sea. (Is 2:12,16a, Greek OT)

According/answering to the glory (of Jerusalem) her dishonour was made full, and her height was turned into grief. (1 Macc 1:40)

(The enemies of Israel wanted to) take down/up and ‘lift out’/remove all these (Jews) in one day. (1 Macc 5:27b)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said: “A man) being rich ... 'in the thing to speak him'/'in his speaking': “I have found rest and now I shall eat out of my good things ... he does not know what seasonable time he will come to the side of and entirely leave them to the others and die.” (Sir 11:18a,19)

(The prophet said to Jerusalem:) “Just as (the hostile city) rejoiced on/’for the sake of’ your falling and was cheerful on/’for the sake of’ your fall, in this way (she) will be sorrowful on/’for the sake of’ her (own) desert.” (Baruch 4:33)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said:) “Woe to you, Chorazin! Woe to you, Bethsaida! ... I say to you: ‘It will be more upheld/bearable for Tyre and Sidon in a day of judgment or/than for you. And you, Capernaum, ‘not will’/will you be heightened till heaven? You will be precipitated (א,* א) till Hades.” (Matt 11:21-23a)

(Jesus said to the scribes and the Pharisees:) "Woe to you ... woe to you ... woe to you ... woe to you ... woe to you ... woe to you ... woe to you." (Matt 23:13,15,16,23,25,27,29)

They took the thirty silvermetals/’pieces of silver’, the honour/value of the one having been (and being) valuable, the one whom they honoured/valued from/’away from’ (the) sons of Israel. (Matt 27:9b)

Ones being rich (God) has dispatched out empty/empty-handed. (Luke 1:53b)

(Jesus said:) “Woe to you, the rich ones.” (Luke 6:24a)

(Jesus said:) "Woe to you, Chorazin, woe to you, Bethsaida, because if the abilities/’works of ability’ having become/’come about’ in you had been become/made in Tyre and Sidon, they had - according to the circumstances - changed their minds long ago, being seated in sack and ashes.” (Luke 10:13)

(A rich man) spoke to (his) soul: “Soul, you have many good things laying down into/for many years; ‘be brought’/come to rest, eat, drink, be cheerful.” But God spoke to him: “Thoughtless (man)! This night they demand back your soul from you. But the things you have made ready, to whom will it be?” (Jesus said:) “In this way (is) the one heaping for himself and not being rich into/’for the purpose of’ God.” (Luke 12:19-21)

Every/all of the multitude chose ... Timon (“valuable”) … (Acts 6:5b)

(In Lystra) there (continually) was a certain disciple (with) name Timothy (“honouring/valuing God”). … (Acts 16:1b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

The third of the boats were ruined throughout. (Rev 8:9b)

(An eagle) saying (with) a great/loud voice: “Woe, woe, woe, to the ones inhabiting upon the earth, out/’in consequence’ of the rest of voices of the trumpet of the three messengers being about to sound the trumpet.” (Rev 8:13b)

Woe one (א*) went away. Behold, it comes still two woes after these things. (Rev 9:12)

The second woe has come by the side of (א,* א). Behold, the third woe comes quickly. (Rev 11:14)

Woe to the earth and the sea, because the slanderer has descended towards you, having * (א,* א) passion, knowing (and having known) that he has few/’a little’ seasonable time. (Rev 12:12b)

The ten horns which you beheld and the little wild animal, these will hate the harlot and (on her) having been (and being) desolated/abandoned they will and/also make her naked. (Rev 17:16a)

The traders of the earth were rich ‘out of’/’in consequence of’ the ability of the voluptuousness (of Babylon). (Rev 18:3b)

(The kings of the earth) saying: “Woe, woe, the great city Babylon, the stable city, because (in) one hour your judgment has come.” (Rev 18:10b)

(The traders said:) “Woe, woe, the great city, the one being (and having been) wrapped up in (things) of fine linen and purple and scarlet and being (and having been) gilded in/with gold (א,* א) and a valuable stone and a pearl.” (Rev 18:16)

(Woe, woe) because (in) one hour the riches of such kind have been made desolate. (Rev 18:17a)

And seeing the smoke of the conflagration (of Babylon, the ones working on the sea) (continually/repeatedly) shouted, saying: “What (was) like the great city?”(Rev 18:18)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: Albert Engström, Carl Grimberg, Alf Henrikson, Bo Setterlind, William Shakespeare, Tomas Tranströmer, Gunnel Weidel Randver, Akira Yoshimochi.


My own comments and speculations:

The eighth woe is in the Sinaiticustext the last one in the Revelation. This eighth woe shows that the judgement on Babylon is valid into a new age. The power of Babylon is broken for ever. Compare also the eight woes in the Revelation with the seven woes in Matt 23:13-29.

Concerning “the great city”, see Rev 18:18. Concerning "the boats in/on the sea", see Rev 8:9. Concerning “in one hour she has been made desolate”, see Rev 17:16a; 18:17.


Greek words:

timiotês (value) Rev 18:19.


Additional studies:

Neh 2:3; Is 6:11; 33:1; Nahum 3:1; John 2:4; 7:30; 8:20; 12:27; 13:1; 17:1.


Ian Provan "Foul Spirits, Fornication and Finance: Revelation 18 From an Old Testament Perspective"; Journal for the Study of the New Testament 64 (1996): 81-100.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2008-08-03; 2012-07-25; 2015-10-13)

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18:20 Be cheerful on/’for the sake of’ her, heaven and the holy ones and the apostles and the prophets, because God has judged your judicial verdict out/’on the basis’ of her.

Word for word (22 words in the Greek text): Be-cheerful on her, heaven and the holy-(ones) and the apostles and the prophets, because judged the god the judicial-verdict your out-of her.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

Be cheerful, heavens, together (with the Lord) and prostrate before Him (in honour of Him) all sons of God. Be cheerful nations, in company with His people, ... because (the Lord) will procure justice for the blood of His sons … (on) His enemies.” (Deut 32:43a, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said:) “’In order that’/’for the purpose of’ what did nations snort? ... The kings of the earth stood ‘by the side of’/’near, and the leaders were led together ... ‘down from’/against the Lord and ‘down from’/against His Anointed (Christ) ... ” (Ps 2:1a,2a, Greek OT)

Let the heavens be cheerful! (Ps 96:11a, Greek OT)

‘Call ... to the side of’/summon the ones (in Zion) (being) little/faint in the soul, (in) the mind: "Be stable, fear not! Behold, our God gives back a judgment in stead, and He will give back in stead. He (Himself) will arrive and save you." (Is 35:4, Greek OT)

Be cheerful, heavens! (Is 44:23a; 49:13a, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said:) “Egypt was cheerful in the ‘way out’/departure of (Israel), because their fear had fallen against, against them.” (Ps 105:38, Greek OT)

(The prophet said to Jerusalem: “The Lord) has cheered the enemy against/over you. …” (Lam 2:17b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to the prophet: “The priests shall) … judge My judicial verdicts.” (Ezek 44:24a, Greek OT)

(The prophet said to Jerusalem:) "Rejoice extremely, daughter of Zion! Proclaim, daughter of Jerusalem: 'Be cheerful ... .'" (Zeph 3:14a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) "Judge a righteous judicial verdict and make/practise mercy and pity everyone towards/to his brother." (Zech 7:9b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to His people:) "These (are) the sayings which you shall make/do: 'Talk truth, everyone towards his neighbour, judge a peaceful judicial verdict in your gates.'" (Zech 8:16, Greek OT)

'Before or die him'/'before (Tobias) died', he heard of the perdition of Nineveh. . . . (And) he rejoiced. (Tobit 14:15a, BA)

(Baruch said to Jerusalem:) “Cowardly (were) the ones having treated you ill and rejoiced on/at your falling.” (Baruch 4:31)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "Do not judge in order that you may not be judged. For in/with what judicial verdict you judge, you will be judged. (Matt 7:1-2a)

(Jesus said:) "Jerusalem, Jerusalem, the (city) killing the prophets and throwing stones at the ones having been (and being) dispatched away towards her!" (Matt 23:37a)

The wisdom of God spoke: ”I will dispatch away into/to them prophets and apostles, and (some) out of them they will kill and pursue.” (Luke 11:49)

(A rich man) spoke to (his) soul: “Soul, you have many good things laying down into/for many years; ‘be brought’/come to rest, eat, drink, be cheerful.” (Luke 12:19)

(Jesus said to the Pharisees:) “It/there was (continually) a certain rich man, and he (continually) was “inclothed”/’clothed in’ purple and fine linen being cheerful ‘according to day’/’day by day’ (in a) shining (way).” (Luke 16:19)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “May not/certainly not God make the procuration of justice of His chosen ones, of the ones crying to Him day and night, and is He (not) long-suffering on/’for the sake of’ them? I say to you, that He will make the procuration of their justice in/with quickness.” (Luke 18:7-8a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Jesus said to the Jews:) “Nor the Father judges ‘no one’/anyone, however/but has given (and gives) every/all judgment to the Son.” (John 5:22)

(Jesus said to the Jews:) “I am not able to make/do nothing/anything from/'owing to' Myself. Entirely as I hear, I judge. And My judgment is righteous, because I do not seek My will however/but the will of the One having sent Me.” (John 5:30)

(Jesus said to the crowd:) "Do not judge ‘according to’/after sight, however/but judge the righteous judgment." (John 7:24)

(Jesus said to His disciples: "The Spirit will convict the adorned world) on account of judgment, that the leader of this adornment/’adorned world’ has been (and is) judged." (John 16:11)

A revelation of Jesus Christ which God gave Him to show to His holy ones (א*) the things which must become/’come about’ in/with quickness. (Rev 1:1a)

Having tried the ones saying themselves (be) apostles, and are not, and/also you found them (be) false. (Rev 2:2b)

Golden bowls being full of incenses which (א,*א) are (the) (א*) prayers of the holy ones. (Rev 5:8b)

Till when do You not judge and procure justice for our blood out of the ones dwelling upon the earth? (Rev 6:10b)

The ones dwelling upon the earth rejoice on/’for the sake of’ (the two witnesses) and are cheerful. (Rev 11:10a)

The nations was/were (P47, א*) wrathful, and/but Your wrath came and the seasonable time of the dead (bodies) to be judged. (Rev 11:18a)

(The time has come) to give the wage to Your slaves the prophets and to the holy ones and to the ones fearing Your name, the small ones and the great ones. … (Rev 11:18b)

Be cheerful, * (א,* א) heavens, and you dwelling (א,* א) in them. (Rev 12:12a)

It was given to (the little wild animal) to make war ‘in company with’/with the holy ones and to conquer them and it was given to it (judicial) authority against every tribe and people and tongue and nation. (Rev 13:7)

Here is the endurance and the faith of the holy ones. (Rev 13:10b)

(The messenger brought the good little message ) * (א,* א) in/with a great/loud voice: “Fear God, and give Him glory, because the hour of His judgment has come.” (Rev 14:7a)

Here is the endurance of the holy ones, of (א,* א) the ones keeping the commandments of God and the faith of Jesus. (Rev 14:12)

I heard the messenger of the waters saying: “Righteous are You, the One who is and the One who (continually) was, the pious/sacred One, because You have judged these things.” (Rev 16:5)

They poured out the bloods (א,* א) of holy ones and prophets, and You gave (P47, א,* א) them blood to drink, which they just (א,* א) are worthy. (Rev 16:6)

I heard the sacrificial altar saying: “Yes, the Lord God, the All-powerful, true and righteous (are) Your judgments.” (Rev 16:7)

I will show you the judicial verdict of the great harlot, the one being seated upon many waters. (Rev 17:1b)

I beheld the woman being drunk (with) (א*) the blood of the holy ones and out of the blood of the witnesses to Jesus. (Rev 17:6a)

(Babylon) will be burned down in fire, because God (literally: the God) the Lord (א*), the One having judged her, (is) stable. (Rev 18:8b)

(The kings of the earth) saying: “Woe, woe, the great city Babylon, the stable city, because (in) one hour your judgment has come.” (Rev 18:10b)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

They hear the first thunder rumbles, and now they see, what they have not seen before. A big blueblack cloud has sailed up away over Apelkullen. . . . They can sit there seeing how a wall of rain comes towards them, and a flash of lightning comes there and also a peal, which gets Lisabet beginning to howl again. . . . So the cloudburst comes. With lightning and thunder and peal so that they gasp for breath, such a furious thunderstorm that mother grows paler and Lisabet screams with terror. Madicken also is afraid. Certainly she is afraid, but under the afraid Madicken there is another Madicken sitting there shivering by secret joy that something can be so frightful and so beautiful and so dangerous and glorious. (Astrid Lindgren "Madicken och Junibackens Pims" p 81-82; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

One chokes! I wish, that he (Hitler) might be allowed to die alone! I am glad to hear, that he is said to be sleepless and was going to die because of too much sleeping-drug the other night. German ravagings Europe around. Oh, Lord, how long? And all food they take, where they go on. The locusts of Egypt out on the rampage. . . . If one could make Gestapo with all its executioner farm-hands up into packets and so bomb them to death, I would not have a scrap of compassion. (Astrid Lindgren "Krigsdagböcker 1939-1945" p 103,198; 1941-09-06 and 1943-11-29; translation from the Swedish text)

In the struggles of life it is very humanly that one rejoices when an enemy becomes struck, and in all battle-fields they have thanked God for the victory. . . . If one sees the proud one meet with misfortune, so one rejoices to find how justice is done; if one sees the evil one be punished one experiences a satisfaction at seeing the balance restored. (August Strindberg "En blå bok I" p 46; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

The disciple spoke: When Wagner first entered in my experience, I did not know where I would place him. His music was ugly, boring and untalented. . . . I directly observed that all unmusical were Wagnerians. But they might have had some feeling of Satanism, for they pursued all who did not want to worship. They ferret out if one was faithful, and if one was not, so one was pursued. . . . But in the middle of this noise from Wagner's cavalry-music (trumpets and kettledrums) Gluck's Orfeus came up, and the musical mankind breathed; Beethoven came into fashion. And again we dared to rejoice at Mendelsohn's A Midsummer Night's Dream, which "äfflingarne" (= "apemen") had spat down and called the destroyers of music! - I understand the boundless hatred towards Wagner; the sound hatred towards the evil thing. (August Strindberg "En blå bok I" p 228; the word "äffling" Strindberg uses to to describe the followers of the out-of-date naturalistic and darwinistic views of the eighties of the nineteenth century; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

After the posted letter I opened V(iktor) Rydberg Germanisk Mythologi, of which I earlier only had turned over the pages. . . . This man V.R. hated and pursued me: I never lifted a hand to him back, by some respectful instinct. (added note: Yes, I wrote an evil letter to a friend who wanted to bend me under him, and I despised V.R. in that moment, because I thought that he had stooped to receive homage by miserable ones, in which circle he had not other things to do than to be honoured!) Perhaps he was right! And I felt it. When he died, I experienced a certain relief, as one, as we know, naturally do, when an adversary goes away. But I was rude enough to before another person express my joy. And at once I was punished, so consequent that I could touch it. . . . In Germ. Myth. all is printed, you know, all what I have groped for. (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev XI maj 1895-nov 1896" p 294-295; letter 1896-08-01 to Torsten Hedlund; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

"I draw away from the home of sin and vanity", squire Julius answered (the meeting girls). "I do not more want to sojourn among idlers and malefactors. I go home to mother. . . . As Lot fled from Sodom and Gomorrah, I flee from Ekeby. Now there is not any righteous man. But when the earth collapses and the sulphur rain clatters down out of the sky, then I shall rejoice at God's just sentences. Goodbye, girls, be on your guard against Ekeby!" . . . This was just the seventeenth time squire Julius had tried to leave Ekeby. (Selma Lagerlöf "Gösta Berlings saga" s 275,278; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Johann Arndt, Stig Dagerman, Olof von Dalin, Sven Danell, Bo Giertz, Stefan Gustavsson, Alf Henrikson, Lars Levi Laestadius, Lars Lindberg, Ingemar Lindstam, Martin Luther, Vilhelm Moberg, Josef Rydén, Viktor Rydberg, Bo Setterlind, Anton Tjechov.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “Be cheerful … heaven”, see also Rev 12:12a. Concerning “the holy ones”, see Rev 1:1a. Concerning “the apostles”, see also Rev 2:2b. Concerning “the prophets”, see Rev 16:6.


Additional studies: Deut 26:18-19; 32:36; Is 3:14; Jer 4:28; 51:48; Lam 2:15-16; 3:45; Dan 2:37; John 13:16; 16:22; Rev 19:2; 21:14.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2008-08-03; 2012-07-25; 2015-10-13)

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18:21a And one (single) * (א*) messenger lifted a stable/firm stone (א*) as a great stone (א,*א) and threw (it) into the sea ...

Word for word (14 words in the Greek text; the sequence of the words according to Sinaiticus prima manus): And lifted one messenger (a)-stone stable as (a)-stone great and threw into the sea


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

The ones having hunted (Israel) (the Lord) tossed into a depth as if (they were) a stone in an extreme/vehement water. (Neh 9:11b, Greek OT)

(Job said to Eliphaz: “Is) not my stability a stability of stones?” (Job 6:12a, Greek OT)

(The prophet said to Seraiah:) “You will bind a stone against, against (the scroll) and toss it into a middle of the Euphrates.” (Jer 51:63b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Tyre: “Babylon will) throw your stones … in, into a middle of the sea.” (Ezek 26:12b, Greek OT)

(The prophet said to the king of Babylon:) “A stone was scratched out of a mountain ... , and it hit the image. … (And the stone) became a great mountain, and it hit ‘every the’/’the whole’ earth.” (Dan 2:34b,35b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) “… I will put/make Jerusalem a stone treading down all the nations. Every/everyone treading (it) down, ‘jesting with’/mocking it, will be ‘jested with’/mocked.” (Zech 12:3a, Greek OT)


The Latter Revelation:

(John the Baptist said to the Pharisees and Sadducees:) “… The One coming behind me is more stable than me/I.” (Matt 3:11a)

(The slanderer) says to (Jesus): "If You are a son of God throw Yourself down, for it is written that/: 'He will enjoin His messengers on account of You' and 'Upon hands they will lift You, (so that) You not at any time may cut Your foot towards, towards a stone.'" (Matt 4:6)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “The one who – according to the circumstances – may cause one of these small/little ones believing into Me to stumble, it ‘carries together’/’is profitable’ to him ‘in order that’/that an upper millstone may be hung around his neck and he may be drowned in the ‘pelago of the sea’/’open sea’.” (Matt 18:6)

(Jesus said about the sanctuary:) “Here may not/certainly not be ‘let be’/left stone against stone, which will not be loosened down/up.” (Matt 24:2b)

Having rolled a great stone (in/to) the door of the memorial tomb (Joseph) went away. (Matt 27:60b)

(Jesus said to the people:) “'Every the'/everyone having fallen against that stone (which the ones building rejected) will be shattered, but against whom it – according to the circumstances – may fall, it will winnow him.” (Luke 20:18)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

And I beheld a stable messenger proclaiming in/with a great/loud voice. (Rev 5:2a)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: C.G. Hjelm, Hans Larsson, Sven Lidman, Erik Lindegren, Göran Sonnevi, Sven Stolpe, Aleksandr Tvardovskij.


Additional studies: Ex 15:5; Joshua 24:26; 1 Sam 6:14-15; 14:33; 2 Sam 20:8; Mark 1:7; 9:42; Luke 3:16; 17:2.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-08-04; 2012-07-25; 2015-10-14)

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18:21b ... saying: “In this way the great city Babylon will be thrown (with) storming/violence, and she may not/certainly not be found any longer in it/’the sea’ (א,* א).”

Word for word (15 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus): saying: in-this-way (with)-storming will-be-thrown Babylon the great city and not/certainly not (she)-may-be-found any-longer in it


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The prophet said to Seraiah:) “You will bind a stone against, against (the scroll) and toss it into a middle of the Euphrates. And you will speak: ‘In this way Babylon will sink down, and she may not/certainly not stand up.’” (Jer 51:63b-64a, Greek OT)

(The prophet said to Tyre:) “This is what the Lord, the Lord says: ‘When I – according to the circumstances - shall give/make you a city being (and having been) desolated… much water will veil/cover you entirely.” (Ezek 26:19b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Tyre:) ”I will give you a perdition, and you will not into the (coming) age ‘begin under’/’be the first’ any longer.” (Ezek 26:21a, Greek OT)

(Daniel said to the king:) “The God of the heaven will cause a kingdom to stand up, whichever/which will not be ruined throughout into the (coming) ages … and it will stand up into the (coming) ages.” (Dan 2:44b, Greek OT, Theod)

(Israel) beheld the stability of the kingdom and the storming of the ability/army, and they ‘leaned out’/’bent aside’ from/’away from’ (the enemy). (1 Macc 6:47)


The Latter Revelation:

(The demons) went away into the pigs, and behold, ‘every the’/’the whole’ herd stormed ‘down from’/over the steep precipice into the sea and they died in the waters. (Matt 8:32b)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “The one who – according to the circumstances - may not receive you … it will be more upheld/bearable for the earth/land of Sodom and the earth/land (א,* א) of Gomorrah in a day of judgment than for that city.” (Matt 10:14-15)

(Jesus said:) “You, Capernaum, ‘not will’/will you be heightened till heaven? You will be precipitated (א,* א) till Hades.” (Matt 11:23a)

(Jesus said to the Pharisees:) “Every kingdom having been ‘divided in portions down from’/’at variance with’ itself is desolated, and every city or habitation having been ‘divided in portions down from’/’at variance with’ itself will not stand.” (Matt 12:25b)

(Jesus said to His disciples: “A rich man spoke to his householder:) ‘You are not able to be a householder any longer.’” (Luke 16:2b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

It became a war in the heaven; Michael and his messengers waged war ‘in company with’/with the dragon. And the dragon and his messengers waged war. And they were not stable towards/’in comparison with’ him (א,* א), nor a place was found any longer * (א*) in the heaven. (Rev 12:7-8)

And seeing the smoke of the conflagration (of Babylon, the ones working on the sea) (continually/repeatedly) shouted, saying: “What (was) like the great city?”(Rev 18:18)

(The ones who work upon the sea) saying: “Woe, * (א,* א) the great city, in which all the ones having the boats in/on the sea were rich out/’in consequence’ of her value, because (in) one hour she has been made desolate.” (Rev 18:19b)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

I reckon with that tests must come. Everything gets such a much more sharp relief, because the rest of the world is so full of adversities and misery, it is so concentrated miserable, that when I yesterday heard a children choir from Germany in clear voices sing "Stille Nacht, heilige Nacht" I went weeping out into the kitchen. These children with their angle-sweet voices are grown up in a country, where everything amounts to force against other men. This autumn it has been published a book written by a Czech. It is called "The dead ones will judge" and describes the obliteration of the Czechish village Lidice after the murder on Heydrich. Nobody in the village had anything with the murder to do, but the Germans would make an example. Consequently all men over 16 years old became shot after having had to dig their graves, all women brought away to forced labour and all children over 3 years old brought away to an unknown place by lorry, where 157 children were packed together in a space, which was intended for about the half, so that they had to stand all time. According to the book the travel took 7 hours, and several of the children were dead at the arrival. I do not know how true the information of the book is, but if only the half is true, it is so that the Germans have committed a bloody deed, which for eternal times will cry towards heaven. After that the whole village was blown; after 24 hours nothing was left being able to remind of the thing that there had been a little peaceful village with peaceful men in it. And this is done by the people having given rise to "Stille Nacht". (Astrid Lindgren "Krigsdagböcker 1939-1945" s 200; 1943-12-25; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

In both Testaments there is the same righteousness of God (displayed) when God takes vengeance, in the one case typically, temporarily, and more moderately; but in the other, really, enduringly, and more rigidly; for the fire is eternal, and the wrath of God which shall be revealed from heaven from the face of our Lord ... entails a heavier punishment on those who incur it. (Irenaeus, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol I, p 501)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Evert Amnefors, Werner Aspenström, Ivan Bunin, Lennart Dahlqvist, Bob Dylan, Carl Dymling, Eiving Eidering, Hilding Fagerberg, Hanna Friberg, Erik Granlund, Carl Grimberg, Krister Hanell, Olov Hartman, Verner von Heidenstam, Alf Henrikson, Bernhard J:son Ernestam, Lars Levi Laestadius, Sven Lidman, Gunnar Lindqvist, Roy Medvedev, Vilhelm Moberg, Patrick Modiano, Theodor Mommsen, Martin P:n Nilsson, Efraim Palmqvist, Viktor Rydberg, Nelly Sachs, Göran Sahlberg, Enar Skillius, Lennart Svensson, J.R.R. Tolkien, Tomas Tranströmer, Jules Verne, Gösta Ydström.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “the great city”, see Rev 18:18. Concerning “not be found any longer in it/’the sea’ (א,* א)”, cf. Rev 21:1b.


Greek words:

ormêma (storming) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) 1 Macc 6:47; Rev 18:21 – 1 Macc 4:8.


Additional studies:

Sir 10:16-17; Mark 5:13; Luke 8:33; Rev 18:21.


Ian Provan "Foul Spirits, Fornication and Finance: Revelation 18 From an Old Testament Perspective"; Journal for the Study of the New Testament 64 (1996): 81-100.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-08-04; 2012-07-25; 2015-10-14)

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18:22 * (א,*א) A voice/sound of players on the zither and musicians and flute players and trumpets (א,*א) may not/certainly not be heard in you any longer, and every artist * (א,*א,A) may not/certainly not be found in you any longer. * (א,* א)

Word for word (23 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus): (a)-voice (of)-players-on-the-zither and (of)-musicians and (of)-flute-players and (of)-trumpets not/certainly not may-be-heard in you any-longer, and every artist not/certainly not may-be-found in you any-longer.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Laban said to Jacob:) “I dispatched you – according to the circumstances – out in company with cheerfulness and in company with musicians, drums and zithers.” (Gen 31:27b, Greek OT))

(When the Lord makes the earth desolate) cheerfulness of drums has ceased (and ceases), … voice/sound of zithers has ceased (and ceases).” (Is 24:8, Greek OT)

(The Lord God said to Tyre:) “I will loosen down/up the multitude of your musicians, and the voice/sound of your stringed instruments will not/certainly not be heard any longer.” (Ezek 26:13, Greek OT)

Jerusalem (continually) was uninhabited as a desolate (district). It/there (continually) was not (one) out of her products/children going into/in and going out. … Flute and zither had ‘left out’/disappeared. (1 Macc 3:45)

God said about Jerusalem: “I will take ‘for Myself’/away (from) her the gladness of the many crowds of (the ones) around (treating her ill).” (Baruch 4:34a)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus came) into the habitation of the leader/official and ... beheld the flute players. (Matt 9:23a)

(Jesus said to the crowds: “With) what shall I make this generation like? It is like little boys and girls being seated in the market-places, who raise their voices towards the other (little boys and girls); they say: “We played on the flute (to) you, and you did not dance. We wailed and you did not ‘cut yourselves’/mourn.” (Matt 11:16-17)

Making temples of silver (Demetrius continually) did not offer ‘a few’/little occupations/work to the artists. (Acts 19:24b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

I heard behind me a great/loud voice as a trumpet. (Rev 1:10b)

When (the little Ram) took the scroll, the four living beings and the twenty-four elders fell/’sank down’ in the very eyes of the little Ram, everyone having a zither. (Rev 5:8a)

I heard a voice/sound out of the heaven, as a voice/sound of many waters and as a voice/sound of a great/loud thunder. And the voice/sound which I heard (was) as (the sound of) players on the zither playing the zither in/on their zithers. (Rev 14:2)

(The messenger) saying: “In this way the great city Babylon will be thrown (with) storming/violence, and she may not/certainly not be found any longer in it/’the sea’ (א,* א).” (Rev 18:21b)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

Here a new education is needed and here times of wolves come! Times when a pianoforte with its cracks will not more suppress hunger; when the silkworms will stop spinning and the vineyard be sown again with bread plants, when sucklings will die at the drying breast of the culture mothers and the cows go before the plough; it will come days when you are glad to have a high boot to clean yourself and you do not find a fellow-being wanting to carry out your uncleanliness; then the revolution is running, the ones having degenerated will die; nature closes the books and the avalanche goes!" And the merchants on the earth will weep and grieve over her, (Babylon, the great city) that no one buys their goods more. And the voice of harpists and singers and pipers and trumpets will not more be heard in you; and all craftsmen, whatever craft it is, will not more be found in you! Then I heard a loud voice of a great crowd in heaven, saying: Hallelujah, blessedness and praise, glory and power be to the Lord our God; for his judgments are true and right; for he has judged the great harlot, the one who with her fornication have destroyed the earth, and has avenged the blood of his servants out of her hand." Have you heard the devil prophesy before? Well, it is not difficult to be a prophet when one is sitting in the centre of Europe, a day and night from Paris, London, Berlin and Rome! (August Strindberg "Kvarstadsresan" p 124-125; Ouchy, April 1884; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Svetlana Aleksijevitj, Hilding Fagerberg, Gustaf Fröding, Bo Giertz, Alf Henrikson, Selma Lagerlöf, Britt Lindeborg, Patrick Modiano, Bengt-Arne Person, Viktor Rydberg.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “players on the zither”, see also Rev 5:8a. Concerning “be heard/found any longer”, see also Rev 18:21b.

The city … whose artist/architect and leader of the popular assembly (is) God. (Heb 11:10b)


Greek words:

aulêtês (flute player) Matt 9:23; Rev 18:22.

mousikos (musician) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Rev 18:22 – 1 Macc 9:39; Sir 22:6; 32:3,5-6; 40:20; 44:5; 49:1.

technitês (artist) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Acts 19:24; Heb 11:10; Rev 18:22 – Wisdom of Solomon 7:21(22)(technitis); 8:6(technitis); 13:1; 14:2(technitis),18; Sir 9:17; 45:10(11); Epistle of Jeremiah v 45; Acts 19:38.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-08-04; 2012-07-25; 2015-10-14)

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18:23a And a light of a lamp may not/certainly not ‘bring to’/give light in you any longer, and a voice of a bridegroom and a bride may not/certainly not be heard in you any longer ...

Word for word (20 words in the Greek text): and (a)-light (of)-(a)-lamp not/certainly not may-bringing-to-light in you any-longer, and (a)-voice (of)-(a)-bridegroom and (of)-(a)-bride not/certainly not may-be-heard in you any-longer


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The psalmist said to the Lord:) “Your saying (is) a lamp to my feet and a light to my paths.” (Ps 119:105, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) “I will perish from/’away from’ (Judas) … voice of a bridegroom and voice of a bride … and light of a lamp.” (Jer 25:10, Greek OT)

Every bridegroom took up a wailing/lamenting, and (every bride) being seated in a bridal chamber and grieved. (1 Macc 1:27)

(The Lord said to His people:) “If you – according to the circumstances – may not hear the voice of the Lord to work (for) the king of Babylon, I shall out of the cities of Juda and from outside (of) Jerusalem make ... a voice of a bridegroom and a voice of a bride to ‘leave out’/disappear.” (Baruch 2:22-23a)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “I have come to divide in two … a bride/daughter-in-law ‘down from’/against her mother-in-law.” (Matt 10:35)

(Jesus said:) "(In) a middle of a night it becomes (and has become) a scream: 'Behold, the bridegroom! Come out into a meeting (א,*א,B).'" (Matt 25:6a)

(Jesus said to the crowd:) "If so your whole body (is) bright, having not any dark part, it will be wholly bright, as when the lamp – according to the circumstances – may give you light (with) the ray of light." (Luke 11:36)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(John the Baptist said:) “The one having the bride is bridegroom, but the friend of the bridegroom standing and hearing him, rejoices (with) joy because of the voice of the bridegroom. So this joy of mine has been (and is) completed. That One must increase, but me/I be lessened.” (John 3:29-30)

(Jesus said: “John the Baptist) (continually) was the lamp having been burning and ‘bringing to’/giving light, but/and you wanted towards/’in regard to’ an hour exult in its light.” (John 5:35)

His sight/countenance ‘brings to’/gives light as the sun (א,*א) in its ability. (Rev 1:16b)

The third of the sun was struck and the third of the moon and the third of the stars, in order that the third of them might be gloomed, and (that) the day might not ‘be brought to’/give light (for) the third of it and the night likewise. (Rev 8:12b)

(The messenger) saying: “In this way the great city Babylon will be thrown (with) storming/violence, and she may not/certainly not be found any longer in it/’the sea’ (א,*א). (Rev 18:21b)

* (א,*א) A voice/sound of players on the zither and musicians and flute players and trumpets (א,*א) may not/certainly not be heard in you any longer, and every artist * (א,*א,A) may not/certainly not be found in you any longer. * (א,*א)” (Rev 18:22)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

(The pillar saint, father Simon) sang about a rigorous and terrible God, whose wrath no one could appease, who removes the mountains, moves the earth, so that her pillars tremble, speaks to the sun, that she does not rise, and seals the stars; who sends his angels with the bowls of wrath over the world to overthrow the city of the heathens, the great Babylon, the joyful, by silk, gold and scarlet shining, so that light and candlestick will not light there more, the voice of bride and bridegroom never more become heard in it. (Viktor Rydberg "Den siste atenaren I" p 145-146; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Alf Henrikson, Sigfrid Svensson.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “give light”, see also Rev 8:12. Concerning “any longer … be heard any longer”, see Rev 18:21b.


Additional studies: Jer 7:34; 16:9; 33:10-11; Baruch 2:23; Matt 5:15; Luke 8:16; 11:33; 12:53; 15:8; 2 Pet 1:19.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-08-04; 2012-07-26; 2015-10-15)

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18:23b ... because your traders (continually) were the great men of the earth, because all the nations were led astray in/’by means of’ your poisoning.

Word for word (18 words in the Greek text): because the traders your (continually)-were the great-men (of)-the (of)-earth, because in the poisoning your were-led-astray all the nations


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Moses said to Israel:) “It/there shall not be found in/among you … a poisoner.” (Deut 18:10, Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) “The traders (of Tyre were) glorious, leaders of the earth.” (Is 23:8b, Greek OT)

(The prophet said to Babylon:) “These two things will arrive against you suddenly in one day: widowhood and childlessness ... in your poisoning.” (Is 47:9a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said: “Nineveh is struck) from/’owing to’ multitudes of fornications. A fine and graceful harlot, being in command of/to poisoners, selling/’giving up’ nations in/with her fornication and tribes in/with her poisons.” (Nahum 3:4, Greek OT)

(Solomon said to the Lord: “You hated the ones making) works of poisonings.” (Wisdom of Solomon 12:4a)

(The Egyptians) did not believe because of the poisonings. (Wisdom of Solomon 18:13a)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “A tongue of a third (man) ... has turned down/over habitations of great men.” (Sir 28:14)


The Latter Revelation:

Having suffered many by many physicians and having spent all the things from the side of herself and having been helped nothing however/but rather having/’(the woman who had been in a blood stream for twelve years) had come’ into the/a worse (state). (Mark 5:26)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

However I have a much/great thing (א,* א) ‘down from’/against you, that you let the woman Jezebel be, the one saying herself be (א,* א) a prophetess, and she teaches and leads My slaves astray to fornicate and eat (things) sacrificed to idols. (Rev 2:20, “Thyatira”)

The kings of the earth and the great men and the leaders of a thousand (men) … hid themselves into the caves and into/among the rocks of the mountains. (Rev 6:15)

(The rest of the men) did not change their minds out/’in consequence’ of their murders and not out/’in consequence’ of their poisons and not out/’in consequence’ of their evil (א*,A) and not out/’in consequence’ of their stolen goods. (Rev 9:21)

The great dragon was thrown (out), * (א,*א) a serpent, he of (a) beginning, he being called a slanderer, * (א,*א) the adversary, he leading the whole (inhabited) world astray, he was thrown into/'down to' the earth, and his messengers were thrown (down) in company with him. (Rev 12:9)

(The second little wild animal) leads astray the ones dwelling upon the earth because of the signs which it was given to it to make in the very eyes of the little wild animal. (Rev 13:14a)

The traders of the earth were rich ‘out of’/’in consequence of’ the ability of the voluptuousness (of Babylon). (Rev 18:3b)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

Mighty god, Mammon, you, you, whose wisdom lacks boundary, inspire the means now! Oh, I have it, and I take it, give it the name competition. The means egg on, incite, spur, stick, sting, gnaw, bore, nerve having slackened is overstrung, and it smarts and it burns! Bailiffs you have twenty four, the ones attending to the course of Grotte. Let them every month for their bailiwick account, and you yourself will become surprised at the magic in it. The one who then by Grotte's grist delivers at the very most becomes at Mammon's next festival placed at your right hand and in chapter of knights adorned with the rank of princes and title, honoured as a a support of the society and is allowed to live, Frode, in a castle in peace till his death. But the poor soul of a bailiff having got Grotte's grist to the least, he becomes a thrall, is bound to a bar of Grotte and must draw all the day long, scourged over back and heel, till sinking down he is trampled to death under the heels of the other thralls. King, this is competion; how it eggs on, incites, spurs, sticks, stings, gnaws, bores, how it smarts och it burns! So Grotte's mill soon can go with plainly Helvetic speed. (Viktor Rydberg "Den nya Grottesången" p 242-243; year 1891; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Bo Frid, Bo Giertz, Claes Lindskog, Olof Pettersson, Jesper Svartvik.


If we – according to the circumstances – may speak, that we have not a/any miss (of the mark of God), we lead ourselves astray and the truth is not in us. (1 John 1:8)

These things I have written on account of the ones leading you astray. (1 John 2:26)


Greek words:

farmakeia (poisoning) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Wisdom of Solomon 12:4; 18:13; Rev 18:23 – Gal 5:20.


Additional studies:

Is 47:12; 1 John 1:8.


Ian Provan "Foul Spirits, Fornication and Finance: Revelation 18 From an Old Testament Perspective"; Journal for the Study of the New Testament 64 (1996): 81-100.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-08-04; 2012-07-26; 2015-10-15)

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18:24 And in her was found (the) blood of prophets and holy ones and of all the ones having been (and being) slaughtered upon the earth.

Word for word (15 words in the Greek text): and in her blood (of)-prophets and (of)-holy-ones was-find and (of)-all the-(ones) having-been-(and-being)-slaughtered upon the earth


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

I beheld ‘in a middle of’/’between (on one hand)’ the throne and the four living beings and ‘in a middle of’/’(on the other hand)’ the elders a little Ram standing as having been (and being) slaughtered. (Rev 5:6a)

I beheld, and behold (א,* א), another fire-coloured horse came out. And to the One being seated against it, it was given to Him to take the peace out of the earth, and in order that they might (א,* א) slaughter one another. (Rev 6:4a)

When It opened the fifth seal, I beheld below the sacrificial altar the souls of the men (א,* א) having been (and being) slaughtered because of the saying of God and because of the evidence which they (continually) had. (Rev 6:9)

One 'out of'/of the heads (of the first little wild animal was) as (if) having been (and being) slaughtered into/’for the purpose of’ death. And its (wound of) the blow of (the) death had been attended. (Rev 13:3a)

They poured out the bloods (א,* א) of holy ones and prophets, and You gave (P47, א,* א) them blood to drink, which they just (א,* א) are worthy. (Rev 16:6)

I beheld the woman being drunk (with) (א*) the blood of the holy ones and out of the blood of the witnesses to Jesus. (Rev 17:6a)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: Bo Giertz.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “blood of prophets and holy ones”, see Rev 16:6, where we have the inversion “of holy ones and prophets”. Concerning “having been (and being) slaughtered”, see Rev 6:9.


Additional studies: Jer 51:49; Ezek 24:7; 36:18; Rev 6:10; 19:2.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-08-04; 2012-07-26)

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