Back to chapter listing

Chapter 11

quick navigation to the verses:
1a | 1b | 2a | 2b | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6a | 6b | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10a | 10b | 11a | 11b | 12a | 12b | 13a | 13b | 14 | 15a | 15b | 16 | 17 | 18a | 18ba | 18bb | 19a | 19b


11:1a And it was given me a reed like a rod, saying:

Word for word (7 words in the Greek text): And (it)-was-given me (a)-reed like (a)-rod saying:


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

Behold a male … and in his hand ... a measure reed, and he stood upon/at the gate (of the temple). (Ezek 40:3b, Greek OT)

(The prophet said to the Lord:) “Be a shepherd for Your people in/with Your rod.” (Micah 7:14a, Greek OT)


The Latter Revelation:

On the going of (the disciples of John the Baptist) Jesus began to say (to) the crowds on account of John: "What did you come out into the desolate (district) to view? A reed moving to and fro by a wind?" (Matt 11:7)

Having plaited a crown out of thorns (the soldiers) put (it) upon, upon the head of (Jesus) and a reed in His right hand, and having fallen down in front of Him on their knees they ‘jested with’/mocked Him saying: “Rejoice, the (א,* א, A) King of the Jews!” And they … took the reed and (continually/repeatedly) slapped into/against His head. (Matt 27:29-30)

(Jesus) brought a message (to the twelve) by the side of, in order that they might not lift/bring anything into/to a way/journey, ‘if not’/except only a rod. (Mark 6:8a)

Having run and filled a sponge (with) sour wine (and) having put it round about a reed, a certain one (continually/repeatedly) gave it to (Jesus) to drink. (Mark 15:36a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Jesus said to Nicodemus:) "The Spirit blows whereat/where it wants, and you hear its voice. However, you do not know from where it comes, and where it withdraws. In this way is 'every the'/everyone having been (and being) begotten out of the water and (א,*א) the Spirit." (John 3:8)

He will be a shepherd to them in/with a rod of iron, as it is crushed vessels of a potter, as and/also I have taken (and take) (judicial authority) from the side of My Father. (Rev 2:27 or 2:27-28a)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

“There was given to me … saying …” The Greek construction is strange, for the position of the present participle makes it appear to modify the noun before it, which would mean that the (rod) was performing tha action of “saying”, when clearly the speaker is the celestial power that has been speaking all along. (J. Massyngberde Ford "Revelation" p 168)

The dean Farrar in one of his writings relates the following Jewish legend: When the children of Israel under Moses went out of Egypt they brought a flute, consisting of a simple reed. With this flute or reed-pipe the people used to be called together before the Lord in the tabernacle in the desert. Always this reed-pipe was held in great honour as a memory from their slavery in Egypt and their glorious redemption. But Israel got peace in the land of Canaan; it became a mighty people with kings and temple. Surely now the brilliant temple congregation could not be called together with a reed-pipe! So the king let cover it with an envelope of gold; only of course for "the glory of God"! But oh woe! Now the by nature slightly vibrating walls of the reed-pipe had become too stiff because of the golden envelope, and it was dumb whoever blew in it. After that it was kept in the temple only as a memory of what it formerly had been. However when it felt difficult for the people to leave the reed-pipe with its holy memories to its fate, they decided to try to bring the sound back in it. But what wise and what goldsmiths ever were consulted, so at last nothing else remained but to remove the gold and restore it in its simple, naked condition. And now it gave back the sound as cleanly and distinctly as before. (Karl Palmberg "Pilgrims tillfälliga betraktelser" p 252-253; Karl Palmberg /1842-1920/ was from 1883 a Lutheran clergyman in Månsarp in the diocese of Växjö and president in Jönköpings Missionsförening (Missionary Society) 1886-1911; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


My own comments and speculations:

An alternative to the conclusion above is to see the reed as something that can speak. This is possible, if we study the text in the light of Matt 11:7, where a reed is compared with a man, here John the Baptist. This man was more than a prophet but not like a reed. On the other side a man begotten by the Spirit is like the wind/Spirit/reed which “you do not know from where it comes and where it withdraws” (John 3:8). Compare also with Judges 9:8-15 where different trees are speaking to one another.


Greek words:

kalamos (reed) (i NT + exempel i GT) Ezek 40:3; Matt 11:7; 27:30; Mark 15:36; Rev 11:1 – Ex 30:23; 1 Kings 14:15; Job 40:16(21); Ps 45:1(2); Is 42:3; Ezek 40:5-8; 42:16-18,20; Matt 12:20; 27:48; Mark 15:19; Luke 7:24; 3 John v 13; Rev 21:15-16.


Additional studies:

2 Kings 4:29; Ezek 41:8; 42:16-19; Zech 2:1; Matt 10:10; Luke 9:3; Rev 12:5; 19:15.


Marko Jauhiainen "The Measuring of the Sanctuary Reconsidered (Rev 11,1-2)"; Biblica 83 (2002): 507-526.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-11; 2012-07-05; 2015-04-05)

Back to the top

11:1b Rise and measure the temple of God and the sacrificial altar and the ones prostrating themselves in/at it.

Word for word (15 words in the Greek text): rise and measure the temple (of)-the (of)-god and the sacrificial-altar and the-(ones) '(kissing-towards)'/prostrating-themselves in/at it.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The Lord said to Moses:) “If – according to the circumstances – it/anything in the number (of the cattle and the sheep) may come underneath the rod, the tenth shall be holy to the Lord.” (Lev 27:32b, Greek OT)

(David said to the Lord:) “All the lineages of the nations will prostrate themselves before, in the very eyes of You.” (Ps 22:27b or 22:28b, Greek OT)

(David said to the Lord:) "All the nations as many as You have made will arrive and prostrate themselves before, in the very eyes of You, Lord." (Ps 86:9a, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said:) “Prostrate yourselves before (the Lord) (in honour of Him), all His messengers.” (Ps 97:7b, Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) “Upon/at the front doors of the temple of the Lord, ‘upwards middle of’/between the forecourt and ‘upwards middle of’/- the sacrificial altar, (are) as/about twenty males (with) their back parts towards the temple of the Lord and their faces over against. And these prostrates themselves before the sun (in honour of it). (Ezek 8:16b, Greek OT)

(A male measures the different parts of the temple with a reed) (Ezek 40:5 – 42:20)

These are the measures of the sacrificial altar in a cubit of the cubit and/namely of a wrestler. (Ezek 43:13a, Greek OT)


The Latter Revelation:

Soothsayers from upstickings/east became to the side of into (a disgraced) Jerosolyma/Jerusalem, saying: ”Where is the One having been brought forth, a King of the Jews? For we have beheld His star in the upsticking/east, and we have come to prostrate ourselves before Him (in honour of Him).” (Matt 2:1b-2)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Do not judge in order that you may not be judged. For in/with what judicial verdict you judge, you will be judged. And in/with what measure you measure, it will be measured to you. But why do you see the straw, the one in the eye of your brother eye, but do not ‘understand ... entirely’/observe the wooden beam in your eye?” (Matt 7:1-3)

(Jesus said to the scribes and the Pharisees:) "Against you may come every/all righteous blood being poured out upon the earth from the blood of righteous Abel till the blood of Zechariah * (א*) whom you murdered meanwhile/between the temple and the sacrificial altar." (Matt 23:35)

(Two witnesses said: “Jesus) uttered: ‘I am able to loosen down/up the temple of God and build it (א,*א) through/during three days.’” (Matt 26:61)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “In/with what/the measure you measure, it will be measured to you and it will be ‘put to’/added to you.” (Mark 4:24b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

Jesus answered and spoke to (judarna): "Loosen this temple, and in three days I will raise it." The Jews so spoke: "Forty-six years this temple has been built and You will raise it in three days?" But that (One) said (it) on account of the temple of His body. When He so was raised out of dead (bodies), His disciples remembered that He (continually/repeatedly) had said this; and they believed (in) the writing and (in) the saying which Jesus had spoken. (John 2:19-22)

(Jesus said to the woman:) "However, an hour comes, and it is now, when the true ‘prostrators’ will prostrate themselves before the Father (in honour of Him) in spirit and truth. For the Father seeks (certainly) and/also of such kind the ones prostrating (towards) Him (in adoration of Him). God (is) spirit, and the ones prostrating themselves * (א*) must prostrate themselves in a spirit of (א*) truth." (John 4:23-24)

(There) (continually) were some Greeks out of the ones ascending in order that they might prostrate themselves in/at the feast. (John 12:20)

The twenty-four elders will and/also (א,* א) fall/’sink down’ in the very eyes of the One being seated upon the throne, and they will prostrate themselves before the One living into the (coming) ages of the (coming) ages (in honour of Him). Amen (א,* א). (Rev 4:10a)

The elders fell/’sank down’ and they prostrated themselves. (Rev 5:14b)

(The elders and the four living beings) fell/sank down against/on their faces ‘in the very eyes of’/before the throne and prostrated themselves before God (in honour of Him). (Rev 7:11b)

… (These, the ones wrapped up in the white dresses) serve (God) day and night in His temple. (Rev 7:15a)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

During the just now expired day the councillors had asked the caesar if he had anything to object that they erected a temple for him on Rome's holy mountain. But Augustus had not at once given his assent. He did not know if it was pleasant to the gods, that he owned a temple by the side of theirs, and he had answered, that he first by a nightly sacrifice to his genius wanted to find out the will of the inmortal ones in this thing. . . . The old sibyl . . . rose from her place on the rock edge and went up among the men. . . . Grand and venerable she advanced to the caesar. . . . She expressed words, which she seemed to read up among the stars: "On the height of the Capital the reformer will be worshipped, Christ or Antichrist, but not frail men." When she had said this, she advanced away between the horror-struck men walking slowly down the mountain height and disappeared. But Augustus let next day strictly forbide the people to erect a temple to him on the Capital. In its place he built a sanctuary there to the new-born child of god and called it the altar of heaven. (Selma Lagerlöf "Kejsarens syn" p 11-16; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Alf Henrikson, Martin Luther, Olaf Moe, Gösta Sandberg, Håkan Sjögren, P.G. Vejde.


Greek words:

metreô (measure) (in the NT + examples in the OT) Matt 7:2; Mark 4:24; Rev 11:1 – Ex 16:18; Is 40:12; Luke 6:38; 2 Cor 10:12; Rev 11:2; 21:15-17.


Additional studies:

Zech 2:2; Luke 6:37; 11:51; Rev 14:18; 21:15-16.


Marko Jauhiainen "The Measuring of the Sanctuary Reconsidered (Rev 11,1-2)"; Biblica 83 (2002): 507-526.

M. Ottosson "Tempel och palats i Jerusalem och Beth Shan"; Svensk Exegetisk Årsbok 41/42 (1976/1977): 166-178.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-11; 2012-07-05; 2015-04-05)

Back to the top

11:2a And the court, the one ‘from inside’/inner (א,* א) of the temple, throw/bring (it/'the ones being there') out inside (א*) and you may not measure it ...

Word for word (13 words in the Greek text): and the court the-(one) 'from-inside' (of)-the (of)-temple, throw-out inside and not it (you)-may-measure


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

It became/’came about’ at the time when (the messengers) led (Lot and his woman and his two daughters) out outside (the city). (Gen 19:17a, Greek OT)

The Lord spoke towards Moses: “You shall already behold (the things) which I will make/do (with) Pharaoh, for in/with a powerful hand he shall dispatch them out, and in/with a high arm he shall throw them out, out of his earth/land.” (Ex 6:1, Greek OT)

(The priest) shall throw out (the stones with leprosy) outside the city into an unclean place. (Lev 14:40b, Greek OT)

In a middle of the house (of the temple) ‘from inside’/within, there David (gave/placed) the chest/ark of a covenant of the Lord. (1 Kings 6:19b, Greek OT)

‘From inside’/within (Solomon) overlaid (the house of God) with gold, (with) clean/pure goldmetal. (2 Chron 3:4b, Greek OT)

The priests came into of the house of the Lord inside to purify (it), and they threw out every impurity having been found in the house of the Lord and (threw it) into the court of the house of the Lord. And the Levites received (it) to throw (it) out outside into the torrent of Kidron. (2 Chron 29:16, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Israel:) “I shall lead you through/forth underneath My rod, and I shall lead you into (the covenant) in a number.” (Ezek 20:37, Greek OT)

(The male who measured different parts of the temple) measured throughout/out the court. (Ezek 40:47a, Greek OT)

In the year 153 ... (it was 'arranged on'/ordered) to take ‘entirely for themselves’/down the wall of the inner court of the holy ones. (But the work was not completed.) (1 Macc 9:54a)

(The foreign king wrote to the Jews:) “Let as many as being indebted to (the) kingly and every concern/affair (and who) – if according to the circumstances – may flee into the temple in Jerusalem and in all its frontiers be ‘loosened from’/released.” (1 Macc 10:43a)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said:) “Hypocrite, first throw/take the wooden beam out of your eye. Then you will and/namely see through to (be able to) throw/take out the straw out of the eye of your brother.” (Matt 7:5)

(Jesus said to the ones following Him:) “The sons of the kingdom will come (א*) out into the outer darkness.” (Matt 8:12a)

(Jesus said to the twelve:) "Every/everyone whoever will confess in/with Me in front of the men, I will and/also confess in/with him in front of My Father, the One (being) in * (P19, א,* א) heavens.” (Matt 10:32)

Jesus came into, into the sanctuary, and (He) threw/drove out all the ones selling and buying in the sanctuary. (Matt 21:12a)

(Jesus said:) “Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites, because you make the cup and the small dish clean from the outside ... but from inside you are filled up of hypocrisy and lawlessness.” (Matt 23:25a,28b)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “If those days (of great oppression) were not mutilated, ‘every flesh was not’/’no flesh was’ – according to the circumstances – saved, but because of the chosen ones those days will be mutilated.” (Matt 24:22)

Peter (continually) followed Jesus * (א,*א) from afar till the court of the priest leader and having come into/in inside he (continually) was seated in company with the rowers/servants to behold the end. (Matt 26:58)

Peter had followed (Jesus) from afar, till inside into the court of the priest leader. (Mark 14:54a)

They (continually/repeatedly) ‘according to’/’day by’ day put (the male who had been lame out of his mothers belly/womb) towards the door of the sanctuary, the (one) being said/called ‘Seasonable hour’. … Having beheld Peter and John being about to enter into the sanctuary, he (continually/repeatedly) asked to take alm/alms. (Acts 3:2b-3)

Having thrown/brought out all outside and having ‘put the knees’/knelt Peter prayed (to the Lord). (Acts 9:40a)

(It was brought a message) to the jailer to keep (Paul and Silas) securely. Having taken/got a message of such kind ... he threw them into the inner watch/custody. (Acts 16:23b-24a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

Having made a scourge out of little ropes (Jesus) threw all out, out of the sanctuary, both the sheep and the cattles/cattle. (John 2:15a)

(Jesus said to the Jews:) “Every (nation?) which the Father gives Me will arrive towards Me, and the one coming towards Me I may not/certainly not throw out * (א*).” (John 6:37)

The priest leaders and the Pharisees so led a council together, and they (continually) said: “What do we make/do, because this One, the Man, makes many signs? If – according to the circumstances – we may let him be in this way, all believe (א*) into Him, and the Romans will come and lift/’take away’ and/both our place and our nation.” (John 11:47-48)

Now a judgment is of/upon this adornment/’adorned world’. Now the leader of this adornment/’adorned world’ will be thrown out outside. (John 12:31)

After eight days (Jesus') disciples (continually) again were inside. (John 20:26a)

He has made us a kingdom, priests to His God and Father. (Rev 1:6a)

The one conquering, (to) him (א*) I will make a pillar (in) (א*) the temple of My God, and it may not/certainly not come out outside * (א,* א). (Rev 3:12a, ”Philadelphia”)

And the four living beings, one, everyone (א,* א) of them, they (continually) had (א,* א) six wings upwards ‘in a circle from’/’round about’, and from inside they are full of eyes. (Rev 4:8a)

(The reed? said:) “Rise and measure the temple of God and the sacrificial altar and the ones prostrating themselves in/at it.” (Rev 11:1b)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 - about 1500

The word (”naos”) occurs as a designation ... of the temple of the Jews in Jerusalem, but then about the Holy of the Holies and the Holy. These were the parts where only priest had access, Luke 1:9,21,22. Furthermore “naos” was used about the body of Jesus as a temple, John 2:19,21, and in the apostolic preaching about the congregation which also is the body of Christ, 2 Cor 6:16; Eph 2:21; 1 Cor 3:16,17. (Studiebibeln V, p 659-660; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

(The sexton) puts the key in the rusty lock and opens the heavy door. A musty air from the porch strikes him in his face; old stuffy winterair which the midsummersun has not been allowed to warm up. Fire equipments hangs there and here it stands a lost . . . spear, a seat with a broken leg, a broom, a broken picture of the holy Stephen from the Catholic time. This is the forecourt to the holy house of the Lord. (August Strindberg "Svenska öden och äventyr 1" p 307-308; the short story "Nya vapen" from 1883; describes a situation during the later part of the sixteenth century; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


about 1500 and time before

Solomon ... built the temple as the type of truth. (Irenaeus, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol I, p 499)

The expression “naos” is always used in the NT of the Sanctuary itself, and not of the outer courts; but it would include the Court of the Priests, where the sacrifices were offered. (Alfred Edersheim "The Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah Part II" p 574)

Perhaps it will be most convenient for practical purposes to regard the two Courts of Israel and of the Priests as in reality one, divided into two parts by a low balustrade 1½ feet high. (Alfred Edersheim “The Temple” p 51)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Johann Arndt, Lennart Berglund, Leif Carlsson, Henry Daniel-Rops, Hilding Fagerberg, P. Fjellstedt, Carl Grimberg, Lars Hartman, Viktor Johansson, Eyvind Johnson, Sven Lidman, Martin Luther, Olaf Moe, Bertil Nilsson, Sven Nilsson, G.H. Pember, Sven-Erik Pernler, A.W. Rendahl, Viktor Rydberg, John Stott, Johan Thelin, Einar Wallquist, M.B. Williams, Göran Åberg.


My own comments and speculations:

Those who are in the court of the temple Jesus Christ will not be thrown outside the temple (as a contrast, cf. Matt 8:12 and John 12:31) but inside, from “the court of the priests” (cf. Rev 1:6; 20:6) into the temple itself. Cf. My own comments and speculations to Rev 14:18b-19.


Paul said to the believers in Ephesos: ”(Christ has loosened) the partition wall of the enclosure.” (Eph 2:14b)

Jesus has come into (the place inside the curtain as) a forerunner in favour of us. (Heb 6:20a)

Peter said: "It surrounds/stands in a writing: 'Behold, I put/ lay in Zion a stone, a top cornerstone, chosen (and) noble/honoured, and the one believing on/in it will not/certainly not be put to shame.'" (1 Pet 2:6)


Additional studies:

Gen 3:23-24; Esther 4:11; Dan 11:31; Matt 7:15; 23:27-28; 24:15; Mark 11:15; 13:14; 15:16; Luke 6:42; 11:39-40; 19:45; John 18:15.


Marko Jauhiainen "The Measuring of the Sanctuary Reconsidered (Rev 11,1-2)"; Biblica 83 (2002): 507-526.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-11; 2012-07-05; 2015-04-05)

Back to the top

11:2b ... because it and/also (P47, א*) has been given to the nations. And they will tread the holy city (for) forty-two months.

Word for word (14 words in the Greek text): because (it)-was-given and (to)-the nations, and the city the holy (they)-will-tread months forty two.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Moses said:) “When the Highest One divided asunder nations, as He sowed asunder sons of Adam, He ‘caused ... to stand’/set frontiers of nations according to a number of messengers of God.” (Deut 32:8, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said:) “God, nations have come into Your inheritance. They have stained Your holy temple. They have put/made Jerusalem into a hut of a fruitkeeper.” (Ps 79:1, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Jerusalem:) “Who did seek out ... out of (you) to tread My court?” (Is 1:12b, Greek OT)

(The prophet said to the Lord:) “We may inherit Your holy mountain (for) a small/little (while). Our adversaries have trodden down Your holy place.” (Is 63:18, Greek OT)

(The fourth kingdom) will eat down/up ‘every the’/’the whole’ earth and together tread on it and cut (it) down/up. (Dan 7:23b, Greek OT Theod)

(The horn) will talk words into/against the Highest One and rub down the holy ones of the Highest One. And he will ‘receive towards’/welcome to change seasonable times and law. And all things will be given ‘to the side of’/over into his hands till a seasonable time and seasonable times and till half a seasonable time. (Dan 7:25, Greek OT)

(The messenger said to the prophet:) “Seventy periods of seven days have been scratched/severed together against your people and against the holy city … to seal misses (of the mark of God) ... and to seal a beholding and a prophet and to anoint a holy of holies.” (Dan 9:24, Greek OT Theod)

(The Lord said:) “All the nations of the earth will be led together against, against (Jerusalem).” (Zech 12:3b, Greek OT)

(Tobit said:) ”(Disgraced) Jerosolyma/Jerusalem, holy city, (God) will whip you against the works of your sons, and/but again He will have mercy on the sons of the righteous ones.” (Tobit 13:9 or 13:10, BA)


The Latter Revelation:

The slanderer takes (Jesus) to the side of (himself) into the holy city. (Matt 4:5a)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) ”You are the salt of the earth. But if – according to the circumstances – the salt may be made foolish/insipid, in which (way) shall it be salted? It is not any longer stable into anything ‘if not’/except, having been thrown outside, to be trodden down by the men.” (Matt 5:13)

Having come out, out of the memorial tombs after (Jesus') raising (many bodies of the holy ones having been and being fallen asleep) came into, into the holy city and they were made conspicuous to many. (Matt 27:53)

(Jesus said to Peter, James, John and Andrew:) "When – according to the circumstances – you may behold the abomination of a desolation stand whereat it must/ought not, let the one reading understand (this), let then the ones (being) in the Judea flee into the mountains.” (Mark 13:14)

(Jesus said to the people in the synagogue:) “Many widows (continually) were in Israel in the days of Elijah, when the heaven was shut against/about three years and six months, as/when it became a great famine against every/all the earth/land.” (Luke 4:25b)

(Jesus said to the seventy:) “Behold, I have given (and give) you the (judicial) authority to tread above serpents and scorpions and against every ability of the enemy, and nothing will (א,* א, A) * (א*) act unrighteously (against) you.” (Luke 10:19)

On someones’ saying on account of the sanctuary, that it was (and had been) adorned (with) fine stones and consecrated gifts, (Jesus) spoke (to His disciples): “(Concerning) these things which you look at, days will come in which it/there shall not be ‘let be’/left stone on stone here (א,* א, B) which will not be loosened down/up.” (Luke 21:5-6)

(Jesus said to His disciples: “This people) will fall (in) a mouth of a dagger and will be captured into all the nations. And Jerusalem will be, be trodden by nations until the (time in which the) seasonable times of nations may be completed.” (Luke 21:24)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

The priest leaders and the Pharisees so led the council together, and they spoke: “What do we make/do, because this One, the Man, makes many signs? If – according to the circumstances – we may let him be in this way, all believe (א*) into Him, and the Romans will come and lift/’take away’ of/from us and/both the place and the nation.” (John 11:47-48)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

Lotta Hedman had been strange and confused since that night, when Sigrun had passed away. She had no calm and spoke loudly for herself. People thought, that she saw visions, and the one who apprehended something of her speech, probably heard, that it didn't concern anything else than the great world desolation and the rider on the red horse and about weeks of the year and wild animals and the miserable destruction of the whole earth. (Selma Lagerlöf "Bannlyst" p 170; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Eight days after his deathe (year 1586) Lord Arne became put down in Solberga church, and the same day it was conducted trial concerning the murder at the place of the district court on Branehög. But Lord Arne had been a well-known man in Bohuslän, and on his funeral day so many men came together from both the inland parts and the archipelago, that it was as when an army is gathered around its commander. And in the fields between Solberga church and Branehög wandered so much people, that towards the evening there was not the breadth of an inch of snow, which had not become trodden by men. (Selma Lagerlöf "Herr Arnes penningar" p 19; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Leif Carlsson, Fredrik Franson, Hjalmar Gullberg, Verner von Heidenstam, Vilhelm Moberg, Bertil Nilsson, Viktor Rydberg, Göran Sahlberg, Hjalmar Söderberg, N.P. Wetterlund.


Greek words:

pateô (tread) (in the NT + examples in the OT) Is 1:12; Luke 21:24; Rev 11:2 – Deut 11:24; Luke 10:19; Rev 14:20; 19:15.


Additional studies: Esther 4:11; Neh 11:1,18; Is 48:2; 52:1; Dan 7:7; 8:10-13; 9:27; 12:7; 1 Macc 2:7; 3:45; 4:60; 10:31; 2 Macc 1:12; 3:1; 8:2; 9:14,16; 10:5; 15:14; The Prayer of Azariah v 5; Rev 11:3; 12:6,14; 13:5; 21:2,10; 22:19.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-11; 2012-07-05; 2015-04-05)

Back to the top

11:3 And I will give (authority) to my two witnesses, and they will prophesy (for) one thousand two hundred (and) sixty days, being (and having been) wrapped up in sack.

Word for word (14 words in the Greek text): and (i/I)-will-give (to)-the two witnesses my and (they)-will-prophesy days thousand two-hundred sixty being-(and-having-been)-wrapped-up-in sack.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Moses said: "A witness) shall not ‘stay in’/continue to be one witness ‘down from’/against a man ‘according to’/’in search of’ every/any unrighteousness and ‘according to’/’in search of’ every/any miss (of the mark of God), which he – according to the circumstances – may have missed (the mark of God). Upon/’with regard to’ a mouth of two witnesses and a mouth of three witnesses every word shall stand/’stand firm’." (Deut 19:15, Greek OT)

(The king) dispatched away Eliakim … and Shebna the scribe and the elders of the priests being (and having been) wrapped up in sacks towards Isaiah the prophet. (2 Kings 19:2a, Greek OT)

The Lord spoke towards (the prophet): “If – according to the circumstances – Moses and Samuel may stand before My face, My soul is not towards (the people of Judah).” (Jer 15:1a, Greek OT)

A saying of the Lord became/came towards (the prophet) saying: “Son of man, prophesy and speak: ‘This is what the Lord says: Oh/omega, oh, the/'what a' day, because the day of the Lord (is) near. It will be a day of goal/end of nations.” (Ezek 30:1-3, Greek OT)

(The horn) will talk words into/against the Highest One and rub down the holy ones of the Highest One. And he will ‘receive towards’/welcome to change seasonable times and law. And all things will be given ‘to the side of’/over into his hands till a seasonable time and seasonable times and till half a seasonable time. (Dan 7:25, Greek OT)

(The king of Nineveh said:) “The men and the domestic animals were wrapped up in sacks.” (Jonah 3:8a, Greek OT)

(The males of Israel) (continually) wrapped up the sacrificial altar in sack. (Judith 4:12a)

(Mattathias and his sons) wrapped up themselves in sack and they grieved extremely. (1 Macc 2:14b)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “After 'the thing to go him'/'his going' to sleep Samuel prophesied and showed underneath/secretly to a king his end. And he heightened up his voice out of earth in a prophecy to wipe out lawlessness of a people.” (Sir 46:20)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “’Every saying did not outdo’/’no saying outdid’ (Elisha) and in a sleeping his body prophesied. And in his life he made/spoke omens, and on/after his end his works (were) wondrous.” (Sir 48:13-14)

(Baruch said:) “I have set/’clothed myself’ in a sack of my prayer. I have shouted (and shout) towards the Agelong One in my days.” (Baruch 4:20b)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to the crowds:) “All the prophets and the law prophesied till John.” (Matt 11:13)

‘It was beheld to (Peter, Jacob and John)’/’they beheld’ Moses and Elijah talking together with (Jesus) in company with (Him). (Matt 17:3)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "If (your brother who has missed the mark of God) – according to the circumstances – may not hear (you), take by the side of (you) still one or two in company with yourself (א,*א), in order that upon/’with regard to’ a mouth of two or three witnesses every word may stand/’stand firm’." (Matt 18:16)

A certain youth being (and having been) wrapped up in a linen sheet upon (the) naked (body) (continually) followed together with (Jesus). And they ‘get power (over)’/seize him. But having left the linen shirt entirely/behind he fled naked. (Mark 14:51-52)

(Jesus said to the people in the synagogue:) “Many widows (continually) were in Israel in the days of Elijah, when the heaven was shut against/about three years and six months, as/when it became a great famine against every/all the earth/land.” (Luke 4:25b)

… The Lord ‘showed up’/appointed and/also (א,* א, A) seventy others and dispatched them away ‘upwards two’/’two by two’ * (א,* א, A) before His face/person into every city and place where He Himself (continually) was about to come. (Luke 10:1)

(Jesus said:) "Woe to you, Chorazin, woe to you, Bethsaida, because if the abilities/’works of ability’ having become/’come about’ in you had been become/made in Tyre and Sidon, they had - according to the circumstances - changed their minds long ago, being seated in sack and ashes.” (Luke 10:13)

(Jesus said to the many crowds:) “What king, going to ‘throw together with’/meet the other king into a war, will by no means, having first sat down, ‘take counsel’/consider, if he is able in/with ten of the number of one thousand to go to meet the one coming against him in company with twenty of the number of one thousand?” (Luke 14:31)

Peter and John '(continually) ascended'/'were ascending' into the sanctuary. (Acts 3:1a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(The priests and Levites) asked (John the Baptist) again (א,* א): "What so/then? Are you Elijah? * (א,*א) He says: "I am not." "Are you the prophet?" And he answered: ”Not/no.” (John 1:21)

(Jesus said to the Pharisees:) “In your law, having been (and being) written it is (א,*א), that the evidence of two men is truthful.” (John 8:17)

(John) was a witness to the saying of God and the evidence of Jesus Christ, as many things as he beheld. (Rev 1:2)

(Joybringing grace and peace) from Jesus Christ, the faithful witness, the first-born of the dead (bodies) and the leader of the kings of the earth. (Rev 1:5a)

To the one conquering * (א,* א) I will give to eat out of the wood of the life, which is in the ‘place by the side of apprehension’/Paradise of God. (Rev 2:7b, “Ephesos”)

Become faithful until death, and I will give you the crown of the life. (Rev 2:10b, “Smyrna”)

You did not deny My faith in the days in which (א,* א) Antipas, My witness, the (א,* א) faithful one, who was killed by the side of you, whereat/where the adversary dwells. (Rev 2:13b, “Pergamos”)

The one having an ear, hear what the Spirit says to the (assemblies) of called out. To the one conquering * (א,* א) I will give out of (א,* א) the manna having been (and being) hidden. (Rev 2:17a, “Thyatira”)

I will give you, everyone, according to * (א*) the works. (Rev 2:23b, ”Thyatira”)

The one conquering and the one keeping My works until (the) end, to him I will give (judicial) authority upon/’with regard to’ the nations. (Rev 2:26, ”Thyatira”)

I will give him the morning star. (Rev 2:28a or 2:28b, ”Thyatira”)

(The ones who have not stained their garments) will walk about in company with Me in white (things), because they are worthy. The one conquering will in this way be wrapped up in white garments. (Rev 3:5a, ”Sardis”)

… “This is what the Amen says and (א*) the faithful Witness and the True One (א,* א). (Rev 3:14a, ”Laodicea”)

I give you counsel to buy from the side of Me white garments, in order that you may wrap up yourself in (them) and (that) the shame of your nakedness may not be made visible. … (Rev 3:18b, ”Laodicea”)

The one conquering, I will give him to sit down in company with Me in/at My throne, as and/also I conquered and sat down in company with My Father in/at His throne. (Rev 3:21, ”Laodicea”)

(Elders) being (and having been) wrapped up in white (things) (א,*א) and (with) golden crowns against their heads. (Rev 4:4b)

The sun became black as a sack of hair, and the whole moon became as blood. (Rev 6:12b)

(I beheld a much/many-headed crowd) standing ‘in the very eyes of’/before the throne and in the very eyes of the little Ram, being (and having been) wrapped up in white dresses and (with) date-twigs in their hands. (Rev 7:9b)

One * (א,* א) of the elders answered, saying to me: “These, the ones being (and having been) wrapped up in the white dresses, who are they, and from where have they come?” (Rev 7:13)

I beheld another stable messenger descending out of the heaven, being (and having been) wrapped up in a cloud. (Rev 10:1a)

They say to me: “You must prophesy again on/concerning many peoples and nations and tongues and kings.” (Rev 10:11)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

From Campo di Fiore I went the narrow streets, which from there lead the most short cut to Trajan's Market. Here music sounded to meet me. . . . The one who really initiated the carnival escapades, the true saint of all Pulcinella ones, was, you know, himself a pope; the merry Paul II, who made churchly celebrations popular entertainments, changed the Roman calendar into a program of music and spectacles and meant, that joyful men was easier to rule and easier to get blessed than sullen ones. First after year 1870 the church looks with wrathful eyes at the carnival, for as long as the pope is prisoner Rome - to not speak of the rest of the world - should go clothed in sackcloths and ashes and not allow itself to be glad. (Viktor Rydberg "Karnevalen - Bonaventuras kloster - Äventyr på Korso" p 255-256, Rome 1874; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Carl Grimberg, C. Fr. Lundin, Paul Wern.


My own comments and speculations:

The two witnesses have often been understood as Moses and Elijah. Another proposal is Enoch and Elijah (cf. The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol VIII, p 394, 437 and 452).

Here in Rev 11:3 we have the eighth “I will give” in the Revelation. The seventh was in Rev 3:21. This eighth “I will give” can mark a new period separate from the period before.


Greek words:

(h)exêkonta (sixty) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Rev 11:3 – Tobit 14:2; 1 Macc 4:28; 7:16; Matt 13:8,23; Mark 4:8,20; Luke 24:13; 1 Tim 5:9; Rev 12:6; 13:18.

chilioi (a thousand) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Rev 11:3 – 1 Macc 2:38; 2 Macc 8:34; Sir 6:6; 16:3; 39:11; 41:4,12; 2 Pet 3:8; Rev 12:6; 14:20; 20:2-4,6-7.


Additional studies: Gen 37:34; Deut 17:6; 2 Sam 3:31; 1 Kings 21:27; 2 Kings 19:1; Neh 9:1; Esther 4:1; Ps 69:11(12); 90:4; Is 20:2; 37:1-2; Jer 4:8; Dan 7:10; 12:7; Joel 1:13; Jonah 3:5-6; Mal 4:5; Matt 11:21; Luke 1:17; Acts 3:3,11; 4:13,19; 13:2; Rev 11:2,10; 12:6; 13:5; 17:6.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-11; 2012-07-05; 2015-04-06)

Back to the top

11:4 These are the two olive-trees and the two lampstands standing in the very eyes of the Lord of the earth.

Word for word (15 words in the Greek text): these are the two olive-trees and the two lampstands in-the-very-eyes-of the lord (of)-the (of)-earth 'standing-(and-having-stood)'/standing


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The prophet said to the messenger:) “I behold (and have beheld) … two olive-trees above (the lampstand)” … (The messenger) spoke: “These the two sons of the fatness/abundance stand by the side of the Lord of ‘every the’/the whole’ earth.” (Zech 4:2b-3a,14, Greek OT)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples: “Men put a lamp) against the lampstand, and it shines to all the ones in the habitation. In this way let your light shine in front of the men in that way (that) they may behold your fine works and glorify your Father in the heavens.” (Matt 5:15b-16)

On (Jesus’) being seating into/’up to’ the Mountain of the Olive-trees entirely opposite the sanctuary, Peter and James and John and Andrew questioned Him, ‘according to’/concerning their own. (Mark 13:3)

(John the Baptist) will be great in the very eyes of a lord. (Luke 1:15a)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Be sleepless/awake in every seasonable time and 'be in need of'/'strive after' 'in order that'/that you may be entirely stable to flee away (from) all these things being about to become/’come about’ and to stand in front of the Son of the Man.” But (in) the days (Jesus continually/usually) was teaching in the sanctuary, but (in) the nights coming out he (continually/usually) camped in the open air into/’up to’ the mountain being called the Olive-garden. (Luke 21:36-37)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

I turned myself next to, to see the voice, whichever/which (continually) talked in company with me, and having turned myself next to I beheld seven golden lampstands. (Rev 1:12)

You may not act unrighteously (towards) the olive-oil and the wine. (Rev 6:6b)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

It is said of the prophets that they ”stand in the very eyes of the Lord”. The phrase is often used with reference to Elijah and Elisha in the sense of “serve”. (J. Massyngberde Ford "Revelation" p 171)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Leif Carlsson.


Paul said to the believers in Rome: “If some of the branches were ‘fragmented out’/’broken out to pieces’, but you, being a rural/wild olive-tree, was ingrafted in (the Israelites) and became a companion together with them of/from the root of the fatness/abundance of the olive-tree, do not boast ‘down from’/against the branches.” (Rom 11:17-18a)


Greek words:

elaia (olive-tree) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Mark 13:3; Rom 11:17; Rev 11:4 – Judith 15:13; Sir 24:14; 50:10; Matt 21:1; 24:3; 26:30; Mark 11:1; 14:26; Luke 19:37; 22:39; (John 8:1); Rom 11:24; Jas 3:12.


Additional studies: Deut 8:8; Judges 9:8-9; 2 Sam 15:30; 2 Kings 18:32; Neh 8:15; Ps 52:8(10); Is 41:19; Jer 11:16; Hos 14:6(7); Micah 4:13; Zech 4:11; Luke 1:76; Rev 1:13,20; 2:1,5; 7:9.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-11; 2012-07-05; 2015-04-06)

Back to the top

11:5 And if anyone wants to act unrighteously (against) them, fire goes out, out of their mouth and eats down/up their enemies. And if anyone may want to act unrighteously (against) them, in this way he must be killed.

Word for word (27 words in the Greek text): and if anyone (against)-them wants (to)-act-unrighteously fire goes-out out-of the mouth their and eats-down the enemies their. and if anyone may-want (against)-them (to)-act-unrighteously, in-this-way must him/he be-killed.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Moses said:) “If these will die according to (the) death of all men, and if their visitation will be according to the inspection of all men, the Lord has by no means dispatched (and dispatches) me away.” … As (Moses) ‘was caused to cease’/ceased talking all these sayings ... the earth was opened and drank down (the rebellious) and their houses and all the men being in company with Corah and (also) their domestic animals. And they and as many things as are theirs descended living into Hades. And the earth veiled them, and they perished out of a middle of the synagogue. And every/all Israel, the ones (being) in a circle of them fled from their voice/cry, because saying: "Not at any time may the earth drink us down!" And fire came out from the side of the Lord and the two hundred and fifty males, the ones ‘carrying to’/offering the incense. (Num 16:29,31-35, Greek OT)

Elijah answered and spoke towards the leader of fifty (men): “And if I (am) a man of God, fire may descend out of the heaven and eat down/up you and your fifty (men).” And fire descended out of the heaven and ate him down/up and his fifty (men). (2 Kings 1:10, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said:) “Fire will go forward opposite (the Lord) and burn up His enemies ‘(in) a circle’/’round about’.” (Ps 97:3, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to the prophet Jeremiah: “Because the prophets) have talked this word, behold, I have given (and give) My sayings into your mouth fire, and this people wood, and it will eat them down/up.” (Jer 5:14b, Greek OT)

(Daniel said to the king:) “It/there is a God in heaven uncovering mysteries, (a God) who has manifested to king Nebuchadnezzar the things which must become/’come about’ upon the last days.” (Dan 2:28a, Greek OT)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said: “The Lord entirely used up Dathan and Abiram, Korah and his people) in his flame of fire.” (Sir 45:19b)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “Elijah, a prophet as a fire, stood upp and his saying (continually) burnt as a torch. … In/with a saying of the Lord he held up/back heaven, in this way he three times led down fire.” (Sir 48:1,3)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to the crowd: “What) going out, out of the mouth, this makes the man common/unclean.” (Matt 15:11b)

Having beheld (that the Samaritans did not receive Jesus) the disciples James and John spoke: "Lord, do You want, we may speak/bid fire to descend from the heaven and use them up?" But having turned Himself He blamed them. (Luke 9:54-55)

(Jesus said to the seventy:) “Behold, I have given (and give) you the (judicial) authority to tread above serpents and scorpions and against every ability of the enemy, and nothing will (א,* א, A) * (א*) act unrighteously (against) you.” (Luke 10:19)

(Jesus) spoke to (the Emmaus disciples): “O foolish (men) and slow (in) the heart to believe on/in all things which the prophets have talked! Must by no means the christ/'anointed one' suffer these things and come into, into His glory?" And having begun from Moses and from all the prophets He and/also (went on) to throughout/carefully interpret (א*) for them what (continually) was(א,* א) in * (א,* א) the writings, the things on account of Himself.” (Luke 24:25-27)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

Entirely as Moses heightened the serpent in the desolate (district), in this way must the Son of the Man be heightened, in order that 'every the'/everyone believing into (P63, א,* א, A) Him may have agelong life. (John 3:14-15)

The one conquering may not/certainly not be treated unrighteously ‘out of’/’in consequence of’ the second death. (Rev 2:11b, ”Smyrna”)

You may not act unrighteously (towards) the olive-oil and the wine. (Rev 6:6b)

(The messenger) shouted (with) a great/loud voice to the four messengers, to whom it was given to them to act unrighteously (against) the earth and the sea. (Rev 7:2b)

(The messenger) said (to the four messengers): “You may not act unrighteously (against) the earth, ‘but not’/nor (א,*א) (against) the sea, ‘but not’/nor (א,*א) (against) the trees, till we may have sealed the slaves of our God upon their foreheads.” (Rev 7:3)

And it was spoken to (the locusts), in order that they might (א,*א) not act unrighteously (against) the grass of the earth, nor (against) every/any light green thing, nor (against every/any tree, ‘if not’/except (against) the men whoever have not the seal of God upon the foreheads. (Rev 9:4)

(The locusts like horses) have tails like scorpions, and stings; and in their tails (is) their (judicial) authority to act unrighteously (against) men (for) five months. (Rev 9:10)

The heads of the horses (are) as the heads of lions. And fire and smoke and sulphur go out, out of their mouths. From/’owing to’ these three blows, the third of the men was killed, out/’in consequence’ of the fire and the smoke and the sulphur, of the thing going out, out of their mouths. For the (judicial) authority of the horses is in their mouth and in their tails. For their tails (are) like serpents with (א,*א) heads having, and in/with them they act unrighteously. (Rev 9:17b-19)

And I went away towards the messenger saying him to give me the scroll (P47,א,*א). And he says to me: “Take it and eat (it) down/up (P47,P85,א*)! And it will make your belly bitter, however/but in your mouth it will be sweet as honey.” (Rev 10:9)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

Who are the enemies (of the Lord)? All the wicked, and those who set themselves to oppose the will of God. (Clement of Rome to the Corinthians, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol I, p 15)


Greek words:

echthros (enemy) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Luke 10:19; Rev 11:5 – Esther 3:13f(B6); 4:17n(C17); 7:6; 9:10,22; Judith 7:19; 8:11,15,19,33,35; 13:5,11,14,17-18; 15:5; 1 Macc 2:9; 4:18,36; 8:23; 9:29,46; 10:26; 12:15; 13:51; 14:26,31; 15:33; 2 Macc 10:26. Wisdom of Solomon 5:17; 10:12,19; 11:3,5; 12:20,22; 15:14; 16:4,8,22; 18:7,10; Sir 6:4,13; 12:8-10,16; 18:31; 19:8; 20:23; 23:3; 25:7,14; 29:6,13; 30:3,6; 36:6(9),9(12); 42:11; 45:2; 46:1,5,16; 47:7; 49:9; Baruch 4:18,21,25-26; 5:6; The Prayer of Azariah v 9. Matt 5:43-44; 10:36; 13:25,28,39; 22:44; Mark 12:36; Luke 1:71,74; 6:27,35; 19:27,43; 20:43; Acts 2:35; 13:10; Rom 5:10; 11:28; 12:20; 1 Cor 15:25-26; Gal 4:16; Phil 3:18; Col 1:21; 2 Thess 3:15; Heb 1:13; 10:13; Jas 4:4; Rev 11:12.


Additional studies:

Num 11:1; 2 Sam 22:9; 2 Kings 1:11-12; Ezek 19:10-14; Mark 14:31; John 18:11; Acts 5:3-5.


K.-J. Illman "Vän och fiende i bönepsalmerna"; Svensk Exegetisk Årsbok 54 (1989): 90-100.

Jon Ruthven "A note on Eliah's 'fire from Yahweh'"; Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 12.2 (Spring 1969): 111-115.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-11; 2012-07-05; 2015-04-07)

Back to the top

11:6a These have * (א,* א) (judicial) authority to shut the heaven, in order that rain may not give wet (during) the days of their prophecy.

Word for word (15 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus): these have (judicial)-authority (to)-shut the heaven, in-order-that not rain may-give-wet the days (of)-the (of)-prophecy their.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

God had not given wet against the earth. … (Gen 2:5b, Greek OT)

(Elijah said:) “These years it will be dew and rain ‘that if not’/only through a mouth of my saying.” (1 Kings 17:1b, Greek OT)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “In/with a saying of the Lord (the prophet Eliah) held up/back heaven ... .” (Sir 48:3a)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples: “Your Father who is in heavens) gives wet against righteous ones and unrighteous ones.” (Matt 5:45b)

(Jesus said to the people in the synagogue:) “Many widows (continually) were in Israel in the days of Elijah, when the heaven was shut against/about three years and six months, as/when it became a great famine against every/all the earth/land.” (Luke 4:25b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

The one conquering and the one keeping My works until (the) end, to him I will give (judicial) authority upon/’with regard to’ the nations. And he will be a shepherd to them in/with a rod of iron, as it is crushed vessels of a potter, as and/also I have taken (and take) (judicial authority) from the side of My Father. (Rev 2:26-27 or 2:26-28a, “Thyatira”)

This is what the True One, the Holy One, says, (the One) having the key of David, the One opening and no one will shut, and (the One) shutting and no one will (א,*א) open. I know your works. Behold, I have given (and give) a door having been (and being) opened in the very eyes of you, which no one is able to shut * (א,*א). (Rev 3:7b-8a, “Philadelphia”)

(Judicial) authority was given to (death and Hades) against the fourth/’fourth part’ of the earth. … (Rev 6:8b)

(Judicial) authority was given (the locusts) as the scorpions of the earth have (judicial) authority. (Rev 9:3b)

(The locusts like horses) have tails like scorpions, and stings; and in their tails (is) their (judicial) authority to act unrighteously (against) men (for) five months. (Rev 9:10)

The (judicial) authority of the horses is in their mouth and in their tails. For their tails (are) like serpents with (א,*א) heads having, and in/with them they act unrighteously. (Rev 9:19)

I will give (authority) to my two witnesses, and they will prophesy (for) one thousand two hundred (and) sixty days. (Rev 11:3a)


My own comments and speculations:

Here in Rev 11:6 we have the eighth “(judicial) authority” in the Revelation, a sign of the beginning of a new period, separate from the period before. Cf. My own comments and speculations to Rev 10:3, the eighth “ages of the ages” in Rev 10:6 and the eighth “I will give” in Rev 11:3.

Concerning “days of their prophecy”, see Rev 11:3b.


Greek words:

brechô (give wet) (in the NT + examples in the OT) Gen 2:5; Matt 5:45; Rev 11:6 – Gen 19:24; Ps 6:6(7); Luke 7:38,44; 17:29; Jas 5:17.

(h)yetos (rain) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Rev 11:6 – Judith 8:31; Wisdom of Solomon 16:16,22; Sir 1:2; 40:13; 43:18; Epistle of Jeremiah v 52; Acts 14:17; 28:2; Heb 6:7; Jas 5:18.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-12; 2012-07-05; 2015-04-07)

Back to the top

11:6b And they have (judicial) authority upon the waters to turn them into blood and to hit the earth in/with every blow, as many times ‘as if’/as they – according to the circumstances – may want.

Word for word (20 words in the Greek text): and (judicial)-authority (they)-have upon the waters (to)-turn them into blood and (to)-hit the earth in every blow as-many-times-as they if-according-to-the-circumstances may-want.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The Lord said to Moses:) “I will … hit the Egyptians in/with all My wondrous things, which I will make/do in/with them.” (Ex 3:20a, Greek OT)

(Aaron) hit the water (with) his rod … and he threw/turned about every water in the river into blood. (Ex 7:20b, Greek OT)

(The Philistines said:) “These (are) the gods having hit Egypt in/with every blow and/also in the desolate (district).” (1 Sam 4:8b, Greek OT)

The king spoke to (the prophet): “How many times (must) I adjure you in what way you may talk towards me truth in a name of the Lord?” (1 Kings 22:16, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said: “God) turned about the rivers (of Egypt) into blood.” (Ps 78:44a, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said: “The Lord) having turned the rock into lakes of waters and the cutting border into springs of waters. (Ps 114:8, Greek OT)

(The Lord) hit every/’the whole’ earth/land of Egypt (with) blows. … (Judith 5:12b)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “You may not give the holy thing to the dogs but/and you may not throw your pearls in front of the pigs, (so that) they may (א,*א) not at any time tread them down in/with their feet and having turned themselves (about) they may break you in pieces.” (Matt 7:6)

(Peter asked Jesus:) "Lord, how many times shall my brother miss (the mark of God) into/against me, and I shall let him be? Till seven times?" Jesus says to him: "I do not say to you ‘till seven times’, however/but ‘till seventy times seven’." (Matt 18:21b-22)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "You will all ‘be caused to stumble’/stumble in/at Me in this night, for it has been (and is) written: 'I will hit the shepherd, and the sheep of the flock will be scattered asunder.'" (Matt 26:31)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

As the threebedleader tasted the water having become (and becoming) wine, and he did not know from where it is/was – but the servants, the ones having ladled (and ladling) out the water, knew – the threebedleader raises his voice to(wards) the bridegroom and says to him: "Every man puts/’puts out’ the fine wine first and when they – according to the circumstances – may have been made drunk the less/inferior. You have kept (and keep) the fine wine till just now." (John 2:9-10)

The second * (א,* א) (messenger) sounded the trumpet, and (something) as a great mountain, burning (in) fire, was thrown into the sea, and the third of the sea became blood. (Rev 8:8)

From/’owing to’ these three blows, the third of the men was killed, out/’in consequence’ of the fire and the smoke and the sulphur, of the thing going out, out of their mouths. (Rev 9:18)


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “waters … into blood”, see also Rev 8:8.


Greek words:

(h)osakis (as many times as) Rev 11:6 – 1 Cor 11:25-26.

patassô (hit) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Judith 5:12; Matt 26:31; Rev 11:6 – Judith 2:27; 6:3; 9:3,10; 13:8,15; 16:6; 1 Macc 1:1,20,30; 3:11; 4:3; 5:3,7,34,65; 7:41; 8:4; 9:47,66; 12:31; 13:43; 14:3; 2 Macc 9:5; Sir 48:21; Matt 26:51; Mark 14:27; Luke 22:49-50; Acts 7:24; 12:7,23; Rev 19:15.


Additional studies: Ex 4:9; 7:17,19; 8:16; 9:15; 12:23; 2 Chron 18:15; Ps 105:29; Rev 16:4-6.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-12; 2012-07-05; 2015-04-07)

Back to the top

11:7 And when they – according to the circumstances - may have ended their evidence, the little wild animal then (א*) ascending out of the abyss will make war ‘in company with’/against them and conquer them and kill them.

Word for word (23 words in the Greek text): And when-according-to-the-circumstances (they)-may-end the evidence their, the little-wild-animal then ascending out-of the abyss will-make in-company-with them war and will-conquer them and will-kill them.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Jacob said:) "An evil little wild animal ... has raped Joseph." (Gen 37:33b, Greek OT)

The smoke (of Sinai) ascended as smoke of a furnace. … (Ex 19:18b, Greek OT)

At the time when (the Lord) entirely had ceased talking (with Moses) in/on the mountain Sinai, He gave (him) the two tablets of the testimony, tablets of stone, having been (and being) written (with) the finger of God. (Ex 31:18, Greek OT)

(Moses) ‘caused ... to stand’/laid the court (in) a circle of/round the tent and the sacrificial altar. And Moses brought all the works to a consummation.” (Ex 40:33, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Moses:) ”(Only) one witness will not be a witness against a soul/person to kill.” (Num 35:30b, Greek OT)

These (are) the evidences and the fundamental laws and the judicial verdicts, as many as Moses talked (with) the sons of Israel in the desolate (district) on their having come out of the earth/land of Egypt. (Deut 4:45, Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) “I (continually) looked at (it) and that horn (continually) made war ‘in company with’/with the holy ones, and it was stable towards/’in comparison with’ them.” (Dan 7:21, Greek OT, Theod)

Having gone into a war against (the Romans) the great king of Asia ... was crushed by them. (1 Macc 8:6)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “This good little message of the kingdom will be proclaimed in the whole (inhabited) world into/’for a purpose of’ a testimony to all the nations, and then the end will arrive.” (Matt 24:14)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “When you – according to the circumstances – may hear (of) wars and unstable conditions, do not be frightened, for these things must become first, however/but the end (will) not (be) straightaway.” (Luke 21:9)

(Jesus said to His disciples: “The persecution) will for you ‘step off’/lead into a testimony. … They will put (some) out of you to death.” (Luke 21:13,16b)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “I say to you that this, the thing having been (and being) written must be ended in Me, the/this: ‘And He was counted in company with lawless.’ For and/also the thing on account of Me has an end.” (Luke 22:37)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

No one has ascended (and ascends) into the heaven ‘if not’/except the One having descended out of the heaven, the Son of the Man. (John 3:13)

(Jesus said to the Jews:) “I have descended (and descend) out of (א,*א) the heaven, not in order that I might make/do My will, however/but the will of the One having sent Me.” (John 6:38)

When (Jesus) (א*) so had taken the sour wine, He spoke: "It is (and has been) ended!" (John 19:30a)

(John) was a witness to the saying of God and the evidence of Jesus Christ, as many things as he beheld. (Rev 1:2)

(I, John, …) became/appeared in/on the island being called Patmos because of the saying of God and because of (א,*א) the evidence of Jesus. (Rev 1:9b)

Change your mind * (א,*א). But if not, I come to you quickly, and I wage war ‘in company with’/with them in/with the large sword of My mouth. (Rev 2:16, Pergamos)

When It opened the fifth seal, I beheld below the sacrificial altar the souls of the men (א,* א) having been (and being) slaughtered because of the saying of God and because of the evidence which they (continually) had. (Rev 6:9)

I beheld another messenger ascending from ‘an upsticking of a sun’/east, having a seal of a living God. (Rev 7:2a)

The fifth messenger sounded the trumpet, and I beheld a star out of the heaven, having fallen (and falling) into/to the earth, and the key of the well of the abyss was given to him. (Rev 9:1)

The voice/sound of the wings (of the locusts like horses) (was) as a voice/sound of wagons, of many horses running into/’for the purpose of’ war. (Rev 9:9b)

(The locusts like horses) have upon them the (א,* א) king (of the abyss), the messenger of the abyss, to whom (א,* א) a name to him (in) Hebrew (is) Abaddon (= Perdition), and in ‘the Greek’/Greek he has (the) name Apollyon (= “Perisher”). (Rev 9:11)

In the days of the voice of the seventh messenger, when he – according to the circumstances – may be about to sound the trumpet, the mystery of God and/also was ended, as He gave a good little message to His 'of Himself'/own slaves and (P47, P85, א,* א) the prophets. (Rev 10:7)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: P. Fjellstedt, Andres Küng, Laurence Rees, Erich Sauer.


Additional studies:

Matt 24:11-12,23-24; Mark 13:21; John 19:28,30; 2 Thess 2:3,7-8; Rev 12:17; 13:1,7,11; 17:8.


Richard J. Bauckham "The Martyrdom of Enoch and Elijah: Jewish or Christian?"; Journal of Biblical Literature 95 (1976): 447-458.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-12; 2012-07-05; 2015-04-08)

Back to the top

11:8 And their falls (P47,א,*א)/corpses (will be) upon the street of the great city, whichever/which spiritually is called Sodom and Egypt, whereat/where and/also the (P47, א*) Lord was crucified.

Word for word (22 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus prima manus): and the falls their upon the street (of)-the (of)-city the great, whichever is-called spiritually Sodom and Egypt, whereat and the lord was-crucified.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

Before the thing God turn/turned down/over Sodom and Gomorrah (the valley of Jordan was) as the 'place of God by the side of apprehension'/'Paradise of God' and as the earth/land of Egypt till come/'it comes' into Zoar. (Gen 13:10b, Greek OT)

(Mordecai said to the Lord:) “You may not 'behold over'/despise Your portion/part, which You redeemed to Yourself out of 'an earth'/'a land' of Egypt.” (Esther 4:17g/C9, Greek OT)

The king spoke: “Crucify (the evil Haman) upon the (wood/’piece of wood’)!” (Esther 7:9b, Greek OT)

(The prophet said concerning Judas and Jerusalem:) “If not the Lord of hosts had left entirely/behind a seed in us, we had - according to the circumstances - been begotten as Sodom. … Leaders of Sodom, hear a saying of the Lord.” (Is 1:9a,10a, Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) “The shame of the face (of Jerusalem and Judas) stood against them. But/and their miss (of the mark of God) brought up a message as Sodom.” (Is 3:9a, Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) “The deceased bodies (of the inhabitants in Judas and Jerusalem) became as dung in a middle of a way. … “ (Is 5:25b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) “Nations will come through (Jerusalem) … (saying): “Because of what has the Lord made/done in this way (with) this great city?” (Jer 22:8, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Israel:) “You have made your dead (bodies) full in (Jerusalem), and you have fulfilled its ways with wounded (men).” (Ezek 11:6, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Jerusalem:) “Your younger sister, dwelling out of your right parts, (is) Sodom and her daughters.” (Ezek 16:46b, Greek OT)

(Tobias said to his father:) “I took up (the dead) for myself out of/from the street and I put him into one of the small habitations ‘as long as to’/until the sun sets/’had set’ and I will/could bury him.” (Tobit 2:4b, S)


The Latter Revelation:

(The Lord/the prophet said:) “Out of Egypt I called My Son.” (Matt 2:15b)

(Jesus said to His disciples: “A disgraced Jerosolyma/Jerusalem) is (the) city of the great King.” (Matt 5:35b)

(Jesus) will not quarrel, but/and He will not scream, but/and ‘anyone ... not’/noone will hear His voice in/on the streets. (Matt 12:19b)

(Jesus said to the scribes and the Pharisees in a disgraced Jerosolyma/Jerusalem:) “I dispatch away towards you prophets and wise (men) and scribes. (Some) out of them you will kill and crucify.” (Matt 23:34a)

(Pilate) gave the fall/corpse as a benefit to Joseph. (Mark 15:45b)

Joseph ascended from Galilee, out of (the) city Nazaret, into Judea, into (the) city of David, whichever/which is called Bethlehem, because of 'be him'/'his being' out of (the) house and lineage of David. (Luke 2:4)

(Jesus said to the seventy:) “What city you – according to the circumstances – may come into, and they may not receive you, having come out into its streets speak: ‘And/also the cloud of dust out of your city, the (cloud of dust) having attached itself into/to the feet we wipe away. …’ I say to you that/: ‘It will be more upheld/bearable for Sodom in that day than for that city.” (Luke 10:10-12)

(Jesus said to some Pharisees:) “It is not possible for a prophet to perish outside Jerusalem. Jerusalem, Jerusalem, the one killing the prophets and throwing stones at the ones having been (and being) dispatched away towards/’in regard to’ it.” (Luke 13:33b-34a)

(The lord) spoke to his slave: “Come quickly out into the streets and (the) lanes of the city. ... “ (Luke 14:21b)

(Stephen said:) “Our fathers did not want to become obedient to (Moses) however/but thrust/pushed (him) away and turned themselves in their hearts into Egypt.” (Acts 7:39)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Jesus said to the Jews:) “Do not think that I will accuse you towards the Father. The one accusing you is Moses, into whom you have hoped (and hope), for if you (continually) believed (in) Moses, you (continually) believed – according to the circumstances – (in) Me, for that one wrote on account of Me. But if you do not believe (in) the letters (of the alphabet) of that one, how will you believe (in) My words?” (John 5:45-47)

When so the priest leaders and the rowers/servants beheld Him, they screamed * (א,*א): “Crucify, crucify Him (א,*א,A)!” Pilate says to them: “Take Him you and crucify, for I do not find (any) cause/guilt in Him.” (John 19:6)

Mariam from Magdala comes bringing a message to the disciples that/: “I have beheld (and behold) the Lord, and He spoke these things to her/me.” (John 20:18)

“I am the Alpha and the Ô/Omega, a beginning and an end (א*),” says the Lord God. (Rev 1:8)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

Tegnér called Stockholm "this Sodom and Abdera". May be - but I long from here! Not to the country, for I must have men. Book-shop and wine-shop! Accordingly: a court in Lund with a large old garden, greenhouse and sun. (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev XX juni 1911-maj 1912" p 69-70; letter 1911-07-10 to Nils Andersson; Abdera = during classical antiquity a vicious, rich city state in Thrace)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Margit Assarsson, Gunnar Bolin, Fjodor Dostojevskij, Bob Dylan, Jan Fridegård, Berndt Gustafsson, J. G. Hazén, Gustaf Ljunggren, Martin Luther, M. Philippson, Viktor Rydberg.


My own comments and speculations:

Perhaps John omits the name “(a disgraced) Jerosolyma/Jerusalem”, because he don't want to write this name in the Revelation. The name “Jerusalem” is too fine to be named in this context. Cf. My own comments and speculations to John 1:19.


Paul said to the believers in Corinth: "A man with (only) soul does not receive the things of the Spirit of God, for it is folly to him, and he is not able to gain knowledge, because it is examined spiritually." (1 Cor 2:14)


Greek words:

Aigyptos (Egypt) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Esther 4:17g(C9); 1 Macc 2:53; Acts 7:39; Rev 11:8 – Tobit 8:3; Judith 1:9-10,12; 5:10-12; 6:5; 1 Macc 1:16-20; 3:32; 10:51,57; 11:1,13,59; 2 Macc 1:1,10; 4:21; 5:1,8,11; 9:29; Sir Prologue; Baruch 1:19-20; 2:11. Matt 2:13-15,19; Acts 2:10; 7:9-12,15,17-18,34,36,40; 13:17; Heb 3:16; 8:9; 11:26-27; Jude v 5.

plateia (street) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Tobit 2:4; Matt 12:19; Luke 10:10; 14:21; Rev 11:8 – Esther 4:1; 6:9,11; Tobit 13:17; Judith 1:14; 7:14,22; 1 Macc 1:55; 2:9; 14:9; Sir 23:21; Matt 6:5; Luke 13:26; Acts 5:15; Rev 21:21; 22:2.

pneumatikôs (spiritually) 1 Cor 2:14; Rev 11:8.

ptôma (fall) (in the Apocrypha, the NT) Baruch 4:33; Mark 15:45; Rev 11:8 – Judith 13:20; 2 Macc 9:7; Wisdom of Solomon 4:19; Matt 14:12; 24:28; Mark 6.29; Rev 11:9.

Sodoma (Sodom) (in the NT) Luke 10:12; Rev 11:8 – Matt 10:15; 11:23-24; Luke 17:29; Rom 9:29; 2 Pet 2:6; Jude v 7.


Additional studies:

Is 10:24; Jer 23:14; Lam 2:21; Ezek 16:48-49; 23:3,8,19,27; Joel 3:19; Micah 7:10; John 19:10,15-16;18-20,23,41; Rev 14:18; 16:19; 17:1,5,18; 18:2,10,16,18-19,21; 22:1.


P.G.R. de Villiers "The Lord was crucified in Sodom and Egypt. Symbols in the Apocalypse of John."; Neotestamentica 22.1 (1988): 125-138.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-12; 2012-07-05; 2015-04-08)

Back to the top

11:9 And (some) out of the peoples and tribes and tongues and nations see their falls/corpses (for) three and a half days, and they do not let their falls/corpses be (alone) to be put/laid into a tomb.

Word for word (27 words in the Greek text): and see out-of the peoples and tribes and tongues and nations the fall their days three and (a)-half and the falls their not (they)-let-be (to)-be-put into (a)-tomb.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The sons of Israel said to Moses: “Was it because we would) not ‘begin under’/’lie underneath’ to/by the side of the tombs in Egypt you led us out to die in the desolate (district)?” (Ex 14:11a, Greek OT) (Cf. a disgraced Jerosolyma/Jerusalem = Egypten i Rev 11:8)

(The psalmist said: “The nations) have poured out the blood (of the slaves of the Lord) as water (in) a circle (round) Jerusalem. And there was (continually) not (anyone) who buried (them).” (Ps 79:3, Greek OT)

(The horn) will talk words into/against the Highest One and rub down the holy ones of the Highest One. And he will ‘receive towards’/welcome to change seasonable times and law. And all things will be given ‘to the side of’/over into his hands till a seasonable time and seasonable times and till half a seasonable time. (Dan 7:25, Greek OT)

Flesh of the pious ones (of the Lord) and their blood (the enemies) poured out (in) a circle (round) Jerusalem. And there was (continually) not (anyone) who buried them.(1 Macc 7:17)

(The foreign king) had ‘had knowledge throughout’/determined not to think the Jews worthy a burial place. (2 Macc 9:15a)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to one of His disciples:) "Follow Me; and let the dead (bodies) be to bury their own dead (bodies)." (Matt 8:22b)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Whereat – if according to the circumstances - the fall/corpse may be, there the eagles will be led together.” (Matt 24:28)

(Joseph) put/laid Jesus in a tomb (B, א,* א) which (continually) was having been (and being) hewn out of a rock. And he rolled a stone ‘to against’/against the door/entrance of the memorial tomb. (Mark 15:46b)

(Jesus said to the people in the synagogue:) “Many widows (continually) were in Israel in the days of Elijah, when the heaven was shut against/about three years and six months, as/when it became a great famine against every/all the earth/land.” (Luke 4:25b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

In the place whereat (Jesus) was crucified it/there (continually) was a garden, and in the garden a new memorial tomb in which no one 'nor yet'/not (continually) had been (and was) put/laid. So because of the preparation of the Jews (and) because the memorial tomb (continually) was near, they put/laid Jesus there. (John 19:41-42)

(The four living beings and the twenty-four elders sang:) “And (for) God in/with Your blood You bought us (א,* א) out of every tribe and tongue and people and nation.” (Rev 5:9b)

After these things I beheld, and behold, a much/many-headed crowd, which no one (continually/never) was able to number it, out of every nation and (out of) tribes and peoples and tongues. (Rev 7:9a)

They say to me: “You must prophesy again on/concerning many peoples and nations and tongues and kings.” (Rev 10:11)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

At last Mrs. Nilsson says: "I have sold me to doctor Berglund. . . . Poor men go to the doctors in the hospital selling their bodies which the doctors want to have to cut in. Not while they are in life of course. They get several hundred crowns to have nice for while they are living, but after that the doctors get their bodies, when they are dead." . . . (Madicken) wishes herself a long way from there. . . . Mrs. Nilsson always is in the habit of saying "the only thing to which a beggar has to look forward, it is an honourable burial", and now she will not even get this. . . . Poor, poor Mrs. Nilsson, it must be the helplessness of the poverty making her to do such business! (Astrid Lindgren "Madicken och Junibackens Pims" p 45-48; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Between refuse-heaps and heaps of ruins a deep pit lay, and in this the simple black coffins of the colonists had been thrown down.They had been heaved down without care, old coffins had got broken, so that the dead ones, who lay in them, were visible. Some coffins had fallen upside down, and out of the decayed covers long, dried hands forced their way, hands which seemed to strain themselves to again turn the coffin on right line. . . . A couple of vultures already sailed high up in the space only still waiting for some companions to swoop down. At a long distance the humming was heard of a lot of black and yellow insects fluttering about over the coffins. A couple of street dogs came running. . . . With the coffin on his shoulder (Halvor) wandered up towards Jerusalem. . . . All had become queerly menacing and inimically. The foreign country and the foreign city rejoiced in his sorrow. . . . (He) rose with a last effort: "They have thrown our dead ones out of their graves. . . . Promise me, Björn, that Little Greta will come thoroughly in the ground. I do not want, that she will think, that she has a bad father. . . . See to it that she is allowed to lie under a green piece of turf!" he whispered. "And lay also me under a green turf!" he added in a while. (Selma Lagerlöf "Jerusalem II" p 318-321; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Before (the old poor Jewish woman) died, she had exacted a holy promise from the English nurses and the doctor, that they would arrange, that she became buried in the Jewish burial-ground in the valley of Josaphat. . . . If they could not promise her this, it would have been better, that they had let her to die in the street. When she was died, the Englishmen thus dispatched messengers to the synagogue leader of the Jews and asked him to send people who would come bringing the dead and bury her. But the Jews had answered, that the old woman, who had died in the Christian hospital, was not allowed to be buried in the burial-ground of the Jews. . . . But (the missionaries) did not want, that she would miss the thing she had rejoiced in during all her poor life. They did not mind the prohibition of the Jews, but let throw up a grave in the burial-ground in the valley of Josaphat and put down the dead in it. The Jews made nothing to prevent this, but next day they came and opened the grave and heaved up the coffin. (Selma Lagerlöf "Jerusalem II" p 431; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

If I die here (in Paris) I have none taking care of me. . . . I ask You to advertise my body, for I regard it be a punishment to be cut up in the dissecting-room, and that the messengers sell out the pieces to shops. The cheapest is cremation (50 Franc). Otherwise I have a childlike wish, since the youth, unexplainable, to lie on Montparnasse. It costs 500 Franc, but could probably be received by Bonnier in advance on my Complete Works. In Swedish ground I do not want to lie, because it is cursed and I do not want to have my grave soiled by enemies. (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev XI maj 1895-nov 1896 p 275; letter 1896-07-19 to Torsten Hedlund; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

In that time, when Mårbacka still was a summer grazing, there had in Sunne parish been a priest being so malicious and strict, that a man, who had been farm-hand with him for some months, went hanging himself. Well, the priest did not think the matter over, but when he had known what had happened, he hurried to cut down the dead carrying him out to the court. And the old lady had said, that only for the sake of his having touched a suicide, and of course not for anything else, the people thought, that he was profaned an unclean. In Sunne congregation they did not admit that he entered through the church door, but the church stood shut till another priest got to be called. . . . (Later the brother of the farm-hand avenged by at an assault cutting off the head of the priest. Still in death he was regarded unclean, no one wanted to touch the corpse, and because they thought, that he by no means should lie in consecrated ground . . . they (in the wild wood) only put turfs over him and upset over them a mound of rather big stones, in order that the wild animals would not be able to dig him up. But the old lady had said, that the dead priest had not been able to find peace in the grave, which thus had been prepared to him, but in light moonlight nights he appeared in the hill below Vilarsten, clothed in a cassock reaching to his feet and with the head in his hands. . . . No one understood how they would induce the ghost to be lying in its grave (until a countrywoman once said to him that he) had got the reward (he) deserves. "But if you want to lie still in your grave, I promise you, that my oldest son will take up your office and become priest . . . such a servant who draws the hearts of men to God and does not turn them from him." . . . After this they never more saw the ghost in Vilarsten's hill. (Selma Lagerlöf "Mårbacka" p 52-56; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

No dead body might remain in (Jerusalem) overnight; no sepulchres were there, except those of the house of David and of the prophetess Huldah. (Alfred Edersheim “The Temple” p 40)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Gudmund Jöran Adlerbeth, Lars Ahlberg, Friedrich Ahlfeld, Ljuba Aleksandrovitj, Svetlana Aleksijevitj, Carl Jonas Love Almqvist, Elin V. Anderson, Filip Anderson, Karl Andersson, Erika André, Gottfried Arnold, Ester Aronsson, Margit Assarsson, Ulf Beijbom, Håkan Bengtsson, Karl-Erik Bergh, Elisabeth Bergstrand-Poulsen, Elisabeth Beskow, Per Beskow, Oloph Bexell, August Blanche, Lars-Ola Borglid, Yngve Brilioth, Nils-Arvid Bringéus, Ingmar Brohed, Albert Camus, Elizabeth Charles, Mohamed Choukri, Anna-Maria Claesson, Magnus Jacob Crusenstolpe, Else Dahl, Nils Dahlberg, Charles Dickens, Emma Dixon, E.J. Ekman, Per Olof Ekström, Allan Ellenius, Albert Engström, Linné Eriksson, Olof Esping, Ernst Evers, Hilding Fagerberg, Felix, Erik Floderus, Axel Forsström, A.P. Franklin, Jan Fridegård, Emil Frommel, Peter Gillgren, Nikolaj Gogol, Röl Gording, Carl Grimberg, Torsten Gunnarsson, Berit Gustavsson, Gunnar Hallingberg, William Haslam, Gerhart Hauptmann, David Hedegård, Verner von Heidenstam, Alf Henrikson, C.G. Hjelm, Ivar Hylander, Nath. Högman, Ljudmila Ignatenko, Kristina Jansson, Johannes V. Jensen, PC Jersild, Gunlög Joakimson, Brita Johansson, Hilding Johansson, Ingrid Johansson, Eyvind Johnson, Gustaf Jonasson, Per-Axel Jonzon, J. Jönsson, Nikolaj Fomitj Kalugin, Bernhard Karlgren, Rudyard Kipling, Rainer Knapas, Bror Kugelberg, Olof Lagercrantz, Pär Lagerkvist, Karl Larsson, Lars-Olof Larsson, Olle Larsson, Harry Lenhammar, Gustaf Linder, Sigurd Lindgren, Torgny Lindgren, Sigvard Lindqvist, Claes Lindskog, Gustav Lindström, Gustaf Ljunggren, Ivar Lo-Johansson, Eva Londos, Viveca Lärn, John Magnusson, Carl Henrik Martling, Jöran Mjöberg, Vilhelm Moberg, Axel Mollstadius, Thomas More, Viktor Myrén, Fredrik Nielsen, Alfred Nilsson, Bertil Nilsson, Fritiof Nilsson Piraten, Folke Nordangård, Nathan Odenvik, Runa Ohlander, Christopher O'Regan, Katia P., Boris Pasternak, Sven-Erik Pernler, Lewi Pethrus, Olaus Petri, Hilding Pleijel, Ingrid Pohl, Gavin Reid, Per Richardson, Anna Maria Roos, Sigrid Rosell, Viktor Rydberg, Allan Rydén, Josef Rydén, Nelly Sachs, Göran Sahlberg, Sven Edvin Salje, Gunnar E. Sandgren, Sven-Åke Selander, Olof Sjöstrand, Erik Sollerman, Alexander Solsjenitsyn, Karl Erik Steneberg, Per Stjärne, Hesba Stretton, Knut Svensson, Arvid Svärd, Mariann Syllner-Gustafsson, Carl Peter Thunberg, Anton Tjechov, Leo Tolstoj, Johan Turi, Karl-Erik Tysk, John Updike, Linnéa Varenius, Mario Vargas Llosa, Jules Verne, F. Voltaire, Gisela Walberg, Einar Wallquist, Amy Catherine Walton, Kallistos Ware, Gottlieb Weitbrecht, Harald Wideen, Magnus Widell, Peter Wieselgren, Cecilia Wikström, Paul Wilstadius, Arne Wirdenäs, Nicholas Wiseman, Thecla Wrangel, Emil Zilliacus, Göran Åberg, Berit Åqvist, Anna Ölander.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “the peoples and tribes and tongues and nations”, see Rev 5:9bb.


Greek words:

(h)êmisys (half) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Rev 11:9 – Esther 5:3; 7:2; Tobit 8:21; 10:10(BA); 12:2,4-5; 1 Macc 3:34,37; 10:30; Sir 29:6; Mark 6:23; Luke 19:8; Rev 11:11; 12:14.

mnêma (tomb) (in the NT) Mark 15:46; Rev 11:9 – Mark 5:3,5; 16:2(א*); Luke 8:27; 23:53; Acts 2:29; 7:16.


Additional studies: 1 Kings 13:22; 14:11; Is 14:19; Jer 14:16; Tobit 1:17; 2 Macc 5:10; 13:7; John 19:20,38; Luke 9:60.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-12; 2012-07-05; 2015-04-09)

Back to the top

11:10a And the ones dwelling upon the earth rejoice on them’/’for their sake’ and are cheerful.

Word for word (11 words in the Greek text): and the-(ones) dwelling upon the earth rejoice on them and (they)-are-cheerful.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Solomon said to his son:) "(Wisdom) will deliver you from a way of badness ... (from) the thing to go in ways of darkness, (from) the ones being cheerful on/’for the sake of’ bad things and rejoicing on/’for the sake of’ a bad 'turning asunder'/perversion." (Prov 2:12-14, Greek OT)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “Do not rejoice ‘on on’/at a dead (body). Remember that all may come to an end.” (Sir 8:7)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “The ones being cheerful (for the sake of) the falling of the reverent ones will be captured (in) a snare. (Sir 27:29a)

(The prophet said to Jerusalem:) “Just as (the hostile city) rejoiced on/’for the sake of’ your falling and was cheerful on/’for the sake of’ your fall, in this way (she) will be sorrowful on/’for the sake of’ her (own) desert.” (Baruch 4:33)


The Latter Revelation:

(The father said to his elder son:) “We (continually) had to be cheerful and rejoice, because this your brother (continually) was (a) dead (body), and he has lived/’come to life’.” (Luke 15:32a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Amen, amen, I say to you that/: ‘You will weep and wail, but the adornment/’adorned world’ will rejoice. You will be sorrowful, however/but your sorrow will become into/’for the purpose of’ joy.’” (John 16:20)

(I will * (keep) (א,*א) you) out of the hour of the test, the (hour) being about to come upon the whole (inhabited) world to try the ones dwelling upon the earth. (Rev 3:10b, “Philadelphia”)

Till when do You not judge and procure justice for our blood out of the ones dwelling upon the earth? (Rev 6:10b)

(An eagle) saying (with) a great/loud voice: “Woe, woe, woe, to the ones inhabiting upon the earth, out/’in consequence’ of the rest of voices of the trumpet of the three messengers being about to sound the trumpet.” (Rev 8:13b)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: Bo Giertz, P. Waldenström.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “the ones dwelling upon the earth ”, see Rev 3:10b.


Greek words:

eufrainô/-omai (cheer/be cheerful) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Sir 27:29; Luke 15:32; Rev 11:10 – Esther 4:17y(C29); 5:14; Tobit 8:16; 13:10(12); Judith 12:20; 16:20; 1 Macc 3:7; 11:44; 12:12; 14:21; 2 Macc 15:11,27; Wisdom of Solomon 7:12; Sir 3:5; 4:18; 14:5; 16:1-2; 18:32; 19:5; 25:7; 26:2; 30:1,5; 32:2; 35:23(25); 39:31; 40:14,20; 51:15,29; Baruch 3:34. Luke 12:19; 15:23-24,29; 16:19; Acts 2:26; 7:41; Rom 15:10; 2 Cor 2:2; Gal 4:27; Rev 12:12; 18:20.


Additional studies: Ps 105:38; Rev 13:8,14; 17:8.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-12; 2012-07-05; 2015-04-09)

Back to the top

11:10b And they send (א*) gifts to one another, because these prophets, the two, tormented the ones dwelling upon the earth.

Word for word (16 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus): and gifts (they)-send (to)-one-another, because these the prophets the two tormented the-(ones) dwelling upon the earth.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

In/on these days the Jews ‘were brought’/came to rest from their enemies. And (this happened) in the month they turned/’turned about’ ... from grief into joy and from pain into a good day, to lead/keep wholly good days of wedding banquets and cheerfulness, ‘dispatching out’ portions/gifts to the friends and the beggarly ones. (Esther 9:22, Greek OT)


The Latter Revelation:

Having seen/looked up (Jesus) beheld the rich throwing/putting their gifts into the treasury. … All these threw/put into the gifts out of their being over and above. (Luke 21:1,4a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(The judicial authority) was given to (the locusts), in order that they might not kill them, however/but in order that they will be tormented (for) five months. (Rev 9:5a)

I will give (authority) to my two witnesses, and they will prophesy. (Rev 11:3a)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: Leo Baeck, Rachid Boudjera, John Blomqvist, Doris Dominique, Hillis Grane, Edvard Johansson, Eskil Jonsson, Britten Kvist, Doris Lessing, Fredrik Nielsen, Alfred Nilsson, G.H. Nykvist, Stina Palm, Abraham Rundbäck, Wenzel Stuchly, Rabindranath Tagore, Rudolf Vrba, John Westlin, Gustaf Wikner.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “the ones dwelling upon the earth ”, see Rev 3:10b.


Greek words:

dôron (gift) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Luke 21:1,4; Rev 11:10 – Tobit 4:11; 13:11(13); 2 Macc 15:16; Sir 7:9; 20:29; Epistle of Jeremiah v 26; Matt 2:11; 5:23-24; 8:4; 15:5; 23:18-19; Mark 7:11; Eph 2:8; Heb 5:1; 8:3-4; 9:9; 11:4.


Additional studies: Esther 9:19; Neh 8:10,12; Mark 7:12-13; Luke 21:2-3.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-12; 2012-07-05; 2015-04-09)

Back to the top

11:11a And after * (א,*א) three and a half days a spirit of life out of God came into, into (P47,א,*א) them, and they stood against/on their feet.

Word for word (20 words in the Grek text Sinaiticus): and after three days and (a)-half (a)-spirit (of)-life out-of the god came-into into them, and (they)-stood against the feet their.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

God formed the man of gravel from the earth and puffed in, into his face, a breath of life. And the man became into a living soul. (Gen 2:7, Greek OT)

(The animals) came into, towards Noah, into the chest/ark, two (and) two from every flesh in which it is a spirit of life. (Gen 7:15, Greek OT)

The Lord spoke towards Moses: "Behold, I will let breads/loaves out of the heaven rain for you." (Ex 16:4a, Greek OT)

The male was tossed in the grave of (the prophet) Elisha. And he went and touched the bones of Elisha, and he lived/’came to life’ and stood up against/on his feet. (2 Kings 13:21b, Greek OT)

(The prophet said: "The Lord) spoke towards me: 'Prophesy against these bones and speak to them: Dried out bones, hear the saying of the Lord: This is what the Lord God says to these bones: Behold, I carry a spirit of life into you.'" (Ezek 37:4-5, Greek OT)

The spirit came into, into (the bones), and they lived/’came to life’ and stood on their feet. … (Ezek 37:10b, Greek OT)

(Solomon said: “The one who formed idols) had not knowledge of the One having formed him and having blown into him a soul being active and having puffed in a spirit full of life.” (Wisdom of Solomon 15:11)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to the daughter of a synagogue leader:) "The girl, rise!" And her spirit turned itself next to (her). (Luke 8:54b-55a)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "If so you being (א,* א) evil know to give good gifts to your children, how much will the Father rather * (P75,א,*א) out of a heaven give holy spirit to the ones demanding/asking Him?" (Luke 11:13)

(Jesus said:) “Father, into Your hands I put/lay My spirit to the side of (You).” But/and having spoken this, He ‘blew out’/’breathed his last’. (Luke 23:46b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

Jesus so answered (the Jews) and spoke: “My teaching is not Mine, however/but The One's having sent Me. If – according to the circumstances – anyone may want to make/do His will, he will gain knowledge on account of the teaching, whether it is out of God or I talk from Myself.”(John 7:16-17)

(Jesus said to those Jews who to begin with believed Him:) “If God (continually) was your Father, you – according to the circumstances – welcomed/’would welcome’ Me (continually), for I have come out, out of God, and I have arrived. For nor I have come (and come) from Myself, however/but that One has dispatched Me away.” (John 8:42)

Martha, the sister of the one having come (and came) to an end, says to (Jesus): “Lord, he already smells, for it is on the fourth day.” (John 11:39)

(Some) out of the peoples and tribes and tongues and nations see their falls/corpses (for) three and a half days. (Rev 11:9a)


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “three and a half days”, see Rev 11:9.


Paul said to the believers in Rome: ”The law of the Spirit of the life in Christ Jesus has set you free from the law of the miss (of the mark of God) and of the death.” (Rom 8:2)


Additional studies: Gen 6:17; 7:22; Judges 15:19; Ezek 37:9,14; John 20:20-22; Acts 17:25.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-12; 2012-07-05; 2015-04-10)

Back to the top

11:11b And a great fear fell * (P47, א,* א) against the ones looking at them.

Word for word (8 words in the Greek text): and (a)-great fear fell against the-(ones) looking-at them.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

Behold, a dark, great fear falls on (Abram). (Gen 15:12b, Greek OT)

Many of the nations (continually) were ‘cut round’/circumcised and (continually) lived in Jewish fashion because of the fear of the Jews. (Esther 8:17b, Greek OT)

(Eliphaz said:) “The fear fell against, against men.” (Job 4:13b, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said:) “Egypt was cheerful in the ‘way out’/departure of (Israel), because their fear had fallen against, against them.” (Ps 105:38, Greek OT)

The males feared great fear. (Jonah 1:10a, Greek OT)


The Latter Revelation:

Fear fell against, against (Zacharias). (Luke 1:12b)

A messenger of the Lord stood near (the shepherds), and a glory of the Lord shone round about them, and a great fear feared/seized them. (Luke 2:9)

Fear took/seized all of them (א,* א, A) (in Nain), and they (continually) glorified God, saying that/: "A great prophet has risen in/among us!" (Luke 7:16a)

The multitude of the district round about ... , all of them, asked Jesus to go away from them, because they (continually) were ‘held together’/united (in) a great fear. (Luke 8:37a)


My own comments and speculations:

In a restoration perspective we can observe the contrast between Ps 105:38 (first fear, then a cheerful situation) and Rev 11:10-11 (first a cheerful situation, then fear).


Additional studies: Joshua 2:9; Job 13:11; Judith 14:3; Acts 5:5,11; 19:17.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-12; 2012-07-06; 2015-04-10)

Back to the top

11:12a And they heard a great/loud voice out of the heaven saying to them: “Ascend here.”

Word for word (11 words in the Greek text): and (they)-heard (a)-voice great out-of the heaven saying (to)-them: ascend here.


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

I heard behind me a great/loud voice as a trumpet. (Rev 1:10b)

(The voice) said: “Ascend here, and I will show you the things which must become after these things.” (Rev 4:1b)

And I beheld a stable messenger proclaiming in/with a great/loud voice. (Rev 5:2a)

… (I heard messengers) saying (with) a great/loud voice: “Worthy is the little Ram, the One having been (and being) slaughtered.” (Rev 5:12a)

(The souls of the slaughtered witnesses) shouted (with) a great/loud voice. (Rev 6:10a)

(The messenger) shouted (with) a great/loud voice to the four messengers, to whom it was given to them to act unrighteously (against) the earth and the sea. (Rev 7:2b)

(In the much/many-headed crowd) they shout (with) a great/loud voice. (Rev 7:10a)

(An eagle) saying (with) a great/loud voice: … (Rev 8:13b)

(The messenger) shouted (with) a great/loud voice. (Rev 10:3a)


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “a great/loud voice”, see for example Rev 1:10b. Concerning “voice out of the heaven”, see Rev 10:4b. Concerning “ascend here”, see Rev 4:1bb.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-13; 2012-07-06; 2015-04-10)

Back to the top

11:12b And they ascended into the heaven in the cloud, and their enemies looked at them.

Word for word (14 words in the Greek text): and (they)-ascended into the heaven in the cloud, and looked-at them the enemies their.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

Elijah was taken up in a togethershaking as (if he came) into the heaven. And Elisha beheld. (2 Kings 2:11b-12a, Greek OT)

Eliah was taken up into the heaven in/by the thing to be zealous to zeal of a law. (1 Macc 2:58)

(Jonathan said:) “We have the help out of heaven having succoured us and we were delivered from the enemies, and our enemies were humbled.”(1 Macc 12:15)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “Enoch pleased the Lord well and he was ‘put in company’/connected with a prototype of change of mind for the generations.” (Sir 44:16)

(The prophet said to Israel:) “Who has ascended into the heaven and taken (the wisdom) and precipitated it out of the clouds?” (Baruch 3:29)


The Latter Revelation:

Beholding the crowds (Jesus) ascended into the mountain. (Matt 5:1a)

(On the disciples') seeing (Jesus) He was lifted against/up and a cloud took Him from below, from their eyes. (Acts 1:9b)

David did not ascended into the heavens. (Acts 2:34a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

No one has ascended (and ascends) into the heaven ‘if not’/except the One having descended out of heaven, the Son of the Man. (John 3:13)

Behold, He comes in company with the clouds, and they (א,*א) will behold Him, every eye, and/also whoever ‘stabbed out’/pierced * (א*). (Rev 1:7a)

If anyone wants to act unrighteously (against) them, fire goes out, out of their mouth and eats down/up their enemies. (Rev 11:5a)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: P. Fjellstedt, Erik Axel Karlfeldt.


Additional studies: Gen 5:24; Sir 49:14; John 7:33-34.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-13; 2012-07-06; 2015-04-10)

Back to the top

11:13a And in that hour it became a great shaking. And the tenth of the city fell. And (the) names of (the men), seven of the number of one thousand, were killed in the shaking.

Word for word (23 words in the Greek text): And in that the hour (it)-became (a)-shaking great and the tenth (of)-the (of)-city fell and were-killed in the shaking names (of)-men (of)-the-number-of-one-thousand seven.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

Elijah was taken up in a togethershaking as (if he came) into the heaven. And Elisha beheld. (2 Kings 2:11b-12a, Greek OT)

The domestic animals (of Job) (continually) were 7000 sheep … Fire fell out of the heaven and burned down the sheep and the shepherds were eaten down/up likewise. (Job 1:3a,16a, Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) “A spirit took me up, and I heard entirely from behind me a voice/sound of a great shaking.” (Ezek 3:12a, Greek OT)

(The king said to the Jews:) “Let Jerusalem be holy and let its frontiers, the tenths and the tolls be (alone).” (1 Macc 10:31)


The Latter Revelation:

Having beheld the shaking ... (the “leader of a hundred men” and the ones who were in company with him) said: “Truly this (continually) was a son of God!” (Matt 27:54b)

Having come out (Jesus) beheld a much/many-headed crowd, and He was moved in His inward vital parts against them, because they (continually) were * (א*) (as if) not having a shepherd. (Mark 6:34a)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “When they – according to the circumstances – may lead you giving (you) to the side of, do not care beforehand (about) what you may talk, however/but which/what – if according to the circumstances – may be given you in that hour, talk this. For you are not the ones talking, however/but the Holy Spirit.” (Mark 13:11)

(The Pharisee said to God:) “I give the tenth (P75, א*) (of) all things as many as I acquire.” (Luke 18:12b)

All at once it became a great shaking, so that the bases of the prison moved to and fro. ... Having taken (Paul and Silas) to the side of (him) (the jailer) bathed/washed them from the blows in that hour of the night. (Acts 16:26a,33a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

You have few/’a few’ names in Sardis, which have not soiled their garments. (Rev 3:4a, “Sardis”)

I beheld when (the little Ram) opened the sixth seal, and it became a great shaking. (Rev 6:12a)

Their falls (P47,א,*א)/corpses (will be) upon the street of the great city, whichever/which spiritually is called Sodom and Egypt, whereat/where and/also the (P47, א*) Lord was crucified. (Rev 11:8)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: Folke Edsmyr.


My own comments and speculations:

In the OT (1 Macc 10:31) the tenths of Jerusalem are left alone. In a restoration perspective we now see, how a tenth of Jerusalem is struck.

Concerning “a great shaking”, see Rev 6:12a. Concerning “the names”, see Rev 3:4a.


Additional studies: Gen 14:20; 1 Kings 19:18; 20:15; Is 6:13; Amos 5:3; 1 Macc 11:35; Matt 10:19; 18:1; 23:23; 26:55; Luke 7:21; 11:42; Rev 8:5; 11:19; 16:18.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-13; 2012-07-06; 2015-04-11)

Back to the top

11:13b And the rest became in fear (א,* א) and gave glory to the God of the heaven (in honour of Him).

Word for word (13 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus): and the rest in fear became and gave glory (to)-the god (of)-the (of)-heaven.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The psalmist said:) “Be slaves to the Lord in fear.” (Ps 2:11a, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said:) “Confess out/frankly the God of the heaven.” (Ps 136:26a, Greek OT)


The Latter Revelation: (Jesus said to His disciples:) "In this way let your light shine in front of the men in that way (that) they may behold your fine works and glorify your Father in the heavens." (Matt 5:16)

(Jesus said to the scribes and the Pharisees:) “The one having sworn in/by the heaven swears in/by the throne of God and in/by the One being seated above it.” (Matt 23:22)

Fear fell against, against (Zacharias). … (The Lord God remembers) an oath He swore towards Abraham, our father, to give/allow us to serve Him without fear having been delivered out of (the) hand of enemies. (Luke 1:12b,73-74)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(The Jews) so ‘out of’/’immediately after’, a second (time), raised their voices to the man who (continually) had been blind and spoke to him: “Give glory to God.” We know that this Man is a misser (of the mark of God).” (John 9:24)

All the same many out of the leaders nevertheless believed into Him. However because of the Pharisees they did not (continually) confessed, in order that they might not become led away from the synagogue. For they welcomed the glory of the men rather, over/’more than’ (P66, א,* א) the glory of God. (John 12:42-43)

I say to you, the rest in Thyatira, as many as do not have this teaching, whoever/who have not gained knowledge of the depths (א,*א) of the adversary, as they say – I will (א,*א) not throw/place another weight against you. (Rev 2:24)

The living beings may (א,* א) – according to the circumstances – give glory and honour and thankfulness to the One being seated on the throne. (Rev 4:9a)

The rest of the men, who were not killed in these their (P47, א,* א) blows, nor changed their minds out/’in consequence’ of the works of their hands. (Rev 9:20a)

A great fear fell * (P47, א,* א) against the ones looking at (the two witnesses). (Rev 11:11b)


My own comments and speculations:

“The rest” gave glory to the God of the heaven. The expression “the God of the heaven” is here in dative (and not in accusative), which is a way for John to say that this is not a question of a worshipping relation to God but rather an acknowledgement that the glory belongs to God. Compare Nehemiah's prayer in Neh 2:4 and Jonah's confession in Jonah 1:9, where the above expression is in accusative (Greek OT). Cf. also Rev 13:8.

Concerning “the rest”, see also Rev 9:20. Concerning ”gave glory”, see also Rev 4:9a.


Additional studies: Gen 24:3,7; 2 Chron 36:23; Ezra 1:2; 5:12; 6:9-10; 7:12,21,23; Neh 1:4-5; 2:4,20; Ps 136:26; Jer 13:16; Dan 2:18-19,37,44; Jonah 1:9; Matt 5:45; 6:1,9; 7:11,21; 10:33; 12:50; 16:17; 18:10,14,19; Mark 11:25; Luke 11:13; 17:18; Acts 12:23; Rev 12:17; 14:7; 16:9,11; 19:7.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-13; 2012-07-06; 2015-04-11)

Back to the top

11:14 The second woe has come by the side of (א,* א). Behold, the third woe comes quickly.

Word for word (12 words in the Greek text): the woe the second came-by-the-side-of. behold the woe the third comes quickly.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

A judgment of God has been given back to (Haman) through quickness (by a God) taking power over all the things. (Esther 8:12rb/E18b, Greek OT)

(Solomon said to the woman:) “Behold, the tempest ‘has come by the side of’/’is past’. The rain went away.” (Song of Solomon 2:11a, Greek OT)

(The prophet said to the people of God:) “Advance, my people! Come into, into your storehouses and shut up your doors. Hide yourself away for a small/little (while) ..., till the wrath of the Lord may – according to the circumstances - have come by the side of.” (Is 26:20, Greek OT)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “Woe, cowardly hearts and hands having stood by the side of and a misser (of the mark of God) stepping against, against two paths. Woe a heart being by the side of, because it does not believe. Because of this it will not be sheltered. Woe you having perished (and perishing) the endurance, and what will you make/do, when the Lord – according to the circumstances – may inspect?” (Sir 2:12-14)


The Latter Revelation:

Having come before/forth a small/little (bit) (Jesus) fell upon the earth and prayed (continually), in order that, if it is able/possible, the hour might come by the side of from Him. (Mark 14:35)

(Jesus said to the Pharisees:) “Woe to you, the Pharisees! ... You come to the side of the judgment/justice and the welcome of God. … Woe to you * (א,*א) Pharisees! … Woe to you!” (Luke 11:42a,43a,44a)

(Jesus said to the lawyers:) “To you the lawyers, woe! … Woe to you! … Woe to you, the lawyers!” (Luke 11:46a,47a,52a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

A revelation of Jesus Christ which God gave Him to show to His holy ones (א*) the things which must become/’come about’ in/with quickness. (Rev 1:1a)

Change your mind * (א,*א). But if not, I come to you quickly. (Rev 2:16a, “Pergamos”)

(An eagle) saying (with) a great/loud voice: “Woe, woe, woe, to the ones inhabiting upon the earth, out/’in consequence’ of the rest of voices of the trumpet of the three messengers being about to sound the trumpet.” (Rev 8:13b)

Woe one (א*) went away. Behold, it comes still two woes after these things. (Rev 9:12)


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “comes quickly”, see Rev 2:16


Greek words:

parerchomai (come by the side of) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Mark 14:35; Luke 11:42; Rev 11:14 – Esther 10:3b(F2); Judith 2:24; 5:21; 11:10; 15:5; 1 Macc 2:22; 5:48; 2 Macc 11:29; Wisdom of Solomon 2:4; 5:9; Sir 42:19-20. Matt 5:18; 8:28; 14:15; 24:34; 26:39,42; Mark 6:48; 13:30-31; Luke 15:29; 16:17; 17:7; 18:37; 21:32-33; Acts 16:8; 27:9; 2 Cor 5:17; Jas 1:10; 1 Pet 4:3; 2 Pet 3:10.


Additional studies: Ps 37:36; John 18:25; 20:21; Rev 12:12; 15:1; 18:10; 21:1.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-13; 2012-07-06; 2015-04-11)

Back to the top

11:15a And the seventh messenger sounded the trumpet. And they/it became great/loud voices in the heaven ...

Word for word (12 words in the Greek text): And the seventh messenger sounded-the-trumpet: and (they/it)-became voices great in the heaven.


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

I heard behind me a great/loud voice as a trumpet. (Rev 1:10b)

And I beheld a stable messenger proclaiming in/with a great/loud voice. (Rev 5:2a)

… (I heard messengers) saying (with) a great/loud voice: “Worthy is the little Ram, the One having been (and being) slaughtered.” (Rev 5:12a)

And (the souls of the slaughtered witnesses) shouted (with) a great/loud voice. (Rev 6:10a)

(The messenger) shouted (with) a great/loud voice to the four messengers, to whom it was given to them to act unrighteously (against) the earth and the sea. (Rev 7:2b)

(The much/many-headed crowd) shout (with) a great/loud voice, saying: “The saving (belongs) to our God, the One being seated on the throne and to the little Ram into the (coming) ages of the (coming) ages. Amen (א*).” (Rev 7:10)

I beheld the seven messengers who stand in the very eyes of God, and seven trumpets were given to them. (Rev 8:2)

The seven messengers having the seven trumpets made themselves ready in order that they might sound the trumpets. (Rev 8:6)

(An eagle) saying (with) a great/loud voice: “Woe, woe, woe, to the ones inhabiting upon the earth, out/’in consequence’ of the rest of voices of the trumpet of the three messengers being about to sound the trumpet.” (Rev 8:13b)

He shouted (with) a great/loud voice, just as a lion lows, and when he had shouted, * (א*) seven peals of thunder talked (with their) 'of selves'/own voices. (Rev 10:3)

In the days of the voice of the seventh messenger, when he – according to the circumstances – may be about to sound the trumpet, the mystery of God and/also was ended, as He gave a good little message to His 'of Himself'/own slaves and (P47, P85, א,* א) the prophets. (Rev 10:7)

(The ones who looked at the two witnesses) heard a great/loud voice out of the heaven saying to them: “Ascend here.” (Rev 11:12a)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: Fredrik Nielsen.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “messenger sounded the trumpet”, see Rev 8:2 and 8:6. Concerning “great/loud voices”, see Rev 1:10b and 5:2a.


Additional studies: John 12:28-29; Rev 16:17; 19:1.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-13; 2012-07-06; 2015-04-12)

Back to the top

11:15b ... saying: “The kingdom of the adornment/’adorned world’ has become (the kingdom) of our Lord and of His Anointed (Christ), and He will be king into the (coming) ages of the (coming) ages. Amen (א,* א).

Word for word (21 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus): saying: became the kingdom (of)-the (of)-world (of)-the (of)-lord our and (of)-the (of)-christ/anointed his, and (he)-will-be-king into the ages (of)-the (of)-ages. amen.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

The priests sounded the trumpets the seventh way round, and Jesus/Joshua spoke to the sons of Israel: “You shall shout, for the Lord has given the city ‘to the side of’/over to you.” (Joshua 6:16, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said:) "The kings of the earth stood ‘by the side of’/near and the leaders were led together ... ‘down from’/against the Lord and ‘down from’/against His Anointed (Christ)." (Ps 2:2a, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said:) “The Lord will be king into the (coming) age and into the (coming) age of the (coming) age.” (Ps 10:16a, Greek OT)

(David said:) “The kingdom (is) the Lord's, and He is Master of the nations.” (Ps 22:28 or 22:29, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said:) “Your name (is) the Lord, You alone (are) the Highest One against/’extending over’ every/all the earth.” (Ps 83:18b or 83:19b, Greek OT)

(David said:) “The Lord has made His throne ready in the heaven, and His kingdom is master of all.” (Ps 103:19, Greek OT)

(Daniel said to the king:) “The God of heaven will cause another kingdom to stand, whichever/which will be into the (coming) ages, and it will not be ruined ... and it will stand into the (coming) age.” (Dan 2:44b, Greek OT)

(Daniel said to the king:) “The God of the heaven will cause a kingdom to stand up, whichever/which will not be ruined throughout into the (coming) ages … and it will stand up into the (coming) ages.” (Dan 2:44b, Greek OT, Theod)

The kingdom and the (judicial) authority and their magnificense and the beginning of all the kingdoms underneath the heaven (the judgment) gave to a holy people of a Highest One to be kings (over) an agelong kingdom, and all (judicial) authorities will arrange themselves to Him and obey Him. (Dan 7:27, Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) “The kingdom will be ‘to the Lord’/’the Lord's’.” (Obadiah v 21b, Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) “The Lord will be into/- a king against/’extending over’ every/all the earth.” (Zech 14:9a, Greek OT)

The king of the adornment/’adorned world’ will cause us, having died in favour/defence of the laws (of the Lord), to stand up into an agelong revival. (2 Macc 7:9b)

(Solomon said: “Righteous ones) will judge nations and get power (over) peoples, and the Lord will be their king into the (coming) ages.” (Wisdom of Solomon 3:8)

(Solomon said: “The kings) are rowers/servants of the kingdom (of the Lord).” (Wisdom of Solomon 6:4a)


The Latter Revelation:

... Again the slanderer takes (Jesus) to the side of (himself) into/to an exceedingly high mountain and shows Him all the kingdoms of the adornment/’adorned world’ and their glory. And he spoke to Him: "All these things I will give You, if – according to the circumstances – on having fallen/’sunk down’ You may prostrate Yourself before me (in honour of me)." (Matt 4:8-9)

(The messenger said to Mary: “Jesus) will be king against/’extending over’ the house of Jacob into the (coming) ages.” (Luke 1:33a)

(Jesus) found a (א,*א) place where it (continually/-) was (and had been) written: “A spirit of the Lord … has anointed me to bring a good little message to beggarly ones.” (Luke 4:17b-18a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

Having so beheld the sign (Jesus) had made/done the men (continually) said that/: “This is truly the prophet coming/’who is to come’ into the adornment/’adorned world’!” So having knowledge that they are about to come and rape Him and show up (א*) a king, Jesus, He (Himself) alone, flees (א*) again into/to the mountain. (John 6:14-15)

Jesus (said to Pilate): “My kingdom is not out of this adornment/’adorned world’. If My kingdom (continually) was out of this adornment/’adorned world’, My rowers/servants (continually) had – according to the circumstances – fought, in order that I might not had been given ‘to the side of’/’over to’ the Jews. But now My kingdom is not from here.” (John 18:36)

To (Jesus Christ is) the glory and the power for “the ages of the ages”. Amen. (Rev 1:6b)

(I am) the One living, and I became a dead (body), and behold, I am a living one into the (coming) ages of the (coming) ages. (Rev 1:18a)

(Glory and honour and thankfulness) to the One living into the (coming) ages of the (coming) ages, the twenty-four elders will and/also (א,* א) fall/’sink down’ in the very eyes of the One being seated upon the throne, and they will prostrate themselves before the One living into the (coming) ages of the (coming) ages (in honour of Him). Amen (א,* א). (Rev 4:9b-10a)

To the One being seated upon (א,* א) the throne and to the little Ram (be) the blessing and the honour and the glory and the power into the (coming) ages of the (coming) ages. (Rev 5:13b)

(The much/many-headed crowd) shout (with) a great/loud voice, saying: “The saving (belongs) to our God, the One being seated on the throne and to the little Ram into the (coming) ages of the (coming) ages. Amen (א*).” (Rev 7:10)

(The elders and the four living beings) said: “Amen, the blessing and the glory and the wisdom and the thankfulness and the honour and the ability and the stability to our God into the (coming) ages of the (coming) ages. Amen.” (Rev 7:12)

(The messenger) swore (by) (P47,א*) the One living into the (coming) ages of the (coming) ages, who created the heaven and the things in it, and the earth and the things in it * (א*,A), that there will not be any time longer. (Rev 10:6)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: P. Fjellstedt, Carl Grimberg, Hugo Linder, Teodor Lindhagen, Tore Nilsson, Edv. Stensson, Manne Zettergren.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning ”the ages of the ages. Amen.”, see also Rev 1:6b. Here we have the eighth Amen, which suits the context. See My own comments and speculations to Rev 11:6a and 11:16.


Additional studies: Ps 145:11-13; Is 54:3; Ezek 21:26-27; Dan 4:14(17),22(25); 5:21; 7:14; Luke 2:11,26; 4:5-7; 9:20; John 6:51,58; 13:13; 14:30; 18:37; 20:31; Acts 4:26; 10:38; 1 Cor 15:24,52; Heb 1:9; Rev 4:11; 12:10; 19:6,19.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-13; 2012-07-06; 2015-04-12)

Back to the top

11:16 And * (א*,A) twenty-four elders, the ones being in the very eyes of God, the ones (א*) being seated against their thrones, and/also (א,* א) they fell/’sank down’ against their faces and prostrated themselves before God (in honour of Him) ...

Word for word (24 words in the Greek text): and twenty four elders the-(ones) in-the-very-sight-of (of)-the (of)-god the-(ones) being-seated against the thrones their and (they)-fell against the faces their and '(kissed-towards)'/'prostrated-(before)' the god


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Jesus said to the woman:) "However, an hour comes, and it is now, when the true ‘prostrators’ will prostrate themselves before the Father (in honour of Him) in spirit and truth. For the Father seeks (certainly) and/also of such kind the ones prostrating (towards) Him (in adoration of Him). God (is) spirit, and the ones prostrating themselves * (א*) must prostrate themselves in a spirit of (א*) truth." (John 4:23-24)

In a circle from the throne (were) twenty-four thrones and against the thrones being twenty-four elders seated. (Rev 4:4a)

The twenty-four elders will and/also (א,* א) fall/’sink down’ in the very eyes of the One being seated upon the throne, and they will prostrate themselves before the One living into the (coming) ages of the (coming) ages (in honour of Him). Amen (א,* א). (Rev 4:10a)

I beheld ‘in a middle of’/’between (on one hand)’ the throne and the four living beings and ‘in a middle of’/’(on the other hand)’ the elders a little Ram standing as having been (and being) slaughtered. (Rev 5:6a)

When (the little Ram) took the scroll, the four living beings and the twenty-four elders fell/’sank down’ in the very eyes of the little Ram, everyone having a zither. (Rev 5:8a)

I beheld, and I heard as (א,*א) a voice of many messengers (in) a circle (around) the throne and the living beings and the elders. (Rev 5:11a)

The elders fell/’sank down’ and they prostrated themselves. (Rev 5:14b)

All the messengers stood in a circle of/around the throne and the elders and the four living beings, and they fell/sank down against/on their faces ‘in the very eyes of’/before the throne and prostrated themselves before God (in honour of Him). (Rev 7:11)


My own comments and speculations:

This is the eighth time in the Revelation that something is mentioned concerning all the elders as a collective. This strengthens the impression of the beginning of a new period. Cf. My own comments and speculations to Rev 10:6, 11:6a and 11:15b. See also Studiebibeln IV p 853.

Concerning “the twenty-four elders” and “are seated against their thrones”, see Rev 4:4a. Concerning ”fell/’sank down’” and “prostrated themselves before God”, see Rev 4:10a. Concerning “against their faces”, see Rev 7:11b.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-13; 2012-07-06; 2015-04-13)

Back to the top

11:17 ... saying: “We are thankful to You, the Lord God, the All-powerful, the One who is and the One who (continually) was, and (P47, א*) that You have taken (and take) Your great ability and have been/’begun to be’ king.”

Word for word (23 words in the Greek text): saying: (we)-are-thankful (to)-you, 'lord the god'/'the Lord God' the all-powerful, the-(one) being and the-(one) (who)-(continually)-was, and that (you)-have-taken-(and-take) the ability your the great and have-been/'begun-to-be'-king.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The psalmist said:) “The Lord will be king into the (coming) age and into the (coming) age of the (coming) age” (Ps 10:16a, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said:) ”Speak to God: ’… In the multitude/greatness of Your ability Your enemies will lie (against/to) You.’” (Ps 66:3, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said:) “The Lord has been/’begun to be’ king.” (Ps 93:1a, Greek OT)

(Antiochus Epiphanes) had been/’begun to be’ king in a 137th year of a kingdom of Greeks. … (1 Macc 1:10b)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples: “The Son of the Man will come) in clouds in company with much ability and glory.“ (Mark 13:26b)

(The messenger said to Mary: “Jesus) will be king against/’extending over’ the house of Jacob into the (coming) ages.” (Luke 1:33a)

(The people in the city said about Simon:) “This is the ability of God, the one being called Great.” (Acts 8:10b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

Thomas … spoke to (Jesus): "'The Lord my'/'My Lord' and 'the God my'/'my God'!" (John 20:28)

Joybringing (grace) (with) you and peace from the One who is and the One who (continually) was and the One who comes and from the seven spirits * (א,* א, A) ‘in the very eyes of’/before His throne. (Rev 1:4b)

“I am the Alpha and the Ô/Omega, a beginning and an end (א*),” says the Lord God, the One who is and the One who (continually) was and the One who comes, the All-powerful. (Rev 1:8)

His sight/countenance ‘brings to’/gives light as the sun (א,*א) in its ability. (Rev 1:16b)

(The four living beings) have not rest, day and night saying: “Holy, holy, holy, holy, holy, holy, holy, holy (א*) the Lord God, the All-powerful, the One who (continually) was and the One who is and the One who comes.” (Rev 4:8b)

The living beings may (א,* א) – according to the circumstances – give glory and honour and thankfulness to the One being seated on the throne. (Rev 4:9a)

(The elders) * (א*) throw their crowns ‘in the very eyes of’/before the throne, saying: “Worthy are You, Lord (א,* א), the Lord and our God to take the glory and the honour and the ability. …” (Rev 4:10b-11a)

(The messengers) said: “Worthy is the little Ram, the One having been (and being) slaughtered to take the ability. (Rev 5:12a)

(The elders and the four living beings) said: “Amen, the blessing and the glory and the wisdom and the thankfulness and the honour and the ability and the stability to our God into the (coming) ages of the (coming) ages. Amen.” (Rev 7:12)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: Bo Giertz.


My own comments and speculations:

Now in the new period “the Lord God” is no longer the One “who comes” (cf. Rev 1:4,8; 4:8).

Concerning “the Lord God”, see John 20:28 and Rev 4:10b-11a. Concerning “the All-powerful, the One who is and the One who (continually) was”, see Rev 1:4b, Rev 1:8 and Rev 4:8b.


Additional studies: 2 Kings 9:13; Ps 96:10; 97:1; 99:1; John 6:15; 12:15; Rev 13:4; 15:3; 16:5,7,14; 19:6,15; 21:22.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-13; 2012-07-06; 2015-04-13)

Back to the top

11:18a And the nations was/were (P47, א*) wrathful, and/but Your wrath came and the seasonable time of the dead (bodies) to be judged.

Word for word (15 words in the Greek text): and the nations was/were-wrathful, and came the wrath your and the seasonable-time (of)-the (of)-dead-(bodies) (to)-be-judged.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Moses and the sons of Israel said to the Lord:) “Nations have heard (how You guided Your people) and they were wrathful.” (Ex 15:14a, Greek OT)

(Eliphaz said: “The man whom God convicts) may come in the grave just as bread-stuff being harvested in a seasonable hour ‘according to’/during a seasonable time. (Job 5:26, Greek OT)

(David said to God:) “You may conquer in 'the thing to be judged Yourself'/'Your judging'.” (Ps 51:4b or 51:6b, Greek OT)

(David said:) “God, You will lead down peoples in wrath!” (Ps 56:7b or 56:8b, Greek OT)

(David said:) “The Lord was/’has begun to be’ king. Let peoples be wrathful.” (Ps 99:1, Greek OT)

A wrath of the Lord has come out passionately. A wrath ‘being turned’/’has turned itself and’ has come out. Against wicked ones it will arrive. (Jer 30:23, Greek OT)

A court of justice sat down, and books were opened. (Dan 7:10b, Greek OT)

When the nations ’in a circle from’/’round about’ heard, that the sacrificial altar had been built and the holy place was renewed as formerly, they ... were extremely wrathful. (1 Macc 5:1b)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to the scribes and the Pharisees:) “Serpents, products of adders, how may you flee from the judgment of Gehenna?” (Matt 23:33)

(Jesus saw) round about in company with wrath, together with being sorrowful, (at the men in the synagogue), on/’for the sake of’ the hardening of their heart. (Mark 3:5a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

The one believing into the Son has agelong life. * (א*) The one disobeying the Son shall not behold life, however/but the wrath of God stays against him. (John 3:36)

(Jesus said to the Jews: “The Father) has given (the Son) (judicial) authority to make/execute judgment, because He is a son of man. Do not wonder (over/at) this, because it comes an hour, in which all the ones in the memorial tombs may (P66, א,* א) hear His voice. And they shall go out, the ones having made/done the good things into a resurrection of life, but the ones having practised the worthless things into a resurrection of judgment. I am not able to make/do nothing/anything from/'owing to' Myself. Entirely as I hear, I judge. And My judgment is righteous, because I do not seek My will however/but the will of the One having sent Me.” (John 5:27-30)

Till when do You not judge and procure justice for our blood out of the ones dwelling upon the earth? (Rev 6:10b)

They say to the mountains and to the rocks: “Fall against us and hide us from a face/presence of the One being seated on (א,* א) the throne and from the wrath of the little Ram, because the great day of their wrath has come and who is able to stand?” (Rev 6:16-17)


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “wrathful … wrath”, see also Rev 6:16b-17.


Greek words:

orgizomai (be wrathful) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) 1 Macc 5:1; Rev 11:18 – Esther 1:12; Judith 5:2; 1 Macc 3:27; 6:28; 15:36; Bel and the Dragon v 21; Matt 5:22; 18:34; 22:7; Luke 14:21; 15:28; Eph 4:26; Rev 12:17.


Additional studies: Ps 46:6(7); 83:2-5(3-6); Is 10:5,25; 63:3,6; Jer 10:10; Hab 3:12; Acts 4:25-26; Rom 2:5,8; Eph 5:6; 2 Thess 1:6; 1 Tim 4:1; 1 Pet 4:5; Rev 12:17; 15:1; 22:12.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-14; 2012-07-06; 2015-04-14)

Back to the top

11:18ba ... and to give the wage to Your slaves the prophets and to the holy ones and to the ones fearing Your name, the small ones and the great ones.

Word for word (23 words in the Greek text): and (to)-give the wage (to)-the slaves your (to)-the prophets and (to)-the holy-(ones) and (to)-the-(ones) fearing the name your, the small and the great.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The word of the Lord became/came towards Abram in a vision:) "Your wage will be extremely much/great." (Gen 15:1b, Greek OT)

But the males being/standing against the door of the house were hit with invisibility/blindness, from a little one till a great one. (Gen 19:11a, Greek OT)

(David said:) “Fear the Lord, His holy ones, because it/there is not a/any want to the ones fearing Him.” (Ps 34:9 or 34:10, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said: “The Lord) blessed the ones fearing the Lord, the small ones in company with the great ones.” (Ps 115:13, Greek OT)

(The prophet said: “The Lord) … will save the ones fearing His name.”(Micah 6:9a, Greek OT)

A scroll of remembrance has been written in the very eyes of (the Lord) (with) the ones fearing the Lord and standing in awe of His name. (Mal 3:16b, Greek OT)

All went away ... and no one was left entirely/behind ... from a small one till a great one. ... All (in the city) ran/came together from a small one till a great one. (Judith 13:4a,13a)

Judas led together every/’the whole’ Israel ... from a small one till a great one. (1 Macc 5:45a)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) "Blessing of the Lord (is) in a wage of a reverent one.” (Sir 11:22a)

(Baruch read the sayings of the scroll to Israel) ... from a small one till a great one, of all the ones dwelling in Babylon upon/by a river Sud. (Baruch 1:4b)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples: "Happy are you when – according to the circumstances - men) may speak every/all evil ‘down from’/against you lying with respect to Me. Rejoice and exult, because your wage (is) much/great in the heavens." (Matt 5:11b-12a)

(Jesus said to His disciples: "A person) who – if according to the circumstances – so may loosen one of the least of these commandments (of the Law), and in this way may teach the men, will be called least in the kingdom of the heavens. * (א*) “ (Matt 5:19)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “The one who – according to the circumstances – may give to one of these small ones (following Me) only a cup of cold (water) to drink, into/’for the purpose of’ a name of a disciple, amen, I say to you, he may not/certainly not perish/lose his wage.” (Matt 10:42)

(Mary said:) “Holy (is) the name (of the able One). And His mercy (is) into generation and/after generation to the ones fearing Him.” (Luke 1:49b-50)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Already the one harvesting takes wage and leads together fruit into/for agelong life, in order that and/both (א,* א, A) the one sowing and the one harvesting may rejoice together.” (John 4:36)

(Jesus said to the Jews: “The Father) has given (the Son) (judicial) authority to make/execute judgment, because He is a son of man. Do not wonder (over/at) this, because it comes an hour, in which all the ones in the memorial tombs may (P66, א,* א) hear His voice. And they shall go out, the ones having made/done the good things into a resurrection of life, but the ones having practised the worthless things into a resurrection of judgment. I am not able to make/do nothing/anything from/'owing to' Myself. Entirely as I hear, I judge. And My judgment is righteous, because I do not seek My will however/but the will of the One having sent Me.” (John 5:27-30)

A revelation of Jesus Christ which God gave Him to show to His holy ones (א*) the things which must become/’come about’ in/with quickness. (Rev 1:1a)

Golden bowls being full of incenses which (א,*א) are (the) (א*) prayers of the holy ones. (Rev 5:8b)

‘Many incenses’/’much incense’ was given to him, in order that he shall give/add (it) to the prayers of all the holy ones against the golden sacrificial altar * (א,* א) ‘in the very eyes of’/before the throne. And a (א*) smoke of the incenses, (with) the prayers of the holy ones, ascended in the very eyes of God out of a hand of the messenger. (Rev 8:3b-4)

In the days of the voice of the seventh messenger, when he – according to the circumstances – may be about to sound the trumpet, the mystery of God and/also was ended, as He gave a good little message to His 'of Himself'/own slaves and (P47, P85, א,* א) the prophets. (Rev 10:7)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

I am Anarchist! That is, I love freedom for as many as possible . . . Also for the "great ones", not only for "the small ones". . . . These "small" Darwinist-theologians think themselves be able to judge, and they have a pleasure and an interest to be allowed to lower me. (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev VI aug 1886-jan 1888" p 207-208; letter 1887-05-27 to Carl Larsson; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Gunnar Fjellestad, C.G. Hjelm, Vilhelm Moberg, Wilhelm Möller, P. Waldenström.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “slaves the prophets”, see Rev 10:7.


Additional studies: Gen 19:11; Num 16:27; 1 Sam 5:9; 30:2; 1 Kings 14:10; 21:21; 2 Kings 9:8; 23:2; 2 Chron 34:30; Neh 1:11; Esther 1:5,20; Job 3:19; Ps 61:5(6); Jer 5:13; 8:10; 16:6; 31:34; 42:1,8; 44:12; Jonah 3:5; Wisdom of Solomon 6:7; Baruch 2:20,24; Matt 10:42; 18:6,14; Mark 9:41-42; Luke 1:32; 18:2,4; Acts 8:10; 26:22; Heb 8:11; Rev 13:16; 16:6; 19:5,18; 20:12.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-14; 2012-07-06; 2015-04-15)

Back to the top

11:18bb ... and to ruin throughout the ones ruining the earth throughout.

Word for word (6 words in the Greek text): and (to)-ruin-throughout the-(ones) ruining-throughout the earth.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

The earth was ruined opposite God, and the earth was fulfilled (of/with) unrighteousness. And the Lord God beheld the earth, and ... it was entirely ruined, because every flesh entirely ruined its way upon the earth. And God spoke towards Noah: “A seasonable time of every man has arrived opposite Me, because the earth has been fulfilled (of/with) unrighteousness from them. And behold, I entirely ruin them and the earth. (Gen 6:11-13, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) “Behold, I (am) towards you, the mountain being (and having been) ruined, which ruins ‘every the’/’the whole’ earth.” (Jer 51:25a, Greek OT)

(The fourth kingdom) will eat down/up ‘every the’/’the whole’ earth and together tread on it and cut (it) down/up. (Dan 7:23b, Greek OT Theod)

(Solomon said to the Lord: “When) a still silence surrounded all the things, and a night reached the middle (of its course) in (its) own quickness, your ‘all-ably’ saying, a severe warrior, came from heavens out of thrones of kingdoms into a middle of the destructive earth (with) a sharp sword.” (Wisdom of Solomon 18:14-15a or 18:14-16a)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples: “Make yourselves) an inexhaustible heap/treasure in the heavens, whereat ... moth does not ruin throughout.” (Luke 12:33)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

The third of the boats were ruined throughout. (Rev 8:9b)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

Now (the major's widow) feared for the beloved estate being left in the hands of the cavaliers to be guarded by them, as the wolves guard the sheep, as the cranes guard the spring-corn. There are pobably many, who have suffered from the same sorrow. Not is she the only one having seen the destruction go forward over a beloved home and felt how it is, when the well-kept farms fall into decay. As a wounded animal they have seen the home of their childhood look at them. Many feel as malefactors, when they see the trees there wither away under lichens and the gravel-walks be covered by sods. They wanted to kneel down in these fields, which formerly were proud of rich harvests and ask them to not accuse them for the shame overtaking them. . . . Oh, I ask you, you all cultivating fields and meadows and parks and the beloved, joybringing flower-beds, cultivate them well! Cultivate them in love, in work! It is not good, that nature grieves at the men. (Selma Lagerlöf "Gösta Berlings saga" p 87-88; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Sven Ahlgren, Svetlana Aleksijevitj, J. Allvin, Ann-Charlotte Alverfors, Erika André, Augustinus Bergquist, Hjalmar Bjurulf, Gunnar Brusewitz, Margaret Bäckman, Fredrik Böök, Rachel Carson, Fred Catherwood, Bob Dylan, Stefan Edman, Gunvor Eriksson, Karin Eriksson, Anis Freiha, Hans Greén, Carl Grimberg, Lennart Gustavsson, Peter Harris, Alf Henrikson, Henrik Ibsen, Chojniki Viktor Iosifovitj Verzjikovskij (and 'Andrej and Vladimir'), Barbro Jern, Inga Johansson, Eyvind Johnson, Eskil Jonsson, Per Jönson Rösiö, Bo E. Karlson, Irina Kiseljova, Inge Kvarnström, Lars-Olof Larsson, Harry Lenhammar, Sven Lidman, Helga Lindberg, Lars Lindberg, Sonja Lindbergh, Sigurd Lindgren, Anna Lorentz, Sven-Olof Lorentzen, Josef Lundin, Egil Lönnberg, Vilhelm Moberg, Harry Månsus, Torsten Nilsson, Marit Paulsen, Laurence Rees, Börje Remstam, Arvid Reuterskiöld, Per Richardsson, Seymor Rossel, Viktor Rydberg, Karl Salomonsson, Birger Sjöberg, John Sjögren, Åke Sparring, Eva Spångberg, Stig Stenström, Rune Storck, John Stott, Göran Svensson, Olle Tarland, Yvonne Teiffel, Anton Tjechov, Zacharias Topelius, Alfred Russel Wallace, Gösta Weiler, Gustaf Wikner, Arne Wirdenäs, Klas Östergren.


My own comments and speculations:

In a restoration perspective we can compare Rev 11:18 with Wisdom of Solomon 18:14-15(14-16). In Wisdom of Solomon it is the earth which destructs. Here in Revelation it is the earth which is ruined throughout.


Additional studies: Wisdom of Solomon 16:19; Luke 12:4-5; Rev 19:2.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-14; 2012-07-06; 2015-04-16)

Back to the top

11:19a And the temple of God in the heaven was opened, and the chest/ark of the covenant of God (א,* א) was beheld in His temple.

Word for word (21 words in the Greek text): And was-opened the tempel (of)-the (of)-god in the heaven and was-beheld the chest (of)-the (of)-covenant (of)-the (of)-god in the temple his.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(God said to Noah:) “I shall ‘cause ... to stand’/establish My covenant towards you, but/and you shall come into the chest/ark.” (Gen 6:18a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Moses: “Bezalel shall make) the tent of the testimony and the chest/ark of the covenant.” (Ex 31:7a, Greek OT)

The priests carry the chest/ark into, into its place ... into the holy things of the holy things underneath the wings of the cherubim. (1 Kings 8:6, Greek OT)

(David said:) “The Lord (is) in His holy temple. ... His throne (is) in heaven.” (Ps 11:4a, Greek OT)

(Jeremiah said:) “The place (with the tent and the chest/ark and the sacrificial altar of the incense) will be unknown till God – according to the circumstances – may lead together a leading together upon/’with regard to’ the people, and become propitious. And then the Lord will show up these things.” (2 Macc 2:7b-8a)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to the scribes and the Pharisees:) “The one having sworn in/by the temple swears in/by it and in/by the One dwelling in it. And the one having sworn in/by the heaven swears in/by the throne of God and in/by the One being seated above it.” (Matt 23:21-22)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “… In the (א,* א) days before the inundation … until the day Noah came into, into the chest/ark.” (Matt 24:38)

And having taken a cup and having ‘been thankful’/’given thanks’, (Jesus) gave to (His disciples) saying: “Drink out of it, all (of you). For this is My blood of the covenant, which is poured out on account of many into/’for the purpose of’ a ‘letting be’/’leaving alone’ of misses (of the mark of God).” (Matt 26:27-28)

The curtain of the temple was split/torn into two from, from above till down. (Matt 27:51a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

The one conquering, (to) him (א*) I will make a pillar (in) (א*) the temple of My God, and it may not/certainly not come out outside * (א,* א). (Rev 3:12a, “Philadelphia”)

... I beheld, and behold, a door being (and having been) opened in the heaven. (Rev 4:1a)

(Those in the white dresses) are ‘in the very eyes of’/before the throne of God, and they serve Him day and night in His temple. (Rev 7:15a)

(The reed? said:) “Rise and measure the temple of God and the sacrificial altar and the ones prostrating themselves in/at it. And the court, the one ‘from inside’/inner (א,* א) of the temple, throw/bring (it/'the ones being there') out inside (א*) and you may not measure it. (Rev 11:1b-2a)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

The word ‘covenant’ (diathêkê) means, (that) God and man do not meet on equal terms; it means that God, of his own choice and in his free grace, offered man this relationship, which man cannot alter or change or annul, but which he can only accept or refuse. (William Barclay ”New Testament Words” p 65)


Greek words:

diathêkê (covenant) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Matt 26:28; Rev 11:19 – Judith 9:13; 1 Macc 1:11,15,57,63; 2:20,27,50,54; 4:10; 11:9; 2 Macc 1:2; 7:36; 8:15; Wisdom of Solomon 18:22; Sir 16:22; 17:12; 24:23; 28:7; 39:8; 41:19(20); 42:2; 44:11(12),18,20,23; 45:5,7,15,17,25; 47:11; Baruch 2:35; The Prayer of Azariah v 11. Mark 14:24; Luke 1:72; 22:20; Acts 3:25; 7:8; Rom 9:4; 11:27; 1 Cor 11:25; 2 Cor 3:6,14; Gal 3:15,17; 4:24; Eph 2:12; Heb 7:22; 8:6,8-10; 9:4,15-17,20; 10:16,29; 12:24; 13:20.

kibôtos (chest) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Matt 24:38; Rev 11:19 – 2 Macc 2:4-5; Luke 17:27; Heb 9:4; 11:7; 1 Pet 3:20.


Additional studies:

Ex 25:10-16; 30:6; 39:34; 1 Kings 3:15; 6:19; 8:1-5; 1 Chron 16:37; 22:19; 28:2; 2 Chron 5:7; Wisdom of Solomon 3:14; Rev 14:17; 15:5.


E.A.C. Pretorius "(Diathêkê) in the Epistle to the Hebrews"; Neotestamentica 5.1 (1971): 37-50.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-14; 2012-07-06; 2015-04-17)

Back to the top

11:19b And they/it became rays of light and voices and peals of thunder and a shaking and a great hail.

Word for word (12 words in the Greek text): and (they/it)-became rays-of-light and voices and peals-of-thunder and (a)-shaking and (a)-hail great.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The Lord said to Moses/Pharaoh:) “Behold, … I let an extremely much/great hail rain.” (Ex 9:18a, Greek OT)

… And behold, voices and noise, peals of thunder and a shaking; trouble upon the earth. (Esther 1:1d/A4, Greek OT)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “A great Lord ‘heard upon’/’listened to’ (Jesus/Joshua) in/'through (sending)' stones of hail of a powerful ability.” (Sir 46:5b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

Rays of light and voices and peals of thunder go out, out of the throne. (Rev 4:5a)

I beheld when (the little Ram) opened the sixth seal, and it became a great shaking. (Rev 6:12a)

They/it became peals of thunder and voices and rays of light and a shaking. (Rev 8:5b)

The first (messenger) sounded the trumpet, and it became hail and fire, being (and having been) mixed in/with blood, and it was thrown into/to the earth. (Rev 8:7a)

In that hour it became a great shaking. And the tenth of the city fell. And (the) names of (the men), seven of the number of one thousand, were killed in the shaking. (Rev 11:13a)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: Bob Dylan, Carl Grimberg, Harry Martinson, Eugenio Montale, Alfred Nilsson, Johan Ludvig Runeberg.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning ”rays of light and voices and peals of thunder”, see also Rev 4:5a.


Additional studies: Ex 9:24; Ps 78:47-48; Ezek 13:13-14; Rev 16:21.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-14; 2012-07-06; 2015-04-18)

Back to the top

Valid XHTML 1.0 Strict      Valid CSS!