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Chapter 10

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10:1a And I beheld another stable messenger descending out of the heaven, being (and having been) wrapped up in a cloud.

Word for word (11 words in the Greek text): And (i/I)-beheld another messenger stable descending out-of the heaven being-(and-having-been)-wrapped-up-in (a)-cloud.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

The Lord spoke towards Moses: "Behold, I will let breads/loaves out of the heaven rain for you.” (Ex 16:4a, Greek OT)

The Lord descended in a cloud and talked towards (Moses). (Num 11:25a, Greek OT)

(Daniel said:) “I (continually) looked at in a vision of the night. And behold, (One) as a son of a man (continually) came upon the clouds of the heaven." (Dan 7:13a, Greek OT)

The one being (and having been) wrapped up in the things of fine linen ... was (continually) above the water of the river. (Dan 12:7a, Greek OT)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “All the tribes of the earth will * (א*) ‘cut themselves’/mourn, and they will behold the Son of the Man coming upon the clouds of the heaven in company with ability and much glory.” (Matt 24:30b)

(The lord of the vineyard) dispatched away another (slave), and that one (the farmers) killed, and many others, indeed flaying whom/some but/and slaying whom/some. (Mark 12:5)

Having come into, into the memorial tomb, (the women) beheld a little young man being seated in the right (parts), being (and having been) wrapped up in a white dress. (Mark 16:5a)

(Jesus said to His disciples: "If a son) will demand an egg (from his father), he will not (א,*א,A) 'give on'/hand him a scorpion, (will he) (א,*א,A)? If so you being (א,*א) evil know to give good gifts to your children, how much will the Father * (P75,א,*א) out of a heaven rather give holy spirit to the ones demanding/asking Him?" (Luke 11:12-13)

A messenger from heaven ‘was beheld’/appeared (to Jesus, a messenger) being stable in Him. (א*) (Luke 22:43)

(On the disciples') seeing (Jesus) He was lifted against/up and a cloud took Him from below, from their eyes. (Acts 1:9b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

This One is the bread, the one descending out of the heaven, in order that a certain one may eat out of it and not die. I am the living bread, the one having descended out of the heaven. (John 6:50-51a)

Having plaited a crown out of thorns the soldiers put (it) on the head (of Jesus) and wrapped Him up in a purple garment. (John 19:2)

Behold, He comes in company with the clouds, and they (א,*א) will behold Him, every eye, and/also whoever ‘stabbed out’/pierced * (א*). (Rev 1:7a)

(The ones who have not stained their garments) will walk about in company with Me in white (things), because they are worthy. The one conquering will in this way be wrapped up in white garments. (Rev 3:5a, “Sardis”)

Against (the pillar) I will write the name of My God and the name of the city of My God, the new Jerusalem, the one descending out of the heaven from My God, and My name, the new one. (Rev 3:12b, “Philadelphia”)

(I give you counsel to buy from the side of Me) white garments, in order that you may wrap up yourself in (them) and (that) the shame of your nakedness may not be made visible. ... (Rev 3:18b, “Laodicea”)

(Elders) being (and having been) wrapped up in white (things) (א,*א) and (with) golden crowns against their heads. (Rev 4:4b)

And I beheld a stable messenger proclaiming in/with a great/loud voice: “Who (is) worthy to open the scroll and loosen its seals?” (Rev 5:2)

I beheld, and behold (א,* א), another fire-coloured horse came out. (Rev 6:4a)

I beheld another messenger ascending from ‘an upsticking of a sun’/east, having a seal of a living God. (Rev 7:2a)

(I beheld a much/many-headed crowd) standing ‘in the very eyes of’/before the throne and in the very eyes of the little Ram, being (and having been) wrapped up in white dresses and (with) date-twigs in their hands. (Rev 7:9b)

One * (א,* א) of the elders answered, saying to me: “These, the ones being (and having been) wrapped up in the white dresses, who are they, and from where have they come?” (Rev 7:13)

Another messenger, having a golden olibanum censer, came and stood upon the sacrificial altar. (Rev 8:3a)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: Erik Axel Karlfeldt, Henning Mankell, Vilhelm Moberg.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “stable messenger”, see Rev 5:2a. Concerning “descending out of the heaven”, see also John 6:45-51a.


Additional studies:

Ex 34:5; Matt 26:64; Luke 21:27; John 3:13; Acts 12:8; Rev 11:3; 13:1; 17:4; 18:1; 18:16; 19:8,13; 20:1.


R.J. Korner "'And I saw . . .' An Apocalyptic Literary Convention for Structural Identification in the Apocalypse"; (the journal) Novum Testamentum 42.2 (2000): 160-183.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-08; 2012-07-04; 2015-03-30)

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10:1ba And the iris/rainbow (was) upon his head, and his face (was) as the sun.

Word for word (14 words in the Greek text): and the iris upon the head his and the face his as the sun.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(God said to Noah:) “I put/set My bow in the cloud, and it will be into/for a sign of a covenant ‘upwards middle’/between Me and the earth.” (Gen 9:13, Greek OT)

(God said to Noah:) “My bow will be in the cloud, and I shall behold (it) to remember an agelong covenant ‘upwards middle’/between Me and ‘upwards middle’/- every living soul in every/all flesh that is upon the earth. ... This (is) the sign of the covenant.” (Gen 9:16-17a, Greek OT)

(The Lord spoke to Moses, saying: ”Take the plant) iris, five hundred (shekels) ... and you shall make (the mixture of the sweet spices to) a holy olive-oil ointment ... and out of it you shall anoint the tent of the testimony.” (Ex 30:24a,25a,26a, Greek OT)

(Aaron and his sons said to Israel:) “Let the face of the Lord bring/give light against, against you.” (Num 6:25a, Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) “The splendour of (the figure as a man was in) a circle as a beholding of a bow, when it – according to the circumstances – may be in the cloud in/on a day of rain." (Ezek 1:27b-28a, Greek OT)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said: “Simon, the great priest) was as a sun shining out/forth against the temple of the Highest One and as a bow giving light in/among glorious clouds.” (Sir 50:7)


The Latter Revelation:

Jesus was transformed in front of (James, John and Peter), and His face shone as the sun. (Matt 17:2a)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “The sign of the Son of the Man will ‘be brought’/come to light in heaven.” (Matt 24:30a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

Having plaited a crown out of thorns the soldiers put (it) on the head (of Jesus) and wrapped Him up in a purple garment. (John 19:2)

His sight/countenance ‘brings to’/gives light as the sun (א,*א) in its ability. (Rev 1:16b)


Greek words:

iris (iris) Ex 30:24; Rev 10:1.


Additional studies: Gen 9:11-15; Wisdom of Solomon 18:3; John 1:14.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-08; 2012-07-04; 2015-03-30)

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10:1bb And his feet (were) as pillars of fire ...

Word for word (7 words in the Greek text): and the feet his as pillars (of)-fire


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

The Lord indeed (continually) led (Israel) in/’by means of’ a pillar of cloud (by) day to show them the way, but/and in/’by means of’ a pillar of fire (by) night. (Ex 13:21, Greek OT)

A ray of light went out, out of the fire. (Ezek 1:13b, Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) “From a beholding of a hip of (the figure as a man) and till down I beheld as a beholding of a fire … .” (Ezek 1:27b, Greek OT)

(Solomon said to God: “You gave the Israelites) a pillar, blazing with fire, a guide indeed (in) an unknown way of journey.” (Wisdom of Solomon 18:3a)


The Latter Revelation:

(John the Baptist said: "The One coming behind me) will baptize you in holy spirit and fire." (Matt 3:11b)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Just as the ‘ray of light’/lightning comes out from upstickings/east and ‘brings to’/gives light till settings/west, in this way will the ‘being by the side of’/coming of the Son of the Man be.” (Matt 24:27)

The form of (the messenger was) (א*) as a ray of light. (Matt 28:3a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

His feet (were) like copper from Lebanon (or: like copper similar olibanum/frankincense), as in a furnace glowing (and having glowed). (Rev 1:15a)

The Son of God, the One having His eyes as a flame of fire and His feet like copper from Lebanon (or: like copper similar olibanum/frankincense).” (Rev 2:18b, ”Thyatira”)

The one conquering, (to) him (א*) I will make a pillar (in) (א*) the temple of My God, and it may not/certainly not come out outside * (א,* א). (Rev 3:12a, “Philadelphia”)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: Erik Axel Karlfeldt.


Additional studies: Ex 14:24; Num 9:15; 14:14; Deut 1:33; Neh 9:12; Ps 78:14; 105:39; Is 4:5; Luke 3:16; 17:24; 2 Thess 1:8.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-08; 2012-07-04; 2015-03-30)

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10:2a ... and having/’he had’ in his hand a little scroll being (and having been) opened.

Word for word (8 words in the Greek text): and having in the hand his (a)-little-scroll being-(and-having-been)-opened.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The prophet said:) “And I beheld, and behold, a hand being (and having been) stretched out towards me, and in it a ‘bed's head’/beginning of a scroll.” (Ezek 2:9, Greek OT)

A thousand of a number of one thousand (continually) performed public duties to (the Old of Days), and ten thousand of a number of ten thousand stood (and had stood) by the side of Him. And a court of justice sat down, and books were opened. (Dan 7:10b, Greek OT, Theod)

A book of sayings (about) Tobit. (Tobit 1:1a)


The Latter Revelation:

A book of (the) origin of Jesus Christ, son of David. (Matt 1:1a)

(Jesus said to the Sadducees:) “On account of the dead (bodies), that they are raised, have you not read in the book of Moses?” (Mark 12:26a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

I will not/certainly not wipe out his name out of the book of the life, and I will confess his name in front of (א,*א) My Father and in the very eyes of His messengers. (Rev 3:5b)

This is what the True One, the Holy One, says, (the One) having the key of David, the One opening and no one will shut, and (the One) shutting and no one will (א,*א) open. I know your works. Behold, I have given (and give) a door having been (and being) opened in the very eyes of you, which no one is able to shut * (א,*א). (Rev 3:7b-8a, “Philadelphia”)

Behold, I stand against the door, and I knock. If – according to the circumstances – anyone may hear My voice, I will (א,* א) and/both open the door and come into/in towards him, and I will take the chief meal in company with him and he in company with Me. (Rev 3:20, “Laodicea”)

After these things I beheld, and behold, a door being (and having been) opened in the heaven. (Rev 4:1a)

I beheld against the right (hand) of the One being seated upon the throne a scroll being (and having been) written in front of (א,*א) and from behind, being (and having been) sealed (with) seven seals. And I beheld a stable messenger proclaiming in/with a great/loud voice: “Who (is) worthy to open the scroll and loosen its seals?” And no one in the heaven and not (א,*א) upon the earth * (א,*א) was able to open the scroll, and not (א,*א) to see (into) it. And I (continually) wept much, because no one was found worthy to open the scroll ‘and not’/and to see (into) it. And one out of the elders says to me: “Do not weep! Behold, the Lion * (א,*א) out of the tribe of Judas, the Root of David, has conquered to open the scroll and loosen (א,*א) its seven seals. (Rev 5:1-5)

(The four living beings and the twenty-four elders sang:) “Worthy are You to take the scroll and to open its seals, because You were slaughtered. ...” (Rev 5:9b)

I beheld, when the little Ram opened one out of the seven seals. (Rev 6:1a)

When * (א,* א) (the little Ram) opened the seventh seal, it became silence in the heaven (for) as/about a little half-hour. (Rev 8:1a)


Greek words:

biblaridion (little scroll) Rev 10:2 – Rev 10:8.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-08; 2012-07-04; 2015-03-31)

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10:2b And he put/set his right foot upon the sea but/and the 'one of good name'/left upon the earth.

Word for word (16 words in the Greek text): and (he)-put the foot his the right-(one) upon the sea, the-(one) but of-good-name upon the earth.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Jacob) dreamt, and behold, a ladder being set fast in/on the earth, of which head/top overcame/reached into the heaven, and the messengers of God (continually) ascended and (continually) descended upon it! (Gen 28:12, Greek OT)

(Solomon) caused the pillars to stand ‘according to’/at the face of the temple, one out/’from the part’ of (the) right and the one/other out/’from the part’ of ‘good names’/’the left’. (2 Chron 3:17a, Greek OT; cf. the pillars in Rev 10:1)

(David said to the Lord:) “You set down (a son of man) against the works of Your hands, all things You arranged under below his feet.” (Ps 8:6 or 8:7, Greek OT)

(David said:) “The Lord spoke to my Lord: ‘Be seated ‘out of’/at My right (parts), till I – according to the circumstances – may put Your enemies a footstool of Your feet.’” (Ps 110:1, Greek OT)

I beheld, I Daniel, and behold, two others stood, one ‘in from’/’from here’ of the river and one ‘in from’/’from there’. And … the one being (and having been) wrapped up in the things of fine linen ... (continually) was above the water of the river ... And he heightened the right hand and the left into the heaven. (Dan 12:5-7a, Greek OT)


The Latter Revelation:

(In) the fourth watch of the night (Jesus) came towards (His disciples) walking about against the sea. (Matt 14:25)

Many crowds … tossed/’laid down’ (many sick) to the side of the feet of Jesus. And He attended them. (Matt 15:30)

(Jesus said to the Pharisees: “David said:) ‘A lord spoke to My Lord: “Be seated ‘out of’/at My right (parts), till I – according to the circumstances – may put Your enemies below Your feet.”’” (Matt 22:44)


Greek words:

euônymos (of good name) (in the NT + one example in the Apocrypha) Rev 10:2 – 1 Macc 6:45; Matt 20:21,23; 25:33,41; 27:38; Mark 10:40; 15:27; Acts 21:3.


Additional studies: Matt 20:13-15; Mark 6:48; 12:36; Luke 20:43; John 6:19; Acts 2:35; 1 Cor 15:25,27; Eph 1:22; Heb 1:10; 2:8; 10:13; Rev 10:5,8.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-08; 2012-07-04; 2015-03-31)

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10:3 And he shouted (with) a great/loud voice, just as a lion lows, and when he had shouted, * (א*) seven peals of thunder talked (with their) 'of selves'/own voices.

Word for word (16 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus prima manus): and (he)-shouted (with)-voice great just-as (a)-lion lows. and when (he)-shouted talked seven peals-of-thunder the 'of-selves'/own voices.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

... The Lord thundered in/with a great/loud voice … against the other tribes. (1 Sam 7:10a, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said: “The righteous one) will be as the wood having been (and being) planted to the side of the passages/ways of the waters. … The wicked ones (are) not in this way, not in this way, 'however or'/but (are) as the foam, which the wind tosses out from face of the earth. Because of this wicked ones will not 'stand up'/stand in judgment.” (Ps 1:3a,4-5a, Greek OT)

(David said:) “(The) voice of the Lord (was) upon the waters. The God of the glory has thundered. … (The) voice of the Lord (is) in/with stability. (The) voice of the Lord (is) in magnificence. (The) voice of the Lord (crushes) cedar-trees. … (The) voice of the Lord cuts through (with) flames of fire. (The) voice of the Lord (shakes) the desolate (district). . . . (The) voice of the Lord (is) fitly adjusted (for) hinds (to calve).” (Ps 29:3-9a, Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) “A lion and a cattle/’cow or an ox’ will eat chaff together.” (Is 11:7b, Greek OT)

(As) the lion or the young animal may cry on/beside the wild animal … in this way the Lord of host will descend to march against, against the mountain Zion, against its mountains.” (Is 31:4b, Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) “Then ... a lion will eat chaff as an ox.” (Is 65:25a, Greek OT)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said: “David) jested/played in/with lions as in/with he-goats. (Sir 47:3a)


The Latter Revelation:

(John the Baptist said: “The One who comes behind me) will burn down the chaff (in) an unquenchable fire.” (Matt 3:12b)

The Lord answered (the synagogue leader) and spoke: "Hypocrites, does not everyone of you (on) the sabbath loosen his cattle/’cow or his ox’ or the ass from the manger and leading (it) away (א*,B*) he gives (it) to drink?" (Luke 13:15)

(Jesus said to the lawyers and Pharisees:) ”Who of you, (if) an ass (א,*א) or a cattle/’cow or an ox’ will fall into a well, will he not straightaway pull him up in/on a sabbath day?” (Luke 14:5b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

Joybringing (grace) (with) you and peace from the One who is and the One who (continually) was and the One who comes and from the seven spirits * (א,* א, A) ‘in the very eyes of’/before His throne. (Rev 1:4b)

I heard behind me a great/loud voice as a trumpet. (Rev 1:10b)

This is what the One having the seven spirits of God and the seven stars says: “I know your works, that you have a name, that you live, and/but you are (a) dead (body).” (Rev 3:1b, “Sardis”)

Rays of light and voices and peals of thunder go out, out of the throne and seven torches of fire (are) burning ‘in the very eyes of’/before the throne, which are the seven spirits of God. (Rev 4:5)

The first living being (was) like a lion. (Rev 4:7a)

And I beheld a stable messenger proclaiming in/with a great/loud voice. (Rev 5:2a)

Behold, the Lion * (א,* א) out of the tribe of Judas, the Root of David, has conquered to open the scroll and loosen (א,* א) its seven seals. (Rev 5:5b)

(The little Ram) having seven horns and seven eyes, which are the seven spirits of God, having been (and being) dispatched away into every/all the earth. (Rev 5:6b)

… (I heard messengers) saying (with) a great/loud voice: “Worthy is the little Ram, the One having been (and being) slaughtered.” (Rev 5:12a)

(The souls of the slaughtered witnesses) shouted (with) a great/loud voice. (Rev 6:10a)

(The messenger) shouted (with) a great/loud voice to the four messengers, to whom it was given to them to act unrighteously (against) the earth and the sea. (Rev 7:2b)

(In the much/many-headed crowd) they shout (with) a great/loud voice. (Rev 7:10a)

They/it became peals of thunder and voices and rays of light and a shaking. (Rev 8:5b)

(An eagle) saying (with) a great/loud voice: … (Rev 8:13b)

The teeth (of the locusts like horses) (continually/-) were as (the teeth) of lions. (Rev 9:8b)

And the heads of the horses (are) as the heads of lions. And fire and smoke and sulphur go out, out of their mouths. (Rev 9:17b)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

One rabbi compared the wrestler's match with Jacob (Gen 32:22-32) to a king who had a ferocious dog and a tame lion. The king would take his son out to wrestle with the lion, and he allowed the dog to watch. Then if the dog ever had thoughts of attacking the boy, the king would say, “A lion couldn't harm him; how do you think you can?” So God tells the nations about Israel, “My angel could not harm him, why do you waste your time?” (Michael E. Williams “Genesis” p 161; Genesis Rabbah 77.3)

What does it mean to be “highly exalted” (Ex 15:1)? The rabbis say that four creatures on earth are exalted. Among birds, the eagle is exalted; among cattle it is the ox that takes the honour; among wild creatures it is the lion. But among all living things, it is the human being that it is exalted. (Michael E. Williams “Exodus” p 64; Exodus Rabbah 23.13)

Gr. mykatai, (“lows”), occurs only here in the Bible. It means a low sound, like the lowing of an ox (cf. Symmachus, Job 6:5; Aquila, 1 Kings 6:12) or a growl of thunder. It describes a voice which is not only loud in volume but extremedly deep and not necessarily conveying actual words. (J. Massyngberde Ford "Revelation" p 158-159)

This is the tale about the big bull Adam Engelbrekt. An Easter Sunday a long time ago he got loose. . . . Down there in the cow-house area he rushed to and fro with huge bellows. . . . Soon there was a rumour in the district: The Vinäsbull has got loose walking about as a roaring lion. . . . (The bull) approached the fence where Kalle (only seven years old) sat. And Kalle scratched him between the horns with his dirty crofter child fingers. All time he babbled his kind words. Adam Engelbrekt almostseemed a little embarrassed that he stood still and let himself be scratched. . . . Adam Engelbrekt was a big, big bull, and Kalle was a little, little crofter child, and they were a rather touching couple, where they walked over the cow-house area. . . . "I am used to bulls", Kalle said explaining. "Quite simply treat them with a little kindness only." (Astrid Lindgren "Småländsk tjurfäktare" p 149-152; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

I have been invited to take part in Mr Steads Pilgrimage of Peace. I suppose you have read about his proposal in the newspapers that from every country twelve who are the most famous would travel to all courts of Europe working for the peace. (From Scandinavia four from every state.) I have said no, because something like that had been me impossible, to stand with so much travels and speeches and banquets and long stairs would have cost me my life, but for the rest the whole thing seems to me like a humbug. It does not become peace by any kind of demonstration. It is rapacity and unrighteousness which must away out of the hearts of men, so that we have no need to consider one another as dangerous beasts of prey, but when will this time come. The terrible enmity to Germany, which I observed in England, can hardly abate without a trial of strength. (Selma Lagerlöf "Brev 2 - 1903-1940" p 58-59; letter 1907-04-22 to Elise Malmros; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

One almost wants to believe in miracles, when one sees the rowan bear astrakhans on one branch and butter-pears on another; and when one sees pigeon apples on the hawthorn bushes, one thinks have come to an enchanted island, where one in the next moment wants to expect to be allowed to gather figs on the carline thistle. (August Strindberg "Skärkarlsliv" p 185-186; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

(Brother Mattias) knew the classical world of books very little. Virgilius's song about the boy, whose birth will open a new age, when the flocks do not fear the lion and righteousness has returned to the earth, this song he nevertheless knew by heart. (Viktor Rydberg "Vapensmeden" p 137; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: David Bellingham, Tage Danielson, Alberth Eriksson, P. Fjellstedt, Britt G. Hallqvist, Alf Henrikson, F.M. Holmes, Homeros, Erik Axel Karlfeldt, Torsten Nilsson, William Shakespeare.


My own comments and speculations:

Perhaps the apostle in this situation wants to say, that a lion now will low like a cattle in a time when “a lion and a cattle will eat chaff together” (Is 11:7b) and when “a lion will eat chaff as an ox” (Is 65:25). This “new” period also is marked by an eighth “a great/loud voice” in the Revelation (Rev 1:10; 5:2,12; 6:10; 7:2,10; 8:13).

Concerning “shouted (with) a great/loud voice”, see also Rev 6:10a.


Greek words:

mykaomai (low) Rev 10:3. Se Exegetes, evangelists and others and My own comments and speculations.


Additional studies: Judges 14:5; Job 6:5; Ps 22:13(14); 104:21; Prov 19:12; 20:2; 28:15; Is 5:29-30; 21:8; 38:13; Jer 2:15; 25:30; 51:38; Ezek 22:25; Hos 11:10; Joel 3:16; Amos 1:2; 3:4,8; Zeph 3:3; Zech 11:3; 1 Macc 3:4; 1 Pet 5:8; Rev 18:2.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-09; 2012-07-04; 2015-03-31)

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10:4a And as many things as (א,* א) the seven peals of thunder talked, I (continually) was about to write.

Word for word (8 words in the Greek text): and as-many-(things)-as talked the seven peals-of-thunder, (i/I)-(continually)-was-about-to write.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

Moses wrote the words of this law into a scroll. (Deut 31:9a, Greek OT)


The Latter Revelation:

(Luke said: ”I have written) to you, most powerful Theofilos (what eyewitnesses and rowers/servants of the saying have given by the side of us), in order that you may have additional knowledge on account of the security of which/the sayings you have 'been resounded'/heard.” (Luke 1:3b-4)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

This is the disciple being a witness on account of these things and having written these things. (John 21:24a)

(John) was a witness to the saying of God and the evidence of Jesus Christ, as many things as he beheld. (Rev 1:2)

(The voice) said: “Write into a scroll what you see.” (Rev 1:11a)

Write so the things which you have beheld, and the things which are and the things which must (א*) be about to become after these things. (Rev 1:19)


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “the seven peals of thunder talked”, see Rev 10:3.


Additional studies: John 20:30-31.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-09; 2012-07-04; 2015-04-01)

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10:4b And I heard a voice out of the heaven, saying: ”Seal as many things as (P47,א,*א) the seven peals of thunder have talked and you may not write them.”

Word for word (17 words in the Greek text): and (i/I)-heard (a)-voice out-of the heaven saying: seal as-many-(things)-as talked the seven peals-of-thunder, and not them (you)-may-write.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The Lord said to the prophet:) “All these words will be to you as the sayings of this scroll having been sealed.” (Is 29:11a, Greek OT)

And upon a consummation of the saying (of the king) (Daniel) heard a voice out of the heaven. (Dan 4:28a or 4:31a, Greek OT)

(One with a beholding as a man said to the prophet:) “Seal the beholding, because (it is) into/’for the purpose of’ many days.” (Dan 8:26b, Greek OT Theod)

(The messenger said to the prophet:) “Seventy periods of seven days have been scratched/severed together against your people and against the holy city … to seal misses (of the mark of God) ... and to seal a beholding and a prophet and to anoint a holy of holies.” (Dan 9:24, Greek OT Theod)

(The man set/clothed in linen said to Daniel:) “… Veil the commands and seal the scroll till a seasonable consummation time. … The sayings being/are sealed till a seasonable goal/end time.” (Dan 12:4a,9b, Greek OT, 9b Theod)


The Latter Revelation:

Having sealed the stone (the priest leaders and the Pharisees) secured the grave in company/co-operation with the custodia/guard. (Matt 27:66b)

A voice (became/came) out of heaven. … (Luke 3:22b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

Write so the things which you have beheld, and the things which are and the things which must (א*) be about to become after these things. (Rev 1:19)

(I saw a scroll) having been (and being) sealed entirely (with) seven seals. (Rev 5:1b)

(The messenger) said (to the four messengers): “You may not act unrighteously (against) the earth, ‘but not’/nor (א,*א) (against) the sea, ‘but not’/nor (א,*א) (against) the trees, till we may have sealed the slaves of our God upon their foreheads.” (Rev 7:3)

When (the messenger) had shouted, * (א*) seven peals of thunder talked (with their) 'of selves'/own voices. (Rev 10:3b)


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “the seven peals of thunder have talked”, see Rev 10:3.


(Paul said to the believers in Corinth: “I know a man who) was raped into the ‘place by the side of apprehension’/Paradise and heard unspeakable words, which it being/is not permitted for a man to talk.” (2 Cor 12:4)


Additional studies: Is 8:16; Matt 3:17; Mark 1:11; John 3:33; Rev 10:8; 14:2,13; 18:4; 20:3; 22:10.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-09; 2012-07-04; 2015-04-01)

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10:5 And the messenger, whom I beheld standing upon the sea and upon the earth, lifted his right hand into the heaven.

Word for word (22 words in the Greek text): And the messenger, whom (i/I)-beheld 'standing-(and-having-stood)'/standing upon the sea and upon the earth, lifted the hand his the right into the heaven.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

Abraham spoke towards a king of Sodom: “I shall stretch out my hand towards God, the Highest One.” (Gen 14:22a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Moses:) “I shall lead you into, into the earth/land, into which I stretched out My hand to give it to Abraham and Isaac and Jacob.” (Ex 6:8a, Greek OT)

(Moses said to the Lord:) “Your right hand, Lord, is (and has been) glorified in stability, Your right hand, Lord, caused the enemies to quake.” (Ex 15:6, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) “I shall lift My hand into the heaven and swear (with) My right hand and speak: ‘I live into the (coming) age.’” (Deut 32:40, Greek OT)

(David said: “Now I have) knowledge, that the Lord saved His anointed. He will 'hear upon'/’listen to’ him out of His holy heaven in/with sovereignties, the saving of His right hand.” (Ps 20:6b or 20:7b, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said to the Lord:) “You arm (is) in company with sovereignty. Let your hand be powerful. Let your right hand be heightened.” (Ps 89:13 or 89:14, Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) "I heard the one being (and having been) wrapped up in the things of fine linen, who (continually) was above the water of the river: 'Till a consummation of a seasonable time.' And he heightened the right hand and the left into the heaven." (Dan 12:7a, Greek OT)

(The Jews) took/cut off the right hand (of Nicanor), which he overweeningly had stretched out. ... (1 Macc 7:47b)

Having stretched forth the right hand against the temple (Nicanor, the general of the nations) swore this (before the priests): “If you – according to the circumstances – may not give Judas fettered to the side of me, this is what I will make, (namely) God's pious precinct into/to a plain, and the sacrificial altar I will dig down, and I will cause a conspicuous sanctuary to stand up thereupon to Dionysius.” (2 Macc 14:33)

(Solomon said to the Lord:) “To flee Your hand is unable, for wicked ones, denying to know You, were whipped in/with the stability/strength of Your arm, being pursued (with) foreign rains and hails and inevitable downpours, being entirely used up (with) fire.” (Wisdom of Solomon 16:15-16)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said to God:) “Lift against/up Your hand against alien nations, and let them behold Your sovereignty.” (Sir 36:2 or 36:3)


The Latter Revelation:

Having plaited a crown out of thorns (the soldiers) put (it) upon, upon the head of (Jesus) and a reed in His right hand, and having fallen down in front of Him on their knees they ‘jested with’/mocked Him saying: “Rejoice, the (א,* א, A) King of the Jews!” (Matt 27:29)

Having come to/forward Jesus talked (with the eleven disciples) saying: "Every/all (judicial) authority in heaven and upon earth has been given to Me.” (Matt 28:18)

Having lifted His hands against (the disciples), (Jesus) blessed them. (Luke 24:50b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

In His right hand (one like a son of a man) (continually) had (א*) seven stars. … and He put/laid His right (hand) against (א,* א), against me. (Rev 1:16a,17a)

I beheld against the right (hand) of the One being seated upon the throne a scroll being (and having been) written in front of (א,* א) and from behind. (Rev 5:1a)

I beheld another stable messenger descending out of the heaven. (Rev 10:1a)

(The messenger) put/set his right foot upon the sea but/and the 'one of good name'/left upon the earth. (Rev 10:2b)


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “the messenger whom I beheld”, see Rev 10:1a. Concerning “standing upon the sea and upon the earth”, see Rev 10:2b.


Additional studies: Job 40:9(14); Ps 21:9; 44:4; 60:5(7); 89:25(26); 98:1; 108:6(7); 118:15-16; 138:7; Is 48:13; John 21:6; Acts 2:33; 5:31; Rev 1:20; 2:1; 5:7; 13:16.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-10; 2012-07-04; 2015-04-01)

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10:6 And he swore (by) (P47,א*) the One living into the (coming) ages of the (coming) ages, who created the heaven and the things in it, and the earth and the things in it * (א*,A), that there will not be any time longer.

Word for word (28 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus prima manus): and (he)-swore (by)-the living into the ages (of)-the (of)-ages, who created the heaven and the-(things) in it and the earth and the-(things) in it, that time not-any-longer (it/there)-will-be.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

In a beginning God made the heaven and the earth. (Gen 1:1, Greek OT)

(Melchizedek) blessed (Abram) and spoke: “(May) Abram be (and have been) blessed (in) God the Highest One, who created the heaven and the earth.” (Gen 14:19, Greek OT)

Abram said to the king of Sodom: “I have sworn to the Lord God Most High, possessor of heaven and earth.” (Gen 14:22a, New American Standard)

Abraham spoke towards a king of Sodom: “I shall stretch out my hand towards God, the Highest One, who created the heaven and the earth.” (Gen 14:22a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Moses:) “I shall lead you into, into the earth/land, into which I stretched out My hand to give it to Abraham and Isaac and Jacob.” (Ex 6:8a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Moses:) "I know the evil thing (of the sons of Israel), as much as they make/do here to-day, before 'the thing to lead Me'/'I have led' them into the good earth/land which I swore (to give) their fathers." (Deut 31:21b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) “I shall lift My hand into the heaven and swear (with) My right hand and speak: ‘I live into the (coming) age.’” (Deut 32:40, Greek OT)

... (The Lord) is a Master of all in the heaven and upon the earth. (1 Chron 29:11a, Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) “The Lord has sworn ‘down from’/by His right hand and ‘down from’/by His stable arm.” (Is 62:8a, Greek OT)

I beheld, I Daniel, and behold, two others stood, one ‘in from’/’from here’ of the river and one ‘in from’/’from there’. And … the one being (and having been) wrapped up in the things of fine linen, (one) who (continually) was above the water of the river (said:) 'Till a consummation of a seasonable time.' And he heightened the right hand and the left into the heaven. (Dan 12:5-7a, Greek OT)

(Uzziah said to Judith:) “Blessed (is) the Lord God, who created the heavens and the earth, who entirely straightened/directed you to the ‘wound of the head’/beheading of the leader of our enemies.” (Judith 13:18b)

Having stretched forth the right hand against the temple (Nicanor, the general of the nations) swore this (before the priests): “If you – according to the circumstances – may not give Judas fettered to the side of me, this is what I will make, (namely) God's pious precinct into/to a plain, and the sacrificial altar I will dig down, and I will cause a conspicuous sanctuary to stand up thereupon to Dionysius.” (2 Macc 14:33)

(Solomon said to the Lord:) “If You in company with a (wrath) ... of such kind punished the enemies of Your boys, (enemies) and/also being indebted to death, giving (them) times and place/opportunity ‘through which separation’/'for deliverance' (from) the badness, (and) in company with every exactness/carefulness you have judged Your sons.” (Wisdom of Solomon 12:19b-21a)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “Remember that death will not spend time.” (Sir 14.12a)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “Work your works before a seasonable time, and (the Lord) will give your wage in His seasonable time.” (Sir 51:30)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “I say to you not to swear wholly/’at all’, ‘and not’/neither in/by the heaven … ‘and not’/nor in/by the earth … ‘and not’/nor into/by (a disgraced) Jerosolyma/Jerusalem … ‘and not’/nor in/by your head.” (Matt 5:34-36a)

(Jesus said to His disciples: “Pray in this way: ‘Our Father,) become/’be ... done’ Your will, as in heaven and/also upon earth.’” (Matt 6:10b)

(Jesus said to the scribes and the Pharisees:) “The one having sworn in/by the temple swears in/by it and in/by the One dwelling in it. And the one having sworn in/by the heaven swears in/by the throne of God and in/by the One being seated above it.” (Matt 23:21-22)

After a much/long time the lord of those slaves comes and ‘lifts up’/gives a saying/reckoning in company together with them. (Matt 25:19)

Having come to/forward Jesus talked (with the eleven disciples) saying: "Every/all (judicial) authority in heaven and upon earth has been given to Me.” (Matt 28:18)

(Jesus said to His disciples: “The Son of the Man) will dispatch away His (א,*א,A) messengers and lead together against/’in quest of’ His chosen out of the four winds, from (the) border of the earth till (the) border of heaven.” (Mark 13:27)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

But it/there (continually) was a certain man * (א,* א), having (been) in his weakness thirty and eight years. Having beheld this one lying down and having gained knowledge, that he has/had (been there) * (א,*א) much/long time, He says to him: “Do you want to become healthy?” (John 5:5-6)

Jesus so spoke to (the crowd): “Still a small/little time the light is in/among you. Walk about till/’as long as’ (P66, א,* א) you have the light, in order that gloom may not take you down/up.” (John 12:35a)

Jesus says to (Philip): “I am in company with you so much time, and you have not (and have not had) knowledge of Me, Philip?” (John 14:9a)

To (Jesus Christ is) the glory and the power into the (coming) ages of the (coming) ages. Amen. (Rev 1:6b)

(I am) the One living, and I became a dead (body), and behold, I am a living one into the (coming) ages of the (coming) ages. (Rev 1:18a)

I gave (Jezebel) time, in order that she might change her mind * (א*) ‘out of’/’in consequence of’ her fornication. (Rev 2:21, “Thyatira”)

(Glory and honour and thankfulness) to the One living into the (coming) ages of the (coming) ages, the twenty-four elders will and/also (א,* א) fall/’sink down’ in the very eyes of the One being seated upon the throne, and they will prostrate themselves before the One living into the (coming) ages of the (coming) ages (in honour of Him). Amen (א,* א). (Rev 4:9b-10a)

You created all the things, and because of Your will they (continually) were and were created. (Rev 4:11b)

No one in the heaven and not (א,* א) upon the earth * (א,* א) was able to open the scroll, and not (א,* א) to see (into) it. (Rev 5:3)

To the One being seated upon (א,* א) the throne and to the little Ram (be) the blessing and the honour and the glory and the power into the (coming) ages of the (coming) ages. (Rev 5:13b)

It was spoken to (the souls of the slaughtered witnesses might rest), in order that they might (א,* א) ‘be brought to rest’/rest still a small/little time, till they will complete (א,* א), and/both their together-/fellow-slaves and their brothers, the ones being about to be slain as and/also they (themselves). (Rev 6:11b)

(The much/many-headed crowd) shout (with) a great/loud voice, saying: “The saving (belongs) to our God, the One being seated on the throne and to the little Ram into the (coming) ages of the (coming) ages. Amen (א*).” (Rev 7:10)

(The elders and the four living beings) said: “Amen, the blessing and the glory and the wisdom and the thankfulness and the honour and the ability and the stability to our God into the (coming) ages of the (coming) ages. Amen.” (Rev 7:12)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

The old man: "Hear how the clock gives clicks as the clock of death in the wall! Do you hear what she says? The-time! The-time! - - - When she strikes, in a little while, then your time is out, but not before. But she brandishes first, before she strikes! - Hear! Now she warns: The clock can strike. - - - Also I can strike." . . . (He strikes with the cratch on the table.) "Do you hear?" . . . The mummy: "Can the clock strike?" The old man (clucks): "The clock can strike!" (Imitates the cuckoo-clock.) "Ko-ko, ko-ko, ko-ko! . . . " The mummy (opens the wardrobe door): "Now the clock is struck! - Rise, go into the wardrobe where I have sat for twenty years mourning our offense. - In there a string hangs which can represent the one with which you strangled the consultant up there, and with which you were going to strangle your benefactor . . . Go!" (August Strindberg "Spöksonaten" p 52-54; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: Rabbe Enckell, P. Fjellstedt, Dick Harrison, Erik Axel Karlfeldt, Sven Lidman, Olaf Moe, Nathan Söderblom.


My own comments and speculations:

Here we have the eighth “ages of the ages” in the Revelation. This points to the beginning of a new period, separate from an earlier period. Compare the eighth “loud voice” in Rev 10:3 and My own comments and speculations to this verse.

Concerning “ages of the ages”, see also Rev 1:6b.


Greek words:

omnyô (swear) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) 2 Macc 14:33; Matt 5:34-36; 23:21-22; Rev 10:6 – Tobit 9:3-4; 10:7(BA); Judith 1:12; 8:9; 1 Macc 6:61-62; 7:15,18,35; 9:71; 2 Macc 13:23; Wisdom of Solomon 14:29-31; Sir 23:10; Baruch 2:34; Matt 23:16,18,20; 26:74; Mark 6:23; 14:71; Luke 1:73; Acts 2:30; Heb 3:11,18; 4:3; 6:13,16; 7:21; Jas 5:12.


Additional studies: Num 14:30; Is 54:9; Ezek 20:5,15,28; Hab 2:3; Sir 18:1; Bel and the Dragon v 5; Luke 12:45; John 7:33; Acts 7:17; Heb 10:37; Rev 14:7; 20:3.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-10; 2012-07-04; 2015-04-02)

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10:7 However in the days of the voice of the seventh messenger, when he – according to the circumstances – may be about to sound the trumpet, the mystery of God and/also was ended, as He gave a good little message to His 'of Himself'/own slaves and (P47,P85,א,*א) the prophets.

Word for word (27 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus): however in the days (of)-the (of)-voice (of)-the (of)-messenger (of)-the (of)-seventh, when-according-to-the-circumstances (he)-may-be-about-to sound-the-trumpet, and was-ended the mystery (of)-the (of)-god, as (he)-gave-a-good-little-message (to)-'the of-himself slaves'/'his own slaves' and the prophets.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Ahimaaz said to Joab:) “I shall presently run and give the king a good little message that the Lord has judged/freed him out of (the) hand of his enemies.” (2 Sam 18:19b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Jehu:) “You shall destruct wholly the house of Ahab your lord, ‘out of’/’away from’ My face and you shall out of a hand of Jezebel procure justice for the bloods/blood of My slaves the prophets, and for the bloods/blood of all the slaves of the Lord.” (2 Kings 9:7, Greek OT)

(The boy of the Lord said:) "A spirit of the Lord … has dispatched (and dispatches) me away to a bring a good little message to the beggarly ones." (Is 61:1a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Israel:) “From (the) day (your) fathers came out of the earth/land of Egypt and till this day, I have dispatched out towards you all My slaves the prophets.” (Jer 7:25a, Greek OT)

(The prophet said to Judas: “The Lord) has dispatched away towards you (His) slaves the prophets dispatching (them) away (from) early morning, and you have not listened ... (with) your ears.” (Jer 25:4a, Greek OT)

(The prophet said to the Lord:) “We have not listened to Your slaves the prophets, who (continually) talked in Your name towards our kings and our leaders and our fathers and towards every/all the people of the earth/land.” … And we have not listened to the voice of the Lord our God to go in His laws which He gave ‘according to’/opposite us in hands of His slaves, the prophets.” (Dan 9:6,10, Greek OT Theod)

(The Lord said to His people:) "I will talk towards prophets, and I have made beholdings full. And I was made like in hands/handwritings of prophets." (Hos 12:10, Greek OT)

The Lord God may not/certainly not make/do a concern/thing, if – according to the circumstances – He may not reveal His education towards His slaves the prophets. (Amos 3:7, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Israel:) “You received My sayings and My lawful things, as many as I in spirit enjoin My slaves My prophets.” (Zech 1:6a, Greek OT)

(Tobit said to his son Tobias:) “We are sons of prophets. Noah, Abraham, Isaac, Jacob ...” (Tobit 4:12b, BA)

(God remembers) His covenant towards Abraham and Isaac and Jacob, His faithful slaves. (2 Macc 1:2b)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to the priest leaders and the Pharisees: “A king) dispatched away his slaves to call the ones being (and having been) called into the wedding banquets/festivals, and/but (continually/repeatedly) they did not want to come.” (Matt 22:3)

(Jesus said:) "Jerusalem, Jerusalem, the (city) killing the prophets and throwing stones at the ones having been (and being) dispatched away towards her! How many times have I wanted to lead together against/’in quest of’ your children, 'which a turn'/'the way' a hen against/’in quest of’ her ‘young birds’/chickens leads together underneath the wings, and/but you did not want." (Matt 23:37)

(Zacharias said: “The Lord God of Israel) has raised a horn of saving for us in a house of His boy David, entirely as He talked through a mouth of His holy prophets from an age … to remember His holy covenant.” (Luke 1:69-70,72b)

(Jesus) found a (א,*א) place where it (continually/-) was (and had been) written: “A spirit of the Lord … has anointed me to bring a good little message to beggarly ones.” (Luke 4:17b-18a)

(Jesus brought) a good little message of the kingdom of God. (Luke 8:1b)

(Jesus said to the crowd:) “You (may) behold Abraham and Isaac and Jacob and all the prophets in the kingdom of God but you being thrown out outside.” (Luke 13:28b)

(Jesus said to the apostles:) “When you – according to the circumstances – may have made/done all the things having been throughout arranged to you, say that/: “We are useless slaves. We have made/done (and makes/does) what we (continually) were indebted to make/do.” (Luke 17:10b)

(The Emmaus disciples said to Jesus:) "Some of the ones (being) together with us went away against the memorial tomb and found (it) entirely in this way as the women and/also had spoken. But they did not behold (Jesus)." And He spoke towards them: "O foolish (men) and slow (in) the heart to believe on/in all things which the prophets have talked! Must by no means the christ/'anointed one' suffer these things and come into, into His glory?" And having begun from Moses and from all the prophets He and/also (went on) to throughout/carefully interpret (א*) for them what (continually) was(א,* א) in * (א,* א) the writings, the things on account of Himself.” (Luke 24:24-27)

(Peter said:) “It will be/happen in the last days, God says: ‘I will pour out from My spirit against every/’every kind of’ flesh.’” (Acts 2:17a)

(Peter and John) did not cease (continually) teaching and bringing a good little message (about) the Christ Jesus. (Acts 5:42b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

Philip finds Nathanael and says to him: "We have found (and find) the One of whom Moses in the law and/’and also’ the prophets wrote, Jesus from Nazareth, a son of Joseph." (John 1:45)

Jesus (said to Pilate): “My kingdom is not out of this adornment/’adorned world’. If My kingdom (continually) was out of this adornment/’adorned world’, My rowers/servants (continually) had – according to the circumstances – fought, in order that I might not had been given ‘to the side of’/’over to’ the Jews. But now My kingdom is not from here.” (John 18:36)

After this Jesus, knowing that all things already are (and have been) ended, in order that the writing might be completed (א,* א), says: “I thirst.” (John 19:28)

(Jesus) gave a sign having dispatched away (the revelation) through His messenger to His slave John. (Rev 1:1b)

(As for) the mystery of the seven stars which you beheld upon my right (hand) and the seven golden lampstands: the seven stars are messengers of the seven (assemblies) of called out, and * (א*) seven lampstands are seven (assemblies) of called out. (Rev 1:20)

However I have a much/great thing (א,* א) ‘down from’/against you, that you let the woman Jezebel be, the one saying herself be (א,* א) a prophetess, and she teaches and leads My slaves astray to fornicate and eat (things) sacrificed to idols. (Rev 2:20, “Thyatira”)

(The souls of the slaughtered witnesses might rest) till they will complete (א,* א), and/both their together-/fellow-slaves and their brothers, the ones being about to be slain as and/also they (themselves). (Rev 6:11b)

(The messenger) said (to the four messengers): “You may not act unrighteously (against) the earth, ‘but not’/nor (א,*א) (against) the sea, ‘but not’/nor (א,*א) (against) the trees, till we may have sealed the slaves of our God upon their foreheads.” (Rev 7:3)

I beheld the seven messengers who stand in the very eyes of God, and seven trumpets were given to them. (Rev 8:2)

The seven messengers having the seven trumpets made themselves ready in order that they might sound the trumpets. (Rev 8:6)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: Bo Frid, Efraim Palmqvist, John Stott, Jesper Svartvik.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “sound the trumpet”, see Rev 8:6.


Paul said to the believers in Corinth: “Behold, I say you a mystery. Indeed (א,* א, A) we shall not all fall sleep, but we skall all be changed.” (1 Cor 15:51)


Greek words:

euangelizô (active: give a good little message; middle voice: bring a good little message) (in the NT) Luke 4:18; 8:1; Acts 5:42; Rev 10:7 – Matt 11:5; Luke 1:19; 2.10; 3:18; 4:43; 7:22; 9:6; 16:16; 20:1; Acts 8:4,12,25,35,40; 10:36; 11:20; 13:32; 14:7,15,21; 15:35; 16:10; 17:18; Rom 1:15; 10:15; 15:20; 1 Cor 1:17; 9:16,18; 15:1-2; 2 Cor 10:16; 11:7; Gal 1:8-9,11,16,23; 4:13; Eph 2:17; 3:8; 1 Thess 3:6; Heb 4:2,6; 1 Pet 1:12,25; 4:6; Rev 14:6. (Active form occurs in the Bible only here in Rev 10:7 and in 1 Sam 31:9; 2 Sam 18:19-20)


Additional studies: 2 Sam 18:31; Ps 68:11(12); Is 40:10; 52:7; Jer 20:15; Joel 2:32 (Greek OT); John 16:29; Acts 3:21; Rom 16:25-26; Eph 3:3; 1 Tim 3:16; Rev 11:15,18; 15:1; 17:17.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-10; 2012-07-04; 2015-04-02)

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10:8 And the voice, which I heard out of the heaven, talking again in company with me and saying: “Withdraw, take the little scroll (א,* א), the one being (and having been) opened, in the hand of the messenger standing upon the sea and upon the earth.”

Word for word (34 words in the Greek text): And the voice which (i/I)-heard out-of the heaven again talking in-company-with me and saying: withdraw take the little-scroll the-(one) being-(and-having-been)-opened in the hand (of)-the (of)-messenger the-(one) 'standing-(and-having-stood)'/standing upon the sea and upon the earth.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

God ascended from (Israel) out of the place, where He had talked in company with him. (Gen 35:13, Greek OT)

Moses stretched out the hand against the sea. And the Lord withdrew the sea in/with a violent south wind the whole night, and He made the sea dried out, and the water was split/divided. And the sons of Israel came into, into a middle of the sea ‘according to’/over the dried out thing. (Ex 14:21-22a, Greek OT)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “If your brother – according to the circumstances – may miss (the mark of God) * (א,* א ,B), withdraw and convict him meanwhile/between you and him alone/only. If he – according to the circumstances – may hear you, you have gained your brother.” (Matt 18:15)

(Jesus) spoke (to His disciples): “Withdraw into the city towards a so-and-so and speak to him: The Teacher says: ‘My seasonable time is near.’” (Matt 26:18a)

(The disciples) were troubled. But straight/’straight off’ (Jesus) talked in company with them, and He says to them: “Be confident! I am, do not fear!” (Mark 6:50b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Jesus said:) "I have not talked out of Myself, however/but the One having sent Me, a Father, He has given (and gives) Me a commandment, what I may speak and what I may talk.” (John 12:49)

And I turned myself next to, to see the voice, whichever/which (continually) talked in company with me. (Rev 1:12a)

Having/’the messenger had’ in his hand a little scroll being (and having been) opened. (Rev 10:2a)

I heard a voice out of the heaven, saying: ”Seal as many things as (P47,א,*א) the seven peals of thunder have talked and you may not write them.” (Rev 10:4b)

The messenger, whom I beheld standing upon the sea and upon the earth, lifted his right hand into the heaven. (Rev 10:5)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: Leif Carlsson.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “the voice which I heard out of heaven”, see Rev 10:4b. Concerning “the little scroll being (and having been) opened in the hand of the messenger”, see Rev 10:2a. Concerning “standing upon the sea and upon the earth”, see Rev 10:5.


Additional studies: Rev 17:1; 21:9.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-10; 2012-07-04; 2015-04-03)

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10:9 And I went away towards the messenger saying him to give me the scroll (P47, א,* א). And he says to me: “Take it and eat (it) down/up (P47, P85, א*)! And it will make your belly bitter, however/but in your mouth it will be sweet as honey.”

Word for word (32 words in the Greek text; the sequence of the words according to Sinaiticus prima manus): and (i/I)-went-away towards the messenger saying (to)-him (to)-give me the scroll. and (he)-says (to)-me: take it and eat-down, and (it)-will-make-bitter your the belly, however in the mouth your (it)-will-be sweet as honey.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

Some (of the people) ‘left entirely from (Moses)’/reserved part of (the manna)' into/until ‘early in the day’/’the morning’. And it ‘boiled out’/’swarmed with’ worms, and it 'smelt on'/tainted. And Moses ‘was made’/grew bitter on them. (Ex 16:20, Greek OT)

The taste (of the manna was) as a pancake in/with honey. (Ex 16:31b, Greek OT)

(The males said to Samson:) “What (is) sweeter (than) honey, and what (is) more stable (than) a lion?” (Judges 14:18b, Greek OT)

(David said: “The judicial verdicts of the Lord are) sweeter over/’more than’ honey and honeycomb.” (Ps 19:10b or 19:11b, Greek OT)

(David said to the Lord:) "I have wished the thing to make/do Your will, my God, and (to have) your law in a middle of my belly." (Ps 40:8 alt. 40:9, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said to the Lord:) “Your sayings (are) as sweetness for my throat, over/’more than’ honey and honeycomb for my mouth.” (Ps 119:103, Greek OT)

(Solomon said:) “A breath of men (is) a light of the Lord, which investigates storehouses of a belly.” (Prov 20:27, Greek OT)

(Solomon said: “It is) not fine to eat much honey.” (Prov 25:27, Greek OT)

(Jerusalem said:) “As a dragon a king of Babylon drank me down … He has fulfilled his belly from/with my delicacy. … (May) my toils and my wretchednesses (be) into/against Babylon.” (Jer 51:34b-35a, Greek OT)

(The form as a man said to the prophet:) ”Eat what I give you.” And I beheld, and behold, a hand being (and having been) stretched out towards me, and in it a ‘bed's head’/beginning of a scroll.” ... And he spoke towards me: “Son of man, eat down/up this ‘bed's head’/beginning and go and talk (with) the sons of Israel.” And I opened my mouth throughout, and he gave the head/front to me (as) a morsel. And he spoke towards me: “Son of man, your mouth will eat and your belly will be fulfilled (with) this ‘bed's head’/beginning which has been (and is) given into you.” And I ate it, and it became in my mouth as sweet honey. (Ezek 2:8b-9; 3:1-3, Greek OT)

(Judas) made many kings bitter, and/but he cheered Jacob in/with his works. (1 Macc 3:7a)

(Solomon said to the Lord:) “In stead of (destruction) You gave Your people morsels (with) nourishment of messengers, and You offered them bread from heaven without bother. ... Indeed You made Your steadfastness towards Your children conspicuous (in) a very sweet (way).” (Wisdom of Solomon 16:20a)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) ”In a mouth of shameless ones the additional request (is) sweet, and/but in his belly it will burn fire.” (Sir 40:30)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) ”A remembrance of Josia ... in every mouth is sweet as honey.” (Sir 49:1a)


The Latter Revelation:

On their eating, having taken a bread and blessed, Jesus ‘fragmented (it)’/’broke (it) to pieces’ and (continually/repeatedly) gave (א*,A) to the disciples (and) (א*) spoke: "Take, eat. This is my body." (Matt 26:26)

(John the Baptist ate) locusts and rural/wild honey. (Mark 1:6b)

All (in the synagogue continually) were witnesses to (Jesus) and (continually) wondered on/at the sayings of joybringing (grace), (sayings) going out, out of His mouth. (Luke 4:22a)

Having received a cup and ‘being thankful’/’given thanks’ (Jesus) spoke: “Take this!” (Luke 22:17a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

As many as took him, to them He gave (judicial) authority to become children of God, to the ones believing into His name. (John 1:12)

In/on the last day, the great (day) of the feast, Jesus stood and (continually/repeatedly) (P66, א,* א) shouted, saying: “If – according to the circumstances – anyone may thirst: ‘Come * (P66,א*) and drink!’ The one believing into Me – entirely as the writing spoke – out of his belly rivers of living water will flow.” (John 7:37-38)

When (Jesus) (א*) so had taken the sour wine, He spoke: "It is (and has been) ended!" (John 19:30a)

(I beheld) a scroll being (and having been) written in front of (א,* א) and from behind. … (Rev 5:1b)

The name of the star is said/called * Little (א*) wormwood, and the third of the waters became into a little/small (א,*א) wormwood, and many of the men died out of the waters, because they were made bitter. (Rev 8:11)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

As far as Bonnier is concerned I would nowadays not hesitate to send him a manuscript, when I take it as an act of providence that I shall eat just the sour thing which I hate, but I am so certain that B. only gives back an occult novel with some gibes which he calls criticism. Therefore: absolutely no! (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev XI maj 1895-nov 1896" p 315; letter 1896-09-04 to Torsten Hedlund; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

(Ahasverus:) "What most I have wondered over to see, that the one having oneself got the power to oppress so often feels woe with other's woe, of the sorrows of others is disturbed in his happiness. As through the vault of leaves of the wood beams drizzle to pale herbs, which underneath stand, so the power also gladly opens its shadow for many glances of the sun to the little ones. One says, it is a pleasure to the Lord; it only mitigates, but it does not defy his law, and therefore I do not blame this whim, although I long have seen, that what he is able to manage is to mix bitterness in the nectar of joy far more than sweetness in the drink of misery. Stop brood on what others suffer! A prayer to Zeus can end your pains, and the bond lies broken at your side, and you go free and joyful out of the valley of pain." (Viktor Rydberg "Dikter. Första samlingen." p 139; Prometeus and Ahasverus; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Gunnar Adolfsson, Werner Aspenström, David Bellingham, Leif Carlsson, Albert Engström, Emil Frommel, Carl Grimberg, Alf Henrikson, Eyvind Johnson, Eskil Jonsson, Aleksis Kivi, Sven Lidman, Torgny Lindgren, Anna Lorentz, Vilhelm Moberg, Fredrik Nielsen, Folke Nordangård, Per S. Ridderstad, Seymor Rossel, Zacharias Topelius.


Greek words:

glykys (sweet) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Wisdom of Solomon 16:21; Rev 10:9 – Sir 23:27; 24:20; Jas 3:11-12; Rev 10:10.

meli (honey) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Sir 49:1; Mark 1:6; Rev 10:9 – Sir 24:20; 39:26; 46:8; Baruch 1:20; Matt 3:4; Rev 10:10.


Additional studies: Prov 24:13; Jer 15:16; Ezek 16:13,19; Matt 12:40; Mark 14:22; Luke 5:39; 15:16,30; John 4:34; 6:51-59; Rev 11:5; 12:4; 20:9.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-10; 2012-07-04; 2015-04-03)

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10:10 And I took the scroll (א,* א) out of the hand of the messenger and ate it down/up. And it (continually) was sweet as honey in my mouth, and/but when I had eaten it, my belly had been filled (א*).”

Word for word (29 words in the Greek text): And (i/I)-took the scroll out-of the hand (of)-the (of)-messenger and (i/I)-ate-down it, and (it)-(continually)-was in the mouth my as honey sweet and when (i/I)-ate it, was-filled the belly my.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Jerusalem said:) “A king of Babylon drank me down … He has fulfilled his belly from/with my delicacy. … (May) my toils and my wretchedness (be) into/against Babylon.” (Jer 51:34b-35a, Greek OT)

(The form as a man said to the prophet:) ”Eat what I give you.” ... And I ate it, and it became in my mouth as sweet honey. (Ezek 2:8b; 3:3b, Greek OT)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) ”In a mouth of shameless ones the additional request (is) sweet, and/but in his belly it will burn fire.” (Sir 40:30)


The Latter Revelation:

Having run and filled a sponge (with) sour wine (and) having put it round about a reed, a certain one (continually/repeatedly) gave it to (Jesus) to drink. (Mark 15:36a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

Jesus says to (the servants): "Fill the water-pots (of/containing) water." And they filled them till up/’the brim’. (John 2:7)

(The disciples) led together and filled twelve large baskets of/with fragments out of the five breads/loaves of barley which was/were (א,* א, A) over and above for the ones ‘having eaten down (and eating down)’/’having eaten (and eating)’. (John 6:13)

And the messenger took the the olibanum censer and filled it out of the fire of the sacrificial altar and threw it towards the earth. (Rev 8:5a)


My own comments and speculations:

In a restoration perspective we can compare Rev 10:10 with Jer 51:34-35.

See also Rev 10:9.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-10; 2012-07-04; 2015-04-04)

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10:11 And they say to me: “You must prophesy again on/concerning many peoples and nations and tongues and kings.”

Word for word (16 words in the Greek text): and (they)-say (to)-me: must you again prophesy on/concerning peoples and nations and tongues and kings many.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The Lord said to the prophet:) “Behold, I have given (and give) My sayings into your mouth. Behold, I have today set (and set) you down against nations and kingdoms to root out and to dig down and to perish and to overthrow, to build up and to plant down.” (Jer 1:9b-10, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) "Jeremiah has prophesied against all the nations." ... In this way the Lord God spoke to Israel: "Take this cup of the undiluted wine out of My hand and give all the nations towards whom I dispatch you away towards them to drink: Jerusalem and the cities of Judas and kings of Judas ... Pharaoh king of Egypt ... and every/all his people ... and all the kings upon face of the earth." (Jer 25:13b,15-26, Greek OT)

A saying of the Lord became/came towards (the prophet) saying: “Son of man, prophesy and speak: ‘This is what the Lord says: Oh/omega, oh, the/'what a' day, because the day of the Lord (is) near. It will be a day of goal/end of nations.” (Ezek 30:1-3, Greek OT)

(Daniel said to the king:) “It/there is a God in heaven uncovering mysteries, (a God) who has manifested to king Nebuchadnezzar the things which must become/’come about’ upon the last days.” (Dan 2:28a, Greek OT)

The herald proclaimed to the crowds: “To you – nations and districts, peoples and tongues – it is brought a message (from) the side of (the king): “When you – according to the circumstances – may hear the voice/sound of ... every/all descents/kinds of musicians, having fallen/’sunk down’, prostrate yourselves before the golden image (in honour of it).” (Dan 3:4-5a, Greek OT)

To (one as a son of man) was given the beginning and the honour and the kingdom, and all the peoples, tribes, tongues will be slaves to Him. His (judicial) authority (is) an agelong (judicial) authority, and His kingdom will not be ruined throughout. (Dan 7:14, Greek OT, Theod.; in the other Greek text we also have the word “nations”)

(Judas) made many kings bitter, and/but he cheered Jacob in/with his works. (1 Macc 3:7a)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to the crowds:) “All the prophets and the law prophesied till John.” (Matt 11:13)

(Jesus said to one of His disciples:) “How may so the writings be completed, because it must become in this way?” (Matt 26:54)

John (continually/repeatedly) said to (king) Herod that/: “It is not permitted for you to have your brother's woman.” (Mark 6:18)

(Simeon said:) "My eyes have beheld Your saving, which You have made ready ‘according to’/after a face/figure of all peoples, a light into a revelation of nations and a glory of Your people Israel." (Luke 2:30-32)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Nation will rise against nation and kingdom against kingdom. … They will throw/lay their hands ‘against against’/on you and pursue (you), giving you ‘to the side of’/over into the synagogues and watches/custodies, being led away against kings and commanders ‘with respect to’/’on account of’ My name.” (Luke 21:10b,12b)

Both Herod and Pontius Pilate together with nations and peoples of Israel (were led together against Jesus). (Acts 4:27b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(The four living beings and the twenty-four elders sang:) “And (for) God in/with Your blood You bought us (א,* א) out of every tribe and tongue and people and nation.” (Rev 5:9b)

After these things I beheld, and behold, a much/many-headed crowd, which no one (continually/never) was able to number it, out of every nation and (out of) tribes and peoples and tongues. (Rev 7:9a)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

(The prophet) Jeremiah's special appointment was to the nations (plur.), not simply to Judah alone. There were no limits to Yahweh's sovereignty and therefore there were no limits to the scope of Jeremiah's ministry. In the book of Jeremiah a large section is devoted to his oracles to the nations (chs. 46-51). (John Arthur Thompson "The Book of Jeremiah" p 146; comment to Jer 1:5)

Both the plural “they” and the present tense are difficult. … Probably it is a plural of indefinite statement as in 13:16, an idiom sometimes found in Hebrew and frequent in biblical Aramaic. … The commission to prophesy recalls the mission of the Israelite prophets, especially that of Jeremiah and Ezekiel. (J. Massyngberde Ford "Revelation" p 160-161)

Often I have thought myself as the prophet Jonah, who did not feel any calling but ran away. But so he had to come up, and by the highest order he prophesied the ruin of Nineveh. (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev XXII 1893-1912 Supplement" p 90; letter 1899-06-29 to Gustaf af Geijerstam; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Additional studies: Ezek 37:4,9; Joel 2:28; Matt 15:7-8; Mark 7:6-7; 13:9; John 10:16; 11:52; 19:20; Acts 2:17.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-11; 2012-07-04; 2015-04-04)

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