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Chapter 9

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9:1 And the fifth messenger sounded the trumpet, and I beheld a star out of the heaven, having fallen (and falling) into/to the earth, and the key of the well of the abyss was given to him.

Word for word (24 words in the Greek text): And the fifth messenger sounded-the-trumpet. and (i/I)-beheld (a)-star out-of the heaven having-fallen-(and-falling) into the earth and (was)-given (to)-him the key (of)-the (of)-well (of)-the (of)-abyss.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(In a beginning) the earth (continually) was impossible to behold and not cultivated, and darkness (was) above the abyss. (Gen 1:2a, Greek OT)

(Moses said to Israel:) “The Lord, your God, leads you into a good and 'much earth'/'spacious land' (with) torrents of water and springs of abysses going out through the plains and through the mountains.” (Deut 8:7, Greek OT)

(The boys/servants) took the key and opened. And behold, their lord being (and having been) fallen against the earth (and) being (and having been) deceased. (Judges 3:25b, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said: “The Lord) led waters of a sea together as (in) a leather bag and put abysses in heaps/store-rooms.” (Ps 33:7, Greek OT)

(David said:) “You, God, will lead (my enemies) down into a well of a throughout ruin.” (Ps 55:23a or 55:24a, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said:) “Waters have known (and know) You, God. Waters have known (and know) You, and they feared, and abysses were troubled.” (Ps 77:16a or 77:17a, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said: “The waves of the sea) ascend till the heavens, and they descend till the abysses.” (Ps 107:26a, Greek OT)

(The prophet said to the Lord: “Is it not You who) made the sea desolate (and) water a multitude of an abyss?” (Is 51:10a, Greek OT)

(The horn) will be heightened till the stars of the heaven, and (some) from/of the stars fell (Theod) against the earth. (Dan 8:10a, Greek OT)

(Manasseh said to the Lord:) “You have shut the abyss and sealed (it) (with) Your fearful and glorious name.” (The Prayer of Manasseh v 3b)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to Simon Peter:) "The gates of Hades shall not be entirely stable (with regard to My assembly of called out). I will give you the keys of the kingdom of the heavens." (Matt 16:18b-19a)

(Jesus said to His disciples: “After the great oppression) the stars will be falling/’falling down’ out of the heaven, and the abilities/powers, the ones in the heavens, will move to and fro.” (Mark 13:25)

(The little demons continually) called (Jesus) to the side of, in order that He might not to order them to go away into the abyss. (Luke 8:31)

(Jesus said to the seventy:) "I (continually) looked at the adversary, having fallen out of the heaven as a ray of light." (Luke 10:18)

(Jesus said to the lawyers and Pharisees:) ”Who of you, (if) an ass (א,*א) or a cattle/’cow or an ox’ will fall into a well, will he not straightaway pull him up in/on a sabbath day?” (Luke 14:5b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(The woman) says to (Jesus): “Lord, and/but You have not a ladle, and the well is deep. From where have You * (א,* א) the living water? You are not greater (than) our father Jacob, are You, (he) who gave us the well and drank out of it himself (as) and/both his sons and his livestocks?” (John 4:11-12)

I have the keys of (the) death and (the) Hades. (Rev 1:18b)

This is what the True One, the Holy One, says, (the One) having the key of David, the One opening and no one will shut, and (the One) shutting and no one will (א,*א) open. (Rev 3:7b)

The stars of the heaven fell against (א,* א) the earth. (Rev 6:13a)

I beheld the seven messengers who stand in the very eyes of God, and seven trumpets were given to them. (Rev 8:2)

The seven messengers having the seven trumpets made themselves ready in order that they might sound the trumpets. (Rev 8:6)

The third messenger sounded the trumpet. And a great star fell out of the heaven, burning as a torch. And it fell against the third of the rivers and against the springs of the waters. (Rev 8:10)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

(The night) was long as an eternity and full of horrors. But when one becomes tired enough, then one has not the strength to mind anything. Not even if it comes bloodhounds, yes, of course I heard the dogs come, howling and barking, but I had not the strength to be scared. Moreover they soon became silent. Not even bloodhounds venture very long into the abysses, where we crawled around. (Astrid Lindgren "Bröderna Lejonhjärta" p 184; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

On Nilsson's bridge Abbe stands laughing at all of them. "Do not leap straight into the Abysmal hole", he says spitting in the water. Madicken knows so well, that it is precipitous in a place near Nilsson's bridge, of course she knows the Abysmal hole. But just now she is angry and only wants to get rid of Lisabet. . . . "I do not dare because of the crocodile . . . ", she squeaks over again. More it does not become, then only a little splash is heard. Madicken and Lisabet have disappeared in the Abysmal hole. Perhaps they had remained there . . . if not Abbe had happened to stand where he stands. Now he quite calmly takes the boat-hook . . . sticking it out towards the Abysmal hole. And he has a bite. (Astrid Lindgren "Madicken" p 29-30; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

I saw the thing being about to happen. The terrible thing being about to happen. Miramis galloped straight up towards an abyss. The bridge came to an end. . . . The bridge did not reach over to the Land on the other side of the waters, there was a big gap, where there was no bridge at all but only a nasty depth. So afraid I have surely not been before. . . . Soon we would fall down in that abyss. . . . I shut my eyes thinking of my father the king. Miramis' hoofs roared as the thunder. But suddenly it did not roar longer. . . . I opened my eyes and looked, and then I saw that Miramis galloped in the air. . . . He could run over the clouds and jump over the stars, if he wanted. (Astrid Lindgren "Mio, min Mio" p 58; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

In this night (Skugge's) soul will be taken from him and be thrown down in Dimona to the black Magi. You have seen the dark world down there resembling a ball sewed up with variegated patches of different colours. There magicians and witches live, who throw dust in the eyes of one another and arouse false ideas. They could not think, but throw up out of the memory with influence by interests and passions. It is a prison where all watch and pain one another with enviousness, there is a secret, invisible convenant, called Armageddon, ruling in the hidden; they worship no other god than themselves, they only love the evil which they call good and the lie which they call truth; and woe the one who does not want to serve their selfish interests. Strife and zeal, murder and stealing, faithlessness, falseness, fraud are their life. . . . Armageddon, the cursed convenant, which now is sitting in the government, has lost every memory o its high origin; they think themselves be descended from a wart-hog; the earth they regard has been developed out of a poisonous gas having made itself; the purpose of life is to eat, sleep and rule. . . . Friends are secret enemies being forged together by a common antipathy to a third; truth is called lie, the evil good! . . . Epher is the worst of the seven great worlds: a prison and a lunatic asylum of many names, but first and last Coseba or The Lie City, where everything is so mendacious, all ideas so destroyed, that also the one who with a sincere mind tries to say the truth, entangle himself in hereditary lies and becomes caught. (August Strindberg "Armageddon - Början till En Roman" p 106-108; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: Carl Grimberg, Harry Sjöman.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “sounded the trumpet”, see Rev 8:2 and Rev 8:6.


Greek words:

abyssos (abyss) (in the NT + examples in the OT) Gen 1:2; Deut 8:7; Ps 33:7; 77:16(17); 107:26; Is 51:10; The Prayer of Manasseh v 3; Luke 8:31; Rev 9:1 – Wisdom of Solomon 10:19; Sir 1:3; 16:18; 24:5,29; 42:18; 43:23; The Prayer of Azariah v 31; Rom 10:7; Rev 9:11; 11:7; 17:8; 20:1,3.


Additional studies: Is 14:12; 2 Pet 2:4; Rev 1:20; 8:13; 9:2; 12:4,9.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-05; 2012-07-02; 2015-03-23)

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9:2 * (א,* א) And smoke ascended out of the well, as smoke of a great furnace. And the sun was gloomed (א,*א) and the air * (א*).

Word for word (17 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus prima manus): and ascended smoke out-of the well as (a)-smoke (of)-(a)-furnace great, and was-gloomed the sun and the air.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Abraham) beheld, and behold, a flame of/from the earth/land ascended as if (it was) a haze of/from a furnace. (Gen 19:28b, Greek OT)

It became a darkness, a dusky whirlwind, against every/’the whole’ earth/land of Egypt (for) three days. (Ex 10:22b, Greek OT)

The smoke (of Sinai) ascended as smoke of a furnace. … (Ex 19:18b, Greek OT)

(David said: “The Lord) thickened in clouds of air.” (2 Sam 22:12b, Greek OT)

(God said to Job:) “Out of nostrils (of Leviathan) smoke goes out, a furnace burning (with) a fire of coals.” (Job 41:11 or 41:20, Greek OT)

(David said:) “Let the ones hating God flee from His face. Let them ‘leave out’/disappear as smoke ‘leaves out’/disappears.” (Ps 68:1b-2a or 68:2b-3a, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said: “The Lord) dispatched out darkness, and He darkened.” (Ps 105:28a, Greek OT)

(The earth of Edom shall be burning, and) night and day (the fire) will not be quenched into the agelong time, and its smoke will ascend up/upwards.” (Is 34:10a, Greek OT)

(The herald of the king said:) “Every/everyone who – according to the circumstances – may not having fallen/’fallen down’ prostate himself (before the golden image), him they shall throw in, into the furnace of the burning fire.” (Dan 3:6, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) ”Sound the ‘trumpet a trumpet’/trumpet in Zion ... for the reason that the day of the Lord comes to the side of, that (it is) near. A day of darkness and dusk, a day of cloud and fog.” (Joel 2:1-2a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) “I shall give omens in the heaven and upon the earth, blood and fire and hazes of smoke. The sun will be turned about into darkness and the moon into blood before the great and conspicuous day of the Lord come/comes.” (Joel 2:30-31, Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) “The sun and moon will grow dark, and the stars will set/reduce their splendour.” (Joel 3:15, Greek OT)

When our fathers (continually) were led into Persia, then having secretly taken from the fire of the sacrificial altar the reverent priests entirely hid (the fire) in a ... well. (2 Macc 1:19a)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “In this way it will be in the consummation of the age; the messengers will come out and divide by a boundary-line the evil out of a middle of the righteous ones, and they throw (א*) them into the furnace of the fire.” (Matt 13:49-50a)

(Jesus said to His disciples: “Straightaway after the great oppression) the sun will be gloomed, and the moon will not give its splendour, and the stars will fall out of (א,* א) the heaven, and the abilities/powers of the heavens will move to and fro.” (Matt 24:29b)

From a sixth hour it became darkness * (א*) till a ninth hour. (Matt 27:45)

Every/’the whole’ multitude of the people was (continually) praying outside (at) the hour of the incense. But it was beheld to (Zacharias) a messenger of a lord, standing out of (the) right (parts) of the sacrificial altar of the incense. (Luke 1:10-11)

On (the people's) screaming and tossing the garments and throwing a cloud of dust into the air, the leader of a thousand men exhorted (to let Paul) be led into the camp/fort. (Acts 22:23-24a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

His feet (were) like copper from Lebanon (or: like copper similar olibanum/frankincense), as in a furnace glowing (and having glowed). (Rev 1:15a)

I beheld, and behold, a light green horse. And the one being seated above it, a name to him (was) death (א,*א). And Hades (continually) followed * (א,* א) him. (Rev 6:8a)

Smoke of the incenses, (with) the prayers of the holy ones, ascended in the very eyes of God out of a hand of the messenger. (Rev 8:4)

The fourth messenger sounded the trumpet. And the third of the sun was struck and the third of the moon and the third of the stars, in order that the third of them might be gloomed, and (that) the day might not ‘be brought to’/give light (for) the third of it and the night likewise. (Rev 8:12)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

The Greek separated the lower layers of air, which were unclean and infected and the higher layers of air or the aether, which was clean and uninfected. Because “aêr” was an unclean element it was a place of residence of the spirits. (Studiebibeln V p 43; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

The world ... is composed ... of places, i.e., of the heaven or heavens, and of the earth or water, as well as of the air, which is intermediate, and which they term aether, and of everything which proceeds from the earth or is born in it. (Origen, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol IV, p 268)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Alf Henrikson, Fred Törnqvist.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “the sun was gloomed”, see also Rev 8:12.


Greek words:

aêr (air) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Acts 22:23; Rev 9:2 – 2 Macc 5:2; Wisdom of Solomon 5:11-12; 7:3; 13:2; 15:15; 17:10; 1 Cor 9:26; 14:9; Eph 2:2; 1 Thess 4:17; Rev 16:17.


Additional studies: Joshua 8:20-21; Ezek 22:22; Dan 3:11; Joel 2:10; Matt 13:42; John 12:3; Rev 9:17-18; 14:11; 18:9,18; 19:3.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-05; 2012-07-02; 2015-03-24)

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9:3a * (א*) Out of the smoke it came out locusts into the earth.

Word for word (8 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus prima manus): out-of the smoke (it)-came-out locusts into the earth.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Moses said to Pharaoh:) ”If you – according to the circumstances – may not want to dispatch out My people, behold, (to) this hour (the) following day I lead 'much locust'/'many locusts' against, against all your frontiers.” (Ex 10:4, Greek OT)

The Lord threw/turned about a wind from ‘an extreme’/’a vehement’ sea, and took up the locust/locusts and threw it/them in, into the Red Sea. (Ex 10:19a, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said: “The Lord) led waters of a sea together as (in) a leather bag and put abysses in heaps/store-rooms.” (Ps 33:7, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said: “The Lord) spoke and locust/locusts came.” (Ps 105:34a, Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) “… The ones inhabiting ‘in in’/on (the earth are) as locusts.” (Is 40:22a, Greek OT)

(The prophet said to the Lord: “Is it not You who) made the sea desolate (and) water a multitude of an abyss?” (Is 51:10a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Nineveh:) “Your intermingled (people are) as an unvinged locust.” (Nahum 3:17a, Greek OT)


The Latter Revelation:

The nourishment/food (of John the Baptist) (continually) was locusts and rural/wild honey. (Matt 3:4b)

(Jesus said to the crowd:) “Other (sowings) fell into the fine earth ... and carried/produced into/’up to’ (א,*א) thirty/thirtyfold and into/’up to’ (א,*א) sixty/sixtyfold and into/’up to’ (א,*א) hundred/hundredfold.” (Mark 4:8)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

Smoke ascended out of the well, as smoke of a great furnace. (Rev 9:2a)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

The locust is the most frequently mentioned insect in the OT and has nine different names in Hebrew. … The fifth trumpet is an elaborated form of the eighth plague in Egypt, when locusts covered the face of the land; Exod 10:4-20. (J. Massyngberde Ford "Revelation" p 148,155)

One chokes! I wish, that he (Hitler) might be allowed to die alone! I am glad to hear, that he is said to be sleepless and was going to die because of too much sleeping-drug the other night. German ravagings Europe around. Oh, Lord, how long? And all food they take, where they go on. The locusts of Egypt out on the rampage. (Astrid Lindgren "Krigsdagböcker 1939-1945" p 103; 1941-09-06; translation from the Swedish text)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Johannes Baazius, Lars-Ola Borglid, Carl Grimberg, Sven Lidman, Tomas Tranströmer.


My own comments and speculations:

In a restoration perspective we can possibly see how the locusts thrown into the Red Sea (the abyss, cf. Ps 33:7; Is 51:10) now return into the earth. We can see them as a contrast to the seed falling into the fine earth (Mark 4:8). The locusts can be men; cf. the maskuline gender of the following “them” (autois) in Rev 9:3-4 (א,*א).


Greek words:

akris (locust) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Matt 3:4; Rev 9:3 – Judith 2:20; Wisdom of Solomon 16:9; Sir 43:17(18); Mark 1:6; Rev 9:7.


Additional studies: Ex 10:12-15; Joel 1:4; 2:25.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-05; 2012-07-02; 2015-03-25)

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9:3b And (judicial) authority was given them as the scorpions of the earth have (judicial) authority.

Word for word (11 words in the Greek text): and was-given them (judicial)-authority as have (judicial)-authority the scorpions (of)-the (of)-earth.

The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Moses said to Israel: “The Lord led) you through that great and fearful desolate (district with its) biting serpent and scorpion.” (Deut 8:15a, Greek OT)

(The voice said to the prophet:) “You, son of man, you may not fear (the people of Israel), but/and you may not bear a grudge from/owing to their face/presence, for the reason that ... you dwell in a middle of scorpions.” (Ezek 2:6a, Greek OT)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to the seventy:) “Behold, I have given (and give) you the (judicial) authority to tread above serpents and scorpions and against every ability of the enemy, and nothing will (א,* א, A) * (א*) act unrighteously (against) you.” (Luke 10:19)

(Jesus said to His disciples: "If a son) will demand an egg (from his father), he will not (א,* א, A) 'give on'/hand him a scorpion, (will he) (א,* א, A)? If so you being (א,* א) evil know to give good gifts to your children, how much will the Father * (P75,א,*א) out of a heaven rather give holy spirit to the ones demanding/asking Him?" (Luke 11:12-13)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

The one conquering and the one keeping My works until (the) end, to him I will give (judicial) authority upon/’with regard to’ the nations. And he will be a shepherd to them in/with a rod of iron, as it is crushed vessels of a potter, as and/also I have taken (and take) (judicial authority) from the side of My Father. (Rev 2:26-27 or Rev 2:26-28a, “Thyatira”)

(Judicial) authority was given to (death and Hades) against the fourth/fourth part of the earth. ... (Rev 6:8b)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: Carl Grimberg, Aleksis Kivi, Vilhelm Moberg, Johannes Tauler, John Törnquist.


My own comments and speculations:

The (judicial) authority of the disciples is greater than the (judicial) authority of the locusts and the scorpions (cf. Luke 10:19).


Greek words:

skorpios (scorpion) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Luke 10:19; 11:12; Rev 9:3 – Sir 26:7; 39:30; Rev 9:5,10.


Additional studies: 1 Kings 12:11,14; 2 Chron 10:11,14; Rev 9:5,10.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-05; 2012-07-02; 2015-03-25)

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9:4 And it was spoken to them, in order that they might (א,*א) not act unrighteously (against) the grass of the earth, nor (against) every/any light green thing, nor (against every/any tree, ‘if not’/except (against) the men whoever have not the seal of God upon the foreheads.

Word for word (30 words in the Greek text): and (it)-was-spoken (to)-them in-order-that not (they)-might-act-unrighteously (against)-the grass (of)-the (of)-earth nor (against)-every light-green nor (against)-every tree, if not the men whoever not have the seal (of)-the (of)-god upon the foreheads.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(God made) every light green of a field before (what) to become upon the earth and every grass of a field before (what) to stick up. (Gen 2:5a, Greek OT)

(Moses said to Israel: “The Lord) will give fodder in your fields (for) your domestic animals.” (Deut 11:15a, Greek OT)

(When the sons of Israel and the alien) will behold the blows of that earth/land and its sicknesses which the Lord has dispatched away against it, (they will say:) “ ... Every/all light green may not ascend against it.” (Deut 29:22b-23a, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said: “The Lord let) the grass stick up out of (the earth) (for) the domestic animals.” (Ps 104:14a, Greek OT)

(Daniel said to the king: “There shall be) a fourth kingdom, stable just as the iron, taming all things and cutting down every tree, and it will shake 'every the'/’the whole’ earth.” (Dan 2:40, Greek OT)

(Solomon said: “The enemies of Israel) were chastised through like/similiar things ... and because of multitudes of wild and venomous animals they were tormented. In stead of . . . chastisement You treated Your people well.” (Wisdom of Solomon 16:1-2a)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “If God in this way (clothes around; Greek: amfiennymi) the grass of the field, being today and a following day being thrown into a baking oven, will He not much rather (clothe) you (around, you) having a few faith?” (Matt 6:30)

(Jesus said to the fig-tree:) "Oh that not any longer anyone into the (coming) age may not/- eat fruit out of you. ... " ... Going to the side of (the fig tree) early in the day, (Jesus and His disciples) beheld the fig tree having been (and being) dried up out of (the) roots. (Mark 11:14b,20)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Jesus said to the crowd): "Do not work (for) the consumption perishing, however/but (for) * (א,* א) (the consumption) staying into/for an agelong life, which the Son of the Man gives (א,*א) to you, for this One the Father, God, has sealed." (John 6:27)

The one having an ear, let him hear what the Spirit says to the (assemblies) of called out. The one conquering may not/certainly not be treated unrighteously ‘out of’/’in consequence of’ the second death. (Rev 2:11)

You may not act unrighteously (towards) the olive-oil and the wine. (Rev 6:6b)

I beheld, and behold, a light green horse. (Rev 6:8a)

I beheld four messengers standing against the four corners of the earth, getting power over the four winds of the earth, in order that a wind might (א,* א) not blow upon the earth ‘and not’/nor upon the sea ‘and not’/nor against every/any tree. (Rev 7:1)

(The messenger) shouted (with) a great/loud voice to the four messengers, to whom it was given to them to act unrighteously (against) the earth and the sea, saying: “You may not act unrighteously (against) the earth, ‘but not’/nor (א,*א) (against) the sea, ‘but not’/nor (א,*א) (against) the trees, till we may have sealed the slaves of our God upon their foreheads.” (Rev 7:2b-3)

The third of the earth was burned down, and the third of the trees were burned down, and every light green grass was burned down. (Rev 8:7b)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

Dagson drove the men in front of him in this way, through fire and smoke and despair. Fire they had in front of themselves, fire behind themselves and fire on all sides. They saw nothing else than that they had to perish. But through all this terror he brought them up to a green place in the wood, where everything was calmness and coolness and safety. In the middle of the flowering woodland meadow Jesus sat, he stretched out his arms over the fleeing and hurried men, and they lay down at his feet, and all danger was gone, and there was not more defeat or pursuit. Dagson spoke as he himself felt it. If he only was allowed to lie down at Jesus' feet, he experienced peace and calmness and feared none of all dangers of life. (Selma Lagerlöf "Jerusalem I" p 106; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

When I think of what this proud Ekeby had to suffer during the reign of the cavaliers, so I wish, that the plot of the major's widow had reached its aim and that Ekeby had been taken from the cavaliers. It was not her thought to come again for her own part to the domination. Only one aim she had, to set her home free from these madmen, these grasshoppers, these wild robbers, after whose ravagings no grass grew. (Selma Lagerlöf "Gösta Berlings saga" p 88; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Vilhelm Moberg.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “act unrighteously”, see also Rev 2:11 and Rev 6:6bb. Concerning “light green”, see also Rev 6:8a and Rev 8:7b. Concerning “trees”, see also Rev 8:7b. Concerning “men whoever have not the seal of God on the foreheads”, see Rev 7:2b and Rev 7:3.


Additional studies: Ps 147:8; Ezek 9:4,6; Luke 12:28.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-05; 2012-07-02; 2015-03-26)

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9:5a And it was given to them, in order that they might not kill them, however/but in order that they will be tormented (for) five months.

Word for word (12 words in the Greek text): and (it)-was-given (to)-them in-order-that not (they)-might-kill them, however in-order-that (they)-will-be-tormented months five.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

The water heightened upon the earth one hundred and fifty days. (Gen 7:24, Greek OT)

The Ashdodites raised Dagon and set him down into/in his place. … (Then the Lord) tormented them … (1 Sam 5:3b, Greek OT)

(God said to Israel:) “This is to Me (as) from the water against Noah, in so far as I swore to him in that time ... to not be passionate on/’for the sake of’ you.” (Is 54:9a, Greek OT)

(The men of the king) (continually) tormented the fourth (Jew) in the same manner (as they had done with the other Jews). (2 Macc 7:13)

(Solomon said: “The enemies of Israel) were chastised through like/similiar things ... and because of multitudes of wild and venomous animals they were tormented. In stead of . . . chastisement You treated Your people well.” (Wisdom of Solomon 16:1-2a)


The Latter Revelation:

The boat (with the disciples) already (continually) was (in) a middle of the sea (א,* א), being tormented by the waves, for the wind (continually) was opposite. (Matt 14:24)

(The man with the unclean spirit) says: "What (is there that is) ‘to me and to’/’between me and’ you, Jesus, Son of the highest God? I adjure You (by) God, (that) you may not torment me!" (Mark 5:7b)

(Elizabeth) ‘took together’/conceived, and she hid herself away (for) five months. (Luke 1:24b)


Greek words:

basanizô (torment) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) 1 Sam 5:3; 2 Macc 7:13; Wisdom of Solomon 16:1; Matt 14:24; Mark 5:7; Rev 9:5 – 2 Macc 1:28; 7:17; 9:6; Wisdom of Solomon 11:9; 12:23; 16:4; Matt 8:6; Mark 6:48; Luke 8:28; 2 Pet 2:8; Rev 11:10; 12:2; 14:10; 20:10.

mên (month) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Luke 1:24; Rev 9:5 – Esther 2:12; 3:7,12-13,13f(B6); 8:9,12,12s(E20); 9:1,17,22; 10:3k(F10); Judith 2:1; 3:10; 8:4; 16:20; 1 Macc 1:58-59; 4:52,59; 7:43; 9:3,54; 10:21; 13:51; 16:14; 2 Macc 1:9; 6:7; 7:27; 10:5; Baruch 1:2; Luke 1:26,36,56; 4:25; Acts 7:20; 18:11; 19:8; 20:3; 28:11; Gal 4:10; Jas 5:17; Rev 9:10,15; 11:2; 13:5; 22:2.


Additional studies: Rev 9:10.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-05; 2012-07-02; 2015-03-26)


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9:5b And their tormenting (was) as a tormenting of a scorpion, when it – according to the circumstances – may hurt a man.

Word for word (10 words in the Greek text): and the tormenting their as (a)-tormenting (of)-(a)-scorpion when-according-to-the-circumstances (it)-may-hurt (a)-man.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The Lord said to Moses and Aaron:) ”It will not be a blow of the thing to 'rub out of'/destroy in/among you, when I – according to the circumstances – hurt in earth/land of Egypt.” (Ex 12:13b, Greek OT)

(The ‘very little boys’/’young men’ talked with the king: “In this way you shall talk with the people:) “My father educated you (with) a weighty yoke. I will put/add to against your yoke. My father educated you in/with a whip, and I will educate you in/with scorpions.” (2 Chron 10:11b, Greek OT)

(Solomon said to the Lord: “When) a still silence surrounded all the things, and a night reached the middle (of its course) in (its) own quickness, your ‘all-ably’ saying, a severe warrior, came from heavens out of thrones of kingdoms into a middle of the destructive earth (with) a sharp sword.” ... (The enemies) were tossed half-dead (round one) another to another place, (and) because of (the way in) which they (continually) deceased they made a cause conspicuous. (Wisdom of Solomon 18:14-15a,18)


The Latter Revelation:

One of the ones standing by the side of having pulled the dagger he hurt/struck the slave of the priest leader and took off his little ear.” (Mark 14:47)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

Simon Peter, having a dagger, so drew it and hurt/struck the slave of the priest leader and cut off his right little ear. (John 18:10a)

And (judicial) authority was given them as the scorpions of the earth have (judicial) authority. (Rev 9:3b)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: P. Fjellstedt, Olaf Moe, Isaac Basjevis Singer.


Greek words:

basanismos (tormenting) Rev 9:5 – (4 Macc 9:6; 11:2); Rev 14:11; 18:7,10,15.


Additional studies: 2 Chron 10:14; Matt 26:68; Luke 22:64.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-05; 2012-07-02; 2015-03-26)

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9:6 And in those days the men will seek the death, and they will not/certainly not find it. And they will desire to die, and/but the death flees from them.

Word for word (24 words in the Greek text): and in the days those will-seek the men the death and not/certainly not (they)-will-find it, and (they)-will-desire (to)-die and flees the death from them.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Job said:) “Because of what did I not come to an end in a belly?” (Job 3:11, Greek OT)

(Job said: “Why is) life (given) in the pains of the souls/men, who long for the death, and/but do not reach (it)?” (Job 3:20b-21a, Greek OT)

(Wisdom said:) “The ones hating me welcome death.” (Prov 8:36b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said: “This evil remnant of Judas) ‘took . . . for itself’/preferred the death or/'rather than' the life.” (Jer 8:3a, Greek OT)

It became/’came about’ together/’at the same time’ (as) 'the thing to stick'/'the sticking' up of the sun. And God commanded a spirit together with a burning heat, and the sun hit against the head of Jonah. And he was little/faint in the soul ... and spoke: “(It would be) fine/better to me to die than to live.” (Jonah 4:8, Greek OT)

(The wisdom) 'is in advance of'/'reaches beforehand' the ones desiring to gain knowledge beforehand. (Wisdom of Solomon 6:13)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “Death (is) ‘more powerful’/better over/than a bitter life.” (Sir 30:17a)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to some Pharisees and Sadducees coming against/’in quest of’ the baptism:) “Who has underneath/secretly shown you (that you can) flee the ‘being about’/approaching wrath?” (Matt 3:7b)

(Jesus said to the scribes and the Pharisees:) “When – according to the circumstances – the unclean spirit may come out from the man, it 'comes through'/passes through waterless places, seeking rest, and does not find." (Matt 12:43)

(Jesus said to the scribes and the Pharisees:) “Serpents, products of adders, how may you flee from the judgment of Gehenna?” (Matt 23:33)

(John the Baptist) said to the crowds going out to be baptized by him: "Products/brood of adders! Who has underneath/secretly shown you (that you can) to flee from the ‘being about’/approaching wrath?" (Luke 3:7)

(The younger son continually) desired to be fed out of the carob pods, that the pigs (continually) ate, and/but (continually) no one gave him. (Luke 15:16)

Jesus spoke towards the disciples: “Days shall come, when you will desire to behold one of the days of the Son of the Man, and/but you will not behold (it).” (Luke 17:22)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "(The one) who – if according to the circumstances – may seek to save (א,* א, A) his soul will perish it. But (the one) who – according to the circumstances – may perish (it) will produce living beings/things." (Luke 17:33)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(The Jews so spoke towards one another:) “What is this saying that He spoke: “You will seek Me and will not find * (א,*א), and whereat/where I am, you are not able to come?” (John 7:36)

They say to the mountains and to the rocks: “Fall against us and hide us from a face/presence of the One being seated on (א,* א) the throne.” (Rev 6:16a)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

I ask (Astrid Lindgren having passed the 80 years) how she herself regards the life after death. "I do not know. But I often thinks of death. It will be comfortable when it comes. One has become so worthless. I willingly want to die - but not today. . . . I hope I will see something on the other side. It would be nice to meet mother and father again. But think if it will not become so - it would after all be very irritating." (Lars Micael Adrian "Jag är döv, halvblind och helgalen - Personligt med Astrid Lindgren" p 104; Växjö Stifts Hembygdskalender 1996/97; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

“Epithymein” is in fact the verb which is used in the Greek version of the tenth commandment, ‘Thou shalt not covet’. If a man's heart was so cleansed that he never desired the wrong thing he would never sin. (William Barclay ”New Testament Words” p 123)

(1901 September 6th). For the first time these last years the thought of suicide arises. . . . I feel how this woman (Harriet Bosse) now walks about with the finest of my soul which she has received and treats to me at parties. I feel polluted through her. . . . Suicde is deadly sin; but Dante finds Cato pardoned from Inferno, because he left the world of sin and lack of freedom finding no possibility to hold his soul above the filth. I feel how my spirit is attached to the lower spheres where my wife now moves. . . . Life nauseates me and has always done so! Everything is worthless! I have fulfilled my duty and have been pained enough. Seem to be right to go my way! . . . When I was inmoral I was scolded, and when I became moral I was scolded still more. . . . (September 9th). The decision that I myself will shorten the life is old, I began at the age of eight. But now it wakes again as a commanding duty. . . . Yes, so I feel it now. And "the decision" is ripening. I take it as a self-sacrifice to God. . . . (September 28th). Why I want to die? . . . Out of the slavery of sin! The freeing from something evil I do not know! A sacrifice of myself for all my sins! . . . Harriet has no guilt! Her appearance in my life was as she says an object ("uppgift"). She was the last sunbeam in my life - I thank her for this! I have loved her so highly that I must be punished for that! . . . But I have lived as a person has been able - and not as he has wanted! . . . The most evil I have done has been because of lack of judgment and in hot spirits - as other men! And have I not become punished enough? (August Strindberg "Ockulta dagboken" p 146-150; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

I had . . . a bad luck of 7-hells. . . . The nerves, which I read off on my handwriting, are used up! I really ought to shoot myself, but this would have been done a long time ago. (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev IX 1892-jan 1894" p 210-211; letter 1893-06-20 to Adolf Paul; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Sometimes I have felt it comfortable to rest and would have wanted to rest always. Life frightens me many times. But this is, I suppose, not any unhealthy thing. When it happens by godly longing for eternal life, it was written in the cathecism, one is allowed to wish oneself death. (Selma Lagerlöf "Brev 1 - 1871-1902" s 53; letter 1891-03-15 to Sophie Adlersparre; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Sometimes I wish I had God and heaven preserved. It was in any case a retreat. Now I see none. Or that I had become atheist in younger years. Then I had adapted my life after it. Now it is arranged with taken notice of heaven. And therefore everything is to hell. I see no way out. And no meaning in all of it. The meaning would, I suppose, be to live till one dies. But partly it is no pleasure to live, partly it is hardly possible. And still more difficult to die. The devil! . . . . . . Now I sit down to write well - or give up the ghost. Or both parts. It is develish to become atheist in one's old days, possibly comfortable to have been it from the beginning. I am very old nowadays. . . . . . . Eight months ago I first became an atheist. . . . But I am an old Christian idealist being at eternal feud with my old self, a feud destroying me. I am split in two equal parts. Think sometimes that my career has come to an end. . . . I would with joy depart this life if I only saw the man who would step in. You are certainly this one. . . . I must keep my supposition of a creator. Observe well that with this Christ and the Providence fall. Also observe that I smuggled in the Atheism! As the most useful of all confessions. You believing in evolution must accept necessary transitional forms. Precipitate Christ first, then Theos and last Deus. (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev V 1885-juli 1886" p 272,294,302-303; letter 1886-02-18 to Theodor Frölander, letter about 1886-03-13 to Gustaf af Geijerstam and letter 1886-03-21 to Gustaf Steffen; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Lars Micael Adrian, August Bondeson, Charles Dickens, Rex Gardner, Carl Grimberg, Sven Lidman, Hedvig Charlotta Nordenflycht, Gunnar E. Sandgren, Isaac Bashevis Singer, Rudolf Vrba.


My own comments and speculations:

Observe the contrast between Wisdom of Solomon 6:13 (to desire the Wisdom being advance) and Rev 9:6 (to desire the fleeing death).


Greek words:

epithymeô (desire) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Wisdom of Solomon 6:13; Luke 15:16; 17:22; Rev 9:6 – Esther 4:17f(C8); 1 Macc 4:17; Wisdom of Solomon 6:11; 16:3; Sir 1:26, 16:1; 24:19; 40:22; Susanna v 15 (Theod); Matt 5:28; 13:17; Luke 16:21; 22:15; Acts 20:33; Rom 7:7; 13:9; 1 Cor 10:6; Gal 5:17; 1 Tim 3:1; Heb 6:11; Jas 4:2; 1 Pet 1:12.


Additional studies: 2 Sam 17:20; Job 3:20-22; 7:15; Prov 1:28; Eccl 4:2; Song of Solomon 3:1-2; 5:6; Jer 5:1; Jes 2:19; Ezek 7:25; 26:21; Hos 2:7; 10:8; Matt 11:24; Luke 23:30; John 7:35-36; 8:21; Heb 12:17.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-06; 2012-07-03; 2015-03-26)

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9:7a And the likenesses of the locusts (was) like horses having been (and being) made ready into/for war.

Word for word (10 words in the Greek text): And the likenesses (of)-the (of)-locusts like horses having-been-(and-being)-made-ready into war.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Solomon said:) “The horse is made ready into/for a day of war. But from the side of the Lord (is) the help.” (Prov 21:31, Greek OT)

In the middle (of the cloud there were something) as a likeness (with) four living beings. And this (was) their beholding: A likeness of a man (was) on them. (Ezek 1:5, Greek OT)

(The prophet said: “From high above the firmament over the heads of the living beings there was) a likeness of a throne ... and upon the likeness of the throne (there was) from above a likeness as a form of a man. (Ezek 1:26b, Greek OT)

The sight of (the people is) as a beholding of horses, and as horses, in this way they 'pursue entirely'/hunt … as a much/many-headed and stable people arranging their men side by side into/for war. (Joel 2:4,5b, Greek OT)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said : “With) what shall I make the men of this generation like, and (with) what are they like? They are like little boys and girls, the ones being seated in a market-place and raising their voices towards one another.” (Luke 7:31-32a)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “When you – according to the circumstances – may hear (of) wars and unstable conditions, do not be frightened, for these things must become first, however/but the end (will) not (be) straightaway.” (Luke 21:9)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

Change your mind * (א,*א). But if not, I come to you quickly, and I will wage war ‘in company with’/with them in/with the large sword of My mouth. (Rev 2:16, “Pergamos”)

I beheld, and behold, a white horse. (Rev 6:2a)

The seven messengers having the seven trumpets made themselves ready in order that they might sound the trumpets. (Rev 8:6)

* (א*) Out of the smoke it came out locusts into the earth. And (judicial) authority was given them as the scorpions of the earth have (judicial) authority. (Rev 9:3)


Greek words:

(h)omoiôma (likeness) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Rev 9:7 – 1 Macc 3:48; Sir 34:3; Rom 1:23; 5:14; 6:5; 8:3; Phil 2:7.

polemos (war) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Luke 21:9; Rev 9:7 - Esther 1:1f(A6); Judith 1:5, 5:1,18; 7:1, 14:13; 16:2; 1 Macc 1:2,18; 2:32,35,41; 3:2-3,12-13,19,59; 4:13,17; 5:7,19,21,31,39,42,56,59,67; 6:30,34; 7:31,43; 8:2,5-6,24,27; 9:1,7,13,17,22,45,47; 10:2,15,50,78; 11:4,69,72; 12:13-14,44; 13:3,9,14; 14:29; 16:2,23; 2 Macc 2:14,20; 10:10; Wisdom of Solomon 8:15; 14:22; Sir 37:5,11; 40:6; 46:1,3,6; Baruch 3:26; Epistle of Jeremiah v 48-49; Matt 24:6; Mark 13:7; Luke 14:31; 1 Cor 14:8; Heb 11:34; Jas 4:1; Rev 9:9; 11:7; 12:7,17; 13:7; 16:14; 17:14; 19:19; 20:8.


Additional studies: 1 Macc 13:22.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-06; 2012-07-03; 2015-03-26)

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9:7b And against the heads of them (were) as crowns like (in) gold, and their faces (were) as (the) faces of men.

Word for word (16 words in the Greek text): and against the heads their as crowns like (in)-gold, and the faces their as faces (of)-men.


The Latter Revelation:

(The soothsayers) carried to (Jesus) gifts; gold and olibanum/frankincense and myrrh. (Matt 2:11b)

(John the Baptist) said to the crowds going out to be baptized by him: "Products/brood of adders! Who has underneath/secretly shown you (that you can) to flee from the ‘being about’/approaching wrath?" (Luke 3:7)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven: Having tried the ones saying themselves (be) apostles, and are not, and/also you found them (be) false. (Rev 2:2b, “Ephesos”)

However I have a much/great thing (א,* א) ‘down from’/against you, that you let the woman Jezebel be, the one saying herself be (א,* א) a prophetess, and she teaches and leads My slaves astray to fornicate and eat (things) sacrificed to idols. (Rev 2:20, “Thyatira)

I give you counsel to buy from the side of Me goldmetal ‘having been (and being) caused to glow’/’having glown (and glowing)’ out of fire, in order that you may be rich. (Rev 3:18a, “Laodicea”)

(Elders) being (and having been) wrapped up in white (things) (א,*א) and (with) golden crowns against their heads. (Rev 4:4b)

The third living being having the face as like (one with) a man (א,* א) . … (Rev 4:7b)


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “as crowns like (in) gold”, cf. “golden crowns” in Rev 4:4b. “As crowns” is not genuine crowns, nor is “like (in) gold” genuine gold.


Greek words:

chrysos (gold) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Matt 2:11; Rev 9:7 – Wisdom of Solomon 3:6; 7:9; 13:10; Sir 2:5; 32:5-6; 45:9-10; 51:28; Matt 10:9; 23:16-17; 1 Tim 2:9(א,*א); Jas 5:3; Rev 17:4(א,* א); 18:12,16(א,* א).


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-06; 2012-07-03; 2015-03-26)

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9:8a And they (continually/-) had hairs/hair as (the) hairs/hair of women.

Word for word (6 words in the Greek text): and (they)-(continually)-had hairs as hairs (of)-women.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(God said to Job:) “Have you put ability round about a horse, but/and have you set/clothed his neck in/with fear (New American Standard: “with ‘a mane’/hair”)? (Job 39:19 or 39:22, Greek OT)

(God said to Job:) “Do you make (the horse) leap like the locust?” (Job 39:20a or Job 39:23a, New American Standard)

(Solomon said to the woman:) “Your growth of hair (is) as herds of the goats, that have revealed themselves from (Mount) Gilead.” (Song of Solomon 4:1b, Greek OT)


The Latter Revelation:

Having stood herself weeping behind to/by the side of the feet of (Jesus), (the woman who was a misser of the mark of God) began to wet His feet (with) the teardrops and she * (P3, א*, A) wiped off (with) the hairs/hair of her head and ‘was entirely friends with’/kissed (continually/repeatedly) His feet and smeared (them continually with) the ointment oil. (Luke 7:38)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

His head and His hairs/hair (were) white as white wool, as snow. (Rev 1:14a)


My own comments and speculations:

We can understand this verse in a restoration perspective. Here in Rev 9:8 it is told about the hair of locusts like horses. Compare with the mane of the horse like the locust in Job 39:19-20(22-23).


Additional studies: Esther 4:17k/C13; Song of Solomon 6:4; Nahum 3:13; Matt 25:42-46; 1 Cor 11:15.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-06; 2012-07-03; 2015-03-26)

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9:8b And their teeth (continually/-) were as (the teeth) of lions.

Word for word (7 words in the Greek text): and the teeth their as (of)-lion (continually)-were.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Jacob said about the lion Judas:) “His teeth (are more) white or/than milk.” (Gen 49:12b, Greek OT)

(The Lord/Moses said concerning Israel:) “Teeth of little wild animals I will dispatch away into/among them, dragging (them) in company with passion upon earth/land.” (Deut 32:24b, Greek OT)

(David said to the Lord: “My pursuers) gnashed their teeth against me. … Restore/reestablish my soul ... (and) my only descendant from lions.” (Ps 35:16b-17, Greek OT)

(David said:) “God crushed the teeth in the mouths (of the missers of the mark of God). The Lord shattered the millstones/fangs of the lions, O Lord.” (Ps 58:6 or 58:7, Greek OT)

The first (little wild animal was) as if (it was) a lioness having feathers as if (it was) an eagle. (Dan 7:4a, Greek OT)

(The Prophet said:) ”The teeth (of a stable nation are) teeth of a lion ... . “ (Joel 1:6b, Greek OT)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “The teeth (of miss of the mark of God are) teeth of a lion, ‘taking up ... for themselves’/’getting rid of’ souls of men.” (Sir 21:2b)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “The Son of the Man will dispatch away His messengers, and they will collect out of His kingdom all the stumbling blocks and the ones making the lawlessness, and they throw (א*) them into the furnace of the fire. The weeping and the gnashing of the teeth will be there.” (Matt 13:41-42)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

The first living being (was) like a lion. (Rev 4:7a)

The Lion * (א,* א) out of the tribe of Judas, the Root of David, has conquered to open the scroll and loosen (א,* א) its seven seals. (Rev 5:5b)


Greek words:

odous (tooth) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Sir 21:2; Rev 9:8 – Wisdom of Solomon 16:10; Sir 30:10; Matt 5:38; 8:12; 13:42,50; 22:13; 24:51; 25:30; Mark 9:18; Luke 13:28; Acts 7:54.


Additional studies: Job 4:10; Song of Solomon 4:1-2,8; 6:5; Dan 6:22; Matt 25:31.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-06; 2012-07-03; 2015-03-26)

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9:9a And they (continually/-) had breastplates as breastplates of iron.

Word for word (6 words in the Greek text): and (they)-(continually)-had breastplates as breastplates of-iron.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Daniel said to the king: “There shall be) a fourth kingdom, stable just as the iron, taming all things and cutting down every tree, and it will shake 'every the'/’the whole’ earth. And as you have beheld (and behold) the feet (of the idol), (one) part indeed a certain potsherd of the potter, but (one) part something of iron, another kingdom, divided asunder, will be in it, entirely just as you beheld the iron being (and having been) mixed up together, together (with) the potsherd of clay.” (Dan 2:40-41, Greek OT)

(The soldiers of the abominable king were equipped with) breastplates of all kinds. (2 Macc 5:3b)


The Latter Revelation:

Having taken Jesus to the side of into the Praetorium the soldiers of the commander led together the whole cohort against Him. (Matt 27:27)

Having come through a first watch and a second (Peter and the messenger) came against the iron gate. (Acts 12:10a)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: Ragnar Blomqvist, Hanna Friberg, Anna Maria Roos.


Greek words:

thôrax (breastplate) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Rev 9:9 – 1 Macc 3:3; 6:2; Wisdom of Solomon 5:18; Sir 43:20; Eph 6:14; 1 Thess 5:8; Rev 9:17.


Additional studies: 1 Sam 17:5; Is 59:17; 1 Macc 4:7; 6:35; Mark 15:16; John 19:2.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-06; 2012-07-03; 2015-03-27)

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9:9b ... and the voice/sound of their wings (was) as a voice/sound of wagons, of many horses running into/’for the purpose of’ war.

Word for word (14 words in the Greek text): and the voice (of)-the (of)-wings their as (a)-voice (of)-wagons (of)-horses (of)-many running into war.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The Lord said to Moses:) "I will be glorified in, in Pharaoh and in every/all his army and in the wagons and in his horses." (Ex 14:17b, Greek OT)

(David said: "Some make themselves great) in/with wagons and (some) in/with horses, but we will make ourselves great in/with a name of the Lord, our God." (Ps 20:7 or 20:8, Greek OT)

(David said:) “The wagons of God (are) ... the number of one thousand (to) thrive.” (Ps 68:17a or 68:18a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) “The voice of (the great nation is) as a swelling sea in waves. It will arrange their men side by side on horses and wagons as a fire into/’for the purpose of’ war towards you, daughter Zion.” (Jer 6:23b, Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) “I (continually) heard the voice/sound of the wings (of the living beings) in 'the thing to go them'/'their going' as a voice/sound of much water.” (Ezek 1:24a, Greek OT)

The sight of (the great and stable people is) as a beholding of horses, and as horses, in this way they will 'pursue entirely'/hunt, as a voice/sound of wagons … as a much/manyheaded and stable people arranging their men side by side into/’for the purpose of’ war. (Joel 2:4-5, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Nineveh:) “Woe, city of bloods ... a voice/sound of whipping ... and a voice/sound of shaking of wheels and pursuing horse and ... wagon.” (Nahum 3:1a,2b, Greek OT)

All the ones hearing a voice/sound of the multitude of (the foreign king) and ‘ways of journeys’/tramping of the multitude and ‘cracking together’/rattle of the weapons (continually) ‘moved to and fro’/shook. (1 Macc 6:41a)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to Jerusalem:) How many times have I wanted to lead together against/’in quest of’ your children, 'which a turn'/'the way' a hen against/’in quest of’ her ‘young birds’/chickens leads together underneath the wings, and/but you did not want." (Matt 23:37b)

(Jesus said to the many crowds:) “What king, going to ‘throw together with’/meet the other king into a war, will by no means, having first sat down, ‘take counsel’/consider, if he is able in/with ten of the number of one thousand to go to meet the one coming against him in company with twenty of the number of one thousand?” (Luke 14:31)

(The eunuch continually/-) was returning (from Jerusalem) and being seated upon the wagon * (P74,א*,A) he read the prophet Isaiah. (Acts 8:28a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

His voice (was) as a voice/sound of many waters. (Rev 1:15b)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: Carl-Johan Gadd, Krister Hanell, Alf Henrikson, Martin P:n Nilsson.


Greek words:

(h)arma (wagon) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Acts 8:28; Rev 9:9 – 1 Macc 8:6; 2 Macc 13:2; Sir 48:9; Acts 8:29,38.


Additional studies: Is 30:16; Jer 47:3; Luke 13:34; Rev 12:14.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-06; 2012-07-03; 2015-03-27)

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9:10 And they have tails like scorpions, and stings; and in their tails (is) their (judicial) authority to act unrighteously (against) men (for) five months.

Word for word (20 words in the Greek text): and (they)-have tails like scorpions and stings, and in the tails their the (judicial)-authority their (to)-act-unrighteously (against)-the men months five.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The prophet said:) “An elder and the faces of the ‘ones being wondered’/’admired ones’, this (is) the beginning, and a prophet teaching lawless things, this (is) the tail.” (Is 9:15, Greek OT)

(The man high above the firmament said to the prophet concerning Israel:) “You dwell in a middle of scorpions; you may not fear their sayings, and you may not stand ‘out of’/beside yourself from/at their face, for the reason that it is a house of ones making bitter by the side of.” (Ezek 2:6b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) “I will deliver (Israel) out of a hand of Hades. I will redeem them out of death. Death, where (is) your justice? Hades, where (is) your sting?” (Hos 13:14a, Greek OT)

(Solomon said: “God) killed (the enemies of Israel with) bites of locusts and flies.” (Wisdom of Solomon 16:9a)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “Teeth of little wild animals and scorpions (have been created into/’for the purpose of’ a procuration of justice). (Sir 39:30a)


The Latter Revelation:

To the ones being seated in a district and a shadow of death, to them a light stuck up." (Matt 4:16b)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "Give heed from/to the false prophets, whoever/who come towards you in clothes of sheep but from inside are rapacious wolves." (Matt 7:15)

(Jesus said to Simon Peter:) "The gates of Hades shall not be entirely stable (with regard to My assembly of called out). I will give you the keys of the kingdom of the heavens." (Matt 16:18b-19a)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "False Christs and false prophets will rise ... so that and/also the chosen ones, if able/possible, will be (א,* א) led astray. Behold, I have spoken (and speak) to you beforehand." (Matt 24:24-25)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Judicial) authority was given (the locusts) as the scorpions of the earth have (judicial) authority. And it was spoken to them, in order that they might (א,*א) not act unrighteously (against) the grass of the earth, nor (against) every/any light green thing, nor (against every/any tree, ‘if not’/except (against) the men whoever have not the seal of God upon the foreheads. And it was given to them, in order that they might not kill them, however/but in order that they will be tormented (for) five months. (Rev 9:3b-5a)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: Ingvar Andersson, Carl Grimberg, Vilhelm Moberg, John Törnquist.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “scorpions” and “(judicial) authority”, see also Rev 9:3b. Concerning “act unrighteously”, see Rev 9:4. Concerning “five months”, see Rev 9:5a.


Greek words:

kentron (sting) (in the NT + examples in the OT) Hosea 13:14; Rev 9:10 – Prov 26:3; Acts 26:14; 1 Cor 15:55-56.

oura (tail) (in the NT + examples in the OT) Is 9:15; Rev 9:10 – Deut 28:13,44; Is 9:14; 19:15; Rev 9:19; 12:4.


Additional studies: 2 Chron 10:11,14; Matt 24:11; Mark 13:22; Luke 6:26.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-06; 2012-07-03; 2015-03-27)

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9:11 They have upon them the (א,*א) king (of the abyss), the messenger of the abyss, to whom (א,*א) a name to him (in) Hebrew (is) Abaddon (= Perdition), and in ‘the Greek’/Greek he has (the) name Apollyon (= “Perisher”).

Word for word (21 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus): (they)-have upon themselves the king the messenger (of)-the (of)-abyss (to)-whom (a)-name (to)-him (in)-Hebrew Abaddon, and in the Greek (he)-has (a)-name Apollyon.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Job said:) ”Naked (is) Hades in the very eyes of (the Lord), and it/there is not a cloak (in) the perdition (Hebrew: apollyon).” (Job 26:6, Greek OT)

The perdition and the death spoke: “We have heard (and hear) the romour of (Wisdom).” (Job 28:22, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said to the Lord:) “Not will anyone describe Your mercy in a grave and your truth in the perdition (Hebrew: apollyon)?” (Ps 88:11 or 88:12, Greek OT)

(Solomon said:) “Hades and Perdition (Hebrew: apollyon) (are) visible by the side of the Lord.” (Prov 15:11, Greek OT)

(Solomon said:) “The locust is without king. And/yet it marches/goes out to war ... in a order way.” (Prov 30:27, Greek OT)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Broad * (א*) and spacious (is) the way leading away into the perdition.” (Matt 7:13b)

(Jesus said to the Pharisees:) "The kingdom of God does not come in company with ‘a keeping to the side of’/’an observation’. Nor will they speak 'Behold, here!' or 'There!' for behold, the kingdom of God is within you/’the limits of you’." (Luke 17:20b-21)

There was (continually/-) and/also an inscription on/at (Jesus) (with) Greek letters, Latin, Hebrew (א*): "This One (is) the King of the Jews." (Luke 23:38)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

It became a man having been (and being) dispatched away from the side of God. A name to him (continually) was (א*) John. (John 1:6)

(Jesus said to His Father:) "When I (continually) was in company with them, I (continually) kept (My disciples) in Your name * (P66,א*). And I watched (them), and no one out of them perished, ‘if not’/except the son of the perdition, in order that the writing might be completed." (John 17:12)

Jesus (said to Pilate): “My kingdom is not out of this adornment/’adorned world’. If My kingdom (continually) was out of this adornment/’adorned world’, My rowers/servants (continually) had – according to the circumstances – fought, in order that I might not had been given ‘to the side of’/’over to’ the Jews. But now My kingdom is not from here.” Pilate spoke so to (Jesus): “(Is it) not so (that) You are a king?” Jesus answered: “You say, that I am a king. Into/’for the purpose of’ this I am (and have been) begotten, and into/’for the purpose of’ this I have come (and comes) into the adornment/’adorned world’, in order that I may be a witness to the truth.” (John 18:36-37a)

But/and Pilate and/also wrote a superscription and put upon the cross. But/and it (continually) was (and had been) written: “Jesus, the Nazoraean, the King of the Jews.” So many of the Jews read this superscription, because the place whereat Jesus was crucified (continually) was near the city, and it (continually) was (and had been) written in Hebrew, in Latin (and) in Greek. (John 19:19-20)

The fifth messenger sounded the trumpet, and I beheld a star out of the heaven, having fallen (and falling) into/to the earth, and the key of the well of the abyss was given to him. (Rev 9:1)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

The name (Abaddon) is derived from Heb. “âbad”, “to perish”, and is employed as a poetic synonym for the abode of the dead. Abaddon is personified in Job 28:22. In Jewish literature Abaddon is used as the name of the lowest part of Gehenna. (J. Massyngberde Ford "Revelation" p 145)

The unknown one: "Listen to me, believe me and give me the respect I deserve, so I shall lift you and me high over this marsh of frogs, in which we have gone down! I shall blow on your sick conscience so that it will be healed as a wound. Who I am? I am the one having done what no one has done before; I am the one who will precipitate the colden calf and knock down the switchboards of the costers, I have the destiny of the earth in my platen, and in eight days the richest one of the rich ones is poor; the false standard of value, the gold, has ceased to rule, all are equally poor and the children of men will creep roving as the ants when the ant-hill is demolished!" The lady: "In what way are we helped with this?" The unknown one: "Do you think I made the gold to direct us and the other ones, no, to ruin the whole world order, to destroy, you know! I am the perisher, the dissolver, the world conflagrator, and when all things are in ashes, then I shall range hungering among the gravel-heaps rejoicing at the thought: this I have made, I, who has written the last page in the world history, which by that can be considered brought to an end." (August Strindberg "Till Damaskus II" p 204-205; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Danile Baker, John Bunyan, Leif Carlsson, P. Fjellstedt, Victor Hugo, Konrad Nilsson, A.M. Strinnholm.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “a name to him”, see also John 1:6-8.


Greek words:

Abaddôn (a Hebrew word: = destruction/perdition) (Abaddon) Job 26:6; 28:22; Ps 88:(11)12; Prov 15:11; Rev 9:11.

Apollyôn (“Perisher”/Destroyer) Rev 9:11.

(H)ellênikos (Greek) Luke 23:38; Rev 9:11 – 2 Macc 4:10,15; 6:9; 11:24; 13:2.


Additional studies: Job 31:12; Prov 27:20; John 5:2; 19:13,17; 20:16; Rev 16:16; 17:8,11.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-06; 2012-07-03; 2015-03-27)

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9:12 Woe one (א*) went away. Behold, it comes still two woes after these things.

Word for word (10 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus prima manus): Woe one went away. behold (it)-comes still two woes after these-(things).


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “Woe, cowardly hearts and hands having stood by the side of and a misser (of the mark of God) stepping against, against two paths. Woe a heart being by the side of, because it does not believe. Because of this it will not be sheltered. Woe you having perished (and perishing) the endurance, and what will you make/do, when the Lord – according to the circumstances – may inspect?” (Sir 2:12-14)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to the Pharisees:) “Woe to you, the Pharisees! … Woe to you * (א,*א) Pharisees! … Woe to you!” (Luke 11:42a,43a,44a)

(Jesus said to the lawyers:) “To you the lawyers, woe! … Woe to you! … Woe to you, the lawyers!” (Luke 11:46a,47a,52a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

Behold, He comes in company with the clouds. (Rev 1:7a)

Write so the things which you have beheld, and the things which are and the things which must (א*) be about to become after these things. (Rev 1:19)

(An eagle) saying (with) a great/loud voice: “Woe, woe, woe, to the ones inhabiting upon the earth, out/’in consequence’ of the rest of voices of the trumpet of the three messengers being about to sound the trumpet.” (Rev 8:13b)


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “woe … woes”, see also Rev 8:13b. Concerning “after these things”, see Rev 1:19.


Additional studies: Rev 11:14.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-07; 2012-07-03; 2015-03-27)

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9:13 * (P47, א,* א) The sixth messenger sounded the trumpet. And I heard a voice * (א*) of/from the golden sacrificial altar, the one (being) in the very eyes of God, ...

Word for word (15 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus prima manus): The sixth messenger sounded-the-trumpet. and (i/I)-heard (a)-voice (of/from)-the sacrificial-altar (of)-the golden the-(one) in-the-very-eyes-of (of)-the (of)-god.


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

I heard behind me a great/loud voice as a trumpet. (Rev 1:10b)

Behold, I stand against the door, and I knock. If – according to the circumstances – anyone may hear My voice, I will (א,* א) and/both open the door and come into/in towards him, and I will take the chief meal in company with him and he in company with Me. (Rev 3:20, “Laodicea”)

I beheld, and I heard as (א,*א) a voice of many messengers (in) a circle (around) the throne and the living beings and the elders. (Rev 5:11a)

I heard one of the four living beings say, as a voice of thunder: “Come and behold (א,*א)!” (Rev 6:1b)

I heard as a voice in a middle of the four living beings. (Rev 6:6a)

When (the little Ram) opened the fourth seal, I heard (the) voice of the fourth living being saying: “Come and behold (א,* א).” (Rev 6:7)

When It opened the fifth seal, I beheld below the sacrificial altar the souls of the men (א,* א) having been (and being) slaughtered because of the saying of God and because of the evidence which they (continually) had. (Rev 6:9)

I beheld the seven messengers who stand in the very eyes of God, and seven trumpets were given to them. And another messenger, having a golden olibanum censer, came and stood upon the sacrificial altar. And ‘many incenses’/’much incense’ was given to him, in order that he shall give/add (it) to the prayers of all the holy ones against the golden sacrificial altar * (א,* א) ‘in the very eyes of’/before the throne. (Rev 8:2-3)

The seven messengers having the seven trumpets made themselves ready in order that they might sound the trumpets. (Rev 8:6)

(An eagle) saying (with) a great/loud voice: “Woe, woe, woe, to the ones inhabiting upon the earth, out/’in consequence’ of the rest of voices of the trumpet of the three messengers being about to sound the trumpet.” (Rev 8:13b)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: Winston Churchill, Fredrik Nielsen.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “sounded trumpet”, see Rev 8:2 and Rev 8:6. Concerning “golden sacrificial altar in the very eyes of God”, see Rev 8:3a and Rev 8:3b. Concerning the personified sacrificial altar, see Rev 16:7.


Additional studies:

Ex 29:12; Lev 4:7.


Andrew E. Steinmann "The Tripartite structure of the sixth seal, the sixth trumpet and the sixth bowl of John's Apocalypse (Rev 6:12-7:17, 9:13-11-14, 16:12-16)"; Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 35.1 (March 1992): 69-79.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-07; 2012-07-03; 2015-03-27)

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9:14 ... saying to the sixth messenger, the one having the trumpet: “Loosen the four messengers being (and having been) bound on/at the river, the great Euphrates.”

Word for word (20 words in the Greek text): saying (to)-the sixth messenger, the-(one) having the trumpet: loosen the four messengers the-(ones) being-(and-having-been)-bound on/at the river the great Euphrates.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The Lord said to Abram:) “To your seed I shall give this earth/land from the river of Egypt till the great river, (the) river Euphrates.” (Gen 15:18b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Jesus/Joshua: “From) the desolate (district) and Antilebanon till the great river, (the) river Euphrates and till the last/farthest sea from settings of sun, (so) your frontiers will be.” (Joshua 1:4, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said: “God turned) about the sea into dried out (land). (The sons of men) will come through in a river (Jordan) (on) foot. (Ps 66:6a, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said:) “The Lord loosens the ones being (and having been) bound.” (Ps 146:7b, Greek OT)

In that day the Lord will shave with the great ... razor, which is from the other side of the river (of Euprates). (Is 7:20a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Isaiah about His people:) "Because of this people not wish/wishing the water of Siloam the (water) going/flowing in a quiet way ... because of this, behold, the Lord leads up against you the stable and the much water of the river (Euphrates)." (Is 8:6a,7a, Greek OT)

(That day there will be) a sacrifice for the Lord of hosts from the earth/land of ‘north wind’/’the north’ on/at (the) river Euphrates. (Jer 46:10b, Greek OT)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Every/everyone whoever hears these My sayings, and makes/does them, will be likened (to) a sensible male, whoever built his habitation against the rock. ... And the rivers came … and it did not fall, for it was (and had been) based against the rock. And 'every the'/everyone hearing these My sayings and not making/doing them will be like a foolish male, whoever built his habitation against the sand. And the wet descended, and the rivers came and * (א*) cut/struck towards that habitation, and it fell, and its falling (continually) was great.” (Matt 7:24-27)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "Amen, I say to you: ‘As many things as you – if according to the circumstances – may bind upon the earth, they will be being (and having been) bound in the heavens (א,* א), and as many things as you – if according to the circumstances – may loosen upon the earth, they will be being (and having been) loosened in heaven.’" (Matt 18:18)

(Jesus said to two of His disciples:) “You will find an ass being (and having been) bound and a foal in company with her. Having loosened them lead (them) to Me.” (Matt 21:2b)

A beginning of the good little message of Jesus Christ * (א*) entirely as it has been (and is) written in the prophet Isaiah : “Behold, I dispatch away My messenger before your face, who entirely will prepare your way.” ... Every/’the whole’ Jewish district (continually) went out towards (John the Baptist) and all the inhabitants of (a disgraced) Jerosolyma/Jerusalem. ... And they (continually) were baptized by him in the Jordan River. (Mark 1:1-2,5a)

(The Lord said:) "This (woman), being a daughter of Abraham, whom the adversary had bound (for), behold, eighteen years, had she not to be loosened from this band (on) the sabbath day?" (Luke 13:16)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

The deceased (Lazarus) came out, being (and having been) bound feet and hands (with) bandages and his sight/face being (and having been) bound around (with) a kerchief. Jesus says to them: “Loosen him and let (him) (א,* א, A) be to withdraw.” (John 11:44)

(The messenger said:) “Who (is) worthy to open the scroll and loosen its seals?” (Rev 5:2b)

I beheld four messengers standing against the four corners of the earth, getting power over the four winds of the earth, in order that a wind might (א,* א) not blow upon the earth ‘and not’/nor upon the sea ‘and not’/nor against every/any tree. (Rev 7:1)

(The messenger) said (to the four messengers): “You may not act unrighteously (against) the earth, ‘but not’/nor (א,*א) (against) the sea, ‘but not’/nor (א,*א) (against) the trees, till we may have sealed the slaves of our God upon their foreheads.” (Rev 7:3)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: Bo Giertz, Olaf Moe.


My own comments and speculations:

Jordan is – like Euphrates - called “the river” in the OT. Therefore the river Jordan with its messenger can associate to the river Euphrates and its four messengers here in Rev 9:14. Cf. also Matt 7:24-27 (rivers, great).

Concerning “the four messengers”, see Rev 7:1 and Rev 7:3.


Greek words:

Eufratês (the Euphrates) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Rev 9:14 – Judith 1:6; 2:24; 1 Macc 3:32,37; Sir 24:26; Rev 16:12.


Additional studies: Gen 2:14; Ex 23:31; Deut 1:7; 11:24; 2 Sam 8:3; 2 Kings 24:7; 1 Chron 5:9; 18:3; Job 39:1-2(4-5); Matt 16:19; Mark 5:3-4; 11:2,4-5; Luke 19:30-31,33; Acts 22:30; Rev 16:12; 20:3.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-07; 2012-07-03; 2015-03-27)

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9:15 And the four messengers were loosened, the ones having been (and being) made ready into/for the hour * (א,* א) and month and period of time, in order that they might not (א,* א) kill the third of the men.

Word for word (21 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus): and were-loosened the four messengers, the-(ones) having-been-(and-being)-made-ready into the hour and month and period-of-time, in-order-that not (they)-might-kill the third (of)-the (of)-men.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

God spoke: ”Let (it) become luminaries in the firmament of the heaven ... into/for seasonable times and into/for days and into/for periods of time.” (Gen 1:14, Greek OT)

(The man) said (to Abraham): “Turning back against (you) I will arrive towards you ‘according to’/at this seasonable time 'into hours'/'next year'. And Sarah, your woman, will arrive (with) a son.” … And having ‘taken together’/conceived Sarah brought forth a son to Abraham ... into/at the seasonable time, according as the Lord had talked (with) him. (Gen 18:10a; 21:2, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Job:) “Have you knowledge of seasonable time of bringing forth of rock antelopes? ... Have you numbered their months (when they are) ‘filled with’/'fulfilled of' bringing forth?” (Job 39:1a,2a or 39:4a,5a, Greek OT)

According to the seasonable time and according to the day, in which the nations had profaned it, in that (time) (the sacrificial altar of the burnt offering) was renewed in/with songs and zithers and ... cymbals. (1 Macc 4:54)


The Latter Revelation:

In the sixth month the messenger Gabriel was dispatched away from God … (to) the virgin Mariam. (Luke 1:26-27)

Having stood on/near (Anna) this hour 'confessed against'/praised God. (Luke 2:38a)

In a fifteenth year (during) the command of Tiberius … a word of God became/came against/to John … (Luke 3:1a,2b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

>But already when (the father) descended, the (א,* א) slaves went to meet him and they brought a message (א,*א) that/: “His boy lives.” He so inquired from the side of them (about) the hour, in which he had/behaved more refined. And (א,*א,A) they spoke to him that/: “Yesterday, a seventh hour, the fever-fire/fever let him be. The father so had knowledge, that * (P75, א*,B) (it was) that hour, in which He (א*) spoke (to) him: “Your son lives”. And he himself believed Him, and his whole habitation/household. (John 4:51-53)

The seven messengers having the seven trumpets made themselves ready in order that they might sound the trumpets. (Rev 8:6)

The third of the earth was burned down, and the third of the trees were burned down, and every light green grass was burned down. (Rev 8:7b)

It was spoken to (the locusts), in order that they might (א,*א) not act unrighteously (against) the grass of the earth, nor (against) every/any light green thing, nor (against every/any tree, ‘if not’/except (against) the men whoever have not the seal of God upon the foreheads. (Rev 9:4)

(The locusts like horses) have tails like scorpions, and stings; and in their tails (is) their (judicial) authority to act unrighteously (against) men (for) five months. (Rev 9:10)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

"I know when the great war will come to an end", (Lotta Hedman said), "and I know, that after the great natural desolation it will come the sweet millennium. And I know, that a third of all men will die in the great war and that a third will be perished in the great natural desolation, but the last third will remain living in the millennium of the Lord. . . . But I pray to God, that he will spare my life and that I shall remain living in the tried crowd. I pray, that I might be allowed to be counted in the last third and that I, who has been taken out to proclaim its arrival during great sneer, also might live in God's millennium, that I might stand among the chosen ones seeing this earth be radiant with righteousness." (Selma Lagerlöf "Bannlyst" p 88,90; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

I sometimes get letters from a prophetess of Norrland. She claims, that she has thought out in the Revelation, that this ("first") World War is the great war, which will precede the lucky millennium. Thus the matter in question is not the last judgment but the arrangement of a new world order. But before this happens a third of the men will be destroyed by the war and the things the war brings with it. Furthermore, it will, when the war barely is ended, come a natural phenomen, which will use up still a third, plague or something like that. The remaining third then will be so chastised and tried, that it can build a new world. And she, the prophetess, hopes that she will live till this occurs, so it will happen very soon. I do not think that it looks so unlike that she cannot be right. Perhaps it becomes the good with the new confusion in east, that the Western front offensive becomes suspended, at least from the side of Germany. (Selma Lagerlöf "Du lär mig att bli fri - Selma Lagerlöf skriver till Sophie Elkan" p 467; letter 1918-02-21; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Carl Boberg, Dick Harrison, Aleksis Kivi, Sven Lidman, John Steinbeck, Knut Svensson, Anton Tjechov.


Additional studies: Num 1:1; Jer 11:23; 23:12; 48:44; Haggai 1:1; Rev 9:18; 20:7.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-07; 2012-07-03; 2015-03-27)

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9:16 And the number of the armies/soldiers, of the (soldiers) of horse, (was) two of the number of ten thousand (to/by) the number of ten thousand (א,*א). I heard the number of them.

Word for word (14 words in the Greek text): and the number (of)-the (of)-armies (of)-the (of)-horse two of-the-numbers/number-of-ten-thousand (to/by)-the-numbers/number-of-ten-thousand. (i/I)-heard the number (of)-them.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The brother and the mother of Rebekah said to her:) “Become into the number of thousand of the number of ten thousand ... ” (Gen 24:60b, Greek OT)

A thousand of a number of one thousand (continually) performed public duties to (the Old of Days), and ten thousand of a number of ten thousand stood (and had stood) by the side of Him. And a court of justice sat down, and books were opened. (Dan 7:10b, Greek OT, Theod)

(King Antiochus) ‘set down’/made Cendebeus officer/general … and gave him foot-soldiers and (soldiers) of a horse. (1 Macc 15:38)

(King Antiochus) sent … ‘an army/soldiers’ of twice ten thousand towards the two thousand (of Jews). (2 Macc 5:24a)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “The king (who gave a wedding banquet) was wrathful and having sent his armies/soldiers he perished those murderers and set their city on fire.” (Matt 22:7)

(Jesus said to the many crowds:) “What king, going to ‘throw together with’/meet the other king into a war, will by no means, having first sat down, ‘take counsel’/consider, if he is able in/with ten of the number of one thousand to go to meet the one coming against him in company with twenty of the number of one thousand?” (Luke 14:31)

Herod together with his army/soldiers … having wrapped up Jesus in a shining clothing, he sent Him * (P75, א*) to Pilate. (Luke 23:11b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

The number of (the messengers) was of the number of ten thousand of the number of ten thousand and the number of one thousand of the number of one thousand. (Rev 5:11b)

I heard the number of the ones having been (and being) sealed, one hundred and forty-four of the number of one thousand having been (and being) sealed out of every tribe of (the) sons of Israel. (Rev 7:4)


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “I heard the number”, see Rev 7:4-8.


Greek words: (h)ippikos (of a horse) 1 Macc 15:38; Rev 9:16.

strateuma (army) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) 2 Macc 5:24; Matt 22:7; Luke 23:11 - Judith 11:8; 1 Macc 9:34; 2 Macc 8:21; 12:38; 13:13; Acts 23:10,27; Rev 19:14,19.


Additional studies: Deut 33:2; Ps 68:17(18); Matt 26:53; Luke 12:1; John 6:10; Rev 19:19.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-07; 2012-07-03; 2015-03-27)

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9:17 And in this way I beheld the horses in the beholding and the ones being seated above (P47, א,* א) them, having breastplates of a colour of fire and of hyacinth/dark-blue and (being) sulphurous. And the heads of the horses (are) as the heads of lions. And fire and smoke and sulphur go out, out of their mouths.

Word for word (39 words in the Greek text): And in-this-way (i/I)-beheld the horses in the beholding and the-(ones) being-seated above them, having breastplates (of)-(a)-colour-of-fire and of-hyacinth and sulphurous. and the heads (of)-the (of)-horses as heads (of)-lions, and out-of the mouths their go-out fire and smoke and sulphur.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

The Lord ‘gave wet’/’let (it) rain’ sulphur and fire against Sodom and Gomorrah from the side of the Lord out of the heaven. … (Abraham) beheld, and behold, a flame of/from the earth/land ascended as if (it was) a haze of/from a furnace. (Gen 19:24,28b, Greek OT)

The comely things of (wicked ones) will be entirely rent in pieces (with) sulphur. (Job 18:15b, Greek OT)

(God said to Job:) “Burning torches goes out, out of (the) mouth (of Leviathan), and hearths of fire are tossed throughout. Out of his nostrils smoke goes out, a furnace burning (with) a fire of coals. His soul (is as) coals, but/and a flame goes out, out of his mouth.” (Job 41:10-12 or 41:19-21, Greek OT)

(The Assyrians came to Samaria) being (and having been) set/clothed in things of hyacinth/dark-blue ... riding upon horses. (Ezek 23:6, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Tyre: “You walked) in a middle of stones of a coulour of fire. … (but) I led you out of a middle of stones of a colour of fire.” (Ezek 28:14b,16b, Greek OT)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said: “Eliah) was taken up) … in a wagon of/with horses of a colour of fire.” (Sir 48:9)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to the crowd:) “The thing going out, out of the mouth, this makes the man common/unclean.” (Matt 15:11b)

(The disciples) led the ass and the foal and put/laid the garments upon, upon them, and (Jesus) sat down upon, above them. (Matt 21:7)

(Two of Jesus' disciples) lead (א*) the foal towards (Him), and they throw their garments on it. And they are seated (א*) against it. (Mark 11:7)

Every/’the whole’ multitude of the people was (continually) praying outside (at) the hour of the incense. But it was beheld to (Zacharias) a messenger of a lord, standing out of (the) right (parts) of the sacrificial altar of the incense. (Luke 1:10-11)

(Jesus said to His disciples: ”On) the day Lot came ‘out of’/out from Sodom fire and sulphur ‘gave wet'/rained from heaven and perished all of them (א,*א,A).” (Luke 17:29)

(Peter said: “In the last days) your youths will behold beholdings, and your elders will dream dreams.” (Acts 2:17b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

… Out of the mouth (of the Son of the Man) a two-mouthed sharp large sword going/went out. (Rev 1:16a)

Because you are lukewarm and ‘and not’/neither boiling ‘and not’/nor cold, ‘cause your mouth to cease’/’shut your mouth’(א*). (Rev 3:16)

The One being seated (is) like a jasper stone and a carnelian (in) beholding, and (there are) priests (א*,A) in a circle from the throne, like of emerald (in) beholding. (Rev 4:3)

Rays of light and voices and peals of thunder go out, out of the throne. (Rev 4:5a)

The first living being (was) like a lion. (Rev 4:7a)

I beheld, and behold (א,* א), another fire-coloured horse came out. (Rev 6:4a)

I beheld, and behold, a light green horse. And the one being seated above it, a name to him (was) death (א,*א). And Hades (continually) followed * (א,* א) him. (Rev 6:8a)

A (א*) smoke of the incenses, (with) the prayers of the holy ones, ascended in the very eyes of God out of a hand of the messenger. (Rev 8:4)

Smoke ascended out of the well, as smoke of a great furnace. (Rev 9:2a)

(The locusts like horses continually/-) had breastplates as breastplates of iron. (Rev 9:9a)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: E. Bensow, Dick Harrison, Anna Maria Roos, P. Waldenström.


My own comments and speculations:

In 2 John v 1 and 3 John v 1 John is called “the elder”. Compare with what John beholds here in Rev 9:17 and with what is said about the elders in Acts 2:17.

Concerning “the ones being seated above (the horses)”, see Rev 6:8ab.


Greek words:

theion (sulphur) (in the NT + examples in the OT) Gen 19:24; Job 18:15; Luke 17:29 - Deut 29:23; Ps 11:6; Is 30:33; 34:9; Ezek 38:22; Rev 9:18; 14:10; 19:20; 20:10; 21:8.

theiôdês (sulphurous) Rev 9:17.

pyrinos (colour of fire) Sir 48:9; Ezek 28:14,16; Rev 9:17.

(h)yakinthinos (of hyacinth) (in the NT + examples in the OT) Ezek 23:6; Rev 9:17 – Ex 25:5; 26:4; 28:31; 35:23; 36:37; Num 4:6,11-12; 15:38.


Additional studies: Wisdom of Solomon 11:18; Rev 11:5.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-07; 2012-07-04<, 2015-03-28)

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9:18 From/’owing to’ these three blows, the third of the men was killed, out/’in consequence’ of the fire and the smoke and the sulphur, of the thing going out, out of their mouths.

Word for word (25 words in the Greek text): from the three blows these was-killed the third (of)-the (of)-men, out-of the fire and the smoke and the sulphur (of)-the-(thing) going-out out-of the mouths their.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

The Lord ‘gave wet’/’let (it) rain’ sulphur and fire against Sodom and Gomorrah from the side of the Lord out of the heaven. … (Abraham) beheld, and behold, a flame of/from the earth/land ascended as if (it was) a haze of/from a furnace. (Gen 19:24,28b, Greek OT)

The Lord spoke towards Moses: ”Still one blow I shall lead against, against Pharaoh and against Egypt.” (Ex 11:1a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Moses and Aaron:) ”It will not be a blow of the thing to 'rub out of'/destroy in/among you, when I – according to the circumstances – hurt in earth/land of Egypt.” (Ex 12:13b, Greek OT)

The messenger of God spoke to (Balaam): "Because of what have you this third time hit your ass?" ... And Balaam spoke to the messenger of the Lord: "I have missed (and miss) (the mark of God), for I did not/certainly not believe, that You have stood (and stand) against me in the way." (Num 22:32a,34a, Greek OT)

The Lord wishes to make (His boy) clean of/'owing to' the blow. (Is 53:10a, Greek OT)

(The Lord) hit every/’the whole’ earth/land of Egypt (with) blows. … (Judith 5:12b)

(The enemies) made/effected a great blow in Israel. (1 Macc 7:22b)


The Latter Revelation:

(Peter said to Jesus:) “If they all are caused to stumble in/at You; I will nor/’not in any case’ at any time ‘be caused to stumble’/stumble.” Jesus uttered to him: “Amen, I say to you, that in this night before a rooster ‘raise/raises its voice’/crows, you shall three times deny away Me.” Peter says to Him: “And if – according to the circumstances – I may have to die together with You, I will not/certainly not deny away You.” (Matt 26:33b-35a)

(Jesus said:) “A certain man descended from Jerusalem into/to Jericho, and he fell among robbers who, having and/also having set/stripped him out/off and putting/striking blows upon him, went away having ‘let ... be’/left him half dead.” (Luke 10:30b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

The third of the earth was burned down, and the third of the trees were burned down, and every light green grass was burned down. (Rev 8:7b)

The four messengers were loosened, the ones having been (and being) made ready into/for the hour * (א,* א) and month and period of time, in order that they might not (א,* א) kill the third of the men. (Rev 9:15)

Fire and smoke and sulphur go out, out of their mouths. (Rev 9:17b)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

The same word (as plagues/blows), in the singular, is used for the last wonder worked against Egypt (Exod 11:1-9, LXX, the death of all their firstborn), and occurs in the rest of the OT to designate various other catastrophies which befall men. (J. Massyngberde Ford "Revelation" p 253)


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “the third”, see Rev 8:7b. Concerning “the fire and the smoke and the sulphur, of the thing going out, out of their mouths”, see Rev 9:17.


Greek words:

plêgê (blow) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Judith 5:12; 1 Macc 7:22; Luke 10:30; Rev 9:18 – 1 Macc 3:29; 5:3,34; 13:32; 15:29,35; 2 Macc 6:30; 9:5; Sir 21:3; 22:22; 25:13,23; 27:25; Luke 12:48; Acts 16:23,33; 2 Cor 6:5; 11:23; Rev 9:20; 11:6; 13:3,12,14; 15:1,6,8; 16:9,21; 18:4,8; 21:9; 22:18.


Additional studies: Is 53:3-4; John 13:38; 19:34.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-08; 2012-07-04; 2015-03-28)

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9:19 For the (judicial) authority of the horses is in their mouth and in their tails. For their tails (are) like serpents with (א,* א) heads having, and in/with them they act unrighteously.

Word for word (27 words in the Greek text): the for (judicial)-authority (of)-the (of)-horses in the mouth their is and in the tails their. the for tails their like serpents, (with)-having heads and in/with them (they)-act-unrighteously.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The Lord said to the serpent:) "I will put enmity upwards/between your middle and upwards/- a middle of the woman and upwards/between a middle of your seed and upwards/- a middle of her seed. He shall keep your head, and you shall keep his heel." (Gen 3:15, Greek OT)

Moses made a serpent of copper and caused it to stand upon a sign. And it became, when – according to the circumstances – a serpent bit a man, he saw against, against the serpent of copper and lived. (Num 21:9, Greek OT)

(Moses said to Israel: “The Lord led) you through that great and fearful desolate (district with its) biting serpent and scorpion.” (Deut 8:15a, Greek OT)

(David said:) “All looking at me turned up the nose at me. They ‘talked in/with lips’/’made mouth at me’. They stirred/wagged head.” (Ps 22:7 or 22:8, Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) “An elder and the faces of the ‘ones being wondered’/’admired ones’ this (is) the beginning, and a prophet teaching lawless things, this (is) the tail.” (Is 9:15, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to His people:) “Out of Dan (you) will hear a voice/sound of ‘(the) sharpest’/’very quick’ horses. ... I dispatch out serpents into you, putting (you) to death ... and they will bite you.” (Jer 8:16-17, Greek OT)

(Solomon said to the Lord:) “Into/to a reminding of Your sayings (Your sons) (continually) were ingrafted (by the serpents). … Your saying, healing all, (attended them).” (Wisdom of Solomon 16:11a,12b)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “Flee from miss (of the mark of God) as from a face of a serpent.” (Sir 21:2a)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) ”It/there is not a head over/surpassing a head of a serpent.” (Sir 25:15a)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to the scribes and the Pharisees:) “Serpents, products of adders, how may you flee from the judgment of Gehenna?” (Matt 23:33)

The ones going by the side of (Jesus) (continually) blasphemed Him, stirring/wagging their heads and saying: “Woe!” (Mark 15:29a)

(Jesus said to the seventy:) “Behold, I have given (and give) you the (judicial) authority to tread above serpents and scorpions and against every ability of the enemy, and nothing will (א,* א, A) * (א*) act unrighteously (against) you.” (Luke 10:19)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

Entirely as Moses heightened the serpent in the desolate (district), in this way must the Son of the Man be heightened, in order that 'every the'/everyone believing into (P63, א,* א, A) Him may have agelong life. (John 3:14-15)

The one conquering and the one keeping My works until (the) end, to him I will give (judicial) authority upon/’with regard to’ the nations. And he will be a shepherd to them in/with a rod of iron, as it is crushed vessels of a potter, as and/also I have taken (and take) (judicial authority) from the side of My Father. (Rev 2:26-27 or Rev 2:26-28a, “Thyatira”)

(Judicial) authority was given to (death and Hades) against the fourth/’fourth part’ of the earth. ... (Rev 6:8b)

(Judicial) authority was given (the locusts) as the scorpions of the earth have (judicial) authority. (Rev 9:3b)

And against the heads of (of the locusts like horses were) as crowns like (in) gold, and their faces (were) as (the) faces of men. (Rev 9:7b)

(The locusts like horses) have tails like scorpions, and stings; and in their tails (is) their (judicial) authority to act unrighteously (against) men (for) five months. (Rev 9:10)

The heads of the horses (are) as the heads of lions. … (Rev 9:17b)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: Claes Lindskog, P. Waldenström.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “their tails” and “act unrighteously”, see Rev 9:10.


Additional studies: Job 16:4; Is 37:22; Jer 18:16; 48:27; Lam 2:15; Matt 27:39-44; Mark 15:29-32.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-08; 2012-07-04; 2015-03-29)

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9:20 And the rest of the men, who were not killed in these their (P47, א,* א) blows, nor changed their minds out/’in consequence’ of the works of their hands, ‘in order’/so that they will not prostrate themselves (in adoration of) the little demons and the golden idols and the ones of silver and of copper and of stone and of wood, which ‘and not’/neither are able to see, ‘and not’/nor to hear, ‘and not’/nor to walk about.

Word for word (51 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus): And the rest (of)-the (of)-men, who not were-killed in the blows their these, nor changed-(their)-minds out-of the works (of)-the (of)-hands their, in-order-that not (they)-will-'(kiss-towards'/prostrate (in-adoration-of)-the little-demons and the idols the-(ones) golden and the-(ones) of-silver and the-(ones) of-copper and the-(ones) of-stone and the-(ones) of-wood, which and-not (to)-see are-able-to and-not (to)-hear and-not (to)-walk-about.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The Lord said to Moses:) “You shall not make gods of silver to yourselves, and you shall not make gods of gold to you yourselves.” (Ex 20:23, Greek OT)

(Moses said to Israel: “Among the nations) you will serve the other gods, works of hands of men, woods/'pieces of wood' and stones, which will not behold, 'nor not'/'certainly . . . not' they may hear, 'neither not'/neither they may eat nor smell.” (Deut 4:28, Greek OT)

(Israel) sacrificed to little demons and not to God. (Deut 32:17a, Greek OT)

(The kings of Assyria) have given the gods (of the nations) into the fire, because they are not gods 'however or'/but works of hands of men, woods/’pieces of wood’ and stones. (2 Kings 19:18a, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said: “The nations) were slaves to their carved images … . They sacrificed their sons and their daughters to the little demons.” (Ps 106:36a,37, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said:) “The idols (of the nations are) silvermetal and goldmetal, works of hands of men. … They have eyes and/but they will not behold. They have ears and/but they will not hear. … They have feet and/but they will not walk about.” (Ps 115:4-7a, Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) “The earth/land (of Israel) has been fulfilled with abominations of the works of their hands, and they have prostrated themselves before (the things) which their fingers have done (in honour of them).” (Is 2:8a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to the prophet: “All the cities of Judas) prostrated themselves before the works of their hands (in honour of them).” (Jer 1:16b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to the prophet:) “ ... It/there is not a man (in Jerusalem) changing his mind from his badness.” (Jer 8:6a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said Israel:) “The lawful things of the nations (are) vain. It is wood having been (and being) carried off out of, out of the oak-wood, a work of a carpenter ... It is (and has been) made fine (with) silvermetal and goldmetal. … Being lifted/shown, they are lifted, because they will not step on/up.” (Jer 10:3-4a,5a, Greek OT)

(Daniel said to the king: “You have praised) the gods of gold and of silver and of copper and of iron and of wood and of stone, which do not see and do not hear and (which) have not knowledge. …” (Dan 5:23b, Greek OT Theod.)

(Judith said to the elders of the city:) “It has not stood up in our generations, nor it is/occur ‘in the day to-day’/nowadays and (there is) not a tribe and not a lineage and not a popular assembly and not a city out of us, which prostrating before gods made by hands (in honour of them), entirely just as it became in the former days, (when) our fathers ‘in favour’/’for the sake’ of (this) were given into large sword and into ‘raping through’/plundering, and they fell a great fall in the eyes of our enemies.” (Judith 8:18-19)

Into/about 800 (enemies) fell, but/and the rest fled into the earth/country of Philistines. (1 Macc 3:24b)

(Solomon said:) ”Do not pull destruction against (you) in /with works of your hands.” (Wisdom of Solomon 1:12b)

(The prophet said to Israel: “You sacrificed) to little demons and not to God.” (Baruch 4:7b)

(The prophet said:) “ . . . In Babylon you will behold gods of silver and of gold and of wood.” (Epistle of Jeremiah v 3a)

(To the idols the priests) have lamps burning, and more than to themselves, which no one are/is able to behold. (Epistle of Jeremiah v 18)

(The prophet said:) ”If anyone may cause any (of the idols) to stand upright, it is not stirred through/’by means of’ itself. (Epistle of Jeremiah v 26a)

(The prophet said:) “When – according to the circumstances – (the Chaldeaens) may behold a speechless one being not able to talk, having carried (him) to Bel, they think themselves worthy to raise their voices as (if) he was able to notice/understand.” (Epistle of Jeremiah v 40b)

(The prophet said: The idols have been and are) entirely prepared/made by carpenters and goldsmiths. (Epistle of Jeremiah v 45a)

(Daniel said to the king:) “From inside (the idol) is indeed of clay but/and from outside of copper. ... (Bel and the Dragon v 7b)


The Latter Revelation:

(The slanderer showed Jesus) all the kingdoms of the adornment/’adorned world’ and their glory. And he spoke to Him: "All these things I will give You, if – according to the circumstances – on having fallen/’sunk down’ You may prostrate Yourself before me (in honour of me)." Then Jesus says to him: "Withdraw, adversary, for it has been (and is) written: 'You shall prostrate yourself (towards) the Lord your God (in adoration of him) and Him alone you shall serve.'" (Matt 4:8b-10)

(Jesus said to his disciples:) “If your right hand cause you to stumble, cut it out/off, and throw (it) from you, for it ‘carries together’/’is profitable’ for you, in order that one of your limbs may go away, and (that) not your whole body may go away into Gehenna.” (Matt 5:30)

… (People) carried to (Jesus) many being demon-possessed, and He threw out the spirits (with) a saying. (Matt 8:16a)

The rest … were insolent (against the slaves of the king), and they killed (them). (Matt 22:6)

(Stephen said to his brothers and fathers: “The Israelites) made a young bull ... and led a sacrifice up to the idol and were (continually) cheerful in the works of their hands.” (Acts 7:41)

Making temples of silver (Demetrius continually) did not offer/bring ‘a few’/little occupations/business to the artists. (Acts 19:24b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

Recollect so from where you have fallen (and fall) and change your mind and make/do the first works. But if not, I come to you and I will stir your lampstand out of its place, if you – according to the circumstances – may not change your mind. (Rev 2:5, “Ephesos”)

However I have few/’a few’ things ‘down from’/against you, because you have (some) there ‘getting power over’/embracing the teaching of Balaam who taught * (א*) to throw/lay a stumbling block in the very eyes of the sons of Israel, to eat things sacrificed to idols and to fornicate. (Rev 2:14, “Pergamos”)

Change your mind * (א,*א). But if not, I come to you quickly, and I will wage war ‘in company with’/with them in/with the large sword of My mouth. (Rev 2:16, “Pergamos”)

However I have a much/great thing (א,* א) ‘down from’/against you, that you let the woman Jezebel be, the one saying herself be (א,* א) a prophetess, and she teaches and leads My slaves astray to fornicate and eat (things) sacrificed to idols. (Rev 2:20, “Thyatira”)

I gave her time, in order that she might change her mind * (א*) ‘out of’/’in consequence of’ her fornication. Behold, I call (א*) her into a bed and the ones committing adultery in company with her into a great oppression, if – according to the circumstances – they will (א,* א, A) not change their minds ‘out of’/’away from’ her works. (Rev 2:21-22, “Thyatira”)

Recollect * (א,*א) how you have taken (and take) and (how you) heard and keep (it) and change your mind. If you so – according to the circumstances – may not change your mind (א*), I will arrive against you (א,*א) as a thief, and you will (א,*א) not/certainly not have knowledge of what kind hour I will arrive against you. (Rev 3:3, “Sardis”)

Behold, I have given (and give) (א,*א) (you) out of the synagogue of the adversary the ones saying themselves be Jews, and they are not, however/but they lie. Behold, I will make them, ‘in order’/so that they will arrive and prostrate themselves before, ‘in the very eyes of’/before your feet and you will gain knowledge (א,*א), that I have welcomed you. (Rev 3:9, “Philadelphia”)

Be zealous and change your mind. (Rev 3:19b, “Laodikeia”)

The twenty-four elders will and/also (א,* א) fall/’sink down’ in the very eyes of the One being seated upon the throne, and they will prostrate themselves before the One living into the (coming) ages of the (coming) ages (in honour of Him). Amen (א,* א). (Rev 4:10a)

The four living beings (continually) said: “Amen.” And the elders fell/’sank down’ and they prostrated themselves. (Rev 5:14)

(The elders and the four living beings) fell/sank down against/on their faces ‘in the very eyes of’/before the throne and prostrated themselves before God (in honour of Him). (Rev 7:11b)

From/’owing to’ these three blows, the third of the men was killed, out/’in consequence’ of the fire and the smoke and the sulphur, of the thing going out, out of their mouths. (Rev 9:18)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 - about 1500

Someone asked a rabbi, “If God is so opposed to idols, why not destroy them instead of just telling people not to worship them?” “Have you seen how many things in the world people choose to worship?” replied the rabbi. “They worship the sun and the moon, their houses and money, their nation and culture – even other human beings. If God destroyed all that we might worship, nothing would be left.” (Michael E. Williams ”Exodus-Joshua” p 94; Plaut p 545)

It is all too true that men often worship what their hands have made. If a man's God be that to which he gives all his time, thought and energy, many are clearly engaged in worshipping man-made things. (William Barclay “The Acts of the Apostles” p 132 commenting Acts 17:22-31)

The rural dean turned and twisted the task in his thoughts. It was one thing in which Gille put his confidence and reliance, and it was this, that he had not drunk water out of the lake where he hooked and netted. But what kind of faith was now that thing to pay attention to? It was a false support, which would fail this night, for the dean had heard that they waited for Gille down in the depth. It was a rotten plank, which would not bear him. If he continued to trust in it, he would be lost. The dean clearly saw, that this plank had to be pulled away from Gille Folkesson, before it was too late. If he only had not to trust in that thing, he would not longer pin his faith on lake-sprite and water-sprite but on living God. Had he not the plank to trust in, he would be saved to life and limb coming glad and happy to his young wife. . . . Was there a greater sin than to leave a man in mind and body in the possession of the dark powers? (Selma Lagerlöf "Vattnet i kyrkviken" p 428-429; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

(The troubadour) was no evil man, no bad, on the contrary rather sensitive and unselfish; but how came he in all this misery? I shall answer in my name, and in his: We were Godless, and so we sank down in the vileness of ourselves. We loved beauty and cleanliness, but everything was changed to excrements, when we turned from the eternal prototypes to the fugitive images serving Baal (and Astarte) in stead of the Lord God in heaven. (August Strindberg "En blå bok III" p 883; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

What percentage of the population is real Christian? An insignificant number. The greatest part is still on the natural level to worship the elemental forces, to see good and evil forces at work, which should be thanked and bribed. When the fisherman in the archipelago off Stockholm fears bad fishing, he does not pray to Jesus or God, still less to The Holy Spirit, but he goes placing a coin under a certain stone; when he puts out the boat, he never says farewell to the ones going to sea, for then things are going badly for them; he never swear in boat because of the same reason. What the people in Värend do when there is thunder, when the cattle is ill, when the children are born, this Hyltén-Cavallius has told detailed; that they do not call Jesus, it is sure, rather Woden, Thor and a multitude of unknown forces. They thus still today by a natural instinct worship the unknown forces concealing behind the natural forces; thus they are heathens. But they go to church, where they meet parishioners (Sunday is their purse day), they go to shriving, because the others do so, pay the priest, because they do not dare otherwise. So loose Christianity is, such it has become joined by the upper classes. (August Strindberg "Kvarstadsresan" p 160; Stockholm, November 1884; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

In the nearest connection with the public lie the canonization stands. This is one among the most abominable manifestations of civilized man's thirst for falsification and power. For when he himself is not able to satisfy his evil desires, he invents fetishes, saints or in modern times: celebrities . . . Christianity, which quite impudently is declared to have knocked down the old images, has on the contrary invented worship of man, beginning with Christ. The old Catholics worshipped the misfortune, the courage, the self-denial, in a word the virtues of the reverses; the new Catholics, and also our dear Protestants, worship the good fortune, the happiness, the success (at any cost!), the acknowledged success. In Uppsala cathedral our forefathers among many other chapels also have one to the Virgin Mary. But the Reformation came, ruthless, practical, materialistic, successfull; the idols (which they were called) became precipitated and the temple cleared, especially of precious metals, for the wooden pictures and wooden images were in many places allowed to remain sitting into our days, and still sit there. . . . In our days the worshipping of saints has put on grand dimensions; now (in the beginning of the eighties of the nineteenth century) female singers, actresses, modellers, verse poets, timber-merchants, members of parliament, such ones making oil-paint pictures, idealizing Scandinavian vodka (vodka refiners), the ones travelling, selling property are canonized. But the public is spared from the trouble, for they do it themselves. The most simple way is to order a bust. (August Strindberg "Det nya riket" s 84-86; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

I worship nature and have lived at sea this summer, have just returned to town, where I languish. (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev II 1877-1882" p 181; letter 1880-09-06 to the Norwegian author Alexander Kielland; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Think, what happiness it is to be able to spend Christmas together with one having lived during the Christmas of one's childhood, one knowing how everything was in Mårbacka. . . . You can think, that something solemnly was at hand, which only the mistress of the household was allowed to arrange. It would be baked a big cake, which would represent an ox with tail and horns. Then that cake was not allowed to be touched, it was hidden away in the foodshed till spring came. But the day, when they would sow oats, the dry cake was broken in pieces, these were laid in a bowl with small beer to be able to be eaten, and then the ones sowing would eat of these pieces, and so they could look forward to a good harvest. Think, such real true old heathenism. (Selma Lagerlöf "Brev 2 - 1903-1940" p 355-356; letter 1938-12-25 to Ida Bäckmann; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

"Men", (Gösta Berling) . . . solemnly (said), "I see the green earth covered by works of men. The pyramids weight the earth, the Tower of Babel has pierced the sky, the beautiful temples and the grey castles have risen out of the gravel. But of all what hands have built, what is it, which have not fallen or will fall? Oh, men, throw the trowel and the clay mould! Spread the apron of the bricklayer over your heads and lie down to build the light castle of the dreams! What has the spirit to do with temples of stone and clay? Learn to build imperishable castles of dreams and visions." With that he laughing went to rest. (Selma Lagerlöf "Gösta Berlings saga" p 163; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

"In our days the devil sneaks around in many different treacherous figures", (the reverend) Suenonius went on. "One would believe, that the last time is at hand. Not enough that he among the silly ones secure more and more souls and seduces them into the most terrible idolatry, in that he equips them with knowledge of the tricks and delusions of the abyss, but he also finds his preys among the worldly learned ones, on which this Cartesius, whose poison your son has inbibed, leaves a testimonial; yes, his sword lets down many of the fighters of our foremost ones of our church. . . . " "Who could believe, that our revered (bishop) Johannes Matthiae himself (who worked for a reconciliation between the Lutheran and the Reformed Church) would fall in such a heretical delusion?" the chief judge said with a sigh. (Viktor Rydberg "Fribytaren på Östersjön I" p 50-51; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


about 1500 and time before

While we maintain that men ought not to worship the works of their hands, we say the very things which have been said by the comic poet Menander, and other similar writers, for they have declared that the workman is greater than the work. (Justin Martyr, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol I, p 170)

(Paul) did, in the first place, instruct the Gentiles to depart from the superstition of idols, and to worship one God, the Creator of heaven and earth, and the Framer of the whole creation; and that His Son was His Word, by whom He founded all things. (Irenaeus, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol I, p 495)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Eskil Albertsson, Svetlana Aleksijevitj, Eric S. Alexandersson, Åke Andrén, Elisabeth Beskow, Hjalmar Bjurulf, Rudolf Björkman, Ragnar Blomqvist, Raine Borg, Vasilij Borisovitj Nesterenko, Yngve Brilioth, Fredrik Böök, Sven Danell, Ylva Eggehorn, Axel Eile, E.J. Ekman, Jaques Ellul, Harald Elovson, Linnéa Elmblad, Urban Elmblad, Per Ericsson, Hilding Fagerberg, K.A. Fernström, A. Franklin, Jan Fridegård, Einar Genitz, Bo Giertz, C.W. Grahn, Carl Grimberg, Ann-Sofie Gräslund, Astrid Gustafsson, Berndt Gustafsson, Peter Hallberg, Olov Hartman, Johan Hellström, Alf Henrikson, Hippolytos, Nath. Högman, Anders Jarlert, Oscar Johansson, Eyvind Johnson, Evy Juneswed, Mac Key, Adolf Kloo, B. Kugelberg, Lars Levi Laestadius, K.E. Laman, Gustaf Larsson, Hans Larsson, Olle Larsson, Harry Lenhammar, Sven Lidman; Mereth Lindgren, Carl von Linné, Jonas Carl Linnerhjelm, Arnold Ljungdal, Wilhelm Lothigius, Martin Luther, David Lyon, Sune Lyxell, Svante Löfgren, Åke Lönander, Olaus Magnus, Sir George Martin, Harry Martinson, Carl Henrik Martling, Wayan Mastra, Vilhelm Moberg, Alanna Nash, Stephen Neill, Sinikka Neuhaus, Fredrik Nielsen, Bertil Nilsson, Torsten Nilsson, J. Nyrén, John Ortberg, Oscar II, James Innel Packer, Christer Pahlmblad, Thede Palm, G. Palmaer, Olaus Petri, Bengt Pleijel, Hilding Pleijel, Marcel Proust, Harald Rasmussen, Arvid Reuterskiöld, Jerker Rosén, Einar Rudberg, Yngve Rudberg, Abraham Rundbäck, John Samuelson, Ragnar Samuelson, Dag Sandahl, John Steinbeck, Brian C. Stiller, John Stott, Knut Svensson, Rabindranath Tagore, Mikael Tellbe, Einar Thomassen, Anton Tjechov, Leo Tolstoj, Zacharias Topelius, Bertil Torekull, Johan Turi, Mario Vargas Llosa, Irene Wernerhag, Erik Wiberg, Iris Wiberg, Arwid Wickström, Peter Wieselgren, Gustaf Wikner, Birgitta Yavari, Yngve Ydreborg, Emile Zola, Sophie Åberg.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “the rest of the men, who were not killed by these their blows”, see Rev 9:18.


Paul said to the believers in Corinth: “The things which the nations (א,* א, A) sacrifice, they sacrifice to little demons and not to God, but/and I do not want you to become companions of the little demons.” (1 Cor 10:20b)

Little children, watch/'keep ... away' yourselves from the idols. (1 John 5:21)


Greek words:

argyrous (of silver) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Epistle of Jeremiah v 3; Acts 19:24; Rev 9:20 – Esther 1:6-7; Judith 10:22; 1 Macc 6:12; 2 Macc 2:2; Sir 26:18; Baruch 1:8; Epistle of Jeremiah v 10,29; 2 Tim 2:20.

eidôlon (idol) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Acts 7:41; 1 John 5:21; Rev 9:20 – Esther 4:17o(C19); Tobit 14:6; 1 Macc 1:43; 3:48; 13:47; 2 Macc 12:40; Wisdom of Solomon 14:11-12,27,29-30; Sir 30:19; Epistle of Jeremiah v 72; Bel and the Dragon v 3,5; Acts 15:20; Rom 2:22; 1 Cor 8:4,7; 12:2; 2 Cor 6:16; 1 Thess 1:9.

xylinos (of wood) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Epistle of Jeremiah v 3; Rev 9:20 – 1 Macc 6:37; Epistle of Jeremiah v 10,29,38,50,54,58,69-70; 2 Tim 2:20.

chalkous (of copper) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Bel and the Dragon v 7; Rev 9.20 – 1 Macc 8:22; 14:18,26,48; Bel and the Dragon v 24.


Additional studies:

Ex 32:1-4; Deut 28:36,64; 29:17,26; 1 Kings 18:26-29; Ps 96:5; 135:15-17; Is 2:20; 10:11; 17:8; 30:22; 31:7; 37:19; 40:19-20; 41:7,23-24,29; 44:9-10,15-17,20; 46:1,6-7; Jer 2:27-28; 10:8-9,14; Ezek 6:9; Dan 5:4; Micah 5:13; Hab 2:18-19; Zech 10:2; Wisdom of Solomon 14:29; Matt 18:8; 27:49; Mark 9:43; Luke 4:7-8; 8:10; John 4:23; 12:39-40; Acts 17:29; Rom 11:7; Eph 2:3; 1 Thess 5:6; Rev 12:17; 16:9,11; 19:21.


Gregory W. Dawes "The Danger of Idoltry: First Corinthians 8:7-13"; Catholic Biblical Quarterly 58.1 (1966): 82-98.

Brian S. Rosner "The Concept of Idolatry"; Themelios 24.3 (May 1999): 21-30.

(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-08; 2012-07-04; 2015-03-29)

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9:21 And they did not change their minds out/’in consequence’ of their murders and not out/’in consequence’ of their poisons and not out/’in consequence’ of their evil (א*,A) and not out/’in consequence’ of their stolen goods.

Word for word (22 words in the Greek text): and not (they)-changed-(their)-minds out-of the murders their and-not out-of the poisons their and-not out-of the evil their and-not out-of the stolen-goods their.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Jacob said to Laban: “That which was torn of wild animals) I have not carried (and do not carry) up to you. I (continually) paid off from the side of myself stolen goods (by) day and stolen goods (by) night.” (Gen 31:39b, Greek OT)

(Jehu said to Joram:) “What peace, (because) the fornications of your mother Jezebel and her gifts still (are) the/so many.” (2 Kings 9:22b, Greek OT)

(Manasseh) (continually) used poisons .... He made full the thing to make/do the evil thing opposite the Lord … (2 Chron 33:6b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Babylon:) “Stand/’stand fast’ ... (in) your much poisoning which you have learnt ‘out of’/since your youth.” (Is 47:12a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to the prophet:) “ ... It/there is not a man (in Jerusalem) changing his mind from his badness.” (Jer 8:6a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) “Priest and prophet have been soiled, and in My house I beheld their evil.” (Jer 23:11a, Greek OT)

(The Lord/the prophet said to Israel: “There is) not truth, nor mercy, nor additional knowledge of God upon the earth. Consequently (there is) and/namely lie and murder and theft and adultery.” (Hos 4:1b-2a, Greek OT)

(Tobit said:) “I went towards the physicians to be attended and as much as they anointed me in (with) the gifts, so much rather/more they (continually) made my eyes blind. …” (Tobit 2:10b, S)

(Solomon said:) “The nations were ‘poured together’/confounded in a unity of evil.” (Wisdom of Solomon 10:5a)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "Upon the earth ... thieves dig through and steal." (Matt 6:19b)

(The Lord said to His disciples:) “Many will speak to Me in that day, ‘Lord, Lord, did we not prophesy (in) Your name, and (in) Your name threw out many (א*) little demons, and in Your name make/do many abilities/’works of ability’?’ And then I will confess to them that/: ‘I have nor at any time had knowledge of you.’” (Matt 7:22-23a)

(Jesus said to the Pharisees:) ”If I throw out the little demons in/by Beezebul (א,* א, B), in/by whom do your sons throw (them) out?” (Matt 12:27a)

(Jesus said to His disciples: “Out of the heart) come evil ‘countings throughout’/considerations, murders, adulteries, fornications, thefts, false evidences, blasphemies. These are the things making the man common/unclean.” (Matt 15:19-20a)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “The king (who gave a wedding banquet) was wrathful and having sent his armies/soldiers he perished those murderers and set their city on fire.” (Matt 22:7)

(Jesus said to the scribes and the Pharisees:) “You are witnesses to yourselves, that you are sons of the ones having murdered the prophets. And you, complete the measure of your fathers.” (Matt 23:31-32a)

Having repented (Judas who was a thief, John 12:6) turned/’brought back’ the thirty silvermetals/’pieces of silver’ to the priest leaders and elders, saying: “Having given ‘to the side of’/over unpunished/innocent blood I have missed (the mark of God).” (Matt 27:3b-4a)

Having suffered many things by many physicians and having spent all the things from the side of herself and having been helped nothing however/but rather having/’(the woman who had been in a blood stream for twelve years) had come’ into the/a worse (state). (Mark 5:26)

(Jesus said to a rich man:) “You know the commandments: ‘You may not murder. * (א*). You may not steal. ... You may not deprive away (men)..’” (Mark 10:19a)

The Lord spoke towards (a Pharisee): “Now you Pharisees make clean the cup and the plate ‘the from outside’/without; but your ‘the from inside’/inner is full of raping and evil.” (Luke 11:39)

(Peter said to the Israelites:) ”Having caused (Jesus) to stand up first to you, God dispatched (Him) away blessing you ‘in the to turn’/’to turn’ back everyone from your evil things.” (Acts 3:26)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Judas Iscariot) spoke this, not because he (continually) cared for on account of the beggarly ones, however/but because he (continually) was a thief and having the container/’case for money’ he (continually) bore the things being thrown (in it). (John 12:6)

Recollect so from where you have fallen (and fall) and change your mind and make/do the first works. But if not, I come to you and I will stir your lampstand out of its place, if you – according to the circumstances – may not change your mind. (Rev 2:5, “Ephesos”)

Change your mind * (א,*א). But if not, I come to you quickly, and I will wage war ‘in company with’/with them in/with the large sword of My mouth. (Rev 2:16, “Pergamos”)

I gave her time, in order that she might change her mind * (א*) ‘out of’/’in consequence of’ her fornication. Behold, I call (א*) her into a bed and the ones committing adultery in company with her into a great oppression, if – according to the circumstances – they will (א,* א, A) not change their minds ‘out of’/’away from’ her works. (Rev 2:21-22, “Thyatira”)

Recollect * (א,*א) how you have taken (and take) and (how you) heard and keep (it) and change your mind. If you so – according to the circumstances – may not change your mind (א*), I will arrive against you (א,*א) as a thief, and you will (א,*א) not/certainly not have knowledge of what kind hour I will arrive against you. (Rev 3:3, “Sardis”)

Be zealous and change your mind. (Rev 3:19b, “Laodicea”)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 - about 1500

After having been pained for 60 years my theophobia has abated. . . . God became man, yes, and therefore he understands how difficult it is, and therefore he overlooks pieces of folly, but not with the well considered evil, the premeditated lie! (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev XVII 13 juli 1908-april 1909; letter 1908-11-05 to the preacher Axel B Svensson; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

(1908 April 30th) For 2 months I (have as housekeeper) endured Mina Broström, who was the most evil I have seen, the more good I was to her, the more evil she became. (August Strindberg "Ockulta dagboken" p 286; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

(1901 March) 6th. . . . (It) came a letter from (Harriet Bosse), where she warned me of her evil. . . . (September 28th). . . . How can light come from darkness. For she is from the dark lower regions "the most evil woman being born", she called herself in a letter 1901. (August Strindberg "Ockulta dagboken" p 141,151; thae notation 28 Sept. is a marginal note obviously made later than 1901; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Mr. Wirsén has called . . . all young authors i Sweden "poisoners", "assassins", "scandalmongers" and so on. . . . The struggle now is going on is not clear. The public think that it is only persons; and that it is a matter of madrigals or doggerel verses! The old ones who with lost positions fight with mercenary troops of not the best nature call personages every time they get a ball in the forehead wanting to have the public to think that they only attack institutions when they call their enemies by name and epithet as poisoners. (August Strindberg "Den litterära reaktionen i Sverige" p 344-345; deleted section)

Magister Andreas spent (the night) in thoughts of a way, in which he without responsibility and consequences could kill this noxious animal having ruthlessly his mind in the evil thing. . . . He felt as the Hellene fighting the barbarian, in which fight the barbarian had to win, because he was the most brutal. . . . He knew that (this noxious animal) put out milk to his grass snakes. These ones he showed religious reverence. Consequently the grass snakes should be extirpated, the faith in their protection be slayed and fear of a harsh fate strike the man with spiritual lameness. (August Strindberg "Svenska öden och äventyr 2" s 329-331; the short story "Tschandala" from 1889 describes conditions during the reign of Carl XI during the seventeenth century)

(Elin) entangledly round one another heard the words magic potion, poison, antidote. . . . Chief judge Johan up to now of fatherly consideration had restrained his hot temper; after Elin, herself unknowing, confessed all the crimes one charged her and her mother and among these things also, that she had won the love of the young baron through one by Ingrid prepared magic potion, the chief judge had first with enticements, then with threats tried to induce her to say, by which means this magic potion was composed and by which these effects could be removed. (Viktor Rydberg "Fribytaren på Östersjön I" p 207; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


about 1500 and time before

Assim's mother with her skinny fingers seized (Singoalla's) locks hissing: "It is you, who has brought shame and misfortune over us. Woe you, woe you! Your blond lover shall die, he shall be torn to pieces, he shall be consumed by poison . . . yes, you! the poison-drink, prepared by my hand, rages in his bowels. You see, his head sinks towards his breast, his cheeks yellows as the poisonous buttercup . . . it already works." (Viktor Rydberg "Singoalla" p 78; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

On the bier . . . Simon the pillar saint or his earthly body lay. . . . Nearest around the bier some priests went with cowls letting down and with uncovered heads. . . . "Death to the athanasians! The poisoners! The heretics!" At last the crowd had passed. . . . The last one in the rear-guard (said): "All athanasians are implicated in this murder. . . . The homousians are poisoners since old time. Did not Athanasios and his friends give poison to Arios the same morning, when he would receive the Holy Communion in the large church of Constantinopel? Have they not repeatedly poisoned the sacramental wine for the faithful ones?" (Viktor Rydberg "Den siste atenaren I" p 208-209; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

What then (you will say) as to those who receive by succession an inheritance from their fathers, being themselves full of evils innumerable? And what of this? How does God suffer them (you say) to enjoy these things? Surely just as He allows thieves, and murderers, and other evil doers. For it is not now the time of judgment, but of the best course of life. (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers XIV:459)

Although they who were of the circumcision still did not obey the words of God, for they were despisers, yet they were previously instructed not to commit adultery, nor fornication, nor theft, nor fraud; and that whatever things are done to our neighbours' prejudice, were evil, and detested by God. Wherefore also they did readily agree to abstain from these things, because they had been thus instructed. But (the apostles) were bound to teach the Gentiles also this very thing, that works of such a nature were wicked, prejudicial, and useless, and destructive to those who engaged in them. (Irenaeus, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol I, p 495)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Augustinus, Rudolf Björkman, Karin Boye, Sven Danell, Stefan Einhorn, Emilia Fogelklou, Viktor Fong, Jan Fridegård, Carl Grimberg, Gunnar Gustavsson, Dick Harrison, Brynolf Hellner, Alf Henrikson, Homeros, Kazuo Ishiguro, Lars Levi Laestadius, Pär Lagerkvist, K.E. Laman, Hans Larsson, Sven Lidman, Torgny Lindgren, Martin Luther, N.P. Madsen, Olaus Magnus, Bertil Malmberg, John Mbiti, Vilhelm Moberg, Linda Oja, Olof Pettersson, Harald Rasmussen, Laurence Rees, Joanne Kathleen Rowling, Abraham Rundbäck, Sven Edvin Salje, Jim Stebbins, Robert Louis Stevenson, Einar Thomassen, Anton Tjechov, Rudolf Vrba, Alf Åberg.


My own comments and speculations:

I have rendered “klemma” by “stolen property”. Usually “klemma” is rendered by “theft”, but the word “theft” is nearer the Greek word “klopê” (cf. Matt 15:19; Mark 7:21).


Paul said to the believers in Corinth: “We may keep a feast/festival, not in/with old leaven, but/and not in/with a leaven of badness and evil, however/but in/with unleavened (cakes) of purity and truth.” (1 Cor 5:8)


Greek words:

klemma (stolen property, pl. stolen goods) Gen 31:39; Rev 9:21 – Ex 22:3-4.

ponêria (evil) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Wisdom of Solomon 10:5; Luke 11:39; Acts 3:26; 1 Cor 5:8; Rev 9:21 – 1 Macc 13:46; Wisdom of Solomon 4:6,14; 10:7; 17:10(11); 19:13; Sir 12:10; 19:22; 25:13,17; 29:7; 35:3(5); 42:13-14; 47:25; Baruch 2:26; Matt 22:18; Mark 7:22; Rom 1:29; Eph 6:12.

farmakon (poison) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Tobit 2:10; Rev 9:21 – Tobit 6:7; 11:8,11; Wisdom of Solomon 1:14; Sir 6:16; 38:4.

fonos (murder) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Matt 15:19; Rev 9:21 – Judith 2:11; 8:22; 9:3; 2 Macc 4:3; Wisdom of Solomon 12:5; 14:25; Mark 7:21; 15:7; Luke 23:19,25; Acts 9:1; Rom 1:29; Heb 11:37.


Additional studies: Ex 7:11,22; 9:11; 20:13,15; 2 Kings 9:22; Ps 58:5(6); Is 47:9; Micah 5:12; Nahum 3:4; Wisdom of Solomon 12:4; 18:13; Luke 8:43; John 10:1,10; 2 Pet 3:9; Rev 9:20; 18:23; 21:8; 22:15.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-08; 2012-07-04; 2015-03-30)

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