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Chapter 12

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12:1a And a great sign was beheld in the heaven ...

Word for word (7 words in the Greek text): And (a)-sign great was-beheld in the heaven


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Moses said to Israel:) “The Lord gave great and evil signs and omens in the very eyes of us in Egypt, in/with Pharaoh and in/with his house.” (Deut 6:22, Greek OT)

(The prophet said to the house of David:) “The Lord Himself will give you a sign.” (Is 7:14a, Greek OT)

(The king said:) “Great and stable (are the signs and the omens of the highest God)!” (Dan 3:33a or 4:3a, Greek OT)

(The false gods) may not/certainly not in/among nations show signs in heaven. (Epistle of Jeremiah v 66a)


The Latter Revelation:

Soothsayers from upstickings/east became to the side of into (a disgraced) Jerosolyma/Jerusalem, saying: ”Where is the One having been brought forth, a King of the Jews? For we have beheld His star in the upsticking/east, and we have come to prostrate ourselves before Him (in honour of Him).” (Matt 2:1b-2)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “The sign of the Son of the Man will ‘be brought’/come to light in heaven.” (Matt 24:30a)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “It/there will be great signs from heaven.” (Luke 21:11b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Jesus) gave a sign having dispatched away (the revelation) through His messenger to His slave John. (Rev 1:1b)


My own comments and speculations:

about 2000 and time before

In the Gospel of John we specially meet the many signs (John 11:47; 12:37; 20:30). Here in the Revelation we specially meet the great signs (Rev 12:1; 13:13; 15:1).


Cf. My own comments and speculations in Rev 12:15-16 to the Greek word ”potamoforêtos”.


Additional studies: Deut 29:3; Esther 10:3f(F6).


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-14; 2012-07-06; 2014-04-24)

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12:1b ... a woman being (and having been) wrapped up in the sun and (with) the moon below her feet and upon her head a crown of twelve stars ...

Word for word (19 words in the Greek text): (a)-woman being-(and-having-been)-wrapped-up-in the sun, and the moon below the feet her and upon the head her (a)-crown (of)-stars twelve.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Joseph said to his eleven brothers:) “I dreamt a dream . . . just as (if) the sun and the moon and eleven stars prostrated before me (in adoration of me).” (Gen 37:9b, Greek OT)

(Deborah and Barak said: “May) the ones welcoming (the Lord be) as a way out of a sun in its ability.” (Judges 5:31a, Greek OT, B)

(David said:) “The Lord spoke to my Lord: ‘Be seated ‘out of’/at My right (parts), till I – according to the circumstances – may put Your enemies a footstool of Your feet.’” (Ps 110:1, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said:) “Praise (the Lord), sun and moon. Praise Him all the stars and the light.” (Ps 148:3, Greek OT)

(Solomon said about the woman:) “Who (is) this bending ‘out of’/out as if (she was) an early morning, fine as a moon, chosen as the sun, an amazement/horror as being (and having been) a detachment of soldiers?” (Song of Solomon 6:10, Greek OT)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “A sun sticking up in highest things of the Lord (is) the beauty of a good woman in the adornment of her habitation.” (Sir 26:16)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “A description of reverent ones (is) ‘through every’/always wisdom, but the thoughtless one is changed as a moon.” (Sir 27:11)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples/bride:) “Days will come when – according to the circumstances – the bridegroom may be lifted away from (you).” (Mark 2:20a)

(Jesus said:) “David himself spoke in the Holy Spirit: ‘The (א,* א; A) Lord spoke to my Lord: “Be seated out of My right (parts), till I – according to the circumstances – may put Your enemies (as) a footstool (א,* א; A) of/for Your feet.”’” (Mark 12:36)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Signs will be in sun and moon and constellations.” (Luke 21:25a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(The ones who have not stained their garments) will walk about in company with Me in white (things), because they are worthy. The one conquering will in this way be wrapped up in white garments. (Rev 3:5a, ”Sardis”)

I give you counsel to buy from the side of Me white garments, in order that you may wrap up yourself in (them) and (that) the shame of your nakedness may not be made visible. … (Rev 3:18b, ”Laodicea”)

(Elders) being (and having been) wrapped up in white (things) (א,*א) and (with) golden crowns against their heads. (Rev 4:4b)

The One being seated against (the white horse) having a bow and a crown was given to Him. ... (Rev 6:2b)

When It opened the fifth seal, I beheld below the sacrificial altar the souls of the men (א,* א) having been (and being) slaughtered because of the saying of God and because of the evidence which they (continually) had. (Rev 6:9)

And the sun became black as a sack of hair, and the whole moon became as blood and the stars of the heaven fell against (א,* א) the earth. (Rev 6:12b-13a)

(I beheld a much/many-headed crowd) standing ‘in the very eyes of’/before the throne and in the very eyes of the little Ram, being (and having been) wrapped up in white dresses and (with) date-twigs in their hands. (Rev 7:9b)

One * (א,* א) of the elders answered, saying to me: “These, the ones being (and having been) wrapped up in the white dresses, who are they, and from where have they come?” (Rev 7:13)

The fourth messenger sounded the trumpet. And the third of the sun was struck and the third of the moon and the third of the stars, in order that the third of them might be gloomed, and (that) the day might not ‘be brought to’/give light (for) the third of it and the night likewise. (Rev 8:12)

I beheld another stable messenger descending out of the heaven, being (and having been) wrapped up in a cloud. (Rev 10:1a)

I will give (authority) to my two witnesses, and they will prophesy (for) one thousand two hundred (and) sixty days, being (and having been) wrapped up in sack. (Rev 11:3)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

Now (the daughter of the king of the Swedes) Astrid lifted her eyes to the face of (her man the Norwegian king) Olof. Then she raised an outcry. "King Olof, your face shines!" she cried. While Astrid spoke, the Lord God had opened the eyes of king Olof for a vision. All the stars of heaven he saw leave their places flying around heaven as swarming bees. But suddenly all of them had gathered over his head and formed a crown surrounded with splendour. "Astrid", he said in a trembling voice, "God has spoken to me. I shall become God's saint. . . . Now the glory of heaven is given to me. If you are weak, I am the hero of the Lord." . . . And in great lenience he lifted up the trembling figure, and tenderly supporting her . . . he returned with her to the demesne of the Crown. (Selma Lagerlöf "Drottningar i Kungahälla" p 64-65; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Leif Carlsson, Erik Gustaf Geijer, Vaclav Havel, Lars Levi Laestadius, Olaus Magnus, Fredrik Nielsen, Viktor Rydberg, Jaroslav Seifert, Isaac Basjevis Singer, N.P. Wetterlund, Ernst Wigforss.


My own comments and speculations:

Cf. My own comments and speculations in Rev 12:15-16 to the Greek word ”potamoforêtos”.

Concerning “the sun … the moon … stars”, see also Rev 6:12b-13a and Rev 8:12a. Concerning “upon her head a crown”, see also Rev 4:4b.


Additional studies:

Deut 4:19; 17:3; Ps 104:2; Eccl 12:2; Is 54:5-6; Jer 3:6-10,20; Ezek 16:8; Hos 2:19-20; Mark 2:21; 12:36; Luke 5:34-35; 8:43; 20:43 Acts 2:35; Heb 1:13; 10:13.


M.J. Selvidge "Powerful and powerless women in the Apocalypse"; Neotestamentica 26:1 (1992): 157-168.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-14; 2012-07-06; 2015-04-27)

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12:2 ... and ‘having in womb’/’being with child’. And she shouts, being in pains of child-birth and being tormenting to bring forth.

Word for word (10 words in the Greek text): and in womb having, and (she)-shouts being-in-pains and being-tormenting (to)-bring-forth.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

To the woman (the Lord) spoke: "Making full I make your sorrows and your sighing full. In sorrows you shall bring forth children." (Gen 3:16a, Greek OT)

(The prophet said to the house of David:) “The Lord Himself will give you a sign. Behold, the virgin will 'arrive in a womb'/'be with child' and bring forth a Son.” (Is 7:14a, Greek OT)

(This song will be sung in the land of Judas:) "As the (woman) being in pains of child-birth draws near the thing to bring forth and on/in her pains of child-birth shouted out, in this way we became for Your welcomed one because of ‘Your fear’/’fear of You’, Lord." (Is 26:17, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) “Before (Zion) being in pains of child-birth to bring forth, before the hardship of the pains of child-birth come/comes, she fled out/away and brought forth a male.” (Is 66:7, Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) “I heard a voice as of (a woman) in pains of child-birth, Your sighing (was) as of one giving birth for the first time, a voice of daughter Zion.” (Jer 4:31a, Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) “Was it/there not/really (continually) not a king (among) you, or has your counsel perished, because pains of child-birth has got entirely power over you as (a woman) bringing forth? Be in pains of child-birth and behave as a male and draw near, daughter Zion, as (a woman) bringing forth, for the reason that you may now came out, out of the city, and you shall pitch a tent in a plain, and you shall arrive till Babylon.” (Micah 4:9b-10a, Greek OT)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said: “The people of God) were in pains of child-birth as the ones bringing forth.” (Sir 48:19b)


The Latter Revelation:

(The Lord said to the prophet:) “Behold, the virgin will ‘arrive in a womb’/’be with child’ and bring forth a Son.” (Matt 1:23a)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Nation will rise against nation and kingdom against kingdom. It will be shakings and famines (א,* א) ‘according to’/throughout (various) places. All these things (are) a beginning of pains of child-birth.” (Matt 24:7-8)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Woe to the ones having (child) in womb and the ones sucking in those days!” (Matt 24:19)

To Elizabeth her time of the thing to bring forth (a child) was fulfilled. (Luke 1:57a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “When – according to the circumstances – the woman may bring forth, she has sorrow, because her hour has come. But when – according to the circumstances – she may beget/bear the young boy or girl, she no longer recollect the oppression, because of the joy that a man has been begotten/born into the adornment/’adorned world’.” (John 16:21)

(The souls of the slaughtered witnesses) shouted (with) a great/loud voice. (Rev 6:10a)

(The messenger) shouted (with) a great/loud voice to the four messengers, to whom it was given to them to act unrighteously (against) the earth and the sea. (Rev 7:2b)

(The much/many-headed crowd) shout (with) a great/loud voice, saying: “The saving (belongs) to our God, the One being seated on the throne and to the little Ram into the (coming) ages of the (coming) ages. Amen (א*).” (Rev 7:10)

(The judicial authority) was given to (the locusts), in order that they might not kill them, however/but in order that they will be tormented (for) five months. Their tormenting (was) as a tormenting of a scorpion, when it – according to the circumstances – may hurt a man. (Rev 9:5)

(The messenger) shouted (with) a great/loud voice, just as a lion lows, and when he had shouted, * (א*) seven peals of thunder talked (with their) 'of selves'/own voices. (Rev 10:3)

They send (א*) gifts to one another, because these prophets, the two, tormented the ones dwelling upon the earth. (Rev 11:10b)


Greek words:

gastêr (womb) (in the NT + one example in the Apocrypha) Matt 1:23; 24:19; Rev 12:2 – 2 Macc 7:27; Matt 1:18; Mark 13:17; Luke 1:31; 21:23; 1 Thess 5:3; Tit 1:12.

ôdinô (be in pains of child-birth) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Sir 48:19; Rev 12:2 – Sir 19:11; Gal 4:19,27.


Additional studies: Is 21:3; 51:2; 54:1; Jer 13:21; 30:6; 49:24; 50:43; Matt 1:21; Mark 13:8; Rev 18:18-19.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-14; 2012-07-06; 2015-04-28)

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12:3 And another sign was beheld in the heaven. And behold, a fire-coloured great dragon having seven heads and ten horns and against his heads seven diadems.

Word for word (25 words in the Greek text; the sequence according to Sinaiticus): and was-beheld another sign in the heaven. and behold (a)-dragon fire-coloured great having heads seven and horns ten and against the heads his seven diadems.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The Lord said to Moses:) “If – according to the circumstances – Pharaoh may talk towards you, saying: ‘Give us a sign or an omen’, you shall speak to your brother Aaron: ‘Take the rod and toss it against the earth opposite Pharaoh and opposite his attendants/servants, and it will be a dragon.’” ... And (the rod) became a dragon. (Ex 7:9,10b, Greek OT)

(Mordecai beheld in a dream) two great dragons. (Esther 1:1ea/A5a, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said to God:) “You crushed the heads of the dragons upon the water.” (Ps 74:13b, Greek OT)

(Jerusalem said:) “As a dragon a king of Babylon drank me down. … " (Jer 51:34b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to the prophet:) “Speak: ‘This is what the Lord says: “Behold, I (am) against Pharaoh, the great dragon, who is seated in a middle of his rivers, saying: ‘The rivers are for me, and I have made them.’”’” (Ezek 29:3, Greek OT)

(Daniel looked at a) little wild animal (having) four heads. … After these things … (he looked at) a fourth little wild animal … It (continually) had ten horns. (Dan 7:6b-7, Greek OT)

(Ptolemaios) put two diadems around, around his head, the one of Egypt and (the one) of Asia. (1 Macc 11:13b)

(In Babylon) it/there (continually) was a great dragon, and the Babylonians (continually) revered it (in adoration). (Bel and the Dragon v 23, Theod)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to the scribes and the Pharisees:) “Serpents, products of adders, how may you flee from the judgment of Gehenna?” (Matt 23:33)

Having plaited a crown out of thorns (the soldiers) put (it) upon, upon the head of (Jesus) and a reed in His right hand, and having fallen down in front of Him on their knees they ‘jested with’/mocked Him saying: “Rejoice, the (א,* א, A) King of the Jews!” (Matt 27:29)

(Jesus said to the seventy:) “Behold, I have given (and give) you the (judicial) authority to tread above serpents and scorpions and against every ability of the enemy, and nothing will (א,* א, A) * (א*) act unrighteously (against) you.” (Luke 10:19)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Elders) being (and having been) wrapped up in white (things) (א,*א) and (with) golden crowns against their heads. (Rev 4:4b)

(The little Ram) having seven horns and seven eyes, which are the seven spirits of God, having been (and being) dispatched away into every/all the earth. (Rev 5:6b)

I beheld, and behold (א,* א), another fire-coloured horse came out. (Rev 6:4a)

And against the heads of (of the locusts like horses were) as crowns like (in) gold, and their faces (were) as (the) faces of men. (Rev 9:7b)

A great sign was beheld in the heaven. (Rev 12:1a)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: Wilh. Dreier, Linnéa Elmblad, Urban Elmblad, Hilding Fagerberg, Jane Fredlund, Hillis Grane, Carl Grimberg, Jan Guillou, Krister Hanell, Dick Harrison, Vilhelm Moberg, Martin P:n Nilsson, Lewi Pethrus, Joanne Kathleen Rowling, Alexander Solsjenitsyn, J.R.R. Tolkien, P. Waldenström, Allan Wickström.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “sign was beheld in the heaven”, see Rev 12:1a.


Greek words:

diadêma (diadem) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) 1 Macc 11:13; Rev 12:3 – Esther 1:11; 2:17; 8:15; Is 62:3; 1 Macc 6:15; 11:54; 13:32; Wisdom of Solomon 5:16; 18:24; Sir 11:5; 47:6; Rev 13:1; 19:12.

drakôn (dragon) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Bel and the Dragon v 23; Rev 12:3 – Esther 1:1e(A5); 10:3d(F4); Sir 25:16; Bel and the Dragon v 26-28(27-28); Rev 12:4,7,9,13,16-17; 13:2,4,11; 20:2.


Additional studies: Ex 7:12; Deut 32:33; Ps 91:13; Is 14:29; 27:1; 51:9; 62:3; Dan 7:20,24; 2 Cor 11:3; Rev 13:1; 15:1; 17:3,7,9-12,16.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-14; 2012-07-06; 2015-04-29)

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12:4a And his tail drags the third of the stars of the heaven and threw them into/to the earth.

Word for word (17 words in the Greek text): and the tail his drags the third (of)-the (of)-stars (of)-the (of)-heaven and threw them into the earth.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The Lord/Moses said concerning Israel:) “Teeth of little wild animals I will dispatch away into/among them, dragging (them) in company with passion upon earth/land.” (Deut 32:24b, Greek OT)

(The horn) will be heightened till the stars of the heaven, and (some) from/of the stars fell (Theod) against the earth. (Dan 8:10a, Greek OT)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples: “Straightaway after the great oppression) the sun will be gloomed, and the moon will not give its splendour, and the stars will fall out of (א,* א) the heaven, and the abilities/powers of the heavens will move to and fro.” (Matt 24:29b)

(The disciples) shut/closed together a much/great multitude of fishes/fish, but their nets (continually/repeatedly) broke through/asunder in pieces. (Luke 5:6b, cf. John 21:8)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

The other disciples came in the little boat, for they (continually) were not far from the earth/land, however/but as from two hundred cubits, dragging the net of/with the fishes/fish. (John 21:8)

The stars of the heaven fell against (א,* א) the earth. (Rev 6:13a)

The third of the earth was burned down, and the third of the trees were burned down, and every light green grass was burned down. And the second * (א,* א) (messenger) sounded the trumpet, and (something) as a great mountain, burning (in) fire, was thrown into the sea, and the third of the sea became blood. (Rev 8:7b-8)

The third of the sun was struck and the third of the moon and the third of the stars, in order that the third of them might be gloomed, and (that) the day might not ‘be brought to’/give light (for) the third of it and the night likewise. (Rev 8:12b)

(The locusts like horses) have tails like scorpions, and stings; and in their tails (is) their (judicial) authority to act unrighteously (against) men (for) five months. (Rev 9:10)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: Lars Levi Laestadius, Efraim Palmqvist, P. Waldenström.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “the third”, see Rev 8:7b.


Additional studies: 2 Kings 9:33; Mark 13:9; Acts 8:3; 14:19; 17:6.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-14; 2012-07-06; 2015-05-01)

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12:4b And the dragon stood in the very eyes of the woman, she being about to bring forth, in order that, when she – according to the circumstances – may bring forth, he may eat down/up her child.

Word for word (17 words in the Greek text): And the dragon 'stood-(and-had-stood)'/stood in-the-very-eyes-of the woman she being-about-to bring-forth, in-order-that when-according-to-the-circumstances (she)-may-bring-forth the child her (he)-may-eat-down.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The Lord said to the serpent:) "I will put enmity upwards/between your middle and upwards/- a middle of the woman and upwards/between a middle of your seed and upwards/- a middle of her seed. He shall keep your head, and you shall keep his heel." (Gen 3:15, Greek OT)

Syria from upstickings of sun and the Greeks from settings of sun . . . eat down/up Israel (with) the whole mouth. (Is 9:12a, Greek OT)

(Jerusalem said:) “As a dragon a king of Babylon drank me down . . . " (Jer 51:34b, Greek OT)

(It was spoken to the second little wild animal:) “Stand up, eat down/up many fleshes.” (Dan 7:5b, Greek OT)


The Latter Revelation:

(Herod) ‘took up for himself’/’got rid of’ all the boys … from of two years and ‘more down’/under … (Matt 2:16b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

I went away to the messenger and said him to give me the scroll (P47, א,* א). And I went away towards the messenger saying him to give me the scroll (P47, א,* א). And he says to me: “Take it and eat (it) down/up (P47, P85, א*)! And it will make your belly bitter, however/but in your mouth it will be sweet as honey.” And I took the scroll (א,* א) out of the hand of the messenger and ate it down/up.” (Rev 10:9-10a)

If anyone wants to act unrighteously (against) them, fire goes out, out of their mouth and eats down/up their enemies. (Rev 11:5a)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

(Björnstjerne) Björnson and I were mortal enemies. . . . (He) was a boa-constrictor wanting to draw slime over me and swallow me. Therefore I fled to Paris! (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev IV 1884" p 374; letter 1884-11-01 to Carl Larsson; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Leif Carlsson, Lars Levi Laestadius.


My own comments and speculations: Gen 3:15 is paraphrased in the Targums with explicit reference to the Messiah.

Concerning “the woman … bring forth”, see Rev 12:2.


Additional studies: Gen 42:36; Jer 10:20; 31:15; Sir 51:3; Matt 2:17-18; Rev 12:3,7,9,13,16-17.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-14; 2012-07-06; 2015-05-06; 2015-05-09)

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12:5a And she brought forth a son, a (female) (P47, א,* א) male, who is about to be a shepherd to all the nations in/with a rod of iron.

Word for word (13 words in the Greek text): and (she)-brought-forth (a)-son (a)-(female)-male who is-about-to be-a-shepherd (to)-all the nations in (a)-rod of-iron.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

God made the man, ‘according to’/after an image of God He made him. Male and female He made them. (Gen 1:27, Greek OT)

(Job said:) “Oh that the day in which I was begotten may perish and the night in which (someone) spoke: ‘Behold, a male!’ (Job 3:2, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to His Son.) “You will be a shepherd to (the kings of the earth) in/with a rod of iron (and) crush them as a vessel of potter.” (Ps 2:9, Greek OT)

(The prophet said to the house of David:) “The Lord Himself will give you a sign. Behold, the virgin will 'arrive in a womb'/'be with child' and bring forth a Son.” (Is 7:14a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) “Before (Zion) being in pains of child-birth to bring forth, before the hardship of the pains of child-birth come/comes, she fled out/away and brought forth a male.” (Is 66:7, Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) “On/’under the rule of’ the cursed thing the man (was) having brought a good little message to my father, saying: ‘A male has been brought forth to you. Be cheerful.’” (Jer 20:15, Greek OT)


The Latter Revelation:

(The Lord said to the prophet:) “Behold, the virgin will ‘arrive in a womb’/’be with child’ and bring forth a Son.” (Matt 1:23a)

(Joseph) had (continually) not knowledge of (Mary) till the (time in which) she brought forth a Son. And he called His name Jesus. (Matt 1:25)

(The Lord said:) “Out of (Bethlehem) a commander will come out, whoever/who will be a shepherd to My people Israel.” (Matt 2:6b)

(Jesus said to some Pharisees:) “Have you not read, that the One having made (א,* א) (male and wife) from a beginning made them male and female?” (Matt 19:4b)

(Mary) brought forth her first-born son, and she swaddled Him and caused Him to lean up/back in a manger, for the reason that there was (continually) not a place for them in the inn. (Luke 2:7)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

One of the soldiers pricked the rib (with) his lance-head, and straight off there came out blood and water. (John 19:34)

(Jesus) showed (the eleven) the hands and the rib. So the disciples rejoiced having beheld the Lord. (John 20:20b)

The one conquering and the one keeping My works until (the) end, to him I will give (judicial) authority upon/’with regard to’ the nations. And he will be a shepherd to them in/with a rod of iron. (Rev 2:26-27a, “Thyatira”)

(The woman) ‘having in womb’/’was with child’. And she shouts, being in pains of child-birth and being tormenting to bring forth. (Rev 12:2)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

(Mattis) cried as a madman. "I have got a child! Do you hear what I say, I have got a child!" "Of what sort", Skull-Per asked away in his recess. "A daughter of a robber, jubilation and joy", Mattis cried. . . . Over the high threshold Lovis stepped with the child in her arms. . . . "What will she be called", Skull-Per wondered. "Ronja", Lovis said. "Which I, it is true, already have decided a long time ago." "But if it then had become a boy", Skull-Per said. Lovis looked at him calmly and strictly. "Have I decided that my child is to be called Ronja, then it is to be a Ronja!" (Astrid Lindgren "Ronja Rövardotter" p 8-9; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

"No, now we go on deck", the lieutenant said, "this begins to become horrid, when one gets absorbed." . . . "Oh, look at the moon, she is up?" the doctor exclaimed, when they came up on deck. "Do you say she, do you not know that the moon is masculine?" "Yes, in Stockholm yes, but in Greece she is feminine. Do you know why?" "It probably lay in their religious belief. Zeus, you know, liked Ganymede! And it was a great and cultivated people respecting the religious belief!" (August Strindberg "Giftas II" p 193-194; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Leif Carlsson, Adolf Kloo, August Strindberg.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “be a shepherd … in/with a rod of iron”, see Rev 2:27(2:27-28a). Concerning “to all the nations”, see Rev 2:26.


Greek words:

arsên (male) (in the NT + one example in the Apocrypha) Matt 19:4; Rev 12:5 – Tobit 6:12; Mark 10:6; Luke 2:23; Rom 1:27; Gal 3:28; Rev 12:13. The form “arsena” I understand as feminine variant reading of "arsen" in the neuter with the translation “(female) male”. This can allude to Jesus as the prototype to the first man Adam before the rib was taken out of him, when he was both masculine and feminine (cf. Matt 19:4). Compare also with John 19:5, where Jesus calls Himself the Man. Moreover, see My own comments and speculations to John 19:33-37.


Additional studies: Jer 30:6; Matt 1:21; Luke 1:31; John 1:30; 20:17,25,27; Rev 12:17; 19:15.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-15; 2012-07-06; 2015-05-07)

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12:5b And her child was raped/’snatched away’ towards God and towards His throne.

Word for word (13 words in the Greek text): and was-raped the child her towards the god and towards the throne his.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Solomon said:) “Having become well-pleasing to God (the righteous one) was welcomed, and living between/meanwhile he was put in company with missers (of the mark of God). He was raped/’snatched away’ … for his soul (continually) was pleasing to the Lord.” (Wisdom of Solomon 4:10-11a,14a)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said:) "From the days of John the Baptist till just now the kingdom of the heavens suffers violence, and men using violence rape it." (Matt 11:12)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

So having knowledge that they are about to come and rape Him and show up (א*) a king, Jesus, He (Himself) alone, flees (א*) again into the mountain. (John 6:15)

The wage-earner, and not (the one) being a shepherd, whose own the sheep are not, looks at the wolf coming and lets the sheep be and flees. And the wolf rapes them and scatters (them). (John 10:12)

(Jesus said to the Jews:) “And I give them agelong life, and they may not/certainly not perish into the (coming) age, and anyone may not/certainly (א,*א) not rape them out of My hand. What the Father has given (and gives) Me is greater than all (א*). And no one is able to rape out of the hand of the Father.” (John 10:28-29)

Joybringing (grace) (with) you and peace from the One who is and the One who (continually) was and the One who comes and from the seven spirits * (א,* א, A) ‘in the very eyes of’/before His throne. (Rev 1:4b)

The one conquering, I will give him to sit down in company with Me in/at My throne, as and/also I conquered and sat down in company with My Father in/at His throne. (Rev 3:21, ”Laodicea”)

I beheld ‘in a middle of’/’between (on one hand)’ the throne and the four living beings and ‘in a middle of’/’(on the other hand)’ the elders a little Ram standing as having been (and being) slaughtered. (Rev 5:6a)

To the One being seated upon (א,* א) the throne and to the little Ram (be) the blessing and the honour and the glory and the power into the (coming) ages of the (coming) ages. (Rev 5:13b)

(I beheld a much/many-headed crowd) standing ‘in the very eyes of’/before the throne and in the very eyes of the little Ram, being (and having been) wrapped up in white dresses and (with) date-twigs in their hands. And they shout (with) a great/loud voice, saying: “The saving (belongs) to our God, the One being seated on the throne and to the little Ram into the (coming) ages of the (coming) ages. Amen (א*).” (Rev 7:9b-10)

The little Ram, the One upwards/above a middle of the throne, will be a shepherd to them, and He will show them the way upon springs of waters of life. (Rev 7:17a)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: Erik Axel Karlfeldt.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “God and ... His throne”, see Rev 1:4b, 3:21 and 6:15.


Additional studies: Acts 1:9; 8:39; 2 Cor 12:2,4; 1 Thess 4:17.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-15; 2012-07-06; 2015-05-09)

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12:6 And the woman fled into the desolate (district), whereat/where she there has a place having been (and being) made ready from God, in order that they will (א,* א) support her there (for) one thousand and two hundred and sixty days.

Word for word (23 words in the Greek text): and the woman fled into the desolate-(district), whereat (she)-has there (a)-place having-been-(and-being)-made-ready from the god, in-order-that there (they)-will-support her days (one)-thousand (and)-two-hundred (and)-sixty.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(God said to Noah:) “You shall lead two two from all/every (flesh in which it is a living spirit) into, into the chest/ark, in order that you may support (them) in company with yourself. They shall be male and female.” (Gen 6:19b, Greek OT)

Having gone away (from Abraham Hagar) ‘was lead’/went astray to the desolate (district) ... And God opened her eyes, and she beheld a well of living water. (Gen 21:14b,19a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to the people of Israel:) "Behold, I dispatch away My messenger before your face, in order that he may watch you in the way, so that he may lead you into, into the earth/land which I have made ready for you." (Ex 23:20, Greek OT)

As (Moses) ‘was caused to cease’/ceased talking all these sayings ... the earth was opened and drank down (the rebellious) and their houses and all the men being in company with Corah and (also) their domestic animals. And they and as many things as are theirs descended living into Hades. And the earth veiled them, and they perished out of a middle of the synagogue. And every/all Israel, the ones (being) in a circle of them fled from their voice/cry, because saying: "Not at any time may the earth drink us down!" (Num 16:31-34, Greek OT)

(Moses said to Israel:) “God supported you.” (Deut 32:18b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to the prophet:) “I shall put/appoint a place for My people Israel.” (2 Sam 7:10a, Greek OT)

A word of the Lord became towards Elijah: “Go from here ‘according to’/opposite upsticking/east and hide yourself in/by the torrent of Cherith … and I shall enjoin the ravens to support you through there.” (1 Kings 17:2-4, Greek OT)

(David) made the place ready for the chest/ark of God, and he made a tent for it. (1 Chron 15:1b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) “Before (Zion) being in pains of child-birth to bring forth, before the hardship of the pains of child-birth come/comes, she fled out/away and brought forth a male.” (Is 66:7, Greek OT)

(The horn) will talk words into/against the Highest One and rub down the holy ones of the Highest One. And he will ‘receive towards’/welcome to change seasonable times and law. And all things will be given ‘to the side of’/over into his hands till a seasonable time and seasonable times and till half a seasonable time. (Dan 7:25, Greek OT)

(The messenger Raphael said to Tobias:) "We may run forward your woman and make the habitation (of your father) ready." (Tobit 11:3a, S)

Many descended seeking righteousness and judicial verdict into the desolate (district) to sit down there. (1 Macc 2:29)

(Solomon said to the Lord:) “The origins of the fruits do not support a man, however/but Your word keeps throughout the ones believing (in) You.” (Wisdom of Solomon 16:26b)


The Latter Revelation:

(A messenger of the Lord said to Joseph:) “Flee into Egypt and be there till I – according to the circumstances – may speak to you, for Herod is about to seek the little Boy ... to perish It/Him.” (Matt 2:13b)

Jesus was led up by the Spirit into the desolate (district) to be tried by the slanderer. … And behold, messengers came to (Him) and (continually) rendered service to Him. (Matt 4:1,11b)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "'See in'/'fix your eyes' into the flying creatures of the heaven. … Your heavenly Father supports them." (Matt 6:26a)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Let the ones (being) in Judea flee against (א,* א) the mountains.” (Matt 24:16)

(Jesus said to the twelve:) “Whereat/where you – if according to the circumstances – may come into, into an habitation, stay there till you – according to the circumstances – may come out from there.” (Mark 6:10)

(On) the first day of the unleavened (days), when they (continually) sacrificed the paschal lamb, (Jesus') disciples say to Him: “Having gone away where do You want we may make ready, in order that You may eat the paschal lamb.” (Mark 14:12)

(Jesus said to the people in the synagogue:) “Many widows (continually) were in Israel in the days of Elijah, when the heaven was shut against/about three years and six months, as/when it became a great famine against every/all the earth/land.” (Luke 4:25b)

Having gone (the messengers) came into, into a city (א*) of Samaritans as/to make ready for (Jesus). (Luke 9:52b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

So having knowledge that they are about to come and rape Him and show up (א*) a king, Jesus, He (Himself) alone, flees (א*) again into the mountain. (John 6:15)

(Jesus said:) “If – according to the circumstances – anyone may render service to Me, let him follow Me. And whereat/where I am, there will and/also My servant be.” (John 12:26a)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "Let not your heart be troubled. Believe into God, and believe into Me. In the habitation of My Father are many abodes. But if not, I have * (א,* א) spoken to you, that I go to make a place ready to you. And if I – according to the circumstances – may go and make a place ready to you, I come again and I will take you towards Myself to the side of (Me), in order that whereat I am, you may and/also be." (John 14:1-3)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "Recollect the saying which I spoke to you: ‘A slave is not greater (than) his lord.’ If they have pursued Me, they will and/also pursue you." (John 15:20a)

(The two witnesses) will prophesy for one thousand two hundred and sixty days, being (and having been) wrapped up in sack. (Rev 11:3b)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

(Björnstjerne) Björnson and I were mortal enemies. . . . (He) was a boa-constrictor wanting to draw slime over me and swallow me. Therefore I fled to Paris! (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev IV 1884" p 374; letter 1884-11-01 to Carl Larsson; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Johann Arndt, Fredrik Franson, Lars Levi Laestadius, John Ongman.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “one thousand and two hundred and sixty days”, see Rev 11:3.


Greek words:

trefô (support) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Wisdom of Solomon 16:26; Matt 6:26; Rev 12:6 – Tobit 2:10; 1 Macc 3:33; 11:39; Baruch 4:11; Matt 25:37; Luke 12:24; 23:29; Acts 12:20; Jas 5:5; Rev 12:14.


Additional studies: Ex 16:15; 1 Kings 19:4-7; 1 Chron 15:3,12; 17:9; 2 Chron 3:1; Jer 31:2; Hos 2:14; 1 Macc 2:29-30; Matt 2:13; Luke 1:80; 22:8; Rev 8:6; 13:5.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-15; 2012-07-07; 2015-05-10)

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12:7-8 And it became a war in the heaven; Michael and his messengers waged war ‘in company with’/with the dragon. And the dragon and his messengers waged war. And they were not stable towards/’in comparison with’ him (א,* א), nor a place was found any longer * (א*) in the heaven.

Word for word: 12:7 (24 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus) And (it)-became (a)-war in the heaven, the Michael and the messengers his '(to)-wage'/waged-war in-company-with the dragon. And the dragon waged-war and the messengers his. 12:8 (12 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus prima manus): and not (they)-were-stable towards him nor (a)-place was-found any-longer in the heaven.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Moses said:) “When the Highest One divided asunder nations, as He sowed asunder sons of Adam, He ‘caused ... to stand’/set frontiers of nations according to a number of messengers of God.” (Deut 32:8, Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) ”Some part of the (fourth) kingdom will be stable, and some part will ‘be being’/be (and having/have been) crushed.” (Dan 2:42b, Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) “I (continually) looked at (it) and that horn (continually) made war ‘in company with’/with the holy ones, and it was stable towards/’in comparison with’ them, till (the time in) which the Old of the days came and He gave the judicial verdict to holy ones of the Highest One, and the seasonable time 'was in advance of'/'came beforehand', and the holy ones ‘kept down’/’took possession of’ the kingdom.” (Dan 7:21-22, Greek OT, Theod)

(The man set/clothed in linen said to the prophet:) ”The officer/general of a kingdom of Persians has stood (and stands) against opposite me (for) twenty-one days; and/but behold Michael, one of the first/chief leaders, came against (me) to succour me.” (Dan 10:13a, Greek OT)

(The man set/clothed in linen said to the prophet:) “You are a pitiable man, do not fear, be healthy. Behave as a male and be stable.” And in 'the thing to talk him'/'his talking' in company with me I was stable and spoke: “Talk my lord, because you was stable in me.” And he spoke towards me: “Have you knowledge, why I have come towards you? And now I shall turn next to, to combat throughout 'in company with'/against the officer/general of a kingdom of the Persians … and behold, the officer/general of Greeks … No one (continually) was who succoured in company with me in favour/defence of these however/except the messenger Michael.” (Dan 10:19-21, Greek OT)

(The man set/clothed in linen said to the prophet:) “'According to'/concerning that hour Michael, the great messenger standing against/’in defence of’ the sons of your people, shall come to the side of. That day (will be a day) of oppression, such as not has become from the (time when) it became till that day.” (Dan 12:1a, Greek OT)

In the plain, whereat it/there is not ... a place (to) the thing to flee. (1 Macc 10:73b)

In this seasonable time it/there is not ... a place (to) the thing to bear fruit in the very eyes of You (Master) and find mercy. (The Prayer of Azariah v 15)


The Latter Revelation:

Jesus says (to the scribe): "The Son of the Man has not (a place), where He may lean the head." (Matt 8:20b)

(The demon-possessed men were) exceedingly severe/dangerous, so that not anyone was stable (enough) to come by the side of through that way. (Matt 8:28b)

(Jesus said to the scribes and the Pharisees:) “When – according to the circumstances – the unclean spirit may come out from the man, it 'comes through'/passes through waterless places, seeking rest, and does not find." (Matt 12:43)

(Jesus) says to Peter: “In this way You were not stable (enough) to be awake in company with Me (for) one hour?” (Matt 26:40b)

(Some of the scribes ‘counted throughout’/considered in their hearts concerning Jesus:) "Why does this One talk in this way? He blasphemies. Who is able to let misses (of the mark of God) be, if not one, God?" (Mark 2:7; cf. the name “Michael”, which means “Who is like God?”)

(The scribes said about Jesus) that/: "He has Beelzebul” and that/: "In/by the leader of the little demons He throws out the little demons." . . . (Jesus said:) "How is an adversary able to throw out an adversary? . . . No one ‘is not’/is able to come into, into the habitation of the stable one and rape his vessels throughout, if – according to the circumstances – he may not first bind the stable one." (Mark 3:22b,23b,27a)

(One of the crowd said to Jesus:) “I spoke to Your disciples, in order that they might throw out (the spirit), and/but they were not stable (enough).” (Mark 9:18b)

(Mary) brought forth her first-born son, and she swaddled Him and caused Him to lean up/back in a manger, for the reason that there was (continually) not a place for them in the inn. (Luke 2:7)

(The suborners) were not stable (enough) to take on/’hold of’ (Jesus) (by) His word opposite/’in the presence of’ the people. (Luke 20:26a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

When (the two witnesses) – according to the circumstances - may have ended their evidence, the little wild animal then (א*) ascending out of the abyss will make war ‘in company with’/against them and conquer them and kill them. (Rev 11:7)

Another sign was beheld in the heaven. And behold, a fire-coloured great dragon having seven heads and ten horns and against his heads seven diadems.(Rev 12:3)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 - about 1500

Michael, as his name indicates, is the destroyer of everyone who dares to aspire to equality with God or to resist Him (Dan. x.13,21, xii.1; Jude 9; Rev. xii.7). ... Gabriel is the one that builds up and Michael the one that overthrows. In the case of Michael the justice and judicial activity of God plays its part, while in Gabriel's case the grace and redeeming activity of the Lord is in the foreground. (Norval Geldenhuys "Commentary on the Gospel of Luke" p 67-68)

We also played more quiet games. "The angels' game" for example. My brother obviously was archangel, I was a simple usual guardian angel, and the small sisters were the innocent children who would be guarded. The Archangel and the Guardian angel fluttered wildly around and had fun, while the small sisters had to lie absolutely still doing nothing. (Astrid Lindgren "Skulle kunne flyge ..." p 144-145; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

The tempter: "I usually am reproduced (in the churches) together with Saint George. . . . Also Michael and I sometimes appear in a group, where I, it is true, have not the most attractive position, but it can change; everything can change, so that some time the last ones become the first ones." (August Strindberg "Till Damaskus III" p 329; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


about 1500 and time before

The inn-keeper, who thought that a high gentleman had arrived, hurried out, but when he saw the journeyman, he turned saying in a sneering tone to lord Sten (Ulvfot, the last descendant of the extremely old family Ulvfot to Wäringe, Hovsta and Lövsala): "Such ones never have money. Nothing is given." "By saint Michael, the archangel, or saint Loyus, tavern-keeper, if you do not give me beer, I set the king and the crown on you", the journeyman put in lifting his cudgel. . . . "A boxmaster in the lawful forging company in Stockholm can be as good lord as another, that is another traveller. . . . Glory be to saint Michael and saint Loyus with your permission!" (August Strindberg "Svenska öden och äventyr 1" p 17-18; the short story "Odlad frukt" from 1882 describes a situation during the later part of the sixties of the fifteenth century; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Lucifer - it is the Light Bringer or the Morning Star - was the name of the most distinguished of all angels, the prince of the seraphs, the favourite of the creator, in cleanness, power and majesty, inferior only to the holy divinity itself. Pride and envy took possession, one does not know how, of this high spirit. He wanted to precipitate God and set himself on the chair of omnipotence. Angels of all orders let themselves be won for his plan. At a nod from the excellent one innumerable (angels) from the lower heavens and the earth rushed up towards (the highest heaven) in order to unite themselves with seraphs, cherubs and thrones having placed themselves under the banner of the rebellion. In heaven there was a great struggle. Over its vicissitudes there is a veil. However the holy John, in his book of revelation, lifts a flap letting us see Michael leading the way for Gods legions struggling against Lucifer. The result was the defeat of this one and his following. The beautiful Morning Star fell from heaven. . . . The world is not more an unbroken harmony, a moral unity. It is for ever divided into two fighting kingdoms: the good one and the evil one. God's decision that it would be so and his foresight of the consequences were announced by a remoulding within the world construction. In the bowels of the before peaceful earth suddenly a hell opened its jaws and was filled with a fire, which burns all, but consumes nothing. The field of battle is the whole creation except (the highest heaven), in which clean world nothing evil can penetrate. Lucifer, maintaining his claim to its ruler chair, has in all tried to settle down as God himself, in all imitating this One. (Viktor Rydberg "Medeltidens magi" p 10-11; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

We are not to suppose that it is the result of accident that a particular office is assigned to a particular angel: as to ... Michael, the duty of attending to the prayers and supplications of mortals. (Origen, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol IV, p 265)

With soughing wing-beats the old dragon, Michael's adversary, came through the air. Courage! he cried to Simon, and his servants he whipped with raging lashes with a scourge in order to warm their limbs throughout and soften their stiffened hands. Now Simon, shutting his eyes, heard kettledrums and cymbals (sounding from the hills of Rome). (Viktor Rydberg "Simon undergörarens himmelsfärd" p 44; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Alf Ahlberg, Jean H. Andersson, Ivo Andric, Staffan Beijer, Elisabeth Beskow, Per Beskow, Oloph Bexell, Ragnar Blomqvist, Ingmar Brohed, Elizabeth Charles, Göran Dahlström, Fjodor Dostojevskij, E.J. Ekman, Klaes Elmgren, Erik Floderus, Erik Gustaf Geijer, Carl Grimberg, Dick Harrison, Verner von Heidenstam, Jan Arvid Hellström, Alf Henrikson, Alice Hulting, Ragnar Järhult, Erik Axel Karlfeldt, Harry Lenhammar, Ebba L. Lewenhaupt, Martin Luther, Vilhelm Moberg, Patrick Modiano, Olaf Moe, Fredrik Nielsen, Bertil Nilsson, Nils Henrik Nilsson, Martin P:son Nilsson, Sven-Erik Pernler, Harald Rasmussen, Johan Ludvig Runeberg, Dieter Schröder, Erik Sollerman, Bengt Söderberg, Einar Thomassen, P. Waldenström, Paul Wern.


Greek words:

Michaêl (Michael) (in the NT) Rev 12:7 – Jude v 9.


Additional studies: Job 1:6; Ezek 13:9; Zech 3:1-2; 10:10; Matt 12:28-29; Mark 5:4; 14:37; Luke 5:21; 6:48; 9:58; 11:21-22; 13:24; 16:3; Eph 6:12; Rev 20:11.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-15; 2012-07-07; 2015-05-17)

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12:9 And the great dragon was thrown (out), * (א,*א) a serpent, he of (a) beginning, he being called a slanderer, * (א,*א) the adversary, he leading the whole (inhabited) world astray, he was thrown into/'down to' the earth, and his messengers were thrown (down) in company with him.

Word for word (30 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus): and was-thrown the dragon the great, (a)-serpent 'the-(one)'/he of-beginning, 'the-(one)/he being-called (a)-Slanderer the Adversary, 'the-one'/he leading-astray the (inhabited)-world whole, (he)-was-thrown into the earth, and the messengers his in-company-with him were-thrown.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

The serpent (continually) was most sensible of all the little wild animals upon the earth, which the Lord God had made. And the serpent spoke to the woman: “’What that’/why did God speak: ‘You may not/certainly not eat from every/all wood in the ‘place by the side of apprehension’/Paradise?’” (Gen 3:1, Greek OT)

The messengers of God came to stand by the side of in the very eyes of the Lord, and the slanderer came in company with them. (Job 1:6b, Greek OT)

(David said:) “The earth (is) the Lord's, and its complement, the (inhabited) world and all the ones dwelling in it.” (Ps 24:1, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said:) “I have ‘been led’/gone astray as a perished sheep.” (Ps 119:176a, Greek OT)

(The prophet said: “In) that day God will lead the holy and the great and the stable dagger against, against the dragon, a fleeing serpent, against the dragon, a crooked serpent, and ‘take ... up for himself'/’get rid of’ the dragon.” (Is 27:1b, Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) “All we have ‘been led’/gone astray as sheep.” (Is 53:6, Greek OT)

(The horn) will be heightened till the stars of the heaven, and (some) from/of the stars fell (Theod) against the earth. (Dan 8:10a, Greek OT)

The slanderer stood out of the right parts (of the priest leader Jesus/Joshua) to oppose him. And the Lord spoke towards the slanderer: “Oh that the Lord may blame in/- you, slanderer!” (Zech 3:1b-2a, Greek OT)

(Israel said about Judas:) “How has/’has ... not’ 'an able one saving'/'one able to save' Israel.” (1 Macc 9:21)

(Antiochus) blew/breathed fire (in) the passions against the Jews. … (But he fell) from the wagon. … No one was able to carry off to the side of (the one) a small/little (while) formerly thinking (he would) touch stars of the heavens. (2 Macc 9:7b-10a)

(Solomon said to the Lord:) ”Venomous arrows of teeth of dragons did not conquer Your sons.” (Wisdom of Solomon 16:10a)

(In Babylon) it/there (continually) was a great dragon, and the Babylonians (continually) revered it (in adoration). (Bel and the Dragon v 23, Theod)


The Latter Revelation:

Jesus says to (the slanderer): "Withdraw, adversary, for it has been (and is) written: 'You shall prostrate yourself (towards) the Lord your God (in adoration of Him) and Him alone you shall serve.'" (Matt 4:10)

(Jesus said to His apostles:) ”Behold, I dispatch you away as sheep in a middle of wolves. So become sensible as the serpent (א*) and unblended/innocent as the pigeons.” (Matt 10:16)

(Jesus said to the scribes and the Pharisees:) “Serpents, products of adders, how may you flee from the judgment of Gehenna?” (Matt 23:33)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “See (that) anyone may not lead you astray.” (Matt 24:4b)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Many false prophets will rise and lead many astray. And because of the lawlessness be/is made full, the welcome of the many will ‘be breathed’/cease.” (Matt 24:11-12)

(The King) will speak to the ones out/’on the basis’ of the ‘(parts) of a good name’/left: “Go from/’away from’ Me, (the ones) (א,* א, B) having been (and being) cursed, into the agelong fire, the one having been (and being) made ready for the slanderer and his messengers.” (Matt 25:41)

Having led (Jesus) up (the slanderer) showed Him all the kingdoms of the (inhabited) world. (Luke 4:5a)

(Jesus said to the seventy:) "I (continually) looked at the adversary, having fallen out of the heaven as a ray of light. Behold, I have given (and give) you the (judicial) authority to tread above serpents and scorpions and against every ability of the enemy, and nothing will (א,*א,A) * (א*) act unrighteously (against) you.” (Luke 10:18-19)

(Demetrius said:) “The whole Asia and the (inhabited) world revere (the great Artemis).” (Acts 19:27b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Jesus said to those Jews who to begin with believed Him:) "You are out of the father of ‘the slanderer’/Judas, and you want to make/do the desires of your father. That one (continually) was a man-slayer from a beginning, and he does not stand (and has not stood) in the truth, because it/there is not truth in him. When he – according to the circumstances – may talk the lie, he talks out of the own things, because he is a liar and ‘its father’/’the father of the lie’." (John 8:44)

(Jesus said:) “Now a judgment is of/upon this adornment/’adorned world’. Now the leader of this adornment/’adorned world’ will be thrown out outside.” (John 12:31)

However I have a much/great thing (א,* א) ‘down from’/against you, that you let the woman Jezebel be, the one saying herself be (א,* א) a prophetess, and she teaches and leads My slaves astray to fornicate and eat (things) sacrificed to idols. (Rev 2:20, “Thyatira”)

(I will * (keep) (א,*א) you) out of the hour of the test, the (hour) being about to come upon the whole (inhabited) world to try the ones dwelling upon the earth. (Rev 3:10b, “Philadelphia”)

Another sign was beheld in the heaven. And behold, a fire-coloured great dragon having seven heads and ten horns and against his heads seven diadems. The tail (of the dragon) drags the third of the stars of the heaven and threw them into/to the earth. (Rev 12:3-4a)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

Suddenly (Lisabet) stops dead heaving up a cry of horror. "A snake", (she) cries, "a snake!" And just then Madicken feels she has a sudden twinge in her foot, and she sees the ghastly viper coiling off away towards the stone wall. There Alva stands, also she horror-struck, but she is alert. She snatches a stone from the wall and lets it go straight down on the head of the snake. She does not point but nevertheless she hits the target. Never more that snake will bite anyone. Madicken stands there paralysed with horror. She knows what has happened. The snake bit her, and now it begins to sore the foot so horribly. "Alva, I die", Madicken cries. "He bit me, I die!" Alva inspects her foot. There two little marks are seen after the poison-fangs of the snake, and the foot already begins to become swollen. "No, you do not die", Alva says, "but we must go to the cottage hospital and this at once." (Astrid Lindgren "Madicken och Junibackens Pims" p 162; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Now I was afraid. Here I had walked about so calm thinking that there was nothing dangerous in Nangijala, but now I really was afraid. "What enemy is it", I asked. "Tengil he is called", Jonathan said, and he said the name so that it sounded so abominable and dangerous. "Where are Tengil", I asked. Then Jonathan told me about Karmanjaka, the land up in the mountain of the Extremely Old Mountains beyond the river of the Extremely Old Rivers, where Tengil ruled, cruel as a snake. I was still more afraid, but I did not want to show it. "Why can he not stay away in his extremely old mountains", I said. "Why must he come to Nangijala and destroy?" "Yes, that's the question", Jonathan said. "The one being able to reply to that, he can reply to much. I do not know why he must lay all waste. It only is so. He does not grudge the people in the valleys to live as they do. And he needs thralls." (Astrid Lindgren "Bröderna Lejonhjärta" p 49; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Alf Ahlberg, Erik Asklund, Morris Bergling, Sophie Björkman, Raine Borg, Karin Boye, Leif Carlsson, Miguel de Cervantes, Sven Gabriel Fovelin, Nikolaj Gogol, Knut Hamsun, Dick Harrison, Olov Hartman, Alice Hulting, W.E. Johns, Lars Levi Laestadius, Lars-Olof Larsson, Sven Lidman, Claes Lindskog, Martin Luther, Vilhelm Moberg, Fabian Månsson, Torsten Nilsson, Thede Palm, Lewi Pethrus, Niklas Piensoho, Anna Maria Roos, Joanne Kathleen Rowling, Allan Rydén, J.R.R. Tolkien, Elin Wägner, Bror Zäther.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “the great dragon”, see Rev 12:3. Concerning “the whole (inhabited) world”, see also Rev 3:10b.


If we – according to the circumstances – may speak, that we have not a/any miss (of the mark of God), we lead ourselves astray and the truth is not in us. (1 John 1:8)

We are out of God. The one having knowledge of God hears us. The one who is not out of God does not hear us. Out of this we have knowledge of the spirit of the truth and the spirit of the going astray. (1 John 4:6)


Greek words:

archaios (of beginning) (in the NT + examples in the OT) Matt 5:21; Rev 12:9 - 1 Kings 4:30; Ps 79:8; 89:49(50); 139:4; Is 23:17; 37:26; 43:18; Lam 1:7; 2:17; 2 Macc 6:22; Wisdom of Solomon 8:8; Sir 2:10; 9:10; 16:7; 39:1; Matt 5:33; Luke 9:8,19; Acts 15:7,21; 21:16; 2 Cor 5:17; 2 Pet 2:5; Rev 20:2.


Additional studies:

Gen 3:2-5,14-15; Job 1:7-12; 2:1-7; Wisdom of Solomon 5:6; Matt 22:29; 24:24; Mark 12:24; 13:5-6; Luke 2:1; 21:8; 22:31; John 12:31; 13:2,27; 2 Cor 2:10; 11:3; Rev 12:12-13,15; 13:14; 16:14; 18:23; 19:20; 20:2-3,7-8,10.


P.A.K. Fenz "Ein Drache in Babel. Exegetische Skizze über Daniel. 14:23-42."; Svensk Exegetisk Årsbok 35 (1970): 5-16.

P.G.R. Villiers "Prime evil and its many faces in the Book of Revelation"; Neotestamentica 34.1 (2000): 57-86.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-15; 2012-07-07; 2015-05-18)

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12:10 And I heard a great/loud voice in the heaven, saying: ”Just now the saving and the ability and the kingdom of our God and the (judicial) authority of His christ/'anointed one' have become (established), because the accuser (P47,א,*א) of our brothers has been thrown (out), he accusing them in the very eyes of our God day and night.”

Word for word (44 words in the Greek text): and (i/I)-heard (a)-voice great in the heaven saying: just-now became the saving and the ability and the kingdom (of)-the (of)-god our and the (judicial)-authority (of)-the (of)-christ/'anointed-(one) his, because was-thrown the accuser (of)-the (of)-brothers our, 'the-(one)'/he accusing them in-the-very-eyes-of (of)-the (of)-god our day and night.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The slanderer said to the Lord:) “Dispatch away Your hand and touch all things that (Job) has; (and see) if he will indeed greatly bless You into/to a face.” (Job 1:11, Greek OT)

(Solomon said:) “An accuser is righteous himself in a first saying, but as – according to the circumstances – the opponent may ‘throw against’/attack (him), he is convicted.” (Prov 18:17, Greek OT)

The tacticians and the satraps (continually) sought to find a pretence ‘down from’/against Daniel. And/but every pretence and fall from the side of (God) ... they did not find ‘down from’/against him, because he (continually) was faithful. (Dan 6:4, Greek OT, Theod)

(The men) did not (continually) find a miss (of the mark of God) ... ‘down from’/against Daniel on account of which they (could) accuse him. (Dan 6:4b, Greek OT)

The slanderer stood out of the right parts (of the priest leader Jesus/Joshua) to oppose him. And the Lord spoke towards the slanderer: “Oh that the Lord may blame in/- you, slanderer!” (Zech 3:1b-2a, Greek OT)

Tobit wrote a prayer into/for exultation and spoke: “Blessed (is) the living God into the (coming) ages and His kingdom.” (Tobit 13:1-2a, BA)

(The “evil” Jew Alkimos) turned himself next to, towards the king and accused (the “righteous” Jew Judas and his men for) evil things. (1 Macc 7:25b)

(The prophet said to Zion:) “Having led on you the bad things (God) will lead on you the agelong cheerfulness in company with your saving.” (Baruch 4:29)


The Latter Revelation:

Having come to/forward Jesus talked (with the eleven disciples) saying: "Every/all (judicial) authority in heaven and upon earth has been given to Me.” (Matt 28:18)

(Jesus) (continually/repeatedly) said to (the crowd together with His disciples): “Amen, I say to you that/: ‘They/there are some of the ones standing here, whoever/who not/certainly not may taste death till they – according to the circumstances – may behold the kingdom of God having come (and coming) in/with ability.’” (Mark 9:1)

The scribes and the Pharisees (continually) kept/observed (Jesus) by the side of (to see) if He attends in/on the sabbath, in order that they might find (anything) to accuse Him of. (Luke 6:7)

(Jesus said to the seventy:) "I (continually) looked at the adversary, having fallen out of the heaven as a ray of light." (Luke 10:18)

(The Lord said:) “May not/certainly not God make the procuration of justice of His chosen, of the ones crying to Him day and night, and is (not) He long-suffering on/’for the sake of’ them?” (Luke 18:7)

The Lord spoke (א,*א,A): "Simon, Simon, behold, the adversary has demanded ‘out you’/’your surrender’ to sift (you) as the bread-stuff." (Luke 22:31)

(Jesus said:) “From the now the Son of the Man will 'be be'/be seating ‘out of’/at the right (hand side) of the ability of God.” (Luke 22:69)

The priest leaders and the scribes … accused (Jesus) sinewily. (Luke 23:10)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

Now a judgment is of/upon this adornment/’adorned world’. Now the leader of this adornment/’adorned world’ will be thrown out outside. (John 12:31)

(Pilate said to the Jews:) "What accusation do you carry (‘down from’/against) (א*,B) this Man?" (John 18:29b)

(Jesus Christ) has made us a kingdom, priests to His God and Father. (Rev 1:6a)

I, John, your brother and a companion together with (you) in the oppression and a kingdom and an endurance in Jesus. (Rev 1:9a)

(The four living beings) have not rest, day and night saying: “Holy, holy, holy, holy, holy, holy, holy, holy (א*) the Lord God, the All-powerful, the One who (continually) was and the One who is and the One who comes.” (Rev 4:8b)

(Worthy are … the Lord and our God) to take the glory and the honour and the ability. ... (Rev 4:11b)

(The messengers said: “Worthy is the little Ram, the One having been – and being – slaughtered) to take the ability and riches and wisdom. ... ” (Rev 5:12b)

(The souls of the slaughtered witnesses might rest) till they will complete (א,* א), and/both their together-/fellow-slaves and their brothers, the ones being about to be slain as and/also they (themselves). (Rev 6:11b)

(The much/many-headed crowd) shout (with) a great/loud voice, saying: “The saving (belongs) to our God, the One being seated on the throne and to the little Ram into the (coming) ages of the (coming) ages. Amen (א*).” (Rev 7:10)

… (The men in the white dresses) are ‘in the very eyes of’/before the throne of God, and they serve Him day and night in His temple. (Rev 7:15a)

(The two witnesses) have * (א,* א) (judicial) authority to shut the heaven, in order that rain may not give wet (during) the days of their prophecy. (Rev 11:6a)

The seventh messenger sounded the trumpet. And they/it became great/loud voices in the heaven. (Rev 11:15a)

(The loud voices) said: “The kingdom of the adornment/’adorned world’ has become (the kingdom) of our Lord and of His Anointed (Christ), and He will be king into the (coming) ages of the (coming) ages. Amen (א,* א). (Rev 11:15b)

(The twenty-four elders said:) “We are thankful to You, the Lord God, the All-powerful, the One who is and the One who (continually) was, and (P47, א*) that You have taken (and take) Your great ability and have been/’begun to be’ king.” (Rev 11:17)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: Henrik Elmgren, Lars Levi Laestadius, Sigurd Lindgren, Agne Nordlander, Knut Svensson.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “a great/loud voice in the heaven”, see Rev 11:15a. Concerning “our brothers”, see Rev 1:9aa. Concerning “day and night”, see Rev 4:8b.


Greek words:

katêgoros (accuser) Prov 18:17; Rev 12:10 – 2 Macc 4:5; Acts 23:30,35; 25:16,18.


Additional studies:

Job 2:5; 1 Macc 7:6; 2 Macc 10:12-13; Matt 12:10; 27:12; Mark 3:2; 15:3; Luke 6:7; 22:31; 23:2,14; John 5:45; 8:6; 11:43, 12:28; 18:36; Acts 22:30; 24:2,8,19; 25:11; 28:19; 1 Pet 5:8; Rev 13:2; 19:1.


J.A. du Rand "'Now the salvation of our God has come . . . ' A narrative perspective on the hymns in Revelation 12-15"; Neotestamentica 27.2 (1993): 313-330.

P.G.R. Villiers "Prime evil and its many faces in the Book of Revelation"; Neotestamentica 34.1 (2000): 57-86.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-15; 2012-07-07; 2015-05-19)

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12:11 And these (א,* א) conquered him because of the blood of the little Ram and because of the saying of their evidence. And they did not welcome their soul (even) until death.

Word for word (24 words in the Greek text): and these conquered him because-of the blood (of)-the (of)-little-ram and because-of the saying (of)-the (of)-evidence their and not (they)-welcomed the soul their until death.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

At the time when (the Lord) entirely had ceased talking (with Moses) in/on the mountain Sinai, He gave (him) the two tablets of the testimony, tablets of stone, having been (and being) written (with) the finger of God. (Ex 31:18, Greek OT)

These (are) the evidences and the fundamental laws and the judicial verdicts, as many as Moses talked (with) the sons of Israel in the desolate (district) on their having come out of the earth/land of Egypt. (Deut 4:45, Greek OT)

(David said to God:) “You may conquer in 'the thing to be judged Yourself'/'Your judging'.” (Ps 51:4b or 51:6b, Greek OT)

(The woman said:) “... I found him whom my soul welcomed. I ‘got power (over)’/seized him, and I will not let him be.” (Song of Solomon 3:4a, Greek OT)

… (Judas) called to the side of (him) the ones having fought nobly together with him as long as to death. (2 Macc 13:14a)

(Solomon said:) “Having become well-pleasing to God (the righteous one) was welcomed, and living between/meanwhile he was put in company with missers (of the mark of God). He was raped/’snatched away’ … for his soul (continually) was pleasing to the Lord.” (Wisdom of Solomon 4:10-11a,14a)

(Solomon said: “The blameless male) conquered the gall, not (with) a stability of the body, not (with) the activity of weapons however/but (with) a saying he arranged the chastiser under oaths of fathers and having reminded of covenants.” (Wisdom of Solomon 18:22)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “It ‘carries together’/’is profitable’ for you, ‘in order that’/that one of your limbs may perish, and (that) your whole body may not be thrown into hell. And if your right hand cause you to stumble, cut it out/off, and throw (it) from you, for it ‘carries together’/’is profitable’ for you, in order that one of your limbs may go away, and (that) not your whole body may go away into Gehenna.” (Matt 5:29b-30)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "Do not fear from the ones slaying the body but being not able to kill the soul; but rather fear the One being able to perish and/both soul and body in Gehenna." (Matt 10:28)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "The one having been sown against the rocky (ground), this is the one hearing the saying and straight off taking it in company with joy, but has not a root in himself, however/but is transitory. But/and having become oppression or pursuit because of the saying, he straight off is caused to stumble." (Matt 13:20-21)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “This good little message of the kingdom will be proclaimed in the whole (inhabited) world into/’for a purpose of’ a testimony to all the nations, and then the end will arrive.” (Matt 24:14)

And having taken a cup and having ‘been thankful’/’given thanks’, (Jesus) gave to (His disciples) saying: “Drink out of it, all (of you). For this is My blood of the covenant, which is poured out on account of many into/’for the purpose of’ a ‘letting be’/’leaving alone’ of misses (of the mark of God).” (Matt 26:27-28)

(Jesus said:) "When – according to the circumstances - the stable one, having been (and being) armed, may watch the 'of himself'/own court, his ‘things beginning under’/properties are in peace. But since – according to the circumstances – a more stable than he is (א*) having come against (him), may conquer him, he lifts/takes away’ from him his full armour on/in which he ‘was (and had been) persuaded’/’relied (and had relied)’ and ‘gives asunder’/distributes his spoils.” (Luke 11:21-22)

(Jesus said to the crowds:) "If anyone comes towards Me and does not hate his father and the mother and the woman/wife and the children and the brothers and the sisters, but/and (P45, א,* א, A) still/furthermore and/also his own soul, he is not able to be My disciple." (Luke 14:26)

(Jesus said to His disciples: “The persecution) will for you ‘step off’/lead into a testimony. … They will put (some) out of you to death.” (Luke 21:13,16b)

(Paul said to the Lord:) “When they (continually) ‘poured out’/shed the blood of your witness Stephen ... (I watched) the garments of the ones ‘taking him up for themselves’/’getting rid of him’. (Acts 22:20)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Jesus said to the Pharisees:) "I am the fine shepherd. The fine shepherd gives (P45,א*) His soul over/’in defence of ‘ the sheep." (John 10:11)

(Jesus said:) “The one being friends with his soul perish it. And the one hating his soul in this adornment/’adorned world’ will watch it into an agelong life.” (John 12:25)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “This is the commandment, My (commandment), ‘in order that’/that you may welcome one another, entirely as I have welcomed you. Greater welcome has no one than this, ‘in order that’/that he (P66,א*) may put/inter his soul in favour of his friends.” (John 15:12-13)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "When – according to the circumstances – the One being called to the side of (you) may come, which I will send to you from the side of the Father, the Spirit of the truth, which goes out from the side of the Father, that One will be a witness on account of Me. But and/also you are witnesses, because you are in company with Me from a beginning." (John 15:26-27)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) ”These things I have talked (and talk) (with) you, in order that you may have peace in Me. In the adornment/’adorned world’ you have oppression. However, be confident. I have conquered (and conquer) the adornment/’adorned world’.” (John 16:33)

(John) was a witness to the saying of God and the evidence of Jesus Christ, as many things as he beheld. (Rev 1:2)

(Jesus Christ) * (א*) welcoming us and having loosened * (א*) out of our misses (of the mark of God) in/with His blood. (Rev 1:5b)

(I, John, …) became/appeared in/on the island being called Patmos because of the saying of God and because of (א,*א) the evidence of Jesus. (Rev 1:9b)

Become faithful until death, and I will give you the crown of the life. (Rev 2:10b, “Smyrna”)

(They sang:) “And (for) God in/with Your blood You bought us (א,* א) out of every tribe and tongue and people and nation.” (Rev 5:9b)

When It opened the fifth seal, I beheld below the sacrificial altar the souls of the men (א,* א) having been (and being) slaughtered because of the saying of God and because of the evidence which they (continually) had. (Rev 6:9)

(One of the elders) spoke to me: “These are the ones coming out of the great oppression, and they have cleansed their dresses and whitened them in the blood of the little Ram.” (Rev 7:14b)

When (the two witnesses) – according to the circumstances - may have ended their evidence, the little wild animal then (א*) ascending out of the abyss will make war ‘in company with’/against them and conquer them and kill them. (Rev 11:7)


My own comments and speculations:

The primary and necessary thing in life is the beholding of God (cf. Luke 10:38-42). Worthful things, but not necessary, are to behold what God has created, and after that what the created beings, especially man, have made (cf. Matt 6:28-29). In an eternity perspective it is better to give up what God and His created beings have made than to give up God Himself and the nearness of Him (cf. Matt 5:29-30; Rev 12:11).

Concerning “the blood of the little Ram”, see also Rev 5:9b and Rev 7:14b.


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: Eskil Albertsson, Eric S. Alexandersson, Nils Bolander, Sven Danell, Hjalmar Danielsson, Emma Dixon, Hilding Fagerberg, Carl Grimberg, Björn Hallström, Dag Hammarskjöld, Ebba Hammarström, Dick Harrison, Alf Henrikson, Fride Hylander, Henrik Ibsen, Adolf Kloo, Lars Levi Laestadius, Gustaf Landmér, Ebba L. Lewenhaupt, Sven Lidman, Martin Luther, Helge Lööf, Olaus Magnus, Verner Malmsten, Mathilda Malmvall, Vilhelm Moberg, Gösta Nicklasson, J. Nyrén, David Nyvall, Efraim Palmqvist, Lewi Pethrus, Viktor Rydberg, Allan Rydén, Dag Sandahl, Gösta Sandberg, Harry Sjöman, Sven Stolpe, Karl August Tavaststjerna, Gudina Tumsa, Yngve Ydreborg, Karl Zeitz, Göran Åberg.


I write to you, fathers, because you have gained (and gain) knowledge of 'the One'/Him from a beginning. I write to you, youths, because you have conquered (and conquer) the evil (thing) (א,*א). (1 John 2:13)

I have written to you, youths, because you are stable and the saying of God stays in you, and you have conquered (and conquer) the evil one. (1 John 2:14b)


Additional studies:

Matt 10:39; 16:25; Mark 8:35; Luke 9:24; 17:33; John 6:53-56; 19:34; Rom 8:33-34,37; 1 John 2:1; Rev 5:6; 15:2; 19:10.


Donald Guthrie "The Lamb in the Structure of the Book of Revelation"; Vox Evangelica 12 (1981): 64-71.

Norman Hillyer "'The Lamb' in the Apocalypse"; The Evangelical Quarterly 39.4 (Oct.-Dec. 1967): 228-236.

J.A. du Rand "'Now the salvation of our God has come . . . ' A narrative perspective on the hymns in Revelation 12-15"; Neotestamentica 27.2 (1993): 313-330.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-16; 2012-07-07; 2015-05-19)

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12:12a Because of this, be cheerful, * (א,* א) heavens, and you dwelling (א,* א) in them.

Word for word (9 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus): because-of this be-cheerful, heavens and 'the-(ones)'/you dwelling in them.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

Be cheerful, heavens, together (with the Lord) and prostrate before Him (in honour of Him) all sons of God. Be cheerful nations, in company with His people, ... because (the Lord) will procure justice for the blood of His sons … (on) His enemies.” (Deut 32:43a, Greek OT)

Be cheerful, heavens! (Is 49:13a, Greek OT)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “Behold the heaven and the heaven of the heaven, abyss and earth, to and fro they will move in/at the visitation (of the Lord). Together/’at the same time’ the mountains and the bases of the earth are shaken together into/’for the purpose of’ the same trembling ‘in the thing to see’/’when He sees’ on/over (them).” (Sir 16:18-19)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to the Pharisees and the scribes:) “It will be joy in the heaven on/’for the sake of’ one misser (of the mark of God) changing his mind, (more) than on/’for the sake of’ ninety-nine righteous whoever/who have not need of change of mind.” (Luke 15:7b)

(The father said to his elder son:) “We (continually) had to be cheerful and rejoice, because this your brother (continually) was (a) dead (body), and he has lived/’come to life’.” (Luke 15:32a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

The ones dwelling upon the earth rejoice on/’for the sake of’ (the two witnesses) and are cheerful. (Rev 11:10a)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: Anton Tjechov.


Additional studies:

Ps 96:11; Is 44:23; Rev 13:6; 18:20.


J.A. du Rand "'Now the salvation of our God has come . . . ' A narrative perspective on the hymns in Revelation 12-15"; Neotestamentica 27.2 (1993): 313-330.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-16; 2012-07-07; 2015-05-22)

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12:12b Woe to the earth and the sea, because the slanderer has descended towards you, having * (א,* א) passion, knowing (and having known) that he has few/’a little’ seasonable time.

Word for word (19 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus): woe (to)-the earth and the sea, because descended the slanderer towards you, having passion knowing-(and-having-known) that few seasonable-time (he)-has.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(David said:) “Still few/’a little time’ and the misser (of the mark of God) may not/certainly not ‘begin under’/exist.” (Ps 37:10a, Greek OT)

The earth/land Judas was quiet few/’a few’ days. (1 Macc 7:50)

(Antiochus) oppressed the city from the earth/land and the sea, and he did not allow ‘not anyone’/anyone to go out, nor to go into (the city). (1 Macc 15:14b)

(Antiochus) blew/breathed fire (in) the passions against the Jews. … (But he fell) from the wagon. … No one was able to carry off to the side of (the one) a small/little (while) formerly thinking (he would) touch stars of the heavens. (2 Macc 9:7b-10a)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “Behold the heaven and the heaven of the heaven, abyss and earth, to and fro they will move in/at the visitation (of the Lord). Together/’at the same time’ the mountains and the bases of the earth are shaken together into/’for the purpose of’ the same trembling ‘in the thing to see’/’when He sees’ on/over (them).” (Sir 16:18-19)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus) said to (His disciples): “Come here you yourselves 'according to the own thing'/'by yourselves' into a desolate place and ‘be brought’/come to rest few/’a little’.” (Mark 6:31a)

All in the synagogue were fulfilled (with) passion hearing (Jesus say) these things. And having stood up they threw/hurried Him out, outside the city and led Him till the brow of the mountain upon which their city was (and had been) built, so that (they could) throw Him down a precipice. (Luke 4:28-29)

(Jesus said to His disciples: “That day) will come in against, against all the ones being seated against the face of ‘every the’/’the whole’ earth.” (Luke 21:35)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

Every creature which (is) in the heaven and upon the earth * (א,* א) and upon the sea, and the things in them, all I and/also (א,* א) heard saying. (Rev 5:13a)

(An eagle) saying (with) a great/loud voice: “Woe, woe, woe, to the ones inhabiting upon the earth, out/’in consequence’ of the rest of voices of the trumpet of the three messengers being about to sound the trumpet.” (Rev 8:13b)

Woe one (א*) went away. Behold, it comes still two woes after these things. (Rev 9:12)

(The stable messenger) put/set his right foot upon the sea but/and the 'one of good name'/left upon the earth. (Rev 10:2b)

The second woe has come by the side of (א,* א). Behold, the third woe comes quickly. (Rev 11:14)

The dragon and his messengers waged war. And they were not stable (enough) towards him (א,* א), nor there was any longer found a place * (א*) in heaven. And the great dragon was thrown (out), * (א,*א) a serpent, he of (a) beginning, he being called a slanderer, * (א,*א) the adversary, he leading the whole (inhabited) world astray, he was thrown into/'down to' the earth, and his messengers were thrown (down) in company with him. (Rev 12:8-9)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

Mattis flew into a rage so that even his robbers were afraid. . . . (He) got for once angry with (Ronja). . . . "Borkarobbers in Mattis' castle - yes, you can then hit upon! It is so that the bloods begin to boil in me, although I know that it is a lie." . . . (Mattis) saw himself wildly around and with a roaring he took two beer tankards, one in each fist and tossed them in the wall so that the beer rushed. . . . With a roaring (he) took the leg of mutton being put on the long table and slung it in the wall so that the dripping whirled. "And that one of the snake brood declared, you say, that his dogchief to father with his whole pack of robbers have moved into the north castle?" "Yes, and now it is called Borka's stronghold, try to remember this." With a roaring Mattis took the soup-pot hanging over the fire and tossed it in the wall so that the soup sprayed. . . . He took the eggs, one by one, and with furious roarings he tossed them all in the wall, so that the egg-sludge ran. . . . He threw himself down on the floor so tall he was, and there he lay and wept and cried and damned. (Astrid Lindgren "Ronja Rövardotter" p 42-44; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

When there is a distinction between “thymos” and “orgê”, “thymos” seems to indicate turbulent commotion, anger, fury, suddenly blazing up and quickly extinguished, like fire in straw, while “orgê” refers to settled indignation, wrath of a more abiding character. (William Hendriksen "The Gospel of Luke" p 261; concerning “orgê”, cf. John 3:36)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: August Berg, Tage Danielsson, Carl Grimberg, Alf Henrikson, J.P. Jacobsen, Johannes V. Jensen, Erik Axel Karlfeldt, Aleksis Kivi, Vilhelm Moberg, Konrad Nilsson, Peter H. Oscarsson, Göran Sahlberg, Ragnar Samuelson, Mel and Nora Tari, Helmut Thielicke, Anton Tjechov.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “to the earth and the sea”, see also Rev 5:13a.


Greek words:

thymos (passion) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) 2 Macc 9:7; Luke 4:28; Rev 12:12 – Esther 2:1; 5:1d(D7); Tobit 1:18; Judith 2:7; 9:8; 1 Macc 2:24,44,49; 7:35; 9:69; 15:36; 2 Macc 4:25,38; 7:21; 9:4; 10:28,35; 13:4; 15:10; Wisdom of Solomon 5:22; 7:20; 16:5; 18:21; 19:1; Sir 1:22; 5:6; 10:18; 18:24; 25:15; 26:28; 28:10,19; 30:24; 31:30; 36:6(8); 39:28; 40:4(5); 45:18-19; 48:10; Baruch 1:13; 2:13,20; The Prayer of Manasseh v 10. Acts 19:28; Rom 2:8; 2 Cor 12:20; Gal 5:20; Eph 4:31; Col 3:8; Heb 11:27; Rev 14:8,10,19; 15:1,7; 16:1,19; 18:3; 19:15.


Additional studies:

John 3:13; 1 Pet 1:6; 5:10; Rev 12:14.


J.A. du Rand "'Now the salvation of our God has come . . . ' A narrative perspective on the hymns in Revelation 12-15"; Neotestamentica 27.2 (1993): 313-330.

P.G.R. Villiers "Prime evil and its many faces in the Book of Revelation"; Neotestamentica 34.1 (2000): 57-86.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-16; 2012-07-07; 2015-05-23)

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12:13-14 And when the dragon beheld, that he had been thrown into/to the earth, he gave (up) (א*) the woman – whoever/who had brought forth the (female) male. And (the) (P47,א,*א) two wings of the great eagle were given to the woman, in order that she might fly into the desolate (district) into her place, whereat/where she there is supported (for) a seasonable time and seasonable times and half a seasonable time (away) from (the) face of the serpent.

Word for word: 12:13 (17 words in the Greek text) and when beheld the dragon that (he)-was-thrown into the earth, (he)-gave the woman whoever brought-forth the (female)-male. 12:14 (32 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus) and was-given the woman two wings (of)-the (of)-eagle the great, in-order-that (she)-might-fly into the desolate-(district) into the place her, whereat (she)-is-supported there (a)-seasonable-time and seasonable-times and half-(a) seasonable-time from (a)-face (of)-the (of)-serpent.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

... Pharaoh (continually) sought to ‘take up ... for himself’/’get rid of’ Moses. But Moses retired from (the) face of Pharaoh. (Ex 2:15a, Greek OT)

(Pharaoh said to Moses and Aaron:) “Stand up and come/go out, out of My people, and/both you and the sons of Israel. Advance and serve the Lord, your God, according as you say.” (Ex 12:31b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Moses/Israel:) “You have beheld (and behold) as many things as I have made/done (and make/do) (with) the Egyptians, and I took you up, as if upon wings of eagles, and I led you towards, towards Myself.” (Ex 19:4, Greek OT)

(Moses said to Israel:) “As an eagle 'to shelter'/shelters its nest ... the Lord (spread out) His wings (and) received/accepted (His people).” (Deut 32:11a, Greek OT)

The Lord spoke to the slanderer: “Behold, all things, as many as it is (given) to (Job), I give in your hand.” ... (And Job spoke:) “... The Lord gave, the Lord took off/away.” (Job 1:12a,21a, Greek OT)

(David said to God:) “ .. You have ‘made broad’/’given room’ to me in an oppression.” (Ps 4:1a or 4:2a, Greek OT)

(The sons of Ephraim) tested God in their hearts to the thing demand food they (in) their souls/desires, and they ‘talked down’/accused God and spoke: "Not will God be able to make a table ready in the desolate (district)?" (Ps 78:18-19, Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) “The ones staying behind God will change stability. They will get wings as eagles.” (Is 40:31a, Greek OT)

This is what the Lord says: “The great/large eagle (with) the largewinged … come/came into Lebanon and took the selected things of the cedar-tree. … When – according to the circumstances – the king of Babylon may come against Jerusalem, he will take its king and its leaders and lead them towards himself into Babylon.” (Ezek 17:3,12b, Greek OT)

The first (little wild animal was) as if (it was) a lioness having feathers as if (it was) an eagle. I (continually) looked at till (the time) whichever/’in which’ its feathers were plucked. (Dan 7:4a, Greek OT)

(The horn) will talk words into/against the Highest One and rub down the holy ones of the Highest One. And he will 'receive towards'/welcome to change seasonable times and law. And all things will be given 'to the side of'/over into his hands till a seasonable time and seasonable times and till half a seasonable time. (Dan 7:25, Greek OT)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “Flee from miss (of the mark of God) as from a face of a serpent.” (Sir 21:2a)


The Latter Revelation:

The slanderer takes (Jesus) to the side of (himself) into the holy city and ‘caused Him to stand’/’set Him’ against the ‘little wing’/pinnacle of the sanctuary. (Matt 4:5)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "'See in'/'fix your eyes' into the flying creatures of the heaven. … Your heavenly Father supports them." (Matt 6:26a)

(The Pharisees asked Jesus:) “Is it permitted to give tax to Caesar or not?” ... He says to them: “Give so back the things of a caesar to a caesar and the tings of God to God.” (Matt 22:17b,21b)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Whereat – if according to the circumstances - the fall/corpse may be, there the eagles will be led together.” (Matt 24:28)

(Jesus said to the twelve:) “Whereat/where you – if according to the circumstances – may come into, into an habitation, stay there till you – according to the circumstances – may come out from there.” (Mark 6:10)

(Jesus said to His disciples: “This people) will fall (in) a mouth of a dagger and will be captured into all the nations. And Jerusalem will be, be trodden by nations until the (time in which the) seasonable times of nations may be completed.” (Luke 21:24)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “It ‘is not for’/’does not belong’ you to have knowledge of times and seasonable times, which the Father has put/fixed in the own (judicial) authority.” (Acts 1:7)

(God) has out of one made every nation of men to dwell upon every face/place of the earth, having marked out by boundaries and having commanded (and commanding) seasonable times and the boundaries of their habitation-place. (Acts 17:26)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Jesus said:) “If – according to the circumstances – anyone may render service to Me, let him follow Me. And whereat/where I am, there will and/also My servant be.” (John 12:26a)

I beheld, and I heard (the sound of) an eagle flying in midheaven. (Rev 8:13a)

I will give (authority) to my two witnesses, and they will prophesy (for) one thousand two hundred (and) sixty days, being (and having been) wrapped up in sack. (Rev 11:3)

A woman being (and having been) wrapped up in the sun and (with) the moon below her feet and upon her head a crown of twelve stars. (Rev 12:1b)

(The woman) brought forth a son, a (female) (P47,א,*א) male, who is about to be a shepherd to all the nations in/with a rod of iron. (Rev 12:5a)

The woman fled into the desolate (district), whereat/where she there has a place having been (and being) made ready from God, in order that they will (א,* א) support her there (for) one thousand and two hundred and sixty days. (Rev 12:6)

The great dragon was thrown (out), * (א,* א) a serpent, he of (a) beginning, he being called a slanderer, * (א,*א) the adversary, he leading the whole (inhabited) world astray, he was thrown into/'down to' the earth, and his messengers were thrown (down) in company with him. (Rev 12:9)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

In Dan 7:25 the three and one-half years is associated with the reign of a godless king, and in Rev 12:14 it may well be associated with the reign of the beast (13:5-6) which coincides with the third woe (8:13). (J. Massyngberde Ford "Revelation" p 192)

Do not fear the Eagle, white Dove! You he does not scratch, sweet! If You tire to go on the ground, he takes You on strong wings Lifts You up over the clouds! The eagle is your friend, my white dove! Guards You against the grey hawk. Guard him, You, against your arrows! (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev XIV 1901-mars 1904" p 58; letter 1901-04-05 to Harriet Bosse; Strindberg used "The Eagle" as a name of himself in his youth; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

(I) needed to leave the town (Stockholm) pressing me down. . . . If I had wings of the gull I would fly out to Kymendö today and would remain there! (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev XIII sept 1898-dec 1900" p 188; letter 1899-08-25 to Richard Bergh; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Kent Andersson, Åke Andrén, Daniel Baker, David Bellingham, Richard Covington, Chas. E. Cowman, Carl Fries, Erik Gustaf Geijer, Bo Giertz, Carl Grimberg, Claes-Göran Holmberg, Viktor Johansson, Nikolaj Kljujev, Inge Kvarnström, Sven Lidman, Efraim Palmqvist, Hilding Pleijel, Johan Ludvig Runeberg, Viktor Rydberg, Göran Sahlberg, Esaias Tegnér, John Thörnquist, Anton Tjechov, J.R.R. Tolkien, Fredrik Wislöff, Tore Zetterholm, Göran Åberg, Erik Åkerhielm.


My own comments and speculations:

As Pharaoh had to give up Israel, the slanderer also must do so. Furthermore, in a restoration perspective we can see, that as the Lord gave His servant Job to the slanderer, the slanderer now must give the servant Israel to the Lord.

Concerning “the dragon … thrown into/to the earth”, see Rev 12:9. Concerning “the woman”, see Rev 12:1b. Concerning “the (female) male”, see My own comments and speculations to Rev 12:5 and John 19:33-37. Concerning “into the desolate (district) into her place, whereat/where she ... was supported”, see Rev 12:6. Concerning “a seasonable time and seasonable times and half a seasonable time”, see Rev 11:3.


Additional studies: Ruth 2:12; Jer 48:9,40; 49:22; Ezek 17:7; Dan 12:7; Hos 8:1; Luke 4:9; 17:37.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-16; 2012-07-07; 2015-05-27)

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12:15-16 And the serpent threw water as a river out of his mouth behind the woman, in order that he might make/cause her worn in a river. And the earth succoured the woman, and the earth opened its mouth and drank down the river which the dragon threw out of his mouth.

Word for word: 12:15 (18 words in the Greek text): and threw the serpent out-of the mouth his behind the woman water as (a)-river, in-order-that her (he)-might-make worn-in-a-river. 12:16 (25 ord i den grekiska texten): and succoured the earth the woman and opened the earth the mouth its and drank-down the river which threw the dragon out-of the mouth his.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

The serpent (continually) was most sensible of all the little wild animals upon the earth, which the Lord God had made. And the serpent spoke to the woman: “’What that’/why did God speak: ‘You may not/certainly not eat from every/all wood in the ‘place by the side of apprehension’/Paradise?’” (Gen 3:1, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Cain: “Be) now you on/’under the rule of’ the cursed from/'away from' the earth/field, which has yawned/opened its mouth to receive the blood of your brother out of your hand." (Gen 4:11, Greek OT)

(Moses and the sons of Israel sang to the Lord:) "Selected ones of riders of third colonels plunged entirely into the sea, in red sea." (Ex 15:4b, Greek OT; third colonels came as the third ones in rank after king and queen)

The earth was opened and drank down (the rebellious) and their houses and all the men being in company with Corah and (also) their domestic animals. And they and as many things as are theirs descended living into Hades. And the earth veiled them, and they perished out of a middle of the synagogue. And every/all Israel, the ones (being) in a circle of them fled from their voice/cry, because saying: "Not at any time may the earth drink us down!" (Num 16:32-34, Greek OT)

From the cry of (the Jews to God) became/came like as if – according to the circumstances – from a small spring a great river (with) much water. (Esther 1:1i/A9)

(The king) put the womanly diadem on (Esther). (Esther 2:17b, Greek OT)

(Esther said to the Lord:) “Succour me, the alone one, having and/namely not (anyone) if not You, Lord.” (Esther 4:17tb/C25b, Greek OT)

(Esther said to the Lord:) “I abominate (the sign, the diadem) as a monthly/stained rag, and I do not wear it in days of my quietness.” (Esther 4:17wb/C27b)

The small spring ... became a river and was (continually) a light and a sun and much water. Esther is the river, which the king married and made a queen. But ‘I am and Haman’/’I and Haman are’ the two dragons. (Esther 10:3c-d/F3-4, Greek OT)

(David said to the Lord:) “More than in an inundation many waters will not draw near towards (the pious one).” (Ps 32:6b, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said: “The nations) have poured out the blood (of the slaves of the Lord) as water (in) a circle (round) Jerusalem.” (Ps 79:3a, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said:) “The earth opened and drank down Dathan.” (Ps 106:17a, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said: “The Lord) put/laid rivers into a desolate (district).” (Ps 107:33a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Isaiah about His people:) "... the Lord leads up against you the stable and the much water of the river (Euphrates)." (Is 8:7a, Greek OT)

(The Lord) drank down the death ... and again God took off/away every teardrop from the every face ... And it will be spoken (on) that day: "Behold our God, on whom we (continually) hoped", and we may exult and we shall be cheerful on/’for the sake of’ our saving.” (Is 25:8-9, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to the prophet:) “Speak: ‘This is what the Lord says: “Behold, I (am) against Pharaoh, the great dragon, who is seated in a middle of his rivers, saying: ‘The rivers are for me, and I have made them.’”’” (Ezek 29:3, Greek OT)

(The prophet said: “ … The Lord) making/makes all the rivers desolate.” (Nahum 1:4a, Greek OT)

(Jonathan said:) “We have the help out of heaven having succoured us and we were delivered from the enemies, and our enemies were humbled.” (1 Macc 12:15)

(Solomon said:) “Water of a sea will be vexed ‘down from’/against (the wicked ones), but/and rivers will together severely ripple (over them).” (Wisdom of Solomon 5:22b)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "Every/everyone whoever hears these My sayings, and makes/does them, will be likened (to) a sensible male, whoever built his habitation against the rock. … And the rivers came … and it did not fall, for it was (and had been) based against the rock." (Matt 7:24-25)

(The Canaanite woman said to Jesus:) “Lord, succour me. … And/also the little dogs eat from the things of the crumbs falling from the table of their lords.” Then ‘having answered Jesus’/’Jesus answered and’ spoke to her: “O woman, your faith (is) great, let it become to you as you want!” (Matt 15:25b,27b-28a)

(Jesus said to the scribes and the Pharisees:) “Blind guides, the ones straining the gnat but drinking/swallowing down the camel.” (Matt 23:24)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

A great sign was beheld in the heaven. a woman being (and having been) wrapped up in the sun and (with) the moon below her feet and upon her head a crown of twelve stars. (Rev 12:1)

Another sign was beheld in the heaven. And behold, a fire-coloured great dragon having seven heads and ten horns and against his heads seven diadems. (Rev 12:3)

The great dragon was thrown (out), * (א,*א) a serpent, he of (a) beginning, he being called a slanderer, * (א,*א) the adversary, he leading the whole (inhabited) world astray, he was thrown into/down to' the earth. (Rev 12:9a)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: Bo Giertz, C.S. Lewis, Vilhelm Moberg.


Greek words:

boêtheô (succour) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Esther 4:17t(C25); 1 Macc 12:15; Matt 15:25; Rev 12:16 – Esther 4:17l(C14); 8:11; Judith 8:15; 1 Macc 3:2,15,53; 7:20; 8:13; 12:53; 2 Macc 6:11; Wisdom of Solomon 13:16; Sir 12:17; 29:4; Baruch 4:17; Epistle of Jeremiah v 57; Mark 9:22,24; Acts 16:9; 21:28; 2 Cor 6:2; Heb 2:18.

katapinô (drink down) (in the NT + one example in the Apocrypha) Matt 23:24; Rev 12:16 – Tobit 6:2(3); 1 Cor 15:54; 2 Cor 2:7; 5:4; Heb 11:29; 1 Pet 5:8.

potamoforêtos (worn a river) Rev 12:15. This word does not occur in the rest of the Bible. It consists of the words “potamos” (river) and “foreê” (wear, lit. bear for a considerable time). “Foreô” is an unusual word in the Bible. In the OT we have it the first time in Esther 4:17w(C27), where it used about the Jewess and the queen Esther.


We can compare Rev 12 with the book of Esther:

A great sign (= Israel) (Rev 12:1) – An abominable sign (= a diadem) (Esther 4:17w/C27)

A crown upon a woman (= Israel) (Rev 12:1) – An abominable diadem upon a woman (= the Jewess Esther) (Esther 4:17w/C27)

A woman (= Israel) with a crown escapes to wear a river (Rev 12:15) – A river (= Esther) is forced to wear an abominable diadem. (Esther 4:17w/C27)

The earth succours the woman by drinking down the river of the dragon (Rev 12:16) – God succours the woman (=Esther) by increasing the river (= Esther) (Esther 4:17tb/C25b;10:3c/F3)


Additional studies: Num 16:30; Deut 11:16; Ps 69:2-3,14-15(15-16); 107:27; Prov 18:4; 30:16; Is 43:1-2; 44:27; 45:8; 50:2; Jer 46:7-8; 47:2; Jonah 2:3(4); Sir 44:18; 51:2-3; Matt 4:19; 10:38; Mark 1:17,20; 8:34; Luke 9:23,39; 10:21; 14:27; John 18:6; 1 Cor 1:20-23; 2:1,13; 3:18-20; Col 2:8; Heb 1:14; Rev 20:2.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-16; 2012-07-07; 2015-06-04)

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12:17 And the dragon was wrathful on/with the woman and went away to make war ‘in company with’/with the rest of her seed of the ones keeping the commandments of God and having the evidence of Jesus.

Word for word (28 words in the Greek text; the sequence of the words according to Sinaiticus): and was-wrathful the dragon on the woman and went-away war (to)-make in-company-with the rest (of)-the (of)-seed her (of)-the-(ones) keeping the commandments (of)-the (of)-god and having the evidence (of)-Jesus.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The Lord said to the serpent:) "I will put enmity upwards/between your middle and upwards/- a middle of the woman and upwards/between a middle of your seed and upwards/- a middle of her seed. He shall keep your head, and you shall keep his heel." (Gen 3:15, Greek OT)

(Moses said to Israel:) "The Lord your God has led you in the desolate (district these forty years), in that way (that) He – according to the circumstances – might treat you ill and test you and have knowledge throughout of the things in your heart, if you might watch His commandments or not." (Deut 8:2b, Greek OT)

(Moses said to Israel:) “If you – according to the circumstances – (with) a hearsay may listen to the voice of the Lord your God to watch and make/do all His commandments … the Lord your God will give/set you up over all the nations of the earth. … If you – according to the circumstances – may not listen to the voice of the Lord your God to watch and make/do all His commandments … all these curses will come against you and take you down/up.” (Deut 28:1b,15, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said to the Lord:) “I have welcomed Your commandments over/’more than’ gold.” (Ps 119:127a, Greek OT)

As the king Antiochus heard these sayings, he was wrathful (with) passion. (1 Macc 3:27)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “ … The fine seed, these are the sons of the kingdom.” (Matt 13:38a)

(Jesus said to a rich man:) “If you want to come into, into the life, keep the commandments.” (Matt 19:17b)

(Jesus said to the Pharisees and the scribes:) “Having let the commandment of God be, you ‘get power over’/embrace the tradition of the men.” (Mark 7:8)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

The priest leaders took counsel, in order that they and/also might kill Lazarus, because many of the Jews, because of him, (continually) withdrew and (continually) believed into Jesus. (John 12:10-11)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “A new commandment I give you, that you may welcome one another, entirely as I have welcomed you, in order that and/also you may welcome one another.” (John 13:34)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “If – according to the circumstances – you may welcome Me, you may keep (P66,א,*א) My commandments. And I will ask the Father, and He will give you Another, One being called to the side of (you), in order that It may be in company with you into the (coming) age, the Spirit of the truth, which the adornment/’adorned world’ is not able to take.” (John 14:15-17a)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "The one having My commandments and keeping them, that one is the one welcoming Me. But the one welcoming Me will be welcomed by My Father. And I will welcome him and make Myself conspicuous to him." (John 14:21)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Entirely as the Father has welcomed Me, and/also I have welcomed you. Stay in the welcome, (in) My (welcome). If – according to the circumstances – you may keep My commandments, stay in My welcome, entirely as and/also (א,*א) I have kept (and keep) My Father's, My (א*) commandments, and stay in His welcome.” (John 15:9-10)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "Recollect the saying which I spoke to you: 'A slave is not greater (than) his lord.' If they have pursued Me, they will and/also pursue you." (John 15:20a)

(John) was a witness to the saying of God and the evidence of Jesus Christ, as many things as he beheld. (Rev 1:2)

(I, John, …) became/appeared in/on the island being called Patmos because of the saying of God and because of (א,*א) the evidence of Jesus. (Rev 1:9b)

I say to you, the rest in Thyatira, as many as do not have this teaching, whoever/who have not gained knowledge of the depths (א,*א) of the adversary, as they say – I will (א,*א) not throw/place another weight against you. (Rev 2:24)

Recollect * (א,*א) how you have taken (and take) and (how you) heard and keep (it) and change your mind. (Rev 3:3a, “Sardis”)

When It opened the fifth seal, I beheld below the sacrificial altar the souls of the men (א,* א) having been (and being) slaughtered because of the saying of God and because of the evidence which they (continually) had. (Rev 6:9)

The rest of the men, who were not killed in these their (P47, א,* א) blows, nor changed their minds out/’in consequence’ of the works of their hands. (Rev 9:20a)

When (the two witnesses) – according to the circumstances - may have ended their evidence, the little wild animal then (א*) ascending out of the abyss will make war ‘in company with’/against them and conquer them and kill them. (Rev 11:7)

The rest (who were not killed in the shaking) became in fear (א,* א) and gave glory to the God of the heaven (in honour of Him). (Rev 11:13b)

The nations was/were (P47, א*) wrathful, and/but Your wrath came and the seasonable time of the dead (bodies) to be judged. (Rev 11:18a)

Behold, a fire-coloured great dragon having seven heads and ten horns and against his heads seven diadems. (Rev 12:3b)

(The woman) brought forth a son, a (female) (P47,א,*א) male, who is about to be a shepherd to all the nations in/with a rod of iron. (Rev 12:5a)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: Lars Levi Laestadius, Martin Luther, Josef Rydén, Tomas Tranströmer, P. Waldenström.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “evidence of Jesus”, see Rev 1:2.


In/by this we have knowledge, that we have (and have had) knowledge of Him, if we – according to the circumstances – may watch/’stand up for’ (א*) His commandments. (1 John 2:3)

What we – if according to the circumstances – may demand, we take from Him, because we may (א,*א,A) keep His commandments and (because) we make/do the pleasing things in the very eyes of Him. (1 John 3:22)

This is the welcome of God, in order that we may keep His commandments, and His commandments are not weighty. (1 John 5:3)


Additional studies: Deut 11:1; 26:18-19; Rom 8:29; John 16:2; 1 John 3:9,23; 5:10; Rev 13:7; 14:12; 19:10; 20:4.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-17; 2012-07-07; 2015-06-07)

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12:18 (13:1a) And he stood against the sand of the sea.

Word for word (7 words in the Greek text): And (he)-stood against the sand (of)-the (of)-sea.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The Lord said to Abram:) “I will make your seed as the sand of the earth.” (Gen 13:16a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Abraham:) “Your seed (will be) ... as the sand to the side of the lip of the sea. And your seed shall inherit the cities of the hostile ones.” (Gen 22:17b, Greek OT)

(The prophet said to Israel:) “If the people Israel – according to the circumstances – may become as the sand of the sea, (only) their remnant will be saved.” (Is 10:22a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to the prophet:) "The number of the sons of Israel (continually) was as the sand of the sea, which will not (be able to) be measured out, nor be counted up the number out of." (Hos 1:10a, Greek OT)

The much/many-headed mixed on/up (multitude) came together with (the Assyrians) as locust/locusts and as the sand of the earth. (Judith 2:20a)

The many abilities of the king of Egypt assembled as the sand to the side of the lip of the sea. (1 Macc 11:1a)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “Who has counted up the number out of sand of seas?” (Sir 1:2a)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said:) “'Every the'/everyone hearing these My sayings and not making/doing them will be like a foolish male, whoever built his habitation against the sand. And the wet descended, and the rivers came and * (א*) cut/struck towards that habitation and it fell and its falling (continually) was great. (Matt 7:26-27)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “The one who – according to the circumstances – may cause one of these small/little ones believing into Me to stumble, it ‘carries together’/’is profitable’ to him ‘in order that’/that an upper millstone may be hung around his neck and he may be drowned in the ‘pelago of the sea’/’open sea’.” (Matt 18:6)


My own comments and speculations:

In consequence with my translation by “epi tên ammon” (“against the sand”) in Matt 7:26, I use the same translation of this expression here. In the light of the OT we must separate “the sand of the sea” from “the sand of the earth” or “the sand to the side of the lip of the sea”. The dragon ”against the sand of the sea” has no power over ”the sand of the earth” = the seed of Abraham.


Paul said to the believers in Rome: “Isaiah shouts over Israel: ‘If – according to the circumstances – the number of the sons of Israel may be as the sand of the sea, (only) the residue will be saved.” (Rom 9:27)

(From Abraham descendants have fallen asleep) numberless as the sand to the side of the lip of the sea. (Heb 11:12b)


Greek words:

ammos (sand) (in the NT + examples in the OT) Gen 13:16; 22:17; Is 10:22; Dan 3:36; Judith 2:20; 1 Macc 11:1; Sir 1:2; Matt 7:26; Rom 9:27; Heb 11:12; Rev 12:18 – Sir 18:10; 22:15; The Prayer of Azariah v 13; Rev 20:8.


Additional studies: Gen 41:49; Joshua 11:4; Judges 7:12; 1 Sam 13:5; 2 Sam 17:11; 1 Kings 4:20,29; Job 6:3; Jer 15:8; 33:22; Rev 21:1.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-17; 2012-07-07; 2015-06-08)

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