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Chapter 16

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16:1 And I heard a great/loud voice out of the temple, saying to the seven messengers: “Withdraw and pour out the seven bowls of the passion of God into the earth.”

Word for word (24 words in the Greek text): And (i/I)-heard great (a)-voice out-of the temple saying (to)-the seven messengers: withdraw and pour-out the seven bowls (of)-the (of)-passion (of)-the (of)-god into the earth.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

The Lord God spoke to (Cain): "... 'Every the having killed'/'whoever kills' Cain, being procured seven/sevenfold justice he will be 'loosened from the side'/detached." (Gen 4:15a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Moses: “I shall lead out) the sons of Israel out of the earth/land of Egypt together with a great procuration of justice.” (Ex 7:4b, Greek OT)

(David said to God:) “Pour out Your wrath against (my adversaries), and let the passion of Your wrath take them down.” (Ps 69:24 or 69:25, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said to the Lord:) “Pour out Your wrath against the nations having not knowledge of You and against kingdoms which have not 'called against'/invoked Your name.” (Ps 79:6, Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) “A voice out of a temple, a voice of the Lord giving back in stead a 'giving back in stead'/requital to the ones being opposed.” (Is 66:6b, Greek OT)

(The prophet said to the Lord:) “Pour out Your passion against the nations not knowing (and not having known) You.” (Jer 10:25a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Israel:) “... I shall pour out My wrath against you and bring My passion to a consummation in you.” (Ezek 7:8a, Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) “The leaders of Judas have become as ones ‘putting ... in company with’/altering frontiers. Against them I shall pour out My storming as water.” (Hos 5:10, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) “My judicial verdict (is) to receive kings into, into synagogues of nations, (to) the thing to pour out against them every/all wrath of My passion, for the reason that every/all the earth will be entirely used up in fire of My zeal.” (Zeph 3:8b, Greek OT)

(The Lord) will make weapons to the creation into/’for the purpose of’ a revenge of enemies. (Wisdom of Solomon 5:17b)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “Mercy and wrath (are) by the side of the Lord, a sovereign propitiating out and pouring out wrath.” (Sir 16:11b)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said to the Lord:) “Let passion rise and pour out wrath.” (Sir 36:6a or 36:8a)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to the disciples of John:) “Nor do they/people throw/pour young/fresh wine into old leather bags. ‘But if not’/otherwise the leather bags are at any rate broken in pieces, and the wine is poured out.” (Matt 9:17a)

(Jesus said to the scribes and the Pharisees:) "Against you may come every/all righteous blood being poured out upon the earth from the blood of righteous Abel till the blood of Zechariah * (א*) whom you murdered meanwhile/between the temple and the sacrificial altar." (Matt 23:35)

Other (sowings) fell into the fine earth ... and carried/produced into/’up to’ (א,*א) thirty/thirtyfold and into/’up to’ (א,*א) sixty/sixtyfold and into/’up to’ (א,*א) hundred/hundredfold.” (Mark 4:8)

(Jesus said to the crowd:) “The other (sowing) fell into the good earth … and made/gave a hundredfold fruit.“ (Luke 8:8a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

I heard behind me a great/loud voice as a trumpet. (Rev 1:10b)

The one conquering, (to) him (א*) I will make a pillar (in) (א*) the temple of My God. (Rev 3:12a, ”Philadelphia”)

When (the little Ram) took the scroll, the four living beings and the twenty-four elders fell/’sank down’ in the very eyes of the little Ram, everyone having a zither and golden bowls being full of incenses which (א,*א) are (the) (א*) prayers of the holy ones. (Rev 5:8)

I beheld the seven messengers who stand in the very eyes of God, and seven trumpets were given to them. (Rev 8:2)

* (א*) Out of the smoke it came out locusts into the earth. (Rev 9:3a)

The voice, which I heard out of the heaven, talking again in company with me and saying: “Withdraw, take the little scroll (א,* א), the one being (and having been) opened, in the hand of the messenger standing upon the sea and upon the earth.” (Rev 10:8)

They heard a great/loud voice out of the heaven saying to them: “Ascend here.” (Rev 11:12a)

I heard a great/loud voice in the heaven, saying: ”Just now the saving and the ability and the kingdom of our God and the (judicial) authority of His christ/'anointed one' have become (established), because the accuser (P47,א,*א) of our brothers has been thrown (out), he accusing them in the very eyes of our God day and night.” (Rev 12:10)

Another messenger, a third one, followed them, saying in/with a great/loud voice: “If any one prostrates himself (towards) the little wild animal (in adoration of it) and (towards) its image (in adoration of it) and takes a mark upon his forehead or against his hand, he and/also will drink out of the wine of the passion of God, of the one being (and having been) blended/filled undiluted in the cup of His wrath.” (Rev 14:9-10a)

(I beheld) seven messengers having seven blows, the last ones, because in them the passion of God was ended. (Rev 15:1b)

The seven messengers having the seven blows came out, out of the temple. (Rev 15:6a)

And * (P47, א*) out of the four living beings (one of them) gave to the seven messengers * (א,* א) golden bowls being full of the passion of God, (from) the One living into the (coming) ages of the (coming) ages. Amen (א,* א). (Rev 15:7)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

Ingrid in Tallmossen and her daughter just had opened the the gate of the farmyard and approached. . . . They had not arrived at the stairs, before (vicar) Suenonius lifted his voice venting the bowls of the wrath upon their heads. . . . "Get thee hence, you Witch of Endor with your daughter!" Suenonius roared. (Viktor Rydberg "Fribytaren på Östersjön I" p 133-134; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

The whole exodus of the people out of Egypt, which took place under divine guidance, was a type and image of the exodus of the Church which should take place from among the Gentiles; and for this cause He leads (His people) out at last from this world into His own inheritance. ... And if any one will devote a close attention to those things which are stated by the prophets with regard to the (time of the) end, and those which John the disciple of the Lord saw in the Apocalypse, he will find that the nations (are to) receive the same plagues universally, as Egypt then did particularly. (Irenaeus, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol I, p 504)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Ad. Kolmodin, Joachim G. Leithäuser, Vilhelm Moberg, Harry Sjöman.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “a great/loud voice”, see for example Rev 1:10b. Concerning “seven messengers”, see Rev 8:2. Concerning “the passion of God”, see Rev 14:9-10a. Concerning “into the earth”, see Rev 9:3a.


Additional studies:

Ex 6:6; Lev 4:11-12; 2 Sam 20:10; Ps 93:3-4; Jer 42:18; Ezek 14:19; 22:3-4; Dan 9:11; Sir 39:28; John 11:43; Acts 1:18; Rev 5:8; 6:17; 7:15; 11:19.


Gordon Campbell "Findings, Seals, Trumpets and Bowls: Variations Upon the Theme of Covenant Rupture and Restoration in the Book of Revelation"; Westminster Theological Journal 66.1 (Spring 2004): 71-96.

Dale Ralph Davis "Relationship between the seals, trumpets and bowls in the Book of Revelation"; Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 16.3 (Summer 1973): 149-158.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-25; 2012-07-14; 2015-08-13)

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16:2 And the first went away and poured out his bowl into the earth. And it became an evil and bad/foul (P47, א,* א) sore against the men having the mark of the little wild animal and the ones prostrating themselves (towards) its image (in adoration of it) (א,* א).

Word for word (33 words in the Greek text; the sequence of the words according to Sinaiticus): And the first went-away and poured-out the bowl his into the earth, and (it)-became (a)-sore evil and bad against the men the-(ones) having the mark (of)-the (of)-little-wild-animal and the-(ones) '(kissing-towards)'/'prostrating-(themselves)' the image its.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Lot said to the messengers:) “I will not be able to be saved throughout into/to the mountain, (so that) the bad things may not take me down/up and I may die.” (Gen 19:19b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Moses:) “Let it become a cloud of dust against every/all the earth of Egypt, and it will be sores against the men and against the four-footed (animals).” (Ex 9:9a, Greek OT)

(Moses said to Israel:) “If you – according to the circumstances – may not listen to the voice of the Lord your God to watch and make/do all His commandments … the Lord (will) hit you against the knees and against the shin-bones in/with an evil sore, so that you may not be able to be healed, from the footsteps/soles of your feet till ‘your top’/’the crown of your head’.” (Deut 28:15a,35, Greek OT)

(The slanderer) hurt (the blameless) Job (with) an evil sore from feet till head. (Job 2:7b, Greek OT)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “Do not make/do bad things, and a bad thing may not/certainly not take you down/entirely.” (Sir 7:1)

(Baruch said: “The things) which the Lord talked against us, all these bad things came against us. ... And the Lord was awake on/’for the sake of’ the bad things.” (Baruch 2:7,9a)

(Baruch said: “The people) died in evil hardships, in famine and in/with large sword and in apostleship/’dispatching away’.” (Baruch 2:25b)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "If – according to the circumstances – your eye may be evil, your whole body will be dark." (Matt 6:23a)

(The priest leaders and the elders) say to (Jesus: “The lord of the vineyard) will badly perish bad (farmers).” (Matt 21:41a)

A certain beggarly one (with) name Lazarus, having been (and being) caused sores, had been (and was) thrown towards the gateway (of a rich man), and desiring/desired to be fed from (the things) falling from the table of the rich. However/but and/also the coming dogs (continually) licked against his sores.” (Luke 16:20-21)

Abraham spoke (to the rich man): “Child, remember that you took away/apart your good things in your life/lifetime, and Lazarus likewise the bad things. But now he here is called to the side of, but you ‘are caused’/feel pain. (Luke 16:25)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(The second little wild animal) makes the earth and the ones dwelling in it * (א,* א) to prostrate (towards) the first little wild animal (in adoration of it), whose (wound of) the blow of death had been attended. (Rev 13:12b)

It was given to (the second little wild animal) to give spirit (to) the image of the (first) little wild animal, in order that the image of the little wild animal and/also may talk. And it will (א,* א) make, (so that) as many as – if according to the circumstances – will (א,* א) not prostrate themselves before the image of the little wild animal (in honour of it), (that) they may be killed. And it makes (so that) all, the small and the great and the rich and the beggarly and the free and the slaves, ‘in order that they may give them’/’that they may be given’ a mark upon their right hand or against their forehead. (Rev 13:15-16)

Another messenger, a third one, followed them, saying in/with a great/loud voice: “If any one prostrates himself (towards) the little wild animal (in adoration of it) and (towards) its image (in adoration of it) and takes a mark upon his forehead or against his hand, he and/also will drink out of the wine of the passion of God, of the one being (and having been) blended/filled undiluted in the cup of His wrath.” (Rev 14:9-10a)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: Bo Eric Malmvall, Olaf Moe, Wilhelm Möller.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “the first went away and poured out his bowl into the earth”, see Rev 16:1. Concerning “the men having the mark of the little wild animal and the ones prostrating themselves (towards) its image (in adoration of it) (א,* א)”, see Rev 13:12, 13:15, 13:16 and 14:9-10a.


Greek words:

(h)elkos (sore) (in the NT) Luke 16:21; Rev 16:2 – Rev 16:11.


Additional studies: Ex 9:9-11; Deut 28:27; Jer 14:17; Luke 11:34; Rev 6:8; 8:7; 16:11; 19:20.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-25; 2012-07-14; 2015-08-13)

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16:3 * (א*) And it became blood as of a dead (body). And every living (P47, א,* א) soul upon (א,* א) the sea died.

Word for word (13 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus prima manus): and (it)-became blood as (of)-(a)-dead, and every soul living died upon the sea.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

The Lord God formed the man of gravel from the earth and puffed in, into his face, a breath of life. And the man became into a living soul. (Gen 2:7, Greek OT)

Cain stood up against his brother Abel and killed him. ... And God spoke: "What have you made/done? A voice of your brother's blood cries towards Me out of the earth." (Gen 4:8b,10, Greek OT)

(God said to Noah:) “My bow will be in the cloud, and I shall behold (it) to remember an agelong covenant ‘upwards middle’/between Me and ‘upwards middle’/- every living soul in every/all flesh that is upon the earth. ... This (is) the sign of the covenant.” (Gen 9:16-17a, Greek OT)

(David said to God:) “Pour out Your wrath against (my adversaries), and let the passion of Your wrath take them down. Let their homestead become being desolate. Let not the dwelling one be in their dwelling-tents. … Let them be wiped out, out of a book of living ones and let them not be written in company with righteous ones.” (Ps 69:24-25,28 or 69:25-26,29, Greek OT; cf. Acts 1:17-20)

(David said to the Lord:) "Let the days (of my enemy) become few. Oh that the other one may take his visitation/inspection. … Let (his children) be thrown out of their house properties." (Ps 109:8,10b, Greek OT; cf. Acts 1:17-20)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "Do not fear from the ones slaying the body but being not able to kill the soul; but rather fear the One being able to perish and/both soul and body in Gehenna." (Matt 10:28)

(Judas said to the priest leaders and elders): “Having given ‘to the side of’/over unpunished/innocent blood I have missed (the mark of God).” But they spoke: “What (is that) towards/to us?” ... And having gone away he ‘strangled away’/hanged himself. But the priest leaders, having taken the pieces of silvermetal, spoke: "It is not permitted to throw them into the offering chest, since it is an 'honour' of blood." But having taken a council meeting they bought out of them the field of the potter into/to a burial place for foreigners. Therefore that field has been called a field of blood till to-day. (Matt 27:4a,5b-8)

(Jesus chose from His disciples) twelve, whom He and/also named apostles. (Luke 6:13b)

(The Emmaus disciples) found the eleven – and the ones being together with them – being (and having been) assembled. (Luke 24:33b)

(Peter said:) ”Males, brothers, the writing (continually) had to be completed, which the Holy Spirit spoke beforehand through the mouth of David on account of Judas, the one having become a guide to the ones having together taken Jesus, because being (and having been) entirely numbered he (continually) was in/with us and had by lot obtained the share of inheritance of this service. So indeed this (one) acquired a little district out of (the) wage of the unrighteousness and having become/fallen …all his ‘inward vital parts’/bowels were poured out. …That little district be/was called …Little district of blood. For it has been (and is) written in a book of psalms: ‘Let his dwelling become desolate and let not the dwelling one be in it.’, and ‘Let the other one take His visitation/inspection.’” (Acts 1:16-20)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(The voice) said (to John): “Send (the scroll) to the seven (assemblies) of called out, into Ephesos and into Smyrna and into Pergamos and into Thyatira * (א*) and into Philadelphia and into Laodicea.” (Rev 1:11b)

(The souls of the slaughtered witnesses said:) “Till when do You not judge and procure justice for our blood out of the ones dwelling upon the earth?” (Rev 6:10b)

The first (messenger) sounded the trumpet, and it became hail and fire, being (and having been) mixed in/with blood, and it was thrown into/to the earth. (Rev 8:7a)

The second * (א,* א) (messenger) sounded the trumpet, and (something) as a great mountain, burning (in) fire, was thrown into the sea, and the third of the sea became blood. And the third part (א,* א) of the creatures, the ones in the sea, the ones having a soul, died. And the third of the boats were ruined throughout. (Rev 8:8-9)

(The two witnesses) have (judicial) authority upon the waters to turn them into blood and to hit the earth in/with every blow, as many times ‘as if’/as they – according to the circumstances – may want. (Rev 11:6b)

The wine-press was trodden outside (א,* א) the city, and blood came out, out of the wine-press, until the bits of bridle of the horses, from/’in length’ one thousand two hundred (א*) stadia. (Rev 14:20)


My own comments and speculations:

As in Rev 1:11 Sinaiticus, prima manus omits one of seven. Here it is the second messenger who is not named. Perhaps this in both cases can depend on the connection with death. That certain persons are unnamed/omitted in a list we can see in 1 Sam 16:6-11 and 1 Chron 2:13-15. See also My own comments and speculations to Rev 1:11b and Rev 16:17.

Concerning “the sea”, see Rev 8:8 and Rev 8:9.


Additional studies: Ex 7:17-21; Matt 10:2-4; Mark 3:16-19; Luke 6:13-16; John 19:34.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-25; 2012-07-14; 2015-08-13)

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16:4 And the third poured out his bowl against (P47, א,* א) the rivers and the springs of the waters. And it became blood.

Word for word (18 words in the Greek text): And the third poured-out the bowl his upon the rivers and the springs (of)-the (of)-waters, and (it)-became blood.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

The priest shall carry (the burnt offering) to opposite the Lord and ‘propitiate out’/propitiate (the woman who has brought forth a child) and make her clean from the spring of her blood. (Lev 12:7a, Greek OT)

(Solomon said to the Lord:) “In stead of a spring of an inexhaustible river having been troubled/soiled (with) soiled murderblood … You gave (Your people) profused water, which they had not hoped for, having through the thirst shown, how You chastised the adversaries.” (Wisdom of Solomon 11:6,7b-8)


The Latter Revelation:

Likewise and/also (with) the second and the third till the seventh. (Matt 22:26)

(The woman said:) “If – according to the circumstances – I may touch and/namely if – according to the circumstances – His garments, I will be saved.” And straight/’straight off’ the spring of her blood was dried. (Mark 5:28-29a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(The great star) fell against the third of the rivers and against the springs of the waters. (Rev 8:10b)

I heard a great/loud voice out of the temple, saying to the seven messengers: “Withdraw and pour out the seven bowls of the passion of God into the earth.” (Rev 16:1)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: Carl Grimberg.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “poured out his bowl”, see Rev 16:1. Concerning “against the rivers and the springs of the waters”, see Rev 8:10b. Concerning “it became blood”, see Rev 6:10bb, Rev 8:7a, Rev 8:8, Rev 11:6b and Rev 16:3.


Additional studies: Ex 7:17-21; Ps 78:44; 105:29; John 2:6-10; 4:10-12; 7:38.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-25; 2012-07-14; 2015-08-13)

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16:5 And I heard the messenger of the waters saying: “Righteous are You, the One who is and the One who (continually) was, the pious/sacred One, because You have judged these things.”

Word for word (19 words in the Greek text): And (i/I)-heard (of)-the (of)-messenger (of)-the (of)-waters saying: righteous are-(you), the-(one) being/'who is' and the-(one) (who)-(continually)-was, the pious-(one), because these-(things) (you)-judged


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(God said to Abram:) “Your seed will be ... slaves ... but the nation, (with) which they – if according to the circumstances – will be slaves, I shall judge.” (Gen 15:13b-14a, Greek OT)

(Moses said about the Lord:) “All His ways (are) judgments. A faithful God and He is not unrighteous. Righteous and pious/sacred (is) the Lord.” (Deut 32:4b, Greek OT)

(David said: “The Lord) will judge the (inhabited) world in righteousness. He will judge peoples in straightness.” (Ps 9:8 or 9:9, Greek OT)

(David said to the Lord:) “You will not leave my soul behind in (a place), into Hades, nor You will give/permit your pious one to behold ruin throughout.” (Ps 16:10, Greek OT)

(David said:) “Bless the Lord, all His messengers.” (Ps 103:20a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) "Judge a righteous judicial verdict and make/practise mercy and pity everyone towards/to his brother." (Zech 7:9b, Greek OT)

(Tobit said:) “Righteous are You, Lord, and all Your works (are) righteous … You judge into the (coming) age.” (Tobit 3:2, BA)

(Solomon said to the Lord:) “You may throughout be busy with the adornment/’adorned world’ in/with piety and righteousnes, and in/with straightness of soul You may judge a judgment.” (Wisdom of Solomon 9:3)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “In this way it will be in the consummation of the age; the messengers will come out and divide by a boundary-line the evil out of a middle of the righteous ones.” (Matt 13:49)

(The master of the house said to the idle ones:) ”Which/what – if according to the circumstances – may be righteous, I will give you.” (Matt 20:4b)

(Jesus said to the hypocrites:) "What/why do you not and/also judge the righteous thing (away) from yourselves?" (Luke 12:57)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Jesus said to the Jews:) “I am not able to make/do nothing/anything from/'owing to' Myself. Entirely as I hear, I judge. And My judgment is righteous, because I do not seek My will however/but the will of the One having sent Me.” (John 5:30)

(Jesus said to the crowd:) "Do not judge ‘according to’/after sight, however/but judge the righteous judgment." (John 7:24)

(Jesus said:) “Righteous Father, the adornment/’adorned world’ has and/namely not gained knowledge of You, but I have gained knowledge of You, and these have gained knowledge, that You have dispatched Me away.” (John 17:25)

Joybringing (grace) (with) you and peace from the One who is and the One who (continually) was and the One who comes and from the seven spirits * (א,* א, A) ‘in the very eyes of’/before His throne. (Rev 1:4b)

(The souls of the slaughtered witnesses) shouted (with) a great/loud voice saying: “The Master, the Holy and True One! Till when do You not judge and procure justice for our blood out of the ones dwelling upon the earth? (Rev 6:10)

(The twenty-four elders said:) “We are thankful to You, the Lord God, the All-powerful, the One who is and the One who (continually) was, and (P47, א*) that You have taken (and take) Your great ability and have been/’begun to be’ king. And the nations was/were (P47, א*) wrathful, and/but Your wrath came and the seasonable time of the dead (bodies) to be judged.” (Rev 11:17-18a)

Another messenger, having (judicial) authority upon/’with regard to’ the fire, came out, out of the sacrificial altar. (Rev 14:18a)

... because (You) alone (are) pious/sacred, because all the nations will arrive and prostrate themselves before (You), in the very eyes of You, because the fundamental laws have been made visible in the very eyes of (א,* א) You. (Rev 15:4b)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

In Jewish thought every element, every form of created life, had an angel “guardian”. (J. Massyngberde Ford "Revelation" p 261)


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “Righteous … pious/sacred”, see also Rev 15:4b. Concerning “You, the One who is and the One who (continually) was”, see Rev 1:4b and My own comments and speculations to Rev 11:17.


Additional studies: Ps 96:10; 98:9; 119:137; 145:17; Prov 31:9; Is 5:16; 11:4; Zech 8:16; Matt 7:1-2, Luke 6:37; John 16:10-11; 17:25; Acts 17:31; Rom 2:12,15-16; 1 Cor 5:13; 2 Thess 2:11-12; 2 Tim 4:1; 1 Pet 1:17; 2:23; 4:5; 1 John 1:9; Rev 1:8; 4:8; 19:2,11; 20:13.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-25; 2012-07-14; 2015-08-13)

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16:6 ... because they poured out the bloods (א,* א) of holy ones and prophets, and You gave (P47, א,* א) them blood to drink, which they just (א,* א) are worthy.

Word for word (14 words in the Greek text): because bloods (of)-holy-(ones) and (of)-prophets (they)-poured-out and blood them (you)-gave (to)-drink, which-just worthy (they)-are.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Moses said to Israel:) “It shall be if – according to the circumstances – the wicked one may be worthy blows … (that) they will whip him . . . with a number according to his wickedness.” (Deut 25:2, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Jehu:) “You shall destruct wholly the house of Ahab your lord, ‘out of’/’away from’ My face and you shall out of a hand of Jezebel procure justice for the bloods/blood of My slaves the prophets, and for the bloods/blood of all the slaves of the Lord.” (2 Kings 9:7, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said to the Lord: "The nations) have poured out the blood (Your slaves) as water (in) a circle (round) Jerusalem. . . . Not at any time may the nations speak: 'Where is their God?' And let it be gained knowledge in/among the nations in the 'very eyes'/sight of our eyes of the procuration of justice of the blood of Your slaves, the one's being (and having been) poured out." (Ps 79:3a,10, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Jerusalem: “Your oppressors) … will drink their blood as young/fresh wine.” (Is 49:26a, Greek OT)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said: “The wicked) are worthy to be a part of (death).” (Wisdom of Solomon 1:16b)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to the scribes and the Pharisees:) “You build the graves of the prophets. … and say: ‘If we (continually) had been in the days of our fathers, we (continually) had - according to the circumstances - not been their companions in the blood of the prophets. ‘So that’/therefore you are witnesses to yourselves, that you are sons of the ones having murdered the prophets. And you, complete the measure of your fathers. Serpents, products of adders, how may you flee from the judgment of Gehenna? Because of this I dispatch away towards you prophets and wise (men) and scribes. (Some) out of them you will kill and crucify. ... Against you may come every/all righteous blood being poured out upon the earth from the blood of righteous Abel till the blood of Zechariah * (א*) whom you murdered meanwhile/between the temple and the sacrificial altar. ... Jerusalem, Jerusalem, the (city) killing the prophets and throwing stones at the ones having been (and being) dispatched away towards her!”(Matt 23:29b-34a,35,37a)

And having taken a cup and having ‘been thankful’/’given thanks’, (Jesus) gave to (His disciples) saying: “Drink out of it, all (of you). For this is My blood of the covenant, which is poured out on account of many into/’for the purpose of’ a ‘letting be’/’leaving alone’ of misses (of the mark of God).” (Matt 26:27-28)

(Pilate said:) “Nothing worthy death is having been (and being) practised/done (by means of) (Jesus).” (Luke 23:15b)

(One of the badmen said:) “We (suffer) indeed righteously, for worthy we ‘take away’/receive the things which we practised/did. But this One has practised/done nothing ‘out of place’/improper.” (Luke 23:41)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

A revelation of Jesus Christ which God gave Him to show to His holy ones (א*) the things which must become/’come about’ in/with quickness. (Rev 1:1a)

They will walk about in company with Me in white (things), because they are worthy. (Rev 3:4b)

And (the elders) * (א*) throw their crowns ‘in the very eyes of’/before the throne, saying: “Worthy are You, Lord (א,* א), the Lord and our God.” (Rev 4:10b-11a)

… (I heard messengers) saying (with) a great/loud voice: “Worthy is the little Ram, the One having been (and being) slaughtered.” (Rev 5:12a)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: N.P. Madsen.


Greek words:

(h)osper (who just) (in the NT + one example in the OT) Rev 16:6 (א,* א) – Job 6:17.


Additional studies: Gen 4:10-11; Deut 32:43; Is 51:17; Jer 13:12-13; Wisdom of Solomon 11:16; Mark 14:23-24; Luke 11:47-51; 12:48; 22:20; John 6:53-56; 16:2; Acts 25:11,25; 26:31; 1 Cor 11:25; Rev 11:18; 17:6; 18:24.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-25; 2012-07-15; 2015-08-13)

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16:7 And I heard the sacrificial altar saying: “Yes, the Lord God, the All-powerful, true and righteous (are) Your judgments.”

Word for word (17 words in the Greek text): And (i/I)-heard (of)-the (of)-sacrificial-altar saying: yes 'lord the god'/'the Lord God' the all-powerful, true and righteous the judgments your


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The Lord God said to Cain: ”A) voice of your brother's blood cries towards Me out of the earth.” (Gen 4:10, Greek OT)

Abraham spoke (directed) towards God: “Let this Ishmael live opposite You.” But/and God spoke to Abraham: “Yes, behold Sarah, your woman, shall bring forth a son to you … but/and around/about Ishmael I have ‘heard upon’/’listened to’ you. Behold, I have blessed him and I increase/'let ... grow' him and I make him extremely full.” (Gen 17:18-19a,20a, Greek OT)

(A man of God) called upon towards the sacrificial altar in a saying of the Lord and spoke: “Sacrificial altar, sacrificial altar.” (1 Kings 13:2a, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said:) “Righteous are You, Lord, and straight (are) Your judgment.” (Ps 119:137, Greek OT)

(Tobit said to the Lord:) “Your many judgments (are) … true.” (Tobit 3:5a)

(Azariah said to the Lord:) “Righteous are You on/in all things which You have made/done (with) us. And all Your works (are) true and Your ways straight and all Your judgments true and You have made/done judicial verdicts of truth.” (The Prayer of Azariah v 4-5a)


The Latter Revelation:

(The Canaanite woman said to Jesus:) “Yes, Lord, for and/also the little dogs eat from the things of the crumbs falling from the table of their lords.” Then ‘having answered Jesus’/’Jesus answered and’ spoke to her: “O woman, your faith (is) great, let it become to you as you want!” (Matt 15:27b-28a)

(The master of the house said to the idle ones:) ”Which/what – if according to the circumstances – may be righteous, I will give you.” (Matt 20:4b)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) ”I will underneath/secretly show you whom you may fear, * (א,*א) the One after the thing to kill having (judicial) authority to throw in, into Gehenna. Yes, I say you, you may fear this One.” (Luke 12:5)

(Jesus said to the Pharisees concerning His disciples:) ”If – according to the circumstances - these are quiet, the stones will shout.” (Luke 19:40b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Martha) says to (Jesus): “Yes, Lord. I believe (and have believed), that You are the Christ, the Son of God, the One coming into the adornment/’adorned world’.” (John 11:27)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "And on (the Spirit's) having come, He will convict the adornment/’adorned world’ on account of miss (of the mark of God) and on account of righteousness and on account of judgment; on account of miss (of the mark of God) indeed, that they do not believe into Me; on account of righteousness, that I withdraw towards the Father, and you no longer look at Me; on account of judgment, that the leader of this adornment/’adorned world’ has been (and is) judged." (John 16:8-11)

When (the disciples) so had breakfasted, Jesus says to Simon Peter: “Simon * (א), do you welcome Me more (than) these?” He says to Him: “Yes, Lord, You know, that I am friends with You.” (John 21:15a)

And all the tribes of the earth will ‘cut themselves (over)’/mourn * (א*) Him. Yes. Amen. (Rev 1:7b)

“I am the Alpha and the Ô/Omega, a beginning and an end (א*),” says the Lord God, the One who is and the One who (continually) was and the One who comes, the All-powerful. (Rev 1:8)

(The four living beings) have not rest, day and night saying: “Holy, holy, holy, holy, holy, holy, holy, holy (א*) the Lord God, the All-powerful, the One who (continually) was and the One who is and the One who comes.” (Rev 4:8b)

When It opened the fifth seal, I beheld below the sacrificial altar the souls of the men (א,* א) having been (and being) slaughtered because of the saying of God and because of the evidence which they (continually) had. And they shouted (with) a great/loud voice saying: “The Master, the Holy and True One! Till when do You not judge and procure justice for our blood out of the ones dwelling upon the earth?” (Rev 6:9-10)

Another messenger, having a golden olibanum censer, came and stood upon the sacrificial altar. (Rev 8:3a)

The sixth messenger sounded the trumpet. And I heard a voice * (א*) of/from the golden sacrificial altar, the one (being) in the very eyes of God. (Rev 9:13)

(The messenger brought the good little message ) * (א,* א) in/with a great/loud voice: “Fear God, and give Him glory, because the hour of His judgment has come.” (Rev 14:7a)

Another messenger, having (judicial) authority upon/’with regard to’ the fire, came out, out of the sacrificial altar. (Rev 14:18a)

(The ones who had conquered said:) “Great and wondrous (are) Your works, the Lord God, the All-powerful. Righteous and true (are) Your ways, * (א*) King of the ages (P47, א*).” (Rev 15:3b)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: Göran Alm.


My own comments and speculations:

The sacrificial altar is here described as personified just as in 1 Kings 13:2 and Rev 9:13 (א*). Concerning “the sacrificial altar”, see also Rev 6:9 and 8:3a.

Cf. Psalms of Solomon 2:10: “God, the earth will gain knowledge, (that) all Your judicial verdicts are righteous” och 2:15b: “God, Your righteousness (is) in Your judicial verdicts.”

Concerning “Lord God, the All-powerful”, see Rev 1:8a and 1:8b. Concerning “true and righteous”, see also Rev 15:3b (cf. “righteous and true” in a restoration perspective). Concerning “judgments”, see Rev 14:7.


Additional studies: Ps 19:9(10); Matt 9:28; Mark 7:28; Rev 11:17; 19:2.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-26; 2012-07-15; 2015-08-13)

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16:8-9a And the fourth messenger (א,* א) poured out his bowl against the sun. And it was given to it to scorch the men in fire. And the men were scorched (with) a great scorching heat.

Word for word: 16:8 (19 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus) And the fourth messenger poured-out the bowl his against the sun, and (it)-was-given (to)-it (to)-scorch the men in fire. 16:9a (6 words in the Greek text) and were-scorched the men (a)-scorching-heat great


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Moses said to Israel: “If you will not obey the Lord your God, He will) hit you with … fever-fire/fever.” (Deut 28:22a, Greek OT)

Job said: “My bones (has been made dark) from/’owing to’ a scorching heat.” (Job 30:30b, Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) “Behold, the Lord will arrive as a fire … to give back in passion a procuration of justice and a hunting away in a flame of fire.” (Is 66:15, Greek OT)

It became/’came about’ together/’at the same time’ (as) 'the thing to stick'/'the sticking' up of the sun. And God commanded a spirit together with a burning heat, and the sun hit against the head of Jonah. And he was little/faint in the soul ... and spoke: “(It would be) fine/better to me to die than to live.” (Jonah 4:8, Greek OT)

(Solomon said:) “Our subsistence ... is pursued by rays of a sun and is weighted by its warming/heat.” (Wisdom of Solomon 2:4)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “Who will stand under (the sun) opposite its scorching heat?” (Sir 43:3b)


The Latter Revelation:

On the sun's having stuck up (the sowing) was scorched. And because have/'it had' not a root, it was dried.” (Matt 13:6)

Likewise and/also (with) the second and the third till the seventh. (Matt 22:26)

(Jesus said to the crowds:) “On a south wind's blowing, you say: ‘It comes (P45, א*)’ a heat, and it becomes/’comes about’.” (Luke 12:55b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

Not/certainly nor/neither the sun may fall against them, nor every/any scorching heat. (Rev 7:16b)

Another messenger, having (judicial) authority upon/’with regard to’ the fire, came out, out of the sacrificial altar. (Rev 14:18a)

I heard a great/loud voice out of the temple, saying to the seven messengers: “Withdraw and pour out the seven bowls of the passion of God into the earth.” (Rev 16:1)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: Ljuba Aleksandrovitj, Svetlana Aleksijevitj, Linné Eriksson, Yousuf Esh-Sharouni, Sven Lidman, John Stott.


My own comments and speculations:

Here we probably have an allusion to the men without root (Matt 13:6). Cf. My own comments and speculations to John 15:4-6 and Rev 14:18b-19.

Concerning ”poured out his bowl”, see also Rev 16:1. Concerning “scorch”, see also Rev 7:16b.


Greek words:

kaumatizô (scorch) Matt 13:6; Rev 16:8-9 – Mark 4:6.


Additional studies: Gen 19:23-24; Is 24:6; Dan 3:6; Wisdom of Solomon 18:3; Rev 19:20.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-26; 2012-07-15; 2015-08-13)

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16:9b And they blasphemed the name of God, the One having the (judicial) authority against/over these blows, and they did not changed their minds to give Him glory.

Word for word (20 words in the Greek text): and (they)-blasphemed the name (of)-the (of)-god the-(one) having the (judicial)-authority against the blows these and not (they)-changed-(their)-minds (to)-give him glory.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(In spite of the blows which came against Egypt) the heart of Pharaoh was entirely stable. (Ex 7:13a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Moses:) “Let the one ‘naming the name of the Lord’/’calling the Lord by name’ be put to death (with) death.” (Lev 24:16a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to the prophet:) “My name is blasphemed in/among the nations.” (Is 52:5b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to the prophet:) “ ... It/there is not a man (in Jerusalem) changing his mind from his badness.” (Jer 8:6a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to the prophet:) “You may not want/mean, I may want the death of the lawless one ... as/’but rather’ to turn him away out of the evil way and (let) him live.” (Ezek 18:23, Greek OT)

(The nations) (continually) used/treated the ones (being) around blaspheming/insulting and talking thing which (were) not divine law. (2 Macc 12:14b)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) "In the thing 'to curse a wicked one'/'a wicked one curses' the adversary, he curses his (own) soul." (Sir 21:27)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “In all these things the people (of God) did not change their mind.” (Sir 48:15a)


The Latter Revelation:

On the sun's having stuck up (the sowing) was scorched. And because have/'it had' not a root, it was dried.” (Matt 13:6)

(Jesus said to the people in Jerusalem:) "You may not/certainly not behold Me from just now till you - according to the circumstances - may speak: ''Being (and having been)'/'be (and have been)' blessed the one coming in a name of a lord.'" (Matt 23:39b)

The ones going by the side of (continually) blasphemed (Jesus), stiring/shaking their heads, and saying: “The One loosening down/up the temple and in three days building (it), save Yourself, if You are a son of God, and descend from the cross.” ... From a sixth hour it became darkness * (א*) till a ninth hour. (Matt 27:39-40,45)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) ”I will underneath/secretly show you whom you may fear, * (א,*א) the One after the thing to kill having (judicial) authority to throw in, into Gehenna. Yes, I say you, you may fear this One.” (Luke 12:5)

(Paul said to the males in Athen: “God) has ‘caused ... to stand’/fixed a day in which He is about to judge the (inhabited) world in/with righteousness in/’by means of’ a male to whom He has marked out by boundaries a faith having been offered to all (by) having caused Him stand up out of dead (bodies).” ... (Some continually) joked ... but some males, having attached themselves to (Paul), believed. (Acts 17:31-32a,34a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(The Jews) so ‘out of’/’immediately after’, a second (time), raised their voices to the man who (continually) had been blind and spoke to him: “Give glory to God. We know that this Man is a misser (of the mark of God).” (John 9:24)

To (Jesus Christ is) the glory and the power into the (coming) ages of the (coming) ages. Amen. (Rev 1:6b)

Recollect so from where you have fallen (and fall) and change your mind and make/do the first works. (Rev 2:5a, “Ephesos”)

(I know) the blasphemy, the one (א,* א) out of the ones saying themselves be Jews and they are not however/but a synagogue of the adversary. (Rev 2:9b, “Smyrna”)

I gave her time, in order that she might change her mind * (א*) ‘out of’/’in consequence of’ her fornication. (Rev 2:21, “Thyatira”)

The one conquering and the one keeping My works until (the) end, to him I will give (judicial) authority upon/’with regard to’ the nations. (Rev 2:26, ”Thyatira”)

The living beings may (א,* א) – according to the circumstances – give glory and honour and thankfulness to the One being seated on the throne. (Rev 4:9a)

(Worthy are … the Lord and our God) to take the glory and the honour and the ability. … (Rev 4:11b)

To the One being seated upon (א,* א) the throne and to the little Ram (be) the blessing and the honour and the glory and the power into the (coming) ages of the (coming) ages. (Rev 5:13b)

(The elders and the four living beings) said: “Amen, the blessing and the glory and the wisdom and the thankfulness and the honour and the ability and the stability to our God into the (coming) ages of the (coming) ages. Amen.” (Rev 7:12)

From/’owing to’ these three blows, the third of the men was killed, out/’in consequence’ of the fire and the smoke and the sulphur, of the thing going out, out of the mouths (of the horses). … And the rest of the men, who were not killed by these their (P47,א,*א) blows, not even changed their minds. (Rev 9:18,20a)

The rest became in fear (א,* א) and gave glory to the God of the heaven (in honour of Him). (Rev 11:13b)

I beheld a little wild animal ascending out of the sea, having ten horns and seven heads and upon his horns ten diadems and against his heads a (P47; א,* א) ‘name of blasphemy’/’blasphemous name’. (Rev 13:1 or Rev 13:1b)

And it was given to it a mouth talking great things and blasphemies. … And it opened its mouth into/in blasphemies towards God to blaspheme His name and His tent, the ones in the heaven dwelling in a tent. (Rev 13:5a,6)

(The messenger brought the good little message ) * (א,* א) in/with a great/loud voice: “Fear God, and give Him glory, because the hour of His judgment has come. (Rev 14:7a)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

The teacher went on: . . . On the other hand the one lacking faith and hope, this one can adopt a certain honest way to be, but when he has worldly interests and advantages as his object he slings all honour; also when he has to save a comrade as his object; then he can witness falsely and think it be a beautiful act; to promote an unmerited friend or relative does not bother him, and can he attack a believer, so he swears falsely; he regards all be allowed from his side against others, and he does not regret anything; the one being taken in, he means, the one may have it. If a religious one faults, he generally is ashamed and punishes himself, and sometimes he is enough naive to confess his faults or crimes; the Louse king hurrahs! For this was to him too silly. Nevertheless, when a believer falls 7 and 70 times, he rises again and confesses his fault. This is the difference! (August Strindberg "En blå bok I" p 47; translation from the Swedish book: BG Ask)

A time came when (the prisoner) was brought to a new rock, which would become a fortress, and when he again worked in stone; stone, stone, stone! There he lost his own eye and became struck now and then. And there he was so long that the new king died and got a successor. On the day of the coronation a prisoner would be pardoned and released. And the one having behaved best and also had got a clear idea that he had done an injustice, that one was pardoned. And that one became so! But when the other prisoners thought that it had been done wrong to them, for in their circles the one who had regretted "the thing one cannot help" was regarded to be a wretch. (August Strindberg "När träsvalan kom i getapeln" s 151-152; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Do not think that the One governing our fates is evil. The apparently "evil powers" which pain when we have done evil, of course are not able to be evil, because they pursue and punish the evil thing with pangs of conscience and other things. Were these powers evil, they would of course favour our vices, and pursue the good thing, but on this one has not seen any example. Consequently also we are governed by the good thing! (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev XII dec 1896-aug 1898" p 327; letter 1898-06-20 to the daughter Karin Strindberg)

We may add, as a comment of the Talmud, that on New Year's Day three books were opened – that of life, for those whose works had been good; another of death, for those who had been thoroughly evil: and a third, intermediate, for those whose case was to be decided on the Day of Atonement (ten days after New Year), the delay being granted for repentance, or otherwise, after which their names would be finally entered, either in the book of life, or in that of death. (Alfred Edersheim “The Temple” p 296)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Ann-Charlotte Alverfors, Honoré de Balzac, Daniel Defoe, Per Olof Ekström, Runar Eldebo, Bo Giertz, Knut Hamsun, Henrik Ibsen, Lars Levi Laestadius, Hans Larsson, Harry Lenhammar, Per Mases, Vilhelm Moberg, Richard Newton, Torsten Nilsson, Anders Nohrborg, Carl Olof Rosenius, Gösta Sandberg, M. Basilea Schlink, Carl Wilson.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “give Him glory”, see Rev 1:6b and 4:9a.


Additional studies:

Ex 10:27; Is 8:21-22; John 10:33; Acts 1:7; 1 Tim 6:1; Jude v 25; Rev 16:11,21.


P.G.R. Villiers "Prime evil and its many faces in the Book of Revelation"; Neotestamentica 34.1 (2000): 57-86.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-26; 2012-07-15; 2015-08-13)

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16:10a And the fifth poured out his bowl against the throne of the little wild animal. And it became/’came about’, (that) its kingdom ‘being (and having been)’/’was (and had been)’ darkened.

Word for word (18 words in the Greek text): And the fifth poured-out the bowl his against the throne (of)-the (of)-little-wild-animal, and (it)-became the kingdom its being-(and-having-been)-darkened


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

It became a darkness, a dusky whirlwind, against every/’the whole’ earth/land of Egypt (for) three days. (Ex 10:22b, Greek OT)

(Job said:) “May the stars of that night (when I was begotten) be darkened.” (Job 3:9a, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said: “The Lord) dispatched out darkness, and He darkened.” (Ps 105:28a, Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) “... Babylon, which is called glorious under a king of Chaldeans.” (Is 13:19a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Babylon:) “You will be into/’purposed for’ invisibility into the (coming) age ...” (Jer 51:26b, Greek OT)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to the Pharisees:) “If the adversary throws out the adversary, he was ‘divided into portions against’/’at variance with’ himself. How will so his kingdom stand?” (Matt 12:26)

Likewise and/also (with) the second and the third till the seventh. (Matt 22:26)

From a sixth hour it became darkness * (א*) till a ninth hour. (Matt 27:45)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

I know where you dwell, whereat/where the throne of the adversary (is). (Rev 2:13a)

Smoke ascended out of the well, as smoke of a great furnace. And the sun was gloomed (א,*א) and the air * (א*). (Rev 9:2)

(The loud voices) said: “The kingdom of the adornment/’adorned world’ has become (the kingdom) of our Lord and of His Anointed (Christ), and He will be king into the (coming) ages of the (coming) ages. Amen (א,* א). (Rev 11:15b)

The dragon had given (the little wild animal) his ability and his throne and a great (judicial) authority. (Rev 13:2b)

I heard a great/loud voice out of the temple, saying to the seven messengers: “Withdraw and pour out the seven bowls of the passion of God into the earth.” (Rev 16:1)


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “poured out his bowl”, see Rev 16:1. Concerning “the throne of the little wild animal”, see Rev 2:13a and 13:2. Concerning “darkened”, see also Rev 9:2.


Greek words:

skotoô (darken) (in the NT + one example in the OT) Job 3:9; Rev 16:10 – Eph 4:18.


Additional studies: Is 8:22; 59:9; Dan 2:22; Amos 5:18,20; Wisdom of Solomon 17:2,16(18),20(21); Mark 15:33; Luke 23:44; Rev 8:12.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-26; 2012-07-15; 2015-08-13)

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16:10b And they (continually) bit their tongues from/’owing to’ (א,* א) the hardship.

Word for word (8 words in the Greek text): and (they)-(continually)-bit the tongues their from the hardship.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Job said: “The ones ‘laughing down’/’guffawing to’ me) (continually) bit roots of woods/’pieces of wood’ by/’because of’ great famine.” (Job 30:4b, Greek OT)

The form of (the boy of the Lord was) unhonoured, left out ‘to the side of’/’in comparison with’ all men, a man being in/with blow. … We counted Him be in hardship and in/with blow and in/with ill-treatment. … From/’owing to’ the hardship of His soul … He will carry up the misses (of the mark of God) (of many). (Is 53:3a,4b,11, Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) “This will be the falling (with) which the Lord will cut all the peoples as many as have marched against, against Jerusalem. … Their tongue will melt in their mouth.” (Zech 14:12, Greek OT)

… (The king) commanded that the tongues (of the Jews would be) hewn off. (2 Macc 7:4a)

(Judas) used the knife (to take) out the tongue of the wicked one. (2 Macc 15:33a)

(Baruch said: “The people) died in evil hardships, in famine and in/with large sword and in apostleship/’dispatching away’.” (Baruch 2:25b)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to the ones who followed Him:) "Many will arrive from upstickings/east and settings/west and ‘be caused to lay down’/’lean back’ in company with Abraham and Isaac and Jacob in the kingdom of the heavens, but the sons of the kingdom will come (א*) out into the outer darkness. There it will be the weeping and the gnashing of the teeth." (Matt 8:11-12)

Having raised his voice (the rich man in Hades) spoke: “Father Abraham, have mercy on me, and send Lazarus, in order that he may dip the border/tip of his finger (in) water and cool my tongue, because I ‘am caused’/feel pain in this flame.” (Luke 16:24)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

The teacher went on: During the rule of the wild animal the men have become wild; and every thought of a punishing justice they dismiss, so that the one pointing at the case becomes knocked down. If a blasphemer loses his tongue, so they say: it was aktinomykos or actinomycetes; nothing more. And the impediments of the impenitent ones are raised towards heaven itself. "It is such a long way to heaven, what do we know of it? We are ants; not cares any God about us." (August Strindberg "En blå bok I" s 135; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

That the Demons are let loose by the Black Cobalt (Henrik) Ibsen probably was permitted as a punishment for the decrease of the manliness and courage, but to worship the demons? No! Rather snatch the tongue out of my throat, or assassinate me! (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev XI maj 1895-nov 1896" p 376; letter 1896-10-31 to Torsten Hedlund; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

I am not left in peace again before I have asked your forgiveness because I could be so miserably unkind to you, little poor friend! I am now so angry at me, after having been out and walked me fresh, for I was liverish for a moment, so that I want bite my tongue! Forgive me, my dear Friend! I am more pained by this unkindness than You can do. (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev II; letter 1877-11-22 to the wife Siri von Essen; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Werner Aspenström, Vilhelm Moberg, Sven Edvin Salje, Esaias Tegnér.


Greek words:

masaomai (bite) Job 30:4; Rev 16:10.

ponos (hardship) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Baruch 2:25; Rev 16:10 – 2 Macc 7:36; 9:18; Wisdom of Solomon 3:15; 5:1; 8:7,18; 9:16; 10:9-10; 15:4; 19:16; Sir 3:27; 11:11,21; 14:15; 38:7; Col 4:13; Rev 16:11; 21:4.


Additional studies: 2 Macc 7:10; 15:33.

(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-26; 2012-07-15; 2015-08-13)

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16:11 And they blasphemed the God of the heaven ‘out of’/’in consequence of’ their hardships and ‘out of’/’in consequence of’ their sores. And they did not change their minds * (א,* א).

Word for word (18 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus): and (they)-blasphemed the god (of)-the (of)-heaven out-of the hardships their and out-of the sores their and not (they)-changed-(their)-minds.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The Lord said:) “The very little boys of the king of Assyria have blasphemed (Me).” (2 Kings 19:6b, Greek OT)

… (The foreign king) went away fleeing out of Judea in days of the judgment, which the King of the heaven had made/given 'out of himself'/'on his part' on account of the blasphemies, which he had blasphemied/spoken. (Tobit 1:18a, S)

(Raguel) blessed the God of the heaven. (Tobit 8:15a, S)

(Solomon said to God:) “Judging (the missers of Your mark) ... You gave a place of change of mind, not ‘not having’/without knowledge that their origin (was) evil and (that) their bad thing (was) puffed in (them), and that their reasoning (would) not/certainly not be changed into the (coming) age.” (Wisdom of Solomon 12:10, Greek OT)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “In all these things the people (of God) did not change their minds.” (Sir 48:15a)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to the scribes:) "The one who – according to the circumstances – may blaspheme into/’for the purpose of’ the Holy Spirit has not a ‘letting be’/’leaving alone’ into the (coming) age, however/but will be (א,*א) liable to an agelong misdeed." (Mark 3:29)

One of the badmen/criminals, having been hanged up, (continually) blasphemed (Jesus), saying: “Are you by no means the Christ? Save Yourself and us!” (Luke 23:39)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

Recollect so from where you have fallen (and fall) and change your mind and make/do the first works. (Rev 2:5a, “Ephesos”)

The rest of the men, who were not killed in these their (P47, א,* א) blows, nor changed their minds out/’in consequence’ of the works of their hands. (Rev 9:20a)

The rest became in fear (א,* א) and gave glory to the God of the heaven (in honour of Him). (Rev 11:13b)

The first (messenger) went away and poured out his bowl into the earth. And it became an evil and bad/foul (P47,א,*א) sore against the men having the mark of the little wild animal and the ones prostrating themselves (towards) its image (in adoration of it) (א,*א). (Rev 16:2)

(The men) blasphemed the name of God, the One having the (judicial) authority against/over these blows, and they did not changed their minds to give Him glory. (Rev 16:9b)

They (continually) bit their tongues from/’owing to’ (א,* א) the hardship. (Rev 16:10b)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: Bo Giertz, Lars Levi Laestadius, Martin Luther, Vilhelm Moberg, Octavio Paz, Isaac Basjevis Singer.


Additional studies:

Ex 22:28; Lev 24:15; 2 Kings 19:22; 2 Chron 28:22-23; Is 37:6,23; Ezek 20:27; Tobit 5:17; 7:12; Judith 5:8; 6:19; 11:17; 2 Macc 7:36; 9:18; Matt 12:31; Luke 12:10; Rev 2:21; 16:21.


P.G.R. Villiers "Prime evil and its many faces in the Book of Revelation"; Neotestamentica 34.1 (2000): 57-86.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-26; 2012-07-15; 2015-08-14)

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16:12 And the sixth poured out his bowl against the river, the great * (א,* א) Euphrates. And its water was dried, in order that the way of/for the kings, the ones from ‘an upsticking of a sun’/east, might be made ready.

Word for word (28 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus): And the sixth poured-out the bowl his against the river the great Euphrates, and was-dried the water its, in-order-that might-be-made-ready the way (of)-the (of)-kings the-(ones) from (an)-upsticking (of)-(a)-sun.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

Moses stretched out the hand against the sea. And the Lord withdrew the sea in/with a violent south wind the whole night, and He made the sea dried out, and the water was split/divided. And the sons of Israel came into, into a middle of the sea ‘according to’/over the dried out thing. (Ex 14:21-22a, Greek OT)

(The Lord) blamed the Red Sea, and it was dried. And He showed (His people) the way in an abyss as in a desolate (district). (Ps 106:9, Greek OT)

(The prophet said: “The Lord) will throw/lay His hand against, against the River … so that (His people) will go through it in sandals. And it/there will be a way through (with) the leaving entirely/behind (in His) people in Egypt, and it will be (with) Israel as the day when they came out, out of the earth/land of Egypt.” (Is 11:15b-16a, Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) "A voice crying in the desolate (district): 'Make the way of (a) lord ready!'" (Is 40:3a, Greek OT)

(God said:) ”Who has aroused righteousness from upstickings/east?” (Is 41:2a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to His people: “I am the One) saying to the abyss: ‘Be desolate!’, and to your rivers: ‘Dry’.” (Is 44:27, Greek OT)

(The Lord said: “I call) a flying creature from upstickings/east and from earth from afar (the man) on account of (the things) I have taken (and take) counsel.” (Is 46:11a, Greek OT)

(The prophet said to the Lord: “Was it not You who) made the sea desolate (and made) water of abyss a multitude?” (Is 51:10a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) “I will desolate the sea (of Babylon) and dry her spring.” (Jer 51:36b, Greek OT)

(The king) penetrated through the Euphrat River ... (1 Macc 3:37b)

(Solomon said: “God) has and/also given a way in a sea and in waves a secure path.” (Wisdom of Solomon 14:3b)

(Baruch said:) ”See around towards upsticking/east, Jerusalem, and behold the cheerfulness coming to you from the side of God. Behold, your sons come.” (Baruch 4:36-37a)

(Baruch said:) “Stand up, Jerusalem, and stand upon the high and see round about towards upsticking/east and behold your children being (and having been) led together from settings of sun till (its) upstickings with the holy word rejoicing at the mention/renown of God. ... God leads them towards, into you being lifted in company with glory as a throne of a king.” (Baruch 5:5,6b)


The Latter Revelation:

Soothsayers from upstickings/east became to the side of into (a disgraced) Jerosolyma/Jerusalem, saying: ”Where is the One having been brought forth, a King of the Jews? For we have beheld His star in the upsticking/east, and we have come to prostrate ourselves before Him (in honour of Him).” (Matt 2:1b-2)

(The soothsayers from upstickings/east) retired through another way into their district. (Matt 2:12b)

(John the Baptist) is the one having been spoken through Isaiah the prophet, saying: "A voice crying in the desolate (district): 'Make the way of (a) lord ready, make His paths straight.'" (Matt 3:3)

Likewise and/also (with) the second and the third till the seventh. (Matt 22:26)

(The woman said:) “If – according to the circumstances – I may touch and/namely if – according to the circumstances – His garments, I will be saved.” And straight/’straight off’ the spring of her blood was dried. (Mark 5:28-29a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

I beheld another messenger ascending from ‘an upsticking of a sun’/east, having a seal of a living God. (Rev 7:2a)

(I heard a voice) saying to the sixth messenger, the one having the trumpet: “Loosen the four messengers, the ones being (and having been) bound on/at the river, the great Euphrates.” (Rev 9:14)

I heard a great/loud voice out of the temple, saying to the seven messengers: “Withdraw and pour out the seven bowls of the passion of God into the earth.” (Rev 16:1)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: Ragnhild Boström, Winston Churchill, P. Fjellstedt, Peter Halldorf, Sven-Erik Pernler, Harald Rasmussen, Sven Edvin Salje, Einar Thomassen.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “poured out his bowl”, see Rev 16:1. Concerning “the river, the great Euphrates”, see Rev 9:14. Concerning “upsticking of a sun/east”, see also Rev 7:2a.


Additional studies:

Gen 8:7; Joshua 3:14-17; Is 41:25; Jer 50:38; 51:32; Zech 10:10-12; Judith 5:13; Mark 1:3; Luke 3:3-4; John 1:23; Rev 21:24.


Andrew E. Steinmann "The Tripartite structure of the sixth seal, the sixth trumpet and the sixth bowl of John's Apocalypse (Rev 6:12-7:17, 9:13-11-14, 16:12-16)"; Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 35.1 (March 1992): 69-79.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-26; 2012-07-20; 2015-08-14)

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16:13 And I beheld * (א*) out of the mouth of the false prophet three unclean spirits as if (P47, א*) (they were) frogs.

Word for word (12 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus prima manus): And (i/I)-beheld out-of the mouth (of)-the (of)-false-prophet spirits three unclean as-if frogs.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

Aaron stretched out the hand against the water of Egypt, and it led up the frogs (out of the waters). And the frog/frogs went up and veiled/covered the earth of Egypt. (Ex 8:6, Greek OT)

A spirit came out and stood in the very eyes of the Lord and spoke: “I will cheat (Ahab). … I will go out and be a false spirit in mouth of all his prophets.”And He spoke: “… Come out and make/do in this way.” (1 Kings 22:21-22, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said: “The holy One of Israel) dispatched out into (the Egyptians) … frog/frogs, and they ruined them throughout.” (Ps 78:45, Greek OT)

(The prophet said: “… I am) a man having unclean lips in a middle of a people having unclean lips.” (Is 6:5a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) “From priest and till false prophet, all have made/dealt falsely.” (Jer 6:13b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) “I shall lift out the false prophets and the unclean spirit from the earth.” (Zech 13:2b, Greek OT)

(Solomon said:) “In stead of (what is) living in water the river belched out a multitude of frogs.” (Wisdom of Solomon 19:10b)


The Latter Revelation:

Having been baptized Jesus straight/’straight off’ ascended from the water; and behold, the heavens were opened, and (John) beheld a (א,*א,B) spirit of God descending as if (it was) a pigeon * (א*,B) coming against Him. (Matt 3:16)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "Give heed from/to the false prophets, whoever/who come towards you in clothes of sheep but from inside are rapacious wolves." (Matt 7:15)

(Jesus said to the scribes and the Pharisees:) “When – according to the circumstances – the unclean spirit may come out from the man, it 'comes through'/passes through waterless places, seeking rest, and does not find. Then it says: ‘I will turn myself next to, into my house, from which I came out.’ And having come it finds (it) being at leisure and (א,*א) being (and having been) swept and being (and having been) adorned. Then it goes and takes in company with itself by its side seven other spirits more evil than itself. And (on) their having come in it dwells there. And the last things of that man become worse than the first things." (Matt 12:43-45a)

(Jesus said to the crowd:) “The thing going out, out of the mouth, this makes the man common/unclean.” (Matt 15:11b)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "If (your brother who has missed the mark of God) – according to the circumstances – may not hear (you), take by the side of (you) still one or two in company with yourself (א,*א), in order that upon/’with regard to’ a mouth of two or three witnesses every word may stand/’stand firm’." (Matt 18:16)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Many false prophets will rise and lead many astray.” (Matt 24:11)

(Jesus said to the scribes:) “The one who – according to the circumstances – may blaspheme into/’for the purpose of’ the Holy Spirit has not a ‘letting be’/’leaving alone’ into the (coming) age, however/but will be (א,*א) liable to an agelong misdeed,” because they had said: "He has an unclean spirit." (Mark 3:29-30)

(Jesus) (continually) questioned (the man with an unclean spirit): “What (is) a name to you?” And he says to Him: “Legion (is) a name to me, for we are many.” (Mark 5:9)

(Jesus said to the Pharisees and the scribes:) “It/there is nothing ‘from outside’/outside the man going into, into him which is able to make him common/unclean. However/but the things going out, out of the man is/are the things making the man common/unclean.” (Mark 7:15)

All (in the synagogue continually) were witnesses to (Jesus) and (continually) wondered on/at the sayings of joybringing (grace), (sayings) going out, out of His mouth. And they (continually/repeatedly) said: "Is by no means this One a son of Joseph?" (Luke 4:22)

It became amazement against/over all (in the synagogue), and they talked together with, towards one another saying: "What (is) this saying, because He in/with (judicial) authority and ability 'arranges on'/orders the unclean spirits, and they come out." (Luke 4:36)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "You are (א,* א) witnesses to these things. And behold, I dispatch away the promise of My Father against you. But you, sit down in the city till (the time in) which you may be set/clothed in ability out of (the) height." (Luke 24:48-49)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "When – according to the circumstances – the One being called to the side of (you) may come, which I will send to you from the side of the Father, the Spirit of the truth, which goes out from the side of the Father, that One will be a witness on account of Me.” (John 15:26)

Out of the mouth (of the Son of the Man) a two-mouthed sharp large sword going/went out. … (Rev 1:16b)

The heads of the horses (are) as the heads of lions. And fire and smoke and sulphur go out, out of their mouths. From/’owing to’ these three blows, the third of the men was killed, out/’in consequence’ of the fire and the smoke and the sulphur, of the thing going out, out of their mouths. (Rev 9:17b-18)

If anyone wants to act unrighteously (against the two witnesses), fire goes out, out of their mouth and eats down/up their enemies. And if anyone may want to act unrighteously (against) them, in this way he must be killed. (Rev 11:5)

The serpent threw water as a river out of his mouth behind the woman, in order that he might make/cause her worn in a river. And the earth succoured the woman, and the earth opened its mouth and drank down the river which the dragon threw out of his mouth. (Rev 12:15-16)

And it was given to it a mouth talking great things and blasphemies. And it was given to it * (א*) to make/do what it wants (א,*א) (for) forty-two months. And it opened its mouth into/in blasphemies towards God to blaspheme His name and His tent, the ones in the heaven dwelling in a tent. (Rev 13:5-6)

I beheld another little wild animal ascending out of the earth. And it (continually) had two horns like (on) a little ram, and it (continually) talked as a dragon. And (this second little wild animal) makes/exercises every/all the (judicial) authority of the first little wild animal in the very eyes of it. And it makes the earth and the ones dwelling in it * (א,* א) to prostrate (towards) the first little wild animal (in adoration of it), whose (wound of) the blow of death had been attended. And it makes great signs. It may make ‘in order’/so that and/also fire (may) descend out of the heaven into/to the earth in the very eyes of the men. And it leads astray the ones dwelling upon the earth because of the signs which it was given to it to make in the very eyes of the little wild animal, saying to the ones dwelling upon the earth to make an image to the little wild animal, which (א,* א) has (the wound of) a blow of the dagger and has lived/’come to life’. (Rev 13:11-14)

In the mouth (of the one hundred and forty-four thousand) no lie was found, for (P47, א,* א) they are unblemished. (Rev 14:5)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

The book is badly written, uninspired, it nags and chews. And the Author is not nice with its prophet pretensions, because he does not say anything new. That he is a false prophet who pleads love of truth this I think, for he received worldly distinction by the Black Heathens in the French Republic. (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev 16, maj 1907-12 juli 1908" p 338-339; letter 1908-06-14 to Gustaf Sabelfelt; the book which Sabelfelt sent to Strindberg is the Christian Science-work Science and Health with Key to the Scriptures; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

1898 May 17th. (Newspaper quotation: Swedish women feel called upon to make a protest against the speech which Miss Ellen Key "on behalf of the Swedish women made for d:r Henrik Ibsen at the feast the 16th of April (1898). The speaker has at this occasion sketched up 'the release of the personality' as implying 'the will to love, hate, work, err . . . ' implying 'freedom for all the forces and powers of the personality for the reaching of a certain ideal'. Miss Key has also prophesied a next 'glory, such the earth still has not witnessed', when the woman will become "really believing in the new religion, according to which human nature will follow its own laws, without on that occasion be ashamed of any sense of guilt'." . . . (Strindberg comments:) "Fela = commit crime unpunished, follow own laws = follow evil laws, sense of guilt = the voice of the conscience. Of this it is seemed that it is Ibsen who is the criminal prophet, and not only I." (August Strindberg "Ockulta dagboken" p 59; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Your thirst for power, your egoism, Your prophet-megalomania is the greatest I have seen! So You say: Believe in me and my party, or You are black, condemned and will die. Above all: Black! This is to be brotherly love, the giving up of the self (have You ever given up Your self?), mercy. Have on the other hand I ever interfered in Your spiritual life! Have I demanded conversion of You? I proclaim and tell what I see but have never preached for You, never chased Your soul, never punished, but once warned, and then You was angry! . . . And You have another mission: to pain, tempt and be resisted. (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev XI maj 1895-nov 1896" p 394; letter 1896-11-23 to Torsten Hedlund; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: H.C. Andersen, Fridtjuv Berg, (Den heliga) Birgitta, Enid Blyton, K.E. Ekman, Fatih El-Mudarris, Hilding Fagerberg, Jane Fredlund, Otto Funcke, Carl Grimberg, Dick Harrison, Olov Hartman, Hjalmar Holmquist, Bernhard Karlgren, Harry Martinson, Axel Munthe, Joanne Kathleen Rowling, Johan Ludvig Runeberg, Viktor Rydberg, Erich Sauer, Hj. Selldén, Birger Sjöberg, Alf Tergel, Anton Tjechov, Mark Twain.


My own comments and speculations:

Compare the three spirits here with the many in Mark 5:9 and the seven/eight in Matt 12:45.

Concerning “the false prophet”, see also the (second) little wild animal in Rev 13:11, 13:12, 13:13 and 13:14.


Greek words:

akathartos (unclean) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Luke 4:36; Rev 16:13 – 1 Macc 1:48; 4:43; Sir 34:4; 40:15; 51:5; Matt 10:1; 12:43, Mark 1:23,26-27; 3:11,30; 5:2,8,13; 6:7; 7:25; 9:25; Luke 4:33; 6:18; 8:2(א,*א); Luke 8:29; 9:42; 11:24; Acts 5:16; 8:7; 10:14,28; 11:8; 1 Cor 7:14; 2 Cor 6:17; Eph 5:5; Rev 17:4; 18:2.

batrachos (frog) (in the NT + one example in the Apocrypha) Wisdom of Solomon 19:10; Rev 16:13.

pseudoprofêtês (false prophet) (in the NT + examples in the OT) Jer 6:13; Zech 13:2; Matt 7:15; 24:11 – Matt 24:24; Mark 13:22; Luke 6:26; Acts 13:6; 2 Pet 2:1; 1 John 4:1; Rev 19:20; 20:10.

(h)ôsei (as if) (in the NT + one example in the Apocrypha) Matt 3:16; Rev 16:13 (א*) – II Macc 11:5; Matt 9:36; 14:21; 15:38(א*); Mark 9:26; Luke 3:23; 9:14,28; 22:41,44,59; 23:44; 24:11; Acts 1:15; 2:3,41; 6:15; 10:3; 19:7; Rom 6:13; Heb 1:12.


Additional studies: Ex 8:2-14; Lev 11:1-47; Deut 14:3-21; 1 Kings 22:23; Ps 105:30; Rev 18:2; 19:20; 20:10.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-27; 2012-07-20; 2015-08-14)

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16:14 For they are spirits of little demons, making signs (which) (P47, א*) go out against/to the kings of the whole (inhabited) world, to lead them together into the war of the great day of God, the All-powerful.

Word for word (26 words in the Greek text): (they)-are for spirits (of)-little-demons making signs '(to)-go-out'/'(which)-go-out' against the kings (of)-the (of)-(inhabited)-world whole (to)-lead-together them into the war (of)-the (of)-day the great (of)-the (of)-god the all-powerful.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Aaron) made the signs opposite (Israel). And the people believed. (Ex 4:30b-31a, Greek OT)

A prophet as Moses has not yet stood up in Israel ... in/with all the signs and omens which the Lord dispatched away him to make them in earth/'the land' Egypt, to Pharaoh and to all his attendants/servants and to every/all his earth/land. (Deut 34:10a,11, Greek OT)

(The men of Gibeon said to Jesus/Joshua:) “Having been (and being) led together all the kings of the Amorites ... are against us.” (Joshua 10:6b, Greek OT)

A spirit came out and stood in the very eyes of the Lord and spoke: “I will cheat (Ahab). … I shall go out and be a false spirit in the mouth of all his prophets.”And He spoke: “… Come out and make/do in this way.” (1 Kings 22:21-22, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said:) "The kings of the earth stood ‘by the side of’/n ear and the leaders were led together ... ‘down from’/against the Lord and ‘down from’/against His Anointed (Christ)." (Ps 2:2a, Greek OT)

(The Lord) will lift/’lift up’ a sign into/'purposed for' the nations and will lead together the perished ones of Israel and lead together the sow asunder ones of Judas out of the four wings/corners of the earth. (Is 11:12, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) “My judicial verdict (is) to receive kings into, into synagogues of nations, (to) the thing to pour out against them every/all wrath of My passion, for the reason that every/all the earth will be entirely used up in fire of My zeal.” (Zeph 3:8b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) “All the nations of the earth will be led together against, against (Jerusalem).” (Zech 12:3b, Greek OT)

(Azariah said to Tobias:) “The heart and the liver of the fish (can be used to take away the pain caused by) a little demon or an evil spirit.” (Tobit 6:8a, S)

(Antiochus) led together all the abilities/armies of his kingdom ... The king Demetrius heard (this) and led/brought together all extreme/mighty abilities/armies and came out into a meeting (with) him into a war. (1 Macc 3:27b; 10:2)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) ”You will be about to hear (of) wars and hearsays of wars.” (Matt 24:6a)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “This good little message of the kingdom will be proclaimed in the whole (inhabited) world into/’for a purpose of’ a testimony to all the nations, and then the end will arrive.” (Matt 24:14)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "False Christs and false prophets will rise and will give signs and omens towards, if able/possible, to lead away the chosen ones astray." (Mark 13:22)

In the synagogue it/there (continually) was a man having a spirit of an unclean little demon. (Luke 4:33a)

(Jesus said to His disciples: “You will be) led away against kings and commanders ‘with respect to’/’on account of’ My name.” (Luke 21:12b)

The sun will be turned about into darkness and the moon into blood, before the great * (א,*א) day of the Lord come/comes. (Acts 2:20)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

Jesus so indeed and/also made many other signs in the very eyes of His disciples, (signs) which it is not being (and not having been) written in this scroll. (John 20:30)

(Joybringing grace and peace) from Jesus Christ, the faithful witness, the first-born of the dead (bodies) and the leader of the kings of the earth. (Rev 1:5a)

(The Lord God), the One who is and the One who (continually) was and the One who comes, the All-powerful. (Rev 1:8b)

(I will * (keep) (א,*א) you) out of the hour of the test, the (hour) being about to come upon the whole (inhabited) world to try the ones dwelling upon the earth. (Rev 3:10b, “Philadelphia”)

(The four living beings) have not rest, day and night saying: “Holy, holy, holy, holy, holy, holy, holy, holy (א*) the Lord God, the All-powerful, the One who (continually) was and the One who is and the One who comes.” (Rev 4:8b)

The kings of the earth … hid themselves into the caves and into/among the rocks of the mountains. And they say to the mountains and to the rocks: “Fall against us and hide us from a face/presence of the One being seated on (א,* א) the throne and from the wrath of the little Ram, because the great day of their wrath has come and who is able to stand?” (Rev 6:15-17)

(The twenty-four elders said:) “We are thankful to You, the Lord God, the All-powerful, the One who is and the One who (continually) was, and (P47, א*) that You have taken (and take) Your great ability and have been/’begun to be’ king.” (Rev 11:17)

The great dragon was thrown (out), * (א,*א) a serpent, he of (a) beginning, he being called a slanderer, * (א,*א) the adversary who leads the whole (inhabited) world astray, he was thrown into/'down to' the earth, and his messengers were thrown (down) in company with him. (Rev 12:9)

(The second little wild animal) leads astray the ones dwelling upon the earth because of the signs which it was given to it to make in the very eyes of the little wild animal, saying to the ones dwelling upon the earth to make an image to the little wild animal, which (א,* א) has (the wound of) a blow of the dagger and has lived/’come to life’. (Rev 13:14)

(The ones who had conquered said:) “Great and wondrous (are) Your works, the Lord God, the All-powerful. Righteous and true (are) Your ways, * (א*) King of the ages (P47, א*).” (Rev 15:3b)

I heard the sacrificial altar saying: “Yes, the Lord God, the All-powerful, true and righteous (are) Your judgments.” (Rev 16:7)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: William Dalrymple.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “whole (inhabited) world”, see also Rev 3:10b. Concerning “great day of God”, see also Rev 6:16b-17.


Additional studies: Matt 24:11,24; John 12:37; 20:30-31; 2 Thess 2:9; 1 Tim 4:1; 1 John 4:3; Rev 11:7; 13:13; 17:12-14; 19:19; 20:8.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-27; 2012-07-21; 2015-08-16)

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16:15 Behold, He (א*) comes as a thief. Happy is the one being awake and keeping his garments, in order that he may not walk about naked and they/people may see his indecency.

Word for word (21 words in the Greek text): Behold (he)-comes as (a)-thief. happy the-(one) being-awake and keeping the garments his, in-order-that not naked (he)-may-walk-about and (they)-may-see the indecency his.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

Noah began/'was a ledader', a man, a farmer of earth, and he planted a vineyard. And he drank out of the wine and ‘was made’/became drunk and he was denudated in his house. And Ham, the father of Canaan, beheld the denudation of his father. (Gen 9:20-22a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Moses:) “You shall not ascend in steps against My sacrificial altar, in that way that – according to the circumstances – your indecency may not be revealed upon it.” (Ex 20:26, Greek OT)

(Moses said to Israel:) “Your (walled) camp shall be holy. And (the Lord) shall not behold (any) indecency of concern in/among you, and (therefore) turn away from you.” (Deut 23:14b, Greek OT)

(Nehemiah said to two men who feared God more than many:) “The gates of Jerusalem shall not be opened till/until together (with) the sun, and let those still being awake shut the doors and wedge up.” (Neh 7:3a, Greek OT)

(Joel prophecied: "A much/many-headed and stable people) will ascend against the habitations (in Jerusalem), and they will come into (them) through windows as thieves." (Joel 2:9b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Edom:) "If thieves came into/in towards you or robbers (by) night, where/how may you (not) - according to the circumstances - be tossed away?" (Obadiah v 5a, Greek OT)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “A beginning of a life ... (is) a house veiling/hiding indecency.” (Sir 29:21)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “Educate your son and work in/with him, in order that he may not ‘cut towards’/’stumble against’ in/with his indecency.” (Sir 30:13)


The Latter Revelation:

A certain youth being (and having been) wrapped up in a linen sheet upon (the) naked (body) (continually) followed together with (Jesus). And they ‘get power (over)’/seize him. But having left the linen shirt entirely/behind he fled naked. (Mark 14:51-52)

A certain male went out of the city to meet (Jesus. He had) a little demon and was not set/clothed in (any) garment ... (Luke 8:27b)

(Jesus said to His diciples:) "Let your hips be being (and having been) girded around. … Happy (are) those slaves whom, on (their) lord's having come, he will find being awake. Amen I say to you, that he will gird himself around and cause them to ‘lean back’/’lay down (at table)’. * (א*). ... Have knowledge of this that if the master of the house knew (and had known) what kind hour the thief comes, he had – according to the circumstances – not let his house be to be dug through.” (Luke 12:35a,37,39)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

Happy the one reading and the ones hearing the saying (א,*א) of the prophecy and keeping the things having been (and being) written in it, for the seasonable time (is) near. (Rev 1:3)

The one conquering and the one keeping My works until (the) end, to him I will give (judicial) authority upon/’with regard to’ the nations. (Rev 2:26, “Thyatira”)

‘Become being awake’/’wake up’ and ‘set fast’/confirm the rest, which (continually) was about to die, for I have not found (and do not find) your works having been (and being) completed in the very eyes of My God. (Rev 3:2, “Sardis”)

If you so – according to the circumstances – may not change your mind (א*), I will arrive against you (א,*א) as a thief, and you will (א,*א) not/certainly not have knowledge of what kind hour I will arrive against you. (Rev 3:3b, “Sardis”)

They will walk about in company with Me in white (things), because they are worthy. The one conquering will in this way be wrapped up in white garments. (Rev 3:4b-5a, “Sardis”)

I come quickly. (Rev 3:11a, “Philadelphia”)

You do not know that you are the wretched and pitiable and beggarly and blind and naked. I give you counsel to buy from the side of Me and white garments, in order that you may wrap up yourself in (them) and (that) the shame of your nakedness may not be made visible. (Rev 3:17b-18a, “Laodicea”)

I heard a voice out of the heaven, saying: “Write: ‘Happy the dead (bodies), the ones dying in a lord from just now * (P47, א*), says the Spirit, ‘in order that they may rest out of their bothers, for their works follow in company with them.’” (Rev 14:13)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

(The words) ‘Blessed is he that watcheth and keepeth his garments.’ ... literally describe, as we learn from the Rabbis, the punishment awarded to the Temple-guards if found asleep at their posts. ... (Such a) guard was beaten, or his garments were set on fire. ... The priest whose duty it was to superintend the arrangements might any moment knock at the door and demand entrance. He came suddenly and unexpectedly, no one knew when. (Alfred Edersheim “The Temple” p 142,148-149)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Bob Dylan, Bo Frid, Hjalmar Gullberg, Torgny Lindgren, Martin Luther, Vilhelm Moberg, Niklas Piensoho, Enar Skillius, Jesper Svartvik, Birgitta Yavari.


My own comments and speculations:

This verse especially alludes to the (assembly) of called out in Sardis. Cf. My own comments and speculations to Rev 1:11b.

Concerning “comes as a thief”, see Rev 3:3b.


Greek word:

aschêmosynê (indecency) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Sir 30:13; Rev 16:15 – Sir 26:8; Rom 1:27.


Additional studies: Matt 24:42-44; 25:13; 26:38-41; Mark 13:33-37; 14:34-38; John 10:1,8; 13:17; 20:29; 21:7; Acts 20:31; 1 Cor 16:13; Col 4:2; 1 Thess 5:2,6,10; 1 Pet 5:8; 2 Pet 3:10; Rev 19:9; 20:6; 22:14.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-27; 2012-07-21; 2015-08-16)

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16:16 And they (א,*א) led them together to a (א,*א) place, the one being (in) Hebrew called Armageddon (= Mountain of Megiddo).

Word for word (9 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus): And (they)-led-together them into (a)-place the-(one) being-called (in)-Hebrew Armageddon.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

The kings of Canaan waged war … upon/near water of Megiddo. They took not ‘urge to have’/booty of/in silvermetal. Out of the heaven stars waged war. (Judges 5:19b-20a, A, Greek OT)

(The king of Judas) fled into Megiddo and died there. (2 Kings 9:27b, Greek OT)

'In the thing to behold'/'on (Pharaoh's) beholding' (the king of Judas) he put him to death in Megiddo. (2 Kings 23:29b, Greek OT)

(The king of Judas) came (to) the thing to wage war in the plain Megiddo. (2 Chron 35:22b, Greek OT)

(The king of Babylon) spoke in (his) mind: ”I will ascend into the heaven, I will put my throne above the constellations of the heaven.” I shall sit down in/on a high mountain against/’extending over’ the high mountains, the ones towards ‘north wind’/north.” (Is 14:13, Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) “… Every mountain and hill will be humbled/’made low’.” (Is 40:4a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) “The mountains will be broken in pieces …” (Ezek 38:20b, Greek OT)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus) says to (His disciples:) “For because of your ‘a few’/little faith, amen I say to you: ‘If – according to the circumstances – you may have faith as a scarlet kernel of mustard, you will speak to this mountain: ‘Step ‘in from’/’from here’ over there’, and it will step over, and nothing will be unable to you.” (Matt 17:20)

‘Having answered’/’Jesus answered and’ spoke to (the disciples): “Amen, I say to you, if you – according to the circumstances – may have faith and may not doubt, you will not only make/do the thing (which was done) of/to the fig tree, ‘however and’/’but also’ – according to the circumstances – you may speak to this mountain: ’’Be lifted’/rise and ‘be thrown’/’throw yourself’ into the sea’, (and) it will become/’come about’.” (Matt 21:21)

… Every mountain and hill will be humbled/’made low’. (Luke 3:5a)

There (continually) was a herd of fit/well-fattened pigs being tended in/on the mountain. And (the little demons) called (Jesus) to the side of, in order that He might give them permission into/to those to come into them. And He gave them permission. … (And) the herd stormed ‘down from’/down the steep precipice into the lake and were ‘choked away’/stifled. (Luke 8:32,33b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

Every mountain and hill (א,* א) were stirred out of their places. (Rev 6:14b)

(The locusts like horses) have upon them the (א,* א) king (of the abyss), the messenger of the abyss, to whom (א,* א) a name to him (in) Hebrew (is) Abaddon (= Perdition), and in ‘the Greek’/Greek he has (the) name Apollyon (= “Perisher”). (Rev 9:11)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

Are you ready for the judgment? Are you ready for that terrible swift sword? Are you ready for Armageddon? Are you ready for the day of the Lord? Are you ready, I hope you're ready. (Bob Dylan "Are You Ready?" p 433; 1980)

National Socialism and Bolshevism - it is something like two horror dinosaurs in fight with each other. . . . The largest military units of world history stand against one another at the Eastern front. It is horrible to think of it. If it is to be Armageddon which is at hand! I have read general history here in Furusund and it is really a horribly depressing reading - war and war and war and sufferings for mankind. And never they learn anything but only go on to pour blood, sweat and tears upon the earth. (Astrid Lindgren "Krigsdagböcker 1939-1945" p 101; 1941-06-28, translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

In this night (Skugge's) soul will be taken from him and be thrown down in Dimona to the black Magi. You have seen the dark world down there resembling a ball sewed up with variegated patches of different colours. There magicians and witches live, who throw dust in the eyes of one another and arouse false ideas. They could not think, but throw up out of the memory with influence by interests and passions. It is a prison where all watch and pain one another with enviousness, there is a secret, invisible convenant, called Armageddon, ruling in the hidden; they worship no other god than themselves, they only love the evil which they call good and the lie which they call truth; and woe the one who does not want to serve their selfish interests. Strife and zeal, murder and stealing, faithlessness, falseness, fraud are their life. . . . Armageddon, the cursed convenant, which now is sitting in the government, has lost every memory o its high origin; they think themselves be descended from a wart-hog; the earth they regard has been developed out of a poisonous gas having made itself; the purpose of life is to eat, sleep and rule. . . . Friends are secret enemies being forged together by a common antipathy to a third; truth is called lie, the evil good! . . . Epher is the worst of the seven great worlds: a prison and a lunatic asylum of many names, but first and last Coseba or The Lie City, where everything is so mendacious, all ideas so destroyed, that also the one who with a sincere mind tries to say the truth, entangle himself in hereditary lies and becomes caught. (August Strindberg "Armageddon - Början till En Roman" p 106-108; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: G.R. Beasley-Murray, Winston Churchill, P. Fjellstedt, Alf Henrikson, Hans-Eric Holger, Sven Lidman, Efraim Palmqvist, Göran Sahlberg, Vikram Seth, A.M. Strinnholm, Klas Östergren.


My own comments and speculations:

The plain of Megiddo (2 Chron 35:22) has here (in a restoration perspective?) become a mountain. But this mountain of the enemies shall be made low (cf. Rev 16:20) Compare also the sermon on the mount in Matt 5-7 with the sermon on the plain in Luke 6:17-49.

Concerning “in Hebrew”, see Rev 9:11.


Greek words:

(H)armagedôn (Armageddon) Rev 16:16. Cf. Magedôn (Megiddo) Joshua 12:21; 17:11; Judges 1:27; 5:19; 1 Kings 4:12; 9:15; 2 Kings 9:27; 23:29-30; 1 Chron 7:29; 2 Chron 35:22. See also My own comments and speculations.


Additional studies: Zech 12:11; John 5:2; 19:13; Rev 19:19.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-27; 2012-07-21; 2015-08-16)

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16:17 And when he * (א*) poured out his bowl against the air, a great/loud voice and/also came out, out of the temple of God (א,* א), (a voice) saying: “It becomes/’comes about’ (and has become/’come about’).”

Word for word (20 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus prima manus): And when (he)-poured-out the bowl his against the air, and came-out (a)-voice great out-of the temple (of)-the (of)-god saying: (it)-becomes-(and-has-become).


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

The king will make/do according to his will, and he will be provoked to wrath and heighten himself against/over every god and talk different things against the God of the gods, and he will be (on) a good way till – according to the circumstances – the wrath may be brought to a consummation. For into/’the purpose of’ him it becomes a consummation. (Dan 11:36, Greek OT)


The Latter Revelation:

But whole/all this becomes/’comes about’ (and has become/’come about’) in order that it might be completed the thing having been spoken by a lord through the prophet. (Matt 1:22a)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “You may not adopt as a law that I came to loosen down/up the law or the prophets. I did not come to loosen down/up however/but to complete. For Amen I say to you: ‘Till – according to the circumstances - the heaven and the earth may come by the side of, not one “iota” (the smallest letter) or one tittle, may not/certainly not come by the side of from the law, till – according to the circumstances – all things may become/’come about’.’” (Matt 5:17-18)

(Jesus said to the crowd:) “Whole/all this becomes/’comes about’ (and has become/’come about’), in order that the writings of the prophets may be completed.” (Matt 26:56a)

(Some questioned Jesus:) “What (will) the sign (be) when these things – according to the circumstances – may be about to become/’come about’?” (Luke 21:7b)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “This generation may not/certainly not go by the side of till * (א,* א) all things may have become/’come about’.” (Luke 21:32b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

All things became through (the Saying), and separate from It nothing (P66, א*) became that has become (and becomes). (John 1:3)

When (Jesus) (א*) so had taken the sour wine, He spoke: "It is (and has been) ended!" (John 19:30a)

* (א,* א) And smoke ascended out of the well, as smoke of a great furnace. And the sun was gloomed (א,*א) and the air * (א*). (Rev 9:2)

(The reed? said:) “Rise and measure the temple of God and the sacrificial altar and the ones prostrating themselves in/at it.” (Rev 11:1b)

I heard a great/loud voice out of the temple, saying to the seven messengers: “Withdraw and pour out the seven bowls of the passion of God into the earth.” (Rev 16:1)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: Martin Luther.


My own comments and speculations:

Here I am not sure what Nestle-Aland means to be the text of Sinaiticus, prima manus, as to the first words in the first sentence. If the seventh messenger is not mentioned here, this messenger can be the one mentioned in Rev 18:1. Compare with My own comments and speculations to Rev 16:3.

Concerning “poured out his bowl” and “a great/loud voice … out of the temple”, see Rev 16:1. Concerning “the temple of God”, see Rev 11:1b.


Additional studies:

Is 66:6; John 11:43; 19:30; Acts 26:22; Rev 14:15; 21:6.


Robert L. Thomas "An Analysis of the Seventh Bowl of the Apocalypse"; The Master's Seminary Journal 5.1 (Spring 1994): 73-96.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-27; 2012-07-21; 2015-08-17)

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16:18 And they/it became peals of thunder and rays of light and voices (א,*א). And it became a great shaking, such as it had not become from the (time when) men (א,*א) became upon the earth, so great a shaking, great in this way.

Word for word (25 words in the Greek text; the sequence of the words according to Sinaiticus): and (they/it)-became peals-of-thunder and rays-of-light and voices and (a)-shaking (it)-became great, such-as not (it)-became from which/'the-(time-when)' men became upon the earth, so-great (a)-shaking, in-this-way great.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

God formed the man of gravel from the earth and puffed in, into his face, a breath of life. And the man became into a living soul. (Gen 2:7, Greek OT)

It/there (continually) was hail, and flaming fire in the hail. But the hail (was) extremely, extremely much/great whichever/which has (and does) not become of such kind in Egypt from the (time when) it upon/'with regard to' her has become (and becomes) a nation. (Ex 9:24, Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) “Bad, great things be/were led against, against us, such as have not become underneath the heaven, in so far as it has become in Jerusalem.” (Dan 9:12b, Greek OT)

(That seasonable time) will be a seasonable time of oppression, such an oppression as not has become (and becomes) from the (time when the people) has become (and becomes) a nation till that seasonable time. (Dan 12:1a, Greek OT Theod)

… And behold, voices and noise, peals of thunder and a shaking; trouble upon the earth. (Esther 1:1d/A4, Greek OT)

(After Judas' death) it became a great oppression in Israel, whichever/which has not become, not from the/which day a prophet was beheld (among) them. (1 Macc 9:27)

(The inhabitants in Joppa) brought a so great wicked act to a consummation. (2 Macc 12:3a)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said: “The highest One) makes His rays of light of judicial verdict quick. (Sir 43:13b)

(Baruch said:) “It has not been made/done below ‘every of’/’everything in’ the heaven according as the Lord has made/done in Jerusalem.” (Baruch 2:2a)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Then it will be a great oppression, such as it has not become (א,* א) from a beginning of an adornment/’adorned world’ till the now, nor not/certainly not, may become.” (Matt 24:21)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

Rays of light and voices and peals of thunder go out, out of the throne. (Rev 4:5a)

I beheld when (the little Ram) opened the sixth seal, and it became a great shaking. (Rev 6:12a)

They/it became peals of thunder and voices and rays of light and a shaking. (Rev 8:5b)

(The stable messenger) shouted (with) a great/loud voice, just as a lion lows, and when he had shouted, * (א*) seven peals of thunder talked (with their) 'of selves'/own voices. (Rev 10:3)

In that hour it became a great shaking. And the tenth of the city fell. And (the) names of (the men), seven of the number of one thousand, were killed in the shaking. (Rev 11:13a)

The seventh messenger sounded the trumpet. And they/it became great/loud voices in the heaven. (Rev 11:15a)

They/it became rays of light and voices and peals of thunder and a shaking and a great hail. (Rev 11:19b)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

I went so near Jonatan I could come. We sat there leaning against the rock-face talking with one another in the darkness. I was not afraid, but it had come such a strange unrest over me. . . . Then there came a lightning and a thunderclap, so that it clapped in the rock-faces. And then we had it over us. A storm, I did not know that there were such storms. The thunder came rolling over the mountains with a thunder, so that one did not more hear Karmafallet, and the flashes of lightning hunted each other. Sometimes all became flaming light, and so in the next moment a still more deep darkness. It was as if the primeval night was over us. (Astrid Lindgren "Bröderna Lejonhjärta" p 161; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

At least four days (Madicken) had to be in bed uncle Berglund has said. Madicken gives a howl, when mother tells it. "Four days . . . that will not go at all! On Wednesday we have the picnic and then I am going to . . . " "You are certainly not going to do that", mother said. "You have had picnic enough." . . . Madicken starts The Great Earthquake. It is so father calls it, when she becomes so awfully angry and in despair as only Madicken can become. . . . When (Linus-Ida) hears the wild cries, she goes up to the nursery looking austerly at Madicken. "I say, I say, now she is ungodly, Madicken! Think of your creator in your youth, it is written in the Scripture, do it she and lie not here wishing life out of herself." (Astrid Lindgren "Madicken" p 60-62; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

The hunter: "What stands in north? A slate-mountain, a cloud like the blackboard of the school, still unwritten - it roars! The teacher comes! And it is quiet in the class! Quiet in nature when the great Teacher speaks! Look now! - A lightning from east to west - in ink of fire he writes his name on a blackblue cloud! I know You, endless, invisible, who is seen, you rigorous one having mercy on all! - And the pines of the mountains bow, and the brooks soundlessly stand still. The chamois frightened knelt, bare-headed vulture crouches down with bald pate, on the crest of the alp; nature trembles! - I, called the lord in the creation, a nickname, of which I am not the cause, I bend and am ashamed, the smallest one before your throne of omnipotence. (August Strindberg "Stora landsvägen" p 244-245; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Carl Grimberg, Juan Ramon Jiménez, Harry Sjöman, G.E. Söderholm.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “peals of thunder and rays of light and voices”, see Rev 4:5a. Concerning “great shaking”, see Rev 6:12a.


Greek words:

(h)oios (such as) (in the NT + examples in the OT) Dan 12:1(Theod); Matt 24:21; Rev 16:18 – Gen 41:19; 44:15; Sir 49:14; Mark 9:3; 13:19; Rom 9:6; 1 Cor 15:48; 2 Cor 10:11; 12:20; Phil 1:30; 1 Thess 1:5; 2 Tim 3:11.

têlikoutos (so great) 2 Macc 12:3; Rev 16:18 – (3 Macc 3:9; 4 Macc 16:4) 2 Cor 1:10; Heb 2:3; 12:1(א*); Jas 3:4.


Additional studies:

John 12:28-29.


Richard J. Bauckham "The Eschatological Earthquake in the Apocalypse of John": (tidskriften) Novum Testamentum 19 (1977): 224-233.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-27; 2012-07-21; 2015-08-17)

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16:19 And the great city became into three parts, and the cities of the nations fell. And the great Babylon was remembered in the very eyes of God to give her a (א,* א) cup of * (א,* א) wine of the passion of the (א,* א) wrath.

Word for word (31 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus): and became the city the great into three parts and the cities (of)-the (of)-nations fell. and Babylon the great was-remembered in-the-very-eyes-of the god (to)-give her (a)-cup (of)-wine (of)-the (of)-passion (of)-the (of)-wrath.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

Dasem/Resen 'upwards a middle'/between Nineveh and Calah; this (is) the great city. (Gen 10:12, Greek OT)

The Lord sowed (the men) asunder from (Confusion/Babel) against/over (the) face of ‘every the’/’the whole’ earth. And they ceased building the city and the tower. (Gen 11:8, Greek OT)

(The Lord turned over) the cities in which Lot dwelt .... (Gen 19:29b, Greek OT)

The people (continually) was grumbling opposite the Lord (over their) evil things. And the Lord heard (it), and He was passionate (in) wrath. And it was ‘burnt out’/kindled fire in/among them from the side of the Lord and ate down/up a certain part (New American Standard: some of the outskirts) of the (walled) camp. (Num 11:1, Greek OT)

(David said to the Lord:) “You have ‘taken entirely for Yourself’/destroyed cities (of the enemies). The memory of them has perished.” (Ps 9:6a or 9:7a, Greek OT)

(David said to God:) “Pour out Your wrath against (my adversaries), and let the passion of Your wrath take them down.” (Ps 69:24 or 69:25, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Israel:) “I am, I am the One wiping out your lawlessnesses and I will not/certainly not remember (them).” (Is 43:25b, Greek OT)

Arouse/’wake up’, arouse/’wake up’, stand up Jerusalem having drunk the cup of the passion out of a hand of the Lord. (Is 51:17a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to the prophet:) ”Take this cup of the undiluted wine out of My hand and give all the nations towards whom I dispatch you away towards them to drink.” (Jer 25:15b, Greek OT)

(The king of Babylon) … said: “This is the great Babylon.” (Dan 4:27a or 4:30a, Greek OT)

(Daniel said to the Lord:) “Master, according to Your righteousness, let now Your passion and Your wrath turn away from Your city Jerusalem.” (Dan 9:16a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to the prophet:) “Stand up and go into Nineveh, the great city.” (Jonah 1:2a, Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) “The Mountain of the Olive-trees will be split/divided, the half of it towards upsticking/east and the half of it towards sea/west, an extremely great chaos. …” (Zech 14:4b, Greek OT)

... (Nebuchadnezzar) was king of Assyrians in Nineveh, the great city. (Judith 1:1a)

It became an extremely great wrath against Israel. (1 Macc 1:64)

(Mattathias said to his sons:) ”It is a seasonable time of overturning and a wrath of passion.” (1 Macc 2:49b)

(Solomon said to the Lord:) “You have arranged every thing throughout (with) measure and number and standing-place/balance.” (Wisdom of Solomon 11:20b)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “You may not speak that/: “I shall hide from the Lord, and who will remember me out of height?” (Sir 16:17a)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “According/answering to the stability of the man his passion will be and according/answering to the riches (will) heighten up his wrath.” (Sir 28:10b)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples: “A disgraced Jerosolyma/Jerusalem) is (the) city of the great King.” (Matt 5:35b)

(Jesus said:) “'Every the'/everyone hearing these My sayings and not making/doing them will be like a foolish male, whoever built his habitation against the sand. And the wet descended, and the rivers came and * (א*) cut/struck towards that habitation and it fell and its falling (continually) was great. (Matt 7:26-27)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “The one who – according to the circumstances - may not receive you … it will be more upheld/bearable for the earth/land of Sodom and the earth/land (א,* א) of Gomorrah in a day of judgment than for that city.” (Matt 10:14-15)

(Jesus said to the Pharisees:) “Every kingdom having been ‘divided in portions down from’/’at variance with’ itself is desolated, and every city or habitation having been ‘divided in portions down from’/’at variance with’ itself will not stand.” (Matt 12:25b)

(Jesus said to the Pharisees:) “If the adversary throws out the adversary, he was ‘divided into portions against’/’at variance with’ himself. How will so his kingdom stand?” (Matt 12:26)

(Peter said to Jesus:) “It is fine to us to be here. If You want, I will make three tents here, one for You and one for Moses and one for Elijah.” (Matt 17:4b)

Jesus spoke (to James and John and their mother): "You do not know what you demand. Are you able to drink the cup which I am about to drink?" (Matt 20:22a)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “The king (who gave a wedding banquet) was wrathful and having sent his armies/soldiers he perished those murderers and set their city on fire.” (Matt 22:7)

(Mariam said: “The Lord) took ‘in stead’/’part with’ His boy Israel ‘to remember’/remembering mercy.” (Luke 1:54)

(Zacharias said: “The Lord God of Israel) talked through a mouth of His holy prophets from an age … to remember His holy covenant.” (Luke 1:70,72b)

(The male in the shining clothing) utters: ”Cornelius ... your alms have been remembered in the very eyes of God.” (Acts 10:31)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

The one disobeying the Son shall not behold life, however/but the wrath of God stays against him. (John 3:36b)

Recollect so from where you have fallen (and fall). (Rev 2:5a, “Ephesos”)

Their falls (P47,א,*א)/corpses (will be) upon the street of the great city, whichever/which spiritually is called Sodom and Egypt, whereat/where and/also the (P47, א*) Lord was crucified. (Rev 11:8)

The nations was/were (P47, א*) wrathful, and/but Your wrath came and the seasonable time of the dead (bodies) to be judged. (Rev 11:18a)

Another * (P47, א*), a second one, followed, saying: “She has fallen * (א,* א), the great Babylon, who gives (and has given) all the nations to drink out of the wine of the passion of her fornication.” (Rev 14:8)

Another messenger, a third one, followed them, saying in/with a great/loud voice: “If any one prostrates himself (towards) the little wild animal (in adoration of it) and (towards) its image (in adoration of it) and takes a mark upon his forehead or against his hand, he and/also will drink out of the wine of the passion of God, of the one being (and having been) blended/filled undiluted in the cup of His wrath.” (Rev 14:9-10a)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

Someone has remarked that You went the whole hog (cried and rampaged). Do not so! Force but senses, without in the great eruptions! (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev 16, maj 1907-12 juli 1908" p 203; letter 1908-02-21 to Ivar Nilsson; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

(The pillar saint, father Simon) sang about a rigorous and terrible God, whose wrath no one could appease, who removes the mountains, moves the earth, so that her pillars tremble, speaks to the sun, that she does not rise, and seals the stars; who sends his angels with the bowls of wrath over the world to overthrow the city of the heathens, the great Babylon, the joyful, by silk, gold and scarlet shining, so that light and candlestick will not light there more, the voice of bride and bridegroom never more become heard in it. (Viktor Rydberg "Den siste atenaren I" p 145-146; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Elisabeth Beskow, Linné Eriksson, P. Fjellstedt, Liselotte Johansson, Sven Lidman, Ragnar Ohlsson, Anton Tjechov.


My own comments and speculations:

In the Jewish number symbolism the number three represents God himself. The satanic unity between the slanderer, the little wild animal and the false prophet can no longer remain.


Additional studies: Lev 26:31,33; Num 13:29; 21:2; 31:10; Joshua 6:24; 10:2; Ps 25:7; 75:9; 79:8(9); 139:20; Is 1:7; 14:17; 21:9; 25:2; 30:25; 42:25; 51:22; Jer 2:15; 4:7,26,29; 22:8; 25:17; 31:34; 32:31; 33:5; 36:7; 42:18; 44:6; 48:9; 50:32; 51:8,43; Ezek 6:6; 12:20; 19:7; 25:9; 29:12; 30:7; 35:4; Jonah 3:2-3; 4:11; Micah 5:11,14; Hab 2:16; Sir 23:18; Matt 11:20-24; 26:39,42; Mark 9:5; 14:36; Luke 6:49; 9:33; 10:10-15; 13:4; 22:42; John 18:11; 19:29; Heb 8:12; 10:17; 13:14; Rev 17:10,18; 18:5,10,18-19,21.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-28; 2012-07-21; 2015-08-18)

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16:20 And every island fled, and mountains were not found.

Word for word (8 words in the Greek text): and every island fled and mountains not were-found.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

‘Out of’/since (the sons of Japheth) the islands of the nations were divided by a boundary-line in their earth, everyone according to a tongue in their tribes and in their nations. (Gen 10:5, Greek OT)

(David said:) “Let the ones hating God flee from His face. Let them ‘leave out’/disappear as smoke ‘leaves out’/disappears.” (Ps 68:1b-2a or 68:2b-3a, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said:) “What is it (with) you, sea, because you fled?” (Ps 114:5a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Judas:) “The mountains will (not) be substituted/removed, nor your hills will depart, in this way nor the mercy from the side of Me will ‘leave out’/disappear.”(Is 54:10a, Greek OT)

(The Lord God said to Tyre:) “The islands will fear from/’owing to’ a day of your falling.” (Ezek 26:18, Greek OT)

(The Lord God said:) “I will dispatch away fire against Gog, and the islands will be dwelt upon/’in a time of’ peace.” (Ezek 39:6a, Greek OT)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “The name (of Solomon) overcame into islands far from/away.” (Sir 47:16a)

(Baruch said:) “God has ‘arranged together’/systematized to humble every high mountain … and (that) ravines (shall) be completed.” (Baruch 5:7a)


The Latter Revelation:

(The demons) went away into the pigs, and behold, ‘every the’/’the whole’ herd stormed ‘down from’/over the steep precipice into the sea and they died in the waters. But/and the ones tending (them) fled. (Matt 8:32b-33a)

(Jesus) says to (His disciples:) “For because of your ‘a few’/little faith, amen I say to you: ‘If – according to the circumstances – you may have faith as a scarlet kernel of mustard, you will speak to this mountain: ‘Step ‘in from’/’from here’ over there’, and it will step over, and nothing will be unable to you.” (Matt 17:20)

‘Having answered’/’Jesus answered and’ spoke to (the disciples): “Amen, I say to you, if you – according to the circumstances – may have faith and may not doubt, you will not only make/do the thing (which was done) of/to the fig tree, ‘however and’/’but also’ – according to the circumstances – you may speak to this mountain: ’’Be lifted’/rise and ‘be thrown’/’throw yourself’ into the sea’, (and) it will become/’come about’.” (Matt 21:21)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Let the ones (being) in Judea flee against (א,* א) the mountains.” (Matt 24:16)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

And every mountain and hill (א,* א) were stirred out of their places. (Rev 6:14b)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: Ann-Charlotte Alverfors, Adolphine Fogtmann, Ho Chi Minh, Evert Taube, Esaias Tegnér.


Additional studies: Is 17:13; 33:3; Ezek 26:15; 27:35; Tobit 1:21; Judith 16:15; 1 Macc 2:28; 9:40; Mark 13:14; Luke 3:5; 21:21; John 4:20-21; Rev 20:11.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-28; 2012-07-21; 2015-08-18)

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16:21 And a great hail, as weighing a talent, descends out of the heaven against the men. And the men blasphemed God out/’in consequence’ of the blow of the hail, because its blow is extremely great.

Word for word (30 words in the Greek text): and (a)-hail great as weighing-a-talent descends out-of the heaven against the men, and blasphemed the men the god out-of the blow (of)-the (of)-hail, because great is the blow its extremely.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

The Lord spoke to (Moses): “Advance, descend and ascend (to the mountain Sinai), you and Aaron in company with you, but do not let the priests and the people advance to ascend towards God, (so that) the Lord may not at any time perish from/’owing to’ them.” (Ex 19:24, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Moses:) “All these vessels (you shall make of) a talent of clean/pure gold.” (Ex 25:39, Greek OT)

The meats/meat (continually) was still in the teeth (of Israel), 'before or leave out'/'before it disappeared', and the Lord was passionate into/’for the purpose of’ the people, and the Lord hit the people (with) an extremely great blow. (Num 11:33, Greek OT)

The Lord tossed stones of hail out of the heaven on (the Amorites). … (Joshua 10:11b, Greek OT)

(David) took the crown (of gold) (from the king) … And its standing-place/weight (was) a talent of gold, and (in it was) a valuable stone and (the crown) (continually) was upon David's head. (2 Sam 12:30a, Greek OT)

The ‘very little boys’/servants of the king of the Assyrians blasphemed (the Lord). (2 Kings 19:6b, Greek OT)

Haman had promised the king 10000 talent into/’purposed to’ the treasure, in order that he might perish the Jews. (Esther 4:7b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) “I shall judge (Gog) (with) death/pestilence and blood and inundate (it with) rain and stones of hail.” (Ezek 38:22a, Greek OT)

(The foreign king) had oppressed (Israel) extremely. (1 Macc 10:46b)

(The foreign king) had made/’let ... come’ a great blow upon the earth. (1 Macc 13:32b)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “A great Lord ‘heard upon’/’listened to’ (Jesus/Joshua) in/'through (sending)' stones of hail of a powerful ability.” (Sir 46:5b)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said:) “'Every the'/everyone hearing these My sayings and not making/doing them will be like a foolish male, whoever built his habitation against the sand. And the wet descended, and the rivers came and * (א*) cut/struck towards that habitation and it fell and its falling (continually) was great. (Matt 7:26-27)

One (slave) carried to (the king) many (א*) talents. (Matt 18:24b)

The stone had been (and was) rolled upwards (א,* א, B), for it (continually) was extremely great/large. (Mark 16:4b)

The priest leaders and the scribes … accused (Jesus) sinewily. (Luke 23:10)

One of the badmen/criminals, having been hanged up, (continually) blasphemed (Jesus), saying: “Are you by no means the Christ? Save Yourself and us!” (Luke 23:39)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

Against (the pillar) I will write the name of My God and the name of the city of My God, the new Jerusalem, the one descending out of the heaven from My God, and My name, the new one. (Rev 3:12b, ”Philadelphia”)

The first (messenger) sounded the trumpet, and it became hail and fire, being (and having been) mixed in/with blood, and it was thrown into/to the earth. (Rev 8:7a)

I beheld another stable messenger descending out of the heaven, being (and having been) wrapped up in a cloud. (Rev 10:1a)

They/it became rays of light and voices and peals of thunder and a shaking and a great hail. (Rev 11:19b)

(The second little wild animal) makes great signs. It may make ‘in order’/so that and/also fire (may) descend out of the heaven into/to the earth in the very eyes of the men. (Rev 13:13)

(I beheld) seven messengers having seven blows, the last ones, because in them the passion of God was ended. (Rev 15:1b)

(The men) blasphemed the name of God, the One having the (judicial) authority against/over these blows, and they did not changed their minds to give Him glory. (Rev 16:9b)

They blasphemed the God of the heaven ‘out of’/’in consequence of’ their hardships and ‘out of’/’in consequence of’ their sores. And they did not change their minds * (א,* א). (Rev 16:11)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: Olaus Magnus, Göran Sahlberg.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “great hail”, see also Rev 11:19b. Concerning “men blasphemed God”, see also Rev 16:11.


Greek words:

sfodra (extremely) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) 1 Macc 10:46; Mark 16:4; Rev 16:21 – Tobit 3:10(BA); Judith 1:16; 2:18; 4:2; 7:2,18; 8:30; 14:19; 15:6-7; 1 Macc 2:14,39; 3:41; 4:21; 5:1; 6:41; 8:6,19; 9:22,68; 10:68; 12:52; 13:22; 14:16; 16:7,22; Wisdom of Solomon 18:5(sfodros); Sir 11:6; 43:29; Susanna v 27(Theod); Bel and the Dragon v 30(Theod); Matt 2:10; 17:6,23; 18:31; 19:25; 26:22; 27:54; Luke 18:23; Acts 6:7.

talantiaios (weighing a talent) Rev 16:21. This unusual word strengthens the impression of the extreme greatness of the blow. Cf. the word “talanton” (talent) in the Apocrypha (examples) and the NT: Esther 1:7; 3:9; 4:7; Tobit 4:20; 1 Macc 11:28; 13:16,19; 15:31; 2 Macc 3:11; 4:8,24; 5:21; 8:10-11; Matt 18:24; 25:15-28.


Additional studies: Ex 37:24; 1 Kings 20:39; 2 Kings 5:22; 1 Chron 20:2; Is 28:2,17; 30:30; Ezek 13:11,13; John 1:32; 3:3; 10:33; Rev 9:18.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-28; 2012-07-21; 2015-08-18)

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