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Chapter 17

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17:1a And one * (א,* א) of the seven messengers, of the ones having the seven bowls, came and talked in company with me saying: “Come here!”

Word for word (17 words in the Greek text): And came one (of)-the seven (of)-messengers (of)-the-(ones) having the seven bowls talked in-company-with me saying: come-here


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The first-born daughter of Lot said to the younger:) ”Come here and 'we may'/let us' give our father wine to drink.” (Gen 19:32a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Moses:) “Now come here, I will dispatch you away towards Pharaoh.” (Ex 3:10a, Greek OT)

(Nathan said to Bathsheba:) “Come here, come into towards the king David.” (1 Kings 1:13a, Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) “The judicial verdict of (Babylon) has drawn near into/towards heaven, it has been lifted out till the stars. The Lord has carried out her judicial verdict. Come here and bring up a message into Zion (about) the works of the Lord, our God.” (Jer 51:9b-10, Greek OT)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to the youth:) “Come here, follow Me.” (Matt 19:21b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

I beheld the seven messengers who stand in the very eyes of God, and seven trumpets were given to them. (Rev 8:2)

The voice, which I heard out of the heaven, talking again in company with me and saying: (Rev 10:8a)

(I beheld) seven messengers having seven blows, the last ones, because in them the passion of God was ended. (Rev 15:1b)

And * (P47, א*) out of the four living beings (one of them) gave to the seven messengers * (א,* א) golden bowls being full of the passion of God, (from) the One living into the (coming) ages of the (coming) ages. Amen (א,* א). (Rev 15:7)


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “the seven messengers”, see Rev 8:2. Concerning “the seven bowls”, see Rev 15:7. Concerning “talked in company with me and said”, see Rev 10:8.


Additional studies: Gen 24:31; 31:44; 37:13; 2 Sam 13:11; 2 Kings 14:8; Mark 10:21; Luke 18:22; Acts 7:3,34; Rev 1:12; 21:9,15.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-28; 2012-07-21; 2015-08-24)

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17:1b I will show you the judicial verdict of the great harlot, the one being seated upon many waters ...

Word for word (13 words in the Greek text): (i/I)-will-show you the judicial-verdict (of)-the (of)-harlot the great, the-(one) being-seated upon waters many


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(David said to the Lord:) “More than in an inundation many waters will not draw near towards (the pious one).” (Ps 32:6b, Greek OT)

(The Lord/the prophet said:) “How a faithful city Zion has become a harlot, filled with a judgment.” (Is 1:21a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Isaiah about His people:) "Because of this people not wish/wishing the water of Siloam the (water) going/flowing in a quiet way ... because of this, behold, the Lord leads up against you the stable and the much water of the river (Euphrates)." (Is 8:6a,7a, Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) “The judicial verdict of (Babylon) has drawn near into/towards heaven, it has been lifted out till the stars. The Lord has carried out her judicial verdict. Come here and bring up a message into Zion (about) the works of the Lord, our God.” (Jer 51:9b-10, Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) “The Lord will make/perform the things He has talked against the ones dwelling (in) Babylon, (the) ones pitching their tents on many waters.” (Jer 51:12b-13a, Greek OT)

(The Lord God said to His people:) “You fornicated) behind/'running after' nations and stained (yourself) in/with their devices.” (Ezek 23:30b, Greek OT)

(Daniel said: “The messenger Gabriel) came to (me) and talked in company with me and spoke: ‘Daniel, I have just now come out to underneath/secretly show you a mind/thought.’” (Dan 9:22, Greek OT)

(The Lord said: “Nineveh is struck) from/’owing to’ multitudes of fornications. A fine and graceful harlot, being in command of/to poisoners, selling/’giving up’ nations in/with her fornication and tribes in/with her poisons.” (Nahum 3:4, Greek OT)

(Wisdom brought the pious people) through a red sea and led them through, through many waters, but she inundated their enemies, and out of a depth of an abyss she let them be brought to the boil. (Wisdom of Solomon 10:18-19)


The Latter Revelation:

(The man said to Jesus:) “Many times (the boy falls) into the water.” (Matt 17:15b)

(The elder son said to his father:) “When this your son came, (the one) having eaten down/up your tillvaro/livelihood in company with harlots, you sacrificed the fattened young bull for him.” (Luke 15:30)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

A revelation of Jesus Christ which God gave Him to show to His holy ones (א*) the things which must become/’come about’ in/with quickness. (Rev 1:1a)

His voice (was) as a voice/sound of many waters. (Rev 1:15b)

(The voice) said: “Ascend here, and I will show you what things must become after these things.” (Rev 4:1b)

I heard a voice/sound out of the heaven, as a voice/sound of many waters and as a voice/sound of a great/loud thunder. (Rev 14:2a)

(The messenger brought the good little message ) * (א,*א) in/with a great/loud voice: “Fear God, and give Him glory, because the hour of His judgment has come. And (in honour of Him) prostrate yourselves before the One having made the heaven and the earth and the (P47, א,* א) sea and springs of waters.” (Rev 14:7)

Another * (P47,א*), a second one, followed, saying: “She has fallen * (א,*א), the great Babylon, who gives (and has given) all the nations to drink out of the wine of the passion of her fornication.” (Rev 14:8)

I heard the sacrificial altar saying: “Yes, the Lord God, the All-powerful, true and righteous (are) Your judgments.” (Rev 16:7)

And the great city became into three parts, and the cities of the nations fell. And the great Babylon was remembered in the very eyes of God to give her a (א,* א) cup of * (א,* א) wine of the passion of the (א,* א) wrath. (Rev 16:19)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

(Björnstjerne) Björnson abuses the French generals because they had syphilis! Not a word about the whores having infected them! Why are there no whores in the countryside? Because the peasant boys do not want to pay. (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev XXI Supplement 1857-1893" s 222; letter January 1887 to Edvard Brandes; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

The guard comes informing of the immediate arrival. One draws aside the curtains. It is about five o'clock, and the morning is beautiful! A weak yellow-red light shows, where the sun will rise. One takes one's place in the queue to reach the wash-basin. I feel carefully my pulse. No fever! I listen to my heart. No pound! And nevertheless we would within five minutes behold the Revelation's great harlot! (August Strindberg "Rom på en dag" p 173; Blänkaren 1885-04-22; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Fabbe saw in the text and sang: " . . . A wonder I have to tell. A fish has been caught out of the Tiber in Rome at stairs of a church; an inscription he had on his tall and round his waist a monk cowl. . . . On the back of his head he had a papal crown. What could this herald? It was a fish, a dreadful fish, a herrid fish to behold. To interpret the writing on the tall of the fish the cardinals try and find with shame, that there obviously was written, that Rome is the harlot of Babylon. It heralds, you holy Christianity, misery of a coming time. Consider this, man and woman, and think of a blessed end." (Viktor Rydberg "Vapensmeden" p 20-22; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Maximilian Axelson, Torsten Bergsten, William Dalrymple, Tage Danielsson, Bob Dylan, Per Ericsson, Hilding Fagerberg, Bo Giertz, Sigfrid Hansson, Heinrich Heine, Anders Jarlert, Adolf Kloo, Pär Lagerkvist, Karl Larsson, Lars-Olof Larsson, Sven Lidman, C. Fr. Lundin, Vilhelm Moberg, Fabian Månsson, Fredrik Nielsen, Ragnar Ohlsson, Lewi Pethrus, Hilding Pleijel, Thure Gustaf Rudbeck, Sölve Rydell, Hjalmar Söderberg, Anton Tjechov, Gideon Wikström, Emile Zola, Stefan Zweig.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “many waters”, see also Rev 1:15b.


Greek words:

pornê (harlot) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Luke 15:30; Rev 17:1 – Sir 9:6; 19:2; Epistle of Jeremiah v 9(10); Matt 21:31-32; 1 Cor 6:15-16; Heb 11:31; Jas 2:25; Rev 17:5,15-16; 19:2.


Additional studies:

Joshua 2:1; 6:17,23,25; 23:15-17; Jer 2:20; 3:3, Hos 2:5.


Gordon Campbell "Antithetical Feminine-Urban Imagery and a Tale of Two Women-Cities in the Book of Revelation"; Tyndale Bulletin 55.1 (2004): 81-108.

M.J. Selvidge "Powerful and powerless women in the Apocalypse"; Neotestamentica 26:1 (1992): 157-168.

Donald J. Wiseman "Rehab of Jericho"; Tyndale Bulletin 14 (1964): 8-11.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-28; 2012-07-21; 2015-08-31)

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17:2 ... in company with whom the kings of the earth have made fornication (א,* א), and the ones dwelling (against) the earth ‘were made’/got drunk out of the wine of her fornication.

Word for word (20 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus): in-company-with whom made fornication the kings (of)-the (of)-earth and were-made-drunk the-(ones) dwelling (against)-the earth out-of the wine (of)-the (of)-fornication her.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The Lord said to the prophet:) “In a hand of the Lord (there is) a golden cup of Babylon, making ‘all the’/’the whole’ earth drunk. Nations have drunk from her wine. Because of this they moved to and fro.” (Jer 51:7, Greek OT)

The sons of (the) Babylonians came towards (Israel) into a sleeping-place loosening down/up and they (continually) stained her in her fornication, and she was stained in them. (Ezek 23:17, Greek OT)

(Tobit said to his son:) “You may not drink wine into drunkenness, and do not let drunkenness go in company with you in your way.” (Tobit 4:15b, BA)


The Latter Revelation:

(If the slave may) drink and ‘be made’/get drunk, the lord of that slave will arrive ... and put his part in company with the faithless ones. (Luke 12:45b-46)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven: (Joybringing grace and peace) from Jesus Christ, the faithful witness, the first-born of the dead (bodies) and the leader of the kings of the earth. (Rev 1:5a)

However I have a much/great thing (א,* א) ‘down from’/against you, that you let the woman Jezebel be, the one saying herself be (א,* א) a prophetess, and she teaches and leads My slaves astray to fornicate and eat (things) sacrificed to idols. And I gave her time, in order that she might change her mind * (א*) ‘out of’/’in consequence of’ her fornication. (Rev 2:20-21, “Thyatira”)

(I will * (keep) (א,*א) you) out of the hour of the test, the (hour) being about to come upon the whole (inhabited) world to try the ones dwelling upon the earth. (Rev 3:10b, “Philadelphia”)

Till when do You not judge and procure justice for our blood out of the ones dwelling upon the earth? (Rev 6:10b)

The kings of the earth … hid themselves into the caves and into/among the rocks of the mountains. (Rev 6:15)

(An eagle) saying (with) a great/loud voice: “Woe, woe, woe, to the ones inhabiting upon the earth, out/’in consequence’ of the rest of voices of the trumpet of the three messengers being about to sound the trumpet.” (Rev 8:13b)

The ones dwelling upon the earth rejoice on/’for the sake of’ (the two witnesses) and are cheerful. And they send (א*) gifts to one another, because these prophets, the two, tormented the ones dwelling upon the earth. (Rev 11:10)

And they will prostrate themselves before (the little wild animal) (in honour of it) (א,*א), all the ones dwelling upon the earth, whose names (P47,א,*א) are * (א*) (and have * (א*) been) written in a (א*) book (P47,א,*א) of the life of the little Ram, being (and having been) slaughtered from a foundation of an adornment/’adorned world’. (Rev 13:8)

(The second little wild animal) makes/exercises every/all the (judicial) authority of the first little wild animal in the very eyes of it. And it makes the earth and the ones dwelling in it * (א,* א) to prostrate (towards) the first little wild animal (in adoration of it), whose (wound of) the blow of death had been attended. (Rev 13:12)

(The second little wild animal) leads astray the ones dwelling upon the earth because of the signs which it was given to it to make in the very eyes of the little wild animal, saying to the ones dwelling upon the earth to make an image to the little wild animal, which (א,* א) has (the wound of) a blow of the dagger and has lived/’come to life’. (Rev 13:14)

Another * (P47, א*), a second one, followed, saying: “She has fallen * (א,* א), the great Babylon, who gives (and has given) all the nations to drink out of the wine of the passion of her fornication.” (Rev 14:8)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

The friends (flirts) of Siri (von Essen) are at work to save her. . . . Her magic power was enormous! She managed, notwithstanding his crimes, her great debts, to make the first man she met to believe that I was the criminal. . . . The worst thing is that I think she has whored with the whole world, yes, so that Kymendö is uninhabitable for me! (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev VI aug 1886-jan 1888" p 265-266; letter 1887-09-03 to Pehr Staaff; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Do not suppose the assumption that I am in the wrong in my opinions about the culture and Paris! And do not be duped of Paris. It is a big out-of-town restaurant where the Europeans travel to booze and fuck, and the theatres are adultery exchanges! . . . Honour our youth with not going in the footsteps of the old ones writing about actresses and oil-paint pictures! . . . Enlighten . . . Sweden that the Frenchmen are an aristocratic, silly, vain shit-people (at least the Parisians). . . . Read their vile newspapers! . . . See in the family you come how they sell the daughters and fall on their faces before a red band (= the Legion of Honour). . . . Put what you see in touch with the domination of the French taste here at home. . . . Do not by preference write anything about Paris, but much about Sweden! (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev IV 1884" p 63-64; letter 1884-02-29 to Gustaf af Geijerstam; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

I hear many say, when these excesses (of drinking wine) happen, “Would there were no wine.” O folly! O madness! When other men sin, dost thou find fault with God's gifts? And what great madness is this? What? did the wine, O man, produce this evil? Not the wine, but the intemperance of such as take an evil delight in it. Say then, “Would there were no drunkenness, no luxury;” but if thou say, “Would there were no wine,” thou wilt say, going on by degrees, “Would there were no steel, because of the murderers; no night, because of the thieves; no light, because of the informers; no women, because of adulteries;” and, in a word, thou wilt destroy all. But do not so; for this is of a satanical mind; do not find fault with the wine, but with the drunkenness. ... Wine was given, that we might be cheerful, not that we might behave ourselves unseemly; that we might laugh, not that we might be a laughing-stock. ... It is not possible with drunkenness to see the kingdom of Heaven. ... And why do I speak of a kingdom? Why, with drunkenness one cannot see so much as the things present. For in truth drunkenness makes the days night to us, and the light darkness. And though their eyes be opened, the drunken see not even what is close at hand. ... Let us fly then from that pest, that we may attain both unto the good things here, and unto those to come. (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers X:356-357)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Rudolf Björkman, Aleksis Kivi, Lars Levi Laestadius, Anders Nohrborg.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “the kings of the earth”, see Rev 1:5a and 6:15aa. Concerning “the ones dwelling (against) the earth”, cf. Rev 3:10b. Concerning “the wine of her fornication”, see Rev 14:8.


Additional studies:

Is 23:15-17; Jer 13:20-27; 25:15-16; Ezek 16:25-29; 23:22-27,33-34; Nahum 3:4; Rev 2:22; 17:8; 18:3,9.


Gordon Campbell "Antithetical Feminine-Urban Imagery and a Tale of Two Women-Cities in the Book of Revelation"; Tyndale Bulletin 55.1 (2004): 81-108.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-28; 2012-07-21; 2015-08-31)

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17:3a And he carried me away in spirit into a desolate (district).

Word for word (7 words in the Greek text): and (he)-carried-away me into (a)-desolate-(district) in spirit.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The prophet said concerning Babylon:) “The vision of/about the desolate (district).” (Is 21:1a, Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) “The Spirit lifted me out and took me up.” (Ezek 3:14a, Greek OT)

(The messenger said to the prophet:) “Carry away Daniel into the den of the lions in Babylon.” (Bel and the Dragon v 34)


The Latter Revelation:

Jesus was led up by the Spirit into the desolate (district) to be tried by the slanderer. (Matt 4:1)

Straight off the Spirit throws/drives (Jesus) out into the desolate (district). (Mark 1:12)

(Jesus) was led in the Spirit in the desolate (district). (Luke 4:1b)

(Jesus said to the Pharisees:) " … The beggarly one died and was carried away by the messengers into Abraham's bosom." (Luke 16:22a)

The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven: I became in spirit in/on the day belonging to the Lord. (Rev 1:10a)

Straightaway I became in spirit. (Rev 4:2a)

The woman fled into the desolate (district), whereat/where she there has a place having been (and being) made ready from God, in order that they will (א,* א) support her there (for) one thousand and two hundred and sixty days. (Rev 12:6)


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “in spirit”, see Rev 1:10a. Concerning “into a desolate (district)”, see Rev 12:6.


Greek words:

apoferô (carry away) (in the NT + examples in the OT) Bel and the Dragon v 34; Luke 16:22; Rev 17:3 – Lev 20:19; Dan 11:8; 2 Macc 5:21; Mark 15:1; Acts 19:12; 1 Cor 16:3; Rev 21:10.


Additional studies:

Rev 12:14; 21:10.


Richard J. Bauckham "The Role of the Spirit in the Apocalypse"; The Evangelical Quarterly 52.2 (1980): 66-83.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-28; 2012-07-21; 2015-08-31)

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17:3b And I beheld a woman being seated against a scarlet little wild animal being full of ‘names of blasphemy’/’blasphemous names’, having seven heads and ten horns.

Word for word (16 words in the Greek text): And (i/I)-beheld (a)-woman being-seated against (a)-little-wild-animal scarlet, being-full-of names (of)-blasphemy, having heads seven and horns ten.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(When Tamar who was with child by harlotry) brought forth … the suckle, having taken (the child), bound a scarlet (thing) against its hand, saying: “This one came out first.” (Gen 38:28b, Greek OT)

(The men said to the harlot Rahab:) “On our going into a part of the city, you shall put the sign, this little scarlet string, you shall ‘bind ... out of’/fasten (it) into/in the window through which you have precipitated/’let ... down’ us.” (Joshua 2:18a, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said:) “... The mouth (of the misser of the mark of God) is full of and/both bitterness and deceit.” (Ps 10:7a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to His people:) “Come here and we may ‘count throughout’/consider … if – according to the circumstances – your misses (of My mark) may be as crimson, I shall whiten (them) as snow, but/and if – according to the circumstances – they may be as scarlet, I shall whiten (them) as wool.” (Is 1:18, Greek OT)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said:) “Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites, because you make the cup and the small dish clean from the outside but ‘from inside’/within they are full of, out of raping and incontinence ... full of bones of dead (bodies) and every/all impurity.” (Matt 23:25,27b)

Having ‘set out’/’stripped off’ (Jesus) (the soldiers) put a scarlet upper garment round about Him. (Matt 27:28)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Jesus said:) "Amen, amen, I say to you, if – according to the circumstances – the scarlet kernel of the bread-stuff having fallen into the earth may not die, it stays alone. But if – according to the circumstances – it may die, it carries/produces much fruit. " (John 12:24)

(I know) the blasphemy, the one (א,* א) out of the ones saying themselves be Jews and they are not however/but a synagogue of the adversary. (Rev 2:9b. “Smyrna”)

Another sign was beheld in the heaven. And behold, a fire-coloured great dragon having seven heads and ten horns and against his heads seven diadems. (Rev 12:3)

I beheld a little wild animal ascending out of the sea, having ten horns and seven heads and upon his horns ten diadems and against his heads a (P47; א,* א) ‘name of blasphemy’/’blasphemous name’. (Rev 13:1 or Rev 13:1b)

It was given to it a mouth talking great things and blasphemies. (Rev 13:5a)

(The little wild animal) opened its mouth into/in blasphemies towards God to blaspheme His name and His tent, the ones in the heaven dwelling in a tent. (Rev 13:6)

(The men) blasphemed the name of God, the One having the (judicial) authority against/over these blows, and they did not changed their minds to give Him glory. … And they blasphemed the God of the heaven ‘out of’/’in consequence of’ their hardships and ‘out of’/’in consequence of’ their sores. And they did not change their minds * (א,* א). (Rev 16:9b,11)

And the men blasphemed God out/’in consequence’ of the blow of the hail, because its blow is extremely great. (Rev 16:21b)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: Carl Grimberg, Fredrik Nielsen.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “’names of blasphemy’/’blasphemous names’, having seven heads and ten horns”, see Rev 13:1(13:1b).


Greek words:

kokkinos (scarlet) (in the NT + examples in the OT) Gen 38:28; Joshua 2:18; Is 1:18; Matt 27:28; Rev 17:3 – Jer 4:30; Nahum 2:3; Heb 9:19; Rev 17:4; 18:12,16.


Additional studies:

2 Sam 1:24; Luke 11:39; John 6:10; 12:12-16; Rom 3:14; Rev 17:7,9,12,16.


Gordon Campbell "Antithetical Feminine-Urban Imagery and a Tale of Two Women-Cities in the Book of Revelation"; Tyndale Bulletin 55.1 (2004): 81-108.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-28; 2012-07-21; 2015-09-06)

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17:4a And (continually) the woman was (and had been) wrapped up in purple and scarlet and was (and had been) gilded (with) gold (א,* א) and a valuable stone and pearls ...

Word for word (16 words in the Greek text): and the woman (continually)-was being-(and-having-been)-wrapped-up-in purple and scarlet and being-(and-having-been)-gilded (with)-gold and stone valuable and pearls


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The Lord said to Moses:) “You shall make a curtain out of, of hyacinth and purple and scarlet, being (and having been) fragmented/’divided in pieces’, and fine linen, being (and having been) spinned. . . . And you shall put it upon, upon four not rotten pillars being (and having been) gilded (with) goldmetal.” (Ex 26:31a,32a, Greek OT)

(David) took the crown (of gold) (from the king) … And its standing-place/weight (was) a talent of gold, and (in it was) a valuable stone and (the crown) (continually) was upon David's head. (2 Sam 12:30a, Greek OT)

(Solomon) made two cherubim in the holy house of the holy things, a work out of woods/’pieces of wood’ and gilded them with goldmetal. (2 Chron 3:10, Greek OT)

(Solomon said: “Wisdom) is more valuable than expensive stones.” (Prov 3:15a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) “Behold, I throw/lay in, into the bases of Zion, an expensive stone, a chosen, noble top cornerstone into its bases, and the one believing on/in it will not/certainly not be put to shame.” (Is 28:16b, Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) “ … A goldsmith gilded (the idol) round about with goldmetal.” (Is 40:19a, Greek OT)

(The prophet said to Judas:) “And you, what will you do? If – according to the circumstances – you may wrap yourself in scarlet and adorn yourself with gold adornment, and if you – according to the circumstances – may anoint in your eyes with make-up, your elegance (is) into/in vain.” (Jer 4:30a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to the king of Tyre:) "In the delicacy of the ‘place by the side of apprehension’/Paradise of God you became. And 'to be (and have been)'/'you were (and had been)' set/clothed in every beneficial stone." (Ezek 28:13a, Greek OT)

(The king who will be heightened against/’extending over’ every god) will honour a god, whom his fathers had not have knowledge of, in/with goldmetal and silvermetal and (with) a valuable (Theod) stone .... (Dan 11:38b, Greek OT)

(Zerubbabel) will carry ‘out of’/out the stone of the inheritance of/with an equality of joybringing (grace) of its joybringing (graces). (Zech 4:7b, Greek OT)

(Tobit said:) “The doors of Jerusalem will be built (with) sapphire and (with) emerald and all your walls (with) a valuable stone.” (Tobit 13:16b or 13:17a, S)

(The Romans) had not wrapped up themselves in purple cloth, so that they (would) 'be ripe'/'go swaggering about' in it. (1 Macc 8:14b)

(The prophet said: “In Babylon) crowns (of goldmetal) are (put) against the heads of their gods. … (And) when the priests . . . have taken away goldmetal and silvermetal from their gods ... they will give (it) upon the roof of harlots. … (Their gods) are (and has been) wrapped up in scarlet clothing.” (Epistle of Jeremiah v 8b-11)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “You may not give the holy thing to the dogs but/and you may not throw your pearls in front of the pigs, (so that) they may (א,*א) not at any time tread them down in/with their feet and having turned themselves (about) they may break you in pieces.” (Matt 7:6)

(Jesus said to the twelve:) “You may not acquire gold but/and not silver but/and not copper into your girdles.” (Matt 10:9)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "The kingdom of the heavens is like * (א*, B) a trader seeking fine pearls, but/and having find one much valuable pearl (and) having gone away he has disposed (and disposes) all things as many as he (continually) had, and he bought it." (Matt 13:45-46)

Jesus says to (the priest leaders and the elders): “Did you nor at any time read in the writings: ‘A stone which the ones building rejected … is wondrous in our eyes?’” (Matt 21:42)

A certain youth being (and having been) wrapped up in a linen sheet upon (the) naked (body) (continually) followed together with (Jesus). (Mark 14:51a)

Having scourged Jesus, (Pilate) gave Him ‘to the side of’/over, in order that he might be crucified. ... And (the soldiers) put on (Jesus) a purple cloth and having plaited a thorny crown they put it round about Him. And they began to greet Him: "Rejoice, (You) a king of the Jews!" And they slapped His head (with) a reed. (Mark 15:15b,17-19a)

(Jesus said to the Pharisees:) “It/there was (continually) a certain rich man, and he (continually) was “inclothed”/’clothed in’ purple and fine linen being cheerful ‘according to day’/’day by day’ (in a) shining (way).” (Luke 16:19)

On someones’ sayings on account of the sanctuary, that it was (and had been) adorned (with) fine stones and consecrated gifts, (Jesus) spoke (to His disciples): “(Concerning) these things which you look at, days will come in which it/there shall not be ‘let be’/left stone on stone here (א,* א, B) which will not be loosened down/up.” (Luke 21:5-6)

(Gamaliel was) valuable to every/all the people. ... (Acts 5:34b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

Having plaited a crown out of thorns the soldiers put (it) on the head (of Jesus) and wrapped Him up in a purple garment. (John 19:2)

He who conquers shall in this way be wrapped up in white garments. (Rev 3:5a, ”Sardis”)

(Elders) being (and having been) wrapped up in white (things) (א,*א) and (with) golden crowns against their heads. (Rev 4:4b)

(I beheld a much/many-headed crowd) standing ‘in the very eyes of’/before the throne and in the very eyes of the little Ram, being (and having been) wrapped up in white dresses and (with) date-twigs in their hands. (Rev 7:9b)

I beheld another stable messenger descending out of the heaven, being (and having been) wrapped up in a cloud. (Rev 10:1a)

I will give (authority) to my two witnesses, and they will prophesy (for) one thousand two hundred (and) sixty days, being (and having been) wrapped up in sack. (Rev 11:3)

A woman being (and having been) wrapped up in the sun and (with) the moon below her feet and upon her head a crown of twelve stars. (Rev 12:1b)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

It so happened that this Sunday it was the rural dean in Bro, who would preach in Svartsjö, and not the usual priest. And the dean was a strict and old-fashioned man, who was annoyed at every kind of affluence both in costume and other things. When he saw the young girl in the red dress, he probably was afraid that this could be silk, and he let the parish clerk go and fetch both the girl and the parents, so that he would be allowed to speak with them. He probably saw, also he, that the dress and the girl were well matched, but nevertheless he equally disliked the matter. "Hear you, my girl, I shall say something to you", he said to Klara Gulla and put his hand on her shoulder. "It is nothing preventing me to dress myself as a bishop with a golden cross round my neck, if I so want. But I do not do so, for I do not want to appear superior than I am. And in the same way you have not to dress yourself as a mansion lady, when you only is a daughter of a poor crofter." . . . (The mother of the girl) Kattrina hurried to tell that the girl had got the material in present. . . . And (the father) Jan (said): "If this little girl would be clothed in a suitable way . . . , then she would be fine as the sun, for a sun and a joy she has been for us, since she was born." . . . (The dean) looked thoughtfully at them all three. Both Jan and Kattrina looked old and worn, but the eyes shone in the lined faces, when they turned them towards the brilliant youth, who they had between them. Then the dean surely said to himself, that it was a pity to disturb the old people in their contentment: "If it is so, that you have been a light and a joy for your poor parents, so you can wear your dress with honour", he said in a soothing voice. "For a child who can get happiness for father and mother, this is the best we see before our eyes." . . . . . . (At the burial of the parents) the priest said a few words to Klara Gulla. She had got greater love from her parents than anyone else he knew, and such a love had to be turned in blessing. When the priest said this, all men looked away towards Klara Gulla, and they were astonished at what they saw. The words of the priest already seemed to have been fulfilled. There Klara Fina Gulleborg from Skrolycka stood, she being called after the sun itself, beside the grave of her parents and shone as glorified. She was as beautiful as she was that Sunday, when she went to church in the red dress, if not more beautiful. (Selma Lagerlöf "Kejsarn av Portugallien" p 54-55,184; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

When the entire city in which (the harlot Rahab) lived fell to the ruins at the sounding of the seven trumpets, (she) was preserved, when all was over, together with all her house, through faith of the scarlet sign. (Irenaeus, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol I, p 492)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Nils Beltzén, Carl Boberg, Honoré de Balzac, Elmer Diktonius, Carl August Ehrensvärd, Harald Elovson, Graham Greene, Carl Grimberg, Verner von Heidenstam, Alma Hongell, Juan Ramon Jiménez, K.W. Johansson, Natanael Johansson, Viktor Johansson, Pär Lagerkvist, Lars-Olof Larsson, Anna Maria Lenngren, Hans Lindholm, Martin Luther, Olaus Magnus, Vilhelm Moberg, Kaj Munk, Fabian Månsson, Efraim Palmqvist, Jessica Parland-von Essen, Olof Pettersson, Einar Rimmerfors, Gustaf Ruuth, Viktor Rydberg, Martha Sandwall-Bergström, William Shakespeare, Harry Sjöman, Olof Sjöstrand, Karl Erik Steneberg, Svante Ståhl, Carl-Herman Tillhagen, Anton Tjechov, Zacharias Topelius.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “scarlet”, see also Rev 17:3b.


Greek words:

margaritês (pearl) Matt 7:6; 13:45-46; Rev 17:4 – 1 Tim 2:9; Rev 18:12,16; 21:21.

timios (valuable) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Tobit 13:17; Acts 5:34; Rev 17:4 – 1 Macc 11:27; Wisdom of Solomon 12:7; Acts 20:24; 1 Cor 3:12; Heb 13:4; Jas 5:7; 1 Pet 1:19; 2 Pet 1:4; Rev 18:12; 21:11,19.

chrysoô (gild) (in the NT + examples in the OT) Ex 26:32; 2 Chron 3:10; Rev 17:4 – Ex 25:11; 2 Chron 3:8-9; Rev 18:16.


Additional studies:

Judges 8:26; 1 Kings 10:2,10-11; 1 Chron 20:2; 2 Chron 9:1,9-10; Job 28:18; 38:6; Ps 118:22-23; Prov 8:11; 20:15; 31:10; Dan 5:7,16-17,29; Nahum 2:3; Hab 2:19; Matt 24:1-2; Mark 12:10; 13:1-2; Luke 20:17-18; John 19:2,5; Acts 3:6; 4:11; 17:29; 20:33; Heb 9:4; Jas 5:3; 1 Pet 2:4-7; Rev 18:12; 21:11,19.


Gordon Campbell "Antithetical Feminine-Urban Imagery and a Tale of Two Women-Cities in the Book of Revelation"; Tyndale Bulletin 55.1 (2004): 81-108.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-29; 2012-07-22; 2015-09-13)

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17:4b ... having in her hand a golden cup being full of abominations and of the unclean things of her and the earth's (א,* א) fornication.

Word for word (18 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus): having (a)-cup of-gold in the hand her being-full-of abominations and the unclean-(things) (of)-the (of)-fornication her and (of)-the (of)-earth


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

Gold- and silvercups … had been laid/set before. (Esther 1:7a, Greek OT)

(The prophet said: “Tyre) will be a trading-place to all the kingdoms of the (inhabited) world.” (Is 23:17b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Jerusalem:) “I have taken (and take) the cup of the falling out of your hand … And I will throw/lay it in, into the hands of the ones having acted unrighteously against you and humbled you.” (Is 51:22b-23a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to the prophet:) “In a hand of the Lord (there is) a golden cup of Babylon, making ‘all the’/’the whole’ earth drunk. Nations have drunk from her wine. Because of this they moved to and fro.” (Jer 51:7, Greek OT)

Seeds out of (the despicable person) shall stand up and profane the holy place of the sovereignty and change the place of the uninterrupted continuation (of the burnt offering). And having ‘made unseen’/disfigured they will give/allow an abomination. (Dan 11:31, Greek OT, Theod)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “Offence and wrath, these things, it is and/also abominations and a male (being) a misser (of the mark of God) will be ‘having power over’/’stout in’ these them.” (Sir 27:30)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus) gave His twelve disciples (judicial) authority of/'on account of' unclean spirits. (Matt 10:1a)

(Jesus said:) “Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites, because you make the cup and the small dish clean from the outside but ‘from inside’/within they are full of, out of raping and incontinence ... full of bones of dead (bodies) and every/all impurity.” (Matt 23:25,27b)

(Jesus said to His disciples: “You may) behold the abomination of the desolation, the thing having been spoken through Daniel, the prophet.” (Matt 24:15a)

(Jesus said to James and Jacob:) “The cup which I drink, you will drink. And the baptism which I am baptized (with), you will be baptized (with).” (Mark 10:39b)

(Jesus) spoke to (the Pharisees): "You are the ones justifying yourselves in the very eyes of the men, but God has knowledge of your hearts, because the thing (being) high in/among men (is) an abomination in the very eyes of God." (Luke 16:15)

(In a linen garment were) ... the flying creatures of the heaven. And a voice became/came towards (Simon Peter): “Having stood up, Peter, sacrifice and eat.” But Peter spoke: “Not at all, Lord, because I nor at any time have eaten every/anything common and unclean.” (Acts 10:12b-14)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

However I have few/’a few’ things ‘down from’/against you, because you have (some) there ‘getting power over’/embracing the teaching of Balaam who taught * (א*) to throw/lay a stumbling block in the very eyes of the sons of Israel, to eat things sacrificed to idols and to fornicate. (Rev 2:14, “Pergamos”)

However I have a much/great thing (א,* א) ‘down from’/against you, that you let the woman Jezebel be, the one saying herself be (א,* א) a prophetess, and she teaches and leads My slaves astray to fornicate and eat (things) sacrificed to idols. (Rev 2:20, “Thyatira”)

Another * (P47, א*), a second one, followed, saying: “She has fallen * (א,* א), the great Babylon, who gives (and has given) all the nations to drink out of the wine of the passion of her fornication.” (Rev 14:8)

In company with (the great harlot) the kings of the earth have made fornication (א,* א), and the ones dwelling (against) the earth ‘were made’/got drunk out of the wine of her fornication. (Rev 17:2)

I beheld a woman being seated against a scarlet little wild animal being full of ‘names of blasphemy’/’blasphemous names’, having seven heads and ten horns. (Rev 17:3b)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

The door violently was opened, and schoolmaster Laurentius Gudmundi stepped in, warm and perspiring. He had almost run up the slope of the monastery. "Am I coming too late?" he asked and stepped, without awaiting answer, up to the bed, where he saw, that the lips of dying man moved. "Still salvation is possible, monk, do yo dare to step into the eternity splashed with the dregs of the wine of the abomination in the cup of the Babylonian harlot? Wash yourself clean! The arms of the Lord Jesus are open for you only on this condition. . . ." The dying, who had shut his eyes during the prayer, opened them, sat up in the bed, looked kindly at schoolmaster Lars whispering: "I know you mean well!" - beat her arms round Master Gudmund resting his head at his breast. There he breathed his last breath. . . . (Schoolmaster Lars) would gladly have asked a prayer for the soul of the deceased, if he had not regarded it sinful. (Viktor Rydberg "Vapensmeden" p 143-144; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Lars Levi Laestadius, Martin Luther, Erich Sauer.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “was full of”, see Rev 17:3b. Concerning “her and the earth's (א,* א) fornication”, see Rev 14:8 and 17:2.


Greek words:

bdelygma (abomination) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Sir 27:30; Matt 24:15; Luke 16:15; Rev 17:4 – 1 Macc 1:54; 6:7; Wisdom of Solomon 12:23; 14:11; Sir 1:25; 10:13; 13:20; 15:13; 17:26; 19:23; 49:2; The Prayer of Manasseh v 10; Mark 13:14; Rev 17:5; 21:27.


Additional studies:

Gen 43:32; Deut 29:17; 2 Kings 23:13; Ezra 1:10; 8:27; Prov 11:1; 17:15; Is 52:1; Dan 9:27; 12:11; Amos 7:17; Zech 13:2; Mark 3:11; 6:7; Luke 4:36; 6:18; 11:39; Acts 5:16; 8:7; 10:28; 11:8; 2 Cor 6:17; 12:21; Gal 5:19; Eph 5:3,5; Col 3:5; Rev 18:2,6.


Gordon Campbell "Antithetical Feminine-Urban Imagery and a Tale of Two Women-Cities in the Book of Revelation"; Tyndale Bulletin 55.1 (2004): 81-108.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-29; 2012-07-22; 2015-09-15)

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17:5 And against her forehead a name was (and had been) written, a mystery: “The great Babylon, the mother of the harlots and of the abonominations of the earth.”

Word for word (20 words in the Greek text): and against the forehead her (a)-name being-(and-having-been)-written, (a)-mystery, Babylon the great, the mother (of)-the (of)-harlots and (of)-the (of)-abominations (of)-the (of)-earth.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The Lord said to Moses: “The plate with the engraved ‘A holy place of the Lord’) shall be upon Aaron's forehead.” (Ex 28:38a, Greek OT)

The leprosy stuck up in/on (Uzziah's) forehead opposite the priests in house of the Lord, above the sacrificial altar of the incense. (2 Chron 26:19b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to the harlot Jerusalem:) “As many as spoke ‘down from’/against you in a parable saying/said: ‘Entirely as the mother (is, so is) and/also the daughter’. You are a daughter of your mother, she having thrust/pushed away her male and her children and a sister of your sisters of the ones having thrust/pushed away their males and their children.” (Ezek 16:44b-45a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to His people:) “With spirit of fornication (my people) has been led astray and they have been given to fornication from/’away from’ their God. … Because of this your daughters will be given to fornication, and your brides will commit adultery.” (Hos 4:12b,13b, Greek OT)


The Latter Revelation:

John (the Baptist) (continually/repeatedly) said to (king) Herod: “It is not permitted for you to have (Herodias) your brother's woman.” … (On Herod's birthday) having come into/in and danced the daughter of Herodias pleased Herod and the ones lying up/’down to table’ together with (him). But/and (א,* א, A, B) the king spoke to the little eyeball: “Demand (of) me which/what you – if according to the circumstances – may want, and I will give (it) to you.” … And having come out she spoke to her mother: “What may I demand?” But/and she spoke: “The head of John, the one baptizing.” … (And the executioner) gave it to the little eyeball, and the little eyeball gave it to her mother. (Mark 6:18,22,24,28b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(As for) the mystery of the seven stars which you beheld upon my right (hand) and the seven golden lampstands: the seven stars are messengers of the seven (assemblies) of called out, and * (א*) seven lampstands are seven (assemblies) of called out. (Rev 1:20)

(The messenger) said (to the four messengers): “You may not act unrighteously (against) the earth, ‘but not’/nor (א,*א) (against) the sea, ‘but not’/nor (א,*א) (against) the trees, till we may have sealed the slaves of our God upon their foreheads.” (Rev 7:3)

It was spoken to (the locusts), in order that they might (א,*א) not act unrighteously (against) the grass of the earth, nor (against) every/any light green thing, nor (against every/any tree, ‘if not’/except (against) the men whoever have not the seal of God upon the foreheads. (Rev 9:4)

In the days of the voice of the seventh messenger, when he – according to the circumstances – may be about to sound the trumpet, the mystery of God and/also was ended, as He gave a good little message to His 'of Himself'/own slaves and (P47, P85, א,* א) the prophets. (Rev 10:7)

(The second little wild animal) makes (so that) all, the small and the great and the rich and the beggarly and the free and the slaves, ‘in order that they may give them’/’that they may be given’ a mark upon their right hand or against their forehead. (Rev 13:16)

In company with It one hundred and forty-four thousand, having Its name and Its Father’s name having been (and being) written upon their foreheads. (Rev 14:1b)

Another * (P47, א*), a second one, followed, saying: “She has fallen * (א,* א), the great Babylon, who gives (and has given) all the nations to drink out of the wine of the passion of her fornication.” (Rev 14:8)

And the great city became into three parts, and the cities of the nations fell. And the great Babylon was remembered in the very eyes of God to give her a (א,* א) cup of * (א,* א) wine of the passion of the (א,* א) wrath. (Rev 16:19)

I will show you the judicial verdict of the great harlot, the one being seated upon many waters. (Rev 17:1b)

(The woman) having in her hand a golden cup being full of abominations and of the unclean things of her and the earth's (א,* א) fornication. (Rev 17:4b)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: Rune W. Dahlén, Hilding Fagerberg, David Hedegård, Harry Martinson, Vilhelm Moberg, Fredrik Nielsen, Erich Sauer, Anton Tjechov.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “The great Babylon”, see Rev 14:8 and 16:19. Concerning “abonominations of the earth”, see Rev 17:4b.


Paul said to the believers in Thessalonica: “The mystery of the lawlessness is already active.” (2 Thess 2:7a)


Additional studies:

Matt 14:1-12; Rev 17:7.


Gordon Campbell "Antithetical Feminine-Urban Imagery and a Tale of Two Women-Cities in the Book of Revelation"; Tyndale Bulletin 55.1 (2004): 81-108.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-29; 2012-07-22; 2015-09-20)

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17:6 And I beheld the woman being drunk (with) (א*) the blood of the holy ones and out of the blood of the witnesses to Jesus. And having beheld her I wondered (with) great wonderment.

Word for word (22 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus prima manus): and (i/I)-beheld the woman being-drunk (with)-the blood (of)-the (of)-holy-(ones) and out-of the blood (of)-the (of)-witnesses (of)-Jesus. And (i/I)-wondered wonderment great having-beheld her.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Noah) drank out of the wine and ‘was made’/became drunk and he was denudated in his house. (Gen 9:21, Greek OT)

(Judas) cleanses his dress in wine and his wrapper in blood of a grape. (Gen 49:11b, Greek OT)

(Job said: “Leaders of the earth) are led astray (by the Lord) just as the one being drunk.” (Job 12:25b, Greek OT)

(Job said:) “I am destructed (in) a carrying/flying spririt ... I am in need of a burial place. … Truthful ones had wonderment on/'for the sake of' this.” (Job 17:1a,8a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Israel:) “Become My witnesses. … You are My witnesses, and I am a witness. …” (Is 43:10a,12b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Jerusalem: “Your oppressors) … will drink their blood as young/fresh wine.” (Is 49:26a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) “I shall make the commanders and the wise (men) (of Babylon) drunk (with) drunkenness.” (Jer 51:57a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Jerusalem:) “ … You will drink the cup of your sister. … You will make drunkenness and unconsciousness full. And the cup of invisibility/vanishing. … you will drink.” (Ezek 23:32a,33a,34a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Gog:) “You will drink blood into drunkeness from My sacrifice, which I have sacrificed for you.” (Ezek 39:19b, Greek OT)

(Daniel said:) “I wondered (at) the beholding, and it/there was (continually) not (anyone who could) to perceive/explain (it).” (Dan 8:27, Greek OT, Theod)

The king will make/do according to his will, and he will be provoked to wrath and heighten himself against/over every god and talk different things against the God of the gods, and he will be (on) a good way till – according to the circumstances – the wrath may be brought to a consummation. For into/’the purpose of’ him it becomes a consummation. (Dan 11:36, Greek OT)

(The foreign general said about Israel:) “Their mountains will be drunk in their blood. ... “ (Judith 6:4b)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to the scribes and the Pharisees:) “You build the graves of the prophets. … and say: ‘If we (continually) had been in the days of our fathers, we (continually) had - according to the circumstances - not been their companions in the blood of the prophets. ‘So that’/therefore you are witnesses to yourselves, that you are sons of the ones having murdered the prophets. And you, complete the measure of your fathers. Serpents, products of adders, how may you flee from the judgment of Gehenna? Because of this I dispatch away towards you prophets and wise (men) and scribes. (Some) out of them you will kill and crucify. ... Against you may come every/all righteous blood being poured out upon the earth from the blood of righteous Abel till the blood of Zechariah * (א*) whom you murdered meanwhile/between the temple and the sacrificial altar. ... Jerusalem, Jerusalem, the (city) killing the prophets and throwing stones at the ones having been (and being) dispatched away towards her!”(Matt 23:29b-34a,35,37a)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “If – according to the circumstances - the * (א*) bad slave may speak in his heart: ‘My lord “spends time”/tarries’ and … he may drink in company with the ones being drunk, the lord of that slave will arrive in/on a day, which he does not wait for.” (Matt 24:48-50a)

(Jesus) did not answer (Pilate) … so that (the commander) wonder/wondered exceedingly. (Matt 27:14a)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "You are (א,* א) witnesses to these things." (Luke 24:48)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "You will take ability, on the Holy Spirit's having come against, against you, and you will be My witnesses." (Acts 1:8a)

(On the day of Pentecost they said about the believers:) "They are (and have been) filled up (with) sweet wine." ... (Peter said to the Jews:) “These are not drunk as you ‘take from below’/grasp.” (Acts 2:13b,15a)

(Paul said to the Lord:) “When they (continually) ‘poured out’/shed the blood of your witness Stephen ... (I watched) the garments of the ones ‘taking him up for themselves’/’getting rid of him’. (Acts 22:20)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(You did not deny My faith) in the days, in which (א,* א) Antipas (was/lived), My witness, the (א,* א) faithful one, who was killed by the side of you, whereat/where the adversary dwells. (Rev 2:13b, ”Pergamos”)

When It opened the fifth seal, I beheld below the sacrificial altar the souls of the men (א,* א) having been (and being) slaughtered because of the saying of God and because of the evidence which they (continually) had. (Rev 6:9)

When (the two witnesses) – according to the circumstances - may have ended their evidence, the little wild animal then (א*) ascending out of the abyss will make war ‘in company with’/against them and conquer them and kill them. (Rev 11:7)

The whole earth wondered (following) behind the little wild animal. (Rev 13:3b)

They poured out the bloods (א,* א) of holy ones and prophets, and You gave (P47, א,* א) them blood to drink, which they just (א,* א) are worthy. (Rev 16:6)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

This is the time for contest and for fighting, therefore also for being wounded, and for beeing bloody and in pain. ... The life of the Christian must be full of blood-sheddings; I say not in shedding that of others, but in readiness to shed one's own. ... There is no persecution now, and God grant there may never be: but there is another war, that of the desire of money, of envy, of the passions. (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers XIV:392)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Leif Carlsson, Bo Giertz, Lars Levi Laestadius, C. Fr. Lundin, Martin Luther, Viktor Rydberg, Sven Stolpe.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “the blood of the holy ones”, see Rev 16:6. Concerning “the blood of the witnesses to Jesus”, cf. Rev 6:9 and 11:7.

This is the One having come through water and blood and spirit (א,* א, A), Jesus Christ, not in the water only, however/but in the water and in * (א,* א) blood and the Spirit is the One being a witness, because the Spirit is the truth. (1 John 5:6)


Greek words:

thauma (wonderment) Job 17:8; Rev 17:6 – Job 18:20; 20:8(S); 21:5(S); 2 Cor 11:14.

methyô (be drunk) (in the NT + examples in the OT) Gen 9:21; Job 12:25; Matt 24:49; Acts 2:15; Rev 17:6 – 1 Macc 16:16; Sir 39:22; 1 Cor 11:21; 1 Thess 5:7.


Additional studies: Is 34:7; 44:8; 51:21; 59:3,7; Jer 13:12-13; Ezek 28:19; Luke 11:50-51; 12:45; John 3:7; 4:27; 5:20,28; 16:2; Acts 13:31; 22:15,20; Rev 18:24; 19:2.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-29; 2012-07-22; 2015-09-23)

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17:7 And the messenger spoke to me: “Because of what did you wonder? I will ‘speak to’/tell you the mystery of the woman and of the little wild animal, the one bearing (Greek: bastazô) her, the one having the seven heads and the ten horns.”

Word for word (30 words in the Greek text; the sequence of the words according to Sinaiticus): And spoke (to)-me the messenger: because-of what wondered-(you)? (i/I) (to)-you will-speak the mystery (of)-the (of)-woman and (of)-the (of)-little-wild-animal the-(one)-bearing her the-(one) having the seven heads and the ten horns.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The Lord said to Israel:) “You may carry off your torment (Greek: basanos) and be unhonoured ‘out of’/for all that you have made/done.” (Ezek 16:54a, Greek OT)


The Latter Revelation: He Himself took our weaknesses and bore (Greek: bastazô) the sicknesses.” (Matt 8:17b)

(Jesus said to the Pharisees:) “Having lifted against/up his eyes in the Hades and ‘beginning under’/being in torments (Greek: basanos) (the rich man) beheld Abraham from from afar and Lazarus in his bosoms/bosom.” (Luke 16:23)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven: I beheld a woman being seated against a scarlet little wild animal being full of ‘names of blasphemy’/’blasphemous names’, having seven heads and ten horns. (Rev 17:3b)

Against the forehead (of the woman) a name was (and had been) written, a mystery: “The great Babylon, the mother of the harlots and of the abonominations of the earth.” (Rev 17:5)

I wondered (with) great wonderment, when I saw (the woman). (Rev 17:6b)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: Bo Frid, Jesper Svartvik.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “the little wild animal … having the seven heads and the ten horns”, see Rev 17:3b.


Additional studies: Ezek 16:52; 32:24,30.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-29; 2012-07-22; 2015-09-27)

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17:8a The little wild animal, which you beheld, (continually) was and is not and is about to ascend out of the abyss and to (א,* א) withdraw into perdition.

Word for word (18 words in the Greek text): The little-wild-animal which (you)-beheld (continually)-was and not is and is-about-to ascend out-of the abyss and into perdition (to)-withdraw


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

God spoke towards Moses: "I am the One who is." And He spoke: "In this way you shall speak to the sons of Israel: 'The One who is has dispatched (and dispatches) me away towards you.'" (Ex 3:14, Greek OT)

Hezekiah, king of Judas, dispatched away messengers towards a king of Assyrians into Lachish, saying: “I have missed (and miss) (the mark of God). Turn away from me. What – if according to the circumstances - you may ‘put against’/’impose on’, against/on me I will bear.” (2 Kings 18:14a, Greek OT)

'Before or die him'/'before (Tobias) died', he heard of the perdition of Nineveh. (Tobit 14:15a, BA)

(Solomon said:) “God has not made death, nor He amuses Himself on/’for the sake of’ perdition of living ones.” (Wisdom of Solomon 1:13)

(Solomon said to God:) “On the one hand saving of righteous ones was ‘received towards’/’waited for’ by Your people, on the other hand perdition of enemies.” (Wisdom of Solomon 18:7)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said: “God) had not mercy on a nation of perdition, the ones having been ‘lifted out’/’taken away’ in their misses (of the mark of God).” (Sir 16:9, Greek OT)


The Latter Revelation:

Jesus says to (the slanderer): "Withdraw, adversary, for it has been (and is) written: 'You shall prostrate yourself (towards) the Lord your God (in adoration of Him) and Him alone you shall serve.'" (Matt 4:10)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Broad * (א*) and spacious (is) the way leading away into the perdition.” (Matt 7:13b)

Having turned (Jesus) spoke to Peter: “Withdraw behind Me, adversary! You are a stumbling block to Me, because you do not consider the things of God however/but the things of the men.” (Matt 16:23)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

Joybringing (grace) (with) you and peace from the One who is and the One who (continually) was and the One who comes and from the seven spirits * (א,* א, A) ‘in the very eyes of’/before His throne. (Rev 1:4b)

The fifth messenger sounded the trumpet, and I beheld a star out of the heaven, having fallen (and falling) into/to the earth, and the key of the well of the abyss was given to him. (Rev 9:1)

(The locusts like horses) have upon them the (א,* א) king (of the abyss), the messenger of the abyss, to whom (א,* א) a name to him (in) Hebrew (is) Abaddon (= Perdition), and in ‘the Greek’/Greek he has (the) name Apollyon (= “Perisher”). (Rev 9:11)

When (the two witnesses) – according to the circumstances - may have ended their evidence, the little wild animal then (א*) ascending out of the abyss will make war ‘in company with’/against them and conquer them and kill them. (Rev 11:7)

(The twenty-four elders said:) “We are thankful to You, the Lord God, the All-powerful, the One who is and the One who (continually) was, and (P47, א*) that You have taken (and take) Your great ability and have been/’begun to be’ king.” (Rev 11:17)


My own comments and speculations:

Only the Lord can be called “the One who is/I am”. The little wild animal is His contrast, “he is not”.


Additional studies: John 1:1; 3:13; 14:2-3; 17:11-12.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-29; 2012-07-22; 2015-09-29)

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17:8b And the ones dwelling upon the earth will wonder, (the ones) whose names (א,* א) are not (and have not been) written against the scroll of the life from a foundation of an adornment/’adorned world’, seeing the little wild animal, that it (continually) was and is not and again (א*) will be ‘by the side of’/near.

Word for word (31 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus prima manus): and will-wonder the-(ones) dwelling upon the earth whose not are-(and-have-been)-written the names against the scroll (of)-the (of)-life from (a)-foundation (of)-(an)-adornment, seeing the little-wild-animal that (it)-(continually)-was and not is and again will-be-by-the-side-of.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Moses said to the Lord:) “If You indeed let the miss (of Your mark) be for (Your people), let (it) be. But if not, wipe me out, out of Your book, which You have written.” (Ex 32:32, Greek OT)

(The enemies of Israel swore to let them) wonder (at) a fleshly king into a (coming) age. (Esther 4:17pb/C21b, Greek OT)

That day (will be a day) of oppression, such as not has become from the (time when the people) became till that day. And in that day 'every the'/’all the’ people, who – according to the circumstances – may be found having been (and being) written in, in the scroll (Greek OT Theod.: “in the book”), will be heightened. (Dan 12:1b, Greek OT)

(Men) made an image of the honoured king, in order that as being by the side of they through the haste/zeal might flatter the one being away. (Wisdom of Solomon 14:17b)


The Latter Revelation:

(The Son of the Man will say:) "Come here, the ones having been (and being) blessed of My Father, inherit the kingdom having been (and being) made ready for you from a foundation of an adornment/’adorned world’." (Matt 25:34b)

Jesus spoke to (Judas): “Comrade, against which/what are you by the side of?” (Matt 26:50a)

(Jesus said to the seventy:) “Rejoice because your names are (and have been) written in, in the heavens.” (Luke 10:20b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

Father, what You have given (and give) Me, I want (give) in order that whereat/where I am, and/also those may be in company with Me, in order that they may look at My glory, which You have given (and give) Me, because You welcomed Me before (the) foundation of an adornment/’adorned world’. (John 17:24)

(The voice) said: “Write into a scroll what you see.” (Rev 1:11a)

I will not/certainly not wipe out his name out of the book of the life, and I will confess his name in front of (א,*א) My Father and in the very eyes of His messengers. (Rev 3:5b, “Sardis”)

(I will * (keep) (א,*א) you) out of the hour of the test, the (hour) being about to come upon the whole (inhabited) world to try the ones dwelling upon the earth. (Rev 3:10b, ”Philadelphia”)

(I beheld) a scroll being (and having been) written in front of (א,* א) and from behind, being (and having been) sealed entirely (with) seven seals.. (Rev 5:1b)

Behold, the Lion * (א,* א) out of the tribe of Judas, the Root of David, has conquered to open the scroll and loosen (א,* א) its seven seals. (Rev 5:5b)

(The four living beings and the twenty-four elders sang:) “Worthy are You to take the scroll and to open its seals, because You were slaughtered. …” (Rev 5:9b)

Till when do You not judge and procure justice for our blood out of the ones dwelling upon the earth? (Rev 6:10b)

(An eagle) saying (with) a great/loud voice: “Woe, woe, woe, to the ones inhabiting upon the earth, out/’in consequence’ of the rest of voices of the trumpet of the three messengers being about to sound the trumpet.” (Rev 8:13b)

The ones dwelling upon the earth rejoice on/’for the sake of’ (the two witnesses) and are cheerful. And they send (א*) gifts to one another, because these prophets, the two, tormented the ones dwelling upon the earth. (Rev 11:10)

The whole earth wondered (following) behind the little wild animal. (Rev 13:3b)

And they will prostrate themselves before (the little wild animal) (in honour of it) (א,*א), all the ones dwelling upon the earth, whose names (P47,א,*א) are * (א*) (and have * (א*) been) written in a (א*) book (P47,א,*א) of the life of the little Ram, being (and having been) slaughtered from a foundation of an adornment/’adorned world’. (Rev 13:8)

(The second little wild animal) leads astray the ones dwelling upon the earth because of the signs which it was given to it to make in the very eyes of the little wild animal, saying to the ones dwelling upon the earth to make an image to the little wild animal, which (א,* א) has (the wound of) a blow of the dagger and has lived/’come to life’. (Rev 13:14)

In company with (the great harlot) the kings of the earth have made fornication (א,* א), and the ones dwelling (against) the earth ‘were made’/got drunk out of the wine of her fornication. (Rev 17:2)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: Sven Lidman.


My own comments and speculations:

As the men who honoured the king by being by the side of him, so the little wild animal will honour the King by being by the side of Him. Cf. also Judas, the son of the perdition, who is by the side of in Matt 26:50.

Concerning “the ones dwelling upon the earth ”, see Rev 3:10b. Concerning “names (א,* א) are not (and have not been) written … from a foundation of an adornment/’adorned world’”, see Rev 13:8. Concerning “was and is not”, see Rev 17:8a.


Additional studies: Phil 4:3; Heb 12:23; John 7:15,21; 10:3; 11:28; 17:24; Rev 20:12; 21:27.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-29; 2012-07-22; 2015-10-01)

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17:9a Here (is) the understanding, the one having wisdom.

Word for word (6 words in the Greek text): here the understanding the-(one) having wisdom.


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

Here is the wisdom. The one having understanding, let him ‘put to the vote’/decide the number of the little wild animal. (Rev 13:18a)


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “understanding … wisdom”, see Rev 13:18a. We can read Rev 17:9 in a restoration perspective in relation to Rev 13:18.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-29; 2012-07-22; 2015-10-01)

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17:9b-11 (The seven heads are seven mountains, whereat/where the woman is seated upon them. And they are seven kings. The five have fallen, the one is, the another/other has not yet come. And when he – according to the circumstances – may come, he must stay few/’ a few’. And the little wild animal which (continually) was and is not, this one (א,* א) is the (א,* א) eighth, and it is out of the seven. And it withdraws into perdition.

Word for word: 17:9b (16 words in the Greek text): The seven heads seven mountains are, whereat the woman is-seated upon them. and kings seven (they)-are. 17:10 (17 words in the Greek text): the five fell, the one is, the another not-yet came, and when-according-to-the-circumstances (he)-may-come few him/he '(is-necessary-to)'/must stay. 17:11 (21 words in the Greek text) and the little-wild-animal which (continually)-was and not is this-(one) the eighth is and out-of the seven (it)-is, and into perdition (it)-withdraws.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Israel) arranged (their men) side by side against Midian, according as the Lord enjoined Moses, and they killed every/all of male sex. And they killed the kings of Midian together with their wounded males, and/namely Evi, Zur, Rekem, Hur and Reba, five kings of Midian. (Num 31:7-8a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Israel:) "If you -according to the circumstances - may say: 'What shall we eat in this seventh (that is = forty-ninth) year, if - according to the circumstances - we may not sow but/and not lead together our produces?' And I shall (then) dispatch away my blessing to you in the sixth (that is = forty-eighth) year, and I shall make its produces into/'for the purpose of' the three years. And/also (when) you sow the eighth (that is = fiftieth) year, you will and/also eat from the old produces." (Lev 25:20-22a, Greek OT)

(When Jesse and his sons came, Samuel) beheld Eliab and spoke: "However/certainly the Lord's anointed (is) and/namely in the very eyes of (Him)." And/but the Lord spoke towards Samuel: “Do not see against, against his sight but/and not into the condition of his great size, because I have treated (and treat) him despicably. … And Jesse called Abinadab and he came by the side of ‘according to’/opposite the face of Samuel. And he spoke: “Nor this one has the Lord chosen.” And Jesse led Shammah by the side of (Samuel). And he spoke: “And in/through this one the Lord has not chosen.” And Jesse led his seven sons by the side of in the very eyes of Samuel. And Samuel spoke: “The Lord has not chosen in/through these.” And Samuel spoke towards Jesse: “Are (and have ... been) the very little boys left out?” And he spoke: “(It/there is) still the small one.” (1 Sam 16:6b-11a, Greek OT)

Samuel took the horn of olive-oil and anointed (David) in a middle of his (seven, older) brothers, and a spirit of the Lord sprang against, against David from that day and above. (1 Sam 16:13a, Greek OT)

Jesse begot his first-born Eliab ... Azom/Ozem the sixth, David the seventh. (1 Chron 2:13a,15, Greek OT)

(David said:) “Still few/’a little time’ and the misser (of the mark of God) may not/certainly not ‘begin under’/exist.” (Ps 37:10a, Greek OT)

(David said:) “The mountain of God (is) a fat mountain, a mountain being (an having been) ruled with absolute monarchy, a fat mountain. ‘In order of what’/why do you ‘take from below’/’fight with’, (you) mountains being (and having been) ruled with absolute monarchy, (with) the mountain which God was pleased with to dwell in it and for/certainly the Lord will pitch a tent (there) into/’up to’ (the) end.” (Ps 68:15-16 or 68:16-17, Greek OT)

(Moses said:) "The days of our years, in them (are) seventy years, but - if according to the circumstances - 'in sovereignties'/'at the most' eighty years." (Ps 90:10a, Greek OT)

(Solomon said:) “Give a portion to seven and at any rate to eight, because you have not knowledge what evil it will be against the earth.” (Eccl 11:2, Greek OT)

In a middle of (the six males there was) a male being (and having been) set/clothed in a robe reaching to the feet and a girdle ... and (God) called the male being (and having been) set/clothed in the robe reaching to the feet (and) who (continually) had the girdle upon his hip. (Ezek 9:2b,3b, Greek OT)

(The Lord) spoke towards (the man set/clothed in linen): “Come … through a middle (of) Jerusalem and give the sign against the foreheads of the males sighing over ... all the lawlessnesses becoming/’coming about’ in a middle of it.” And to (the six other men) He spoke: “… You may not draw near all against whom the sign is.” (Ezek 9:4-5a,6a, Greek OT)

(Daniel said:) “... I beheld a great ‘male sheep’/ram ... And it (continually) had (two) horns. ... And it made/did as it (continually) wanted and it was heightened. ... And behold, a buck of goats (continually) came from settings/’the west’ ... and it (continually) was one horn of the buck upwards a middle of its eyes. ... And it crushed the two horns (of the ram). ... The buck of goats was entirely stable, extremely (stable), and/but when it was entirely stable, its great horn was crushed, and the other four horns ascended. ... And out of one of them a stable horn 'produced up'/grew.” ... (This horn) will be heightened till the stars of the heaven." (Dan 8:3-10a, Greek OT)

(The prophet said: “The sons of Israel) will raise against, against (the Assyrian) seven shepherds and eight bites of men.” (Micah 5:5, Greek OT)

(Sarah) had been (and was) given out to seven males, and the evil little demon Asmodeus had slayed them, before 'become them'/'they had become' in company with her, entirely just as it has been (and is) ‘shown from’/shown for women. ... (But for the eighth male, Tobias,) the little demon ran away. ... (Tobit 3:8a; 8:3b, S)

Five eminent males upon horses (with) golden bits of bridle ‘was in command from’/’led the way on’ of/for the Jews. (2 Macc 10:29b)

(Solomon said to the Lord:) “You have arranged every thing throughout (with) measure and number and standing-place/balance.” (Wisdom of Solomon 11:20b)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “It/there are (those) buying many things of few/’a few’ and/but paying off them sevenfold.” (Sir 20:12)

(God said to Israel:) “Having so come into Babylon (as captives) you will be there more/several years and a great/long time till/’as long as’ seven generations, but after this I shall lead you out from there in company with peace.” (Epistle of Jeremiah v 2)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to the scribes and the Pharisees:) “When – according to the circumstances – the unclean spirit may come out from the man, it 'comes through'/passes through waterless places, seeking rest, and does not find. Then it says: ‘I will turn myself next to, into my house, from which I came out.’ And having come it finds (it) being at leisure and (א,*א) being (and having been) swept and being (and having been) adorned. Then it goes and takes in company with itself by its side seven other spirits more evil than itself. And (on) their having come in it dwells there. And the last things of that man become worse than the first things." (Matt 12:43-45a)

Jesus says to (His disciples): “How many breads/’pieces of bread’ do you have?” But/and they spoke: “Seven and few/’a few’ small fishes.” (Matt 15:34)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Let the ones (being) in Judea flee against (א,* א) the mountains.” (Matt 24:16)

(Jesus) said to (His disciples): “Come here you yourselves 'according to the own thing'/'by yourselves' into a desolate place and ‘be brought’/come to rest few/’a little’.” (Mark 6:31a)

(The rich man, who had not taken care of the beggarly man) spoke (to Abraham:) "I so ask you, father, in order that you may send (Lazarus) into my father's house, for I have five brothers, so that he throughout/solemnly may be a witness to them, in order that and/also they may not come into this place of the torment." (Luke 16:27-28)

(Jesus said to some of the Sadducees:) "So they (continually) were seven brothers, and the first, having taken a woman, he died childless; and the second and the third took her. But/and in the same manner the seven ‘and not’/nor left behind children, and they died. Afterwards the woman died and/also. * (א,* א, A) So in the resurrection, whose woman of them will (א,* א) she be (א,* א)? For the seven had her (as) woman." (Luke 20:29-33)

(Peter said:) “These six brother came together with me, and we came into, into the house of the male.” (Acts 11:12b)

(Paul said:) “Having come into the house of Philip, the evangelist, being out of the seven, we stayed by the side of him.” (Acts 21:8b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

Jesus (א,* א, A) says to (the woman): “Withdraw, ‘raise your voice’/call your male and come hitherward.” The woman answered and spoke * (א*, A): “I have not a male.” Jesus says to her: “Finely you spoke, that you (א,*א) have not a male, for five males you had, and the one whom you now have is not your male. This you have truly (א,* א) spoken (and speak).” The woman says to Him: “* (א*) I look at, that You are a prophet. Our fathers prostrated themselves in/on this mountain, and you say, that * (א,* א) it is in (a disgraced) Jerosolyma/Jerusalem whereat/where one must prostrate oneself.” Jesus says to her: “Believe Me, woman, that an hour comes, when you ‘and not’/neither in/on this mountain ‘and not’/nor in (a disgraced) Jerosolyma/Jerusalem will prostrate yourselves (before) the Father (in honour of Him).” (John 4:16-21)

In/on the last day, the great (day) of the feast, Jesus stood and (continually/repeatedly) (P66, א,* א) shouted, saying: “If – according to the circumstances – anyone may thirst: ‘Come * (P66,א*) and drink!’ The one believing into Me – entirely as the writing spoke – out of his belly rivers of living water will flow.” (John 7:37-38, see My own comments and speculations to these verses)

They (continually) were together Simon Peter and Thomas, the one being said/called Twofold, and Nathanael, the one from Cana of Galilee, and the sons (א,* א) of Zebedee and two others out of His disciples. (John 21:2)

(The four living beings) have not rest, day and night saying: “Holy, holy, holy, holy, holy, holy, holy, holy (א*) the Lord God, the All-powerful, the One who (continually) was and the One who is and the One who comes.” (Rev 4:8b)

Every mountain and hill (א,* א) were stirred out of their places. (Rev 6:14b)

They say to the mountains and to the rocks: “Fall against us and hide us from a face/presence of the One being seated on (א,* א) the throne.” (Rev 6:16a)

Another sign was beheld in the heaven. And behold, a fire-coloured great dragon having seven heads and ten horns and against his heads seven diadems. (Rev 12:3)

I beheld a little wild animal ascending out of the sea, having ten horns and seven heads and upon his horns ten diadems and against his heads a (P47; א,* א) ‘name of blasphemy’/’blasphemous name’. (Rev 13:1 or Rev 13:1b)

Every island fled, and mountains were not found. (Rev 16:20)

I will show you the judicial verdict of the great harlot, the one being seated upon many waters. (Rev 17:1b)

I beheld a woman being seated against a scarlet little wild animal being full of ‘names of blasphemy’/’blasphemous names’, having seven heads and ten horns. (Rev 17:3b)

The little wild animal, which you beheld, (continually) was and is not and is about to ascend out of the abyss and to (א,* א) withdraw into perdition. (Rev 17:8a)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 - about 1500

The chimney-sweep . . . goes singing over the dance-floor right up (the white-dressed) Alva. . . . Madicken wants that they will dance in the eternity of eternities. . . . "Dear me, what I am in love with that chimney-sweep", Alva says. At once Madicken is worried. "No, you must not. He is, as we know, married and has five children." "I know", Alva says. "Therefore I only are going to be in love with him about to Thursday. Or perhaps Friday." (Astrid Lindgren "Madicken och Junibackens Pims" p 188-191; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

(Madicken's and Lisabet's) little brother evidently has decided on coming to the world just exactly on Christmas Eve. . . . Father is trotting there and back through the whole house. . . . "Calm oneself", Alva says (to father). "I have had seven small sisters and brothers, so I know. It takes its time, but then it becomes so much more nice." (Astrid Lindgren "Madicken och Junibackens Pims" p 217,220; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Christian readers would have noticed the contrast between the number of the beast, 666, and the number of Jesus, 888 (the sum of the Greek letters Jesous). In 888 could be seen suberabundant perfection, the three-fold 7+1. On the other hand 666 indicates the three-fold failure to reach perfection, 7-1. (J. Massyngberde Ford "Revelation" p 226 in her comment to Rev 13:18)

My name is Lisa. I am a girl, it is of course heard because of the name. I am seven years old and soon I become eight. (Astrid Lindgren "Bullerbyn" p 3; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

One Saturday in June it was a sale by auction in Backhorva. . . . Down on the hill at the cow-house they now had begun to sell out the animals, and Alfred and Emil went there to look on. Emil's father bought quite right a pigsow, one that soon would have piglets, but about the cows it became struggle. There was a farmer from Bastefall who wanted to have all seven, and Emil's father had to bid eighty crowns in order to get the cow he had chosen for himself. (Astrid Lindgren "Än lever Emil i Lönneberga" p 11,24; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

The children in the skiff . . . cried and were noisy . . . of joy at their luck at fishing. . . . "Eight fishes", Niklas said. "Malin will fade. She said that she wanted to have boiled cod with mustard-sauce to dinner . . . but not every day for a whole week." . . . Freddy triumphantly pointed at his rucksack. . . . "Think that we have (food)! A whole rucksack filled with pieces of bread and butter! And seven cods!" "Eight", Johan said. "No, because we have eaten up one", Freddy reminded. "Eight in any case", Johan said. "Myself taken into account. Greatest cod in the north archipelago!" . . . (Melker said to Mrs. Sjöblom): "Snickargården . . . Yes, certainly! And there you moved in 1908?" "1907", Mrs. Sjöblom said. Melker looked surprised. "Are you sure that it was not 1908?" Then Mrs. Sjöblom laughed. "I might know, I suppose, when I married." "Oh well, one year more or less", Melker thought. (Astrid Lindgren "Vi på Saltkråkan" p 52,68,356; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Up on Karlsson's porch step ten pieces of buns lay in a row and looked very much nice. "Everyone also honestly paid", Karlsson said. "We divide justly, you take seven and I take seven." "It does not go, I suppose", Lillebror said. "Seven and seven become fourteen, and here there are only ten buns, you know." Karlsson hurried to rake together seven buns in a little heap. "Here are in any case mine", he said and placed a plump hand over the heap of buns. "You count so preposterously in the schools nowadays. But this I of course shall not sustain. We take seven each, I have said, and these are mine." Lillebror nodded. "I can in any case not eat more than three." . . . It became the best bun party Lillebror had taken part in. . . . Karlsson soon had stowed away all his seven buns. For Lillebror it did not go so quickly. He was busy with his second. The third lay beside him on the step. . . . (Karlsson) placed his hand on Lillebror's forehead. "Precisely what I thought! A typical case of bun-fever. . . . This fever one gets by eating too many buns." . . . Lillebror did not at all feel ill . . . but Karlsson forced him to lie down on the step. . . . Then he raked to himself Lillebror's last bun. "No more bun for you, it would be clear death! But think what luck for this poor little bun that I exist, otherwise he had had to lie here on the step quite alone", Karlsson said quickly eating up the bun."But now he is not alone any longer", Lillebror said. Karlsson tapped himself on his stomach. "No, now he is with his seven pals and there he gets on well!" (Astrid Lindgren "Karlsson på taket flyger igen" p 61-68; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

There sat five children round the well. The biggest one was a boy. He laughed with his whole face looking so good. "I saw, when you came", he said. "It was a fine horse you have." He is called Miramis", I said. "And this is Jum-Jum and I am called Mio." "I know it", the boy said. "I am called Jiri, and these are my brothers and sisters." (Astrid Lindgren "Mio, min Mio" p 61; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Once such a fine lady came going by car, and she had a girl with her. "We only wanted to see on the view", the fine lady said. . . . Her girl . . . was called Monika. . . . Monika said: "How many girls are you really here in the village?" "Six and a half", Lasse said. For he thinks that Kerstin is so small, so she cannot be counted as a whole child. But then Olle was angry and said: "Half you can be yourself!" We told Monika that Britta and Anna live in Norrgården and Lasse and Bosse and I in Mellangården and Olle and Kerstin in Sörgården. "I would want to live here, also I", Monika said. (Astrid Lindgren "Bara roligt i Bullerbyn" p 6,10-11; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

In the police station calm and peace prevailed. A constable sat there solving a crossword, as if there was no crime and vice in the world. But it was not Björk. "Does constable Björk meet?" Kalle bowed politely. "He is on official journey and comes back tomorrow. But can you say a mythological monster with eight letters?" The constable bit on the black-lead and looked appealing at Kalle. "No, I come here in a quite other matter", Kalle said. "Yes, as I said, Björk comes again tomorrow. Well, but female soldier with six letters?" "Eva-Lotta", Kalle said. "No, certainly not, this name has eight letters. Thanks and good-bye! We come back tomorrow!" (Astrid Lindgren "Mästerdetektiven Blomkvist" p 118; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

(The lady selling freckle ointment) looked at Pippi and exclaimed: "Yes, dear child, but you have, you know, your face fully with freckles!" "Yes, certainly", Pippi said. "But I do not suffer from them. I like them! . . . If you would get in some grease, of which one gets still more freckles, you can send home some seven or eight jars to me." (Astrid Lindgren "Pippi Långstrump går ombord" p 18-19; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

In the provisions concerning the year of jubilee a particular grace appeared to God's Israel. It was a levelling and an improvement of almost all social conditions. All slaves were set free in the beginning of the year of jubilee, all debts were remitted, and all property, whether sold or pledged, returned to the original owner or its rightful heir. The earth itself enjoyed an uniterrupted rest of one or really two year, untouched of spade, pick and plough. Of this the harvest, it is true, did not come off for all three years, for the forty-ninth year was just the usual sabbatical or holy year, when nothing was allowed to be sown or harvested. The fiftieth year was just the free year or year of jubilee, when nothing either was sown or harvested. No famine was yet to fear. God intervened by letting the earth in the forty-eighth year give such a rich crop, that it was enough even for the following three years. As it expressly is said in the ordinance about the year of jubilee (Leviticus chapter 25). I will order My blessing for you in the the forty-eighth (literally: sixth) year that it will bring forth the crop for three years. When you are sowing the fifty-first (literally: ninth) year, you can still eat old things from the crop. (Karl Palmberg "Ur livskällan. Andra årgången." p 6; comment to Luke 4:16-22; Karl Palmberg /1842-1920/ was from 1883 a Lutheran clergyman in Månsarp in the diocese of Växjö and president in Jönköpings Missionsförening (Missionary Society) 1886-1911; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

When the teacher wandered in Kvalhem he came to a school, which was called The Mutual Instruction (in Swedish: växelundervisningen), because the parts here were confused (in Swedish: förväxlade), so that the unlearned pupils sat in the teacher's desk and taught their teachers. - Well, my boy, the pupil said to the senior master in mathematics, how much is 6 times 8? It is exactly 48, the senior master answered. - No, the pupil said, it is 78. - The senior master protested. - Indeed, you answer snappishly, the pupil said, then you have to get! - But I can prove that 6 times 8 is 48, the senior master protested, I can prove it with addition. - Teaching-staff was called together and was inquired how much 6 times 8 was. As no one knew it, the teacher-pupil informed that it was 78. The senior master was convicted of his mistake, but not convinced, so he was victimized (in a special "beating-class"). - The wandering teacher came into a division, where it was taught in moral law. The pupil, graduated from an anchor smithy, sat in the desk with a rattan in his hand. - The seventh commandment? the anchor smithy asked. - You shall not steal! the disciple answered. - That is the old text, which is an overcome standpoint. Our text-book commission has developed the Decalogue after modern conceptions, so that the seventh commandment nowadays reads after the proposal of the government: You shall not steal when someone sees it! The wandering teacher exclaimed: This, to be sure, is the plain hell! - Yes, certainly, the leader answered. (August Strindberg "En blå bok I" s 87; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

The unknown: "You my child, forgive me!" Voice II: "Never! - The way to the sulphur spring you have shown! Is it long to the lake?" The unknown falls down. The tempter: "Haha! Jubilate temptatores!" The Venus worshippers: "Sulphur! Sulphur! Sulphur! And Mercury!" The tempter touches The Unknown with his foot (saying): "The miserable wretch! - - - One can make that one believe anything! But this causes his preposterous pride! Does he not imagine that he is the motor in universe, that he is the originator of all evil? . . . His pride is intolerable and he has been enough presumptuous wanting to scamp in my profession. . . . The moral sins were seven; they have become eight. The eighth I invented! Despair is his name. For to doubt the Goodness and not hope for the remission is to name . . . God evil. It is the slander, the denial, the blasphemy. . . . . . . Look there! A penitent!" . . . The pilgrim: "The hour of deliverance has struck and I go up there to receive the absolution!" . . . The Unknown: "Caesar! It is Caesar!" The pilgrim: "It was, but is not more!" The tempter: "Haha! Imperial acquaintances - - - well, I thank!" (August Strindberg "Till Damaskus III" p 328-329,335-336; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Captain (Edgar) (to his wife Alice): "The other day I read in a newspaper that a man had been divorced seven times, consequently married seven times . . . at last he ran away after having been 90 years old and remarried with his first wife! This is love!" (August Strindberg "Dödsdansen" p 135; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

The unknown: "Once I thought the expiation (was) near; it was through a woman, but no illusion can be greater, for with this the seventh hell began. . . . It became to me as the Evil One when he sees the sign of the cross. . . . . . . Driven out of the hotels because we were not married people, wanted by the police, we at last landed in this hotel, the last of all I wanted to put up at, and in this room, number eight. . . . There is someone who struggles against me, there is someone!" The lady: "Is it number eight! . . . Let us come out from here, out to the street, in the wood, anywhere. . . . " The unknown: "Gladly! . . . It is the devil, I call; but we have to apply waist lock once more, he and I!" The lady: "It occurs me as if we never would get peace more here on earth! . . . Were you at the post office?" The unknown: "I expected that question. Yes, I was there, and as answer to five letters and three telegrams, there was only one telegram: that my publisher was away for fourteen days." The lady: "Then we are completely lost." The unknown: "Nearly!" (August Strindberg "Till Damaskus I" p 21,58-59; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Send my regards . . . to (Daniel) Fallström, that I have forgiven him 77 times and do it 78, but that my sympathy is mercenary. (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev XI maj 1895-nov 1896" p 340; letter 1896-09-22 to F. U. Wrangel; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

(The man having a face as a mask of a sea-captain) goes up to the organ pulling out a couple of tunes, on which a whistle is heard for an answer. . . . He puts his mouth to a trumpet crying: "The seventh trumpet and the eighth woe! Nyström! Mediaeval, 8, in store, German type in the headings, names spaced-out!" (August Strindberg "Röda rummet" p 88; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


about 1500 and time before

Is it a meaningless and accidental thing, that the positions of names, and the elections of the apostles, and the working of the Lord, and the arrangement of created things, are what they are? – we answer them: Certainly not. (Irenaeus, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol I, p 396)

‘Little Genesis’ or ‘The Book of Jubilees’ ... was written ... probably about the time of Christ. The name, ‘Book of Jubilees’ is derived from the circumstance that the Scripture-chronology is arranged according to Jubilee periods of forty-nine years. (Alfred Edersheim "The Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah Part II" p 657)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Alf Ahlberg, Ann-Charlotte Alverfors, Stefan Andhé, Werner Aspenström, Majgull Axelsson, Karin Boye, Leif Carlsson, Bob Dylan, Berndt Gustafsson, Alf Henrikson, C.G. Hjelm, Homeros, Victor Hugo, Betty Janson, Steven Johnson, Pär Lagerkvist, Karl Larsson, Sven Lidman, Claes Lindskog, Stanley Meisler, Fabian Månsson, Pablo Neruda, Birgitta Odén, Walter Olsson, Efraim Palmqvist, Anna Maria Roos, Joanne Kathleen Rowling, Rabindranath Tagore, Ragnar Thoursie, Owe Wikström, Virginia Woolf.


My own comments and speculations:

In the light of number symbolism we can understand Rev 17:9-10 in the following way:

The numbers 7 and 49 belong to the present age, while the numbers 8 and 50-51 belong to a future age (cf. John 2:19-22 and My own comments and speculations to these verses). “Hepta” (seven) occurs here three times, the 49th to the 51st time in the Revelation. It is the 17th time (at the same time as the number seven is used the 49th time) the word “kefalê” (head) occurs here. In Greek the number 17 consists of the words “deka” (tio) and “hepta” (sju) (cf. seven heads and ten horns in Rev 17:7).

The word “oros” (mountain) occurs here the 7th time (at the same time as the number seven is used the 50th time) and the word “basileus” (king) the 8th time (at the same time as the number seven is used 51st time) in the Revelation. In the light of these facts we can say, that the seven heads (49 and 17), the seven mountains (50 and 7) and the seven kings (51 and 8) belong to borderland between the present age and a future age. Compare also with My own comments and speculations to John 21:10-11 and Rev 21:8.

Concerning “seven mountains” we can compare with Ps 68:15-16(16-17), where we have the Greek words “oros” (mountain) five times (1-4 and 7) and “orê” (mountains) once (5-6). The mountain with which God was pleased is number 7 (= Jesus, who also is number 8; cf. My own comments and speculations to John 4:16-18). In a restoration perspective we see how the little wild animal now both is the seventh (mountain) and the eighth (king).

The little wild animal, who is the eighth and out of the seven, corresponds to the eighth horn mentioned in Dan 8:1-12, a horn having come out of the seven horns mentioned before.

Observe that the little wild animal (like the disciple John) is described as "the eighth and one of seven", while Jesus is represented as "the seventh" and "the eighth" (cf. My own comments and speculations to John 4:16-18, 13:23-25 and 21:4-7a). And in the kingdom which one cannot behold without having been begotten from above (John 3:3), John also in an invisible way can be seen as one of eight (cf. My own comments and speculations to John 21:1-3).

Concerning “the seven heads”, see Rev 17:3b. Concerning “the five have fallen, the one is, the another/other has not yet come”, see also John 4:16-18. Concerning “was and is not” and “withdraws into perdition”, see Rev 17:8a.


Greek words:

ogdoos (eighth) (in the NT) Rev 17:11 – Luke 1:59; Acts 7:8; 2 Pet 2:5; Rev 21:20


Additional studies:

1 Sam 17:12; Prov 26:25; Tobit 6:14; Luke 7:47; 11:24-26; John 17:12; Rev 19:20.


G.K. Beale "The Danielic Background to Revelation 13-18 and 17:9"; Tyndale Bulletin 31 (1980): 163-170.

Oliver O'Donovan "The Political Thought of the Book of Revelation"; Tyndale Bulletin 37 (1986): 61-94.

Robert L. Thomas "Theonomy and the Dating of Revelation"; The Master's Seminary Journal (Fall 1994): 153-181.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-30; 2012-07-22; 2015-10-01)

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17:12 And the ten horns which you beheld are ten kings, whoever/who have not yet taken a kingdom, however/but they take (judicial) authority as kings (for) one hour in company with the little wild animal.

Word for word (23 words in the Greek text): And the ten horns which (you)-beheld ten kings are, whoever (a)-kingdom not-yet took, however (judicial)-authority as kings one hour (they)-take in-company-with the little-wild-animal.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Daniel looked at) four great little wild animals ascending out of the sea. … The first (little wild animal was) as if (it was) a lioness. … A second one (was) like a bear … The other/third one as if a panther … (with) four heads. … A fourth little wild animal … (with) ten horns. (Dan 7:3-7, Greek OT Theod)

And (for) the rest of the little wild animals (Theod.) their (judicial) authority stood aloof, and a time of life was given to them till a time and a seasonable time. (Dan 7:12a, Greek OT)

And (as for) the ten horns of the kingdom ten kings will stand (up). (Dan 7:24a, Greek OT)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus) says to Peter: “In this way You were not stable (enough) to be awake in company with Me (for) one hour?” (Matt 26:40b)

(The lord said to his slave:) ”’Be having’/have (judicial) authority above/over ten cities.” (Luke 19:17b)

(Paul said to the king:) “ ... Many of the holy ones I entirely shut (in) in watches/custodies having taken (judicial) authority from the side of the priest leaders.” (Acts 26:10a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

Jesus says to (his mother): "Woman, what (is there that is) ‘to Me and to’/’between Me and’ you? My hour has not yet arrived." (John 2:4)

That one (continually) was the lamp having been burning and ‘bringing to’/giving light, but/and you wanted towards/’in regard to’ an hour exult in its light. (John 5:35)

(Joybringing grace and peace) from Jesus Christ, the faithful witness, the first-born of the dead (bodies) and the leader of the kings of the earth. (Rev 1:5a)

Another sign was beheld in the heaven. And behold, a fire-coloured great dragon having seven heads and ten horns and against his heads seven diadems. (Rev 12:3)

I beheld a little wild animal ascending out of the sea, having ten horns and seven heads and upon his horns ten diadems and against his heads a (P47,א,*א) ‘name of blasphemy’/’blasphemous name’. (Rev 13:1 or Rev 13:1b)

The dragon had given it his ability and his throne and a great (judicial) authority. (Rev 13:2b)

(The unclean spirits) are spirits of little demons, making signs (which) (P47, א*) go out against/to the kings of the whole (inhabited) world, to lead them together into the war of the great day of God, the All-powerful. (Rev 16:14)

In company with (the great harlot) the kings of the earth have made fornication (א,* א), and the ones dwelling (against) the earth ‘were made’/got drunk out of the wine of her fornication. (Rev 17:2)

I beheld a woman being seated against a scarlet little wild animal being full of ‘names of blasphemy’/’blasphemous names’, having seven heads and ten horns. (Rev 17:3b)

The seven heads are seven mountains, whereat/where the woman is seated upon them. And they are seven kings. (Rev 17:9b)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: Leif Carlsson.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “the ten horns”, see also Rev 13:1 (13:1b). Concerning “(judicial) authority … the little wild animal”, see also Rev 13:2.


Additional studies: Dan 7:7,20; John 7:30; 8:20; 12:23,27; 13:1; 17:1; Rev 17:16; 18:10,17,19.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-30; 2012-07-22; 2015-10-02)

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17:13-14a These have one purpose, and they give their ability and (judicial) authority to the little wild animal. These will wage war ‘in company with’/with the little Ram, and the little Ram will conquer them, because He is Lord of lords and King of kings ...

Word for word: 17:13 (14 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus) these one purpose have and the ability and the (judicial)-authority their (to)-the little-wild-animal (they)-give. 17:14a (17 words in the Greek text) these in-company-with the little-ram will-wage-war and the little-ram will-conquer them, because lord (of)-lords (it)-is and king (of)-kings


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Moses said to the people of God:) The Lord will wage war on account of you, and you will be silent. (Ex 14:14, Greek OT)

(Moses said to Israel:) “The Lord your God, This (is) a God of the gods and a Lord of the lords, the great and stable God and the fearful.” (Deut 10:17a, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said:) “I will put/make (David, My slave), a first-born, high ‘by the side of’/’in comparison with’ the kings of the earth.” (Ps 89:27 or 89:28, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said:) “Confess out/frankly the God of the gods … Confess out/frankly the Lord of lords.” (Ps 136:2a,3a, Greek OT)

(Daniel said to the king of Babylon:) “You, king, a king of kings.” (Dan 2:37a, Greek OT)

(The foreign general said:) “Who (is) God if not (my king)? This one will dispatch away his power and he will wholly destruct (the people of Israel) from the face of the earth, and their God will not deliver them.” (Judith 6:2b)

(All were of) a purpose of one voting-stone/mind … . (2 Macc 14:20b)


The Latter Revelation:

Having come to/forward Jesus talked (with the eleven disciples) saying: "Every/all (judicial) authority in heaven and upon earth has been given to Me.” (Matt 28:18)

(Jesus said to the seventy:) “Behold, I have given (and give) you the (judicial) authority to tread above serpents and scorpions and against every ability of the enemy, and nothing will (א,* א, A) * (א*) act unrighteously (against) you.” (Luke 10:19)

(Jesus said to the crowds:) “If the adversary is divided asunder against himself, how will his kingdom stand?" (Luke 11:18a)

(Jesus said:) "When – according to the circumstances - the stable one, having been (and being) armed, may watch the 'of himself'/own court, his ‘things beginning under’/properties are in peace. But since – according to the circumstances – a more stable than he is (א*) having come against (him), may conquer him, he lifts/takes away’ from him his full armour on/in which he ‘was (and had been) persuaded’/’relied (and had relied)’ and ‘gives asunder’/distributes his spoils.” (Luke 11:21-22)

(Jesus said to the many crowds:) “What king, going to ‘throw together with’/meet the other king into a war, will by no means, having first sat down, ‘take counsel’/consider, if he is able in/with ten of the number of one thousand to go to meet the one coming against him in company with twenty of the number of one thousand?” (Luke 14:31)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) ”These things I have talked (and talk) (with) you, in order that you may have peace in Me. In the adornment/’adorned world’ you have oppression. However, be confident. I have conquered (and conquer) the adornment/’adorned world’.” (John 16:33)

Pilate so came into, into the Praetorium again and he raised his voice to Jesus and spoke to Him: “Are You the King of the Jews?” Jesus answered him (א,*א): “Do you say this from yourself, or did others speak to you on account of Me?” Pilate answered: “I am * (P66,א*) not a Jew, (am I)? Your nation and the priest leader (א*) have given You ‘to the side of’/’over to’ me. What have You made/done?” Jesus answered: “My kingdom is not out of this adornment/’adorned world’. If My kingdom (continually) was out of this adornment/’adorned world’, My rowers/servants (continually) had – according to the circumstances – fought, in order that I might not had been given ‘to the side of’/’over to’ the Jews. But now My kingdom is not from here.” (John 18:33-36)

Joybringing (grace) (with) you and peace from ... the leader of the kings of the earth. (Rev 1:4b-5a)

He (who sat on the white horse) came out conquering and He conquered (א,* א). (Rev 6:2b)

It became a war in the heaven; Michael and his messengers waged war ‘in company with’/with the dragon. And the dragon and his messengers waged war. (Rev 12:7)

The dragon had given (the little wild animal) his ability and his throne and a great (judicial) authority. (Rev 13:2b)

And (“the whole earth”) had prostrated themselves before the little wild animal (in honour of it), saying: “Who is like the little wild animal, and who is able to wage war ‘in company with’/with it?” (Rev 13:4b)

(The unclean spirits) are spirits of little demons, making signs (which) (P47, א*) go out against/to the kings of the whole (inhabited) world, to lead them together into the war of the great day of God, the All-powerful. (Rev 16:14)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

(P.W. Skehan) observes that “leaving out the ‘and’ by which St. John tells us to add the two titles into one name, the combination ‘King of Kings, Lord of Lords’, in Aramaic adds up to 777”, the epitome of perfection, in contrast to 666, the number of the beast. (J. Massyngberde Ford "Revelation" p 323-324)

What (this time in the end of the 19 th century) can be short of, it is men of genius with ability to take in the greater part of the vast field and arrange the divided work in this to a whole with a common aim. (Viktor Rydberg "En underbar man - Leonardo da Vinci" p 69; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Elisabeth Beskow, George Carey, Bob Dylan, Seth Erlandsson, Adolphine Fogtmann, Erik Gustaf Geijer, Carl Grimberg, Märtha Hallander, Alf Henrikson, Homeros, Irenaeus, Vladimir Lenin, C.S. Lewis, Vilhelm Moberg, Fredrik Nielsen, Carl Olof Rosenius, Ragnar Samuelson, A.M. Strinnholm, P. Waldenström, Colin Wilson, Birgitta Yavari.


My own comments and speculations:

The little wild animal is given the ability and (judicial) authority of the dragon and of the ten kings. But the little Ram has all (judicial) authority against all the ability of the enemy.

Jesus' greatness increases (cf. John 3:30) by John's describing Him not only as the leader of the kings of the earth (Rev 1:5) but as the one being their king.

Concerning “give their ability and (judicial) authority to the little wild animal”, see Rev 13:2.


(Paul said to the believers in Corinth:) “I ‘call you to the side of’/’summon you’ … that you may be (and have been) adjusted fitly in the same understanding and in the same purpose.” (1 Cor 1:10)


Greek words:

gnômê (purpose) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) 2 Macc 14:20; 1 Cor 1:10; Rev 17:13 – Wisdom of Solomon 7:15; Sir 6:23; Acts 20:3; 1 Cor 7:25,40; 2 Cor 8:10; Philemon v 14; Rev 17:17.


Additional studies:

Dan 2:47; 2 Macc 13:4; Sir 47:22; John 17:22-23; 20:31; 1 Tim 6:15; Rev 19:16.


Donald Guthrie "The Lamb in the Structure of the Book of Revelation"; Vox Evangelica 12 (1981): 64-71.

Norman Hillyer "'The Lamb' in the Apocalypse"; The Evangelical Quarterly 39.4 (Oct.-Dec. 1967): 228-236.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-30; 2012-07-23; 2015-10-02)

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17:14b ... and the ones, called and chosen and faithful, in company with It.

Word for word (9 words in the Greek text): and the-(ones) in-company-with it called and chosen and faithful.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Ahimelech said to the king:) “ … Who in/among all your slaves (is) faithful as David?” (1 Sam 22:14a, Greek OT)

All the called of (the false king) ‘stood out of’/’were beside’ themselves. And they ’stood up out of’/rose, and (every) male went away into his way. (1 Kings 1:49, Greek OT)

(God) has for His chosen descent made/done cheerfulness in stead of destruction. (Esther 8:12tb/E21b)

(The psalmist said: “The Lord) led out His people in exultation and His chosen ones in/with cheerfulness.” (Ps 105:43, Greek OT)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to the priest leaders and the Pharisees:) “The kingdom of the heavens has been made like a man, a king, whoever made wedding banquets/festivals for his son. And he dispatched away his slaves to call the ones being (and having been) called into the wedding banquets/festivals, and/but (continually/repeatedly) they did not want to come. … For many are called, but few (are) chosen. (Matt 22:2-3,14)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “If those days (of great oppression) were not mutilated, ‘every flesh was not’/’no flesh was’ – according to the circumstances – saved, but because of the chosen ones those days will be mutilated.” (Matt 24:22)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "False Christs and false prophets will rise ... so that and/also the chosen ones, if able/possible, will be (א,* א) led astray." (Matt 24:24)

(Jesus said to His disciples: “The Son of the Man) will dispatch away His messengers ‘in company’/together with a great trumpet. And they will lead together against/’in quest of’ His chosen ones.” (Matt 24:31a)

The lord uttered to (his servant): “Well (done), good and faithful slave.” (Matt 25:21a and 25:23a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(John the Baptist said:) “I have beheld (and behold) and have been (and am) a witness, that this one is the chosen one (P5,א*) of God.” (John 1:34)

Jesus answered and spoke to (א,*א) them: “Did I not choose you, the twelve? And out of you it/there is a slanderer.” But He (continually) said/meant Judas of Simon from Karuoth (א*), for this one, being (א,*א) one out of the twelve, was (continually) about to give Him ‘to the side of’/over. (John 6:70-71)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "If – according to the circumstances – you may welcome Me, you may keep (P66,א,*א) My commandments. And I will ask the Father, and He will give you Another, One being called to the side of (you), in order that It may be in company with you into the (coming) age, the Spirit of the truth, which the adornment/’adorned world’ is not able to take, because it does not look at It, nor it has knowledge. You have knowledge of It, because It stays by the side of you and It will be in you." (John 14:15-17)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: Eva Londos.


My own comments and speculations:

The ones called, chosen and faithful are the ones of the called and chosen who have born fruit. Cf. My own comments and speculations to Rev 14:18b-19.


Paul said to the believers in Corinth: “You (P46,א,*א,A) ‘seek in’/examine the householders in order that a certain one may be found faithful.” (1 Cor 4:2b, Greek OT)

Peter said to the believers: “You (are) a chosen descent, a royal/kingly priesthood, a holy nation.” (1 Pet 2:9a)


Greek words:

klêtos (called) (in the NT + examples in the OT) 1 Kings 1:49; Matt 22:14; Rev 17:14 – Ex 12:16; 1 Kings 1:41; Rom 1:1,6-7; 8:28; 1 Cor 1:1-2,24; Jude v 1.


Additional studies: 1 Chron 16:13; Ps 89:3(4); 105:6; Is 65:9,15; 2 Macc 1:2; Matt 24:25; Mark 13:20,22,27; Luke 12:42; 18:7; 24:42; Rom 8:33; 16:13; Col 3:12; 2 Tim 2:10; Tit 1:1; Heb 3:5; 1 Pet 1:1; 2 John v 1,13; Rev 19:14.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-30; 2012-07-23; 2015-10-02)

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17:15 And he says to me: “These things (א*) which you beheld, where the harlot is seated, they are and/both (א,*א) peoples and crowds, and/both nations and tongues.”

Word for word (19 words in the Greek text): And (he)-says (to)-me: these-(things) which (you)-beheld where the harlot is-seated, and/both peoples and crowds (they)-are and/both nations and tongues.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

Edom came out into a meeting (with/against) (Moses) in/with a weighty/cruel crowd and in/with a stable hand. (Num 20:20b, Greek OT)

(The Lord God said to His people:) “You fornicated) behind/'running after' nations and stained (yourself) in/with their devices.” (Ezek 23:30b, Greek OT)

(Maccabaeus and his men) together with the crowds supplicated the Lord to dispatch away a good messenger towards/’in regard to’ a saving of Israel. (2 Macc 11:6b)


The Latter Revelation:

Beholding the crowds (Jesus) ascended into the mountain. (Matt 5:1a)

It became/came all at once out of the heaven a sound just as (a sound) being carried/produced (by) a violent breath/puff, and it completed/filled the whole house, where (the disciples) (continually) were being seated. (Acts 2:2)

(The Lord said:) “Peoples cared for empty/fruitless things.” (Acts 4:25b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(The living beings and the elders sang:) “Worthy are You (little Ram) to take the scroll and to open its seals, because You were slaughtered. And (for) God in/with Your blood You bought us (א,* א) out of every tribe and tongue and people and nation.” (Rev 5:9b)

I will show you the judicial verdict of the great harlot, the one being seated upon many waters. (Rev 17:1b


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “These things which you beheld, where the harlot is seated”, see also Rev 17:1b. Concerning “peoples … and nations and tongues”, see also Rev 5:9bb.


Greek words:

(h)ou (where) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Acts 2:2; Rev 17:15 – Baruch 2:4,13; Matt 2:9; 18:20; 28:16; Luke 4:16-17; 10:1; 23:53; 24:28; Acts 1:13; 7:29; 12:12; 16:13; 20:8; 25:10; 28:14; Rom 4:15; 5:20; 9:26; 1 Cor 16:6; 2 Cor 3:17; Phil 3:20; Col 3:1; Heb 3:9.


Additional studies: 1 Macc 1:17,20; 2 Macc 8:16; 14:23; Matt 9:8,33; 21:8; Luke 3:7.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-31; 2012-07-23; 2015-10-03)

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17:16a And the ten horns which you beheld and the little wild animal, these will hate the harlot and (on her) having been (and being) desolated/abandoned they will and/also make her naked.

Word for word (19 words in the Greek text): and the ten horns which (you)-beheld and the little-wild-animal these will-hate the harlot and having-been-(and-being)-desolate (they)-will-make her and/also naked.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The Lord said to Jerusalem:) “Because of the thing 'to have become (and become)'/'having become (and becomes)' to you, (on your) having been (and being) leaving entirely in (a place) and having been (and being) hated and it/there (continually) was not (anyone) succouring you, I shall put/make you an agelong gladness.” (Is 60:15a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Israel:) “I shall give you ‘to the side of’/over into (the hands) of (the ones welcoming you), and they will dig down your fornication house, … set/strip you out/off your clothing ... and let you be naked ... ” (Ezek 16:39, Greek OT)

(The prophet said to Tyre:) “This is what the Lord, the Lord says: ‘When I – according to the circumstances - shall give/make you a city being (and having been) desolated… much water will veil/cover you entirely.” (Ezek 26:19b, Greek OT)

Some (Jewish) males hating their (own) nation (being) by the side of the law went towards the (foreign) king. (1 Macc 11:21a)

(Jerusalem said:) “I was desolated because of the misses (of the mark of God) of my children, for the reason that they ‘leaned out’/’bent aside’ out of law of God.” (Baruch 4:12b, Greek OT)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to the Pharisees:) “Every kingdom having been ‘divided in portions down from’/’at variance with’ itself is desolated, and every city or habitation having been ‘divided in portions down from’/’at variance with’ itself will not stand.” (Matt 12:25b)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Many will ‘be caused to stumble’/stumble and they will give one another ‘to the side of’/over into oppression (א,*א).” (Matt 24:10b)

A certain youth being (and having been) wrapped up in a linen sheet upon (the) naked (body) (continually) followed together with (Jesus). And they ‘get power (over)’/seize him. But having left the linen shirt entirely/behind he fled naked. (Mark 14:51-52)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

You do not know that you are the wretched and pitiable and beggarly and blind and naked. (Rev 3:17b, “Laodicea”)

I beheld, and behold (א,* א), another fire-coloured horse came out. And to the One being seated against it, it was given to Him to take the peace out of the earth, and in order that they might (א,* א) slaughter one another. (Rev 6:4)

Behold, He (א*) comes as a thief. Happy is the one being awake and keeping his garments, in order that he may not walk about naked and they/people may see his indecency. (Rev 16:15)

I beheld a woman being seated against a scarlet little wild animal being full of ‘names of blasphemy’/’blasphemous names’, having seven heads and ten horns. (Rev 17:3b)

The ten horns which you beheld are ten kings, whoever/who have not yet taken a kingdom, however/but they take (judicial) authority as kings (for) one hour in company with the little wild animal. (Rev 17:12)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: Gustav Sandgren, Milton Steinberg, August Strindberg.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “the ten horns which you beheld and the little wild animal”, see Rev 17:3b.


Greek words:

erêmoô (desolate) (in the NT + examples in the Apocryha) Baruch 4:12; Matt 12:25; Rev 17:16 – Judith 8:22; 1 Macc 1:39; 2:12; 4:38; 15:4,29; Sir 16:4; 21:4; 49:6; Luke 11:17; Rev 18:17,19.


Additional studies: Is 6:11; Ezek 16:37; 23:29; Hos 2:3; Acts 1:20; Rev 18:8.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-31; 2012-07-23; 2015-10-03)

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17:16b And they will eat her fleshes/’pieces of flesh’ and burn her down (in) (א,* א) fire.

Word for word (9 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus): and the fleshes her (they)-will-eat and her (they)-will-burn-down (in)-fire.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(From the people a message was brought to Judas:) “Your bride/’daughter-in-law’ Tamar has been (and is) given to fornication. And behold, she has (child) in womb out/’in consequence’ of fornication. But/and Judas spoke: “Lead her out and let (her) be burnt down.” (Gen 38:24b, Greek OT)

(Joseph said to the chief baker:) “The birds of the heaven will eat your fleshes/’pieces of flesh’ from you.” (Gen 40:19b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Moses:) “A daughter of a man of a priest, if – according to the circumstances – she may be profaned of/by being given to fornication, she profanes the name of her father. She shall be burned down upon fire.” (Lev 21:9, Greek OT)

(Asaph said to the Lord:) "You 'lifted afterwards'/'set out' a vine out of Egypt. … (The vine) which Your right (hand) has planted … It is (and has been) set on fire (with) fire.” (Ps 80:8a,15a,16a or Ps 80:9a,16a,17a, Greek OT)

(The Lord/the prophet said to the king of Judas:) “The king of Babylon … will burn (Jerusalem) in fire.” (Jer 34:2b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) “I shall … burn down (Jerusalem) in fire and the cities of Judas, and I shall give/make them desolate from the ones dwelling (there).” (Jer 34:22b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Babylon:) “I will give/’give ... over’ you as a mountain being (and having been) set on fire.” (Jer 51:25b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said: “The leaders of Israel ate down/up) ... the fleshes/’pieces of flesh’ of My people.” (Micah 3:3a, Greek OT)


The Latter Revelation:

(John the Baptist said: “The One who comes behind me) will lead together His bread-stuff into the granary, but the chaff He will burn down (in) an unquenchable fire." (Matt 3:12b)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) ”Just as the darnels are collected and burned down (in) fire, in this way it will be in the consummation of the age.” (Matt 13:40)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “If those days (of great oppression) were not mutilated, ‘every flesh was not’/’no flesh was’ – according to the circumstances – saved, but because of the chosen ones those days will be mutilated.” (Matt 24:22)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

The third of the earth was burned down, and the third of the trees were burned down, and every light green grass was burned down. The second * (א,*א) (messenger) sounded the trumpet, and (something) as a great mountain, burning (in) fire, was thrown into the sea, and the third of the sea became blood. (Rev 8:7b-8)


Additional studies: Ex 29:14; Lev 9:11; 20:14; Joshua 7:15; Jer 21:10; 38:18,23; 39:8; 52:13; Ezek 23:25; Matt 13:30; Mark 13:20; Luke 3:17; John 6:51-56; Rev 18:8; 19:18.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-31; 2012-07-23; 2015-10-03)

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17:17 For God has given into their hearts to make/do His purpose and to make/do one purpose, and/namely to give their kingdom to the little wild animal, until the sayings of God will be ended.

Word for word (29 words in the Greek text): the for god gave into the hearts their (to)-make the purpose his and (to)-make one purpose and (to)-give the kingdom their (to)-the little-wild-animal until will-be-ended the sayings (of)-the (of)-god.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

In a beginning ... God spoke. (Gen 1:1a,3a, Greek OT).

(Israel) prostrated before the idols (of Moab) (in honour of them) and Israel ‘was ended’/’came to an end’ (with) Baal of Peor. And the Lord was wrathful (with) passion to/against Israel. (Num 25:2b-3, Greek OT)

(Nehemiah said:) “God has given into my heart and I shall lead together the nobles and the leaders and the people.” (Neh 7:5a, Greek OT)

(Daniel said to the king:) "The highest One is Lord of/over the kingdom of men, and He will give it to whom He – according to the circumstances – may glorify." (Dan 4:22b or 4:25b, Greek OT Theod)

(Solomon said:) ”God may give me to speak according to (His) purpose and worthily/rightly ponder the things having been (and being) given.” (Wisdom of Solomon 7:15a)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to the Pharisees:) “If the adversary throws out the adversary, he was ‘divided into portions against’/’at variance with’ himself. How will so his kingdom stand?” (Matt 12:26)

When Jesus had ended all these sayings, He spoke to His disciples. (Matt 26:1b)

A beginning of the good little message of Jesus Christ * (א*) (Mark 1:1)

… (Joseph and Mary) had ended all * (א,* א) things according to the law of the Lord. (Luke 2:39a)

(Jesus said to His disciples: “The sowing) in the fine earth these are whoever having heard the saying, ‘keep it down’/’keep it’ in a fine and good heart, and carry fruit in endurance.” (Luke 8:15)

(Jesus said to the twelve:) “All the things having been (and being) written through the prophets (about) the Son of the Man will be ended.” (Luke 18:31b)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Do not put/lay in your hearts to beforehand care (about) to defend yourselves.” (Luke 21:14)

(Peter and John said to God:) “You anointed both Herod and Ponltius Pilate together with nations and peoples of Israel to make/do as many things as Your hand and Your counsel beforehand has marked out by bounderies to become/’come about’. (Acts 4:27b-28)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

In a beginning the Saying (continually) was, and the Saying (continually) was towards God, and the Saying (continually) was God. (John 1:1)

When (Jesus) (א*) so had taken the sour wine, He spoke: "It is (and has been) ended!" (John 19:30a)

“I am the Alpha and the Ô/Omega, a beginning and an end (א*),” says the Lord God. (Rev 1:8a)

In the days of the voice of the seventh messenger, when he – according to the circumstances – may be about to sound the trumpet, the mystery of God and/also was ended, as He gave a good little message to His 'of Himself'/own slaves and (P47, P85, א,* א) the prophets. (Rev 10:7)

(The loud voices) said: “The kingdom of the adornment/’adorned world’ has become (the kingdom) of our Lord and of His Anointed (Christ), and He will be king into the (coming) ages of the (coming) ages. Amen (א,* א). (Rev 11:15b)

The ten horns which you beheld are ten kings, whoever/who have not yet taken a kingdom, however/but they take (judicial) authority as kings (for) one hour in company with the little wild animal. (Rev 17:12)

These (ten kings) have one purpose, and they give their ability and (judicial) authority to the little wild animal. (Rev 17:13)

The ten horns which you beheld and the little wild animal, these will hate the harlot and (on her) having been (and being) desolated/abandoned they will and/also make her naked. (Rev 17:16a)


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “one purpose”, see Rev 17:13-14a and 17:16a.


Additional studies: Matt 7:28; 19:1; Luke 22:37; John 17:22-23; 19:28; Acts 13:29; 2 Cor 8:16.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-31; 2012-07-23; 2015-10-04)

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17:18 And the woman whom you beheld is the great city, the one having a kingdom upon/over the kingdoms (א,* א) of the earth.

Word for word (18 words in the Greek text): and the woman whom (you)-beheld is the city the great the-(one) having (a)-kingdom upon the kingdoms (of)-the (of)-earth.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

Hazor formerly (continually) was the beginning/leader of /over all these kingdoms (cf. Joshua 11:1-4). (Joshua 11:10b, Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) “... Babylon, which is called glorious under a king of Chaldeans.” (Is 13:19a, Greek OT)

… Nebuchadnezzar, (the) king of Babylon and every/all his encampment(s) and every/all his leader(s) (on) the earth waged war against/with Jerusalem and against/with all the cities of Judas. (Jer 34:1a, Greek OT)

(Daniel said to the king of Babylon:) “You, king, a king of kings.” (Dan 2:37a, Greek OT)


The Latter Revelation:

(The slanderer showed Jesus) all the kingdoms of the adornment/’adorned world’ and their glory. And he spoke to Him: "All these things I will give You, if – according to the circumstances – on having fallen/’sunk down’ You may prostrate Yourself before me (in honour of me)." (Matt 4:8b-9)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

Another * (P47, א*), a second one, followed, saying: “She has fallen * (א,* א), the great Babylon, who gives (and has given) all the nations to drink out of the wine of the passion of her fornication.” (Rev 14:8)

And the great city became into three parts, and the cities of the nations fell. And the great Babylon was remembered in the very eyes of God to give her a (א,* א) cup of * (א,* א) wine of the passion of the (א,* א) wrath. (Rev 16:19)


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “the great city”, see Rev 14:8 and Rev 16:19.


Additional studies: Is 47:5,7; Luke 4:5; Rev 18:10.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-31; 2012-07-23; 2015-10-04)

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