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Chapter 13

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13:1 (13:1b) And I beheld a little wild animal ascending out of the sea, having ten horns and seven heads and upon his horns ten diadems and against his heads a (P47; א,* א) ‘name of blasphemy’/’blasphemous name’.

Word for word (27 words in the Greek text): And (i/I)-beheld out-of the sea (a)-little-wild-animal ascending, having horns ten and heads seven and upon the horns his ten diadems and against the heads his (a)-name (of)-blasphemy.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Jacob said:) "An evil little wild animal ... has raped Joseph." (Gen 37:33b, Greek OT)

(Daniel looked at) four great little wild animals ascending out of the sea. … The first (little wild animal was) as if (it was) a lioness. … A second one (was) like a bear … The other/third one as if a panther … (with) four heads. … A fourth little wild animal … (with) ten horns. (Dan 7:3-7, Greek OT Theod)

(“The horn” had) a mouth talking great things and made war towards the holy ones. (Dan 7:8b, Greek OT)

(The horn) will talk words into/against the Highest One and rub down the holy ones of the Highest One. (Dan 7:25a, Greek OT)

The king will make/do according to his will, and he will be provoked to wrath and heighten himself against/over every god and talk different things against the God of the gods, and he will be (on) a good way till – according to the circumstances – the wrath may be brought to a consummation. For into/’the purpose of’ him it becomes a consummation. (Dan 11:36, Greek OT)

(Ptolemaios) put two diadems around, around his head, the one of Egypt and (the one) of Asia. (1 Macc 11:13b)

(The Jews asked the Lord to remember) blasphemies into/’for the purpose of’ His name … . (2 Macc 8:4b)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Many will come on/’for the sake of’ My name, saying: ‘I am the christ/'anointed one'’, and they will lead many astray.” (Matt 24:5)

The priest leader spoke to (Jesus): "I bind You with oath down from the living God, in order that You may speak to us, if You are the christ/'anointed one', the Son of God." Jesus says to him: “You spoke (it). ‘More than’/however I say to you: ‘From just now you will behold the Son of the Man being seated out of the right (parts) of the Ability and coming upon the clouds of the heaven.’” Then priest leader ‘broke through’/tore his garments in/to pieces saying: "Behold (א*), He blasphemed! What need have we yet of witnesses? Behold, you have now heard the blasphemy.” (Matt 26:63b-65)

Straight off ascending out of the water (Jesus) beheld the heavens being split, and the Spirit as a pigeon descending and staying against (א,* א) Him. (Mark 1:10)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Jesus said to the Jews:) “I have come (and comes) in the name of My Father, and you do not take Me. If - according to the circumstances – another may come in (his) own name, you will take that one.” (John 5:43)

(I know) the blasphemy, the one (א,* א) out of the ones saying themselves be Jews and they are not however/but a synagogue of the adversary. (Rev 2:9b)

(Judicial) authority was given to (death and Hades) against the fourth/’fourth part’ of the earth to kill in/with large sword and in/with famine and in/with death/pestilence and by the little wild animals of the earth. (Rev 6:8b)

I beheld another stable messenger descending out of the heaven, being (and having been) wrapped up in a cloud. (Rev 10:1a; observe the contrast to “a little wild animal ascending out of the sea”)

When (the two witnesses) – according to the circumstances - may have ended their evidence, the little wild animal then (א*) ascending out of the abyss will make war ‘in company with’/against them and conquer them and kill them. (Rev 11:7)

Another sign was beheld in the heaven. And behold, a fire-coloured dragon great having seven heads and ten horns and against his heads seven diadems. (Rev 12:3)

(The dragon) stood against the sand of the sea. (Rev 12:18 or 13:1a)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

Here in Sweden we cannot get any other apprehension than that Hitler wants the war, or that he in any case does not regard himself to be able to avoid it with kept up reputation. That Chamberlain has done his very utmost to keep peace is rather certain; in München he only gave way for the sake. "Danzig and the Corridor" Hitler demanded this time, but his inmost wish surely is to be the master of the whole world. How will Italy and Russia behave themselves? According to Polish reports the two first days of the war have cost 1.500 victims in Poland. . . . . . . The lord of the world - the wild beast in the Revelation - once a little unknown German craftsman, the one restoring his people and (according to the opinion of mine and many) his people's destroyer and its maker of culture twilight - what will his end become? Will people some time have reason to say: Sic transit gloria mundi. (Astrid Lindgren "Krigsdagböcker 1939-1945" p 20-21,57; 1939-09-03 and 1940-07-21, translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Struggle is legitimate, as much loyal as it can be struggled towards the wild beast, who is Överklassen (the upper class). Ö.K., it is the subjects of this Prince of the World, who rewards laziness and punishes work with disrespect and bad wages, who protects the great crime but brings an action against the little misdemeanour. It is therefore Swedenborg describes the Hells just as life of earth, perhaps because he did not want to say directly that we were in Hell. (August Strindberg "'Allt tjänar.'" p 176; Svenska Morgonbladet 1911-10-18; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

The times are evil, the men angry and conscious, and the wild animal seems to stick out everywhere. . . . The seed is much, but the woman workers are few! (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev VI aug 1886-jan 1888" p 259; letter 1887-08-27 to Pehr Staaff; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

It is proper that we take the Holy Scriptures themselves in hand, and find out from them what, and of what manner, the coming of Antichrist is; on what occasion and at what time that impious on shall be revealed ... how he shall glorify himself as God; and what his end shall be. ... The deceiver seeks to liken himself in all things to the Son of God. ... The Lord gave a seal to those who believed on Him, and he will give one in like manner. ... The Saviour raised up and showed His holy flesh like a temple and he will raise a temple of stone in Jerusalem. (Hippolytus, The Ante-Nicene Fathers V:205-206)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Carl Jonas Love Almqvist, Marcus Birro, Sten Carlsson, Fredrik Franson, Bo Giertz, Victor Hugo, Anders Jarlert, Samuel Johansson, Greg King, Harry Lenhammar, C. Fr. Lundin, Harry Martinson, Vilhelm Moberg, Fredrik Nielsen, Efraim Palmqvist, Olaus Petri, Viktor Rydberg, Harry Sjöman, A.M. Strinnholm, Margareta Strömstedt, Gunnar Svahnström, Gunnar Söderström, Anton Tjechov, Bertil Torekull, N.P. Wetterlund.


My own comments and speculations:

Daniel beheld four little wild animals with together seven heads and ten horns. In a restoration perspective we can see how John beheld one little wild animal with ten horns and seven heads.

Concerning “having ten horns and seven heads and upon his horns ten diadems”, see also Rev 12:3. Observe that the diadems against the heads now are moved to the horns.


Little boys (and girls), it is a last hour, and entirely as you have heard that antichrist comes, and/also now many antichrists have become (and become), from where we have knowledge, that it is a last hour. (1 John 2:18)

Every spirit, which does not confess Jesus the Lord, having come (and coming) in flesh (א,* א), is not out of God. And this is the (spirit) of the antichrist because (א,* א) you have heard (and hear) that it comes, and now already is in the adornment/’adorned world’. (1 John 4:3)


Additional studies:

Ex 14:28-30; Ps 46:(2-3)3-4; Is 17:12-13; Dan 7:2; Mark 14:61-64; 1 John 2:22; 4:3; 2 John v 7; Rev 13:14-15; 15:2; 16:9,13; 17:3,7,9,12,15-16.


G.K. Beale "The Danielic Background to Revelation 13-18 and 17:9"; Tyndale Bulletin 31 (1980): 163-170.

G.K. Beale "The influence of Daniel upon the structure och theology of John's Apocalypse"; Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 27.4 (Dec. 1984): 413-423.

R.J. Korner "'And I saw . . .' An Apocalyptic Literary Convention for Structural Identification in the Apocalypse"; (the journal) Novum Testamentum 42.2 (2000): 160-183.

Thomas Edward McComiskey "Alteration of OT Imagery in the Book of Revelation: Its Hermeneutical and Theological Significance"; Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 36.3 (1993): 307-316.

Daniel K.K. Wong "The Beast from the Sea in Revelation 13"; Bibliotheca Sacra 154 (Jul.-Sep. 2003): 337-348.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-17; 2012-07-08; 2015-06-13)

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13:2 And the little wild animal which I beheld (continually) was like a panther, and its feet as of a bear and its mouth as (the) mouth of lions (א,* א). And the dragon had given it his ability and his throne and a great (judicial) authority.

Word for word (36 words in the Greek text): and the little-wild-animal which (i/I)-beheld (continually)-was like (a)-panther and the feet its as (of)-(a)-bear and the mouth its as (a)-mouth (of)-lions. and gave it the dragon the ability his and the throne his and (a)-(judicial)-authority great.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(David said to Saul:) “Your slave has slapped/beaten and/both the bear and the lion. … The Lord who took me out, out of a hand of the lion and out of a hand of the bear, He will take me out, out of a hand of this uncircumcised of another tribe.” (1 Sam 17:36a,37a, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said:) ”Speak to God: ’… In the multitude/greatness of Your ability Your enemies will lie (against/to) You.’” (Ps 66:3, Greek OT)

(The king of Babylon) spoke in (his) mind: ”I will ascend into the heaven, I will put my throne above the constellations of the heaven.” (Is 14:13a, Greek OT)

(Daniel looked at) four great little wild animals ascending out of the sea. … The first (little wild animal was) as if (it was) a lioness. … A second one (was) like a bear … The other/third one as if a panther … (with) four heads. … A fourth little wild animal … (with) ten horns. (Dan 7:3-7, Greek OT Theod)

To (one as a son of man) was given the beginning and the honour and the kingdom, and all the peoples, tribes, tongues will be slaves to Him. His (judicial) authority (is) an agelong (judicial) authority, and His kingdom will not be ruined throughout. (Dan 7:14, Greek OT, Theod)

Daniel was delivered out of mouth of lions in/’by means of’ his plainness/sincerity. (1 Macc 2:60)

As a lion (the evil tongue) is dispatched away behind (the ones who entirely leave the Lord) and as a panther it shall outrage them. (Sir 28:23b)


The Latter Revelation:

On His having come into the sanctuary, the priest leaders and the elders of the people came to (Jesus as He was) teaching, saying: "In/with what kind of (judicial) authority do You make/do these things, and who gave You this (judicial) authority?" (Matt 21:23)

Having come to/forward Jesus talked (with the eleven disciples) saying: "Every/all (judicial) authority in heaven and upon earth has been given to Me.” (Matt 28:18)

(Jesus continually) was in company with the little wild animals, and the messengers (continually) rendered service to Him. (Mark 1:13b)

(Jesus said to His disciples: “The Son of the Man will come) in clouds in company with much ability and glory.“ (Mark 13:26b)

(Mary said: “The Lord) has taken ‘entirely for Himself’/down sovereigns from thrones.” (Luke 1:52a)

The slanderer spoke to (Jesus): “I will give You this (judicial) authority, all of it, and their glory.” (Luke 4:6a)

Having called together the twelve apostles (א,* א) he gave them ability and (judicial) authority against all the little demons and to attend sicknesses. (Luke 9:1)

(Jesus said to the seventy:) “Behold, I have given (and give) you the (judicial) authority to tread above serpents and scorpions and against every ability of the enemy, and nothing will (א,* א, A) * (א*) act unrighteously (against) you.” (Luke 10:19)

Jesus spoke towards the ones having become/come to the side of (Him), priest leaders and officers of the sanctuary and elders, (who had come) towards (א*) Him: "... ‘According to’/’day after’ day on My being in company with you in the sanctuary, you did not stretch out the hands against Me. However, this hour is Yours, and/likewise the (judicial) authority of the darkness." (Luke 22:52a,53)

(With) great ability the apostles (continually) ‘gave back’/surrendered the testimony of/to the resurrection of Jesus Christ (א,*א,A), the Lord, both/moreover joybringing (grace) (continually) was great against/over them all. (Acts 4:33)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

These things Jesus talked and having lifted against/up His eyes into the heaven He spoke: “Father, the hour has come (and comes). Glorify Your Son, in order that the Son may glorify You, entirely as You have given Him (judicial) authority of every/all flesh, in order that every (nation?) which You have given (and give) Him, I may to it (א*) give agelong life.” (John 17:1-2)

I know where you dwell, whereat/where the throne of the adversary (is). (Rev 2:13a, “Pergamos”)

(The twenty-four elders said:) “We are thankful to You, the Lord God, the All-powerful, the One who is and the One who (continually) was, and (P47, א*) that You have taken (and take) Your great ability and have been/’begun to be’ king.” (Rev 11:17)

The great dragon was thrown (out), * (א,*א) a serpent, he of (a) beginning, he being called a slanderer, * (א,*א) the adversary, he leading the whole (inhabited) world astray, he was thrown into/'down to' the earth, and his messengers were thrown (down) in company with him. And I heard a great/loud voice in the heaven, saying: ”Just now the saving and the ability and the kingdom of our God and the (judicial) authority of His christ/'anointed one' have become (established), because the accuser (P47,א,*א) of our brothers has been thrown (out), he accusing them in the very eyes of our God day and night.” (Rev 12:9-10)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: S.A. Andrée, Winston Churchill, P. Fjellstedt, Sven Gabriel Fovelin, Anne-Sofie Gräslund, Krister Hanell, Emil Hindenborg, Erik Axel Karlfeldt, Claes Lindskog, Bertil Malmberg, Olaf Moe, Martin P:n Nilsson, Ch.G.D. Roberts, Viktor Rydberg, Erich Sauer, A.M. Strinnholm, Nicholas Wiseman, Göran Åberg.


My own comments and speculations:

As the Son of the Man Jesus gets (judicial) authority from His Father, so the little wild animal gets (judicial) authority from the dragon.


Greek words:

arkos (bear) (in the NT + examples in the OT) Dan 7:5; Rev 13:2 – 1 Sam 17:34,36-37; 2 Sam 17:8; 2 Kings 2:24; Is 11:7; 59:11; Lam 3:10; Hos 13:8; Amos 5:19; Wisdom of Solomon 11:17; Sir 25:17; 47:3.

pardalis (panther) (in the NT + examples in the OT) Dan 7:6; Sir 28:23; Rev 13:2 – Song of Solomon 4:8; Is 11:6; Jer 5.6; 13:23; Hos 13:7; Hab 1:8.


Additional studies:

Prov 28:15; Jer 27:17; Zeph 3:3; Zech 11:3; Matt 7:29; Mark 1:22,27; 11:28-29; Luke 4:32,36; 20:2; 2 Thess 2:9; 2 Tim 4:17; Rev 13:4,12; 16:10.


Thomas Edward McComiskey "Alteration of OT Imagery in the Book of Revelation: Its Hermeneutical and Theological Significance"; Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 36.3 (1993): 307-316.

Daniel K.K. Wong "The Beast from the Sea in Revelation 13"; Bibliotheca Sacra 154 (Jul.-Sep. 2003): 337-348.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-17; 2012-07-08; 2015-06-14)

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13:3a And one 'out of'/of its heads (was) as (if) having been (and being) slaughtered into/’for the purpose of’ death. And its (wound of) the blow of (the) death had been attended.

Word for word (17 words in the Greek text): and one out-of the heads its as having-been-(and-being)-slaughtered into death, and the blow (of)-the (of)-death its was-attended.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

Lamech spoke to his women: “ ... I killed a male into/’for the purpose of’ my wound ... It has been (and is) procured justice seven times ‘out of’/for Cain, but ‘out of’/for Lamech seventy seven times.” (Gen 4:23-24, Greek OT)

(The prophet said to the people of God: “In the day of the great slaughter) … the light of the sun will be sevenfold in the day, when – according to the circumstances – the Lord may heal the crush of His people, and He will heal the pain of your blow.” (Is 30:26, Greek OT)

(Judith) hit twice (with the dagger, Greek: “akinakês”) into the neck (of Holophernes) ... and took off his head from him. (Judith 13:8)

(Uzziah said to Judith:) “Blessed (is) the Lord God, who created the heavens and the earth, who entirely straightened/directed you to the wound of the head of the leader of our enemies.” (Judith 13:18b)

The Lord God of Israel, the One surveying all, hit (king Antiochus with) a blow, (being) incurable and impossible to behold. (2 Macc 9:5a)

(Solomon said:) “In/’by means of’ (the physicians The Lord) has attended and lifted/’taken away’ the hardship of (a man).” (Sir 38:7a)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “The one giving Me ‘to the side of’/over has drawn near (and is near).” And on His still talking, behold, Judas, one of the twelve, came and in company with him a much/many-headed crowd – ‘in company with’/with daggers and (pieces of) wood – from the priest leaders and elders of the people. (Matt 26:46b-47)

Having stretched out the hand one of (the ones being) in company with Jesus pulled away/out his dagger and having hit the slave of the priest leader, he took off his ear lobe. Then Jesus says to him: “Turn/put your dagger away/back into its place, for all the ones having taken a dagger will perish in/with a dagger.” (Matt 26:51-52)

(Jesus) attended many. (Mark 3:10a)

One, a certain one out of (the ones standing around) hit the slave of the priest leader and took off his right ear. ... But Jesus spoke: “Allow till this! And having touched the ear lobe, He healed him. (Luke 22:50,51b)

The popular assembly (continually) raised their voices against (king Herod): “(It is) a voice of God and not of men (א*).” But immediately a messenger of a lord hit him ’instead of’/’in return for’ which things he did not give the glory to God. (Acts 12:22-23a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Jesus said to His disciples: "The Spirit will convict the adornment/’adorned world’) ... on account of judgment, that the leader of this adornment/’adorned world’ has been (and is) judged." (John 16:11)

I beheld ‘in a middle of’/’between (on one hand)’ the throne and the four living beings and ‘in a middle of’/’(on the other hand)’ the elders a little Ram standing as having been (and being) slaughtered. (Rev 5:6a)

… (I heard messengers) saying (with) a great/loud voice: “Worthy is the little Ram, the One having been (and being) slaughtered.” (Rev 5:12a)

I beheld, and behold (א,* א), another fire-coloured horse came out. And to the One being seated against it, it was given to Him to take the peace out of the earth, and in order that they might (א,* א) slaughter one another. (Rev 6:4a)

From/’owing to’ these three blows, the third of the men was killed, out/’in consequence’ of the fire and the smoke and the sulphur, of the thing going out, out of their mouths. (Rev 9:18)

(The two witnesses) have (judicial) authority upon the waters to turn them into blood and to hit the earth in/with every blow, as many times ‘as if’/as they – according to the circumstances – may want. (Rev 11:6b)

It became a war in the heaven; Michael and his messengers waged war ‘in company with’/with the dragon. And the dragon and his messengers waged war. And they were not stable towards/’in comparison with’ him (א,* א), nor a place was found any longer * (א*) in the heaven. (Rev 12:7-8)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

Lie and superstition must not be respected. They will not only be wounded, but be wounded to death. (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev IV 1884" p 376; letter 1884-11-07 to Olof Gustav Nilsson in Malmö; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Adolf opened his heart for the friend during a long conversation, made a drawing about his life and painted in sad colours his present mental state. "My friend", Göran said, "you ressemble the soldier having left the battle-field with a bleeding wound. But the wound is, God be praised, not to death; time and a sound philosophy of life will heal it and only leave an honourable scar, a satisfactory memory of what you have contended, suffered and undergone." (Viktor Rydberg "De vandrande djäknarne" p 156; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Elisabeth Bergstrand-Poulsen, John Bunyan, Jan Fridegård, Bo Giertz, Vilhelm Moberg, Olaf Moe, Viktor Rydberg, Erich Sauer, Jules Verne.


My own comments and speculations:

The blow of death is a blow from a dagger (see Rev 13:14). Judith had to use a dagger twice to kill the enemy of the Jews. Before Jesus healed the one having lost his ear lobe by a blow from a dagger, He stops one more blow by saying: “Allow till this!” Here in the Revelation we also have a person, the little wild animal, who has got one blow by a dagger and who has been healed, perhaps as the person in Luke 22:51.


Additional studies:

John 1:29,36; 20:25,27; Rev 13:12,14.


Daniel K.K. Wong "The Beast from the Sea in Revelation 13"; Bibliotheca Sacra 154 (Jul.-Sep. 2003): 337-348.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-17; 2012-07-08; 2015-06-15)

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13:3b And the whole earth wondered (following) behind the little wild animal.

Word for word (8 words in the Greek text): And wondered whole the earth behind the little-wild-animal.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The enemies of Israel swore to let them) wonder (at) a fleshly king into a (coming) age. (Esther 4:17pb/C21b, Greek OT)

(Job said:) ”Every man will go away behind (the evil man). … .” (Job 21:33b, Greek OT)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “Do not wonder in/at the works of a misser (of the mark of God), but believe (in) the Lord.” (Sir 11:21a)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to Simon Peter and Andreas:) “Come here behind Me, and I will make you fishermen of men.” (Matt 4:19)

(On Jesus') having thrown out the little demon ... the crowds wondered, saying: “Nor at any time it has in this way ‘been brought to light’/appeared (anything similar) in Israel.” (Matt 9:33)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “What does * (א*) a man help to gain the whole adornment/’adorned world’ and to be damaged (for the purpose of) his soul?” (Mark 8:36)

All (in the synagogue continually) were witnesses to (Jesus) and (continually) wondered on/at the sayings of the joybringing (grace), (sayings) going out, out of His mouth. And they (continually/repeatedly) said: "Is by no means this One a son of Joseph?" (Luke 4:22)

(The priest leaders and the scribes and the first ones of the people) did not (continually) find the thing what/which they might make/do, for the people, all of them, (continually) hung upon hearing Him. (Luke 19:48)

(The suborners) were not stable (enough) to take on/’hold of’ (Jesus) (by) His word opposite/’in the presence of’ the people. And having wondered on/at His answer, they were silent. (Luke 20:26)

The popular assembly (continually) raised their voices against (king Herod): “(It is) a voice of God and not of men (א*).” But immediately a messenger of a lord hit him ’instead of’/’in return for’ which things he did not give the glory to God. (Acts 12:22-23a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(The disciples of John) came towards John and spoke to him: “Rabbi, the One who (continually) was in company with you on the other side of the Jordan, to whom you have been (and are) a witness, behold, this One baptizes and all come towards Him.” (John 3:26)

(Jesus said to the Jews:) “I do not take glory from the side of men. However, I have (and have had) knowledge of you, that you have not the welcome of God in yourselves. I have come (and come) in the name of My Father, and you do not take Me. If – according to the circumstances – another may come in (his) own name, you will take that one.” (John 5:41-43)

The crowd answered (Jesus): “You have a little demon.” Who seeks to kill You?” Jesus answered and spoke to them: “One work I did and all you wonder.” (John 7:20-21)

The Pharisees so spoke towards/among themselves: “Look at that you do not help/profit nothing/anything. Behold, the adornment/’adorned world’ has gone away behind Him.” (John 12:19)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

Nietzsche had sent Strindberg a copy of Götzendämmerung . . . with the following dedication: "Herrn August Strindberg. . . . (signed) Der Antikrist." . . . . . . (Nietzsche's) spirit is the greatest and the strongest. . . . I greet in him the deliverer and conclude as his catechumen my letters to my litterary friends in this way: read Nietzsche! (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev VII febr 1888-dec 1889" p 186,191-192; note to letter 1888-12-01 and letter 1888-12-04, both letters to Georg Brandes; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Alf Henrikson, Gösta Sandberg.


Additional studies:

Matt 15:31; John 7:15; Rev 17:8.


Daniel K.K. Wong "The Beast from the Sea in Revelation 13"; Bibliotheca Sacra 154 (Jul.-Sep. 2003): 337-348.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-17; 2012-07-08; 2015-06-17)

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13:4 And they prostrated themselves before the dragon (in honour of him), because he had given the (judicial) authority to the little wild animal. And they prostrated themselves before the little wild animal (in honour of it), saying: “Who (is) like the little wild animal, and who is able to wage war ‘in company with’/with it?”

Word for word (25 words in the Greek text): and (they)-'(kissed-towards)'/'prostrated-(before)' the dragon, because (he)-gave the (judicial)-authority (to)-the little-wild-animal, and (they)-'(kissed-towards)'/'prostrated-(before)' the little-wild-animal saying: who like the little-wild-animal and who is-able-to wage-war in-company-with it?


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Moses and the sons of Israel sang:) “Who (is) like You in/among gods, Lord? Who (is) like You?” (Ex 15:11a, Greek OT)

Ahimaaz cried and spoke towards the king (David): “Peace.” And he prostrated himself before the king (in honour of him) against/with his face against the earth. And he spoke: “Blessed (is) the Lord your God.” (2 Sam 18:28a, Greek OT)

Araunah came out and prostrated himself before the king (David) (in honour of him) against/with his face against the earth. And Araunah spoke: “’What because’/why has my lord the king come towards his slave?” (2 Sam 24:20b-21a, Greek OT)

Batsheba ... prostrated herself before the king (Solomon) (in honour of him). (1 Kings 1:16a, Greek OT)

(Adonijah) ... prostrated himself before the king Solomon (in honour of him) ... ” (1 Kings 1:53b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Job:) “It is ‘not nothing’/nothing upon the earth like (Leviathan). … He (is) king of all the ones (being) in the waters.” (Job 41:24a,25b or 41:33a,34b, Greek OT)

(David said:) “All my bones will speak: ‘Lord, who (is) like You?” (Ps 35:10a, Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) “I (continually) looked at (it) and that horn (continually) made war ‘in company with’/with the holy ones, and it was stable towards/’in comparison with’ them.” (Dan 7:21, Greek OT, Theod)

(Baruch said:) “This (is) our God, the other is not counted towards/’in comparison of’ Him.” (Baruch 3:36)


The Latter Revelation:

The slave … (continually/repeatedly) prostrated himself before (his lord/king) (in honour of him) saying: “Lord (א,* א), be longsuffering on/’for the sake of’ me.” (Matt 18:26a)

(Some of the scribes ‘counted throughout’/considered in their hearts concerning Jesus:) "Why does this One talk in this way? He blasphemies. Who is able to let misses (of the mark of God) be, if not one, God?" (Mark 2:7)

The popular assembly (continually) raised their voices against (king Herod): “(It is) a voice of God and not of men (א*).” But immediately a messenger of a lord hit him ’instead of’/’in return for’ which things he did not give the glory to God. (Acts 12:22-23a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Jesus said to the Jews:) “I do not take glory from the side of men. However, I have (and have had) knowledge of you, that you have not the welcome of God in yourselves. I have come (and come) in the name of My Father, and you do not take Me. If – according to the circumstances – another may come in (his) own name, you will take that one.” (John 5:41-43)

Simon Peter (said to Jesus): “Lord, towards whom shall we go away? You have words of agelong life.” (John 6:68)

When (the two witnesses) – according to the circumstances - may have ended their evidence, the little wild animal then (א*) ascending out of the abyss will make war ‘in company with’/against them and conquer them and kill them. (Rev 11:7)

It became a war in the heaven; Michael and his messengers waged war ‘in company with’/with the dragon. And the dragon and his messengers waged war. And they were not stable towards/’in comparison with’ him (א,* א), nor a place was found any longer * (א*) in the heaven. (Rev 12:7-8)

The dragon was wrathful on/with the woman and went away to make war ‘in company with’/with the rest of her seed of the ones keeping the commandments of God and having the evidence of Jesus. (Rev 12:17)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: Öyvind Dahle, Bo Giertz, Niklas Hallman, Pär Lagerkvist, Johan Ludvig Runeberg.


My own comments and speculations:

The expressions “before the dragon” and “before the little wild animal” have dative form, which indicates a mark of honour rather than an act of adoration. See also 2 Sam 18:28; 24:20-21; 1 Kings 1:6,53 and Matt 18:26.


Additional studies:

Deut 3:24; Ps 71:19; 86:8; 89:7(8); 113:5; Is 40:25; 44:7; 46:5; Ezek 27:32; 31:2; Micah 7:18; Rev 12:3; 13:2,12; 18:18.


Daniel K.K. Wong "The Beast from the Sea in Revelation 13"; Bibliotheca Sacra 154 (Jul.-Sep. 2003): 337-348.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-17; 2012-07-08; 2015-06-18)

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13:5 And it was given to it a mouth talking great things and blasphemies. And it was given to it * (א*) to make/do what it wants (א,* א) (for) forty-two months.

Word for word (17 words in the Greek text): and (it)-was-given (to)-it (a)-mouth talking great-(things) and blasphemies, and (it)-was-given (to)-it (to)-make which/what (it)-wants months forty two.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Moses said to Israel: “The Lord) has in you made/done these great and glorious things, which your eyes have beheld.” (Deut 10:21, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) “I will make/do all things, as many as I ‘take (and have taken) counsel’/’resolve (and have resolved)’.” (Is 46:10b, Greek OT)

(“The horn” had) a mouth talking great things and made war towards the holy ones. (Dan 7:8b, Greek OT)

(The horn) will talk words into/against the Highest One and rub down the holy ones of the Highest One. And he will ‘receive towards’/welcome to change seasonable times and law. And all things will be given ‘to the side of’/over into his hands till a seasonable time and seasonable times and till half a seasonable time. (Dan 7:25, Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) “The buck of the goats was entirely stable, extremely (stable).” (Dan 8:8a, Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) “The buck of the goats made himself great till (what is) extremely.” (Dan 8:8a, Greek OT Theod)

(The man set/clothed in linen said:) “An able king ... will make/do entirely as he – according to the circumstances – may wish.” (Dan 11:3b, Greek OT)

(The man set/clothed in linen said:) “An able king ... will make/do according to his will.” (Dan 11:3b, Greek OT Theod)

(The man set/clothed in linen said: “The king of ‘north wind’/north) will make/do according to his will.” (Dan 11:16a, Greek OT)

The king will make/do according to his will, and he will be provoked to wrath and heighten himself against/over every god and talk different things against the God of the gods, and he will be (on) a good way till – according to the circumstances – the wrath may be brought to a consummation. For into/’the purpose of’ him it becomes a consummation. (Dan 11:36, Greek OT)


The Latter Revelation:

(The leper said to Jesus:) “If You – according to the circumstances – may want, You are able to make me clean.” (Matt 8:2b)

(Jesus said to His disciples: “The scribes) made/did (with) * (א,* א) (Elijah) as many things as they wanted. In this way and/also the Son of the Man is about to suffer by/under them.” (Matt 17:12b)

(Mary said:) “The Able One has made/done great things for me.” (Luke 1:49a)

All (in the synagogue continually) were witnesses to (Jesus) and (continually) wondered on/at the sayings of joybringing (grace), (sayings) going out, out of His mouth. (Luke 4:22a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven: (Jesus said to the Jews): ”Greater works than these ones He will show Him, ‘in order’/so that you wonder (א,* א). For just as the Father raises the dead (bodies) and makes them alive, in this way and/also the Son makes alive to the ones He wants.” (John 5:20b-21)

The Jews again bore stones, in order that they might stone Him. Jesus answered them: "I have shown you many fine works out of the Father. Because of what kind work of them do you stone Me?" The Jews answered Him: "We do not stone You on account of a fine work however/but on account of a blasphemy, and because You, being a man, make Yourself God." (John 10:31-33)

… Out of the mouth (of the Son of the Man) a two-mouthed sharp large sword going/went out. (Rev 1:16a)

(I know) the blasphemy, the one (א,* א) out of the ones saying themselves be Jews and they are not however/but a synagogue of the adversary. (Rev 2:9b, “Ephesos”)

The heads of the horses (are) as the heads of lions. And fire and smoke and sulphur go out, out of their mouths. (Rev 9:17b)

(The court) has and/namely (P47, א*) been given to the nations. And they will tread the holy city (for) forty-two months. (Rev 11:2b)

I will give (authority) to my two witnesses, and they will prophesy (for) one thousand two hundred (and) sixty days, being (and having been) wrapped up in sack. (Rev 11:3)

If anyone wants to act unrighteously (against) them, fire goes out, out of their mouth and eats down/up their enemies. (Rev 11:5a)

The woman fled into the desolate (district), whereat/where she there has a place having been (and being) made ready from God, in order that they will (א,* א) support her there (for) one thousand and two hundred and sixty days. (Rev 12:6)

(The woman) was supported (in the desolate district) for a time and times and half a time from the face of the serpent. (Rev 12:14b)

The serpent threw water as a river out of his mouth behind the woman. (Rev 12:15a)

I beheld a little wild animal ascending out of the sea, having ten horns and seven heads and upon his horns ten diadems and against his heads a (P47; א,* א) ‘name of blasphemy’/’blasphemous name’. (Rev 13:1 or Rev 13:1b)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

Jesus! This villain! He was not alone, for this he could not be, as John the Baptist could. He would have company, but what? Not a single talented person among all these ruffians; only Paul, and he did not want to keep company with Jesus, and Jesus fled him. Jesus = the lower classes, the friend of the untalented ones; the friend of the spiritual poor, the idiots. . . . No, Leopold, you still lies under the law, and gospel, and it sometimes seems as if it has been Christian blood in the seed of your fathers! And I have a prejudice of hell against Christianism. I am Antichrist! But Jehovah - heigh! - it is my God! Eye for eye, and ear for ear! Cut them down, all of them, the Lord knows the ones being his. . . . (David) gives God hints that he preferably would see that god stroke the enemy with that and that disease, burnt his court, defiled his wife, flayed his children living. This is strength, and sincerity in the strength. (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev X febr 1894-april 1895" p 156-157; letter about 1894-07-23 to Leopold Littmansson; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

It is true, that I feel disgusted, when I hear the banal boasting, that we have made ourselves "the masters of the natural forces". A greater stupidity has never been said. We poor creepings, who by the outside and within us working natural forces are irresistibly led to the grave, however we kick against it, we would be the masters of the natural forces! We would be it because we have made so amazing discoveries in physics and chemistry and applied these in a clumsy way to our advantage! (Viktor Rydberg "I skymningen" p 35; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Stellan Arvidson, Staffan Beijer, Oloph Bexell, Lars-Ola Borglid, Fjodor Dostojevskij, Billy Graham, Olov Hartman, Heinrich Heine, Adolf Kloo, Erich Sauer.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “forty-two months”, see also Rev 11:2b.


‘Every the thing’/everything in the adornment/’adorned world’, the desire of the flesh and the desire of the eyes and the swaggering of the subsistence, is not out of the Father however/but is out of the adornment/’adorned world’. (1 John 2:16)


Additional studies:

Dan 5:19; 7:11,20; 8:11; 1 Macc 1:24; Sir 15:5; Mark 1:40; 9:13; Luke 5:12; 2 Thess 2:3-4.


P.G.R. Villiers "Prime evil and its many faces in the Book of Revelation"; Neotestamentica 34.1 (2000): 57-86.

Daniel K.K. Wong "The Beast from the Sea in Revelation 13"; Bibliotheca Sacra 154 (Jul.-Sep. 2003): 337-348.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-18; 2012-07-08; 2015-06-19)

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13:6 And it opened its mouth into/in blasphemies towards God to blaspheme His name and His tent, the ones in the heaven dwelling in a tent.

Word for word (23 words in the Greek text): and (it)-opened the mouth its into blasphemies towards the god (to)-blaspheme the name his and the tent his, the-(ones) in the heaven dwelling-in-a-tent.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Abram) ‘caused ... to stand’/’set up’ his tent (with) Bethel ‘according to’/opposite sea and Ai ‘according to’/opposite upsticking/sunrising, and there he built a sacrificial altar to the Lord and called upon,upon the name of the Lord. (Gen 12:8b, Greek OT)

(Isaac) built a sacrificial altar (in Beersheba) and called upon the name of the Lord and fixed/pitched his tent there. (Gen 26:25a, Greek OT)

(Jacob) acquired the portion/part of the field, where he there ‘caused ... to stand’/’set up’ his tent, from the side of Hamor, father of Shechem. (Gen 33:19, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Moses:) "You shall make a holy place (a tent; cf. Ex 26:9) to Me and I will be beheld in/among you." (Ex 25:8, Greek OT)

A son of an Israelite woman came out in/among the sons of Israel, and this (continually) was a son of an Egyptian. And the one out of the Israelite woman and the man, the Israelite, combatted (with one another) in the camp. And having 'named on'/'called by name' the son of the Israelite woman cursed the name. (Lev 24:10-11a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Moses:) "Let the one ‘naming the name of the Lord’/’calling the Lord by name’ be put to death (with) death." (Lev 24:16a, Greek OT)

(Balaam said:) “As/how fine (are) your houses, Jacob, your tents, Israel, as if wooded vales shadowing (them) and as if ‘places by the side of apprehension’/Paradises upon rivers and as if tents which the Lord has fixed, as if cedar-trees ‘to the side of’/along waters.” (Num 24:5-6, Greek OT)

(David) made the place ready for the chest/ark of God, and he made a tent for it. (1 Chron 15:1b, Greek OT)

The king will make/do according to his will, and he will be provoked to wrath and heighten himself against/over every god and talk different things against the God of the gods, and he will be (on) a good way till – according to the circumstances – the wrath may be brought to a consummation. For into/’the purpose of’ him it becomes a consummation. And he may not/certainly not be ‘understood beforehand’/’provided for’ against/’in quest of’ the gods of his fathers, and he may not/certainly not be ‘understood beforehand’/’provided for’ in/with desire of a woman. (Dan 11:36-37b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to His people:) “I will (let) you dwell in tents, entirely as (in) a day of a feast.” (Hos 12:9b, Greek OT)

"Amuse yourself and be cheerful, daughter of Zion; for the reason, behold, that I come and will pitch a tent in your middle", says the Lord. (Zech 2:10, Greek OT)

(The Jews asked the Lord to remember) blasphemies into/’for the purpose of’ His name … . (2 Macc 8:4b)


The Latter Revelation:

Having opened His mouth (Jesus) (continually) taught (His disciples). (Matt 5:2a)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “If they have called the master of the house (as) Beezebul (א,*א,B) to themselves (א*), how much rather/more (then) the ones (being) of his habitation.” (Matt 10:25b)

(Peter said to Jesus:) “It is fine to us to be here. If You want, I will make three tents here, one for You and one for Moses and one for Elijah.” (Matt 17:4b)

The priest leader spoke to (Jesus): "I bind You with oath down from the living God, in order that You may speak to us, if You are the christ/'anointed one', the Son of God." Jesus says to him: “You spoke (it). ‘More than’/however I say to you: ‘From just now you shall behold the Son of the Man being seated out of at the right (parts) of the Ability and coming upon the clouds of the heaven.’” Then priest leader ‘broke through’/tore his garments in/to pieces saying: "Behold (א*), He blasphemed! What need have we yet of witnesses? Behold, you have now heard the blasphemy.” (Matt 26:63b-65)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Make friends for yourselves out of the mammon of the unrighteousness, in order that when – according to the circumstances – it may ‘leave out’/disappear, they may receive you into the agelong tents.” (Luke 16:9b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

The Saying became flesh and dwelt in a tent in/among us. (John 1:14a)

(Jesus said to the Jews:) “I do not take glory from the side of men. However, I have (and have had) knowledge of you, that you have not the welcome of God in yourselves. I have come (and come) in the name of My Father, and you do not take Me. If – according to the circumstances – another may come in (his) own name, you will take that one.” (John 5:41-43)

(I know) the blasphemy, the one (א,* א) out of the ones saying themselves be Jews and they are not however/but a synagogue of the adversary. (Rev 2:9b, “Smyrna”)

Be cheerful, * (א,* א) heavens, and you dwelling (א,* א) in them. (Rev 12:12a)

I beheld a little wild animal ascending out of the sea, having ten horns and seven heads and upon his horns ten diadems and against his heads a (P47; א,* א) ‘name of blasphemy’/’blasphemous name’. (Rev 13:1 or Rev 13:1b)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

We built to us a hut in the rose-garden, Jum-Jum and I, and we sat inside it eating food. . . . It was so nice to build a hut. I have always longed for doing this. Benka has told so much about how he is in a habit to build huts in their summer cottage out at Vaxholm. I really wish that I could write to him and tell about our hut, Jum-Jum's and mine. "Take notice of what a fine hut I have built", I would write. "Take notice of what a fine hut I have built here in the Far Land." . . . Sometimes Benka and his father and mother usually cycle out tenting. They pitch their tent in some nice wooded hillside and have sleeping-bags with them, in which they lie in the night. Benka always said, that it was the most nice thing he knew, and so I probably think. (Astrid Lindgren "Mio, min Mio" p 43-44,50; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

The teacher spoke: If a young man comes saying that he is a free-thinker, so answer him: this you lie! For you think with your belly, your throat, your secret thing, with your passions and interests, your hatred and your sympathies. But in the unripeness of your youth you do not think at all; you still drivel; all what others have stuffed you, you give over, and when you wish, you believe you are thinking. Moreover to think freely is a self-contradiction, for the thought follows laws, like the sound and the light, like the chemical compound. The thought is bound, comformable to law, so that if you say: There is no God, this is not thought, for "not is" and "God" are two concepts lacking affinity, which cannot be put together, consequently it is a preposterousness, a secretion or excreta of an illogically confused mind. If you, on the other hand, say "there is no God for me!" so there is something likely in this, but this you would be ashamed to tell, for it only means, that you are a godless dog, a perverted "äffling", an unscrupulous impostor and thief, who men flee and who should be guarded by detectives. Fortunately godlessness is an obsession put on as a punishment on all proud blockheads, and when "the free-thinker" once discovers how stupid he is, then he is set free, and this is grace! (August Strindberg "En blå bok I" p 229; the word "äffling" Strindberg uses to characterize "the black banners", the followers of the out-of-day naturalistic darwinian views in the eighties of the nineteenth century; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Yngve Brilioth, Sven Danell, Wayne A. Detzler, Bob Dylan, Runar Eldebo, Bo Frid, David Hedegård, Erik Axel Karlfeldt, Gösta Nicklasson, Bo Setterlind, Jesper Svartvik.


(In) faith (Abraham) inhabited by the side of into/in (the) earth/land of the promise as (in) an alien (land), having dwelt in tents in company with Isaac and Jacob, heirs of the same promise together with him. (Heb 11:9)

Who is the liar, if not the one denying that/: ”Jesus is not the christ/'anointed one'.”? This is the antichrist, the one denying the Father and the Son. (1 John 2:22)


Greek words:

skênê (tent) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Matt 17:4; Luke 16:9; Heb 11:9; Rev 13:6 – Tobit 13:10(11); Judith 5.22; 6:10; 7:18; 8:5,36; 10:15,17-18,20; 12:5,9; 13:1-2; 14:3,13-14,17; 15:11; 2 Macc 2:4-5; 12:12; Wisdom of Solomon 9:8; 11:2; Sir 14:25; 24:8,10,15; Mark 9:5; Luke 9:33; Acts 7:43-44; 15:16; Heb 8:2,5; 9:2-3,6,8,11,21; 13:10; Rev 15:5; 21:3.


Additional studies:

Gen 13:12; 35:21; Ps 73:8-9; Dan 11:36-39; Amos 9:11; 1 Cor 3:16.


P.G.R. Villiers "Prime evil and its many faces in the Book of Revelation"; Neotestamentica 34.1 (2000): 57-86.

Daniel K.K. Wong "The Beast from the Sea in Revelation 13"; Bibliotheca Sacra 154 (Jul.-Sep. 2003): 337-348.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-18; 2012-07-08; 2015-06-26)

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13:7 And it was given to it to make war ‘in company with’/with the holy ones and to conquer them, and it was given to it (judicial) authority against every tribe and people and tongue and nation.

Word for word (24 words in the Greek text): and (it)-was-given (to)-it (to)-make war in-company-with the holy-(ones) and (to)-conquer them, and (it)-was-given (to)-it (judicial)-authority against every tribe and people and tongue and nation.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The prophet said to the king of Babylon:) “The Lord of the heaven gave (you) the beginning/leadership and the kingdom and the stability and the honour and the glory.” (Dan 2:37b, Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) “I (continually) looked at (it) and that horn (continually) made war ‘in company with’/with the holy ones, and it was stable towards/’in comparison with’ them.” (Dan 7:21, Greek OT, Theod)

(The one with a beholding as a man said to the prophet:) “The stability of (the horn) will be made firm, and/but not in/with its (own) stability. … And it will ruin sovereigns and a popular assembly of holy ones.” (Dan 8:24, Greek OT)

It will throughout ruin stable ones and a holy people. (Dan 8:24b, Greek OT Theod)

All the nations will serve Nebuchadnezzar and all the tongues and their tribes will call against him (as) into a god. (Judith 3:8b)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “They will throw/lay their hands ‘against against’/on you and pursue (you), giving you ‘to the side of’/over into the synagogues and watches/custodies, being led away against kings and commanders ‘with respect to’/’on account of’ My name. … And you will be being hated by all because of My name.” (Luke 21:12b,17)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "These things I have talked (and talk) (with) you, in order that you may have peace in Me. In the adornment/’adorned world’ you have oppression. However, be confident. I have conquered (and conquer) the adornment/’adorned world’." (John 16:33)

A revelation of Jesus Christ which God gave Him to show to His holy ones (א*) the things which must become/’come about’ in/with quickness. (Rev 1:1a)

The one conquering and the one keeping My works until (the) end, to him I will give (judicial) authority upon/’with regard to’ the nations. (Rev 2:26, ”Thyatira”)

(The four living beings and the twenty-four elders sang:) “And (for) God in/with Your blood You bought us (א,* א) out of every tribe and tongue and people and nation.” (Rev 5:9b)

After these things I beheld, and behold, a much/many-headed crowd, which no one (continually/never) was able to number it, out of every nation and (out of) tribes and peoples and tongues. (Rev 7:9a)

When (the two witnesses) – according to the circumstances - may have ended their evidence, the little wild animal then (א*) ascending out of the abyss will make war ‘in company with’/against them and conquer them and kill them. (Rev 11:7)

(Some) out of the peoples and tribes and tongues and nations see their falls/corpses (for) three and a half days. (Rev 11:9a)

I heard a great/loud voice in the heaven, saying: ”Just now the saving and the ability and the kingdom of our God and the (judicial) authority of His christ/'anointed one' have become (established), because the accuser (P47,א,*א) of our brothers has been thrown (out), he accusing them in the very eyes of our God day and night.” (Rev 12:10)

The dragon had given (the little wild animal) his ability and his throne and a great (judicial) authority. (Rev 13:2b)

(“The whole earth”) prostrated themselves before the dragon (in honour of him), because he had given the (judicial) authority to the little wild animal. (Rev 13:4a)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

The West became godless, and therefore the black heathens were allowed to pain us. If God and the cross come again, perhaps the punishment will be heaved but perhaps also this is too late. Perhaps we will be exterminated as the Jewish people and be spread, and the black ones will rule - their time! (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev XI maj 1895-nov 1896 p 264; letter 1896-07-13 to Torsten Hedlund; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Oloph Bexell, Erich Sauer.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “make war ‘in company with’/with the holy ones and to conquer them”, see also Rev 11:7. Concerning “every tribe and people and tongue and nation”, see also Rev 5:9bb.


Additional studies:

Dan 12:7; Matt 24:9-13; Mark 13:9-13; Luke 21:12-19; Rev 14:6.


Daniel K.K. Wong "The Beast from the Sea in Revelation 13"; Bibliotheca Sacra 154 (Jul.-Sep. 2003): 337-348.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-18; 2012-07-08; 2015-06-27)

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13:8 And they will prostrate themselves before it (in honour of it) (א,*א), all the ones dwelling upon the earth, whose names (P47,א,*א) are * (א*) (and have * (א*) been) written in a (א*) book (P47,א,*א) of the life of the little Ram, being (and having been) slaughtered from a foundation of an adornment/’adorned world’.

Word for word (25 words in the Greek text): and (they)-will-'(kiss-towards)'/'prostrate-(before)' it all the-(ones) dwelling upon the earth, whose are-(and-have-been)-written the names their in (a)-book (of)-the (of)-life (of)-the (of)-the-little-ram the-(one) being-(and-having-been)-slaughtered from (a)-foundation (of)-(an)-adornment.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Naaman said to Elisha:) “Your slave will not any longer make/offer (any) burnt-offering and sacrificial animal to the other gods ‘however or’/but to the Lord alone. And the Lord will propitiate your slave 'in the thing to go my lord'/'when my lord goes' into, into a house of Rimmon to prostrate himself (in adoration towards) him, and he will ‘be brought to rest’/lean upon, upon my hand/arm, and I shall prostrate myself in a house of Rimmon ‘in the thing to prostrate oneself’/’when he prostrates himself’ (in adoration towards) him in a house of Rimmon, and the Lord will presently/then propitiate Your slave in this saying.” (2 Kings 5:17b-18, Greek OT)

(Mordocai said to the Lord:) “You have knowledge of all things. You know, Lord, that I have not made/done this in insolence, nor in overweening (pride), nor in false friendship, to not prostrate (in adoration towards) the overweening Haman … I made/did this, in order that I might not put glory of a man up over (the) glory of God, and I will not prostrate (in adoration towards) ‘no one’/anyone more than you, my Lord. (Esther 4:17d-ea/C5-7a, Greek OT)

(David said to God:) “Let (my adversaries) be wiped out, out of a book of living ones and let them not be written in company with righteous ones.” (Ps 69:28 or 69:29, Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) “The earth/land (of Israel) has been fulfilled with abominations of the works of their hands, and they have prostrated themselves before (the things) which their fingers have done (in honour of them).” (Is 2:8a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to His people Israel:) “Do not fear, because I have redeemed you. I have called you (by) your name, you are Mine.” (Is 43:1b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to the prophet: “All the cities of Judas) have prostrated themselves before the works of their hands (in honour of them).” (Jer 1:16b, Greek OT)

(Daniel said: “God) … substituting/removes kings and ‘setting down’/appoints (kings).” (Dan 2:21a, Greek OT)

(The king of Babylon) … prostrated himself before Daniel (in honour of him). (Dan 2:46a, Greek OT)

That (hour) will be a day of oppression, such as not has become from the (time when) it became till that day. And in that day 'every the'/’all the’ people, who – according to the circumstances – may be found having been (and being) written in, in the scroll, will be heightened. (Dan 12:1b, Greek OT)

A scroll of remembrance has been written in the very eyes of (the Lord) (with) the ones fearing the Lord and standing in awe of His name. (Mal 3:16b, Greek OT)

All the nations will serve Nebuchadnezzar and all the tongues and their tribes will call against him (as) into a god. (Judith 3:8b)

(When) a new habitation (will be built) a leader of carpenters (must) reflect the whole foundation. (2 Macc 2:29a)

(Solomon said to the Lord:) “Therefore You convict the ones falling by the side of ‘according to’/’because of’ few/’a few’, and in the ones missing (Your mark) you bring to mind reminding, in order that, having been changed/separated from the bad thing, they may believe against You, Lord.” (Wisdom of Solomon 12:2)

(Solomon said:) “Being drawn against (the image) the multitude, because of the thankworthy of the occupation/workmanship, now counted/saw an object of reverence/adoration, (where) it few/’a short time’ before (had seen) the man having been honoured.” (Wisdom of Solomon 14:20)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “Humble your head for great men.” (Sir 4:7b)

In this way the Lord spoke (to Israel): “Lean/incline your shoulder and work for the king of Babylon, and you will sit down against the earth, which I gave your fathers.” (Baruch 2:21)

(The prophet said to the Jews going into Babylon:) "Having beheld a crowd in front of and ‘from behind’/behind (the idols) prostrating itself before them (in adoration of them), but/then speak to (your) mind: 'We must prostrate ourselves before You (in honour of You), Master.'" (Epistle of Jeremiah v 5)

(In Babylon) it/there (continually) was a great dragon, and the Babylonians (continually) revered it (in adoration). (Bel and the Dragon v 23, Theod)


The Latter Revelation:

(Herod said to the soothsayers:) “As soon as you – according to the circumstances – may have found (the king) bring away a message to me, in that way (that) having come and/also I may prostrate before Him (in honour of Him).” (Matt 2:8b)

Jesus says to (the slanderer): "Withdraw, adversary, for it has been (and is) written: 'You shall prostrate yourself (towards) the Lord your God (in adoration of Him), and Him alone you shall serve.'" (Matt 4:10)

… Having come to (א*) (Jesus) a leader prostrated himself before Him (in honour of Him). (Matt 9:18a)

(Jesus said to the Pharisees:) “Give so back the things of a caesar to a caesar and the things of God to God.” (Matt 22:21b)

(The Son of the Man will say:) "Come here, the ones having been (and being) blessed of My Father, inherit the kingdom having been (and being) made ready for you from a foundation of an adornment/’adorned world’." (Matt 25:34b)

Having beheld (Jesus the eleven) prostrated themselves before (Him in honour or adoration of Him), but/and (some) doubted (that He was the Son of God). (Matt 28:17)

(Jesus said to the seventy:) “Rejoice because your names are (and have been) written in, in the heavens.” (Luke 10:20b)

(Paul defended himself:) “I have not anything missed (the mark of God) into/’for the purpose of’ the law of the Jews and not into/’for the purpose of’ the sanctuary and not into/’for the purpose of’ the Caesar.” (Acts 25:8b)

(Paul said to the first ones of the Jews:) “Having ‘judged ... up’/examined me (the Romans) wished to ‘loosen from’/release (me) ... but (on the) gainsaying of the Jews I was urged to ‘call on’/’appeal to’ (the) Caesar; not as having anything to accuse (on account of) my nation.” (Acts 28:18a,19)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

Jesus says to (the woman): “Believe Me, woman, that an hour comes, when you ‘and not’/neither in/on this mountain ‘and not’/nor in (a disgraced) Jerosolyma/Jerusalem will prostrate yourselves (before) the Father (in honour of Him). You prostrate yourselves (in adoration) (towards) what you do not know. We prostrate ourselves (in adoration) (towards) what we know, because the saving is out/’on the basis’ of the Jews.” (John 4:21-22)

(The shepherd) raises his voice (towards) his own sheep ‘according to name’/’after their names’, and he leads them out. (John 10:3b)

(Jesus said to the Jews:) “And I give them agelong life, and they may not/certainly not perish into the (coming) age, and anyone may not/certainly (א,*א) not rape them out of My hand. What the Father has given (and gives) Me is greater than all (א*). And no one is able to rape out of the hand of the Father.” (John 10:28-29)

(Jesus said:) "Father, what You have given (and give) Me, I want (give) in order that whereat/where I am, and/also those may be in company with Me, in order that they may look at My glory, which You have given (and give) Me, because You welcomed Me before (the) foundation of an adornment/’adorned world’." (John 17:24)

Jesus answered (Pilate): “My kingdom is not out of this adornment/’adorned world’. If My kingdom (continually) was out of this adornment/’adorned world’, My rowers/servants (continually) had – according to the circumstances – fought, in order that I might not had been given ‘to the side of’/’over to’ the Jews. But now My kingdom is not from here.” (John 18:36)

You get/have power over your (א*) name and did not deny My faith. … (Rev 2:13b, “Pergamos”)

I will not/certainly not wipe out his name out of the book of the life, and I will confess his name in front of (א,*א) My Father and in the very eyes of His messengers. (Rev 3:5b)

(I will * (keep) (א,*א) you) out of the hour of the test, the (hour) being about to come upon the whole (inhabited) world to try the ones dwelling upon the earth. (Rev 3:10b, ”Philadelphia”)

I beheld ‘in a middle of’/’between (on one hand)’ the throne and the four living beings and ‘in a middle of’/’(on the other hand)’ the elders a little Ram standing as having been (and being) slaughtered. (Rev 5:6a)

Till when do You not judge and procure justice for our blood out of the ones dwelling upon the earth? (Rev 6:10b)

(An eagle) saying (with) a great/loud voice: “Woe, woe, woe, to the ones inhabiting upon the earth, out/’in consequence’ of the rest of voices of the trumpet of the three messengers being about to sound the trumpet.” (Rev 8:13b)

The ones dwelling upon the earth rejoice on/’with regard to’ (the two witnesses) and are cheerful. And they send (א*) gifts to one another, because these prophets, the two, tormented the ones dwelling upon the earth. (Rev 11:10)

The whole earth wondered (following) behind the little wild animal. And they prostrated themselves before the dragon (in honour of him), because he had given the (judicial) authority to the little wild animal. (Rev 13:3b-4a)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 - about 1500

During the first Jewish war 66-70 A.D. Christians fled from Jerusalem to Pella, 100 km northeast of the city. The Jews despised the Christians still more, when they did not want to take active part in the war against the Romans. (Edwin Yamauchi "De första kristnas värld" p 32; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

”Pisteuein” (“believe”) with the dative; this is not so firm a religious commitment as ”pisteuein eis”. (Raymond E. Brown "The Gospel according to John" in his comment to John 4:50, p 191)

“Pisteuein eis” (“believe into”) may be defined in terms of an active commitment to a person, and in particular, to Jesus. It involves much more than trust in Jesus or confidence in him; it is an acceptance of Jesus and of what he claims to be and a dedication of one's life to him. The commitment is not emotional but involves a willingness to respond to God's demands as they are presented in and by Jesus (1 John 3:23). … Although there are various stages in the development of faith in general, John uses “pisteuein eis” for true, salvific faith. … “Pisteuein” with the dative is used for believing both in someone (Moses, Jesus, the Father) and in something (the word, Scripture). … Sometimes “pisteuein” with the dative is used by the evangelist to describe a faith which in his judgment is not satisfactory. (Raymond E. Brown "The Gospel according to John" p 513)

Now the coronation is no unimportant act, for the king also is the head of the Swedish church; and Summers Episcopus stands over the archbishop, and not by the side of, as we wrongly learnt in school and as archbishop Sundberg thought. . . . (Professor Boström's) idealistic apprehension of the kingdom by the grace of God, which has been preinterpreted as if the monarch would stand over all human laws only belonging to God's highest court, was implanted in my contemporary ones, and brought up a thrallminded, servile generation of subordinate planets drawing a piece of might from above, and through it forgot that they were servants. These kept up the cult, and extended the Pharaohworship to deceased kings using the Swedish history and the Swedish Academy for propaganda. To write about the human weaknesses of a deceased king was punished as lese-majesty or blasphemy, of which I have known when I wrote "Svenska folket och Svenska öden" (Swedish Destinies and Adventures). (August Strindberg "Folkstaten" p 100-101,116; Social-Demokraten 1910-08-12; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

The disciple spoke: I had a friend who just died at 60 years age, and I regarded him of its kind have realized the type of a good citizen and man. . . . This man lived all his life after the learnings he had received in school and church. He discharged his duties, revered father and mother, obeyed laws and the authorities. . . . But when they attacked his childlike faith, then he stood as one man for his. . . . He never sought for distinctions and nor got any. Well! What call the larvae of the midges of sorrows such an unimpeachable, good, true man? Well, they call him "a sevile blackguard" . . . he who was faithful in the little thing. (August Strindberg "En blå bok I" s 120; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

When the Egyptian lifts the staff to strike, then console yourself with Christ's word to Pilate: You had no power over me, if it would not given you from above. And when you eat the bread of the heathen, so think like the Maccabees: Your bread I eat, but on your altar I do not sacrifice! Everything is all right, only we do not let us be deceived to think, that the ones having the might, that they are friends of God having favour. Our lords, who imagine that they attend to the development and alone have the option of right, future and light, they are only the children of this world, and they are very welcome to it! It's a pleasure! (August Strindberg "En blå bok I" p 168; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Take care not to pull the State Church! Look at America and England what came in stead! A state church becoming rotten is a blessing and when it falls the whole cake falls. . . . Protestantism has prevented the total putrefaction! The pietism prevents! (Fredrik) Fehr . . . wishes a Nonconformist Act because I have let baptize my children and made the priest drunk. . . . When we now get a Nonconformist Act, so it will be regarded unliberal to abuse dissidents! Think what the pietists then will relax to their heart content! No! A good rotten state church we must have! (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev VII febr 1888-dec 1889" p 140; letter 1888-10-13 to Knut Wicksell; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

As the thirst for political freedom grew in America, so did the spirit of religious toleration. From early times the British colonies were the homes of many sects which learned to live together harmoniously. ... In 1649 an assembly (in Maryland) which was partly Catholic, partly Protestant passed a Toleration Act which is one of the great landmarks of religious freedom. It dealt harshly with non-Christians and with Unitarians, but it placed Protestants and Catholics on precisely the same plane. ... The fiercest fight was waged in Virginia. Here the establishment was strongly entrenched, for most of the aristocratic families were Anglicans. Even such a political firebrand as Patrick Henry believed that state support of religion was indespensable to piety and good morals. ... In 1786 ... Jefferson's famous bill for religious freedom was passed – a bill declaring that the government must not interfere in Church affairs or matters of conscience or impose any disabilities for religious opinion. This epochal measure became the cornerstone of religious freedom not only in Virginia, but also in many new states of the West. (Allan Nevins – Henry Steele Commager "A Pocket History of the United States" p 20,25-26,104-105)


about 1500 and time before

The church is the kingdom of God on earth, its clerical hierarchy an image of the heavenly, its highest governor, the pope, God's governor. The purpose of the church to be spread out over the whole earth, so that all countries and all peoples fall within its magical circle, would not be reached, if she did not own to command over the kings of Christianity and their armies. It is moreover clear, that the spiritual power is superior to the worldly: the former protects the soul, the latter only the body. They relate to each other as the spirit and the matter. It is also the pope, who grants the highest worldly position: the one of the Roman caesars. He is the feudal lord of the caesar, as the caesar is or ought to be the one of the kings, the princes and the free towns. If it was not so - if the great and little lords were independent of the guardians of religion - then woe the large mass of subjects! . . . The oppression would become boundless, if the church - who is the good mother of all - did not remind those in power about their love duty to the humble ones; yes, the social order would be crumbled to dust, if a power, higher than the one based on the sword, did not force the stronger one to keep the obligations, which he with the holy trinity as a witness has undertaken to the weaker one. (Viktor Rydberg "Medeltidens magi" p 15-16; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

We ... honor the Emperor, and the purple and the diadem, because they are symbols of his office. (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers XIV:402)

The old pilosopher Aedesios one day wrote to Chrysanteus: " . . . Julianus took my hand saying: 'I hate the Christians. . . . Now I am free. . . . All (the Christians) ban the freedom of reason, all they teach, that the might of the ruler and the slavery of the people are of God. Freedom is vanished out of reality, but these men also deny her in thought.'" (Viktor Rydberg "Den siste atenaren I" p 69-70; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

(The pro-consul) stretched out his hand with the imperial letter board speaking to the soldiers! "Romans! Our lord and caesar Constantius has gone to his fathers. His only surviving kinsman, the high Julianus, rich of deeds, who our struggle fellows, the Gallic legions have proclaimed caesar, is the only rightful ruler of our empire, unanimously sworn allegiance to by the Roman Senate, the people and the legions. . . . Soldiers, agree in the general rejoicing of the world! Swear allegiance to Julianus Augustus! Dominus Julianus Augustus!" . . . The crowds, marching down from Acropolis, agreed rejoicing. Then the course came to the Christians - they only needed to calm down a little . . . in order that, also they, with all their strength, (would) join the complimentary cry. All power is, to be sure, of God, and the authority does not bear the sword for nothing. (Viktor Rydberg "Den siste atenaren I" p 261-262; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

(Justin Martyr wrote to the Emperor Titus and some of his men:) “Everywhere we, more readily than all men, endeavour to pay to those appointed by you the taxes both ordinary and extraordinary, as we have been taught by Him. ... To God alone we render worship, but in other things we gladly serve you, acknowledging you as kings and rulers of men.” (Justin Martyr, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol I, p 168)

Earthly rule has been appointed by God for the benefit of nations, and not by the devil, who is never at rest at all, nay, who does not love to see even nations conducting themselves after a quiet manner, so that under the fear of human rule, men may not eat each other like fishes; but that, by means of the establishment of laws, they may keep down an excess of wickedness among the nations. (Irenaeus, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol I, p 552)

The State is Divinely sanctioned, and religion is Divinely sanctioned – and both are equally the ordinance of God. On this principle did Apostolic authority regulate the relations between Church and State, even when the latter was heathen. (Alfred Edersheim "The Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah Part II" p 386)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Alf Ahlberg, Märta Ahlbom, Eskil Albertsson, Eric S. Alexandersson, Jörgen Algesund, Martin Allwood, Arvid Almquist, Carl Jonas Love Almqvist, Norman Anderson, Aron Andersson, Ingvar Andersson, Stig Andersson, Åke Andrén, Mats Anglert, Johann Arndt, Gottfried Arnold, James Atkinson, Augustinus, Robert Banks, Eskil Bergen, Ingmar Bergman, Ingemar Berndtson, Bertil Berthelson, Oloph Bexell, C. Bezold, Rudolf Björkman, Manfred Björkquist, Harry Blomberg, Carl Gustaf Boëthius, Lars-Ola Borglid, Ernle Bradford, Yngave Bredin, Nils-Arvid Bringéus, Ingmar Brohed, S. Bruchfeld, Colin Buchanan, George W. Bush, Carl-Gustav Carlsson, Sten Carlsson, Urban Claesson, Stig Dagerman, Rune W Dahlén, Sven Danell, Henry Daniel-Rops, Gavrila Derzjavin, Wayne A. Detzler, Fjodor Dostojevskij, Bertil Edvardsson, Linné Eriksson, Karl Frandell, A.P. Franklin, Bert Franzén, Bo Frid, Gunnar Fur, Robert Fur, Bo Giertz, David Gitari, Hugo Grefberg, Carl Grimberg, Mark Grubbs, Gustaf V, Axel Gustafsson, Jürgen Habermas, Donald A. Hagner, Sven Axel Hallbäck, Peter Halldorf, Gunnar Hallingberg, Krister Hanell, Dick Harrison, David Hedegård, Alf Henrikson, Nils Herlitz, Elisabet Hermodsson, C.G. Hjelm, Curt Härenstam, Henrik Ibsen, Sven Ingebrand, Göran Inger, Anders Jarlert, Kurt Johannesson, Herbert Johansson, Sam A Johansson, Sven Johansson, Per Johnsson, Evy Juneswed, Ragnar Järhult, M. Karlgren, Augustinus Keijer, Karl Kilsmo, Bengt Kindbom, Christofer Klasson, Adolf Kloo, Oscar Krook, Peter Kuzmic, Inge Kvarnström, Thorvald Källstad, Lars Levi Laestadius, Lars-Olof Larsson, Olle Larsson, Harry Lenhammar, P.A. Levine, Sven Lidman, Lars Lindberg, Robert D. Linder, Sigurd Lindgren, Gunnar Ljusterdal, Harald Lundberg, Martin Luther, Daniel Luyindi, Åke Lönander, Olaus Magnus, Emil Malm, Carl Henrik Martling, Karl Marx, Paul R. Melin, Vilhelm Moberg, Ingun Montgomery, Thomas More, Carl-Olov Möllerström, Gordon Möne, B.M. Ncongwane, Sinikka Neuhaus, Petrus M. Nicander, Gösta Nicklasson, Fredrik Nielsen, Karl Nilenius, Bertil Nilsson, P.M. Nilsson, J. Nyrén, Rickard Nyström, T.H. Odencrants, Elisabet Ohlsson, Ragnar Ohlsson, Sigurd Ohlsson, Bernt Olsson, Oscar II, Simon Ottosson, Martin P:n Nilsson, Lewi Pethrus, Olaus Petri, J. von Pflugk-Harttung, M. Philippson, Niklas Piensoho, Richard Pierard, Anders Piltz, Platon, Hilding Pleijel, Harald Rasmussen, Einar Rimmerfors, Anna Maria Roos, Jerker Rosén, Alf Ross, Einar Rudberg, Nils Runeby, Klaas Runia, Värner Rydén, Björn Ryman, Bernhard Salqvist, Vinay Samuel, Gösta Sandberg, Gunnar E. Sandgren, M. Basilea Schlink, Victoria Selin, Henryk Sienkiewicz, Olia Simeonsson, Enar Skillius, Milton Steinberg, Nils Stjernquist, John Stott, Svend Erik Stybe, Chris Sugden, Bengt Sundkler, Jesper Svartvik, Alvar Svenson, Per Svensson, Bengt Söderberg, Mikael Tellbe, Helmut Thielicke, Thomas a Kempis, Einar Thomassen, Leo Tolstoj, Alexander tomsky, Zakarias Topelius, T. Truvé, Bo V:son Lundqvist, Nils Erik Villstrand, P. Waldenström, Åke Walfridsson, Kallistos Ware, Martin Westling, Gunnar Wetterberg, N.P. Wetterlund, Barrington Raymond White, Erik Wistrand, Yngve Ydreborg, Göran Åberg, Lars Österlin.


My own comments and speculations:

The above reasoning of Brown concerning the word “pisteuein” (believe) can also be used about the word “proskyneô” (prostrate oneself).

John says, that all having their names written in the book of life will prostrate themselves before the little wild animal in honour of it. Sinaiticus, prima manus, uses the dative form, which rather indicates honour than adoration (cf. how Herod in Matt 2:8 thinks to prostrate before the king Jesus). Cf. also Barrett p 460 in his comment to John 14:12: “We now have “eis” with the accusative, indicating the true believer who trusts in Christ.” Cf. also the accusatives in Luke 12:21: “rich into/’for the purpose of’ God” and in John 1:1: “the Saying (continually) was towards God”. See also Esther 4:17d-ea/C5-7a.

Concerning “all the ones dwelling upon the earth”, see Rev 3:10b and Rev 13:3b. Concerning “prostrate themselves before it (in honour of it) (א,* א)”, see Rev 13:4. Concerning “a book of the life”, see also Rev 3:5b and 17:8b. Concerning “the little Ram, being (and having been) slaughtered”, see Rev 5:6a.


(Paul said to the believers in Rome:) “Let every soul arrange itself under (judicial) authorities having/being over itself, for it/there is not a (judicial) authority if not by God, but the ones being/existing they are (and have been) arranged by God.” (Rom 13:1)

(Peter said to the believers:) "Arrange yourselves under every/all * (א*) creation 'because of'/'with a view to' the Lord. ... Honour the king." (1 Pet 2:13a,17b)

We know that 'every the'/everyone having been (and being) begotten out of God does not miss (His mark), however/but that the one having been begotten out of God keeps/’takes care of’ himself (א,* א), and the evil one does not touch him. (1 John 5:18)


Additional studies:

Esther 8:12l-m/E11-12; Ezek 13:9; Matt 25:32; Mark 12:17; Luke 20:25; Rom 13:1-7; 1 Thess 3:13; 1 Tim 2:1-3; Tit 3:1; Heb 12:23; 1 Pet 1:20; 2:13-15; Rev 3:10; 13:12,14; 17:8; 20:12; 21:27.


P.J.J. Botha "God, emperor worship and society: Contemporary experiences and the Book of Revelation"; Neotestamentica 22.1 (1988): 87-102.

Donald Guthrie "The Lamb in the Structure of the Book of Revelation"; Vox Evangelica 12 (1981): 64-71.

Norman Hillyer "'The Lamb' in the Apocalypse"; The Evangelical Quarterly 39.4 (Oct.-Dec. 1967): 228-236.

Daniel K.K. Wong "The Beast from the Sea in Revelation 13"; Bibliotheca Sacra 154 (Jul.-Sep. 2003): 337-348.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-18; 2012-07-08; 2015-07-02)

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13:9 If anyone has an ear, let him hear.

Word for word (5 words in the Greek text): If anyone has (an)-ear let-(him)-hear.


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

The one having an ear, let him hear what the Spirit says to the (assemblies) of called out. (Rev 2:7a)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: Gunlög Järhult, Josef Rydén, Elias Sehlstedt.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning this verse, see Rev 2:7a.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-18; 2012-07-08; 2015-07-03)

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13:10a If anyone (is) into/’purposed for’ captivity, * (P47,א,*א) he withdraws. If anyone kills (א,*א) in/with a dagger, he must (א,*א) be killed in/with a dagger.

Word for word (15 words in the Greek text): if anyone into captivity, (he)-withdraws. if anyone in (a)-dagger kills, '(it-is-necessary-for)'/must him/he in (a)-dagger be-killed.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(God said to Noah:) “The one pouring out blood of a man, in stead his blood will be poured out, because (God) made the man in/’by means of’ an image of God.” (Gen 9:6, Greek OT)

(The Canaanite, the king of Arad) made war towards/with Israel and brought (some) out of them away to captivity as a booty. (Num 21:1b, Greek OT)

(The king decided) to perish (the Jews with) the daggers of (their) enemies. ... (Esther 3:13fb/B6b, Greek OT)

(The boy of the Lord said: "A spirit of the Lord has dispatched – and dispatches – me away) to proclaim a ‘letting be’/’leaving alone’ to captives." (Is 61:1a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to the prophet:) “I will bring (Judas/Jerusalem) to a consummation in/with dagger and in/with famine and in/with death/pestilence.” (Jer 14:12b, Greek OT)

The Lord spoke towards (the prophet): “If – according to the circumstances – Moses and Samuel may stand before My face, My soul is not towards (the people of Judah). … And it will be, if – according to the circumstances – they may speak towards you: ‘Where shall we come out?’, then you shall speak to them: ‘This is what the Lord says: ‘… As many as (are) into/’purposed for’ dagger, into/to dagger … As many as (are) into/’purposed for’ captivity, into/to captivity.’” (Jer 15:1-2, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to the prophet: “The king of Babylon) will come into and hit earth/land of Egypt … which (being) into/’purposed for’ large sword, into/to large sword.” (Jer 43:11, Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) “The ones ‘understanding in’/thinking of/among the nations (Theod: the people) will perceive into/’with the purpose of’ many. And they will cut themselves towards large sword and be made old in/with it and in captivity.” (Dan 11:33a, Greek OT)

(The king of Assyria said:) “I shall lead the captivity (of the Jews and other nations) against the borders of ‘the every’/’the whole’ earth. (Judith 2:9)

(Solomon said:) “If – according to the circumstances – (the souls of the righteous) in a sight of men may be chastised, their hope (is) filled with undeadliness/immortality.” (Wisdom of Solomon 3:4)

(Solomon said:) “A righteous, if – according to the circumstances – he may ‘be in advance of come/coming to an end’/’die to early’, he will be in rest, for a valuable old age (has) not the one (having lived) a very long time, nor it is (and has been) measured (in) a number of years.” (Wisdom of Solomon 4:7-8)

(Solomon said:) “And/also righteous ones were touched by a trial of death.” (Wisdom of Solomon 18:20a)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “You may not adopt as a law ‘in order that’/that I came to throw/bring a peace against the earth. I did not come to throw/bring a peace however/but a dagger.” (Matt 10:34)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "The kingdom of the heavens is like a heap/treasure having been (and being) hidden in the field, which having found a man hid. And from/’owing to’ his joy he withdraws and sells all things as many as he has and buys that field.” (Matt 13:44)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “My cup you will indeed drink.” (Matt 20:23a)

(Jesus said to the twelve:) “Indeed,the Son of the Man withdraws entirely as it has been (and is) written on account of Him.” (Matt 26:24a)

Jesus says to (the one having hit the slave): “Turn/put your dagger away/back into its place, for all the ones having taken a dagger will perish in/with a dagger. Do you think that I am not able call to the side of My Father, and He here (א*) will just now cause to stand by the side of Me more than twelve legions of messengers?” (Matt 26:52-53)

... Jesus spoke to the crowds: “As against a robber you have come out ‘in company with’/with daggers and (pieces of) wood to together take Me.” (Matt 26:55a)

(Jesus) found a (א,*א) place where it (continually/-) was (and had been) written: “A spirit of the Lord ... has dispatched (and dispatches) Me away to proclaim a ‘letting be’/’leaving alone’ for captives." (Luke 4:17b-18a)

(Jesus said to His disciples: “This people) will fall (in) a mouth of a dagger and will be captured into all the nations. (Luke 21:24a)

‘According to’/during that seasonable time the king Herod threw/laid the hands against some of the ones from the (assembly of) called out to treat (them) badly. But/and he ‘took up for himself’/’got rid of’ Jacob/James, the brother of John, (with) a dagger ... and having seized (Peter) he put (him) into watch/custody. (Acts 12:1-2,4a)

The priest leader Ananias 'arranged on'/ordered the ones standing by the side of (Paul) to slap his mouth. Then Paul spoke towards him: "God is about to slap you, wall of a house, being (and having been) whitewashed." (Acts 23:2-3a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Jesus said to Nicodemus:) "The Spirit blows whereat/where it wants, and you hear its voice. However, you do not know from where it comes, and where it withdraws. In this way is 'every the'/everyone having been (and being) begotten out of the water and (א,*א) the Spirit." (John 3:8)

Jesus spoke (to the Jews): “Still a small/little time I am in company with you. And I withdraw towards the One having sent Me. You will seek Me, and you will not find * (P66,א,*א), and whereat/where I am, you are not able to come.” (John 7:33-34)

Simon Peter says to (Jesus): "Lord, where do You withdraw?" Jesus answered: "Whereat/where I withdraw, you are not able to follow Me now, but you will follow afterwards." (John 13:36)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "An hour comes, ‘in order that’/when 'every the'/everyone having killed you may think, (that) he carries a divine service to God." (John 16:2b)

Jesus (said to Judas and the other men): "If you so seek Me, let these be to withdraw,” in order that the saying, which He had spoke, might be completed: “The ones whom You have given (and give) Me, out of them I have not perished ‘no one’/anyone." (John 18:8b-9)

Pilate * (א*,A) says to (Jesus): “You do not talk (with) me? Do You not know, that I have (judicial) authority to ‘loosen from’/release You, and I have (judicial) authority to crucify You?” Jesus answered him: “You have (א,*א,A) not ‘no one’/any (judicial) authority ‘down from’/against Me, if it (continually) was/’has ... been’ (and is) not given you from above. Because of this the one having given Me ‘to the side of’/over to you has a greater miss (of the mark of God).” (John 19:10-11)

. . . Behold, the slanderer is about to throw (some) out of you into watch/custody, in order that you may be tried, and you will have oppression (for) ten days. . . . (Rev 2:10)

I beheld, and behold (א,* א), another fire-coloured horse came out. And to the One being seated against it, it was given to Him to take the peace out of the earth, and in order that they might (א,* א) slaughter one another. And a great dagger was given to Him. (Rev 6:4)

(One of the elders) spoke to me: “These are the ones coming out of the great oppression, and they have cleansed their dresses and whitened them in the blood of the little Ram.” (Rev 7:14b)

The nations was/were (P47, א*) wrathful. (Rev 11:18a)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 - about 1500

See, I send you as sheep in a middle of wolves. Observe - not as usually - one or more wolves right in a middle of a flock of sheep, but one or more sheep right in a middle of a flock of wolves. Oh, then of course it is over with the poor messengers! No, my beloved ones. For it is written an almighty word: See, I send you. This I is mighty to shut also the jaws of the most angry wolf. If he does not always do it, it is only because he wants to call for one of those who are his to something better, to the rest and the joy with him; as the apostle says: I desire to break up and be with Christ, which would be much better. Forgets or abandons one of those who are his, he never does. No, never. (Karl Palmberg "Ur livskällan. Andra årgången." p 142-143; Karl Palmberg /1842-1920/ was from 1883 a Lutheran clergyman in Månsarp in the diocese of Växjö and president in Jönköpings Missionsförening (Missionary Society) 1886-1911; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Christianity in fact is more radical than the radicalism. . . . The Christian submits with religious resignation to the discomfort of the prison and does not put aside unnecessary time to silly proposals to reform prison government and governors. In order to obtain lenience and pardon, to be spared from dark cell and whipping, he seeks to behave well, without therefore thinking that the prison can become a place of amusement. All what Rousseau, Max Nordau and Tolstoi have preached against the lacks of society is quite right, but the conclusions are false. Socialism, namely the heathen one . . . forced the satisfied ones to be dissatisfied, and made the men wild and in despair and really made worse where they would make better. But in their heathen radicalism they did not reach up to Christianity. (August Strindberg "En blå bok II" p 622-623; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

The process "Die Beichte E(ines) Th(oren)" took rather a long time for two years. . . . I regarded the whole process unlawful, I "belied forum" as a Swedish subject. . . . Well, the book was condemned, but I was acquitted "as not responsible for his actions". After that invoices for costs were sent to me, which I did not approve. . . . Now I ask: was I judged to pay the court costs? And can these be taken out or commuted into prison? (A little prison would only be interesting and this I do not fear!) (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev XIV 1901-mars 1904" p 220-221; letter 1902-10-22 to Emil Schering; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

You ask how I so can have confidence in You; I answer: You have been in prison! - And I think that only the best people go to prison for the sake of their faith! (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev II 1877-1882" p 322-323; letter 1881-12-01 to the editor for the newspaper Östgöten Isidor Kjellberg who in April 1881 had been sentenced to two months' prison for breach of the press law; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

There the big bear comes straight towards (Gösta Berling), blind in one eye by a cut with the knife of a cavalier, lame in one leg by a ball from the gun of a cavalier, cross and shabby, alone, since they have killed his wife and taken away his child. And Gösta sees him such as he is, a poor, pursued animal, from whom he does not want to take life, the last he has left, since the men have taken from him everything else. "May he kill me", Gösta thinks, "but I do not shoot." (Selma Lagerlöf "Gösta Berlings saga" p 104; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

What well they do, who hold their hands from the sword, the ones understanding to wait upon in quiet, to place their hearts in peace letting God govern. (Selma Lagerlöf "Gösta Berlings saga" p 180; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


about 1500 and time before

Like a wild beast, (king Herod) attacked all indiscriminately and without consideration. (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers XI:169 commenting Acts 12:1-2)

We reckon that no evil can be done us, unless we be convicted as evil-doers, or be proved to be wicked men; and you can kill, but not hurt us. (Justin Martyr, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol I, p 163)

Armed court ushers appeared in Peter's and Paul's habitations, seized the apostles and dragged them about with violent blows to the mamertine prison. In Rome there were many rumours among the common people about the horrors of this prison, and those who knew it a little did not deny this talking. The mamertine prison or Tullianum, as it also was called, was and is still today (1874) at the foot of the Capitolian rock near the Roman market. The Way of Sighs, which led there, went with stairs a bit uphill the precipice to an iron-door, which once shut behind a prisoner, seldom was opened fo him, before he was carried to the execution place, provided he already in the custody had not been put to death by strangling or hunger. Through this door the apostles were carried into a room. . . . In the middle of the floor there was a square hole, through which the prisoners were carried down into a dark and damp prison vault, the one in fact so called mamertine custody, built as one thinks, during the Roman Kingdom towards 700 years before Christ. Here again in the floor a similar hole met them, which yawned over the atrocious Tullianum, a cramped and low vault, "horrible", the historiographer Sallust says, "through dirt, darkness and stench". . . . Nine months the apostles had to dwell in this same hole, while they awaited the death sentence. (Viktor Rydberg "Herre, vart går du?" p 64-65; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Märta Ahlbom, Eric S. Alexandersson, Sölve Anderzén, Johann Arndt, Karl-Erik Bergh, Olof Bingmark, Carl Gustaf Boëthius, Nils Bolander, Ingmar Brohed, Hugo Cedergren, Miguel de Cervantes, Sven Danell, T.S. Eliot, Lars Magnar Enoksen, Gustaf Eriksson, Hilding Fagerberg, Bo Giertz, Carl Grimberg, Nils Hasse, David Hedegård, Hjalmar Holmquist, L.E. Högberg, Irenaeus, Anders Jarlert, Karl Kilsmo, Lars Levi Laestadius, C.S. Lewis, Martin Luther, Filip Malmvall, Efraim Palmqvist, Nelly Sachs, Gösta Sandberg, Torgny Segerstedt, Alexander Solsjenitsyn, Axel Strindberg, Gunnar Wetterberg, Paul Wilstadius, Anders Winbom, Thecla Wrangel, Elin Wägner, Eva Österberg.


Greek words:

aichmalôsia (captivity) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Judith 2:9; Rev 13:10 – Esther 1:1c(A3); Tobit 1:3; 3:4,15; 14:5,15; Judith 4:3; 8:22; 9:4; 1 Macc 9:70,72; 14:7; 2 Macc 8:10,36; Baruch 4:10,14,24; Eph 4:8.


Additional studies:

Prov 26:27; Is 33:1; Jer 18:20-22; Dan 11:35; Tobit 1:10; 14:4; 1 Macc 10:33; 15:40; Rev 6:8.


Michelle V. Lee "A Call to Martyrdom: Function as Method and Message in Revelation"; (tidskriften) Novum Testamentum 40.2 (1998): 164-194.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-18; 2012-07-09; 2015-07-03)

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13:10b Here is the endurance and the faith of the holy ones.

Word for word (9 words in the Greek text): Here is the endurance and the faith (of)-the (of)-holy-(ones).


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "Do not fear from the ones slaying the body but being not able to kill the soul; but rather fear the One being able to perish and/both soul and body in Gehenna." (Matt 10:28)

(Jesus said:) “O generation, faithless and having been (and being) turned aside, till when shall I be in company with you, till when shall I hold up/’out with’ you? Carry (the son) to Me here.” (Matt 17:17)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "If (א,* א) you have a faith of God … (The one) may not doubt in his heart however/but may believe, that what he talks becomes/’comes about’, it will be/’come about’ for him.” (Mark 11:22b,23b)

(Jesus said to His disciples: “The sowing) in the fine earth these are whoever having heard the saying, ‘keep it down’/’keep it’ in a fine and good heart, and carry fruit in endurance.” (Luke 8:15)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Acquire/gain your souls in your endurance.” (Luke 21:19)

... Peter (continually) was kept in the watch/custody. But a prayer zealously (continually) was becoming/made by the (assembly of) called out towards God on account of him. ... Peter ... spoke: "Now I truly know, that the Lord has dispatched out His messenger and taken me out for Himself, out of (the) hand of Herod." ... (And Peter) described how the Lord had led him out of the watch/custody. (Acts 12:5,11a,17a)

Calling (the disciples) to the side to stay in the faith (Paul and Barnabas said to them:) “Through many oppressions we must come into, into the kingdom of God.” (Acts 14:22b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

A revelation of Jesus Christ which God gave Him to show to His holy ones (א*) the things which must become/’come about’ in/with quickness. (Rev 1:1a)

I, John, your brother and a companion together with (you) in the oppression (and a kingdom and an endurance in Jesus). (Rev 1:9a)

I know your works and your (א,* א) bother and your endurance. (Rev 2:2a, “Ephesos”)

I know your works and (your) welcome and faith and * (א*) * (א,*א) endurance. (Rev 2:19a, “Thyatira”)

Because you have kept the saying of My endurance, I and/also will * (keep) (א,*א) you out of the hour of the test, the (hour) being about to come upon the whole (inhabited) world to try the ones dwelling upon the earth. (Rev 3:10, “Philadelphia”)

Golden bowls being full of incenses which (א,*א) are (the) (א*) prayers of the holy ones. (Rev 5:8b)

‘Many incenses’/’much incense’ was given to him, in order that he shall give/add (it) to the prayers of all the holy ones against the golden sacrificial altar * (א,* א) ‘in the very eyes of’/before the throne. And a (א*) smoke of the incenses, (with) the prayers of the holy ones, ascended in the very eyes of God out of a hand of the messenger. (Rev 8:3b-4)

When (the two witnesses) – according to the circumstances - may have ended their evidence, the little wild animal then (א*) ascending out of the abyss will make war ‘in company with’/against them and conquer them and kill them. (Rev 11:7)

(And the time has come) to give the wage to Your slaves the prophets and to the holy ones and to the ones fearing Your name, the small ones and the great ones. ... (Rev 11:18b)

It was given to (the little wild animal) to make war ‘in company with’/with the holy ones and to conquer them and it was given to it (judicial) authority against every tribe and people and tongue and nation. (Rev 13:7)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

Here (in Luke 12:4-12) Jesus' heart is filled of the most ardent tenderness - some of you will be allowed to sacrifice their lives. You have to choose between me and the world, which soon will crucify me. If you become faithful to those, so the fire of Gehenna waits for you. On the other hand become faithful to me, then they will pursue and kill you. Still I say to you, my friends, they can only kill your bodies. They have not power to do more. Your soul goes free away like the pursued quarry having come in on the soil of another, where the hunter has not power to pursue it. Therefore do not fear of them. (Karl Palmberg "Ur livskällan. Andra årgången." p 289; Karl Palmberg /1842-1920/ was from 1883 a Lutheran clergyman in Månsarp in the diocese of Växjö and president in Jönköpings Missionsförening (Missionary Society) 1886-1911; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Sven Danell, Sven Johansson, Martin Luther, Olaf Moe, Anders Nohrborg, Sigurd Ohlsson, Gösta Sandberg.


Additional studies: Luke 9:41; Heb 6:12; Rev 13:8; 14:12; 17:9.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-18; 2012-07-09; 2015-07-05)

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13:11 And I beheld another little wild animal ascending out of the earth. And it (continually) had two horns like (on) a little ram, and it (continually) talked as a dragon.

Word for word (18 words in the Greek text): And (i/I)-beheld another little-wild-animal ascending out-of the earth, and (it)-(continually)-had horns two like (a)-little-ram and (it)-(continually)-talked as (a)-dragon.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

The serpent (continually) was most sensible of all the little wild animals upon the earth, which the Lord God had made. And the serpent spoke to the woman: “’What that’/why did God speak?” (Gen 3:1a, Greek OT)

(Daniel said:) “... I beheld a great ‘male sheep’/ram ... And it (continually) had (two) horns.” (Dan 8:3a, Greek OT)

(Mordecai beheld in a dream) two great dragons. ... And (at) their (great/high) voice every nation made itself ready into/to a war, so that (they would) wage war with a nation of righteous ones. (Esther 1:1ea,f/A5a,6, Greek OT)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "Give heed from/to the false prophets, whoever/who come towards you in clothes of sheep but from inside are rapacious wolves." (Matt 7:15)

(Jesus said to the Pharisees:) "Products of adders, how are you, being evil, able to talk good things?" (Matt 12:34a)

(Jesus continually) was in company with the little wild animals, and the messengers (continually) rendered service to Him. (Mark 1:13b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

The One coming from above is above all. The One being out of the earth is out of the earth and out of the earth he talks. (John 3:31a)

(Jesus said:) “When (the slanderer) – according to the circumstances – may talk the lie, he talks out of the own things, because he is a liar and ‘its father’/’the father of the lie’.” (John 8:44b)

I beheld ‘in a middle of’/’between (on one hand)’ the throne and the four living beings and ‘in a middle of’/’(on the other hand)’ the elders a little Ram standing as having been (and being) slaughtered, having seven horns and seven eyes, which are the seven spirits of God, having been (and being) dispatched away into every/all the earth. (Rev 5:6)

When (the two witnesses) – according to the circumstances - may have ended their evidence, the little wild animal then (א*) ascending out of the abyss will make war ‘in company with’/against them and conquer them and kill them. (Rev 11:7)

Another sign was beheld in the heaven. And behold, a fire-coloured great dragon having seven heads and ten horns and against his heads seven diadems. (Rev 12:3)

I beheld a little wild animal ascending out of the sea, having ten horns and seven heads and upon his horns ten diadems and against his heads a (P47; א,* א) ‘name of blasphemy’/’blasphemous name’. (Rev 13:1 or Rev 13:1b)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: Mohammed Dib, Anders Jarlert, Olaf Moe, Ragnar Ohlsson, Gösta Sandberg.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “horns like a little ram”, see also Rev 5:6a and Rev 5:6b.


Additional studies: Ezek 5:17; 14:21; 33:27; Dan 7:17; Jas 3:15; Rev 16:13; 19:20; 20:10.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-19; 2012-07-09; 2015-07-06)

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13:12 And it makes/exercises every/all the (judicial) authority of the first little wild animal in the very eyes of it. And it makes the earth and the ones dwelling in it * (א,* א) to prostrate (towards) the first little wild animal (in adoration of it), whose (wound of) the blow of death had been attended.

Word for word (31 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus): and the (judicial)-authority (of)-the first little-wild-animal every (it)-makes in-the-very-eyes-of it, and (it)-makes the earth and the-(ones) in it dwelling (to)-'(kiss-towards)'/prostrate (towards)-the little-wild-animal the first, whose was-attended the blow (of)-the (of)-death its.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

Lamech spoke to his women: “ ... I killed a male into/’for the purpose of’ my wound ... It has been (and is) procured justice seven times ‘out of’/for Cain, but ‘out of’/for Lamech seventy seven times.” (Gen 4:23-24, Greek OT)

Loth (continually) was dwelling in Sodom. (Gen 14:12b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Moses/Israel:) “You shall not make according to the pursuits of the earth/land of Egypt, in which you have dwelt on/'under the rule of' it.” (Lev 18:3a, Greek OT)

Israel hit (Sihon, the king of the Amorites) with a murder/’deadly wound’ of a dagger. (Num 21:24a, Greek OT)

(Mordocai said to the Lord:) “You have knowledge of all things. You know, Lord, that I have not made/done this in insolence, nor in overweening (pride), nor in false friendship, to not prostrate (in adoration towards) the overweening Haman … and I will not prostrate (in adoration towards) ‘no one’/anyone more than you, my Lord. (Esther 4:17d-ea/C5-7a, Greek OT)

(David said:) “The earth (is) the Lord's, and its complement, the (inhabited) world and all the ones dwelling in it.” (Ps 24:1, Greek OT)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to some present:) "Do you think that those eighteen against whom the tower in Siloam fell and killed them, that (only) they became debtors/obliged ‘to the side of’/’in comparison with’ all the (other) men dwelling in (א,* א, A) Jerusalem?" (Luke 13:4; cf. Rev 11:8 where (a disgraced) Jerosolyma/Jerusalem spiritually is called Sodom and Egypt)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Jesus said to the Samaritan woman:) ”However, an hour comes, and it is now, when the true ‘prostrators’ will prostrate themselves before the Father (in honour of Him) in spirit and truth. For the Father seeks (certainly) and/also of such kind the ones prostrating (towards) Him (in adoration of Him). God (is) spirit, and the ones prostrating themselves * (א*) must prostrate themselves in a spirit of (א*) truth.” (John 4:23-24)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “When – according to the circumstances – the One being called to the side of (you) may come, which I will send to you from the side of the Father, the Spirit of the truth, which goes out from the side of the Father, that One will be a witness on account of Me. But and/also you are witnesses.” (John 15:26-27a)

(Jesus said to His disciples: “The Spirit of truth) will not talk from Itself, however/but as many things as It * (א,*א) hears, It will talk, and It will bring up a message to you (about) the coming things. That One will glorify Me, because It will take out of Mine and bring up a message to you.” (John 16:13b-14)

(Judicial) authority was given (the locusts) as the scorpions of the earth have (judicial) authority. (Rev 9:3b)

The dragon had given (the first little wild animal) his ability and his throne and a great (judicial) authority. (Rev 13:2b)

One 'out of'/of the heads (of the first little wild animal was) as (if) having been (and being) slaughtered into/’for the purpose of’ death. And its (wound of) the blow of (the) death had been attended. (Rev 13:3a)

It was given to (to the first little wild animal) to make war ‘in company with’/with the holy ones and to conquer them and it was given to it (judicial) authority against every tribe and people and tongue and nation. (Rev 13:7)

And they will prostrate themselves before (the little wild animal) (in honour of it) (א,* א), all the ones dwelling upon the earth, whose names (P47, א,* א) are * (א*) (and have * (א*) been) written in a (א*) book (P47, א,* א) of the life of the little Ram, being (and having been) slaughtered from a foundation of an adornment/’adorned world’. (Rev 13:8)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

The only religion on which the (Roman) State insisted was the deification and worship of the Emperor. ... The only thorough resistance to this worship came from hated Judea. (Alfred Edersheim "The Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah Part I" p 258)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Emilia Fogelklou, Bo Giertz, Lars Levi Laestadius, C.S. Lewis, Josef Rydén, Erich Sauer, Bo Setterlind, Nathan Söderblom, Carl Elof Svenning, Mikael Tellbe.


My own comments and speculations:

As the Spirit of truth was dispatched by Jesus and is a witness to Him, so the second little wild animal has his (judicial) authority from the first little wild animal.

Concerning “the earth and the ones dwelling in it to prostrate (towards) the (first) little wild animal (in adoration of it)”, see Rev 13:8. The expression “the little wild animal” is here in the accusative form.

Concerning “the (judicial) authority of the first little wild animal”, see also Rev 13:2b.

Concerning “prostrate toward the (first) little wild animal (in adoration of it)”, see Rev 13:8.

Concerning “whose (wound of) the blow of death had been attended”, see Rev 13:3a.


Additional studies: John 14:26; 16:8-11; Rev 13:14-15; 14:9,11; 16:2; 19:20; 20:4.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-19; 2012-07-09; 2015-07-08)

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13:13 And it makes great signs. It may make ‘in order’/so that and/also fire (may) descend out of the heaven into/to the earth in the very eyes of the men.

Word for word (18 words in the Greek text; the sequence of the words according to Sinaiticus): and (it)-makes signs great, (it)-may-make in-order-that and fire out-of the heaven (to)-descend into the earth in-the-very-sight-of (of)-the (of)-men.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The Lord said to Moses:) "If – according to the circumstances – a prophet or (one) dreaming dream/dreams may stand up in/among you and may give you a sign or an omen, and the sign or the omen may come, which he talked towards you, saying, 'Go and serve the other gods, which you do not know’, you shall not hear the sayings of that prophet or (the one) dreaming that dream." (Deut 13:1-3a, Greek OT)

Fire fell from the side of the Lord out of the heaven. (1 Kings 18:38a, Greek OT)

Elijah answered and spoke towards the leader of fifty (men): “And if I (am) a man of God, fire may descend out of the heaven and eat down/up you and your fifty (men).” And fire descended out of the heaven and ate him down/up and his fifty (men). (2 Kings 1:10, Greek OT)

Entirely as and/also Moses prayed towards the Lord, and fire descended out of the heaven ... in this way and/also Solomon prayed and the fire (descended). (2 Macc 2:10a)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "Give heed from/to the false prophets, whoever/who come towards you in clothes of sheep but from inside are rapacious wolves." (Matt 7:15)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "False Christs and false prophets will rise ... so that and/also the chosen ones, if able/possible, will be (א,* א) led astray." (Matt 24:24)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "False Christs and false prophets will rise and will give signs and omens towards, if able/possible, to lead away the chosen ones astray." (Mark 13:22)

Having beheld (that the Samaritans did not receive Jesus) the disciples James and John spoke: "Lord, do You want, we may speak/bid fire to descend from the heaven and use them up?" But having turned Himself He blamed them. (Luke 9:54-55)

(Jesus) spoke to (the Pharisees): "You are the ones justifying yourselves in the very eyes of the men." (Luke 16:15a)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “They/there will be great shakings and ‘according to places’/'in one place after another' famines and plagues, both/furthermore frightful things and it/there will be great signs from heaven.” (Luke 21:11)

... All (among the people in the city) from a small till a great said (about Simon:) “This is the ability of God, the one being called Great.” (Acts 8:10)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

The messenger takes (and has taken) the olibanum censer and filled it out of the fire of the sacrificial altar and threw (it) into/to the earth. (Rev 8:5a)

The first (messenger) sounded the trumpet, and it became hail and fire, being (and having been) mixed in/with blood, and it was thrown into/to the earth. (Rev 8:7a)

A great sign was beheld in the heaven. (Rev 12:1a)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: G.K. Chesterton, Sven Danell, Jan Fridegård, Bo Giertz, Lars Hartman, Nath. Högman, Lars Levi Laestadius, Martin Luther, Wilhelm Möller, Bo Setterlind, Helmut Thielicke.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “fire … into/to the earth”, see also Rev 8:7a. Concerning “great signs”, see also Rev 12:1a.


Additional studies:

Ex 7:11; 2 Kings 1:12; Acts 8:9-11; 2 Thess 2:9-10; Rev 11:5; 16:14; 19:20; 20:9.


Jon Ruthven "A note on Eliah's 'fire from Yahweh'"; Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 12.2 (Spring 1969): 111-115.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-19; 2012-07-09; 2015-07-09)

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13:14 And it leads astray the ones dwelling upon the earth because of the signs which it was given to it to make in the very eyes of the little wild animal, saying to the ones dwelling upon the earth to make an image to the little wild animal, which (א,* א) has (the wound of) a blow of the dagger and has lived/’come to life’.

Word for word (34 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus): and (it)-leads-astray the-(ones) dwelling upon the earth because-of the signs which (it)-was-given (to)-it (to)make in-the-very-eyes-of (of)-the (of)-little-wild-animal, saying (to)-the-(ones) dwelling upon the earth (to)-make (an)-image (to)-the little-wild-animal, which has (a)-blow (of)-the (of)-dagger and lived.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

God made the man, ‘according to’/after an image of God He made him. (Gen 1:27a, Greek OT)

(The prophet said: “With) whom did you liken God? Or (with) what likeness did you liken Him? Not (with) an image a carpenter has made?” (Is 40:18-19a, Greek OT)

(The king of Babylon) … made a gold image. (Dan 3:1a, Greek OT)

The Lord God of Israel, the One surveying all, hit (king Antiochus with) a blow, (being) incurable and impossible to behold. (2 Macc 9:5a)

(Solomon said:) “Orders of absolute monarchs worshipped/’led to worship of’ carved images, (monarchs) which men being not able to honour in a sight because ‘of inhabit’/’they inhabited’ far. From afar they (formed) a sight (and) made conspicuous an image of the honoured king, in order that as being by the side of they through the haste/zeal might flatter the one being away. (Wisdom of Solomon 14:16b-17)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to the twelve:) “You may not adopt as a law ‘in order that’/that I came to throw/bring a peace against the earth. I did not come to throw/bring a peace however/but a dagger.” (Matt 10:34)

(The Pharisees) carried a denarius to (Jesus). And he says to them: “Whose is this image and the inscription?” They say * (א,* א,B): “A caesar's.” (Matt 22:19b-21a)

(The father said to his elder son:) “We (continually) had to be cheerful and rejoice, because this your brother (continually) was (a) dead (body), and he has lived/’come to life’.” (Luke 15:32a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

... the First (One) and the Last (One), who became a dead (body) and lived/’came to life’.” (Rev 2:8a, “Smyrna”)

(Jezebel) teaches and leads My slaves astray to fornicate and eat (things) sacrificed to idols. (Rev 2:20b, “Thyatira”)

The great dragon was thrown (out), * (א,*א) a serpent, he of (a) beginning, he being called a slanderer, * (א,*א) the adversary, he leading the whole (inhabited) world astray, he was thrown into/'down to' the earth, and his messengers were thrown (down) in company with him. (Rev 12:9)

One 'out of'/of the heads (of the first little wild animal was) as (if) having been (and being) slaughtered into/’for the purpose of’ death. And its (wound of) the blow of (the) death had been attended. (Rev 13:3a)

And they will prostrate themselves before (the little wild animal) (in honour of it) (א,*א), all the ones dwelling upon the earth, whose names (P47,א,*א) are * (א*) (and have * (א*) been) written in a (א*) book (P47,א,*א) of the life of the little Ram, being (and having been) slaughtered from a foundation of an adornment/’adorned world’. (Rev 13:8)

If anyone (is) into/’purposed for’ captivity, * (P47,א,*א) he withdraws. If anyone kills (א,*א) in/with a dagger, he must (א,*א) be killed in/with a dagger. (Rev 13:10a)

(The second little wild animal) makes great signs. It may make ‘in order’/so that and/also fire (may) descend out of the heaven into/to the earth in the very eyes of the men. (Rev 13:13)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

(Carl) Eldh has had much joy of my image of a god; (Olof) Rubenson declared that Nya Teatern desires an example. (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev XV april 1904-april 1907" p 238; letter 1906-03-22 to Harriet Bosse; Rubenson had in the newspaper Hvar 8 Dag published a picture of Eld's bust reproducing Strindberg)

The Unknown . . . looks at the Tempter in the eyes: "Who are you?" The Tempter: "Your brother! - - - I think certain features remind of my portrait." The Unknown: "Where have I seen your portrait?" The Tempter: "A little in places! - - - In the churches I often are, although not among the saints. - - - "The Unknown: "Cannot remember . . . " The Tempter: "Was it such a long time you visited church? . . . Yes, I usually am reprocuced together with Saint George. - - - " The Unknown shakes in his whole body wanting to flee, but cannot. (August Strindberg "Till Damaskus III" p 329; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

If you by chance see (my) children, so greet them whispering them all good and hopeful concerning their future and me and meeting again and so on. Is my bust still in the Museum entrance hall, so teach them that they can see me there. . (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev IX 1892-jan 1894" p 309-310; letter 1893-11-11 to Adolf Paul; the bust is Ville Vallgren's bust of Strindberg, which had been made 1885 and three years later been added to the art collections in Ateneum in Helsingfors)

After that the first reading-book for the first elementary classes (in Italy) was settled. In this, which on the whole was rather wise, nevertheless still many clerical and governmental things showing inability to let things alone. Religion, moral, but much about the real life. . . . At page 8 I got a description of the objects being in the classroom, whereby my school visit partly became superfluously. In the school the following objects namely are seen: the crucifix, the portrait of the king, the blackboard, geographical maps, the wall picture over weights and measures. (August Strindberg "Från det vaknande Italien" p 100-101; Pegli-Genova March 1884; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

In the nearest connection with the public lie the canonization stands. This is one among the most abominable manifestations of civilized man's thirst for falsification and power. For when he himself is not able to satisfy his evil desires, he invents fetishes, saints or in modern times: celebrities . . . Christianity, which quite impudently is declared to have knocked down the old images, has on the contrary invented worship of man, beginning with Christ. The old Catholics worshipped the misfortune, the courage, the self-denial, in a word the virtues of the reverses; the new Catholics, and also our dear Protestants, worship the good fortune, the happiness, the success (at any cost!), the acknowledged success. In Uppsala cathedral our forefathers among many other chapels also have one to the Virgin Mary. But the Reformation came, ruthless, practical, materialistic, successfull; the idols (which they were called) became precipitated and the temple cleared, especially of precious metals, for the wooden pictures and wooden images were in many places allowed to remain sitting into our days, and still sit there. . . . In our days the worshipping of saints has put on grand dimensions; now (in the beginning of the eighties of the nineteenth century) female singers, actresses, modellers, verse poets, timber-merchants, members of parliament, such ones making oil-paint pictures, idealizing Scandinavian vodka (vodka refiners), the ones travelling, selling property are canonized. But the public is spared from the trouble, for they do it themselves. The most simple way is to order a bust. (August Strindberg "Det nya riket" s 84-86; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Cardinal Mai has discovered a remarkable document, written by a monk Zakaria in the year 540, who tells that Rome then owned . . . eighty big statues of gods made of gilt bronze, sixty six statues of gods of ivory, three thousand seven hundred eighty five statues of bronze, representing caesars and other great men. . . . The Byzantine histoiographer Prokopios tells us, that Forum romanum in his days (the middle of the sixth century) was filled with statues, among which one saw works by Fidias, Lysippos and Myron. . . . The statues of ivory all have disappeared. Of the eighty gilt statues of gods only two are come to our days; the one was dug up in the year 1864 under the palace Biscioni near Campo di Fiore. (Viktor Rydberg "Kolosseum - Vilka voro barbarerna? - Kolosseums ättlingar - Skådespelen - Rövarstycket Laureolus - Munken Telemak - Signor Rosas grävningar" p 264-265; Rome 1874; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

We want to name, that the favourite friend of the squire (Nikolaus Brackander), crown constable Spöqvist (in English = "switch twig"), upon his honour has assured, that he (Brackander) is astonishing like Napoleon I. We only add, that Mr. Sjöqvist expressed this opinion guided by a woodcut, representing the great caesar, manufactured by J.P. Lundström in Jönköping. (Viktor Rydberg "De vandrande djäknarne" p 35; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Alf Ahlberg, Märta Ahlbom, Arvid Almquist, H.C. Andersen, Stefan Andhé, Göran Axel-Nilsson, David Bellingham, Henrik Berg, Fredrik Böök, Barthold Carlson, Görel Cavalli-Björkman, Johanna-Ruth Dobschiner, Per Ericsson, Hilding Fagerberg, Bo Frid, Einar Genitz, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Pontus Grate, Erik J. Holmberg, Eyvind Johnson, Bo E. Karlson, Lars Levi Laestadius, Carl Henrik Martling, Robin More, Fredrik Nielsen, Elvy Nilbratt, Sven Nilsson, Folke Nordangård, Runa Ohlander, Martin Olin, Christopher O'Regan, Bengt Pleijel, Ingrid Pohl, Eliza Richardson, William B. Silverman, Alexander Solsjenitsyn, John Stott, Manne Ståhl, Jesper Svartvik, Mikael Tellbe, Chris Thompson, Karl-Erik Tysk, Nils Tägt, Josef Wahlgren, P. Waldenström, Erik Wiberg, Emile Zola.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “the ones dwelling upon the earth ”, see Rev 13:8. Concerning “the signs which it was given to it”, see Rev 13:13. Concerning “the little wild animal which has (the wound of) a blow”, see Rev 13:3a.


Little children, let no one lead you astray. The one making/practising the righteousness is righteous, entirely as that One is righteous. (1 John 3:7)

Welcomed ones, do not believe (in) every spirit, however/but prove the spirits, if it is out of God, because many false prophets have come (and comes) out/’to an end’ into the adornment/’adorned world’. (1 John 4:1)

We are out of God. The one having knowledge of God hears us. The one who is not out of God does not hear us. Out of this we have knowledge of the spirit of the truth and the spirit of the going astray. (1 John 4:6)

We know that we are out of God and the whole adornment/’adorned world’ lies in (the power of) the evil one. (1 John 5:19)


Greek words:

eikôn (image) (in the NT + examples in the OT) Gen 1:27; Dan 3:1; Wisdom of Solomon 14:17; Matt 22:20; Rev 13:14 – Gen 1:26; 2 Chron 33:7; Is 40:19; Wisdom of Solomon 2:23; 7:26; 13:13,16; 14:15; 15:5; Sir 17:3; Mark 12:16; Luke 20:24; Rom 1:23; 8:29; 1 Cor 11:7; 15:49; 2 Cor 3:18; 4:4; Col 1:15; 3:10; Heb 10:1; Rev 13:15; 14:9,11; 15:2; 16:2; 19:20; 20:4.


Additional studies:

Ex 20:4-5; Deut 13:1-5; Mark 12:15-17; Luke 20:22-25; 2 Thess 2:11; Rev 19:4; 20:3,8,10.


P.J.J. Botha "God, emperor worship and society: Contemporary experiences and the Book of Revelation"; Neotestamentica 22.1 (1988): 87-102.

A.B. Caneday "They exchanged the Glory of God for the Likeness of an image: Idolatrous Adam and Israel as Representatives in Paul's Letter to the Romans"; Southern Baptist Journal of theology 11.3 (Autumn 2007): 34-45.

Gregory W. Dawes "The Danger of Idoltry: First Corinthians 8:7-13"; Catholic Biblical Quarterly 58.1 (1966): 82-98.

David A. Desilva "The Image of the Beast and the Christians in Asia Minor"; Trinity Journal 12.2 (1991): 185-208.

Birger Olsson "Allenast med beläten och figurer. Om Luthers försök att förstå Johannes uppenbarelse"; Svensk Exegetisk Årsbok 50:60-86 (1985).


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-19; 2012-07-09; 2015-07-10)

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13:15 And it was given to it to give spirit (to) the image of the little wild animal, in order that the image of the little wild animal and/also may talk. And it will (א,* א) make, (so that) as many as – if according to the circumstances – will (א,* א) not prostrate themselves before the image of the little wild animal (in honour of it), (that) they may be killed.

Word for word (27 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus): And (it)-was-given (to)-it (to)-give spirit (to)-the image (of)-the (of)-little-wild-animal, in-order-that and may-talk the image (of)-the (of)-little-wild-animal and (it)-will-make as-many-as if-according-to-the-circumstances not (they)-will-'(kiss-towards)'/'prostrate-(before) the image (of)-the (of)-little-wild-animal (they)-may-be-killed.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

All the nations will speak: "Because of what has the Lord made/done in this way (with) this earth/land (Israel)? What/why this great passion of wrath?" And they shall say: "Because they entirely left the covenant of the Lord, the God of their fathers, which He put asunder/’in order’ (with) their fathers, when He led them out, out of the earth/land of Egypt. And having gone they served the other gods and prostrated themselves before them (in honour of them)." (Deut 29:24-26a, Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) “The earth/land (of Israel) has been fulfilled with abominations of the works of their hands, and they have prostrated themselves before (the things) which their fingers have done (in honour of them).” (Is 2:8a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to the prophet: “All the cities of Judas) have prostrated themselves before the works of their hands (in honour of them).” (Jer 1:16b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to His prophet:) “In that day your mouth will be opened altogether towards the ‘saved up’/restored. And you will talk and may not/certainly not 'be made'/be deaf no/any longer. And you will be to them into/to an omen, and they will gain additional knowledge, for the reason that I (am) the Lord.” (Ezek 24:27b, Greek OT)

The herald proclaimed to the crowds: “To you – nations and districts, peoples and tongues – it is brought a message (from) the side of (the king): “When you – according to the circumstances – may hear the voice/sound of ... every/all descents/kinds of musicians, having fallen/’sunk down’ prostrate yourselves before the golden image (in honour of it). And every/everyone who – according to the circumstances – may not, having fallen/’sunk down’, prostate himself, him they shall throw in, into the furnace of the burning fire.” (Dan 3:4-6a, Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) “What does a carved image help? … ‘Every ... not’/no spirit is in it.” (Hab 2:18a,19b, Greek OT)

(Judith said to the elders of the city:) “It has not stood up in our generations, nor it is/occur ‘in the day to-day’/nowadays and (there is) not a tribe and not a lineage and not a popular assembly and not a city out of us, which prostrating before gods made by hands (in honour of them), entirely just as it became in the former days, (when) our fathers ‘in favour’/’for the sake’ of (this) were given into large sword and into ‘raping through’/plundering, and they fell a great fall in the eyes of our enemies.” (Judith 8:18-19)

The king … prostrated before (Bel in honour of him). But Daniel (continually) prayed towards the Lord. (Bel and the Dragon v 4b)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to the Pharisees:) “Give so back the things of a caesar to a caesar and the things of God to God.” (Matt 22:21b)

(Jesus caused) the dumb ones to hear and * (א,* א, B) speechless ones to talk. (Mark 7:37b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

The Spirit is the one making alive. (John 6:63a)

After * (א,*א) three and a half days a spirit of life out of God came into, into (P47,א,*א) (the two witnesses), and they stood against/on their feet. (Rev 11:11a)

And they will prostrate themselves before (the little wild animal) (in honour of it) (א,*א), all the ones dwelling upon the earth, whose names (P47,א,*א) are * (א*) (and have * (א*) been) written in a (א*) book (P47,א,*א) of the life of the little Ram, being (and having been) slaughtered from a foundation of an adornment/’adorned world’. (Rev 13:8)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

Swedenborg preferred the republic as form of government, because the monarchy among other things gave occasion to man-worship. The pharaohs in Egypt and the kings in Babylon were idolized or idolized themselves in temples as certain Roman caesars. This wonderful phenomenon is not based on the thankfulness of men, for this base is weak, but partly on the hate towards God, partly in fear, partly on an inherent autolatry or the inclination to idolize oneself in one's nation through one's regent. Consequently, this is a bad motive. In Rome's Pantheon, which has been public baths and a Christian church, now among others Raphael and Victor Emanuel lie. In Paris' Pantheon Sadi Carnot and Mr. and Mrs. Berthelot are idolized. In our necropolis many incomprehensible great men lie, but also pell-mell men like the general run of people. Among kings are to be seen Friedrich I, a musical comedy character and a caricature, but in the same crypt "the destroyer of Sweden" rests, the notorious madman Carl XII, who every year receives his apotheosis by the cultivated youth. If one does not want to take part in the madness, one becomes killed quite as if one disturbed a common divine service. (August Strindberg "En blå bok II" p 627; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Now it is acknowledged by Papucists that the old idols could "conjure", and it is explained (?) so: Ten thousand men gathered around an image, which once lived in its material, can by their spirit with united forces deposit force as in an an accumulator. (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev XI maj 1895-nov 1896" p 329-330; letter 1896-09-19 to Torsten Hedlund)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Eric S. Alexandersson, Ruth Bexell, Anton Fridrichsen, Norman Hampson, C.G. Hjelm, Liselotte J Andersson, Eyvind Johnson, Örjan Lindberger, Claes Lindskog, Per Lundberg, H.M. Melin, Fredrik Nielsen, Thestrup Pedersen, Harald Rasmussen, Johan Ludvig Runeberg, Erich Sauer, Nathan Söderblom, Mikael Tellbe, Einar Thomassen, J.R.R. Tolkien, Nils Tägt, Eric Wärenstam.


My own comments and speculations:

(The holy ones) will prostrate themselves before the little wild animal (in honour of it) (Rev 13:8), but not before its image (in honour of it)), which had happened earlier in Israel/Judah (Is 2:8; Jer 1:16).

Concerning “prostrate themselves before … (in honour of it)”, see also Rev 13:8. Concerning “the image of the little wild animal”, see also Rev 13:14.


Additional studies:

Ps 135:16-17; Ezek 33:22; Dan 10:15-16; Rev 13:12; 14:9,11; 16:2; 19:20; 20:4.


P.J.J. Botha "God, emperor worship and society: Contemporary experiences and the Book of Revelation"; Neotestamentica 22.1 (1988): 87-102.

David A. Desilva "The Image of the Beast and the Christians in Asia Minor"; Trinity Journal 12.2 (1991): 185-208.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-19; 2012-07-09; 2015-07-12)

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13:16 And it makes (so that) all, the small and the great and the rich and the beggarly and the free and the slaves, ‘in order that they may give them’/’that they may be given’ a mark upon their right hand or against their forehead ...

Word for word (35 words in the Greek text): and (it)-makes all, the small and the great, and the rich and the beggarly, and the free and the slaves in-order-that (they)-may-give them (a)-mark upon the hand their the right or against the forehead their


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Moses said to Israel:) “You shall throw/lay these words into your heart and into your soul. And you shall ‘fasten from’/bind them into/to a sign upon your hand, and they shall be unshaken/unshakeable before your eyes.” (Deut 11:18, Greek OT; New American Standard: “ ... on your hand ... on your forehead”)

(Hannah said:) "The Lord makes beggarly, and He makes rich. He humbles, and He heightens up." (1 Sam 2:7, Greek OT)

In/on (the) hand of every man (God) seals entirely, in order that every man may have knowledge of the weakness of himself. (Job 37:7, Greek OT)

(David said:) “The right hand (of the aliens) is a right hand of unrighteousness.” (Ps 144:8b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to His people:) “The other will inscribe: ‘I 'am of'/'belong to' God’ …” (Is 44:5b, Greek OT)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to his disciples:) “If your right hand cause you to stumble, cut it out/off, and throw (it) from you, for it ‘carries together’/’is profitable’ for you, in order that one of your limbs may go away, and (that) not your whole body may go away into Gehenna.” (Matt 5:30)

On (Jacob and John) (Jesus) put names/’the name’ Boanerges, which is/means Sons of Thunder. (Mark 3:17b)

A certain beggarly one (with) name Lazarus, having been (and being) caused sores, had been (and was) thrown towards the gateway (of a rich man), and desiring/desired to be fed from (the things) falling from the table of the rich. … But it became/’came about’ (that) the beggarly one died and was carried away by the messengers into Abraham's bosom (where he was comforted). (Luke 16:20-21a,22a)

(Jesus said to a certain leader:) “Sell all things as many as you have and give (א,*א,A) (it) over to beggarly ones. … (The leader) became very sorrowful, for he (continually) was extremely rich.” (Luke 18:22b,23b)

Having seen/looked up (Jesus) beheld the rich throwing/putting their gifts into the treasury. But/and He beheld a certain poor widow throwing/putting two thin (coins) there. (Luke 21:1-2)

(Paul said: “Having) a descent ‘beginning under’/’being the first’ of God we are not indebted to adopt as a law, (that) the deity be/is like goldmetal (א,* א, A) or silver or stone, ‘a mark of art’/’an artistically made mark’.” (Acts 17:29a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Those Jews who to begin with believed Jesus said to Him:) “We are a seed of Abraham, and we have ever/never been (and are) slaves to ‘no one’/anyone. How do/’is it that’ You say that/: ‘You will become free?’” (John 8:33)

I know your works and (א,*א) (your) oppression and beggary – however you are rich. (Rev 2:9a, “Smyrna”)

The kings of the earth and the great men and the leaders of a thousand (men) and the rich and the stable and every slave and every (א*) free (man) hid themselves into the caves and into/among the rocks of the mountains. (Rev 6:15)

(The messenger) said (to the four messengers): “You may not act unrighteously (against) the earth, ‘but not’/nor (א,*א) (against) the sea, ‘but not’/nor (א,*א) (against) the trees, till we may have sealed the slaves of our God upon their foreheads.” (Rev 7:3)

(And the time has come) to give the wage to Your slaves the prophets and to the holy ones and to the ones fearing Your name, the small ones and the great ones. (Rev 11:18b)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

The ears (Jossi) was in any case allowed to remain, these ones they do not cut off. But they did something else, they put the Katla mark on him. "All Tengil's men must bear the Katla mark, also an impostor like you", Veder said. "So that you can show who you are, if "knowledgers", who do not know you, come to Cherry Valley." "Oh yes, certainly, certainly", Jossi said. They ordered him to open coat and shirt, and with an iron, which they heated in the fire, they burnt in the Katla mark on his breast. Jossi cried, when he was hit by the glowing iron."Experience", Kader said. "Now you know for eternal times that you are one of our people, so impostor you are." (Astrid Lindgren "Bröderna Lejonhjärta" p 84; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

(The girl, ten years old) now had been in the Brocken many times; the devil had rebaptized her, forced her to abjure God, written her name into his book and put his mark on her, which would mean, that she was his in life and in death. "See, merciful Chief Judge", the father said showing a blue spot on the forehead of the girl near the edge of the scalp, "here there is the terrible mark the devil himself has bitten into her forehead. . . . The witch leads the newcomers forward, kneels for the devil and calls him lord, grand duke, god and so on. After several other ceremonies the devil asks them, if they are willing to serve him. Many are blinded by his majesty and the glory shining around them, and they answer yes. Then he marks them by biting them in the forehead or cut them in the little finger and writes with the at this shed blood their names in a big book. After this they get gifts, complete promises of secrecy and are secured, that they will have joy, comfort and pleasures, as long as they live, and an eternal equanimity after death." (Viktor Rydberg "Fribytaren på Östersjön II" p 290-291,295; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: J. Anjou, T.S. Eliot, Linné Eriksson, P. Fjellstedt, Einar Genitz, Gillis Gerleman, Bo Giertz, Carl Grimberg, Miroslav Kusy, Sven Lidman, Vilhelm Moberg, Kaj Munk, J.P. Norberg, Erich Sauer, Harry Sjöman, Robert Louis Stevenson, Folke Thorell, P. Waldenström, David Wilkerson.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning "the free and the slaves", see also Rev 6:15ab. Concerning “the small and the great”, see also Rev 11:18ba. Concerning “mark … against their forehead”, see also Rev 7:3.


Greek words: charagma (mark) Acts 17:29; Rev 13:16 – Rev 13:17; 14:9,11; 16:2; 19:20; 20:4.


Additional studies:

Ex 13:9,15-16; 28:36-38; 29:20; Lev 8:23-24; 14:14,17,25,28; 19:28; 21:5; Deut 6:5,8; Ps 49:1-2(2-3); 144:11; Prov 22:7; Ezek 3:9; Matt 19:21-22; Mark 10:21-22; 12:41-42; Luke 6:6-10; John 18:10; Gal 6:17; Rev 10:5; 13:17; 14:1,9,11; 15:2; 16:2; 19:5,18,20; 20:4.


Edwin A. Judge "The Mark of the Beast, Revelation 13:16"; Tyndale Bulletin 42.1 (1991): 158-160.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-19; 2012-07-09; 2015-07-16)

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13:17 ... * (א*) in order that anyone may not be able to buy or sell, ‘if not’/except the one having the mark of the little wild animal or its name (א,* א) or the number of its name.

Word for word (25 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus prima manus): in-order-that not anyone may-be-able-to buy or sell if not the-(one) having the mark (of)-the (of)-little-wild-animal or the name its or the number (of)-the (of)-name its.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

The Lord God put a sign for Cain, the thing that every/everyone finding him (could) not ‘take him up for himself’/’get rid of him’. (Gen 4:15b, Greek OT)

(Judas said to his father:) “If you so dispatch away our brother in company with us, we will descend (to Egypt) and buy food to you. But if you do not dispatch away our brother in company with us, we will not go, for the man spoke to us saying: ‘You shall not see my face, if - according to the circumstances – your younger brother may not be in company with you.’” (Gen 43:4-5, Greek OT)

Moses spoke (directed) towards God: “Behold, I shall come towards the sons of Israel, and I shall speak towards them: ‘The God of your fathers has dispatched (and dispatches) me away towards you.’ They will ask me: 'What (is) a name to Him?' What shall I speak towards them?” And God spoke towards Moses: “I am the One who is.” And He spoke: “In this way you shall speak to the sons of Israel: ‘The One who is has dispatched (and dispatches) me away towards you.’” (Ex 3:13-14, Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) “Behold, the Lord entirely ruins the (inhabited) world … and …the one buying will be as the one selling.” (Is 24:1-2a, Greek OT)

The walls of Jerusalem (would be) heightened still more and a great height be heightened ‘upwards middle’/between the border/castle and the city 'into the thing'/to separate (the border/castle) altogether (from) the city, ... so that (the men in the border/castle) neither might buy nor sell. (1 Macc 12:36a)

(The foreign men) (continually) were hindered to go out and go into, out of the border/castle in Jerusalem into the district to buy and sell. … And they cried towards (the Jewish leader) Simon ‘to take the right hand’/’make an agreement’. And he ‘gave them’/’accepted it’ … and made the border/castle clean from the abominations. (1 Macc 13:49-50)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "The kingdom of the heavens is like a heap/treasure having been (and being) hidden in the field, which having found a man hid. And from/’owing to’ his joy he withdraws and sells all things as many as he has and buys that field.” (Matt 13:44)

Jesus came into, into the sanctuary, and (He) threw/drove out all the ones selling and buying in the sanctuary. (Matt 21:12a)

(Jesus) (continually) questioned (the man with an unclean spirit): “What (is) a name to you?” And he says to Him: “Legion (is) a name to me, for we are many.” (Mark 5:9)

(Jesus said to His disciples: “In the days of the Son of the Man it will be) entirely likewise as it became in the days of Lot ... they (continually) bought, they (continually) sold.” (Luke 17:28a)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) ”Let (now) the one having not (money) sell his garment and buy a dagger.” (Luke 22:36b; cf. the dagger of the Spirit, which is the word of God, see Eph 6:17)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

"The ‘paschal lamb’/Passover of the Jews (continually) was near, and Jesus ascended into/to (a disgraced) Jerosolyma/Jerusalem. And he found in the sanctuary the ones selling cattles/cattle and sheep and pigeons, and the smallcoin-changers being seated. And having made a scourge out of little ropes He threw all out, out of the sanctuary, both the sheep and the cattles/cattle. And He poured out the small coin/coins of the money-changers and turned down/over (א,* א) the tables. And to the ones selling pigeons He spoke: "Lift/’take away’ these things from here! Do not make the house of My Father a house of a trading-place." His disciples remembered that it has been (and is) written: "Zeal of/for Your house will eat me down/up." (John 2:13-17)

(Jesus') disciples had gone (and went) away into/to the city, in order that they might/would buy nourishments/food. (John 4:8)

I give you counsel to buy from the side of Me goldmetal ‘having been (and being) caused to glow’/’having glown (and glowing)’ out of fire, in order that you may be rich. (Rev 3:18a, “Laodicea”)

The number of (the messengers) was of the number of ten thousand of the number of ten thousand and the number of one thousand of the number of one thousand. (Rev 5:11b)

I beheld a little wild animal ascending out of the sea, having ten horns and seven heads and upon his horns ten diadems and against his heads a (P47; א,* א) ‘name of blasphemy’/’blasphemous name’. (Rev 13:1 or Rev 13:1b)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

During the period of War Communism that preceded the NEP (New Economic Policy, beginning in March,1921) the (Soviet) regime had gotten into an impasse where it could retain the support of the workers and keep the urban economy going only by forcibly requestioning grain from the peasants. But the regime was simply not powerful enough to pursue this policy indefinitely. The peasants had too many defenses. First of all there were so many of the peasants scattered over such a wide area that it was difficult to enforce demands for grain. Even if the Party mobilized enough strength to impose its policy of forceful requisition for a while, the peasants always had the defense of ceasing to produce. The Bolsheviks were simply not strong enough to win in a frontal attack on the peasants. It was this situation which convinced Lenin in 1921 that the Party must beat a strategic retreat and the NEP, with its more liberal policy toward the paesants, was introduced. ... By restoring a money economy, linking the arbitrary exactions from the peasant and permitting him to sell his grain in the open market, by letting him buy what he could from the urban economy through a trade system restored to private hands, the New Economic Policy would encourage the growth of food supplies and of agricultural raw material on the one hand, and would encourage the restoration of industry on the other. ... 1929 (Stalin) began a program to collectivize agriculture completely. ... This war with the peasants was not won easily. It was accomplished by the devices of terror and repression. ... The peasants were forced into collective farms willy-nilly; those who opposed the collectives were deported or shot. Altogether some 5 million persons were deported or shot. Collectivization was the most intensive experiment in repression and terror that the regime had ever engaged in up to that point. ... The peasants fought back with large-scale destruction of agricultural capital; they burned buildings, slaughtered their livestock, ate up whatever grain supplies were on hand. (Robert W. Campbell "Soviet Economic Power" p 12-13,23-24)

Christ was, according to Mark, together with the wild animals in the desert. . . . Now, my beloved ones, if Christ won in the desert without any means, so he has might to bring the ones being his to victory, even when they apparently lack all means. . . . Then do not despair, even if you think yourself be in a desert, abandoned by all and everything. Your saviour, who won in such a situation, can and will help also you. . . . . . . Hear what the apostel James says: If any of you lacks wisdom, let him ask of God, who gives to all men generously and without reproach, and it will be given to him. God gives without reproach - oh what a gracious and blessed promise. (Karl Palmberg "Ur livskällan. Tredje årgången." p 131-135,295; Karl Palmberg /1842-1920/ was from 1883 a Lutheran clergyman in Månsarp in the diocese of Växjö and president in Jönköpings Missionsförening (Missionary Society) 1886-1911; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: E. Bergström, Elisabeth Beskow, Per Olof Ekström, Runar Eldebo, P. Fjellstedt, Bo Giertz, Carl Grimberg, S.E. Hagberg, Fritz Hägg, C.M. Johansson, Gerhard Johansson, Rolf Karlbom, Hans Larsson, Astrid Lindgren, Martin Luther, Olaf Moe, Lars-Arne Norborg, Bertil Nordenstam, John Ongman, Viktor Rydberg, Bo Setterlind, Mikael Tellbe, Bertil Torekull.


Additional studies: Gen 32:27; 44:25-26; Matt 13:45; 14:15-16; 25:9-10; Mark 6:36-37; 11:15; Luke 8:30; 9:13; 17:28; 19:45; John 17:6,26; 1 Cor 7:30; Rev 5:9; 7:3; 14:9,11; 15:2; 18:11; 20:4.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-20; 2012-07-10; 2015-07-17)

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13:18a Here is the wisdom. The one having understanding, let him ‘put to the vote’/decide the number of the little wild animal ...

Word for word (12 words in the Greek text): Here the wisdom is: the-(one) having understanding let-(him)-put-to-the-vote the number (of)-the (of)-little-wild-animal


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Solomon aid to the Lord:) “Your slave (is) in a middle of Your people which You have taken out, a much/many-headed people which will not (be able to) be ‘put to the vote’/decided 'from a multitude'/'because of magnitude' (alternative reading).” (1 Kings 3:8, Greek OT)

(Job said:) "From where was the wisdom found/obtained?" (Job 28:20a, Greek OT)

(God) spoke to a man: "Behold, fear of God is wisdom, but the thing to go away from bad things is insight/understanding." (Job 28:28, Greek OT)

A spirit of God will ‘be brought’/come to rest against (a rod out of the root of Jesse); a spirit of wisdom and understanding, a spirit of counsel and stability, a spirit of knowledge and reverence. (Is 11:2, Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) “Who has gained knowledge of understanding of the Lord?” (Is 40:13a, Greek OT)

In every word of wisdom and insight ... (the king) found (Daniel and his three friends) tenfold (better) by the side of all ... the soothsayers being in all his kingdom. (Dan 1:20, Greek OT Theod)

(Solomon said: “With) the wisdom (the ones who were upon the earth) were saved.” (Wisdom of Solomon 9:18b)

(Solomon said:) “Wisdom delivered the ones she attended out of hardships.” (Wisdom of Solomon 10:9)

(Solomon said to the Lord:) ”Venomous arrows of teeth of dragons did not conquer Your sons.” (Wisdom of Solomon 16:10a)

(Solomon said:) “Lord, ‘according to’/concerning all things You have made Your people great and You have glorified and not ‘beheld over’/despised (it) standing by the side of (it) in every seasonable time and place.” (Wisdom of Solomon 19:22)

(Solomon said: ”The Lord) beheld and counted up the number out of (wisdom). He poured out insight and knowledge of understanding as rain.” (Sir 1:19a)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said: “the Lord) gave wisdom to the reverent.” (Sir 43:33b)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) ”Happy the one who will turn back in/with these things and having put/lain them against his heart he ‘is made’/becomes wise.” (Sir 50:28)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His Father:) "You have hidden these things from wise ones and intelligent ones and revealed them to infants." (Matt 11:25b)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Five out of (the virgins) (continually) were foolish and five sensible. For having taken the (א,*א) torches the foolish ones did not take olive-oil in company with themselves. But the sensible ones took olive-oil. (Matt 25:3-4a)

The wisdom of God spoke: ”I will dispatch away into/to them prophets and apostles, and (some) out of them they will kill and pursue.” (Luke 11:49)

(Jesus said to the crowds:) “Which one out of you, wanting to build a tower, does not, having sit down, defintely first ‘put to the vote’/decide the spending, if he has into/to a completion.” (Luke 14:28)

A certain judge (continually) was in a certain city, (a judge) fearing not God and not ‘turning in himself’/’giving heed to’ a/any man. A widow (continually) was in that city, and she (continually/repeatedly) came towards him saying: ”Procure me justice from my opponent!” … (The judge spoke in himself:) “At any rate 'because of'/because this widow's 'to offer'/gives me bother, I will procure justice for her ….” And the Lord said: “… May not/certainly not God make the procuration of justice of His chosen ones crying to Him day and night, and is He (not) long-suffering on/’for the sake of’ them? I say to you, that He will make their procuration of justice in/with quickness.” (Luke 18:2-3,5-8a)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “I will give you a mouth and a wisdom which all * (א,* א, A) the ones opposing you will not be able to stand against or speak against.” (Luke 21:15)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “These things beginning to become, bend/straighten yourselves up and lift against/up your heads, for the reason that your ‘redemption from’/release draws near.” And He spoke a parable to them: “Behold the fig and all the trees. When – according to the circumstances – they already/now may ‘throw before’/’put forth leaves’, seeing (it) you already have knowledge from/for yourselves that the summer is near. In this way and/also you, when – according to the circumstances – you may behold these things becoming, have knowledge that the kingdom of God is near.” (Luke 21:28-31)

(Jesus) opened throughout the understanding (of the disciples) to perceive the writings. (Luke 24:45)

(The twelve said to the multitude of the disciples:) “‘Inspect out of you seven males ... filled with spirit and wisdom.” (Acts 6:3a)

(Some in the synagogue) were (continually) not stable (enough) to stand against the wisdom and the spirit with which (Stephen) (continually) talked. (Acts 6:10)

... (God) gave (Joseph) joybringing (grace) and wisdom. (Acts 7:10a)

Moses was educated in every wisdom of (the) Egyptians. (Acts 7:22a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

To the one conquering * (א,*א) I will give out of (א,*א) the manna having been (and being) hidden and * (א,*א) a white voting-stone and against the voting-stone a new name is (and has been) written, which no one knows ‘if not’/except the one taking (it). (Rev 2:17b)

The number of (the messengers) was of the number of ten thousand of the number of ten thousand and the number of one thousand of the number of one thousand. (Rev 5:11b)

(The messengers said: “Worthy is the little Ram having been – and being – slaughtered) to take the ability and riches and wisdom.” (Rev 5:12b)

(The elders and the four living beings) said: “Amen, the blessing and the glory and the wisdom and the thankfulness and the honour and the ability and the stability to our God into the (coming) ages of the (coming) ages.” (Rev 7:12)

I beheld a little wild animal ascending out of the sea, having ten horns and seven heads and upon his horns ten diadems and against his heads a (P47; א,* א) ‘name of blasphemy’/’blasphemous name’. (Rev 13:1 or Rev 13:1b)

Here is the endurance and the faith of the holy ones. (Rev 13:10b)

(The mark is given) ... * (א*) in order that anyone may not be able to buy or sell, ‘if not’/except the one having the mark of the little wild animal or its name (א,* א) or the number of its name. (Rev 13:17)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 - about 1500

The rabbis (said) that people whose good deeds exceed their understanding are wise, indeed. (Michael E. Williams “Exodus-Joshua” p 100; Plaut p 595)

The only true wisdom is the outcome, not of pride, but of humility. The only wise teaching points not at itself, but beyond itself. (William Barclay ”New Testament Words” p 266)

"Quickly, quickly, the lantern", Jonathan panted, and I handed it to him, although my hands shook. The lantern must be hidden, smallest little streak of light was enough to reveal us. The black men who would fetch us - now they already was inside the cave. And also Tengil's men with lanterns in their hands. It became so terrifying light. But away in our corner there was dark. And Jonathan bent out seizing me in my arms and drew me in through the hole. Into the dark path behind there. And there we lay panting all three hearing the cries: "He has fled! He has fled!" (Astrid Lindgren "Bröderna Lejonhjärta" p 181; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

There is no word more difficult to define than wisdom. It means so much more than mere cleverness. ... In essence, wisdom is the ability to see things as God sees them. (William Barclay “The Acts of the Apostles” p 56 commenting Acts 7:10)

The crowd think that all what is abstruse is deep. The abstruse is the immature, unclear and often the false. The highest wisdom is simple, clear and goes direct through skull into the heart. (August Strindberg "En blå bok II s 684-685; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

The wise one lives in all times. . . . (He) imagines into the life of others, is glad together with the glad ones, grieves with the grieved ones, feels on behalf of mankind, has no age, no nation, the thing about which one now struggles, he sees be put aside, often without further consequence, tomorrow the knowledge of the day is only strew, in which something else grows, even delusions are suitable for fertilizers. . . . The mayfly is exalted before trifles and thinks that new truths can be sought at the telegram part in the breakfast paper; and when a new star is discovered, he thinks that the others will die down, but the new ones have up to now all died down. . . . Sometimes withdraw in your tent, out in the desert, so you will see the stars in daylight. (August Strindberg "En blå bok I" s 71; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Seven years have gone after we buried Emil Kléen. . . . I, who was present at the great separation, saw how easy it was, when he, almost without body, fell asleep - or wake up, which is said to be the same thing. And for me it was a good learning to see how independently his spirit lived when the material substrate almost was consumed. His senses were extinguished, the hearing disappeared, the sight were weakened, and almost without nourishment there lay a skeleton of a child and spoke: beautifully, wisely, goodnaturedly, thankfully.When he no longer could speak, he took up a book pointing at a page: It was (H.C.) Andersen's fairy-tale "The stone of the wise", the stone which was found by the blind girl. Yes, lapis philosophorum, it was not only to make gold, and not to lengthen the life - it was something else! (August Strindberg "Förord till Emil Kléens Valda Dikter" p 93-94; October 1906; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

My stagger in fact consisted in an unneccessary search for what lies so near and what you have formulated so well: all in religion, how mad it ever looks, is wisdom, everything; and philosophy is only shit! Where it does not agree with or explain religion! This summer I have in 300 pages, which never will become printed, fixed this concerning religion! Now I have anchor bottom, and now I say as Luther, that neither the Pope in Rome or the devil in hell will cheat me out in any philosophic currents! But one must be moderate in religion as in work and alcohol, otherwise one becomes - pietist or drunkard. I foresee a beautiful old age after this. Certainly one does not get any young auditorium when wisdom comes with the years; when one was young and silly one had the seats full, but I nevertheless think that it turns now, when the zoological view of life has made cessation and the veterinary philosophy has gone and become shaved. (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev XV april 1904-april 1907 p 329-330; letter 1906-12-25 to Carl Larsson; the 300 pages were printed as "En blå bok" autumn 1907; concerning the words about religion and philosophy it is alluded to a pronouncement by Carl Larsson, who in his book "Spadarfvet" says: "I have come to this opinion, that all religions - they may be however unreasonable - in reality are right but all philosophies - however keenly and brilliantly they are thought - are wrong."; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

"God will assist us", the woman said. "We are alone among beasts of prey and snakes", the man said. "We have not food and not water. How will God be able to assist us?" He pulled his clothes of despair and pressed his face against the ground. He was hopeless as a man with a deadly wound in his heart. The woman sat upright with the hands folded over her knees. But her glances out to the desert spoke about a disconsolation without boundaries. The palm heard, that the melancholy soughing in its leaves became higher and higher. The woman might also have heard it, for she turned her eyes upwards towards the crown of the tree. And in the same moment she unintentionally lifted her arms and hands. "Oh, dates, dates!" she cried. . . . The man already had seen how inaccessible the date-bunches hang. He did not even lift his head. He asked his wife, that she would not long for the impossible. But the child, who had toddled round for himself playing with sticks and straw, had heard the cry of his mother. . . . He wondered and pondered how he would bring down the dates. . . . At last a smile went over his face. He had found the means. He went up to the palm, caressed it with his little hand saying in a sweetly childlike voice: "Palm, bend down! Palm, bend down!" . . . And the palm knew, that the little one was it superior. It could not resist him. . . . When the child had taken enough (of the date-bunches) and the tree still lay on the ground, the child again went up, caressed it saying in the most sweet voice: "Palm, rise! Palm, rise!" And the high tree still and reverent rose its elastic stem, all while the leaves played like harps. . . . But the man and the woman knelt praising God. "You have seen our agony and taken it away. You are the strong one bending the stem of the palm as a reed. For whom of our enemies would we be afraid. When your strength guards us?" (Selma Lagerlöf "Flykten till Egypten" p 47-48; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

(1900 July) 15th Sunday. Read in the Bible: II Chron. 20:20: "Believe in the Lord Your God so you will be safe; and believe his prophets, so you will have happiness." (II Chron.) 26:5: "And they sought God . . . And as long as he sought the Lord, God let him well go." This is the sum of all wisdom, which life has learnt me. If the ones being "pursued" by misfortune wanted to do the experiment. (August Strindberg "Ockulta dagboken" p 118; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

(1899 November) 30th Carl XII's day. . . . Had in the night a dream that a lion was in the room where I was, but when I afraid wanted out, the key was taken out of the lock; then I tried to take out the windows, began to move the flower-pots away . . . but stopped myself at the thought: The one having formerly helped me out of dangers, is the only one being able to help me now; I stopped and got helped. (August Strindberg "Ockulta rummet" p 103; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

It was Whit Sunday, of which I had not known. The squalid office, facing the dark and dirty street, gave me a pain in heart. Memories from my childhood were awoken: Whitsuntide, the festival of rapture, when the little church, adorned with greenery, with tulips and lilies and lilies of the valley, opened for the communion children, the girls dressed in white like angels . . . the organ . . . the bell-ringing . . . . . . Went so out to walk in the churchyard of Montparnasse, where a peace fell into my soul with mild thoughts and a remorse such as I never had experienced. O crux ave spes unica! With these words the memorial stones gave a prediction of my fate. The end with the love! The end with gain and marks of honour! The path of the cross, the only thing leading to Wisdom! (August Strindberg "Inferno" p 24; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

The grand master: So I welcome you in this eternal and brilliant club! And I do this with the words of the poet, when he says in the fifth chapter, the seventeenth verse: Democritus laughed at everything, Heraclitus cried about everything; the wise one takes a cup in all circumstances! Cheers! Fellows! (August Strindberg "Herr-Ceremonielet för 'Klubben' Receptioner" p 12; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

They sat after cleared evening table, the father with his three newspapers, Aftonbladet, Allehanda and Posttidningen, Johan with a school-book. The old man took a rest. "What is it you read?" he asked. Philosophy!" Long pause. The boys always called logic philosophy. "Of what kind is philosophy, in fact?" "The science about the thing to think!" "Hm! Must one need to learn to think! Let me look at that!" He put off his spectacles and read. "Do you think the farmers in the Riksdag (he was one hating farmers, but now he needed the farmers for the argumentation), do you think the farmers in the Riksdag have learnt philosophy? That I do not think, but nevertheless they come down on the professors like anything. You read so much unneccessary!" And with this the philosophy was dismissed. . . . In order to check (Johan) in his growth . . . the confirmation was postponed. He read theology in school and knew the gospels in Greek, but he was not ready for the confirmation examination! . . . (And) Johan was as skilful in the natural sciences elected in the club "The friends of the natural science", and as the only one from his class this was a great honour. (August Strindberg "Tjänstekvinnans son" p 122-124; the sixties of the nineteenth century; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

(Johan) told (the mother) out of the books about nature and history and she who never had got knowledge, listened in a devotional spirit. But when she had listened for a long while, either she now needed to raise herself or really feared the wisdom of the world, she came along with the only knowledge being able to make man happy. She spoke about Christ; Johan recognized well that speech, but the mother understood to say it to him personally. . . . There was something unhealthy in her views, and he thought himself observe the dislike of the uncultivated one to culture. Why this long curriculum in school? He answered himself, when it nevertheless was regarded to be nothing in comparison with this dusky doctrines about Jesus' blood? He also knew that the mother gathered this speech out of conversations with wet-nurses, virgins in sewing-circles and old women going to syrupy church. Strangely, he thought, that these would be in charge of the most highest wisdom, of which neither the priest in church or the teacher in school had an idea. He began to find that these humble ones were exceedingly spiritually proud and that the way to wisdom through Jesus was a made up short cut. (August Strindberg "Tjänstekvinnans son" p 84-85; the sixties of the nineteenth century; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

"Moreover: who are the wisest?" (doctor Svante asked). "The ones who regard themselves such? Then we have to seek them among the most puffed up and snobbish among men. The really wise have, I think, a little of the modesty hindering them to reduce themselves to that flock screaming: 'W e have the knowledge, w e shall reign.' The really wise will never point out themselves as such ones. It is for this sake one has thought oneself find an outer distinctive mark characterizing wisdom. It should namely preferably be found among those being rich of knowledge. Now it is true that richness of knowledge on one hand and wisdom on the other hand is different things, but the latter often implies the former." (Viktor Rydberg "Vapensmeden" p 112; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


about 1500 and time before

By the unrighteous judge (Luke 18:2-5), who fears not God, neither regards man, (Jesus) means without doubt Antchrist, as he is a son of the devil and a vessel of Satan. (Hippolytus, The Ante-Nicene Fathers V:216)

Universe, Pythagoras says, is grounded on the numbers. And Boethius utters: "Everything which was created in the beginning of the times, were formed after the number relations, which lay as prototypes in the spirit of the creator." It is also to us a decided thing, that the numbers consist of greater and more effective energies than the bodily things, for the former ones do not constitute a blend of substances, but can, as purely formal things, stand in nearest contact with the ideas of the divine reason. This also is acknowledged of the early fathers: of Jerome, Augustinus, Ambrosius, Athanasius, Beda and others, and is the basis of the words in the Revelation: "The one having reason, he finds out the number of the beast!" (Viktor Rydberg "Medeltidens magi" p 86; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Ewert Amnefors, Nils Andrén, Johann Arndt, Yngve Brilioth, Sven Danell, Stefan Einhorn, Emilia Fogelklou, Erik Gustaf Geijer, Bo Giertz, Carl Grimberg, Richard Grügiel-Adolfsson, Peter Halldorf, Krister Hanell, Lars Hartman, Alf Henrikson, Ludvig Holberg, Fride Hylander, Håkan Håkansson, Irenaeus, Liselotte J Andersson, Alf Johansson, E. Judah, Johan Henrik Kellgren, Martin Luther, H. Myrbäck, Stephen Neill, Fredrik Nielsen, Hedvig Charlotta Nordenflycht, Carl-Adam Nycop, Martin P:n Nilsson, G.H. Pember, Lewi Pethrus, Gösta Sandberg, E. Sanders, Harry Sjöman, Erik Johan Stagnelius, Sven Stolpe, A.M. Strinnholm, Edvard Thermaenius, Thomas Thorild, Anton Tjechov, Zacharias Topelius, P. Waldenström, Albin Widön.


My own comments and speculations:

The Synoptic background in Luke 24:45 indicates, that the number of the little wild animal shall be sought in the holy writings. Cf. My own comments and speculations to Rev 13:18b.


Paul said to the believers in Corinth: "Where (is) a wise one? Where (is) a scribe? Where (is) a debater of this age? Has not God definitely made the wisdom of the adornment/’adorned world’ foolish.” (1 Cor 1:20)

Paul said to the believers in Corinth: “Your faith may not be in a wisdom of men, however/but in an ability of God. But we talk a wisdom in/among the ones being perfect, but a wisdom not of this age, nor of the leaders of this age, the ones being made inactive.” (1 Cor 2:5-6)

Paul said to the believers in Corinth: “Who has gained knowledge of an understanding of (the) Lord, who will conclude to Him? But we have an understanding of Christ.” (1 Cor 2:16)

We know that 'every the'/everyone having been (and being) begotten out of God does not miss (His mark), however/but that the one having been begotten out of God keeps/’takes care of’ himself (א,* א), and the evil one does not touch him. (1 John 5:18)


Greek words:

nous (understanding) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Luke 24:45; 1 Cor 2:16; Rev 13:18 – Wisdom of Solomon 4:12; 9:15; Susanna v 9; Rom 1:28; 7:23,25; 11:34; 12:2; 14:5; 1 Cor 1:10; 14:14-15,19; Eph 4:17,23; Phil 4:7; Col 2:18; 2 Thess 2:2; 1 Tim 6:5; 2 Tim 3:8; Tit 1:15; Rev 17:9.

psêfizô (put to the vote) Luke 14:28; Rev 13:18.


Additional studies:

Ex 36:1; Deut 4:6; 2 Chron 1:10-12; 2:12; Job 9:4; Prov 10:13; 14:33; 17:24; 23:23; Ezek 28:4; Rev 17:9.


G. Ahlström "The House of Wisdom"; Svensk Exegetisk Årsbok 44 (1979): 74-76.

Henri Blocher "The Fear of the Lord as the 'Principle' of Wisdom"; Tyndale Bulletin 28 (1977): 3-28.

Gordon Haddon Clark "Wisdom in First Corinthians"; Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 15.4 (Fall 1972): 197-205.

Michael V. Fox "Ideas of Wisdom in Proverbs 1-9"; Journal of Biblical Literature 116.4 (1997): 613-633.

Jeffrey S. Lamp "Wisdom in Col 1:15-20: Contribution And Significance"; Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 41.1 (1998): 45-53.

Dan G. McCartney "The wisdom of James the just"; Southern Baptist Journal of Theology 4.3 (Fall 2000): 52-64.

W. Stanford Reid "The Beginning of Wisdom"; The Evangelical Quarterly 48.3 (July-Sept. 1976): 144-153.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-20; 2012-07-10; 2015-07-18)

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13:18b ... for it is a number of a man, * (P47, א,* א) six hundred and sixtysix (א,* א: feminine).

Word for word (7 words in the Greek text): (a)-number for (of)-(a)-man is, six-hundred (and)-sixty six.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Lamech spoke to his women:) “It has been (and is) procured justice seven times ‘out of’/for Cain, but ‘out of’/for Lamech seventy seven times.” (Gen 4:24, Greek OT)

Noah (continually/-) was six hundred years, and the inundation of water became upon the earth. (Gen 7:6, Greek OT)

Jesse begot his first-born Eliab ... Azom/Ozem the sixth, David the seventh. (1 Chron 2:13a,15, Greek OT)

Number of males of people of Israel … sons of Bebai 623, sons of Azgad 3222, sons of Adonikam 666 (masculine), sons of Bigvai 2056. (Ezra 2:2b,11-14, Greek OT)

Males of the people of Israel … sons of Bebai 628, sons of Azgad 2322, sons of Adenikam 667 (masculine) … sons of Bagoi/Bigvai 2067. (Neh 7:7b,16-19, Greek OT)

Leaders of the people: … Azgad, Bebai, Adonijah, Bagoi/Bigvai. (Neh 10:14a,15b-16a, Greek OT)

Six will be a saying being watched (by) a son of perdition. (Prov 24:22aa, Greek OT)

(The king of Babylon) … made a gold image, its height sixty cubits and its breadth six cubits. (Dan 3:1a, Greek OT)

(Tobit) (continually/-) was fiftyeight years, when he perished the eyes, and after eight years he ‘saw up’/’received sight’. (Tobit 4:2a, BA)

(Solomon said to the Lord:) “You have arranged every thing throughout (with) measure and number and standing-place/balance.” (Wisdom of Solomon 11:20b)

(The) life of a male (is) in a number of days, and/but the days of Israel are numberless. (Sir 37:25)


The Latter Revelation:

(Peter asked Jesus:) "Lord, how many times shall my brother miss (the mark of God) into/against me, and I shall let him be? Till seven times?" Jesus says to him: "I do not say to you ‘till seven times’, however/but ‘till seventy times seven’." (Matt 18:21b-22)

(The rich man, who had not taken care of the beggarly man) spoke (to Abraham:) "I so ask you, father, in order that you may send (Lazarus) into my father's house, for I have five brothers, so that he throughout/solemnly may be a witness to them, in order that and/also they may not come into this place of the torment." (Luke 16:27-28)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

Jesus (א,* א, A) says to (the woman): “Withdraw, ‘raise your voice’/call your male and come hitherward.” The woman answered and spoke * (א*, A): “I have not a male.” Jesus says to her: “Finely you spoke, that you (א,*א) have not a male, for five males you had, and the one whom you now have is not your male. This you have truly (א,* א) spoken (and speak).” (John 4:16-18)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

Christian readers would have noticed the contrast between the number of the beast, 666, and the number of Jesus, 888 (the sum of the Greek letters Jesous). In 888 could be seen suberabundant perfection, the three-fold 7+1. On the other hand 666 indicates the three-fold failure to reach perfection, 7-1. (J. Massyngberde Ford "Revelation" p 226)

It was at that time we saw them. A unit of Tengil's men, six spear-men on black horses. They emerged where the path bent round a mountain wall and came trotting straight towards us. "Now it is a question of life or death", Jonathan said. (Astrid Lindgren "Bröderna Lejonhjärta" p 188; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

I have been engaged with researches upon the tables of the patriarchs and upon Genesis. From this research trip I now have returned, and it has, as I think, not been without curious results. . . . Who, besides I, the undersigned, takes interest in Methusalem's number 969 and Lamech's 777? (Viktor Rydbergs brev II " Brev från Viktor Rydberg 1855-1881" p 64; letter 1869-03-22 to Hans Forssell; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

There is in this beast, when he comes, a recapitulation made of all sorts of iniquity and of every deceit, in order that all apostate power, flowing into and being shut up in him, may be sent into the furnace of fire. Fittingly, therefore, shall his name possess the number six hundred and sixty-six, since he sums up in his person all the commixture of wickedness which took place previous to the deluge, due to the apostasy of the angels. For Noah was six hundred years old when the deluge came upon the earth. ... (and) that image which was set up by Nebuchadnezzar had indeed a height of sixty cubits, while the breadth was six cubits. ... (These numbers) indicate the number of the name of that man in whom is concentrated the whole apostasy of six thousand years. (Irenaeus, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol I, p 558)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Alf Ahlberg, Roland Eckerby, Carl Grimberg, Jonas Lie, Eva Londos, Fritiof Nilsson Piraten, Sven-Erik Pernler, Ellery Queen j:r, Joanne Kathleen Rowling, Elisabeth Sandlund, Wislawa Szymborska, Anton Tjechov, Paul Wern, Ewert Wrangel, Tore Zetterholm, Emile Zola.


My own comments and speculations:

Among those who returned to Jerusalem after the captivity in Babylon there were - according to Ezra - 666 who had a leader with the name Adonikam. This name means: "My lord has come up". So the 666 had a leader who had "a lord who had come up". This lord resembles the four little wild animals coming up from the sea (Dan 7:3). According to Nehemiah there were 667 who had a leader with the name Adenikam. He also writes about a member Adonia, who Ezra doesn't mention. The name Adonia means "The Lord is my lord". And later this Adonia, who had earlier not even been counted among the members of the tribe, would prove to be the foremost of all. As the leader of his tribe he signed the document of Nehemiah's covenant (Neh 10:1). Among the men of the little wild animal there also were future leaders-kings who had the Lord as their Lord.

In the number 667 we have the figure 7, which shows that the figure 6 is not the last figure in the dealing of God. Ozem was the sixth son of Jesse according to 1 Chron 2:15. His name can mean “strength” or “wrath”. This Ozem was not the chosen one of God but David, the seventh and the welcomed one.

In a restoration perspective we observe that the Sinaiticus reading has 666 in feminine contrasting the masculine in the OT. Together the masculine and the feminine is a number of a man. Compare with how Babylon is described as a woman in Rev 17-18.

Cf. also with My own comments and speculations to Rev 13:18a.


Greek words:

(h)exakosioi (six hundred) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Rev 13:18 – 1 Macc 6:42; 2 Macc 10:31.


Additional studies:


Oliver O'Donovan "The Political Thought of the Book of Revelation"; Tyndale Bulletin 37 (1986): 61-94.

Adylson Valdes "Number 666 and the Twelve Tribes of Israel"; Revista Biblica 68:3-4 (2006): 191-214.

P.J. Williams "P 115 and the Number of the Beast"; Tyndale Bulletin 58.1 (2007): 151-154.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-20; 2012-07-10; 2015-07-21)

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