Back to chapter listing

Chapter 14

quick navigation to the verses:
1a | 1b | 2 | 3a | 3b | 4a | 4b | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9-10a | 10b | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14a | 14b | 15-16 | 17 | 18a | 18b-19 | 20


14:1a And I beheld, and behold. The little Ram (was) standing against the mountain Zion.

Word for word (11 words in the Greek text): And (i/I)-beheld, and behold the little-ram 'standing-(and-having-stood)'/standing against the mountain Zion.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The Lord said to David, the king of Israel and Judas:) "I have caused a king by (Me) to stand down against Zion (My) holy mountain." (Ps 2:6, Greek OT)

The Lord will be king in Zion and in Jerusalem, and He will be glorified in the very eyes of the elders. (Is 24:23b, Greek OT)

(As) the lion or the young animal may cry on the wild animal … in this way the Lord of host will descend to march against, against the mountain Zion, against its mountains.” (Is 31:4b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Israel:) “… I am the Lord your God, pitching a tent in Zion, My holy mountain.”(Joel 3:17a, Greek OT)

(The foreign leader) ascended into/to mountain Zion, and (some) from the priests came out of, out of the holy things and/’together with’ (some) from the elders of the people to greet him peacefully. ... And/but he stained them. (1 Macc 7:33b-34a)

(Wisdom said:) “In a holy tent I performed public duties in the very eyes of (the Highest One), and in this way I ‘was set fast’/'had my footing' in Zion.” (Sir 24:10)


The Latter Revelation:

(The prophet said:) “Speak to the daughter Zion: ‘Behold, your king comes to you.’” (Matt 21:5a)

(Peter said to his Israelitic brothers:) “Seasonable times of breathing-space may – according to the circumstances – come from the face of the Lord, and He may dispatch away to you the One having before been (and being) in His hand, Christ Jesus, whom heaven indeed must receive until times of ‘state away’/restoration of all things of/about which God talked through (the) mouth of His holy prophets from 'an age'/'the beginning of an age'." (Acts 3:20-21)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

But/and having found a little ass Jesus sat down against it, entirely as it is (and has been) written: “Do not fear, daughter Zion. Behold, your King comes, being seated against a foal of an ass.” (John 12:14-15)

After these things I beheld, and behold, a door being (and having been) opened in the heaven. (Rev 4:1a)

I beheld ‘in a middle of’/’between (on one hand)’ the throne and the four living beings and ‘in a middle of’/’(on the other hand)’ the elders a little Ram standing as having been (and being) slaughtered. (Rev 5:6a)

And I beheld, and behold, a white horse. (Rev 6:2a)

I beheld, and behold (א,* א), another fire-coloured horse came out. (Rev 6:4a)

And I beheld, and behold, a black horse … (Rev 6:5b)

And I beheld, and behold, a light green horse. (Rev 6:8a)

After these things I beheld, and behold, a much/many-headed crowd. (Rev 7:9a)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

It is the task of religion, ethics and the arts to liberate the not so easy calculated, still bound, not liberated store of sympathetic ability and with this realize, in the extent it is possible, the Zion, which looms for men of good will. (Viktor Rydberg "Konstnären och konstverket" p 56; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Luther went back to the Christianity of the apostles, a Christianity which now was about to be humanized, and he was more orthodox than the popes and the councils. . . . In stead of the pope he set the infallibility of the bible, and this was a greater misery, for with this book one can prove everything or nothing. . . . Upon the Old Testament Johann van Leyden based his opinion when he founded a socialistic Zion in Münster going around with a golden crown on his head among his ten wifes as a lesser king Solomon. (August Strindberg "Världshistoriens Mystik" p 29; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

(Jerusalem) was built on four hills. Of these, the western, or ancient Zion, was the highest, rising about 200 feet above Moriah, though still 100 feet lower than the Mount of Olives. (Alfred Edersheim “The Temple”, p 33)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Oloph Bexell, Ylva Eggehorn, Anne Frank, Berndt Gustafsson, Rut Johansson, Lars Lindberg, Carl Henrik Martling, Karl Palmberg, Hilding Pleijel, Erich Sauer, Isaac Basjevis Singer, Erik Sollerman, John Stott, Esaias Tegnr, Birgitta Yavari.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “I beheld, and behold”, see Rev 4:1a. Now this expression occurs for the seventh time and in Rev 14:14 for the eighth and last time in the Revelation. Cf. My own comments and speculations to John 4:16-18.


Paul said to the believers in Rome: “A hardening has become (and becomes) from a part (in) Israel until (the time in) which the complement of the nations may come into (it), and in this way every/all Israel will be saved entirely as it has been (and is) written: ‘The One delivering will arrive out of Zion. He will turn away wickedness from Jacob.’ And this (is) the covenant (with) them from the side of Me, when I – according to the circumstances – may take ‘off for Myself’/away their misses (of My mark).” (Rom 11:25b-27)


Additional studies:

Ps 53:6(7); 74:2; 78:68; 110:2; Is 8:18; 10:12; 28:16; 46:13; 59:20; 62:11; Obadiah v 21; Micah 4:7; Zech 9:9; 1 Macc 4:37-38; John 8:6-8; 1 Thess 4.16-18; Heb 12:22.


Donald Guthrie "The Lamb in the Structure of the Book of Revelation"; Vox Evangelica 12 (1981): 64-71.

Norman Hillyer "'The Lamb' in the Apocalypse"; The Evangelical Quarterly 39.4 (Oct.-Dec. 1967): 228-236.

R.J. Korner "'And I saw . . .' An Apocalyptic Literary Convention for Structural Identification in the Apocalypse"; (the journal) Novum Testamentum 42.2 (2000): 160-183.

J.A. du Rand "A socio-psychological view of the effect of the language (parole) of the Apocalypse of John"; Neotestamentica 24.2 (1990): 351-366.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-20; 2012-07-10; 2015-07-22)

Back to the top

14:1b And in company with It one hundred and forty-four thousand, having Its name and Its Father’s name having been (and being) written upon their foreheads.

Word for word (22 words in the Greek text): and in-company-with it one-hundred (and)-forty four thousand having the name its and the name (of)-the (of)-father its having-been-(and-being)-written upon the foreheads their.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The Lord said to Moses:) “I shall come by the side of (you), former/’in front of’ you, (with) My glory, and I shall 'call on'/name My name ‘the Lord’ opposite you.” (Ex 33:19a, Greek OT)

(David said:) “The ones welcoming the name (of God) will pitch a tent in (Zion).” (Ps 69:36b or 69:37b, Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) “In/at that time a gift will be carried up to the Lord of hosts … into the place, where the name of the Lord of hosts is called upon, mountain Zion.” (Is 18:7, Greek OT)

The ones being in command together ‘because of’/’with a view to’ the Lord will turn away/back and arrive into Zion in company with cheerfulness, and agelong cheerfulness (will be) in favour of their head. For upon their head (there will be) praise and gladness, and cheerfulness will take ‘them down’/’possession of them’, pain and sorrow and sighing have run away. (Is 35:10, Greek OT)

(The Lord said: “Judas) will have knowledge, that My name (is) the Lord.” (Jer 16:21b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said: “Israel will be led together), and they will arrive and be cheerful in/on the mountain Zion. ... Then virgins will rejoice in a synagogue of youths.” (Jer 31:12a,13a, Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) “It will be/’come about’, (that) every/everyone who – according to the circumstances – may call upon the name of the Lord will be saved, because in/on the mountain Zion and in Jerusalem there will be (the) ones who will be ‘saved up’/restored.” (Joel 2:32a, Greek OT)

(The foreign leader) ascended into/to mountain Zion, and (some) from the priests came out of, out of the holy things and/’together with’ (some) from the elders of the people to greet him peacefully. ... And/but he stained them. (1 Macc 7:33-34a)

(Solomon said to the Lord:) “You have arranged every thing throughout (with) measure and number and standing-place/balance.” (Wisdom of Solomon 11:20b)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus taught the crowd:) "Hear! Behold, the one sowing came out to sow. ... (Some sowing) fell into the fine earth ... and carried/produced ... into/’up to’ (א,* א) hundred/hundredfold." (Mark 4:3,8)

(The messenger said to the shepherds:) "It/there has to-day been brought forth for you a Saviour, who is 'a christ'/'an anointed' lord." (Luke 2:11a)

(Jesus) spoke to (the disciples): "Amen I say to you * (א*): ‘It/there is no one who has let habitation be or woman or brothers or parents or children, with respect to the kingdom of God, who ‘not by no means’/’by no means’ may take away/aside many times as many in this seasonable time and agelong life in the coming age.’" (Luke 18:29-30)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “I am the vine, you (are) the twigs. The one staying in Me - and I in him - this one carries/produces much fruit, because separate from Me you are not able to make/do nothing/anything.” (John 15:5)

The disciple, that one whom Jesus (continually) welcomed, says to Peter: “It is the Lord.” (John 21:7a)

And (I will give) * (א,* א) a white voting-stone and against the voting-stone a new name is (and has been) written, which no one knows ‘if not’/except the one taking (it). (Rev 2:17b)

Against (the pillar) I will write the name of My God and the name of the city of My God, the new Jerusalem, the one descending out of the heaven from My God, and My name, the new one. (Rev 3:12b, ”Philadelphia”)

(The messenger) said (to the four messengers): “You may not act unrighteously (against) the earth, ‘but not’/nor (א,*א) (against) the sea, ‘but not’/nor (א,*א) (against) the trees, till we may have sealed the slaves of our God upon their foreheads.” And I heard the number of the ones having been (and being) sealed, one hundred and forty-four of the number of one thousand having been (and being) sealed out of every tribe of (the) sons of Israel. (Rev 7:3-4)

It was spoken to (the locusts), in order that they might (א,*א) not act unrighteously (against) the grass of the earth, nor (against) every/any light green thing, nor (against every/any tree, ‘if not’/except (against) the men whoever have not the seal of God upon the foreheads. (Rev 9:4)

And they will prostrate themselves before (the little wild animal) (in honour of it) (א,*א), all the ones dwelling upon the earth, whose names (P47,א,*א) are * (א*) (and have * (א*) been) written in a (א*) book (P47,א,*א) of the life of the little Ram, being (and having been) slaughtered from a foundation of an adornment/’adorned world’. (Rev 13:8)

(The second little wild animal) makes (so that) all, the small and the great and the rich and the beggarly and the free and the slaves, ‘in order that they may give them’/’that they may be given’ a mark upon their right hand or against their forehead. (Rev 13:16)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

First among these late ones, who, mixed with the angles, surround the throne of God, the saints stand. Their intercessions are worth more than the seraphs, their strength in the struggle against the demons surpass the cherubs. Because of this the kingdoms, the municipalities, the ranks, the orders, the guilds, yes, even the notorious or unlawful industries (which more than others need grace and intercessions) have their patron saints in the rows of the saints. The individual is protected by the saint, to whose name he has become baptized. (Viktor Rydberg "Medeltidens magi" p 15; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

There is (a) distinction between the habitation of those who produce an hundred-fold, and that of those who produce sixty-fold, and that of those who produce thirty-fold; for the first will be taken up into the heavens. (Papias, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol I, p 154)

What are the hundred-fold (rewards) in this world, the entertainments given to the poor, and the suppers for which a return is made? These are (to take place) in the times of the kingdom, that is, upon the seventh day, which has been sanctified, in which God rested from all the works which He created, which is the true Sabbath of the righteous, which they shall not be engaged in any earthly occupation; but shall have a table at hand prepared for them by God, supplying them with all sorts of dishes. (Irenaeus, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol I, p 562)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Lars Levi Laestadius, Vilhelm Moberg, Mats Paulson, Gösta Sandberg, P. Waldenström.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “a hundred and forty-four thousand”, see also Rev 7:4-8.


Additional studies:

Ex 34:6; Amos 5:8; Zeph 3:12; Matt 21:3,9; 23:39; Mark 11:3,9; Luke 10:1; 10:41; 11:39; 13:15,35; 19:31,38; 22:61; 24:3,34; John 5:43; 12:13; 20:28; Acts 9:14,21; Rom 10:13; 1 Cor 1:2; Rev 14:1,3; 20:4; 22:4.


J.A. du Rand "A socio-psychological view of the effect of the language (parole) of the Apocalypse of John"; Neotestamentica 24.2 (1990): 351-366.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-20; 2012-07-10; 2015-07-23)

Back to the top

14:2 And I heard a voice/sound out of the heaven, as a voice/sound of many waters and as a voice/sound of a great/loud thunder. And the voice/sound which I heard (was) as (the sound of) players on the zither playing the zither in/on their zithers.

Word for word (27 words in the Greek text): and (i/I)-heard (a)-voice out-of the heaven as (a)-voice (of)-waters (of)-many and as (a)-voice (of)-thunder (of)-great, and the voice which (i/I)-heard as (of)-players-on-the-zither playing-the-zither in the zithers their.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

... The Lord thundered in/with a great/loud voice … against the other tribes. (1 Sam 7:10a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Job:) “Are your arm (stable) ‘down from’/against the Lord, (your) peals of thunder according/answering to Him?” (Job 40:4b or 40:9b, Greek OT)

(The prophet said to Tyre:) “Take a zither ... (you) harlot being (and having been) forgotten, play the zither finely ... in order that your mention may become/remain.” (Is 23:16, Greek OT)

(The prophet said to Judas:) “From the side of the Lord of hosts: ‘... It will be a visitation in company with thunder and shaking and a great/loud voice, carrying with it a sudden blast of wind and ‘an eating down’/’a consuming’ flame of fire.” (Is 29:6, Greek OT)


The Latter Revelation:

Suddenly it became/appeared together with the messenger a multitude of an heavenly army praising God. (Luke 2:13a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

The voice (of one like a son of a man was) as a voice/sound of many waters. (Rev 1:15b)

Rays of light and voices and peals of thunder go out, out of the throne. (Rev 4:5a)

When (the little Ram) took the scroll, the four living beings and the twenty-four elders fell/’sank down’ in the very eyes of the little Ram, everyone having a zither. (Rev 5:8a)

I beheld, when the little Ram opened one out of the seven seals, and I heard one out of the four living beings saying, as a voice of thunder: “Come and behold (א,*א)!” (Rev 6:1)

I beheld when (the little Ram) opened the sixth seal, and it became a great shaking. (Rev 6:12a)

They/it became peals of thunder and voices and rays of light and a shaking. (Rev 8:5b)

(The messenger) shouted (with) a great/loud voice, just as a lion lows, and when he had shouted, * (א*) seven peals of thunder talked (with their) 'of selves'/own voices. And as many things as (א,*א) the seven peals of thunder talked, I (continually) was about to write. And I heard a voice out of the heaven, saying: ”Seal as many things as (P47, א,* א) the seven peals of thunder have talked and you may not write them.” (Rev 10:3-4)

They heard a great/loud voice out of the heaven saying to them: “Ascend here.” (Rev 11:12a)

They/it became rays of light and voices and peals of thunder and a shaking and a great hail. (Rev 11:19b)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

Here at the red sign the music will be begun, and goes on before a shut door which little by little is opened, so that the music seems to approach. Music is necessary to lift the play (Pelikanen) in the end, and give the Actor atmosphere! (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev 16, maj 1907-12 april 1908" s 109; letter 1907-11-26 to August Falck; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

There were such ones who said, that Liljecrona's music was not so much worth to listen to now as formerly, and colonel (Beerencreutz) had also heard the rumour that he would have deteriorated. But when he now sat listening to him, he all at once felt on his lips a foretaste of something undescribably sweet and attractive. He understood, he who was to die in a few hours, that Liljecrona was about to stake out a way which never could reach a goal, a way which he wanted to build all the way towards the endless. . . . "Perhaps it is so", (the colonel said to Liljecrona), "that the music does not really belong to the earth. . . . Do you not think, that the music is the language being spoken there far away", he went on pointing upwards with his hand, "although it only is a low echo coming down to us? . . . That it belongs to both earth and heaven. . . . It is probably meant as a way for us over to that other. And now you have to build further on that way, so that I am allowed to wander on it still a while away towards that which no end has." (Selma Lagerlöf "Vägen mellan himmel och jord" p 467-468; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Now the execution of the music already began to sound less desperately and anxiously. Now it came light through the clouds, now the wall of the prison fell down, now the fetter keeping the soul in prison burst. Now it ascended with high speed, but it descended back. It became to a heavy struggle. Now the execution was deep down. One could not think that it would raise itself any more. So it was lifted upwards again. Ascended and descended, ascended and descended. But so at once it ascended upwarsds as on wings of angels, higher than earthly thoughts and voices, it was up in the clearest space. Heaven opened, and it tried to interpret its blessednes. Liljecrona sank the bow all at once. It was, as if he was not able to anything more. His execution had ascended so high, that his eyes swam before light and splendour and glory. He looked up at Maja Lisa. The tears hung big and heavy in her eyes, and she had folded her hands. All her face shone glorified. She was not on earth. She had accompanied on the ascension. (Selma Lagerlöf "Liljecronas hem" p 198; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

The Opera, working wine and music, which it has to do, contrasts kindly towards the serious Jakob's church. Here, at the fountain with its Babylon piles, where invisible harps hang, the most beautiful Stockholm has to show is presented: Strömmen, the castle and the scenery in the fond, Södra bergen. (August Strindberg "Stockholm klockan sju på morgonen" p 89-90; Dagens Nyheter 1905-12-24; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Kilo asked to be allowed to speak: "Why did you touch this dead mass and gave (our enemy) life? Why did you draw him into our thoughts? Do you not feel that he is in rhe room poisoning us. Max, play for us, beautifully and greatly. His spirit hates harmonies, and it will flee as the devil for the cross. Max, play on the grand piano, for the sake of God; let the air and the ether vibrate in nice lines! The ring figures resemble flowers, and I see your music; before the beautiful the ugly flees, and the evil is ugly. Let him suffer from the harmonies, perhaps this can cause regret with him, longing for what he lacks; play David, so the evil spirit flees, perhaps also before him. . . . Max sat down at the grand piano. (August Strindberg "Svarta fanor" p 121; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

It is about to keep and strengthen (the individual likings and ways of idea), but this is best done, when one finds out and cultivates the feelings, which are the human, with the ideal object to tune them together to a world symphony, which beauty is not reduced but is increased by the thing that every instrument, which takes part in it, has its personal timbre. (Viktor Rydberg "Tal i konstnärsklubben" p 175; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

The organ held its symphony with all instruments of the orchestra, obedient under the hands and feet of one man. . . . Mr. Lundstedt left the church with an impression of having seen something tremendously great, heard something superhumanly beautiful, now wholly convinced, that if he also not properly could in full enjoy fugal music, so it was because he was uneducated, but he was proud of the hope, that he some time would be able to belong to the few chosen ones who could it. (August Strindberg "Skärkarlsliv" p 48-51; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

I took my hymn-book and opened it with a mood of festival in my soul seeing a woodcut - and I see it still, faithful kept in my memory. It represents king David himsel by Kidron or by the river of Jordan, he plays a psalm for the Lord with joy, the contour in the distance is the height of Zion. - It was artistically a strangely thing in Lundström's manner, from his workshop, the one of the old Lundström in Jönköping. . . . But then, what beauty I saw in it! With what colours on the hour my trembling imagination of devotion had coated the blurred ground! What meads of sapphire and what blue mountains! King David's strings have the colour of the sun, there from the harp sparks spring forth, which sound and ring and at last die in the mighty roar of the billows of the organ. To the strokes of the harp I heard the voice of the crowned son of Isai. . . . I heard his voice in the song of the people: "my saved soul will some time swing itself to the heavenly mountain, where the harps of the angels ring." I looked at my leaf, how the contour of the mountain in the bath of the sun rose towards the azure; I heard and saw of the multitude of larks a jubilant procession to a blessed mead. My longing also got a pair of wings and soared, she also, in the flock of larks towards Zion shining in ether clear. (Viktor Rydberg "Träsnittet i psalmboken" p 20-22; depicted time: 1838-1845; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

When brother Mattias had received the death-sacraments, he seized with the one hand Gudmund's, with the other the rector's. . . . I die filled of trust. Greet the harp-player saying him, that I hope to hear his voice in the choirs round the throne of the lamb." (Viktor Rydberg "Vapensmeden" p 142-143; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Märta Ahlbom, Greger Andersson, Karl-Erik Andersson, Erika André, Carl-Julius Anrick, Gotthard Arnér, Werner Aspenström, Margit Assarsson, Tage Aurell, Jens Lorentz Beeken, Staffan Beijer, Fridtjuv Berg, Torsten Bergsten, Elisabeth Bergstrand-Poulsen, Elisabeth Beskow, Oloph Bexell, Sten Broman, Folke Carlsnäs, Barthold Carlson, Paul Clowney, Birger Creutz, William Dalrymple, Sven Danell, Margaret Drabble, Carl Anders Dymling, Aug. Eckerberg, Pehr Edwall, Esaias Ekedahl, Olle Fast, Laura Fitinghoff, Herbert Flood, Helmer Furuholm, Erik Gustaf Geijer, Sven af Geijerstam, Bo Giertz, Bengt Gierup, Phil G. Goulding, Carl Grimberg, Enar Gustafsson, Josef Gustafsson, Karl G. Gustafsson, Nath. Gustafsson, Lennart Gustavsson, Harald Göransson, Märtha Hallander, Olov Hartman, Verner von Heidenstam, Alf Henrikson, Marianne Herrlin, C.G. Hjelm, Erik Holmberg, Liselotte J Andersson, Sven-Bertil Jansson, Anders Jarlert, Eyvind Johnson, Erik Axel Karlfeldt, Erik Kjellberg, Inge Kvarnström, Harry Lenhammar, Aug. E. Lernberg, Sven Lidman, Ingeborg Lindqvist, Sigvard Lindqvist, Claes Lindskog, C.F. Lundström, Olaus Magnus, Verner Malmsten, Torvald Malmström, Thomas Mann, Harry Martinson, Vilhelm Moberg, Gabriel Mützenberg, Fredrik Nielsen, Alfred Nilsson, Sten Nilsson, Per-Olof Nisser, Runa Ohlander, Simon Ottosson, Efraim Palmqvist, Olof Petersson, Lewi Pethrus, Romain Rolland, Abraham Rundbäck, Gustaf Ruuth, John Samelson, Inger Selander, Birger Sjöberg, Henrik Sjögren, Harry Sjöman, Olof Sjöstrand, Bengt Spade, Rune Storck, Einar Sundström, Esaias Tegnér, Rudolf Thunander, J.R.R. Tolkien, Stig Tornehed, Tomas Tranströmer, Fred Törnqvist, Hans W-son Ahlmann, Bertil Zachrisson, P. Waldenström, P.A. Westlind, Magnus Widell, Ernst Wigforss, Ewert Wrangel, Agne Ydrefelt.


My own comments and speculations:

Compare “great/loud thunder” with “great shaking” in Rev 6:12 and “great hail” in Rev 11:19.

Concerning“players on the zither playing the zither in/on their zithers”, see also Rev 5:8a. Concerning “voice/sound of many waters”, see also Rev 1:15b. Concerning voice/sound of … thunder”, see also Rev 6:1. Concerning “voice/sound out of the heaven”, see also Rev 10:4b.


Greek words:

kitharizô (play the zither) Is 23:16; Rev 14:2 – 1 Cor 14:7.

kitharôdos (player on the zither) Rev 14:2 – Rev 18:22.


Additional studies:

Job 37:4; John 12:28-30; Eph 5:19; Rev 15:2; 19:6.


J.A. du Rand "A socio-psychological view of the effect of the language (parole) of the Apocalypse of John"; Neotestamentica 24.2 (1990): 351-366.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-20; 2012-07-10; 2015-07-24)

Back to the top

14:3a And they sing a new lay ‘in the very eyes of’/before the throne and in the very eyes of the four living beings and the elders.

Word for word (15 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus): and (they)-sing (a)-lay new in-the-very-eyes-of (of)-the (of)-throne and in-the-very-eyes-of (of)-the (of)-four (of)-living-beings and (of)-the (of)-elders


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

Joybringing (grace) (with) you and peace from the One who is and the One who (continually) was and the One who comes and from the seven spirits * (א,* א, A) ‘in the very eyes of’/before His throne. (Rev 1:4b)

In a circle from the throne (were) twenty-four thrones and against the thrones being twenty-four elders seated. (Rev 4:4a)

Seven torches of fire (are) burning ‘in the very eyes of’/before the throne, which are the seven spirits of God. And ‘in the very eyes of’/before the throne (there is) as a sea of crystal, like rock crystal. And in a middle of the throne and (in) a circle of/from the throne (were) four living beings, being full of eyes in front of and ‘from behind’/behind. (Rev 4:5b-6)

(The elders) * (א*) throw their crowns ‘in the very eyes of’/before the throne, saying: “Worthy are You, Lord (א,* א), the Lord and our God.” (Rev 4:10b-11a)

(The four living beings and the elders) sing a new lay. (Rev 5:9a)

(I beheld a much/many-headed crowd) standing ‘in the very eyes of’/before the throne and in the very eyes of the little Ram, being (and having been) wrapped up in white dresses and (with) date-twigs in their hands. (Rev 7:9b)

(The elders and the four living beings) fell/sank down against/on their faces ‘in the very eyes of’/before the throne and prostrated themselves before God (in honour of Him). (Rev 7:11b)

Because of this they are ‘in the very eyes of’/before the throne of God, and they serve Him day and night in His temple. (Rev 7:15a)

‘Many incenses’/’much incense’ was given to him, in order that he shall give/add (it) to the prayers of all the holy ones against the golden sacrificial altar * (א,* א) ‘in the very eyes of’/before the throne. (Rev 8:3b)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

The woodshed was filled with the most glorious song and music, that Rasmus had heard in his life. "Her hair is as black as the blackest nights, is it then strangely that I long for her", (the tramp) Oskar sang in a great, warm voice, which drove shivers of pleasure through Rasmus, this was something far better than when Miss Hök played from Sions toner on the organ at his home. Rasmus sat down making himself comfortable on the chopping-block and enjoyed silently and ardently. (Astrid Lindgren "Rasmus på luffen" p 52; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

First time I visited (the church St. Pudentiana in Rome), the most beautiful song sounded to meet me. . . . Priests in festival attire away in the choir bowed, curtsied, knelt and mumbled, and a congregation, for the most part constituted of children and women, listened with fascination to a song for four voices from one of the lateral aisles, above all to a boy's soprano with a fresh and a beautiful sound, without, so far as I noticed, giving their least attention to the altar service. (Viktor Rydberg "Priska och Pudentiana" p 52; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: August Bondeson, Sven Danell, Ylva Eggehorn, Gunnar Fridborg, Carl Grimberg, Berndt Gustafsson, Erik Axel Karlfeldt, Lars Levi Laestadius, Harry Lenhammar, Sven Lidman, Elisabeth Sandlund, Carl-Herman Tillhagen.


My own comments and speculations:

This is the eighth time we have the expression “‘in the very eyes of’/before the throne”, the first time in the new situation from chapter ten on. See My own comments and speculations to Rev 11:16.

Concerning “sing a new lay”, see Rev 5:9a. Concerning “‘in the very eyes of’/before the throne”, see Rev 1:4b. Concerning “the four living beings”, see Rev 4:6b.


Additional studies:

John 13:34; 19:41.


J.A. du Rand "A socio-psychological view of the effect of the language (parole) of the Apocalypse of John"; Neotestamentica 24.2 (1990): 351-366.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-20; 2012-07-10; 2015-07-25)

Back to the top

14:3b And (continually) no one was able to learn the lay ‘if not’/except the one hundred and forty-four thousand, the ones being (and having been) bought from the earth.

Word for word (18 words in the Greek text): and no-one (continually)-was-able-to learn the lay if not the one-hundred (and)-forty four thousand, the-(ones) being-(and-having-been) bought from the earth.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Moses said to Israel:) “You may eat opposite the Lord your God in the place, where – according to the circumstances – the Lord your God may choose to 'call against'/invoke His name there ... in order that you may learn to fear the Lord your God all the days.” (Deut 14:23b, Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) “A nation will no longer take a dagger against (another) nation, and they may not/certainly no longer learn to wage war.” (Is 2:4b, Greek OT)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to the Pharisees:) “Having gone learn what it/this is: ‘I want mercy and not sacrifice’, for I have not come to call righteous however/but missers (of the mark of God).” (Matt 9:13)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "The kingdom of the heavens is like a heap/treasure having been (and being) hidden in the field, which having found a man hid. And from/’owing to’ his joy he withdraws and sells all things as many as he has and buys that field.” (Matt 13:44)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "The kingdom of the heavens is like * (א*, B) a trader seeking fine pearls, but/and having find one much valuable pearl (and) having gone away he has disposed (and disposes) all things as many as he (continually) had, and he bought it." (Matt 13:45-46)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

But already being in the middle of the feast Jesus ascended into the sanctuary and taught. The Jews so (continually) wondered saying: “How does this One, having not learnt (and not learning), know letters (of the alphabet)?” (John 7:14-15)

A white voting-stone and against the voting-stone a new name is (and has been) written, which no one knows ‘if not’/except the one taking (it). (Rev 2:17b)

(The four living beings and the elders) sing a new lay saying: “Worthy are You to take the scroll and to open its seals, because You were slaughtered. And (for) God in/with Your blood You bought us (א,* א) out of every tribe and tongue and people and nation.” (Rev 5:9)

I heard the number of the ones having been (and being) sealed, one hundred and forty-four of the number of one thousand having been (and being) sealed out of every tribe of (the) sons of Israel. (Rev 7:4)

In company with (the little Ram) one hundred and forty-four thousand, having Its name and Its Father’s name having been (and being) written upon their foreheads. (Rev 14:1b)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

Later educational orthodoxy regarded the job (of the music-master) as the shaping of the soul. ... Another function of the music school was to provide choruses for the great religious festivals, and Plato takes it for granted that not to have been trained for a chorus is the same as not having been educated. (Maurice Pope "The Ancient Greeks - How they lived and worked" p 119)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: H.C. Andersen, Lars Levi Laestadius.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “the one hundred and forty-four thousand”, see Rev 7:4-8.


Additional studies:

Matt 11:29; 20:28; 24:32; Mark 13:28; 1 Pet 1:18-19.


J.A. du Rand "A socio-psychological view of the effect of the language (parole) of the Apocalypse of John"; Neotestamentica 24.2 (1990): 351-366.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-20; 2012-07-10; 2015-07-26)

Back to the top

14:4a These are the ones who have not been soiled in company with women, for they are virgins.

Word for word (10 words in the Greek text): these are-(they) (the-ones)-who in-company-with women not were-soiled, virgins for (they)-are


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The prophet said:) “This (is) the saying that the Lord has talked against (the king of Assyria): ‘(He) has treated you despicably and treated you scornfully, virgin daughter Zion.’” (2 Kings 19:21a, Greek OT)

(The Lord/the prophet said:) “How a faithful city Zion has become a harlot, filled with a judgment.” (Is 1:21a, Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) “This (is) the saying which God has talked on account of (the king of Assyria): ‘(He) has regarded you as worthless and treated you scornfully, virgin daughter Zion.’” (Is 37:22a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) “Virgin Israel has made/done an extremeley thing … because My people (continually) has forgotten Me. They have burnt incense into (what is) empty/vain.” (Jer 18:13b,15a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) “Priest and prophet have been soiled, and in My house I beheld their evil. ... (The prophets of Samaria) prophesied through Baal and led My people Israel astray.” (Jer 23:11a,13b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said: “Israel will be led together), and they will arrive and be cheerful in/on the mountain Zion. ... Then virgins will rejoice in a synagogue of youths.” (Jer 31:12a,13a, Greek OT)

(Sarah) had been (and was) given out to seven males, and the evil little demon Asmodeus had slayed them, before 'become them'/'they had become' in company with her, entirely just as it has been (and is) ‘shown from’/shown for women. ... (Sarah said to God:) ”You have knowledge, Master, that I am clean from every impurity of a male, and I have by no means soiled my name and nor the name of my father. ... Seven (males) are already perished for me.” (Tobit 3:8a,14-15a S)

(The foreign leader) ascended into/to mountain Zion, and (some) from the priests came out of, out of the holy things and/’together with’ (some) from the elders of the people to greet him peacefully. ... And/but he stained them. (1 Macc 7:33-34a)

(Solomon said:) “Happy the barren one (being) undefiled, whoever has not had knowledge of a sleeping-place in fall from the side of (God). She will arrive/'have come to' fruit in/at visitation of souls. (Happy) and/also an eunuch having not worked/caused an act contrary to law in/with (his) hand/deed, but/and not having pondering evil things ‘down from’/against the Lord, for to his faith a chosen joybringing (grace) will be given and a greater very kind-hearted share of inheritance in a temple of the Lord, for of good hardships noble fruit (comes).” (Wisdom of Solomon 3:13-15a)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said: “Solomon let women) have (judicial) authority in/with (his) body.” (Sir 47:19b)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to the Pharisees:) “There are eunuchs, whoever/who were begotten in this way out of a belly of a mother … and there are eunuchs, whoever/who have made themselves eunuchs because of the kingdom of the heavens.” (Matt 19:12a)

(Jesus said to His disciples): ”Every/everyone whoever has let the woman (א*) be with respect to My name, will take a hundredfold, and inherit agelong life.” (Matt 19:29)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “The kingdom of the heavens will be likened to ten virgins, whoever/who having taken their torches came out into/to a going of the bridegroom to meet.” (Matt 25:1)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

You have few/’a few’ names in Sardis, which have not soiled their garments. (Rev 3:4a)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 - about 1500

The colonel: "My daughter . . . must sit in the hyacinth-room, when she is not outdoors! It is a peculiarity with her. . . . There we have Miss Beate von Holsteinkrona . . . a charming woman . . . secular canoness (that is, a nobleman's daughter being enrolled in a special diocese for virgins, that is an establishment giving her free housing or pension) with an interest just large enough for her stand and condition." (August Strindberg "Spöksonaten" p 49; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Mrs. Gordon had to beg a goodish while, before she could get (Ingmar) to say his opinion. "I think, that you would not let people speak so ill of you", he at last expressed himself. "How do you mean then, that we would be able to prevent it?" Mrs. Gordon asked. "Do you not think, that the evil, which they say about you, depends on the thing that you want to be too holy? It would soon has an end, if you wanted to be as others letting young people marry." To Ingmar's surprise Mrs. Gordon was less upset about this, than when he had advised her to try to make money. "You are not the first, who has said me this", she said. "But if you ask anyone in the colony, they will all answer you, that they want to live a clean and unpunishable life." "Yes, it is true, it is so", Ingmar said. "God will give us a sign, if he wants us to change something in this respect", Mrs. Gordon said, and after that the conversation died down. (Selma Lagerlöf "Jerusalem II p 421; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

There was an old virgin. . . . Twice a year she used to come to Mårbacka and see. She was tall, beautiful and white-haired. She had a stern look and a distinct nose and a serious being. She liked priests and book-travellers and joined at prayer meetings and sewing-circles. And one was not allowed to speak with her about dance or novels or about love, for this she could not stand. Nor one dared to speak ill of people in her presence, one was not allowed to talk about beautiful clothes, and she did not want to hear of all the sinful, which happened out in the world. It was not so easy to know about what one would find out to speak with her. There were hardly any other subjects of conversation to choose between than cooking and weather. This of course sufficed for a long time, but it could also come to an end with these, for the Virgin was not wordy, she only gave short and well-balanced answers to all things, which one asked about. They of course, all of them, knew that there was a way to get the Virgin to speak, but this had its risks, also this. Once in the time the Virgin had been housekeeper in a big court of a rural dean, and the dean had had twenty children, all living and to mature age come. That family the Virgin still kept count of, and it was her great joy to speak of it. (Selma Lagerlöf "Mårbacka" p 116; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


about 1500 and time before

Eunuchs especially ought to stand by the King; by eunuchs, I mean those who are clear in their mind, having no wrinkle nor spot, lofty in mind, having the eye of the soul gentle and quick-sighted, active and sharp, not sleepy nor supine; full of much freedom, and yet far from impudence and overboldness, wakeful, healthful, neither very gloomy and downcast, nor yet dissolute and soft. (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers XIV:450)

Let us long for that Bridegroom, let us be virgins as to the true Virginity. For the Lord seeks after the virginity of the soul. With this let us enter into Heaven ... that we may attain also the good things promised, of which may we all be partakers through the grace and mercy of Jesus Christ our Lord. (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers XIV:498)

(Susannah in Babylon) had the adornment of faith, and chastity, and sanctity. ... Therefore, always watchful in heart and pure in life, let us imitate Susannah. (Hippolytus, The Ante-Nicene Fathers V:193-194)

A man might ‘for the Kingdom of Heaven's sake’ – that is, in the service of God and of Christ – have all his thoughts, feelings, and impulses so engaged that others were no longer existent ... such (an) inward preoccupation with the Kingdom of God as would remove all other thoughts and desires. (Alfred Edersheim "The Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah II" p 335-336)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Märta Ahlbom, Gunnar Aspelin, Håkan Bengtsson, Per Beskow, Bo Brander, Ingmar Brohed, Peter Carelli, Miguel de Cervantes, Henry Daniel-Rops, P. Fjellstedt, Bo Frid, Carl Grimberg, Axia Gustafsson, Berndt Gustafsson, Peter Halldorf, Lillemor Hallin, Dick Harrison, Jan Arvid Hellström, Curt Härenstam, Hilding Johansson, Emil Johnson, Pär Lagerkvist, Doris Lessing, Valborg Lindgärde, Martin Luther, Carl Henrik Martling,Thomas More, Fredrik Nielsen, Bertil Nilsson, Nils Henrik Nilsson, J. Nyrén, Olaus Petri, Harald Rasmussen, Laurence Rees, Yngve Rudberg, Anders Runesson, Viktor Rydberg, Sven Edvin Salje, William Shakespeare, Göran Skytte, Michael A. Smith, Sven Stolpe, Bengt Sundkler, Jesper Svartvik, Einar Thomassen, P. Waldenström, N.P. Wetterlund.


My own comments and speculations:

In Tobit 3:8-15 we read about a virgin who had not soiled her name in company with males. In a restoration perspective we now read about virgins who have not been soiled in company with women.

Concerning the 144000 as hundredfold fruit, see My comments and speculations to Rev 14:18b-19.


Paul said to the believers in Corinth: “(It is) fine for a man not to touch a woman.” (1 Cor 7:1b)

Paul said to the believers in Corinth: “I want all men to be as and/also I myself (am). However, everyone has an own joybringer/’gift of grace’ out of God ... But I say to the unmaried ones and the widows, (that it is) fine for them, if – according to the circumstances – they may stay/remain as and/also I (am).” (1 Cor 7:7a,8)

Paul said to the believers in Corinth: “I want you to be free from care. The unmarried one cares (about) the things of the Lord, how he may please the Lord. But the (male) having married cares (about) the things of the adornment/’adorned world’, how he may please the woman, and he is (and has been) ‘divided into portions’/divided. And the unmarried woman and the virgin, the unmarried (P46, א,* א, A), cares (about) the things of the Lord, in order that she may be holy and/both (in) the body and (in) the spirit. But the (woman) having married cares (about) the thing of the adornment/’adorned world’, how she may please the male. (1 Cor 7:32-34)

Paul said to the believers in Corinth: "I betrothed you to one male to cause you to stand by the side of Christ (as) a pure virgin. But I fear … (that) your notions may be ruined … if the one coming proclaims another Jesus." (2 Cor 11:2b-4a)


Greek words:

parthenos (virgin) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Matt 25:1; Rev 14:4 – Esther 2:17; Judith 9:2; 16:4; 1 Macc 1:26; 2 Macc 3:19; 5:13; Sir 9:5; 30:20; Epistle of Jeremiah v 8; Matt 1:23; 25:7,11; Luke 1:27; Acts 21:9; 1 Cor 7:25,28,34,36-38.


Additional studies:

Is 23:12; Jer 14:17; 31:4,21; 44:4-5; Lam 1:15; 2:10,13; Ezek 23:17; Amos 5:2; 17:8; 1 Cor 7:8; Eph 5:27.


J.A. du Rand "A socio-psychological view of the effect of the language (parole) of the Apocalypse of John"; Neotestamentica 24.2 (1990): 351-366.

John C. Poirier-Joseph Frankovic "Celibacy and Charism in 1 Cor 7:5-7"; Harvard Theological Review 89.1 (1996): 1-18.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-20; 2012-07-11; 2015-07-28)

Back to the top

14:4b These (are) the ones following the little Ram whereat – according to the circumstances – it may withdraw. These have been bought from a beginning (P47, א,* א) from the men to God and to the little Ram.

Word for word (20 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus): these the-(ones) following the little-ram whereat according-to-the-circumstances (it)-may-withdraw. these was-bought from the men from (a)-beginning (to)-the god and (to)-the little-ram.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

The one ‘lifting the vessels’/’bearing the equipment’ (of Jonathan) spoke to him: “’Make every’/’do all’ that – if according to the circumstances – your heart may ‘lean out’/’give way to’. Behold, I am in company with you, as your heart (is) my heart.” (1 Sam 14:7, Greek OT)

(David said:) “Live entirely delicately (before) the Lord, and He will give you the demands of your heart.” (Ps 37:4, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said:) “Virgins … (follow) behind (the daughter of the king of Tyre).” (Ps 45:14b or 45:15b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Israel:) "From a beginning I have not talked in a hidden (place), nor in a dark place of 'an earth'/'a land'. At the time when it became, I (continually) was there. And now the Lord has dispatched (and dispatches) away Me and His Spirit." (Is 48:16b, Greek OT)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “You will/shall be perfect, as your heavenly Father is perfect.” (Matt 5:48)

Having come to (Jesus) one scribe spoke to Him: "Teacher, I will follow You whereat - if according to the circumstances - You may go away." And Jesus says to him: "The foxes have dens, and the flying creatures of the heaven resting-places, but the Son of the Man has not (a place) where He may lean the head." (Matt 8:19-20)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "The kingdom of the heavens is like a heap/treasure having been (and being) hidden in the field, which having found a man hid. And from/’owing to’ his joy he withdraws and sells all things as many as he has and buys that field.” (Matt 13:44)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "The kingdom of the heavens is like * (א*, B) a trader seeking fine pearls, but/and having find one much valuable pearl (and) having gone away he has disposed (and disposes) all things as many as he (continually) had, and he bought it." (Matt 13:45-46)

Jesus spoke to His disciples: "If anyone wants to come behind Me, let him deny away himself and lift his cross and follow Me.” (Matt 16:24)

Jesus uttered to (the youth): “If you want to be perfect, withdraw, sell your ‘things beginning under’/properties and give to * (א,* א) beggarly ones, and you have a heap/treasure in a * (א,* א) heaven, and come here, follow Me.” (Matt 19:21)

The lord uttered to (his slave): “Well (done), good and faithful slave. You (continually) were faithful against/over few things. I will ‘cause ... to stand down’/appoint you upon many things, Come into, into the joy of your lord.” (Matt 25:21 and 25:23)

(Jesus said to the blessed ones:) "As much as you have made/done against one of the least of these My brothers, you have made/done Me." (Matt 25:40b)

(Jesus taught the crowd:) "Hear! Behold, the one sowing came out to sow. ... (Some sowing) fell into the fine earth ... and carried/produced ... into/’up to’ (א,* א) hundred/hundredfold." (Mark 4:3,8)

(Mary from Magdala and Mary the mother of James the younger and Joses, and Salome) (continually) followed Jesus and (continually) rendered service to Him. (Mark 15:41a)

(Luke said:) "The ones having become from a beginning eyewitnesses and rowers/servants of the saying have given (the things having been and being completed among us) ‘by the side of’/over to us." (Luke 1:2)

(A widow) did not stand aloof of/from the sanctuary, serving night and day (with) fastings and prayers. (Luke 2:37b)

(On Jesus' and the disciples') going in/on the way someone spoke towards Him: “I will follow You whereat - if according to the circumstances – You may go away.” (Luke 9:57)

(Jesus said to the crowds:) “Every/everyone out of you who does not ‘arrange from’/resign all his ‘things beginning’/properties is not able to be My disciple.” (Luke 14:33b)

(Jesus said to the apostles:) "When you - according to the circumstances - may have made/done all the things having been throughout arranged to you, say that/: "We are useless slaves. We have made/done (and makes/does) what we (continually) were indebted to make/do." (Luke 17:10b)

The first (of the slaves) became/came to the side of (his lord) saying: “Lord, your mine/’100 denarii’ ‘worked to’/gave ten minas. And (the lord) spoke to him: ”Well/’well done’, good slave, because you became faithful in a least thing, ’be having’/have (judicial) authority above/over ten cities.” (Luke 19:16-17)

(Dorkas) (continually) was filled with good works. ... (Acts 9:36b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Jesus said to Nicodemus:) "The Spirit blows whereat/where it wants, and you hear its voice. However, you do not know from where it comes, and where it withdraws. In this way is 'every the'/everyone having been (and being) begotten out of the water and (א,*א) the Spirit." (John 3:8)

The Saviour (א,*א) knew from (P66, א,* א) a beginning (that) some are the * (א,*א) believing ones and (that) someone (continually) was the one being about to give Him ‘to the side of’/over (P66, א,*א). (John 6:64b)

When (the shepherd) – according to the circumstances – may throw/bring the own ones * (א*) out, he goes in front of them, and the sheep follow him, because they know his voice. (John 10:4)

Simon Peter says to (Jesus): "Lord, where do You withdraw?" Jesus answered: "Whereat/where I withdraw, you are not able to follow Me now, but you will follow afterwards." (John 13:36)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "When – according to the circumstances – the One being called to the side of (you) may come, which I will send to you from the side of the Father, the Spirit of the truth, which goes out from the side of the Father, that One will be a witness on account of Me. But and/also you are witnesses, because you are in company with Me from a beginning." (John 15:26-27)

(Jesus said to Peter:) “Amen, amen, I say to you. When you (continually) were younger, you (continually) girded yourself and (continually) walked about whereat/where you (continually) wanted. But when you – according to the circumstances – may grow old, you will stretch out your hands, and others (א,*א) will gird you and make/do (with) you as many things as (א*) you do not want.” But this He spoke giving a sign of what kind death he will/would glorify God. And having spoken this, He says to him: “Follow Me!” (John 21:18-19)

I beheld ‘in a middle of’/’between (on one hand)’ the throne and the four living beings and ‘in a middle of’/’(on the other hand)’ the elders a little Ram standing as having been (and being) slaughtered. (Rev 5:6a)

(The four living beings and the elders) sing a new lay saying: “Worthy are You to take the scroll and to open its seals, because You were slaughtered. And (for) God in/with Your blood You bought us (א,* א) out of every tribe and tongue and people and nation.” (Rev 5:9)

The little Ram, the One upwards/above a middle of the throne, will be a shepherd to (the ones serving God day and night in His temple), and He will show them the way upon springs of waters of life. (Rev 7:17a)

If anyone (is) into/’purposed for’ captivity, * (P47, א,* א) he withdraws. (Rev 13:10a)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

In many cultures, including those of ancient Israel's neighbors, the “first fruits,” the season’s initial produce from land or livestock, was thought of as especially sacred. “Reshît” in some contexts has the sense of “best” (see Exod. 34:26). Offering up such first fruits has figured in the worship of countless diverse societies. ... The offerings brings blessing upon the rest of the produce (Lev. 19:24-25). (Michael E. Williams “Exodus-Joshua” p 159-160)

One after another rose, and all of them thanked God, because he had brought them to Jerusalem. . . . And when the song sounded, all were very moved, and the tears came most of them in their eyes. For now they thought of all the ones they had to feel the loss of and not could meet until in heaven. But in the same moment the song had ended, Ingmar rose trying to utter some sentences. He thought, that he wanted to say them out here some words, which so to say would be spoken from the country, to which he now returned. "I think, that all will become glad to meet you, wherever it becomes, in heaven or on earth. I think, that nothing is as beautiful as to see men do righteousness with great sacrifices." (Selma Lagerlöf "Jerusalem II" p 454-455; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

I want out of the milieu where the isolation, the persecution and the distress have driven me, but I do not know where? I have thought of a Catholic monastary, but with this follow a confession and an obedience which I hate. (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev XI maj 1895-nov 1896" p 98; letter 1895-11-10 to Torsten Hedlund; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

(Karl-Artur) moved so impetuously from (Charlotte), that she was about to fall. "It is thus because you expect that I shall become dean and bishop, you have said no to Schagerström! . . . Dear Charlotte, I can not be you enough thankful for your sincerity. I now understand, that for you the outer status is all. An unswerving conduct, a true endeavour to wander in the footsteps of Christ, my master, has no meaning for you." . . . He began to speak to her powerfully and exhorting. He repoached her her love to the world, her pride, her vanity. . . . He was terrified of her shamelessness. . . . During all this a little calming voice spoke in his soul. It said to him, that he would be on his guard. Had he not noticed, that Charlotte Löwensköld was such a woman who despised to defend herself? If anyone thought her of evil, she never tried to take that one out of his evil belief. . . . (Karl-Artur) lifted his forehead bending backwards. He read in the skies. "Yes, yes, yes, I shall let God choose for me. The first unmarried woman coming in my way will become my wife." . . . Charlotte Löwensköld would never more entice him to become a thrall of mammon. He would after this be allowed to live according to his inclination. The simple, poor wife would let him follow the footsteps of Jesus. He saw the little grey cottage. He saw the simple, sweet manner of living. He saw the perfect harmony between his doctrine and his living. (Selma Lagerlöf "Charlotte Löwensköld" p 146-149,158; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

The firstfruits ... were brought to Jerusalem and offered in the temple. ... Only the best might be presented to the Lord. ... The head of the house would go into his vineyards ... stopping short at (the) best (vine), carefully select what seemed the most promising fruit, tie a rush round the stem, and say: ‘Lo, these are the firstfruits.’ (Alfred Edersheim “The Temple” p 380-381)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Stig Abrahamsson, Carl Jonas Love Almqvist, David Bellingham, Elisabeth Beskow, Oloph Bexell, Ingmar Brohed, Eckehart, Donald English, Hilding Fagerberg, François Fénelon, Anton Geels, Nadine Gordimer, Billy Graham, C.V. Grahn, Carl Grimberg, Peter Halldorf, Yngve Hamrin, Dick Harrison, Tore Helleberg, Homeros, Henrik Ibsen, Göran G. Jonsson, Naemi Karlsson, Lars Levi Laestadius, Valter Landrén, Hans Larsson, Sven Lidman, Ingemar Lindstam, F.B. Meyer, Wilhelm Möller, Watchman Nee, Fredrik Nielsen, Bertil Nilsson, Karl Palmberg, Efraim Palmqvist, Lewi Pethrus, Henrik Pontoppidan, Harald Rasmussen, Carl-Erik Sahlberg, Ragnar Samuelson, Elisabeth Sandlund, Martin Schwarz-Larsen, Torgny Segerstedt, Isaac Basjevis Singer, Hans D. Stern, John Stott, A.M. Strinnholm, Knut Svensson, Nathan Söderblom, Thomas a Kempis, Einar Thomassen, Olof Thulin, Tomas Tranströmer, Max Weber, Arwid Wickström, Göran Åberg.


My own comments and speculations:

The ones following the little Ram whereat It may withdraw probably allude to the ones who in heaven serve God in a perfect way in His temple and who the little Ram shows the way upon springs of waters of life (Rev 7:17). Here on earth the Christian is led by the Spirit (John 16:13). However the words in Rev 14:3-4 about "being (and having been) bought from the earth" and that they are "virgins" show that this following of the little Ram has its roots in how they have followed the appeal of the Spirit on the earth.

Concerning “from a beginning” (ap archê), see also John 6:60-65.


(These things we write) on account of the Saying of the life, what (continually) was from a beginning, what we have heard (and hear), what our eyes have beheld (and behold), what we viewed and (what) our hands felt (on). (1 John 1:1)

The one who – according to the circumstances – may keep (Jesus') saying, in this one the welcome of God truly has been (and is) made perfect. In/by this we have knowledge, that we are in Him. The one saying (himself) stay in Him is obliged, and/also he, to wander about entirely in this way as that One wandered about. (1 John 2:5-6)


Additional studies:

John 10:27; 1 Cor 6:20; Rev 17:14.


J.A. du Rand "A socio-psychological view of the effect of the language (parole) of the Apocalypse of John"; Neotestamentica 24.2 (1990): 351-366.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-20; 2012-07-11; 2015-07-30)

Back to the top

14:5 And in their mouth it was not found (any) lie, for (P47,א,*א) they are unblemished.

Word for word (11 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus): and in the mouth their not was-found (a/any)-lie, unblemished for (they)-are.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(A man under a vow) shall lead his gift towards the Lord: a lamb, one year old, unblemished ... and a ewe lamb, one year old, unblemished ... and a ‘male sheep’/ram, unblemished. (Num 6:14a, Greek OT)

(David said to the Lord:) “I shall be unblemished (before You). I shall keep watch before/over myself from/’owing to’ my lawlessness.” (2 Sam 22:24, Greek OT)

(David said:) “Lord, who will inhabit by the side of (You) in Your dwelling-tent? And who will pitch a tent in/on Your holy mountain? The one going/walking unblemished and working righteousness, talking truth in his heart.” (Ps 15:1-2, Greek OT)

(David said:) “I shall be unblemished in company with (my God).” (Ps 18:23a or 18:24a, Greek OT)

(David said:) “Happy (is) a male of/to whom the Lord may not/certainly not count a miss (of His mark), nor it is a deceit in his mouth.” (Ps 32:2, Greek OT)

(David said:) “Cause your tongue to cease from (what is) bad and your lip (from) the thing to not talk deceit.” (Ps 34:13 or 34:14, Greek OT)

(The slave of the Lord) had not made/done lawlessness, nor it was found deceit in his mouth. (Is 53:9b, Greek OT)

This is what the Lord says: "Woe to the ones who prophecy from their hearts and do not see on the whole. ... seeing lies, divining vain things, the ones saying: "The Lord says", and/but the Lord has not dispatched (and does not dispatch) them away." (Ezek 13:3,6a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to His people:) “The entirely/whole rest of Israel will and/also not make/do unrighteousness and talk vain things, and it may not/certainly not be found a deceitful tongue in their mouth.” (Zeph 3:13a, Greek OT)

(The priests said:) “And now, holy Lord of every holiness, keep throughout (the temple) undefiled into a (coming) age.” (2 Macc 14:36a)

(Solomon said:) “A mouth entirely lying ‘takes up ... for itself’/’gets rid of’ a soul.” (Wisdom of Solomon 1:11b)

(Solomon said: “The wicked ones) have not judged/’believed in’ a gift of honour of unblemished souls.” (Wisdom of Solomon 2:22)

(Solomon said: “Wisdom) had knowledge of the righteous one and kept him blameless (for) God and watched him stable/’with stability’ ... .” (Wisdom of Solomon 10:5b)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “Happy a male who has not slipped in/with his mouth and (who) has not been ‘entirely pricked’/pierced in sorrow of misses (of the mark of God).” (Sir 14:1)


The Latter Revelation:

Having stretched out the hand (Jesus) touched (the leper), saying: “I want, ‘be made’/become clean.” And straightaway his leprosy was made clean. (Matt 8:3)

(The Pharisees) dispatch away their disciples, in company with the Herodians, to (Jesus) saying: "Teacher, we know that You are truthful and teach the way of God in truth." (Matt 22:16a)

(Jesus said to the crowd:) “Other (sowings) fell into the fine earth ... and carried/produced into/’up to’ (א,*א) thirty/thirtyfold and into/’up to’ (א,*א) sixty/sixtyfold and into/’up to’ (א,*א) hundred/hundredfold.” (Mark 4:8)

Having come out (Jesus) beheld a much/many-headed crowd, and He was moved in His inward vital parts against them, because they (continually) were * (א*) (as if) not having a shepherd. (Mark 6:34a)

All (the elders of the people) spoke (to Jesus): "So You are the Son of God?" But 'the One'/He (continually/-) uttered towards them: "You say that I am." But/and they spoke: "(Of) what evidence have we yet need, for we have heard ourselves from His mouth." (Luke 22:70-71)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

Jesus beheld Nathanael coming towards Him and says on account of him: "Behold, truly an Israelite, in whom it/there is not (any) deceit!" (John 1:47)

(Jesus said to those Jews who to begin with believed Him:) "You are out of the father of ‘the slanderer’/Judas, and you want to make/do the desires of your father. That one (continually) was a man-slayer from a beginning, and he does not stand (and has not stood) in the truth, because it/there is not truth in him. When he – according to the circumstances – may talk the lie, he talks out of the own things, because he is a liar and ‘its father’/’the father of the lie’." (John 8:44)

Behold, I have given (and give) (א,*א) (you) out of the synagogue of the adversary the ones saying themselves be Jews, and they are not, however/but they lie. (Rev 3:9a, “Philadelphia”)

The (judicial) authority of the horses is in the mouths (of the horses) and in their tails. (Rev 9:19a)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

Eliahu already had found time to see many kinds of men, but not such as these (gordonists in Jerusalem). They behaved very simply, and Eliahu did not believe, that they in their country were in possession of high dignities or enjoyed great esteem, but he nevertheless felt the greatest respect for them. He thought, that there was something of the magnificence and the authority over them, which belong to such ones who are born to govern men. This might had been due to that they all showed a great mastery over themselves. They never let a unkindly word fall, neither to one another, nor to the lowest of the Syrian servants. They never showed dissatisfaction, never showed bad temper, endured rain and heat with the same equanimity. There prevailed such a joy and such a fresh courage among them, that Eliahu many times said to himself: "Oh, that all travellers were as these!" (Selma Lagerlöf "Jerusalem II" p 262; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

At 19 years old I discover the one in Sweden not usual gift to write theatre. I then was a half-pious soul who on knee thanked Gof for the grace and began dutifully to cultivate the dear talents. . . . It is not true that I misused my gifts, for the most beautiful pieces Gillets Hemlighet, Herr Bengts Hustru, Damaskus and Advent are not played! While now and then the more unattractive are appeared in order to disappear! leaving a wet blemish after them! The thing I have erred I have now sense of shame and acknowledge the error, but where I am without guilt! - there I formerly got angry, angry! Now not so much; only sit asking what the sense is! (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev XIII sept 1898-dec 1900" p 79; letter 1899-01-24 to Carl Larsson; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Ad. Anderberg, Ingvar Andersson, Werner Aspenström, David Bellingham, Bo Bergman, Lars-Gunnar Björklund, Jenny Chappel, P. Fjellstedt, Adolphine Fogtmann, Nikolaj Gogol, Olle Helander, Bengt Hägglund, Harry Lenhammar, Sven Lidman, Håkan Möller, Gunnar Peterson, Lewi Pethrus, Viktor Rydberg, Henrik Schück, William Shakespeare, Isaac Basjevis Singer, John Sjögren, Alexander Solsjenitsyn, Sven Stolpe, Leonard Strömberg, Margareta Strömstedt, Hjalmar Söderhjelm, Thomas a Kempis, Ingvar Wahlén, Filip Wallin, Sigurd Wildte.


Paul said to the believers in Ephesos: “(God) chose us in (our Lord Jesus Christ) before a foundation of an adornment/’adorned world’ to in welcome be ... entirely holy and unblemished in the very eyes of Him.” (Eph 1:4)

I have not written to you, that you do not know the truth, however/but that you know it, and that every lie is not out of the truth. (1 John 2:21)

And you, the ointment, which you have taken from Him, it stays in you, and you have not need, in order that anyone may teach you. However, as His Spirit (א*) teaches you on account of all things and is true and is not a lie, and entirely as It has taught you, you stay in Him. (1 John 2:27)


Greek words:

amômos (unblemished) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Wisdom of Solomon 2:22; Eph 1:4; Rev 14:5 – Sir 31:8; 40:19; Eph 5:27; Phil 2:15; Col 1:22; Heb 9:14; 1 Pet 1:19; Jude v 24.


Additional studies:

Lev 13-14; Num 19:2; Ps 18:21-23(22-24); 119:43; 144:7-8,11; Jer 3:10; 13:25; Micah 6:12; Zeph 3:9; Mal 2:6; Judith 5:5; 1 Macc 9:10; Sir 33:23; 44:19; Matt 10:8; 11:5; 13:8,23; Mark 1:40-41; 4:20; Luke 3:25; 5:12-13; 7:22; 17:12-14; Rom 1:25; Eph 4:25; Col 3:8; 2 Thess 2:11-12; 1 Pet 2:22; 2 Pet 3:14; Rev 21:27; 22:15.


J.A. du Rand "A socio-psychological view of the effect of the language (parole) of the Apocalypse of John"; Neotestamentica 24.2 (1990): 351-366.

Alan Thompson "Blameless Before God? Philippians 3:6 in Context"; Themelios 28.1 (Autumn 2002): 5-12.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-21; 2012-07-11; 2015-07-31)

Back to the top

14:6 And I beheld * (P47, א*) a messenger flying in midheaven, having an agelong ‘good little message’/’reward for a good little message’, to bring (P47, א,* א) a good little message against the ones being seated upon the earth and against every nation and tribe and tongue and people.

Word for word (26 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus): And (i/I)-beheld (a)-messenger flying in midheaven having (a)-good-little-message agelong (to)-bring-a-good-little-message against the-(ones) being-seated upon the earth and against every nation and tribe and tongue and people.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(David said:) “The one having brought away a message to me that Saul had (‘and was’/-) deceased – he and/also (continually) was as bringing a good little message in the very eyes of me – and/but I kept him down and killed (him ..., which) I had to give him (as his) ‘good little message’/’reward for a good little message’.” (2 Sam 4:10, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said:) ”Bless the name (of the Lord)! Bring a good little message of His means of saving ‘day out of day’/’from day to day’. Bring up a message (about) His glory in/among the nations, His wondrous things in/among all the peoples.” (Ps 96:2b-3, Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) "I lifted my eyes and beheld, and behold, a flying sickle. … (The messenger) spoke towards me: “This (is) the vengeance going out against the face of ‘every the’/’the whole’ earth.” (Zech 5:1b,3a, Greek OT)

(Solomon said to the Lord: “When) a still silence surrounded all the things, and a night reached the middle (of its course) in (its) own quickness, your ‘all-ably’ saying, a severe warrior, came from heavens out of thrones of kingdoms into a middle of the destructive earth (with) a sharp sword.” (Wisdom of Solomon 18:14-15a or 18:14-16a)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “This good little message of the kingdom will be proclaimed in the whole (inhabited) world into/’for a purpose of’ a testimony to all the nations, and then the end will arrive.” (Matt 24:14)

Jesus came into Galilee, proclaiming the good little message of God. (Mark 1:14b)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Amen I say to you, no one is who has let habitation be or brothers … with respect to Me and with respect to the good little message, if – according to the circumstances – he may not take hundredfold now in the seasonable time … and in the coming age, agelong life.” (Mark 10:29b-30)

(Jesus said to Peter, James, John and Andrew:) “Into all the nations, first (into) a people (א*), the good little message must be proclaimed.” (Mark 13:10)

(Peter said:) “Through my mouth the nations (would) hear the saying of the good little message and believe.” (Acts 15:7b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(The four living beings and the twenty-four elders sang:) “Worthy is (the little Ram) to take the scroll and to open its seals, because You were slaughtered. And (for) God in/with Your blood You bought us (א,* א) out of every tribe and tongue and people and nation.” (Rev 5:9b)

After these things I beheld, and behold, a much/many-headed crowd, which no one (continually/never) was able to number it, out of every nation and (out of) tribes and peoples and tongues. (Rev 7:9a)

I beheld, and I heard (the sound of) an eagle flying in midheaven, saying (with) a great/loud voice: “Woe, woe, woe, to the ones inhabiting upon the earth.” (Rev 8:13a)

In the days of the voice of the seventh messenger, when he – according to the circumstances – may be about to sound the trumpet, the mystery of God and/also was ended, as He gave a good little message to His 'of Himself'/own slaves and (P47, P85, א,* א) the prophets. (Rev 10:7)

(Some) out of the peoples and tribes and tongues and nations see their falls/corpses (for) three and a half days, and they do not let their falls/corpses be (alone) to be put/laid into a tomb. (Rev 11:9)

It was given to (the first little wild animal) to make war ‘in company with’/with the holy ones and to conquer them and it was given to it (judicial) authority against every tribe and people and tongue and nation. (Rev 13:7)

(The second little wild animal) makes the earth and the ones dwelling in it * (א,* א) to prostrate (towards) the first little wild animal (in adoration of it), whose (wound of) the blow of death had been attended. (Rev 13:12)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

Originally (“euangelion”) meant ‘the reward given to a messenger for bringing good tidings’. (The word) is so used in Septuagint in II Sam. 4.10. (William Barclay ”New Testament Words” p 101)

You have to give away Mårbacka to some charitable purposes. . . . Now it is eleven o'clock, I shall go down hearing a sermon on the radio. I need to hear the message of God to us men in these days. Your Selma, who likes you very much. . . . I have heard the sermon. The gospel of the day spoke about charity! (Selma Lagerlöf "Brev 2 - 1903-1940" p 360-361; letter 1939-09-03 to Ida Bäckmann; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Alf Ahlberg, Gunnar Aspelin, Linné Eriksson, Martin Luther, Fredrik Nielsen, John Ongman, Efraim Palmqvist, Hilding Pleijel, Parley P. Pratt, Martin Schwarz-Larsen, Knut Svensson, Yngve Ydreborg, N.P. Wetterlund.


My own comments and speculations:

The Greek word “euangelion” only occurs once in the Greek OT (2 Sam 4:10) and once in the Johannine writings. In the OT the good little message is not good for all (cf. also Zech 5:3). So it is also here in the Revelation. The good little message is bad to all who in adoration have prostrated towards the little wild animal or its image.

Compare “the ones dwelling in the earth” (Rev 13:12) with “the ones being seated upon the earth” (Rev 14:6).

Concerning “flying in midheaven”, see Rev 8:13a.

Concerning “every nation and tribe and tongue and people”, see Rev 5:9bb. Observe that the order of nation, tribe, tongue and people every time is changed (Rev 5:9, 7:9, 11:9, 13:7 and here 14:6).


Greek words:

euangelion (good little message) 2 Sam 4:10; Matt 24:14; Mark 1:14; 10:29; 13:10; Acts 15:7; Rev 14:6 – Matt 4:23; 9:35; 26:13; Mark 1:1,15; 8:35; 13:10; 14:9; Acts 20:24; Rom 1:1,9,16; 2:16; 10:16; 11:28; 15:16,19; 16:25; 1 Cor 4:15; 9:12,14,18,23; 15:1; 2 Cor 2:12; 4:3-4; 8:18; 9:13; 10:14; 11:4,7. Gal 1:6-7,11; 2:2,5,7,14; Eph 1:13; 3:6; 6:15,19; Phil 1:5,7,12,16,27; 2:22; 4:3,15; Col 1:5,23; 1 Thess 1:5; 2:2,4,8-9; 3:2; 2 Thess 1:8; 2:14; 1 Tim 1:11; 2 Tim 1:8,10; 2:8; Philemon v 13; 1 Pet 4:17.


Additional studies:

Deut 33:26-29; 1 Sam 31:9; 2 Sam 18:20-27; 2 Kings 7:9; 1 Chron 16:23-36; John 6:68; 12:50; 1 Pet 1:25.


Willem Altink "1 Chronicles 16:8-36 as literary source for Revelation 14:6-7"; Andrews University Seminary Studies (Summer 1984): 187-196.

David A. Desilva "A Sociorethorical Interpretation of Revelation 14:6-13: A Call to Act Justly toward the Just and Judging God"; Bulletin for Biblical Research 9 (1999): 65-117.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-21; 2012-07-11; 2015-08-01)

Back to the top

14:7 ... * (א,*א) in/with a great/loud voice: “Fear God, and give Him glory, because the hour of His judgment has come. And (in honour of Him) prostrate yourselves before the One having made the heaven and the earth and the (P47,א,*א) sea and springs of waters.”

Word for word (32 words in the Greek text): in (a)-voice great: fear the god and give him glory, because came the hour (of)-the (of)-judgment his, and '(kiss-towards)'/'prostrate-(yourselves)-(before)' the-(one) having-made the heaven and the earth and the sea and springs (of)-water.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

In a beginning God made the heaven and the earth. … And God called … the ‘standings together’ of the waters … seas. (Gen 1:1a,10a, Greek OT)

(Mordocai said to the Lord:) “You have made the heaven and the earth and every/all being wondered/admired in the thing (being) underneath heaven.“ (Esther 4:17ca/C3, Greek OT)

(God) made two shares of inheritance, one to the people of God and one to all the nations. And these two shares of inheritance came into an hour and a seasonable time and into a day of judgment in the very eyes of God and in all the nations. (Esther 10:3gb-h/F7b-8, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said to God:) “You (let) springs break ‘through in pieces’/asunder.” (Ps 74:15a, Greek OT)

(Solomon said:) “Fear God and watch/keep His commandments ... because ... God will lead every piece of workmanship in a judgment. (Eccl 12:13b-14a, Greek OT)

(The prophet said: “Behold) a day of judgment of the Lord and a period of time of ‘giving back in stead’/requital of a judgment of Zion.” (Is 34:8, Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) "Give glory to the Lord, your God, before 'the athing to grow'/'it grows' dark." (Jer 13:16a, Greek OT)

(Judith said:) ”Woe nations standing on/against my descent/people! The Lord, (the) All-powerful, will procure justice for them in a day of judgment, give fire and worms into their flesh, and they will weep in notice/discomfort till/’as long as’ an age.” (Judith 16:17)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "Do not fear from the ones slaying the body but being not able to kill the soul; but rather fear the One being able to perish and/both soul and body in Gehenna." (Matt 10:28)

(Through the prophet Isaiah the Lord said about Jesus:) "Behold, My boy whom I have adopted, My welcomed * (א*, B) (with) whom My soul was well-pleased, I will put My spirit against Him. And He will bring away a message (about) a judgment to the nations." (Matt 12:18)

(Jesus said to the Pharisees:) ”Every idle/useless word which the men will talk, they will give back ‘a saying’/’an argument’ on account of it in a day of judgment.” (Matt 12:36b)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "The kingdom of the heavens is like a drag-net having been thrown into the sea and led together (fish) out of every descent, which, when it was completed, having caused (it) to go/come up against the beach and having sat down, they collected the fine ones into receptacles, but the rotten/bad ones they threw outside." (Matt 13:47-48)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Become ready, because The Son of the Man comes at an hour which you do not think.” (Matt 24:44b)

(The woman said:) “If – according to the circumstances – I may touch and/namely if – according to the circumstances – His garments, I will be saved.” And straight/’straight off’ the spring of her blood was dried. (Mark 5:28-29a)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) ”I will underneath/secretly show you whom you may fear, * (א,*א) the One after the thing to kill having (judicial) authority to throw in, into Gehenna. Yes, I say you, you may fear this One.” (Luke 12:5)

(Paul said to the males in Athen: “God) has ‘caused ... to stand’/fixed a day in which He is about to judge the (inhabited) world in/with righteousness in/’by means of’ a male to whom He has marked out by boundaries a faith having been offered to all (by) having caused Him to stand up out of dead (bodies).” (Acts 17:31)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Jesus said to the Jews:) "Nor the Father judges ‘no one’/anyone, however/but has given (and gives) every/all judgment to the Son, in order that all may honour the Son entirely as they may honour the Father. The one not honouring the Son does not honour the Father having sent Him. Amen, amen I say to you, that the one hearing My saying and believing (in) the One having sent Me has agelong life and does not come into judgment, however/but has stepped (and steps) over out of the death into the life." (John 5:22-24)

(The Jews) so ‘out of’/’immediately after’, a second (time), raised their voices to the man who (continually) had been blind and spoke to him: “Give glory to God.” We know that this Man is a misser (of the mark of God).” (John 9:24)

I heard behind me a great/loud voice as a trumpet. (Rev 1:10b)

Behold, I will make them, ‘in order’/so that they will arrive and prostrate themselves before, ‘in the very eyes of’/before your feet and you will gain knowledge (א,*א), that I have welcomed you. (Rev 3:9b, “Philadelphia”)

(Worthy are … the Lord and our God) to take the glory and the honour and the ability, for You created all the things, and because of Your will they (continually) were and were created. (Rev 4:11b)

And I beheld a stable messenger proclaiming in/with a great/loud voice: “Who (is) worthy to open the scroll and loosen its seals?” (Rev 5:2)

Every creature which (is) in the heaven and upon the earth * (א,* א) and upon the sea, and the things in them, all I and/also (א,* א) heard saying. (Rev 5:13a)

And (the souls of the slaughtered witnesses) shouted (with) a great/loud voice. (Rev 6:10a)

(The messenger) shouted (with) a great/loud voice to the four messengers, to whom it was given to them to act unrighteously (against) the earth and the sea. (Rev 7:2b)

(The much/many-headed crowd) shout (with) a great/loud voice, saying: “The saving (belongs) to our God, the One being seated on the throne and to the little Ram into the (coming) ages of the (coming) ages. Amen (א*).” (Rev 7:10)

The little Ram, the One upwards/above a middle of the throne, will be a shepherd to them, and He will show them the way upon springs of waters. (Rev 7:17a)

(The great star) fell against the third of the rivers and against the springs of the waters. (Rev 8:10b)

(An eagle) saying (with) a great/loud voice: “Woe, woe, woe, to the ones inhabiting upon the earth, out/’in consequence’ of the rest of voices of the trumpet of the three messengers being about to sound the trumpet.” (Rev 8:13b)

(The messenger) shouted (with) a great/loud voice, just as a lion lows, and when he had shouted, * (א*) seven peals of thunder talked (with their) 'of selves'/own voices. (Rev 10:3)

(The messenger) swore (by) (P47,א*) the One living into the (coming) ages of the (coming) ages, who created the heaven and the things in it, and the earth and the things in it * (א*,A), that there will not be any time longer. (Rev 10:6)

(The ones who saw the two witnesses) heard a great/loud voice out of the heaven saying to them: “Ascend here.” (Rev 11:12a)

The rest became in fear (א,* א) and gave glory to the God of the heaven (in honour of Him). (Rev 11:13b)

The seventh messenger sounded the trumpet. And they/it became great/loud voices in the heaven. (Rev 11:15a)

I heard a great/loud voice in the heaven, saying: ”Just now the saving and the ability and the kingdom of our God and the (judicial) authority of His christ/'anointed one' have become (established), because the accuser (P47,א,*א) of our brothers has been thrown (out), he accusing them in the very eyes of our God day and night.” (Rev 12:10)

They prostrated themselves before the dragon (in honour of him), because he had given the (judicial) authority to the little wild animal. And they prostrated themselves before the little wild animal (in honour of it), saying: “Who (is) like the little wild animal, and who is able to wage war ‘in company with’/with it?” (Rev 13:4)

And they will prostrate themselves before (the little wild animal) (in honour of it) (א,*א), all the ones dwelling upon the earth, whose names (P47,א,*א) are * (א*) (and have * (א*) been) written in a (א*) book (P47,א,*א) of the life of the little Ram, being (and having been) slaughtered from a foundation of an adornment/’adorned world’. (Rev 13:8)

(The second little wild animal) makes/exercises every/all the (judicial) authority of the first little wild animal in the very eyes of it. And it makes the earth and the ones dwelling in it * (א,* א) to prostrate (towards) the first little wild animal (in adoration of it), whose (wound of) the blow of death had been attended. (Rev 13:12)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: Eskil Albertsson, Leo Baeck, Martin Buber, E.J. Ekman, John Stott.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “a great/loud voice”, see Rev 1:10b. Concerning “Fear God, and give Him glory”, see also Rev 11:13b. Concerning “prostrate yourselves”, see Rev 3:9b and Rev 13:4. Concerning “Him having made the heaven and the earth and the (P47, א,* א) sea”, see also Rev 5:13a and Rev 10:6. Concerning “springs of waters”, see Rev 7:17a and Rev 8:10b.


In this the welcome in company with us is (and has been) made perfect, in order that we may have ‘plain language in’/’courage by means of’ the welcome (א,* א) of the judgment/justice, because entirely as that One is, and/also we will (א,* א) be in this adornment/’adorned world’. Fear is not in the welcome. (1 John 4:17)


Additional studies:

Gen 2:4; 14:19,22; Deut 32:3; 1 Chron 16:23-36; Ps 1:5; 33:6; 104:10; 124:8; 146:6; Is 42:1,5; 45:12,18; Jer 10:16; 51:19; Sir 18:20; The Prayer of Manasseh v 2; John 5:27-29; 11:43; Acts 4:24; 14:15; 17:24; Heb 9:27; 2 Pet 2:9; 3:7; Rev 15:4; 18:10.


Willem Altink "1 Chronicles 16:8-36 as literary source for Revelation 14:6-7"; Andrews University Seminary Studies (Summer 1984): 187-196.

Henri Blocher "The Fear of the Lord as the 'Principle' of Wisdom"; Tyndale Bulletin 28 (1977): 3-28.

David A. Desilva "A Sociorethorical Interpretation of Revelation 14:6-13: A Call to Act Justly toward the Just and Judging God"; Bulletin for Biblical Research 9 (1999): 65-117.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-21; 2012-07-11; 2015-08-09)

Back to the top

14:8 And another * (P47, א*), a second one, followed, saying: “She has fallen * (א,* א), the great Babylon, who gives (and has given) all the nations to drink out of the wine of the passion of her fornication.”

Word for word (22 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus prima manus): And another (a)-second followed saying: (she)-fell Babylon the great who out-of the wine (of)-the (of)-passion (of)-the (of)-fornication her gives-(and-has-given)-to-drink all the nations.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The men) spoke: “Come here, 'we may'/'let us' build for ourselves a city and a tower, which head/top shall be till the heaven, and 'we may'/'let us' make a name for ourselves, before the 'thing to sow asunder'/'sowing asunder' upon the face of ‘all the’/’the whole’ earth.” (Gen 11:4, Greek OT)

(David said to God:) “You have shown Your people hard things. You have given us a wine of stupefaction to drink.” (Ps 60:3 or 60:5, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said:) “A cup (is) in a hand of the Lord, an undiluted wine ... . All the missers (of His mark) of the earth will be drunk.” (Ps 75:8 or 75:9, Greek OT)

(The guardian) spoke: “It has fallen (and falls), Babylon. …” (Is 21:9b, Greek OT)

Arouse/’wake up’, arouse/’wake up’, stand up Jerusalem having drunk the cup of the passion out of a hand of the Lord. (Is 51:17a, Greek OT)

(God said to Judas:) “You have been given to fornication ... and/but you have ‘crooked up’/’bent back’ towards Me. … You have stained the earth/land in/with your fornications and in/with your badnesses.” (Jer 3:1b,2b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to the prophet:) ”Take this cup of the undiluted wine out of My hand and give all the nations towards whom I dispatch you away towards them to drink.” (Jer 25:15b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to the prophet:) “In a hand of the Lord (there is) a golden cup of Babylon, making ‘all the’/’the whole’ earth drunk. Nations have drunk from her wine. Because of this they moved to and fro. And all at once Babylon has fallen and been crushed.” (Jer 51:7-8a, Greek OT)

(The king of Babylon) … said: “This is the great Babylon.” (Dan 4:27a or 4:30a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) ”In the house of Israel I have beheld (something) horrible. Ephraim's fornication (is) there. Israel and Judah have stained themselves.” (Hos 6:10, Greek OT)

(The prophet said: “Israel) has fallen.” (Amos 5:2a, Greek OT)

(Tobit said to Tobias:) “Give heed to yourself, little boy, (be) from/’far from’ all fornication.” (Tobit 4:12a, BA)


The Latter Revelation:

All the generations ... from David till the migration of/to Babylon (are) fourteen generations. And from the migration of/to Babylon till Christ fourteen generations. (Matt 1:17)

(Jesus said to His disciples: “A disgraced Jerosolyma/Jerusalem) is (the) city of the great King.” (Matt 5:35b)

(Jesus said to His disciples: “Out of the heart) come evil ‘countings throughout’/considerations, murders, adulteries, fornications, thefts, false evidences, blasphemies. These are the things making the man common/unclean.” (Matt 15:19-20a)

(The soldiers) gave (Jesus) wine to drink being (and having been) mixed ‘in company’/together with gall. (Matt 27:34a)

Having taken a sponge both/and fulfilled it (with) sour wine and having put (it) round about (in/through) a reed one * (א,*א) (of the ones who stood by the cross) (continually/repeatedly) gave (Jesus) to drink. (Matt 27:48b)

(Jesus said to His disciples: “Jerusalem will be, be trodden by nations until the (time in which the) seasonable times of nations may be completed.” (Luke 21:24b)

(The Lord said to Israel:) “I will migrate you there beyond Babylon.” (Acts 7:43b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

However I have few/’a few’ things ‘down from’/against you, because you have (some) there ‘getting power over’/embracing the teaching of Balaam who taught * (א*) to throw/lay a stumbling block in the very eyes of the sons of Israel, to eat things sacrificed to idols and to fornicate. (Rev 2:14, “Pergamos”)

However I have a much/great thing (א,* א) ‘down from’/against you, that you let the woman Jezebel be, the one saying herself be (א,* א) a prophetess, and she teaches and leads My slaves astray to fornicate and eat (things) sacrificed to idols. And I gave her time, in order that she might change her mind * (א*) ‘out of’/’in consequence of’ her fornication. (Rev 2:20-21, “Thyatira”)

Woe to the earth and the sea, because the slanderer has descended towards you, having * (א,* א) passion, knowing (and having known) that he has few/’a little’ seasonable time. (Rev 12:12b)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

In Apocalypsis Swedenborg writes: " . . . With Babel the unsanctification of the good is represented." Jeremiah, the prophet, writes: "Babel will become a heap of stones, a hbitation for jackals, a goal for amazement, and where no one will live." This has come in like all the prophecies: Babel has fallen but Bibel manages! (August Strindberg "En blå bok II" p 525; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Attila did not know anything about his descent or his native country, but gave up his calling as a scourge of God. Genserik, the vandal, was a melancholic acting without calculation. Once he put off with a navy without goal. The pilot asked where he would steer and for what people it was intended. - "The people towards which God gets angry", Genserik answered. Alarik went for the third time towards Rome. A hermit wanted to stop him. "I cannot be stopped", Alarik said, "someone forces me to ravage Rome." (August Strindberg "Världshistoriens Mystik" p 55; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: E.J. Ekman, Carl Grimberg, Fredrik Nielsen, Anton Tjechov, Bernhard Toftgård.


Greek words:

Babylôn (Babylon) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Matt 1:17; Acts 7:43; Rev 14:8 – Esther 1:1c(A3); Tobit 14:4; 1 Macc 6:4; Baruch 1:1,4,9,11-12; 2:21-22,24; Epistle of Jeremiah Prologue, v 1-3; Susanna v 1,5; Bel and the Dragon v 34-36; Matt 1:11-12; 1 Pet 5:13; Rev 16:19; 17:5; 18:2,10,21.

potizô (give to drink) (in the NT + one example in the Apocrypha) Matt 27:48; Rev 14:8 – Sir 15:3; Matt 10:42; 25:35,37,42(43); Mark 9:41; 15:36; Luke 13:15; Rom 12:20; 1 Cor 3:2,6-8; 12:13.


Additional studies:

Gen 38:24; Jer 3:8-9; Sir 23:22-23; Matt 5:32; 19:9; 24:2; Mark 7:21; 13:2; 15:23; Luke 21:6; Acts 15:20; 1 Cor 5:1; 6:13,18; 7:2; 2 Cor 12:21; Gal 5:19; Eph 5:3; Col 3:5; 1 Thess 4:3; Rev 14:10; 16:19; 17:2,4-5; 18:2-3,10,21; 19:2,15.


David A. Desilva "A Sociorethorical Interpretation of Revelation 14:6-13: A Call to Act Justly toward the Just and Judging God"; Bulletin for Biblical Research 9 (1999): 65-117.

Seth Erlandsson "Kampen om Babels tron - den assyriske världsfursten som Babels kung"; Svensk Exegetisk Årsbok 54 (1989): 57-69.

M.J. Selvidge "Powerful and powerless women in the Apocalypse"; Neotestamentica 26:1 (1992): 157-168.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-21; 2012-07-11; 2015-08-10)

Back to the top

14:9-10a And another messenger, a third one, followed them, saying in/with a great/loud voice: “If any one prostrates himself (towards) the little wild animal (in adoration of it) and (towards) its image (in adoration of it) and takes a mark upon his forehead or against his hand, he and/also will drink out of the wine of the passion of God, of the one being (and having been) blended/filled undiluted in the cup of His wrath.”

Word for word: 14:9 (31 words in the Greek text) And another messenger (a)-third followed them saying in (a)-voice great: if anyone '(kisses-towards)'/prostrates (towards)-the little-wild-animal and (towards)-the image its and takes (a)-mark upon the forehead his or against the hand his 14:10a (19 words in the Greek text) and he will-drink out-of the wine (of)-the (of)-passion (of)-the (of)-god (of)-the-one being-(and-having-been)-blended undiluted in the cup (of)-the (of)-wrath his


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Israel) was profaned into the daughters of Moab. And they called (the people) on/’for the sake of’ the sacrifices of their idols, and the people ate their sacrifices prostrated before their idols (in honour of them). (Num 25:1b-2, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) "The ones glorifying Me I will glorify, and the one despising Me will be unhonoured." (1 Sam 2:30b, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said:) “A cup (is) in a hand of the Lord, an undiluted wine ... . All the missers (of His mark) of the earth will be drunk.” (Ps 75:8 or 75:9, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said to the Lord:) “Pour out Your wrath against the nations having not knowledge of You and against kingdoms which have not 'called against'/invoked Your name.” (Ps 79:6, Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) “The Lord has blended/filled (in Egypt) a spirit of leading astray, and (the leaders) have led Egypt astray in all their works, as the one being drunk goes astray.” (Is 19:14a, Greek OT)

Arouse/’wake up’, arouse/’wake up’, stand up Jerusalem having drunk the cup of the passion out of a hand of the Lord. (Is 51:17a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to the prophet:) ”Take this cup of the undiluted wine out of My hand and give all the nations towards whom I dispatch you away towards them to drink.” (Jer 25:15b, Greek OT)

(Solomon said:) “Being drawn against (the image) the multitude, because of the thankworthy of the occupation/workmanship, now counted/saw an object of reverence/adoration, (where) it few/’a short time’ before (had seen) the man having been honoured.” (Wisdom of Solomon 14:20)


The Latter Revelation:

(The lord said to the slaves:) ”Let both (the darnels and the bread-stuff) be to increase together until (א*) the harvest. And in the (א*) seasonable time of the harvest I will speak to the harvesters: ‘First collect the darnels and bind them into bundles towards/to burn them down, but lead together the bread-stuff into my granary.” (Matt 13:30)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “ Just as the darnels are collected and burned down (in) fire, in this way it will be in the consummation of the age. The Son of the Man will dispatch away His messengers, and they will collect out of His kingdom all the stumbling blocks and the ones making the lawlessness, and they throw (א*) them into the furnace of the fire. The weeping and the gnashing of the teeth will be there.” (Matt 13:40-42)

(The soldiers) gave (Jesus) wine to drink being (and having been) mixed ‘in company’/together with gall. (Matt 27:34a)

(Jesus said to James and Jacob:) “The cup which I drink, you will drink. ... ” (Mark 10:39b)

Having run and filled a sponge (with) sour wine (and) having put it round about a reed, a certain one (continually/repeatedly) gave it to (Jesus) to drink. (Mark 15:36a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

He who does not obey the Son shall not see life, but the wrath of God stays against him. (John 3:36)

It/there (continually) lay a vessel filled up (with) sour wine. Having so put a sponge filled up (with) * (א*) sour wine round about (on) a hyssop (stalk) (the soldiers) carried it to the mouth. When (Jesus) (א*) so had taken the sour wine, He spoke: "It is (and has been) ended!" (John 19:29-30a)

(Hide us from a face/presence of the One being seated on the throne) and from the wrath of the little Ram, because the great day of their wrath has come and who is able to stand?” (Rev 6:16b-17)

The nations was/were (P47, א*) wrathful, and/but Your wrath came and the seasonable time of the dead (bodies) to be judged. (Rev 11:18a)

Woe to the earth and the sea, because the slanderer has descended towards you, having * (א,* א) passion, knowing (and having known) that he has few/’a little’ seasonable time. (Rev 12:12b)

They prostrated themselves before the dragon (in honour of him), because he had given the (judicial) authority to the little wild animal. And they prostrated themselves before the little wild animal (in honour of it), saying: “Who (is) like the little wild animal, and who is able to wage war ‘in company with’/with it?” (Rev 13:4)

And they will prostrate themselves before (the little wild animal) (in honour of it) (א,*א), all the ones dwelling upon the earth, whose names (P47,א,*א) are * (א*) (and have * (א*) been) written in a (א*) book (P47,א,*א) of the life of the little Ram, being (and having been) slaughtered from a foundation of an adornment/’adorned world’. (Rev 13:8)

(The second little wild animal) makes/exercises every/all the (judicial) authority of the first little wild animal in the very eyes of it. And it makes the earth and the ones dwelling in it * (א,* א) to prostrate (towards) the first little wild animal (in adoration of it), whose (wound of) the blow of death had been attended. (Rev 13:12)

It was given to (the second little wild animal) to give spirit (to) the image of the (first) little wild animal, in order that the image of the little wild animal and/also may talk. And it will (א,* א) make, (so that) as many as – if according to the circumstances – will (א,* א) not prostrate themselves before the image of the little wild animal (in honour of it), (that) they may be killed. (Rev 13:15)

(The second little wild animal) makes (so that) all, the small and the great and the rich and the beggarly and the free and the slaves, ‘in order that they may give them ’/’that they may be given’ a mark upon their right hand or against their forehead. (Rev 13:16)

(The messenger brought the good little message ) * (א,* א) in/with a great/loud voice. … And another, a second one, followed. (Rev 14:7a,8a)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

“Akratos” is the word that describes pure wine or pure milk, which has not been adulterated by water. It is pure in the sense of ‘neat’, completely unadulterated. (William Barclay ”New Testament Words” p 172)

The teacher (to his disciple): The one who suffers when the good and the deserving thing is rewarded, this is an evil man. The one called for the releasing of the murderer Barabbas and perhaps gave a banquet for him, this was an evil man. (August Strindberg "En blå bok I" p 46; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

You once betrayed me to my enemies, You carried up my head on a dish and my heart in a bowl to these lords of the world, and therefore it can never become what has been! To be friends with one's enemy? How would I be able? Do not touch my fate with naughty hands! How often did I not warn? But You in your presumption had to go there - as the others! I cried for forty days about your betrayal, when You round about made fun of the one who only wanted to lift You. You wanted downwards, but I want upwards! You cannot follow me, and I do not follow You! This is probably the secret! (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev XIV 1901-mars 1904" p 335; letter 1904-01-01 to Harriet Bosse; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

God means something with all! I did not obey his calling to go in his service. - You remember the newspaper pleading his cause - I wanted to do my sinful will. . . . I wanted to travel in my own matters. . . . He also spoke about sin against the holy Spirit, the man with the faith! . . . What are all Antwerpen's cathedrals and the art rubbish of the Louvre compared with a man suffering to his soul - I have risen in rebellion against God - I have blasphemed. . (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev I 1858-1876" s 237-238; letter 1875-10-07 to Carl Gustaf Wrangel; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

There was something they called sin against the H. Spirit! I think that they with that meant: resist the Calling. This sin was said to be the only unforgiveable. Think of this! (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev I 1858-1876" p 198; letter 1875-06-27 to Siri von Essen and his husband Carl Gustaf Wrangel)

Trypho remarked: “What is this you say? that none of us (Jews) shall inherit anything on (Zion) the holy mountain of God?” And I replied: “I do not say so; but those who have persecuted and do persecute Christ, if they do not repent, shall not inherit anything on the holy mountain.” (Justin Martyr, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol I, p 207)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Ann-Charlotte Alverfors, Leif Carlsson, Elof Ehnmark, Homeros, Bengt Hägglund, Lars Levi Laestadius, Sven Lidman, Martin Luther, Vilhelm Moberg, D.L. Moody, Fritiof Nilsson Piraten, Abraham Rundbäck, Bo Setterlind, Harry Sjöman, Morris West.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “prostrates himself (towards) the little wild animal (in adoration of it) and (towards) its image (in adoration of it)”, see Rev 13:4, 13:8, 13:12 and 13:15 and My own comments and speculations to these passages.

It seems as if John divides the unbelievers in two groups, partly in a group where the men prostrate themselves towards the little wild animal and its image in adoration of the little wild animal (and take a mark against/upon their foreheads or upon/against their hands) and partly in another group where the men prostrate themselves before the little wild animal and its image in honour of the little wild animal (and refrain from taking a mark against their foreheads or upon their hands). Cf. Num 25:1b-2 and Wisdom of Solomon 14:16-20. The first group consists of men who not only refuse the gift of God but also fight against God and those men who receive the gift.

Concerning “in/with a great/loud voice”, see Rev 14:7 and Rev 1:10b. Concerning “takes a mark upon his forehead or against his hand”, compare in a restoration perspective with Rev 13:16, where we have the wording “upon ... hand ... against ... forehead”.


Greek words:

akratos (undiluted) Ps 75:8(9); Jer 25:15; Rev 14:10. (3 Macc 5:2 and Psalms of Solomon also speak about drinking wine undiluted)

kerannymi (blend) (in the Apocrypha, the NT) Rev 14:10 – Bel and the Dragon v 11; Rev 18:6. (2 Macc 15:39: syngkerannymi = blend together)


Additional studies:

Ex 32:12; Job 21:20; Is 51:20-22; 59:18; 63:3-6; Jer 10:25; 25:27; 30:23-24; 32:37; 49:12; Lam 2:3; 4:21; Ezek 5:13; 25:14,17; 30:15; 36:6; Obadiah v 16; Nahum 1:6; Zech 8:2; Wisdom of Solomon 14:16-20; Luke 23:36; John 4:23-24; 18:11; Rom 2:8; Rev 14:11,19; 15:1,7; 16:1,19; 18:2-3,6; 19:15,20.


David A. Desilva "A Sociorethorical Interpretation of Revelation 14:6-13: A Call to Act Justly toward the Just and Judging God"; Bulletin for Biblical Research 9 (1999): 65-117.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-21; 2012-07-11; 2015-08-10)

Back to the top

14:10b And he will be tormented in fire and sulphur in the very eyes of holy messengers and in the very eyes of the little Ram.

Word for word (13 words in the Greek text): and (he)-will-be-tormented in fire and sulphur in-the-very-eyes-of (of)-messengers (of)-holy-(ones) and in-the-very-eyes-of the little-ram.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Eliphaz said to Job:) “Call on, if any one will hearken you, or if any of the holy messengers may behold?” (Job 5:1, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Babylon: "The ones having helped you) will all be burnt down as bushes upon fire, and their souls may not/certainly not be taken out for themselves out of a flame, because you have coals of fire to ‘make sit down’/place against them." (Is 47:14, Greek OT)

(The Jew said to the foreign king:) “Be patient and look at the great power of (the Lord), as He will torment you and your seed.” (2 Macc 7:17)

(Solomon said:) “When (righteous ones) were tried … they gained knowledge, how wicked ones, being judged in company with wrath, (continually) were tormented.” (Wisdom of Solomon 11:9)

(Solomon said: “The people of God were shown) how their enemies (continually) were tormented.” (Wisdom of Solomon 16:4b)

(Solomon said to the Lord:) “You have a (judicial) authority of life and death, and You lead down into gates of Hades and You lead up.” (Wisdom of Solomon 16:13)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “In a synagogue of missers (of the mark of God) fire will burn out (all), and in a disobedient nation wrath has burnt out (all).” (Sir 16:6)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “The ones who entirely leave the Lord will fall in, into (the flame), and in them all will be burnt out and may not/certainly not be quenched. (Sir 28:23a)


The Latter Revelation: (John the Baptist said to the Pharisees and Sadducees: “The One who comes behind me) will baptize you in holy spirit and fire and ... will burn down the chaff (in) an unquenchable fire.” (Matt 3:11b,12b)

(The lord said to the slaves:) ”Let both (the darnels and the bread-stuff) be to increase together until (א*) the harvest. And in the (א*) seasonable time of the harvest I will speak to the harvesters: ‘First collect the darnels and bind them into bundles towards/to burn them down, but lead together the bread-stuff into my granary.” (Matt 13:30)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “ Just as the darnels are collected and burned down (in) fire, in this way it will be in the consummation of the age. The Son of the Man will dispatch away His messengers, and they will collect out of His kingdom all the stumbling blocks and the ones making the lawlessness, and they throw (א*) them into the furnace of the fire. The weeping and the gnashing of the teeth will be there.” (Matt 13:40-42)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “In this way it will be in the consummation of the age; the messengers will come out and divide by a boundary-line the evil out of a middle of the righteous ones, and they throw (א*) them into the furnace of the fire.” (Matt 13:49-50a)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “(The one) who – if according to the circumstances – may be ashamed of Me and My sayings in this generation, the adulteress and a misser (of the mark of God), the Son of the Man will and/also be ashamed of him, when – according to the circumstances - He may come in the glory of His Father in company with the holy messengers.” (Mark 8:38)

(Jesus said to the Pharisees and the scribes:) “It becomes joy in the very eyes of the messengers of God on/’on the ground of’ one misser (of the mark of God) changing his mind.” (Luke 15:10b)

(Jesus said to His disciples: ”On) the day Lot came ‘out of’/out from Sodom fire and sulphur ‘gave wet'/rained from heaven and perished all of them (א,*א,A).” (Luke 17:29)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

I will not/certainly not blot the name (of him who conquers) out of the book of the life, and I will confess his name in front of (א,*א) My Father and in the very eyes of His messengers. (Rev 3:5b)

When (the little Ram) took the scroll, the four living beings and the twenty-four elders fell/’sank down’ in the very eyes of the little Ram, everyone having a zither. (Rev 5:8a)

(I beheld a much/many-headed crowd) standing ‘in the very eyes of’/before the throne and in the very eyes of the little Ram, being (and having been) wrapped up in white dresses and (with) date-twigs in their hands. (Rev 7:9b)

(The judicial authority) was given to (the locusts), in order that they might not kill (the men whosover have not the seal of God on the foreheads), however/but in order that they will be tormented (for) five months. (Rev 9:5a)

In this way I beheld the horses in the beholding and the ones being seated above (P47, א,* א) them, having breastplates of a colour of fire and of hyacinth/dark-blue and (being) sulphurous. And the heads of the horses (are) as the heads of lions. And fire and smoke and sulphur go out, out of their mouths. From/’owing to’ these three blows, the third of the men was killed, out/’in consequence’ of the fire and the smoke and the sulphur, of the thing going out, out of their mouths. (Rev 9:17-18)

(The woman) ‘having in womb’/’was with child’. And she shouts, being in pains of child-birth and being tormenting to bring forth. (Rev 12:2)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

You see that my life is as stormy as formerly! Nice it has been occasionally, devilishly idyllic, but occasionally so hellishly painful. (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev X febr 1894-april 1895" p 112; letter 1894-06-30 to Leopold Littmansson; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Gösta Berling had got up on the banisters and from there he speaks (to the people): "Hear me, you monsters, you devils! . . . She (standing) there prayed for you. Oh, if I had known, that you would have touched her, none of you had been in life. . . . Let her go, I say, and might the fists having touched her smart in eternal fire! Do you not understand, that she is as much over you as heaven is over earth, she is as fine as you are coarse, as good as you are evil. (Selma Lagerlöf "Gösta Berlings saga" p 354-355; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Dhunnoun Ayoub, Nils Beltzén, Gotthard Carlsson, Albert Engström, Hilding Fagerberg, William Faulkner, Carl Grimberg, Alf Henrikson, Aleksis Kivi, Gunnar Lindqvist, Martin Luther, Hampus Lyttkens, Vilhelm Moberg, Gabriel Moran, Olof Pettersson, Viktor Rydberg, Gunnar E. Sandgren, Karin Sennefelt, Harry Sjöman, Sven Stolpe, Anton Tjechov, Marian Ullén, P. Waldenström, N.P. Wetterlund, Thecla Wrangel.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “fire and sulphur”, see also Rev 9:17. Concerning “in the very eyes of holy messengers”, see also Rev 3:5b.


Additional studies:

Gen 19:24; Ps 11:6; Is 30:27,33; 34:9-10; 66:24; Ezek 38:22; Matt 25:41; Luke 9:26; Acts 10:22; 2 Thess 1:7-8; Rev 19:3,20; 20:10,14-15; 21:8.


David A. Desilva "A Sociorethorical Interpretation of Revelation 14:6-13: A Call to Act Justly toward the Just and Judging God"; Bulletin for Biblical Research 9 (1999): 65-117.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-21; 2012-07-11; 2015-08-10)

Back to the top

14:11 And the smoke of their tormenting ascends into/for (coming) ages of (coming) ages. And day and night they have not rest, the ones prostrating themselves (towards) the little wild animal (in adoration of it) and (towards) its image (in adoration of it) and if anyone takes the mark of its name.

Word for word (34 words in the Greek text): and the smoke (of)-the tormenting their into ages (of)-ages ascends, and not (they)-have rest day and night the-(ones) '(kissing-towards)'/prostrating (towards)-the little-wild-animal and (towards)-the image its and if anyone takes the mark (of)-the (of)-name its.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

The root of Jesse will be in that day and the One standing up to begin/lead nations. On Him nations will hope, and His rest will be an honour. (Is 11:10, Greek OT)

(The earth of Edom shall be burning, and) night and day (the fire) will not be quenched into the agelong time, and its smoke will ascend up/upwards.” (Is 34:10a, Greek OT)

(Judith said:) ”Woe nations standing on/against my descent/people! The Lord, (the) All-powerful, will procure justice for them in a day of judgment, give fire and worms into their flesh, and they will weep in notice/discomfort till/’as long as’ an age.” (Judith 16:17)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “Who has mercy on ...all the ones leading towards the little wild animals?” (Sir 12:13)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “Death (is) ‘more powerful’/better over/than a bitter life, and an agelong rest than (to be) staying/abiding in non strength.” (Sir 30:17)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to all being bothered and being - and having been - burdened:) "Lift My yoke against you, and learn * (א*), that I am mild and humble (in) the heart." (Matt 11:29a)

(Jesus said to the Pharisees:) “The blasphemy of/to the Spirit will not be ‘let be’/left (alone). ... Who – according to the circumstances – may speak ‘down from’/against the Holy Spirit, it will not/certainly not (א*) be ‘let be’/left (alone) to him, ‘and not’/neither in this age ‘and not’/nor in the (one) being about (to come).” (Matt 12:31b-32)

(Jesus said to the scribes and the Pharisees:) “When – according to the circumstances – the unclean spirit may come out from the man, it 'comes through'/passes through waterless places, seeking rest, and does not find." (Matt 12:43)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “The one who – according to the circumstances – may cause one of these small/little ones believing into Me to stumble, it ‘carries together’/’is profitable’ to him ‘in order that’/that an upper millstone may be hung around his neck and he may be drowned in the ‘pelago of the sea’/’open sea’.” (Matt 18:6)

Through/during night and day in the tombs and in the mountains (the man with an unclean spirit continually) was shouting and cutting ‘down himself’/’himself entirely’ (with) stones. (Mark 5:5)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

To (Jesus Christ is) the glory and the power into the (coming) ages of the (coming) ages. Amen. (Rev 1:6b)

(The four living beings) have not rest, day and night saying: “Holy, holy, holy, holy, holy, holy, holy, holy (א*) the Lord God, the All-powerful, the One who (continually) was and the One who is and the One who comes.” (Rev 4:8b)

… (The ones being wrapped up in the white dresses) are ‘in the very eyes of’/before the throne of God, and they serve Him day and night in His temple. (Rev 7:15a)

Smoke ascended out of the well, as smoke of a great furnace. And the sun was gloomed (א,*א) and the air * (א*). (Rev 9:2)

(The judicial authority) was given to (the locusts), in order that they might not kill them, however/but in order that they will be tormented (for) five months. Their tormenting (was) as a tormenting of a scorpion, when it – according to the circumstances – may hurt a man. (Rev 9:5)

The heads of the horses (are) as the heads of lions. And fire and smoke and sulphur go out, out of their mouths. (Rev 9:17b)

I heard a great/loud voice in the heaven, saying: ”Just now the saving and the ability and the kingdom of our God and the (judicial) authority of His christ/'anointed one' have become (established), because the accuser (P47,א,*א) of our brothers has been thrown (out), he accusing them in the very eyes of our God day and night.” (Rev 12:10)

Another messenger, a third one, followed them, saying in/with a great/loud voice: “If any one prostrates himself (towards) the little wild animal (in adoration of it) and (towards) its image (in adoration of it) and takes a mark upon his forehead or against his hand, he and/also will drink out of the wine of the passion of God, of the one being (and having been) blended/filled undiluted in the cup of His wrath.” (Rev 14:9-10a)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 - about 1500

The cosmological model (in Third Baruch) consists of five heavens. Baruch visits only the first four. These four divide mankind into three groups. Sinners who planned and built the Tower of Babel are found in the first two heavens. These sinners appear to be exceptionally evil, bearing as they do, obvious signs of having been demonized. Those sinners destined for Hades are found in the third heaven. These should not be confused with the groups in the first two heavens. ... The righteous dwell in the fourth heaven. The fifth heaven is “the kingdom of heaven” ... and is reserved for the righteous. However, no one can enter this heaven before the final judgment has taken place. (Leif Carlsson “Round Trips to Heaven” p 353)

"I do not want that you have to be alone at nights", father said. "I had better ask Mrs. Bock if she wants to live here, while I am away." "Must I now put up with her both night and day", Lillebror said. . . . Mrs. Bock seldom joked and almost never she laughed. When she some time did it, one was thankful that it did not happen more often. (Astrid Lindgren "Karlsson på taket flyger igen" p 78-79; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

It happens that I rise against the preposterous demands, the too strict claims, the inhuman punishments, and then I for a time leave my devotional manuals, but I soon return to them, exhorted by a crying voice from prehistoric times: "Remember that you have been a thrall in Egypt and the Lord your God have set you free from there." Then my opposition becomes silent and I feel as an unthankful blackguard if I would deny my Saviour before men. (August Strindberg "Ensam" p 38; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Hell? But I am educated in the deepest contempt for the hell as a figment of the imagination, thrown upon the rubbish-heap together with other old prejudices. And still I cannot deny the fact, the only thing is that I must explain the so called eternal punishments in the following way: we already are down there! It is the earth which is the hell; this with superior wisdom built prison, where I cannot take a step without giving wounds to the happiness of others, and where my fellow-beings can not remain happy without inflicting evil on me. (August Strindberg "Inferno" p 92; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

The following day I would be burnt living, because I did not want to believe in the nicaean doctrine. I asked respectful the oldest one, if their lenient doctrine had not any more lenient punishment for a crime as mine. They answered no. . . . Uffka, or the former pastor Axonius, . . . was sent out to preach the political or the hell religion. . . . All having not got land and who did not want to labour to others, they would be roasted in eternity. (August Strindberg "Svenska öden och äventyr 2" p 72-73,88; the short story "De lycksaliges ö" from 1890; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

The youth (in the sixties of the nineteenth century) had just become released from The divinity of Christ and The outermost penalties. . . . But a youth who by its teacher (Boström) is released from fear of the eternal penalties, that one should, I suppose, have taken tiger's leaps in the joy of living, it should surely have felt a bent to live and found itself well with the reality, loved to examine it, to help it! No! It continued to sigh, although it did not more clenched the fist towards heaven which now was open for all, but it also devoted itself to a certain epicurism, a contentment, which also with the sighing ones finds expression in a deceitful sensuality. . . . The great exhibition (18)66 with the opening of Nationalmuseum had made all men art experts. The king painted and wrote, all men wrote and aesthetics and politics went into each other. No one believed in the divinity of Christ or the hell. . . . It was a joyful time, full of youth and expectations; a light time of liberation full of faith in the middle the editorial work. And now (in the eighties of nineteenth century) one has covered up one's tracks after the advance of these men, now the pietism and the sanctimony have "placed its shower of ashes" over our young harvests. (August Strindberg "Den litterära reaktionen i Sverige" p 58-60; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Daddy has ... hit upon taking one dram before breakfast and two before dinner. He says, that schnapps is the best of all medicaments and as long as he is able to take in this medicine long time enough, so he will be completely well. This daddy knows for certain. Daddy had never tasted schnapps until he was seventeen years old, but then he had the shivers, and grandmother had cured him by giving him schnapps. Both mother and aunt Lovisa say that after all they have seen, people only become destroyed and miserable by drinking schnapps, but daddy does not want to agree with them, but he declares he is better day by day. But we children, we see after all that daddy is not quite well, for he never more runs playing tag with us in the evenings. Daddy has now been busy curing himself first in one winter and so far into the second. But then he also has a bad cough, so that he gets no peace from it neither day nor night. (Selma Lagerlöf "Ett barns memoarer" s 79-80; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


about 1500 and time before

”Vengeance (belongeth) unto Me,” (God) says, “I will recompense.” This is said in regard to their enemies, who are doing evil, not to those who are suffering evil. ... For neither is it the sufferer who suffers ill, but he that does it; nor is it he who receives a benefit that is benefited, but the benefactor. (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers XIV:458)

For the (sins done ‘presumptuously’ or ‘with a high hand’) the law provided no atonement, but held out ‘a certain fearful looking for of judgment and fiery indignation.’ ... (Sins) which had been unintentional, or through weakness, or where the offender at the time realised not his guilt (did not belong to this group). (Alfred Edersheim “The Temple” p 128)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: (Den heliga) Birgitta, Per Block, Torsten Bohlin, Lars-Ola Borglid, Gerald Bray, Yngve Brilioth, C. Brockelmann, Leif Carlsson, Linné Eriksson, Emilia Fogelklou, Helmer Furuholm, Carl Grimberg, Alf Henrikson, C.G. Hjelm, Lasse Johansson-Lucidor, Viktor Johansson, Pär Lagerkvist, Lars-Olof Larsson, Sven Lidman, Martin Luther, Bertil Malmberg, Vilhelm Moberg, Ingun Montgomery, Fredrik Nielsen, Helmer V. Nyberg, Pälle Näver, John Ongman, Blaise Pascal, Lewi Pethrus, Bengt Pleijel, Laurence Rees, Viktor Rydberg, Gösta Sandberg, William Shakespeare, Rune Söderlund, Ragnar Thoursie, Nils Tägt, P. Waldenström, Paul Wern, Emile Zola.


My own comments and speculations:

In Rev 4:8 and 4:11 it is said that the creatures praise God without having rest day and night, while in 14:11 it is said that those having worshipped the little wild animal have no rest day and night. Perhaps we can think about this existence as an eternal absence of 1) faith in God, 2) mutual welcome/love and 3) hope about something better.

Concerning “smoke … (ascends)”, see Rev 9:2 and Rev 9:17. Concerning “(coming) ages of (coming) ages”, see Rev 1:6b. Concerning “day and night ... not rest”, see also Rev 4:8b.

Concerning “the ones prostrating themselves (towards) the little wild animal (in adoration of it) and (towards) its image (in adoration of it) and if anyone takes the mark of its name”, see Rev 14:9-10a and My own comments and speculations to this passage. The smoke of the torment for this group ascends for “(coming) ages of (coming) ages”. So it seems that this group of friends to the little wild animal will be thrown alive into the lake of the fire (cf. Rev 19:20; 20:15).


Additional studies:

Is 34:8-10; Matt 13:50; John 9:4; Rev 18:9,18; 19:3; 20:10.


Ralph G. Bowles "Does Revelation 14:11 Teach Eternal torment? Examining a Proof-text on Hell."; The Evangelical Quarterly 13.1 (Jan.-Mar. 2001): 21-36.

David A. Desilva "A Sociorethorical Interpretation of Revelation 14:6-13: A Call to Act Justly toward the Just and Judging God"; Bulletin for Biblical Research 9 (1999): 65-117.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-22; 2012-07-12; 2015-08-10)

Back to the top

14:12 Here is the endurance of the holy ones, of (א,* א) the ones keeping the commandments of God and the faith of Jesus.

Word for word (16 words in the Greek text): Here the endurance (of)-the holy-(ones) is, (of)-the-(ones) keeping the commandments (of)-the (of)-god and the faith (of)-Jesus.


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “You will be being hated by all ones because of My name, but the one having ‘stayed behind’/endured into an end, this one will be saved.” (Matt 10:22)

The slaves say to (the master of the house): “Do you so want (that) having gone away we may collect (the darnels)?” But he utters: “Not/no.” (Matt 13:28b-29a)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) The welcome of the many will ‘be breathed’/cease. But the one having stayed behind 'into an'/’up to the’ end, this one will be saved.” (Matt 24:12b-13)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

A revelation of Jesus Christ which God gave Him to show to His holy ones (א*) the things which must become/’come about’ in/with quickness. (Rev 1:1a)

(Joybringing and peace) from Jesus Christ, the faithful witness. (Rev 1:5a)

I, John, your brother and a companion together with (you) in the oppression and a kingdom and an endurance in Jesus. (Rev 1:9a)

I know your works and your (א,* א) bother and your endurance. (Rev 2:2a, “Ephesos”)

You get/have power over your (א*) name and did not deny My faith. … (Rev 2:13b, ”Pergamos”)

I know your works and (your) welcome and faith and * (א*) endurance* (א,*א). (Rev 2:19a, “Thyatira”)

Because you have kept the saying of My endurance, I and/also will * (keep) (א,*א) you. (Rev 3:10a, “Philadelphia”)

This is what the Amen says and (א*) the faithful Witness and the True One (א,* א). (Rev 3:14b)

Golden bowls being full of incenses which (א,*א) are (the) (א*) prayers of the holy ones. (Rev 5:8b)

‘Many incenses’/’much incense’ was given to him, in order that he shall give/add (it) to the prayers of all the holy ones against the golden sacrificial altar * (א,* א) ‘in the very eyes of’/before the throne. (Rev 8:3b)

(The time has come) to give the wage to Your slaves the prophets and to the holy ones and to the ones fearing Your name, the small ones and the great ones. … (Rev 11:18b)

The dragon was wrathful on/with the woman and went away to make war ‘in company with’/with the rest of her seed of the ones keeping the commandments of God and having the evidence of Jesus. (Rev 12:17a or Rev 12:17)

It was given to (the little wild animal) to make war ‘in company with’/with the holy ones and to conquer them and it was given to it (judicial) authority against every tribe and people and tongue and nation. (Rev 13:7)

Here is the endurance and the faith of the holy ones. (Rev 13:10b)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: Bo Giertz, Aleksis Kivi, Martin Luther, N.P. Wetterlund.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “the ones keeping the commandments of God”, see also Rev 12:17a(17). Concerning “the faith of Jesus”, see Rev 1:5a and 2:13ba.


In/by this we have knowledge, that we have (and have had) knowledge of Him, if we – according to the circumstances – may watch/’stand up for’ (א*) His commandments. (1 John 2:3)

What we – if according to the circumstances – may demand, we take from Him, because we may (א,*א,A) keep His commandments and (because) we make/do the pleasing things in the very eyes of Him. (1 John 3:22)

This is the welcome of God, in order that we may keep His commandments, and His commandments are not weighty. (1 John 5:3)


Additional studies:

John 14:15,21; 20:31.


David A. Desilva "A Sociorethorical Interpretation of Revelation 14:6-13: A Call to Act Justly toward the Just and Judging God"; Bulletin for Biblical Research 9 (1999): 65-117.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-22; 2012-07-12; 2015-08-10)

Back to the top

14:13 And I heard a voice out of the heaven, saying: “Write: ‘Happy the dead (bodies), the ones dying in a lord from just now * (P47,א*), says the Spirit, ‘in order that they may rest out of their bothers, for their works follow in company with them.’”

Word for word (33 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus prima manus): And (i/I)-heard (a)-voice out-of the heaven saying: write: happy the dead the-(ones) dying in (a)-lord from just-now says the spirit, in-order-that (they)-may-rest out-of the bothers their, the for works their follow in-company-with them.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(David said:) “The Spirit of the Lord talked in/with me.” (2 Sam 23:2a, Greek OT)

In/on these days the Jews ‘were brought’/came to rest from their enemies. And (this happened) in the month they turned/’turned about’ ... from grief into joy and from pain into a good day, to lead/keep wholly good days of wedding banquets and cheerfulness, ‘dispatching out’ portions/gifts to the friends and the beggarly ones. (Esther 9:22, Greek OT)

(God said in a synagogue of gods:) "I spoke: 'You are gods and all (are) sons of the Highest One, but you die as men.'" (Ps 82:6-7a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Israel:) “From the now I have made the new things audible to you, (things) which it is about to become. …” (Is 48:6b, Greek OT)

(The man set/clothed in linen said to the prophet:) "You will be brought to rest and stand up against your glory into a consummation of days." (Dan 12:13b, Greek OT)

(Solomon said: “Wisdom) gave back/away to pious ones wage of their bothers.” (Wisdom of Solomon 10:17a)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “In/at a consummation of a man (there is) a revelation of his works.” (Sir 11:27b)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “Put/lay your neck under, underneath a yoke (of wisdom), and let your soul receive education/teaching in addition. It is near to find her. Behold in/with your eyes, that I have bothered few/little, and I have found to myself much rest.” (Sir 51:26-27)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said:) “Come here towards Me, all being bothered and being (and having been) burdened, and I will bring you to rest. Lift My yoke against you, and learn * (א*), that I am mild and humble (in) the heart. And you will find rest (in) your souls." (Matt 11:28-29)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Then the righteous ones will shine out/forth as the sun in the kingdom of their Father.” (Matt 13:43a)

(Jesus said to the people in Jerusalem:) "You may not/certainly not behold Me from just now till you - according to the circumstances - may speak: ''Being (and having been)'/'be (and have been)' blessed the one coming in a name of a lord.'" (Matt 23:39b)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “When they – according to the circumstances – may leda you giving (you) to the side of, do not care beforehand (about) what you may talk, however/but which/what – if according to the circumstances – may be given you in that hour, talk this. For you are not the ones talking, however/but the Holy Spirit.” (Mark 13:11)

(John said to Jesus:) “We (continually) hindered a certain one, because he does follow in company with us.” (Luke 9:49b)

(Jesus said: "The ones being thought entirely worthy to reach ... the resurrection out of dead bodies) are not any longer able to die, for they are sons of the resurrection, equal (with) messengers, being sons of God." (Luke 20:36)

(Peter said to his Israelitic brothers:) “Seasonable times of breathing-space may – according to the circumstances – come from the face of the Lord, and He may dispatch away to you the One having before been (and being) in His hand, Christ Jesus, whom heaven indeed must receive until times of ‘state away’/restoration of all things of/about which God talked through (the) mouth of His holy prophets from 'an age'/'the beginning of an age'." (Acts 3:20-21)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Jesus said to the Jews): “If – according to the circumstances – you may not believe Me (א,*א), that I am, you will die in your misses (of the mark of God).” (John 8:24b)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "'Us must'/’it is necessary to us to’ work (for) the works of the One having sent us (P66,P75,א*), till/’as long as’ it is day. Night comes, when no one is able to work." (John 9:4)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “From just now I say/speak to you before it becomes/’comes about’, in order that when it – according to the circumstances – may become, you may believe, that I am.” (John 13:19)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “If you have (and have had) knowledge of Me, you will and/also have knowledge of My Father. And from just now you have knowledge of Him and you behold (and have beheld) Him.” (John 14:7)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “When He, the Spirit of truth, - according to the circumstances – may come, It will show you the way in * (א*) the truth. For It will not talk from Itself, however/but as many things as It * (א,*א) hears, It will talk, and It will bring up a message to you (about) the coming things.” (John 16:13)

Happy the one reading and the ones hearing the saying (א,*א) of the prophecy and keeping the things having been (and being) written in it, for the seasonable time (is) near. (Rev 1:3)

(Joybringing grace and peace) from Jesus Christ, the faithful witness, the first-born of the dead (bodies) and the leader of the kings of the earth. (Rev 1:5a)

(The voice) said: “Write into a scroll what you see.” (Rev 1:11a)

(I am) the One living, and I became a dead (body), and behold, I am a living one into the (coming) ages of the (coming) ages. (Rev 1:18a)

Write so the things which you have beheld, and the things which are and the things which must (א*) be about to become after these things. (Rev 1:19)

I know your works and your (א,* א) bother and your endurance. (Rev 2:2a, “Ephesos”)

The one having an ear, let him hear what the Spirit says to the (assemblies) of called out. (Rev 2:7a)

It was spoken to (the souls of the slaughtered witnesses), in order that they might (א,* א) ‘be brought to rest’/rest still a small/little time. ... (Rev 6:11b)

And as much as (א,* א) the seven peals of thunder talked, I was about to write. (Rev 10:4a)

I heard a voice out of the heaven, saying: ”Seal as many things as (P47, א,* א) the seven peals of thunder have talked and you may not write them.” (Rev 10:4b)

They heard a great/loud voice out of the heaven saying to them: “Ascend here.” (Rev 11:12a)

The nations was/were (P47, א*) wrathful, and/but Your wrath came and the seasonable time of the dead (bodies) to be judged. (Rev 11:18a)

I heard a voice/sound out of the heaven, as a voice/sound of many waters and as a voice/sound of a great/loud thunder. And the voice/sound which I heard (was) as (the sound of) players on the zither playing the zither in/on their zithers. (Rev 14:2)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

When mother sometimes thinks that Linus-Ida works and toils too much and needed to rest a little, so that she did not get so pain in her legs, then Linus-Ida says: "Rest, this one have to do when one comes in the grave. Although I settle on the slopes of the thing, that I do not reach to well come to rest, so it probably becomes judgment day already next day, and then I of course have to trot up again on my poor old legs." (Astrid Lindgren "Madicken och Junibackens Pims" p 89; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Those who rebelled against God in the days of the wilderness wanderings were excluded from His rest in the promised land. There is, however, a better rest than that which the Israelites found in Canaan; it is the rest which awaits the people of God. We must take care not to forfeit that rest by rebelling against God, when He speaks to us no longer through His servant Moses, as He did in those days, but through His Son, a greater than Moses. (F.F. Bruce "The Epistle to the Hebrews" p XIX; Argument of the Epistle to the Hebrews)

That I was ill I discovered the Christmas Day (1911) of this, that I was so tired that I could not rise, and that I did not want to drink coffe. I had not any pains, experienced only a great rest, an indifference to the outer world, and a feeling that I at last had been at rest. Otherwise my usual is that at seven o'clock in the morning spring out of bed, go out in order to come home driven by a burning longing for activity. Now this unrest was away; I thought myself have completed the day's work of my life, had said all what I wanted to say, and the unprinted thing lay in well arranged cardboards. (August Strindberg "Betraktelser på Födelsedagen med anledning av Sjukdomen" p 192; Afton-Tidningen 1912-01-22; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Sometimes I have felt it comfortable to rest and would have wanted to rest always. Life frightens me many times. But this is, I suppose, not any unhealthy thing. When it happens by godly longing for eternal life, it was written in the cathecism, one is allowed to wish oneself death. (Selma Lagerlöf "Brev 1 - 1871-1902" s 53; letter 1891-03-15 to Sophie Adlersparre; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

I have said all and regard me now as old. I am tired and have not the strength to make disturbances more. Do not think to fall away or take back. I become as all old ones calmer. . . . I have to do as Blanche: one is right to get tired, not fail. I have done enough to have the right to be tired. . . . . . . I am tired, worn out, crippled and I begin to calm myself down, also I, wholly natural. . . . Have preached and preached enough. . . . . . . I am so tired that I hardly can be angry more and God(?) knows if it is worth while. (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev V 1885-juli 1886" p 152-153,157,162; letter 1885-08-02 to Albert Bonnier, letter about 1885-08-08 to Carl Larsson and letter 1885-09-03 to Albert Bonnier; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

I get on well and feel well after that I have lived a most exemplary life. But rest, this I am not allowed to until in the grave! And if I also had means my restless brain would not endure it. (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev III 1882-1883" p 365; letter 1883-11-26 to Albert Bonnier; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

"But", (Gösta Berling) . . . solemnly (said), "I see the green earth covered by works of men. The pyramids weight the earth, the Tower of Babel has pierced the sky, the beautiful temples and the grey castles have risen out of the gravel. But of all what hands have built, what is it, which have not fallen or will fall? Oh, men, throw the trowel and the clay mould! Spread the apron of the bricklayer over your heads and lie down to build the light castle of the dreams! What has the spirit to do with temples of stone and clay? Learn to build imperishable castles of dreams and visions." With that he laughing went to rest. (Selma Lagerlöf "Gösta Berlings saga" p 163; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Thali Andersson, R.S. Björkdahl, Edvard Bäckström, Anna-Maria Claesson, Charles Dickens, P. Fjellstedt, Anatole France, Jane Fredlund, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Carl Grimberg, Krister Hanell, Alf Henrikson, Viktor Johansson, Abraham Krok, Lars Levi Laestadius, Eric Leijonancker, Vilhelm Moberg, Olaf Moe, D.L. Moody, Stephen Neill, Alfred Nilsson, Anders Nohrborg, Martin P:n Nilsson, Efraim Palmqvist, Hilding Pleijel, Göran Sahlberg, Marlene Sandberg, Isaac Basjevis Singer, Enock H. Skooglund, Lars Gösta Stensson, Evert Taube, Anton Tjechov, Sigrid Undset, P. Waldenström, Amy Catherine Walton, Carl Wilson, Emil Zilliacus, Göran Åberg.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “I heard a voice out of heaven, saying”, see Rev 10:4b. Concerning “bothers” and “works”, see Rev 2:2a.


Additional studies:

Job 3:17; Is 57:1-2; John 11:25-26; 12:28; 13:17; 20:29; 21:24; 1 Cor 3:13-14; 15:18,58; 2 Cor 5:9; Phil 1:23; 1 Thess 4:14,16; 1 Tim 5.25; Heb 4:3,9-10; Rev 16:15, 19:9; 20:6; 21:5; 22:14,17.


David A. Desilva "A Sociorethorical Interpretation of Revelation 14:6-13: A Call to Act Justly toward the Just and Judging God"; Bulletin for Biblical Research 9 (1999): 65-117.

Randall C. Gleason "The Old Testament Background of Rest in Hebrews 3:7-4:11"; Bibliotheca Sacra 157:627 (2000): 281-303.

Paul R. House "The God Who Gives Rest in the Land: Joshua"; Southern Baptist Journal of Theology 2.3 (Fall 1998): 12-33.

John Laansma "'I Will Give You Rest.' The Background and Significance of the Rest Motif in the New Testament."; Tyndale Bulletin 46.2 (1995): 385-388.

R. Paul Stevens "Poems for People in Distress: The Apocalypse of John and the Contemplative Life." Themelios 18.2 (1993): 11-14.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-22; 2012-07-12; 2015-08-10)

Back to the top

14:14a And I beheld, and behold, a white cloud.

Word for word (6 words in the Greek text): And (i/I)-beheld, and behold (a)-cloud white.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said: “The great priest Simon was) as a star early in the morning in a middle of clouds ... as a sun shining out/forth against the temple of the Highest One and as a bow giving light in/among glorious clouds.” (Sir 50:6a,7)


The Latter Revelation:

On (Peter's) still talking, behold, a bright cloud overshadowed (Jesus and the three disciples). (Matt 17:5a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

Behold, He comes in company with the clouds, and they (א,*א) will behold Him, every eye, and/also whoever ‘stabbed out’/pierced * (א*). (Rev 1:7a)

After these things I beheld, and behold, a door being (and having been) opened in the heaven. (Rev 4:1a)

I beheld ‘in a middle of’/’between (on one hand)’ the throne and the four living beings and ‘in a middle of’/’(on the other hand)’ the elders a little Ram standing as having been (and being) slaughtered. (Rev 5:6a)

And I beheld, and behold, a white horse. (Rev 6:2a)

I beheld, and behold (א,* א), another fire-coloured horse came out. (Rev 6:4a)

And I beheld, and behold, a black horse … (Rev 6:5b)

And I beheld, and behold, a light green horse. (Rev 6:8a)

After these things I beheld, and behold, a much/many-headed crowd. (Rev 7:9a)

I beheld another stable messenger descending out of the heaven, being (and having been) wrapped up in a cloud. (Rev 10:1a)

(The two witnesses) ascended into the heaven in the cloud, and their enemies looked at them. (Rev 11:12b)

And I beheld, and behold. The little Ram (was) standing against the mountain Zion. (Rev 14:1a)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

It was a good bit away to Tulipa yard, where Sofia lived. Her house lay in the border of Cherry Valley with the high mountains quite behind the back. We came riding there early in the morning. Sofia stood there feeding her doves. All her snow-white doves! When I saw them, I remembered her, the white dove once sitting on my window-frame, I suppose it now was a thousand years ago. "Do you remember", I whispered to Jonatan. "Was it not one of these doves lending you her feather-dress - when you were with me?" "Yes", Jonatan said, "how would I otherwise have been able to fly through the heavens however far?" The doves was as a white cloud around Sofia. (Astrid Lindgren "Bröderna Lejonhjärta" p 44; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


My own comments and speculations: Concerning “I beheld, and behold”, see Rev 4:1a. Now this expression occurs for the eighth and the last time in the Revelation. Cf. also My own comments and speculations to John 4:16-18.


Additional studies:


Bengt Holmberg "Herren och molnet i Gamla testamentet"; Svensk Exegetisk Årsbok 48 (1983): 31-47.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-22; 2012-07-12; 2015-08-10)

Back to the top

14:14b And against the cloud (one) like a son of man being seated, having a golden crown upon His head and a sharp sickle in His hand.

Word for word (22 words in the Greek text): and against the cloud being-seated like (a)-son (of)-man, having upon the head his (a)-crown of-gold and in the hand his (a)-sickle sharp.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Moses said to Israel:) "You shall count up the number out of seven periods of seven days to yourself. On your sickle's having begun against mowing you may begin to count up the number out of seven periods of seven days." (Deut 16:9, Greek OT)

(Mordecai) came out being dressed up in the kingly dress and having a golden crown and a purple diadem of fine linen. But beholding (him) the ones (being) in Susa rejoiced. (Esther 8:15, Greek OT)

(David said:) “The Lord spoke to my Lord: ‘Be seated ‘out of’/at My right (parts), till I – according to the circumstances – may put Your enemies a footstool of Your feet.’” (Ps 110:1, Greek OT)

(Daniel said:) “I (continually) looked at in a vision of the night. And behold, (One) as a son of a man (continually) came upon the clouds of the heaven. And He (continually) was by the side of (One) as an Old of Days and the ones standing by the side of (Him) (continually) were by the side of Him." (Dan 7:13, Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) “Dispatch out a sickle, because the ‘gathering/harvest of fruits stands by the side of’/’is near’.” (Joel 3:13a, Greek OT)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach said:) “Above a (bandage of the head Aaron wore) a golden crown.” (Sir 45:12a)


The Latter Revelation:

When – according to the circumstances – the fruit may ‘give to the side of’/’be ripe’, (the man who had sown) straight off dispatches away the sickle, because the harvest ‘stands by the side of’/’is near’. (Mark 4:29)

Jesus spoke (to the priest leader): “I am. And you will behold the Son of the Man being seated out of the right (parts) of the Ability and coming in company with the clouds of the heaven.” (Mark 14:62)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

Behold, He comes in company with the clouds. (Rev 1:7a)

(Against) (א,* א) a middle of the seven (א,*א) lampstands (I beheld one) like a son of a man. (Rev 1:13a)

… Out of the mouth (of the Son of the Man) a two-mouthed sharp large sword going/went out. (Rev 1:16a)

(Elders) being (and having been) wrapped up in white (things) (א,*א) and (with) golden crowns against their heads. (Rev 4:4b)

The One being seated against (the white horse) having a bow and a crown was given to Him. ... (Rev 6:2b)

And against the heads of (of the locusts like horses were) as crowns like (in) gold, and their faces (were) as (the) faces of men. (Rev 9:7b)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

The wheat was harvested with sickle in order that it would not out of the seed be spilled, and plough was not used but only pick and spade. (August Strindberg "Från det vaknande Italien" p 89; Pegli 1884-03-10; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Once a very long time ago an artist in Svartsjö had stood looking at the sky of the summer day paying attention to the flight of the skies towards the sun. . . . The white clouds became the lords of the summer sky. They filled the whole blue vault. They reached the sun and covered her. . . . All at once he understood, that the white clouds of the summer day were vessels, on which the souls of the blessed ones travel. (Selma Lagerlöf "Gösta Berlings saga" p 279; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: A. van Deursen, J.E. Forssander, Carl-Johan Gadd, Carl Grimberg, Dick Harrison, Vilhelm Moberg, Shen Congwen, Arne Wirdenäs, Yu Hua.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “like a son of a man”, see Rev 1:13a. Concerning “a golden crown upon His head”, see Rev 4:4b.


Greek words:

drepanon (sickle) (in the NT) Mark 4:29; Rev 14:14 – Rev 14:15-19.


Additional studies:

Deut 16:9; 1 Sam 13:20-21; Ezek 1:26; Jer 50:16; Matt 24:30; 26:64; Luke 22:69; Rev 14:16-17.


Richard J. Bauckham "Synoptic Parousia Parables and the Apocalypse"; New Testament Studies 23 (1976-1977): 162-176.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-22; 2012-07-12; 2015-08-10)

Back to the top

14:15-16 And another messenger came out, out of His (א,* א) temple, shouting in/with a great/loud voice to the One being seated upon the cloud: “Send Your sickle and harvest, because the hour of the harvest (א,* א) has come, because the harvest of the earth has been dried.” And the One being seated upon the cloud threw/’let ... fall’ His sickle against the earth, and the earth was harvested.

Word for word: 14:15 (35 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus) and another messenger came-out, out-of the temple his shouting in (a)-voice great (to)-the-(one) being-seated upon the cloud: send the sickle your and harvest, because came the hour (of)-the harvest, because was-dried the harvest (of)-the (of)-earth. 14:16 (17 words in the Greek text): and threw the-(one) being-seated upon the cloud the sickle his against the earth and was-harvested the earth.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Eliphaz said: “The man whom God convicts) may come in the grave just as bread-stuff being harvested in a seasonable hour ‘according to’/during a seasonable time. (Job 5:26, Greek OT)

(A voice says:) "Every/all flesh (is) grass, and every/all glory of a man (is) as a flower of grass. The grass was dried, the flower fell ‘out of’/off. But the word of our God stays into the (coming) age. (Is 40:6b-8, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) "Yet a small/little (while) and the mowing of Babylon will arrive." (Jer 51:33b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) “The farmers were dried. ... The vine was dried.” (Joel 1:11a,12a, Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) “Dispatch out a sickle, because the ‘gathering/harvest of fruits stands by the side of’/’is near’.” (Joel 3:13a, Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) "I lifted my eyes and beheld, and behold, a flying sickle. … I spoke to (the messenger): “I behold a flying sickle.” (Zech 5:1b-2a, Greek OT)


The Latter Revelation:

(John the Baptist said: "The One who comes behind me) ... will lead together His bread-stuff into the granary." (Matt 3:12a)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "The harvest (is) indeed much/many-headed, but the workers (are) few. Strive so after ‘in that way’/that the Lord of the harvest may throw/bring out workers into His harvest." (Matt 9:37-38; Luke 10:2)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “The one who – according to the circumstances – may give to one of these small ones (following Me) only a cup of cold (water) to drink, into/’for the purpose of’ a name of a disciple, amen, I say to you, he may not/certainly not perish/lose his wage.” (Matt 10:42)

On the sun's having stuck up (the sowing) was scorched. And because have/'it had' not a root, it was dried.” (Matt 13:6)

(The lord said to the slaves:) ”Let both (the darnels and the bread-stuff) be to increase together until (א*) the harvest. And in the (א*) seasonable time of the harvest I will speak to the harvesters: ‘First collect the darnels and bind them into bundles towards/to burn them down, but lead together the bread-stuff into my granary.” (Matt 13:30)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “The One sowing the fine seed is the Son of the Man. But/and the field is the adornment/’the adorned world, but/and the fine seed, these are the sons of the kingdom.” (Matt 13:37b-38a)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “The enemy, the one having sown (the darnels), is the slanderer * (א*), but the harvesters are messengers.” (Matt 13:39)

(Jesus said to the priest leaders and the elders of the people:) “The kingdom of God will be lifted from you and be given to a nation making/giving its fruits.” (Matt 21:43b)

(Jesus said to His disciples: “The Son of the Man) will dispatch away His messengers ‘in company’/together with a great trumpet. And they will lead together against/’in quest of’ His chosen ones.” (Matt 24:31a)

(Jesus taught the crowd:) "Hear! Behold, the one sowing came out to sow. ... (Some sowing) fell against the rocky (ground) … and ‘because of’/because 'the not to have'/'it had not' a root, it was dried. … Other (sowing) fell into the fine earth ... and carried/produced into/’up to’ (א,* א) thirty/thirtyfold and into/’up to’ (א,* א) sixty/sixtyfold." (Mark 4:3,5a,6b,8a)

When – according to the circumstances – the fruit may ‘give to the side of’/’be ripe’, (the man who had sown) straight off dispatches away the sickle, because the harvest ‘stands by the side of’/’is near’. (Mark 4:29)

(The man having planted a vineyard) dispatched away a slave towards the farmers (in) the seasonable time, in order that from the side of the farmers he might take from the fruits of the vineyard. (Mark 12:2)

The second (slave) came saying: ”Your mine/’100 denarii’, lord, made/gave five minas/’500 denarii’.” But/and (his lord) spoke to this one: “And you, become/’be lord’ above/over five cities.” (Luke 19:18-19)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “It ‘is not for’/’does not belong’ you to have knowledge of times and seasonable times, which the Father has put/fixed in the own (judicial) authority.” (Acts 1:7)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Every (twig) carrying/producing fruit, He cleans it, in order that it may carry/produce more fruit.” (John 15:2b)

I heard behind me a great/loud voice as a trumpet. (Rev 1:10b)

(The souls of the slaughtered witnesses) shouted (with) a great/loud voice. (Rev 6:10a)

The temple of God in the heaven was opened, and the chest/ark of the covenant of God (א,* א) was beheld in His temple. (Rev 11:19a)

(The messenger brought the good little message ) * (א,* א) in/with a great/loud voice. (Rev 14:7a)

Another messenger, a third one, followed them, saying in/with a great/loud voice. (Rev 14:9a)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

Every evening, when Madicken lies in her bed and has read (her evening prayers) she prays an extra prayer, that Lisabet and she herself and mother and father and Alva and Linus-Ida and Abbe Nilsson will be allowed to travel to heaven all of them at the same time. The best thing of course was, if they never needed to go there, Madicken thinks, they have it, it is true, so nice here at home. Although that thing she does not dare to ask God about, he could be sorry. (Astrid Lindgren "Madicken" p 18-19; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

God, let my soul come to ripeness before it will be harvested. (Birgitta Yavari "I mitt hjärtas trädgård"; quotation Selma Lagerlöf in the book Körkarlen)

Autumn has a more sober aspect, but still it rivals the glory of spring. Ripe fruit has its own peculiar beauty. As the fruit ripens, the sun tints it with surpassing loveliness, and the colours deepen till the beauty of the fruit is equal to the beauty of the blossom, and in some respects is superior. ... The perfumed bloom yields in value to the golden apple, even as promise is surpassed by fulfilment. (C.H. Spurgeon "Flashes of thought" p 384-385)

And nevertheless, if you in doubts have sunk down and sadly hesitate brooding by the way, you again seize your banner carrying it daring through the desert. What more, if the spy gaze sees, how away from the firmament a thousand of suns are cleaned? What more, harvests of stars are mowed down as golden corn by the scythe of time? Whart right you have thought, what you in love want, what beautiful you have dreamt, can not by time be ravaged, it is a harvest, which away from him is reaped, for it belongs to the kingdom of eternity. Advance, you mankind! Be glad, be consoled, for you have eternity in your breast. (Viktor Rydberg "Kantat vid jubelfestpromotionen i Uppsala den 6 september 1877" p I:424; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

The well-digger (Germund) worked and worked. . . . The worst thing with all of it was, that they were in the middle of the harvest time. . . . The rye was ripe and would be cut. Mother did not know how she would behave, for all her day-labourers had full work with the welldigging, and all the other things were neglected. . . . One day, mother saw, that the rye was about to merge into brown. It was a sign, that it was so ripe, that the grains was about to fall out of their ears, and now it won't do to wait longer to get it cut. . . . Mother explained to (Germund), that the rye had to be cut next day, and asked if he wanted to help with the work. . . . "Yes, it will become as Madam wants . . . ", he said. "But I want to have the longest scythe, which is in the court, and enough with female binders, so I not need to stand and wait." . . . On that day it was made in Mårbacka a rye harvest, which no one had seen the like. For when the rest of the labourers saw how Germund swang his (two ells long) scythe, so at first they were standing still staring at him, but then they went at the rye like in rage, and the straws fell as fast as during a downpour. In one single day the whole field was cut. (Selma Lagerlöf "Ett barns memoarer" p 276-280; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Commonly, even in very fruitful parts of Palestine, the yield is from twenty-five to fifty times that which had been sown; and in one small district, even eighty times that of wheat, and one hundred times that of barley. (Alfred Edersheim “Old Testament” p 114)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Eskil Albertsson, Svetlana Aleksijevitj, Arvid Almquist, Patricia Atkinson, Åke Boberg, Henrik Elmgren, Inger Estham, Ljuba Filimonova, Bo Frid, Alf Henrikson, Isak från Antiokia, Håkan Johansson, Irina Kiseljova, Emmy Köhler, C.S. Lewis, Sven Lidman, Torgny Lindgren, Vilhelm Moberg, Efraim Palmqvist, Johan Ludvig Runeberg, Göran Sahlberg, Sven Edvin Salje, Harry Sjöman, Erik Sollerman, Erik Johan Stagnelius, Margareta Strömstedt, Jesper Svartvik, Knut Svensson, Rabindranath Tagore, Anton Tjechov, Leo Tolstoj, Johan Olof Wallin, Carl Fr. Wislöff.


My own comments and speculations:

What is harvested can be said to be the part of the vine Jesus Christ which has born fruit for heaven (cf. “the vine of the earth” in Rev 14:18).

In Sinaiticus the “another messenger” seems to be God Himself . “His temple” is “the temple of God”. Cf. also Matt 9:38 where it is the Lord of the harvest who brings out workers into His harvest. Here He sends His Son, Jesus Christ.

Concerning “shouting in/with a great/loud voice”, see Rev1:10b, Rev 6:10a, Rev 14:7 and Rev 14:9-10a. Concerning “the One being seated upon the cloud” and “send Your sickle”, see Rev 14:14b. Concerning “His temple”, see Rev 7:15a.


Additional studies:

Prov 22:8; Is 40:7; Jer 12:13; Matt 25:24-26; Mark 4:6; 11:20; Luke 8:6; 19:20-21; John 4:35-38; 1 Cor 15:51-53; Gal 6:7-8; Phil 3:21; 1 Thess 1:10; 2 Tim 4:17; Jas 5:4; 1 Pet 1:24; Rev 11:19; 14:17-18; 15:6; 16:17; 18:2.


Richard J. Bauckham "Synoptic Parousia Parables and the Apocalypse"; New Testament Studies 23 (1976-1977): 162-176.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-22; 2012-07-12; 2015-08-10)

Back to the top

14:17 And another messenger came out, out of the temple, the one (being) in the heaven, having, and/also he, a sharp sickle.

Word for word (16 words in the Greek text): And another messenger came-out out of the temple the-(one) in the heaven having and he (a)-sickle sharp.


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

The temple of God in the heaven was opened, and the chest/ark of the covenant of God (א,* א) was beheld in His temple. (Rev 11:19a)

I beheld, and behold, a white cloud, and against the cloud (one) like a son of a man being seated, having a golden crown upon His head and a sharp sickle in His hand. Another messenger came out, out of His (א,* א) temple. (Rev 14:14-15a)


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “the temple, the one (being) in the heaven”, see Rev 11:19a. Concerning “a sharp sickle”, see Rev 14:14a.


Additional studies: Rev 7:15; 14:6; 15:6; 16:17


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-23; 2012-07-12; 2015-08-15)

Back to the top

14:18a And another messenger, having (judicial) authority upon/’with regard to’ the fire, came out, out of the sacrificial altar.

Word for word (12 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus): and another messenger came-out out-of the sacrificial-altar having (judicial)-authority upon the fire


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The psalmist said:) “Till when, Lord? Will You be wrathful into/’up to’ an end? Will your zeal be burnt out as a fire?” (Ps 79:5, Greek OT)

(Asaph said to the Lord:) "You 'lifted afterwards'/'set out' a vine out of Egypt. … (The vine) which Your right (hand) has planted … It is (and has been) set on fire (with) fire.” (Ps 80:8a,15a,16a or Ps 80:9a,16a,17a, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said: “Lord, You) make spirits (Your) messengers and a flaming fire (Your) public servants .” (Ps 104:4, Greek OT)

Elijah, a prophet as a fire, stood up and his saying (continually) burnt as a torch. (Sir 48:1)


The Latter Revelation:

(John the Baptist said to the Pharisees and Sadducees:) "Every tree making/bearing not fine fruit is cut out and thrown into fire. … The One coming behind me … will baptize you in holy spirit and fire." (Matt 3:10b,11b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “If – according to the circumstances – a certain (person) may not have stayed in Me, he has been thrown outside as the twig and been dried. And they lead it (א,*א) together (with other twigs) and throw (them) into the fire, and it is burnt.” (John 15:6)

The one conquering and the one keeping My works until (the) end, to him I will give (judicial) authority upon/’with regard to’ the nations. (Rev 2:26, ”Thyatira”)

(Judicial) authority was given to (death and Hades) against the fourth/’fourth part’ of the earth. … (Rev 6:8b)

When It opened the fifth seal, I beheld below the sacrificial altar the souls of the men (א,* א) having been (and being) slaughtered because of the saying of God and because of the evidence which they (continually) had. (Rev 6:9)

Another messenger, having a golden olibanum censer, came and stood upon the sacrificial altar. (Rev 8:3a)

The messenger takes (and has taken) the olibanum censer and filled it out of the fire of the sacrificial altar and threw (it) into/to the earth. (Rev 8:5a)

(The reed? said:) “Rise and measure the temple of God and the sacrificial altar and the ones prostrating themselves in/at it.” (Rev 11:1b)

(The two witnesses) have (judicial) authority upon the waters to turn them into blood and to hit the earth in/with every blow, as many times ‘as if’/as they – according to the circumstances – may want. (Rev 11:6b)

It was given to (the little wild animal) to make war ‘in company with’/with the holy ones and to conquer them and it was given to it (judicial) authority against every tribe and people and tongue and nation. (Rev 13:7)


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “fire … sacrificial altar”, see also Rev 8:5a.


Paul said to the believers in Corinth: “The fire will prove the work of everyone, of what kind it is. … If the work of anyone will be burnt down, he will ‘be damaged’/’suffer damage’, but he himself will be saved, but in this way as through fire.” (1 Cor 3:13b,15)


Additional studies: Matt 7:19-20; Mark 9:49; Luke 3:9,16; Rev 16:7-8.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-23; 2012-07-12; 2015-08-10)

Back to the top

14:18b-19 And he raised his voice (with) a great/loud voice to the one having the sharp sickle, saying: “Send your sharp sickle and gather in the bunches of grapes of the vine of the earth, because its grapes ‘have bloomed’/’have not borne ripe fruit’.” And the messenger threw/’let ... fall’ His sickle upon (א,* א) the earth and gathered in the vine of the earth and threw (it) into the great wine-press of the passion of God.

Word for word: 14:18b (30 words in the Greek text): and (he)-raised-his-voice (with)-(a)-voice great (to)-the-(one) having the sickle the sharp saying: send your the sickle the sharp and gather-in the bunches-of-grapes (of)-the (of)-vine (of)-the (of)-vine, because bloomed the grapes its. 14:19 (27 words in the Greek text): and threw the messenger upon the earth the sickle his and gathered-in the vine (of)-the (of)-earth and threw into the wine-press (of)-the (of)-passion (of)-the (of)-god the great.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The chief cup-bearer said to Joseph:) “In my sleap a vine (continually) was opposite me, but in the vine (there were) three bottoms/roots. And on its sprouting it carried up sprouts (and) the bunches of 'grapes of grape'/grapes (were) ripe.” (Gen 40:9b-10, Greek OT)

Everyone (of the brothers of Joseph) spoke towards his brother: “Yes, ... we are in a miss (of the mark of God) on account of our brother, because we ‘beheld over’/disregarded the oppression of his soul, when he (continually) was entirely in need of us, and we did not listen to him. With respect to this, this oppression came against, against us. ... Reuben spoke to them: “Did I not talk (with) you saying: ‘Do not act unrighteously (against) the very little boy’, and you did not listen to me. And behold, his blood is sought out. (Gen 42:21-22, Greek OT)

(Judas) cleanses his dress in wine and his wrapper in blood of a grape. (Gen 49:11b, Greek OT)

The people sat down to eat and drink and stood up to jest/play. ... At the time when (Moses) drew near the (walled) camp ... he was wrathful (with) passion. ... And he says to (the sons of Levi): ”... Kill everyone his brother (with a large sword).” ... And it/there fell out of the people in that day into/about three thousand males. (Ex 32:6b,19a,27a,28b, Greek OT)

With a rod Gideon slapped/beat bread-stuff in a wine-press to the thing to flee/save (it) out, out of face of Midian. (Judges 6:11b A, Greek OT)

(Eliphaz said to Job: “The wicked) will be gathered in just as an unripe bunch of grapes before its hour, but/and as a flower of a olive-tree has fallen out of (its place).” (Job 15:33, Greek OT)

(David said:) “Who will ascend into the mountain of the Lord and who will stand in His holy place? (The one who has) unpunished hands and the clean heart, who has not taken his soul on/’under the rule of’ a vain (thing) and has not sworn his neighbour on/’under the rule of’ deceit.” (Ps 24:3-4, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said:) “In the thing to entirely bruise my bones the ones oppressing me reproach me, in the thing 'to say them me'/'that they say to me' 'according to everyone'/every day: “Where is your God?” ... (My soul), hope against God, because you will confess Him out/frankly, the saving of my face/person, my God. (Ps 42:11,12b or 42:12,13b, Greek OT)

(Solomon said:) “If indeed the righteous one hardly/barely will be saved, where will the wicked one and a misser (of the mark of God) ‘bring to light’/appear?” (Prov 11:31, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) “I will sing for the one being (and having been) welcomed, a song (concerning) the vineyard of my welcomed one. It became a vineyard for the one being (and having been) welcomed in a horn/mountain-peak, in a fat/fertile place. And I put an enclosure round about and I provided (it) with pales and I planted a vine, a fine vine and I built a tower in its middle, and I dug a reservoir in it for the little wine-press. And I stayed to the thing to 'make grape'/'get grapes', but it made/yielded thorns." (Is 5:1-2, Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) “Before the harvest, when – according to the circumstances – a flower may be brought to a consummation, and a flower ... may set up an unripe grape, (the Lord) will take off the small little bunches of grapes with the sickles, and He will take off the vine-twiggrowths and cut (them) down. And it will together/'at once' be entirely left to the flying creatures of the heaven and to the little wild beasts of the earth.” (Is 18:5-6a, Greek OT)

The garments of (the one coming from Edom was red) as from a winepressing wine-press. ... (He said:) “I trod (the nations) down in passion and I bruised them entirely and led down their blood into earth. For a day of 'giving back in stead'/requital had come on them, and a period of time of redemption ‘is by the side of’/’had come’. And I ‘saw on’/looked, and no one (came to) succour. … And my arm delivered them.” (Is 63:2b-5a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) “Destruct wholly seed out/'on the basis' of Babylon, one keeping down a sickle in a seasonable time of harvest.” (Jer 50:16a, Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) “The Lord has trodden a virgin, daughter Judas, (in) a wine-press.” (Lam 1:15b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said Jerusalem:) "I shall begin the thing to hit you (and) make you unseen/disfigured on/'for the sake of' your misses (of My mark). ... You shall sow and you may not/certainly not mow, you shall press an olive-tree and you may not/certainly not besmear olive-oil, and you may not/certainly not drink wine!" (Micah 6:13,15a, Greek OT)

(Solomon said to God:) “If we – according to the circumstances – may miss (Your mark), we are Yours knowing Your power. But we will not miss (Your mark), knowing that we are (and have been) counted (as) Yours.” (Wisdom of Solomon 15:2)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “Till last things I shall seek out (wisdom). Out/’on the basis’ of a flower, as a grape coloured blackblue, my heart was cheerful in her.” (Sir 51:14b-15)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to the twelve:) "Every/everyone whoever will confess in/with Me in front of the men, I will and/also confess in/with him in front of My Father, the One (being) in * (P19, א,* א) heavens.” (Matt 10:32)

(Jesus said to the Pharisees:) “Every miss (of the mark of God) and blasphemy will be ‘let be’/left (alone) to the men ... And who – if according to the circumstances – may speak a saying ‘down from’/against the Son of the Man, it will be ‘let be’/left (alone) to him ... in this age (or) in the (one) being about (to come).” (Matt 12:31b-32)

Having (א*, B*) 'led up on'/returned into the city early in the day (Jesus) was hungry. And having beheld one fig tree (alone) upon the way, (Jesus) came against it and did not find anything in it, ‘if not’/except leaves only, and He says to it: “Oh that (א,* א) it may not become fruit out of you any longer into the (coming) age.” And immediately the fig tree was dried. (Matt 21:18-19)

(Jesus said to the priest leaders and the elders of the people:) "... A man (continually) was a master of a house, whoever/who planted a vineyard ... and he dug a wine-press in it." (Matt 21:33a)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Learn the parable from the fig-tree: ‘When – according to the circumstances – its branch already may become tender and the leaves may produce/’be grown’ out of (it), you have knowledge that the summer is near.” (Matt 24:32; cf. the time when the vine has bloomed, a time which can be said to be the beginning of the summer)

(Jesus said: “Men do not gather) in a grape out of a thorn-bush.” (Luke 6:44b)

(Jesus said to His disciples: “The sowing) having fallen into the thorns, these are the ones having heard, and going they are choked up by cares and riches and enjoyments of the subsistence, and they do not ‘wear to an end’/’bear ripe fruit’.” (Luke 8:14)

(The Lord said:) “Martha, Martha, you care (about) and are distracted around/’in relation to’ many things. But it is (a matter) of few things or one thing (א*), for Mary has chosen the good portion, whichever/which shall not be taken off/from her." (Luke 10:41b-42)

(A rich man) spoke to (his) soul: “Soul, you have many good things laying down into/for many years; ‘be brought’/come to rest, eat, drink, be cheerful.” But God spoke to him: “Thoughtless (man)! This night they demand back your soul from you. But the things you have made ready, to whom will it be?” (Jesus said:) “In this way (is) the one heaping for himself and not being rich into/’for the purpose of’ God.” (Luke 12:19-21)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "That slave having knowledge of his lord's will and having not made ready or made/done towards/’in regard to’ his will, will be flayed (with) many (blows)." (Luke 12:47)

(Jesus said:) "Were not the ten made clean? But where (are) the nine? Were they not found having returned to give glory to God, ‘if not’/except this one, the one of other descent?" (Luke 17:17b-18)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "Having come will the Son of the Man consequently find the faith upon the earth?" (Luke 18:8b)

The other (slave) came, saying: “Lord, behold your mine/’100 denarii’.” ... (The lord) says to him: “ ... evil slave.” ... And he spoke to the ones standing by the side of (him): “Lift/take the mine/’100 denarii’ from him and give to the one having the ‘ten mines’/’1000 denarii’.” (Luke 19:20a,22a,24)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Give heed to yourselves (that) your hearts not at any time may be weighted in intoxication and drunkenness and care belonging to subsistence/life, and that day may surprisingly stand against you.” (Luke 21:34)

Having raised His voice (with) a great/loud voice Jesus spoke: "Father, into Your hands I put/lay My spirit to the side of (You)." (Luke 23:46a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Jesus said:) “The one coming into/in through the door is a shepherd of the sheep. To this one the doorkeeper opens, and the sheep hear his voice, and he raises his voice (towards) his own sheep ‘according to name’/’after their names’, and he leads them out. When he – according to the circumstances – may throw/bring the own ones * (א*) out, he goes in front of them, and the sheep follow him, because they know his voice.” (John 10:2-4)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “I am the true vine, and My Father is the farmer/vine-dresser.” (John 15:1)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “If – according to the circumstances – a certain (person) may not have stayed in Me, he has been thrown outside as the twig and been dried. And they lead it (א,*א) together (with other twigs) and throw (them) into the fire, and it is burnt.” (John 15:6)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “You did not choose Me, however/but I chose you, and put/appointed you, in order that you may withdraw and carry/produce fruit and (that) your fruit may stay.” (John 15:16a)

I heard behind me a great/loud voice as a trumpet. (Rev 1:10b)

Against the cloud (one) like a son of a man being seated, having a golden crown upon His head and a sharp sickle in His hand. And another messenger came out, out of His (א,* א) temple, shouting in/with a great/loud voice to Him being seated upon the cloud: “Send Your sickle and harvest. (Rev 14:14b-15a)

Another messenger came out, out of the temple, the one (being) in the heaven, having, and/also he, a sharp sickle. (Rev 14:17)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 - about 1500

Compare Third Baruch 12:1b,4-8; 13:1-3; 14:1-2; 15:1a,4; 16:1,3b: “Angels came carrying baskets filled with flowers, and they gave them to Michael. ... And taking the baskets, the archangel emptied them into his bowl. And the angel said to me, ‘Thee above-mentioned flowers are the virtues of the righteous.’ And I saw other angels carrying baskets which were less than full. And they came distressed, and I did not dare to approach, for they did not achieve the full prizes. And Michael cried out saying, “Come also, you angels, bring what you have brought. And Michael was greatly distressed and so was the angel with me, because they had not filled the bowl. And the similarly came other angels crying and lamenting, and saying with fear, ‘See how we are, blackened, Lord, for we are, handed over to evil men, and we want to be withdrawn from them.’ And Michael said, ‘So that the enemy will not dominate at the end, you must not withdraw from them. But tell me what you desire.’ And they said, ‘We beg you, Michael our commander-in-chief, transfer us from them, for we are unable to remain with evil and foolish men. For there is no goodness in them, but only every unrighteousness and greediness.’ ... And at that time Michael departed and the doors closed. And a noise like thunder came. And I asked the angel, “What is the noise?’ And he said to me, ‘Now Michael is bringing the virtues of men to God.’ And at that time Michael came down, and the gate opened. ... He said to those who brought the full (baskets) and those (who brought) the half-full (baskets), ‘Go, bless our friends and tell them that thus says the Lord: You have been faithful over a little, he will set you over much; enter into the delight of our Lord.’ And turning, he said to those who had brought nothing, ‘Be not sad, and cry not, but do not let the sons of men alone. ... (Go and) punish them with thw sword and death, and their children with demons.’” (Leif Carlsson “Round Trips to Heaven” p 368-371)

God writes the names of the righteous in the book of life and the evil in the book of death, in unclear cases he defers the final verdict for the Day of Atonement. (Eugeniusz Duda "The Old Synagogue at Cracow's Kazimierz" p 15)

The four different sorts of plants, which are parts of the bundle of the feast (during the Feast of Booths), are often given a symbolic interpretation. The most usual is that they represent the people of Israel in all its great variety. Then the scent represents the works and the taste the knowledge. Etrogen has both scent and taste and represents accordingly those who both know the will of God and who act after it. The fruit of the date-palm has taste but is without scent. ... Myrtle has scent but not taste ... The willow has neither scent or taste and represents so those who stand most far away from doctrine and life. Nevertheless they are bound together. In the same way one has responsibility for the other, and when the people of Israel celebrate this feast all are included and are lifted up before the face of the Lord. (Göran Larsson "Tid för Gud, Judiska och kristna perspektiv på de judiska högtiderna" p 115; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

A voice was heard, not from the grave but from the outskirts of the multitude. It was a woman's voice sounding thin and shrilling, but which in any case was wondrous audible and distinct. . . . (She) spoke in raptures. . . . "I see (the dead ones) enter into a large hall. I see their anxiety. They are afraid and trembling as all who will be taken to examination. Then a man steps to their meeting. He is clothed in long clothes. . . . He speaks to them: 'I am the one being lord over Death and over Life. . . . Because Death has made himself to a lord in stead of a servant, I want to pursue him. For I do not love, that the corn is harvested before the ripeness. Nor that the young bird is brought down by the hunter, before it has been allowed to build its nest and get offspring. . . . You, souls, return to the earth and teach the men to keep my fifth commandment, which is the commandment about love to the neighbour and the key to all the others! Say them, that my millenium hangs in the east as a red sky at dawn.'" (Selma Lagerlöf "Bannlyst" p 219-220; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

The works of the arts must (nowadays) pass the purgatory of the critics, which is the with fear seen but inevitable interval in the wandering to heaven, where thrones are held in readiness to the chosen ones of the arts. (Viktor Rydberg "Målarens psykologi" p 31; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

After dinner Thomas and Jost went out in the grounds. The rye stood beautiful and would flower. (August Strindberg "Svenska öden och äventyr 1" p 315; the short story "Nya vapen" from 1883; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

The young countess turned from (Gösta Berling) without answering. She is vexed. She goes to her place, thinking bitter thoughts of the cavaliers. Here they are come with French horns and violins and are going to let the bows scrape the strings, until the horsehair has got worn out, without thinking that the merry tones ring over to the wretched room of the captive (widow of the major). Here they come to dance, until the soles become to dust, and do not think that their old benefactress can see their shadows swing past inside the steamed panes. . . . In a while Gösta comes to ask (the young countess) for a dance. She refuses flatly. "Does not Your Ladyship want to dance with me?" he asks becoming very red. "Neither with you nor with any other of the cavaliers of Ekeby", she says. "Are we then not worthy such an honour?" "It is no honour, Mr. Berling. But I find no pleasure in dancing with the ones, who forget all the commandments of thankfulness." Gösta already has turned on his heels. This scene is heard and seen by many. All give the countess right. The unthankfulness and heartlessness of the cavaliers have caused public indignation. (Selma Lagerlöf "Gösta Berlings saga" p 151-152; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

A Greek historian desired very intensely to say a word about the people of the city where he was born. He felt he could not write his history without saying something of his own native place, and accordingly he wrote this – “While Athens was building temples, and Sparta was waging war, my countrymen were doing nothing.” I am afraid there are too many Christians, of whom, if the book were written as to what they are doing in the Church, it would have to be said, they have been doing nothing all their lives. (C.H. Spurgeon "Flashes of thought" p 477)


about 1500 and time before

Seest thou how not only the doer of evil things, but also he that doeth not good things, is punished with extreme punishment. (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers X:472 commenting Matt 25:30)

Do not wait to be loved by another but ... be the first to begin it. For so wilt thou reap the wages of his love also. ... There is nothing that makes men beloved so much as honor and forethought. For to love is not enough, but there must be this also. ... There are many that love in mind, yet reach not forth the hand. (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers XI:503)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Eric S. Alexandersson, Anders Andersson, Hjalmar Bergman, Leif Carlsson, Miguel de Cervantes, Sven Danell, Bob Dylan, Per G. Ekström, Sven Gabriel Fovelin, Birger Gerhardsson, Lennart Gustavsson, Dag Hammarskjöld, Alf Henrikson, Hjalmar Holmquist, Bengt Hägglund, Irenaeus, K.W. Johansson, Swening Johansson, Erik Axel Karlfeldt, Lars Levi Laestadius, Sven Lidman, Martin Luther, Jöran Mjöberg, Vilhelm Moberg, D.L. Moody, Watchman Nee, Fredrik Nielsen, Bertil Nilsson, J.P. Norberg, David Nyvall, Efraim Palmqvist, Sven-Erik Pernler, Nils Ramselius, Anna Maria Roos, C.O. Rosenius, Isaac Basjevis Singer, Jens Erik Skydsgaard, Erik Sollerman, Milton Steinberg, Knut Svensson, Hjalmar Söderberg, Rabindranath Tagore, Anton Tjechov, P. Waldenström, N.P. Wetterlund, Anna Ölander.


My own comments and speculations:

Compare the dried up harvest in Rev 14:15-16 with “the thirtyfold and sixtyfold fruit” in Matt 13:23 and the grapes which have bloomed here in Rev 14:18-19 with the sowing which brought no fruit to maturity in Matt 13:22 (Luke 8:14). This sowing bearing no fruit is saved as through fire (cf. Rev 14:18a with 1 Cor 3:13-15). Compare also My own comments and speculations to John 15:4-6, Rev 11:2a (the men on the court of the temple) and Rev 16:8-9a.

While the harvest/fruit is reaped in Rev 14:16, now what is left is ”reaped”. Usually the Greek word “akmadsô” here is translated by “be ripe”. However, in the Bible otherwise other Greek words are used for “be ripe/ripe” (cf. “pepeiros”/ripe in Gen 40:10, a verse which have both the word “botrys” and the word “stafylê”; cf. also “opôra”/’mellow or ripe fruit’ in Rev 18:14). I mean it is better to translate by “bloom”, which is the more original meaning of “akmadsô” in classical Greek and fits the OT-context (cf. for instance Is 18:5) better. Furthermore “akmadsô” more belongs to the first part (= blooming) of a “life” than to the last part (= harvest). That the word “akmaios” in 3 Macc 4:8 should be translated by “flowering” seems also obvious (cf. Rehkopf p 10). Furthermore compare with Judges 6:11, Lam 1:15 and Matt 21:33, passages where we can see how the people of God can be trodden in a wine-press.

If we nevertheless would accept the traditional translation ”be ripe”, the fact remains that the grapes are not ripe for the new Jerusalem but are thrown in the wine-press belonging to the old earth (cf. John 15:16 and Rev 14:20).

“The wine-press of the passion of God” can be compared with “the wine-press of the wrath of the passion of God” in Rev 19:15. The Greek word ”katathlaô” (bruise entirely) occurs in the Bible only in Ps 42:11(12) and in Is 63:3 (see translations above). Is 63:2-5a belongs to “the wine-press of the passion of God”, while the continuation in Is 63:5b-6 belongs to “the wine-press of the wrath of the passion of God” in Rev 19:15.

Concerning “great/loud voice”, see also Rev 1:10b. Concerning “send your sharp sickle”, see also Rev 14:15-16. Concerning “sharp sickle”, see also Rev 14:14b.


Paul said to the believers in Rome: “If you – according to the circumstances – may confess in/with your mouth Lord Jesus and may believe in your heart that God has raised Him out of dead (bodies), you may be saved. For (in) a heart it is believed into righteousness, but (with) a mouth it is confessed into saving.” (Rom 10:9-10)

Become makers/doers of a saying and not only hearers ‘counting ... by the side of’/deceiving themselves. ... The one having bent to the side of into a perfect law, the one of the freedom, and having stayed by the side of, having not become a forgetful hearer however/but a maker/doer of a work, this one will be happy in his making/doing. (Jas 1:22,25b)

(Peter said to the believers:) “(It is) a seasonable time to begin the judicial verdict from/with the house of God. But if first from/with you (א*), what (will ... be) the end of the ones disobeying the good little message of God? And/but if the righteous hardly/barely will be saved, where will * (א,*A) the misser (of the mark of God) ‘bring to light’/appear? ” (1 Pet 4:17-18)

'Every the'/everyone having been (and being) begotten out of God does not make/practise miss (of His mark), because His seed stays in him, and he is not able to miss (His mark), because he has been (and is) begotten out of God. (1 John 3:9)


Greek words:

akmazô (bloom) Rev 14:18 – (4 Macc 2:3). See My own comments and speculations. Cf. also with the noun “akmê” (bloom), which we have for example in Esther 5:1b(D5).

botrys (bunch of grapes) (in the NT + one example in the OT) Gen 40:10; Rev 14:18.

lênos (wine-press) (in the NT + one example in the Apocrypha) Matt 21:33; Rev 14:19 – Sir 33:17; Rev 14:20; 19:15.

stafylê (grape) (in the NT + examples in the OT) Gen 40:10; Syr 51:15; Luke 6:44; Rev 14:18 – 1 Macc 6:34, Sir 50:15; Matt 7:16.

trygaô (gather in) (in the NT) Luke 6:44; Rev 14:18-19.


Additional studies: Lev 25:11; Num 18:30; Neh 13:15; Song of Solomon 2:15; Is 17:10-11; 28:1-3; Jer 25:30; 48:33; Wisdom of Solomon 10:7; Matt 6:28-30; 21:19; John 15:1; Rev 19:15.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-23; 2012-07-13; 2015-08-10)

Back to the top

14:20 And the wine-press was trodden outside (א,* א) the city, and blood came out, out of the wine-press, until the bits of bridle of the horses, from/’... away’ one thousand two hundred (א*) stadia.

Word for word (22 words in the Greek text): and was-trodden the wine-press outside the city and came-out blood out-of the wine-press until the bits-of-the-bridle (of)-the (of)-horses from stadia one-thousand two-hundred.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Lot's) woman saw against (Sodom), into the things behind, and she became a pillar of salt. (Gen 19:26, Greek OT)

(Judas) cleanses his dress in wine and his wrapper in blood of a grape. (Gen 49:11b, Greek OT)

(Moses said about Israel:) “Of blood of grape they drank wine.” (Deut 32:14b, Greek OT)

Jehu spoke (to the eunuchs): “Roll (Jezebel) (out)!” And they rolled her (out). And her blood was sprinkled towards the wall of (the) house and towards the horses. And they trod her together. (2 Kings 9:33, Greek OT)

(The little wild animals) together trod the thorn. (2 Kings 14:9b, Greek OT)

(David said:) “Do not become as a horse and a mule (in) whom it is not understanding, (so that they must) be led in/with bit of bridle and muzzle.” (Ps 32:9a, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said:) “In the thing to entirely bruise my bones the ones oppressing me reproach me, in the thing 'to say them me'/'that they say to me' 'according to everyone'/every day: “Where is your God?” ... (My soul), hope against God, because you will confess Him out/frankly, the saving of my face/person, my God. (Ps 42:11,12b or 42:12,13b, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said: “The nations) have poured out the blood (of the slaves of the Lord) as water (in) a circle (round) Jerusalem.” (Ps 79:3a, Greek OT)

(This song will be sung in the land of Judas:) “Feet of mild and humble ones will tread (the ones inhabiting in high things).” (Is 26:6, Greek OT)

The garments of (the one coming from Edom was red) as from a winepressing wine-press. ... (He said:) “I trod (the nations) down in passion and I bruised them entirely and led down their blood into earth. For a day of 'giving back in stead'/requital had come on them, and a period of time of redemption ‘is by the side of’/’had come’. And I ‘saw on’/looked, and no one (came to) succour. … And my arm delivered them.” (Is 63:2b-5a, Greek OT)

(The prophet said about Judas:) "Into/with a voice/sound of a circumcision (the Lord) fastened/fixed up fire against her, the great oppression against (her), her branches became useless." (Jer 11:16b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said: “Because the ones dwelling in Jerusalem) have left Me entirely in (a place) ... and the kings of Juda has fulfilled this place of/with unpunished/innocent bloods/bloodsheds ... days come ... (when this place) will be called ... (the place) of the slaughter of many males.” (Jer 19:4b,6b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said) to the lawless one: ‘You shall be put to death (with) death, and (when) I (then) did not ‘dispatch ... throughout’/command him, nor you talked the thing to ‘dispatch ... throughout’/command the lawless one to turn away from his ways (to) the thing to save him, (then) that lawless will die (with) his unrighteousness, and/but his blood I shall seek out, out of your hand.” (Ezek 3:18, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Jerusalem:) ”I 'came through against'/'arrived at' you, and I beheld you being (and having been) kneaded in your blood (against the face of the plain), and I spoke to you: ‘Life (is) out of your blood.’” (Ezek 16:6, Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) “Dispatch out a sickle, because the ‘gathering/harvest of fruits stands by the side of’/’is near’. Go into, tread, for the reason that the wine-press (is) filled. The tubes of the wine-press are poured out over it, because the bad things (of the nations) are (and have been) made full.” (Joel 3:13)

Flesh of the pious ones (of the Lord) and their blood (the enemies) poured out (in) a circle (round) Jerusalem. And there was (continually) not (anyone) who buried them.(1 Macc 7:17)

Bet-sur … ‘as if’/about five stadia (from) (a disgraced) Jerosolyma/Jerusalem. ... (2 Macc 11:5b)

The rays of the splendour (from Jamnia) ‘be brought to light’/appeared into the (disgraced) Jerosolyma/Jerusalem, being two hundred and forty stadia (from there). (2 Macc 12:9b)

Having taken down/up the city, (which was) the willing of God, (Judas) made an inexpressible slaughter, so that the lake, lying by the side of (the city) (and) having the breadth of two stadia, ‘be brought to light’/appeared being (and having been) filled (with) alluvial blood. (2 Macc 12:16)

(Solomon said:) “If – according to the circumstances – (the souls of the righteous) in a sight of men may be chastised, their hope (is) filled with undeadliness/immortality.” (Wisdom of Solomon 3:4)

(Solomon said to the Lord:) “You have arranged every thing throughout (with) measure and number and standing-place/balance.” (Wisdom of Solomon 11:20b)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) ”You are the salt of the earth. But if – according to the circumstances – the salt may be made foolish/insipid, in which (way) shall it be salted? It is not any longer stable into anything ‘if not’/except, having been thrown outside, to be trodden down by the men.” (Matt 5:13)

The names of the twelve apostles are these: First Simon, the one said/called Peter; and Andrew his brother; * (א*) James, the one (being son) of Zebedee, and John his brother, Philip. (Matt 10:2-3a, the name Philip means “friend of horses”)

And having taken a cup and having ‘been thankful’/’given thanks’, (Jesus) gave to (His disciples) saying: “Drink out of it, all (of you). For this is My blood of the covenant, which is poured out on account of many into/’for the purpose of’ a ‘letting be’/’leaving alone’ of misses (of the mark of God).” (Matt 26:27-28)

(Jesus) comes in company with (His disciples) into a little district being said/called Gethsemane (= olive-press). ... Having taken Peter and the two sons of Zebedee to the side of (Jesus) began to be sorrowful and uneasy. Then He says to them: "My soul is ‘sorrowful around’/'exceedingly sorrowful', till death." ... A messenger from heaven ‘was beheld’/appeared (to Jesus, a messenger) being stable in Him. (א*) And becoming/coming in a more/’more and more’ zealous fight/struggle (Jesus) (continually) prayed. And His sweat became as if drops of blood descending against the earth. (Matt 26:36a,37-38a; Luke 22:43-44)

Having repented (Judas) turned/’brought back’ the thirty silvermetals/’pieces of silver’ to the priest leaders and elders, saying: “Having given ‘to the side of’/over unpunished/innocent blood I have missed (the mark of God).” They said: “What (is that) towards/to us? You may behold/’take heed’.” And having tossed the thirty (א,*א) silvermetals/’pieces of silver’ into the temple he retired and having gone away he ‘strangled away’/hanged himself. The priest leaders took the pieces of silver and said: "It is not lawful to put them into the treasury, since they are 'honour' of blood." And having taken a council meeting they bought out of them the potter's field into/to a burial place for strangers. Therefore that field has been called a field of blood till to-day. Then it was completed what was spoken through the prophet Jeremiah, saying: “They took the thirty silvermetals/’pieces of silver’, the honour/value of the one having been (and being) valuable, the one whom they honoured/valued from/’away from’ (the) sons of Israel and I (א,*א) gave them into the field of the potter, according as a lord had arranged together to me. (Matt 27:3b-10)

All in the synagogue were fulfilled (with) passion hearing (Jesus say) these things. And having stood up they threw/hurried Him out, outside the city and led Him till the brow of the mountain upon which their city was (and had been) built, so that (they could) throw Him down a precipice. (Luke 4:28-29)

A woman, being in a stream of blood from/for twelve years whoever/who, having used up the whole subsistence/livelihood towards physicians, had not been/become stable by (א,*א) any one to be be attended. (Luke 8:43)

(Jesus said to the seventy:) “Behold, I have given (and give) you the (judicial) authority to tread above serpents and scorpions and against every ability of the enemy, and nothing will (א,* א, A) * (א*) act unrighteously (against) you.” (Luke 10:19)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "That slave having knowledge of his lord's will and having not made ready or made/done towards/’in regard to’ his will, will be flayed (with) many (blows)." (Luke 12:47)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Having called to 'one everyone'/'each one' of his lord's debtors (the householder/steward) said to the first one: ‘How much are you indebted my lord?’ But/and he spoke: ‘A hundred footpaths (א,* א) of olive oil.’" (Luke 16:5-6a)

(Jesus said to the Pharisees:) “It/there was (continually) a certain rich man, and he (continually) was “inclothed”/’clothed in’ purple and fine linen being cheerful ‘according to day’/’day by day’ (in a) shining (way). But a certain beggarly one (with) name Lazarus, having been (and being) caused sores, had been (and was) thrown towards his gateway, and desiring/desired to be fed from (the things) falling from the table of the rich. However/but and/also the coming dogs (continually) licked against his sores. But it became (that) the beggarly one die/died and be/was carried away by the messengers into Abraham's bosom. But and/also the rich man died and was buried. * (א*) Having lifted against/up his eyes in the Hades and ‘beginning under’/being in torment he beheld Abraham from from afar and Lazarus in his bosoms/bosom. And having raised his voice he spoke: “Father Abraham, have mercy on me, and send Lazarus, in order that he may dip the border/top of his finger (in) water and cool my tongue, because I ‘am caused’/feel pain in this flame. But Abraham spoke: “Child, remember that you took away/apart your good things in your life/lifetime, and Lazarus likewise the bad things. But now he here is called to the side of, but you ‘are caused’/feel pain. (Luke 16:19-25)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “The day the Son of the Man is revealed … let not the one (being) in a field turn next to, into the things behind. Recollect the woman of Lot!” (Luke 17:30b,31b-32)

In this day two out of (the disciples) (continually) were going into a village (with) the name Emmaus, ‘holding off’/lying a hundred (א,*א) sixty stadia from Jerusalem. (Luke 24:13)

(Peter said:) ”Males, brothers, the writing (continually) had to be completed, which the Holy Spirit spoke beforehand through the mouth of David on account of Judas, the one having become a guide to the ones having together taken Jesus, because being (and having been) entirely numbered he (continually) was in/with us and had by lot obtained the share of inheritance of this service. So indeed this (one) acquired a little district out of (the) wage of the unrighteousness and having become/fallen …all his ‘inward vital parts’/bowels were poured out. …That little district be/was called …Little district of blood. For it has been (and is) written in a book of psalms: ‘Let his dwelling become desolate and let not the dwelling one be in it.’, and ‘Let the other one take His visitation/inspection.’” (Acts 1:16-20)

But/and (Herod) ‘took up for himself’/’got rid of’ Jacob/James, the brother of John, (with) a dagger. (Acts 12:2)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

Jesus so spoke to (His disciples): “Amen, amen, I say to you, if – according to the circumstances – you may not eat the flesh of the Son of the Man and may not drink His blood, you have not life in yourselves. The one chewing My flesh and drinking My blood has agelong life, and I will cause him to stand up the last day. For My flesh is truthful consumption, and My blood is truly (P66, א*) a drinking.” (John 6:53-56)

As (Jesus) so spoke to (Judas and the others): “I am”, they went away into the things behind and fell on the ground (of the garden/olive-press).” (John 18:6)

Their falls (P47,א,*א)/corpses (will be) upon the street of the great city, whichever/which spiritually is called Sodom and Egypt, whereat/where and/also the (P47, א*) Lord was crucified. (Rev 11:8)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

(Alva) shivers when she sees the nasty wound which the scraper has made. Lisabet cries wildly, and the blood gushes down over her eyes, it gushes over the whole of Lisabet and also the whole of Alva. It is a single great blood-bath. "Alva, I die, I die, I die", Lisabet cries. "No, you do not die", Alva says. "But we must to the cottage hospital sewing up this wound." . . . Before (Lisabet) knows where she is, uncle Berglund has sewn five stitches in her forehead. "Now Alva can bring you home again", he says. "Although you perhaps want to stay with Madicken?" Madicken, she had entirely escaped Lisabet's memory in the great blood-bath! (Astrid Lindgren "Madicken och Junibackens Pims" p 164-166; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

(Miss Bock) pursued (the two thieves Fille and Rulle) all way through the lounge and through the cloak-room and right out to the passage. . . . She took some angry leaps, as if she thought to come after down the steps, and then she cried . . . : "Do not set your foot in Frejgatan once more, for then it will flow blood. Do you hear what I say . . . blo-o-o-od!" (Astrid Lindgren "Karlsson på taket smyger igen" p 158; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Seest thou how not only the doer of evil things, but also he that doeth not good things, is punished with extreme punishment. (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers X:472 commenting Matt 25:30)

The amphitheatre (Colosseum) really demanded drainage, not only for the water of the mountains of Celius and Esquiline, a water gathering in the glen, but also for the blood being poured out in the arena. Sometimes this blood literally was shed in streams. At the inaugural ceremony Titus sacrificed 9,000 wild and domestic animals, and at another occasion 200 lions were seen tear one another to pieces. At Rome's millennial celebration (year 248) 2,000 gladiators struggled life and death. (Viktor Rydberg "Kolosseum - Vilka voro barbarerna? - Kolosseums ättlingar - Skådespelen - Rövarstycket Laureolus - Munken Telemak - Signor Rosas grävningar" p 267; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Eskil Bergen, Felicia Buttz Clark, Sven Danell, Bo Giertz, Nikolaj Gogol, Carl Grimberg, Dick Harrison, Homeros, Anders Hultman, Juan Ramon Jiménez, Eyvind Johnson, Pär Lagerkvist, Gunnlaug Leifsson, Sven Lidman, Sigvard Malmberg, Vilhelm Moberg, Fredrik Nielsen, Anders Nohrborg, Agne Nordlander, John Ongman, Efraim Palmqvist, Ellery Queen j:r, Harald Rasmussen, L.C. Retzius, Carl Olof Rosenius, Göran Sahlberg, Magnus Svensén, Einar Thomassen, Nils Tägt, P. Waldenström, Sigrid Westberg.


My own comments and speculations:

Here we can see a connection with the fate of Judas and with what is prophesied for the guilty inhabitants of Jerusalem (Jer 19). Innocent blood poured out by the people of God is replaced by the own blood of the people of God, which in a deeper meaning can be God's own blood (cf. John 6:53-56).

It is an uncertain possibility, that the number “one thousand two hundred” has its background in 2 Macc 11-12 and in Luke 8. In 2 Macc we have a possible allusion to the distance to the city (a disgraced) Jerosolyma/Jerusalem, and five (11:5) times two hundred and forty (12:9) makes one thousand two hundred. The allusion to blood we have in 12:16. In Luke 8 we have a possible allusion to blood (v 43), and twelve (v 43) times a hundred (v 8) makes one thousand two hundred. The synoptical allusion to the distance to Jerusalem we have in Luke 24:13.

The number twelve in 1200 also can allude to that it is the people of God who are trodden.

Observe the association to Luke 16:6 "footpaths of olive-oil" (Sinaiticus).

See also My own comments and speculations to Rev 14:18b-19.


Greek words:

chalinos (bit of bridle) (the NT + examples in the OT) Ps 32:9; Rev 14:20 – 2 Kings 19:28; Is 37:29; Jas 3:3.


Additional studies: Deut 11:24; 2 Chron 25:18; Ps 7:5(6); 91:13; Is 8:7-8; 28:3; 30:28; Jer 48:33; 51:33; Joel 3:2; Micah 7:19; Zech 9:15; 10:5; 14:10; Luke 12:1; John 2:6-10; 6:53-56; Heb 13:12; Rev 21:16.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-23; 2012-07-13; 2015-08-10)

Back to the top

Valid XHTML 1.0 Strict      Valid CSS!