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Chapter 8

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8:1 And when * (א,* א) It opened the seventh seal, it became silence in the heaven (for) as/about a little half-hour.

Word for word (14 words in the Greek text): And when (it)-opened the seal the seventh, (it)-became (a)-silence in the heaven as (a)-little-half-hour.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The psalmist said:) ”'Be at leisure'/linger and gain knowledge that I am God. I shall be heightened in/among the nations, I shall be heightened in the earth. The Lord of the abilites (is) in company with us. The God of Jacob (is) our Assistance.” (Ps 46:10-11 or 46:11-12, Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) "I heard the one being (and having been) wrapped up in the things of fine linen, who (continually) was above the water of the river: 'Till a consummation of a seasonable time.' And he heightened the right hand and the left into the heaven and he swore (by) the living God into the (coming) age, because the consummation of hands, of a ‘letting be’/’leaving alone’ of a holy people, (will be) into a seasonable time and seasonable times and a half seasonable time, and it will be brought to a consummation all these things." (Dan 12:7, Greek OT)

(Solomon said to the Lord: “When) a still silence surrounded all the things, and a night reached the middle (of its course) in (its) own quickness, your ‘all-ably’ saying, a severe warrior, came from heavens out of thrones of kingdoms into a middle of the destructive earth (with) a sharp sword.” (Wisdom of Solomon 18:14-15a or 18:14-16a)


The Latter Revelation:

Likewise and/also (with) the second and the third till the seventh. (Matt 22:26)

(The priest leader said to Jesus:) "Do You answer nothing? What (is it that) these are witnesses 'down from'/against You?" But Jesus (continually) was quiet/silent. (Matt 26:62b-63a)

Having become a much/great silence (Paul) raised his voice towards (the people) ... (Acts 21:40b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

‘In the middle of’/’(after half)’ the feast, Jesus ascended into the sanctuary and taught. (John 7:14b)

And he again came into, into the Praetorium, and he says to Jesus: “From where are You?” But Jesus did not give him an answer. (John 19:9)

(I saw a scroll) having been (and being) sealed entirely (with) seven seals. (Rev 5:1b)

I beheld, when the little Ram opened one out of the seven seals. (Rev 6:1a)

It was spoken to them, in order that they might (א,* א) ‘be brought to rest’/rest still a small/little time. ... (Rev 6:11b)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

The background to the silence is in a contemporary Jewish view maintaining that the heavenly silence was necessary in order that God would be able to hear the prayers of Israel. "The angels sing in the night but are silent in the day for the sake of the glory of Israel", Talmud, tract Hagigah, 12b. (Leif Carlsson "Tröst och trots - Uppenbarelseboken" p 103; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Just risen from the sickbed, I experience that they discuss the celebrating of my birthday (1912-01-22). . . . I have not yet strength to expose myself . . . to a great intellectual effort especially because I . . . am not a speaker and lack both control of the mind and resources of the voice. This is one of the motives why I must ask to be allowed to spend the day in retirement and stillness. (August Strindberg "Den 22 januari" p 186; Afton-Tidningen 1912-01-15; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

I am both lame and barren after my sorrows, and after my separating form my children. . . . I am attacked in the darkness and robbed and it was not difficult, when there were so many against me. Have I been lazy, written too little? Think not! But it would come a time of calm after such hurricanes. Now it has come. (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev VIII jan 1890-dec 1891" p 388; letter about 1891-12-15 to Fredrik Vult von Steijern; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

(Now year 1888) I am walking on St. Mark's Square (in Venice) and see old women sitting on stools knitting hoses surrounded by thousands of pigeons. One hears one's own steps, the voices of the walking ones and the cooing of the pigeons. One is astonished at the silence and that one can have real conversations without having a need to cry or gesticulate. . . . Why this silence and this calmness? - And silence answers: there are no horses or carriages! - a city without horses and carrigaes it was Schopenhauer's dream, and therefore Venice also has been gone to see by composers and poets loving the company of men as much as the silence. (August Strindberg "Mitt Venedig" p 300; Svea. Folkkalender för 1889; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

First time I send You a book (Hemsöborna), it is a common book, written during boring hours to amuse myself. Can it amuse yourself an hour, between the battles, it has nevertheless had a cause to exist. Who knows? (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev VI aug 1886-jan 1888" p 324; letter 1887-12-14 to Georg Brandes; At the same time with this letter Strindberg sent the novel to Edvard Brandes with the following words: "Dear Brandes, Here You see the prohibitivelitterature! A book being about nothing! It was at least true in its coarseness before the publisher took away the coarseness. Now it is dull, conventional, no and not. Dixi et salvavi animan meam. Yours affectionately August Strindberg."; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Dumb gods bide round the pale Balder. Bitter winternight approaches, now the bonfire may burn! . . . . . . Holy silence follows woes of horror without peace, and as organ tones Oden's highest notion, the promise of the reconciliation of the world, hovers through the wood, the struggle of life has a purpose, deepest fall consolation. (Viktor Rydberg "Dikter. Första samlingen." p 51,53; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Nothing so becomes a Church as silence and good order. Noise belongs to the theatres, and baths, and public processions, and market-places: but where doctrines, and such doctrines, are the subject of teaching, there should be stillness, and quiet, and calm reflection. ... So shall we not be carried away with pride, not be tempted to love praises and honor, not be led to speak those things which delight, but those which profit: so shall we lay the whole stress of our time and diligence not upon arts of composition and beauties of expression, but upon the matter and meaning of the thoughts. Go into a painter's study, and you will observe how silent all is there. Then so ought it to be here: for here too we are employed in painting portraits, royal portraits (every one of them), none of any private man, by means of the colors of virtue. ... The pencil moreover is the tongue, and the Artist the Holy Spirit. Say ... is there any noise ... when we are baptizing? ... Is not all Nature decked (as it were) with stillness and silence? ... It is sufficient, if any one be enarmoured of praise, that he should obtain it after having been heard, when all is gathered in. (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers XI:194 commenting Acts 14:11)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Stig Abrahamsson, Svetlana Aleksijevitj, Ingvar Andersson, M. Baxter, Ingvar Bengtsson, Ingmar Bergman, Marcus Birro, Nils-Arvid BringÅus, Leif Carlsson, Chas. E. Cowman, Folke Dahlberg, Charles Dickens, Albert Engström, Eva-Lotta Franzén, Jane Fredlund, Carl Grimberg, Alf Henrikson, Otto Hermansson, Lars Hult, Kazuo Ishiguro, Liselotte J. Andersson, Eyvind Johnson, Sandro Key-Åberg, Derek Kidner, Martin Krauklis, Hans Larsson, Sven Lidman, Agnes Linder, Gustaf Linder, Sigurd Lindgren, Elis Malmeström, Arnold Nylundh, Ivan Oljelund, L. Passarge, Lewi Pethrus, Zina Prichodko, Bengt Robertsson, Anna Maria Roos, Seymor Rossel, Bernhard Salqvist, Kristina Saviin, Bo Setterlind, Jaroslav Seifert, Enar Skillius, Karl August Tavaststjerna, Esaias Tegnér, Anton Tjechov, Patricia Tudor-Sandahl, Fred Törnqvist, Johan Olof Wallin, P.G. Wermelin, Magnus Widell, Virginia Woolf.


Greek words:

hêmiôrion (little half-hour) Rev 8:1.

sigê (silence) Wisdom of Solomon 18:14; Acts 21:40; Rev 8:1.


Additional studies:

Hab 2:20; 3:2; Zeph 1:7; Zech 2:13; Matt 8:26; 17:9; Mark 4:39; 13:20; John 2:20; 11:39; Rev 6:3,5,7,9,12; 10:6.


Jan Lambrecht "The Opening of the Seals (Rev 6:1-8:6)"; Biblica 79 (1998): 198-221.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-03; 2012-06-30; 2015-03-05)

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8:2 And I beheld the seven messengers who stand in the very eyes of God, and seven trumpets were given to them.

Word for word (15 words in the Greek text): And (i/I)-beheld the seven messengers who in-the-very-eyes (of)-the (of)-god 'stand-(and-have-stood)'/stand, and (it)-was-given (to)-them seven trumpets.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(On the third day by the mountain Sinai) a voice of the trumpet sounds greatly/loudly. … (Ex 19:16b, Greek OT)

(Jesus/Joshua said to the priests:) “Let seven priests having seven vigorous trumpets come ‘by the side of’/forward in the same manner opposite the Lord and let (them) give a sinewy sign and let the chest of the covenant of the Lord follow on/after.” (Joshua 6:6, Greek OT)

The priests Eliakim, Maaseiah. Miniamin, Micaiah, Elioenai, Zechariah and Hananiah (stood in the house of God) in/with trumpets. (Neh 12:41, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) ”Sound the ‘trumpet a trumpet’/trumpet in Zion, proclaim in/on My holy mountain, and let all the ones dwelling (on) the earth be ‘poured together’/confounded, for the reason that the day of the Lord comes to the side of, that (it is) near.” (Joel 2:1a, Greek OT)

(Raphael said:) “I am Raphael, one out of the seven holy messengers who carry up the prayers of the holy ones towards (the glory of the Holy One) and (who) go into (His dwelling-place) ‘in the very eyes of’/before the glory of the Holy One.” (Tobit 12:15, BA)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Behold/’take heed’ (that) you may not ‘consider down’/downgrade one of these small/little ones (who believe into Me), for I say to you, that their messengers in heavens ‘through every thing’/always see the face of My Father, the One (being) in heavens.” (Matt 18:10)

(Jesus said to some Pharisees:) “In the resurrection ... (the seven brothers) are as the messengers of God (א,* א) in the heaven. (Matt 22:30)

(Jesus said to His disciples: “The Son of the Man) will dispatch away His messengers in company with a great trumpet.” (Matt 24:31a)

The messenger spoke to (Zacharias): “I am Gabriel (the name means ‘God is strength’) the one standing by the side of (God) in the very eyes of God, and I have been dispatched away to talk towards you and to bring these good little messages to you.” (Luke 1:19)

(Jesus said to the Pharisees and the scribes:) “It becomes joy in the very eyes of the messengers of God on/’on the ground of’ one misser (of the mark of God) changing his mind.” (Luke 15:10b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

Joybringing (grace) (with) you and peace from the One who is and the One who (continually) was and the One who comes and from the seven spirits * (א,* א, A) ‘in the very eyes of’/before His throne. (Rev 1:4b)

I heard behind me a great/loud voice as a trumpet. (Rev 1:10b)

(As for) the mystery of the seven stars which you beheld upon my right (hand) and the seven golden lampstands: the seven stars are messengers of the seven (assemblies) of called out, and * (א*) seven lampstands are seven (assemblies) of called out. (Rev 1:20)

Behold (א,*א), the first voice, which I heard, talking in company with me as a trumpet ... (Rev 4:1b)

Seven torches of fire (are) burning ‘in the very eyes of’/before the throne, which are the seven spirits of God. (Rev 4:5b)

(Hide us from a face/presence of the One being seated on the throne) and from the wrath of the little Ram, because the great day of their wrath has come and who is able to stand?” (Rev 6:16b-17)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

The blasts of the trumpets, blown by priests only, formed – at least in the second Temple – no part of the instrumental music of the service, but were intended for quite different purposes. ... On ordinary days the priests blew seven times, each time three blasts – a short sound, an alarm, and again a sharp short sound (Thekiah, Theruah, and Thekiah), or, as the Rabbis express it, ‘An alarm in the midst and a plain note before and after it.’ According to tradition, they were intended symbolically to proclaim the kingdom of God, Divine Providence, and the final judgment. ... On the Sabbaths, besides the ordinary ... the priests sounded their trumpets additional three times in the pauses of the Sabbath psalm. (Edersheim “The Temple” p 77)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Bo Giertz, P. Fjellstedt, Alf Henrikson, John Stott.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “stand in the very eyes of God”, see also Rev 6:16b-17.


Additional studies:

Lev 23:24; 25:9; 26:21; Joshua 6:6,8,13; 1 Chron 15:24; Ps 79:12; Dan 10:13; Zech 9:14; Sir 35:10(13); John 12:29; 20:12; 1 Cor 15:52; 1 Thess 4:16; Jude v 9; Rev 6:1; 8:6; 11:4; 15:1,6-8; 16:1; 17:1; 21:9.


Gordon Campbell "Findings, Seals, Trumpets and Bowls: Variations Upon the Theme of Covenant Rupture and Restoration in the Book of Revelation"; Westminster Theological Journal 66.1 (Spring 2004): 71-96.

Dale Ralph Davis "Relationship between the seals, trumpets and bowls in the Book of Revelation"; Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 16.3 (Summer 1973): 149-158.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-03; 2012-06-30; 2015-03-06)

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8:3a And another messenger, having a golden olibanum censer, came and stood upon the sacrificial altar.

Word for word (12 words in the Greek text): And another messenger came and stood upon the sacrificial-altar having (an)-olibanum-censer golden.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Some of the Levites were ‘set down’/appointed) upon/over the finest wheaten flour, the wine, the olive-oil, the olibanum censer and the spices. (1 Chron 9:29b, Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) “I beheld the Lord standing upon, upon the sacrificial altar.” (Amos 9:1a, Greek OT)

(The priests) burnt incense against the sacrificial altar. (1 Macc 4:50a)


The Latter Revelation:

(The soothsayers) carried to (Jesus) gifts; gold and olibanum/frankincense and myrrh. (Matt 2:11b)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “If – according to the circumstances - you so may carry your gift to, against the sacrificial altar and you there may remember that your brother has something ‘down from’/against you, let your gift be there in front of the sacrificial altar and withdraw. First ‘be different’/’reconcile yourself’ (with) your brother and having come carry then your gift to (the sacrificial altar).” (Matt 5:23-24)

It was beheld to (Zacharias) a messenger of a lord, standing out of (the) right (parts) of the sacrificial altar of the incense. (Luke 1:11)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

Having turned myself next to I beheld seven golden lampstands. (Rev 1:12b)

(Against a middle of the seven lampstands I beheld one like a son of a man), ... being (and having been) set/clothed (in) a robe reaching to the feet and being (and having been) girded around at the nipples (with) a golden girdle. (Rev 1:13b)

His feet (were) like copper from Lebanon (or: like copper similar olibanum/frankincense), as in a furnace glowing (and having glowed). (Rev 1:15a)

(Elders) being (and having been) wrapped up in white (things) (א,*א) and (with) golden crowns against their heads. (Rev 4:4b)

When It took the scroll, the four living beings and the twenty-four elders fell/’sank down’ in the very eyes of the little Ram, everyone having a zither and golden bowls being full of incenses which (א,*א) are (the) (א*) prayers of the holy ones. (Rev 5:8)

When It opened the fifth seal, I beheld below the sacrificial altar the souls of the men (א,* א) having been (and being) slaughtered because of the saying of God and because of the evidence which they (continually) had. (Rev 6:9)

I beheld another messenger ascending from ‘an upsticking of a sun’/east, having a seal of a living God. (Rev 7:2a)


Greek words:

olibanum censer (libanôtos) 1 Chron 9:29; Rev 8:3 – Rev 8:5.


Additional studies: Matt 23:18-20; John 12:29; 20:12; Heb 9:4; Rev 8:5; 10:1; 14:18; 18:1.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-03; 2012-06-30; 2015-03-07)

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8:3b And ‘many incenses’/’much incense’ was given to him, in order that he shall give/add (it) to the prayers of all the holy ones against the golden sacrificial altar * (א,* א) ‘in the very eyes of’/before the throne.

Word for word (20 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus): and (it)-was-given (to)-him incenses many, in-order-that (he)-will-give (to)-the prayers (of)-the (of)-holy (of)-all against the sacrificial-altar det gyllene in-the-very-eyes (of)-the (of)-throne.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The Lord said to Moses:) “You shall make a sacrificial altar of incense … And you shall entirely gild it (with) clean/pure goldmetal. … And Aaron shall burn compound thin incense upon it.” (Ex 30:1a,3a,7a, Greek OT)

(David said to the Lord:) “Straighten my prayer entirely as incense in the very eyes of You.” (Ps 141:2a, Greek OT)

(Raphael said:) “I am Raphael, one out of the seven holy messengers who carry up the prayers of the holy ones towards (the glory of the Holy One) and (who) go into (His dwelling-place) ‘in the very eyes of’/before the glory of the Holy One.” (Tobit 12:15, BA)

(Antiochus) came into, into the holy place ... and took the golden sacrificial altar … (1 Macc 1:21a)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Behold/’take heed’ (that) you may not ‘consider down’/downgrade one of these small/little ones (who believe into Me), for I say to you, that their messengers in heavens ‘through every thing’/always see the face of My Father, the One (being) in heavens.” (Matt 18:10)

Having come into, into the temple of the Lord, (Zacharias) obtained by lot to burn incense. And every/’the whole’ multitude of the people was (continually) praying outside (at) the hour of the incense. But it was beheld to (Zacharias) a messenger of a lord, standing out of (the) right (parts) of the sacrificial altar of the incense. (Luke 1:9b-11)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

Joybringing (grace) (with) you and peace from the One who is and the One who (continually) was and the One who comes and from the seven spirits * (א,* א, A) ‘in the very eyes of’/before His throne. (Rev 1:4b)

Seven torches of fire (are) burning ‘in the very eyes of’/before the throne, which are the seven spirits of God. And ‘in the very eyes of’/before the throne (there is) as a sea of crystal, like rock crystal. (Rev 4:5b-6a)

(The elders) * (א*) throw their crowns ‘in the very eyes of’/before the throne, saying: “Worthy are You, Lord (א,* א), the Lord and our God.” (Rev 4:10b-11a)

When It took the scroll, the four living beings and the twenty-four elders fell/’sank down’ in the very eyes of the little Ram, everyone having a zither and golden bowls being full of incenses which (א,*א) are (the) (א*) prayers of the holy ones. (Rev 5:8)

When It opened the fifth seal, I beheld below the sacrificial altar the souls of the men (א,* א) having been (and being) slaughtered because of the saying of God and because of the evidence which they (continually) had. (Rev 6:9)

(I beheld a much/many-headed crowd) standing ‘in the very eyes of’/before the throne and in the very eyes of the little Ram, being (and having been) wrapped up in white dresses and (with) date-twigs in their hands. (Rev 7:9b)

(The elders and the four living beings) fell/sank down against/on their faces ‘in the very eyes of’/before the throne and prostrated themselves before God (in honour of Him). … Because of this they are ‘in the very eyes of’/before the throne of God, and they serve Him day and night in His temple. (Rev 7:11b,15a)

Another messenger, having a golden olibanum censer, came and stood upon the sacrificial altar. (Rev 8:3a)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

As you see my task has been to unveil all blind faith in religion, art, science, democracy and socialism. The study Mystik perhaps needs a preparing explanation. It is a tendency lie with a purpose to slay religion at the high altar by explaining the prayer physiopsycologically. (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev VI aug 1866-jan 1888" p 190; letter 1877-04-25 to Isidor Bonnier)


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “incense” and “the prayers of … the holy ones”, see also Rev 5:8.

Concerning “‘in the very eyes of’/before the throne”, see also Rev 1:4b.


Additional studies: Ex 37:25-26,29; Num 4:11; Ezek 41:22; Tobit 12:12; John 14:13-14; 15:7; Rev 9:13.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-03; 2012-06-30; 2015-03-08)

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8:4 And a (א*) smoke of the incenses, (with) the prayers of the holy ones, ascended in the very eyes of God out of a hand of the messenger.

Word for word (16 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus): and ascended (a)-smoke (of)-the (of)-incenses (with)-the prayers (of)-the (of)-holy-(ones) out-of (a)-hand (of)-the (of)-messenger in-the-very-eyes (of)-the (of)-god.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

Noah built a sacrificial altar to the Lord … and carried up wholly offerings of fruits against the sacrificial altar. And the Lord God smelled a scent of fragrance. (Gen 8:20-21a, Greek OT)

(David said to the Lord:) “Straighten my prayer entirely as incense in the very eyes of You.” (Ps 141:2a, Greek OT)

The lintel was lifted against/up from/at the voice of the one who shouted (and had shouted), and the house was completed/filled (with) smoke. (Is 6:4, Greek OT)

Everyone (of the elders) (continually) had his censer in the hand, and the haze of the incense ascended. (Ezek 8:11b, Greek OT)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “An offering of a righteous lubricates a sacrificial altar and its fragrance (is) opposite (the) Highest One.” (Sir 35:5 or 35:8)


The Latter Revelation:

Every/’the whole’ multitude of the people was (continually) praying outside (at) the hour of the incense. But it was beheld to (Zacharias) a messenger of a lord, standing out of (the) right (parts) of the sacrificial altar of the incense. (Luke 1:10-11)

The messenger spoke to (Zacharias): “I am Gabriel (the name means ‘God is strength’) the one standing by the side of (God) in the very eyes of God, and I have been dispatched away to talk towards you and to bring these good little messages to you.” (Luke 1:19)

(Peter said: “This is what was spoken through the prophet Joel:) ‘I will give … signs upon the earth down/beneath, blood and fire and haze of smoke … before the great * (א,* א) day of the Lord come/comes.’” (Acts 2:19b,20b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

When It took the scroll, the four living beings and the twenty-four elders fell/’sank down’ in the very eyes of the little Ram, everyone having a zither and golden bowls being full of incenses which (א,*א) are (the) (א*) prayers of the holy ones. (Rev 5:8)

(The elders and the four living beings) fell/sank down against/on their faces ‘in the very eyes of’/before the throne and prostrated themselves before God (in honour of Him). (Rev 7:11b)

I beheld the seven messengers who stand in the very eyes of God. (Rev 8:2a)


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “incense” and “the prayers of the holy ones”, see also Rev 5:8.


Greek words:

kapnos (smoke) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Acts 2:19; Rev 8:4 – 1 Macc 4:20; Wisdom of Solomon 2:2; 5:14; 11:18; Sir 22:24; The Epistle of Jeremiah v 20; Rev 9:2-3,17-18; 14:11; 15:8; 18:9,18; 19:3.


Additional studies: Joel 2:30; John 14:13-14; 15:7; Acts 10:4; Eph 5:2; Phil 4:18; Heb 13:15; 1 Pet 2:5; Rev 15:8.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-03; 2012-07-01; 2015-03-09)

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8:5a And the messenger takes (and has taken) the olibanum censer and filled it out of the fire of the sacrificial altar and threw (it) into/to the earth.

Word for word (19 words in the Greek text): and takes-(and-has-taken) the messenger the olibanum-censer and filled it out-of the fire (of)-the (of)-sacrificial-altar and threw into the earth.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

The Lord ‘gave wet’/’let (it) rain’ sulphur and fire against Sodom and Gomorrah from the side of the Lord out of the heaven. (Gen 19:24, Greek OT)

Pharaoh spoke towards Joseph: “Speak to your brothers: ‘Make/do this: Fill/equip your journeys and go away into 'an earth'/'a land' of Canaan.’” (Gen 45:17, Greek OT)

Having taken . . . everyone his firepan (Adab and Abihu), the two sons of Aaron, put fire against, against it, and threw incense against, against it, and carried to, opposite the Lord, alien fire, which the Lord had not commanded them. (Lev 10:1, Greek OT)

(Aaron) shall take the firepan filled with ‘coals of fire’/’burning coals’ from the sacrificial altar. (Lev 16:12a, Greek OT)

(The Lord) spoke towards the male being (and having been) set/clothed in the dress: “Come into, into the middle of the wheels below the cherubim and fulfil your outspread hands (with) ‘coal of fire’/’burning coals’, out of a middle of the cherubim and scatter (them) asunder against the city (Jerusalem).” (Ezek 10:2a, Greek OT)


The Latter Revelation:

Having run and filled a sponge (with) sour wine (and) having put it round about a reed, a certain one (continually/repeatedly) gave it to (Jesus) to drink. (Mark 15:36a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

Jesus says to (the servants): "Fill the water-pots (of/containing) water." And they filled them till up/’the brim’. (John 2:7)

(The disciples) led together and filled twelve large baskets of/with fragments out of the five breads/loaves of barley which was/were (א,* א, A) over and above for the ones ‘having eaten down (and eating down)’/’having eaten (and eating)’. (John 6:13)

Another messenger, having a golden olibanum censer, came and stood upon the sacrificial altar. (Rev 8:3a)


My own comments and speculations:

In a restoration perspective we can see how the thing which once happened to Jerusalem (Ezek 10:2) now happens to the earth.

In the OT we also have the Greek word for “fill” in 3 Macc 5:47 and 4 Macc 3:14.

Concerning “olibanum censer” and “sacrificial altar”, see Rev 8:3a.


Additional studies: Ex 9:23-24; Ezek 10:6-7; 2 Macc 1:19; Mark 4:37; Luke 14:23; Rev 10:10; 14:18; 15:8.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-03; 2012-07-01; 2015-03-10)

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8:5b And they/it became peals of thunder and voices and rays of light and a shaking.

Word for word (9 words in the Greek text): and (they/it)-became peals-of-thunder and voices and rays-of-light and (a)-shaking.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

… And behold, voices and noise, peals of thunder and a shaking; trouble upon the earth. (Esther 1:1d/A4, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said to the Lord:) “Your voice of thunder (was) in the wheel/’whirl of the storm’. Your rays of light brought the (inhabited) world to light. The earth moved to and fro and it ‘was become trembling’/trembled.” (Ps 77:18 or 77:19), Greek OT)

(The prophet said to Judas:) “From the side of the Lord of hosts: ‘... It will be a visitation in company with thunder and shaking and a great/loud voice, carrying with it a sudden blast of wind and ‘an eating down’/’a consuming’ flame of fire.” (Is 29:6, Greek OT)

(Solomon said:) “The vengeances came on the missers (of the mark of God), (but) not without the proofs of the thunderbolts having before become (and becoming) (in) the substinence, for righteously they (continually) suffered their own evils/’evil works’, for they had and/also ardently prosecuted ‘more severe’/’the most abominable’ hatred of foreigners.” (Wisdom of Solomon 19:13)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “It will be shakings and famines (א,* א) ‘according to’/throughout (various) places.” (Matt 24:7b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

Rays of light and voices and peals of thunder go out, out of the throne. (Rev 4:5a)

I beheld when (the little Ram) opened the sixth seal, and it became a great shaking. (Rev 6:12a)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: Felicia Buttz Clark, Ingmar Gustafsson.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “peals of thunder and voices and rays of light”, see also Rev 4:5a. In a restoration perspective we can observe the contrast order in Rev 4:5a.


Additional studies: Amos 1:2; Zech 14:5; Matt 8:24; 27:54; Mark 13:8; John 12:28-29; Rev 11:19.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-03; 2012-07-01; 2015-03-11)

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8:6 And the seven messengers having the seven trumpets made themselves ready in order that they might sound the trumpets.

Word for word (12 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus): And the seven messenger having the seven trumpets made-ready themselves in-order-that (they)-might-sound-the-trumpet/trumpets.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

The Lord God spoke to (Cain): "... 'Every the having killed'/'whoever kills' Cain, being procured seven/sevenfold justice he will be 'loosened from the side'/detached." (Gen 4:15a, Greek OT)

(Moses) spoke to the people: “Become ready (for the third day).” … But/and (on) the third day ... it became voices and rays of light and a dusky cloud upon mountain Sinai, a voice of the trumpet sounds greatly/loudly, and every/all the people in the (walled) camp were frightened. (Ex 19:15a,16, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Moses: “Sound the trumpets) and every/all the synagogue shall be led together against the door of the tent of the testimony.” (Num 10:3, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Moses:) “If you – according to the circumstances – may come out into war in your earth/land towards the adverseries, the ones standing against you, ... you shall give a sign (with) the trumpets and you shall be remembered upwards/'on high' opposite the Lord, and you will be saved throughout from your enemies. (Num 10:9, Greek OT)

(The Lord/the prophet said:) “Give a sign upon the earth (with) a trumpet and shout greatly/loudly. Speak: You may be led together and we may come into, into the besieged cities.” (Jer 4:5b, Greek OT)

(The great day of the Lord is) a day of a trumpet and a scream against the firm/fortified cities.” (Zeph 1:16a, Greek OT)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “When you so – according to the circumstances – you may make/give alm/alms, you may not sound the trumpet in front of you.” (Matt 6:2a)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Become ready, because The Son of the Man comes at hour which you do not think.” (Matt 24:44b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

I heard behind me a great/loud voice as a trumpet. (Rev 1:10b)

I beheld the seven messengers who stand in the very eyes of God, and seven trumpets were given to them. (Rev 8:2)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

Kalle held his breath and climbed. In itself it surely was no specially dangerous mountaineering, but the thought that he whenever could have a crowd of kidnappers after himself, still got him to be in a cold sweat. . . . Only once the instinct failed his right big toe, and he kicked away a stone which with a loud noise fell down the precipice. . . . Anders heard the crash, when the stone came rushing. He quickly jumped to the side in order to not get it on his skull and muttered angrily to himself: "Should he not also sound the trumpet, so that they really hear that he is on his way." (Astrid Lindgren "Kalle Blomkvist och Rasmus" p 60-61; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

It is over the sea of time a rolling surge a tower of crystal, transparent and clear as ether. . . . There two clocks hang in the proud round of the cupola - the one cast by radiance from the hour of early dawn, the golden tongue swings for the breath of the ideas, she tolls so slowly in time with the breath of the world. . . . She exhorts these (noble) souls so seriously deep and tenderly to dream beautifully and work for what they most beautifully have dreamt and reminds them every evening hour, at the fire of sunset, of kingdoms of truth and countries of beauty far away. . . . She tolls in pining to consecrate the hour, when the races of the earth become a federation of brothers and sisters, when every pain finds its caressing consolation and every tired head its rest at a beloved breast. . . . She tolls in pining to some time agree with her clean tones in the song of freedom, to ring over the world the blessed message: see, the world becomes the kingdom of God! See, mankind finds God! . . . But in the mould of the other clock numbing the darkness flew, which has brooded in the dusky bosom of chaos. . . . If hopelessness falls over the distress of mankind, if the song of freedom becomes silent because of favour and bread, if the heart of youth cools and feels without agony, how away out of the world the holy ideal of the good thing yields. . . . Then the hand attaches around the strong rope of the clock, then the demon rings with raging mind, then the clock of the night swings its enormous round, then the whole world shakes and cracks in its deepest ground. (Viktor Rydberg "Dikter. Första samlingen." p 86-88; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Yngva Adell, Lars Ahlberg, Ingvar Andersson, Lennart Andersson, Sivar Arnér, Carin Bergström, Elisabeth Bergstrand-Poulsen, Elisabeth Beskow, Per Beskow, Malte Blaxhult, Raine Borg, Nils-Arvid Bringéus, Peter Carelli, Barthold Carlson, Leif Carlsson, Marie Clark Nelson, Max de Lange-Praamsma, Bob Dylan, Pehr Edwall, Albert Engström, Per Ericsson, Erik Floderus, Jan Garnert, Carl Grimberg, Lennart Gustavsson, Gunnar Hallingberg, Valdemar Hedfors, Verner von Heidenstam, Alf Henrikson, Claes-Göran Holmberg, Hjalmar Holmquist, Håkan Håkansson, Anders Jarlert, Inga Johansson, Bror Kugelberg, Pär Lagerkvist, Selma Lagerlöf, Hans Larsson, Harry Lenhammar, Ingemar Liman, Einar Lindén, Gustaf Linder, Sigurd Lindgren, Ragnar Lindstam, Olaf Moe, Fredrik Nielsen, Bertil Nilsson, Helmer V. Nyberg, Pälle Näver, Runa Ohlander, Sven-Erik Pernler, Hans Evert René, Anna Maria Roos, Sigrid Rosell, Abraham Rundbäck, Dag Sandahl, Adolf Schück, Sven-Åke Selander, Olof Sjöstrand, Alexander Solsjenitsyn, Rikard Sterner, Rune Storck, Kristina Söderpalm, Esaias Tegnér, Nils Erik Villstrand, Verner von Heidenstam, Kallistos Ware, Magnus Widell, Gustaf Wikner, Agne Ydrefelt, Göran Åberg, Wilhelm Åkerblom, Mats Åmark.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “the seven messengers ... the seven trumpets”, see Rev 8:2.


Greek words:

salpizô (sound the trumpet) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Matt 6:2; Rev 8:6 – 1 Macc 3:54; 4:13,40; 5:33; 6:33; 7:45; 9:12; 16:8; 1 Cor 15:52; Rev 8:7-8,10,12-13; 9:1,13; 10:7; 11:15.


Additional studies: 2 Chron 13:12; Zech 9:14; Luke 1:17; 12:40; Rev 8:7,8,10,12; 9:1,13; 10:7; 11:15.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-03; 2012-07-01; 2015-03-12)

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8:7a And the first sounded the trumpet, and it became hail and fire, being (and having been) mixed in/with blood, and it was thrown into/to the earth.

Word for word (17 words in the Greek text): And the first sounded-the-trumpet. and (it)-became hail and fire being-(and-having-been)-mixed in blood, and (it)-was-thrown into the earth.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

The Lord gave voices and hail, and the fire ‘ran through’/spread upon the earth, and the Lord ‘gave wet hail’/’let hail rain’ against every/all the earth/land of Egypt. But/and it/there (continually) was the hail and the flaming fire in the hail. (Ex 9:23b-24a, Greek OT)

(Daniel said to the king:) “As you have beheld (and behold) the feet (of the idol), (one) part indeed a certain potsherd of the potter, but (one) part something of iron, another kingdom, divided asunder, will be in it, entirely just as you beheld the iron being (and having been) mixed up together, together (with) the potsherd of clay.” (Dan 2:41, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) “I shall give omens in the heaven and upon the earth, blood and fire and hazes of smoke.” (Joel 2:30, Greek OT)

(Solomon said to the Lord:) “To flee Your hand is unable, for wicked ones, denying to know You, were whipped in/with the stability/strength of Your arm, being pursued (with) foreign rains and hails and inevitable downpours, being entirely used up (with) fire.” (Wisdom of Solomon 16:15-16)


The Latter Revelation:

(The soldiers) gave (Jesus) wine to drink being (and having been) mixed ‘in company’/together with gall. (Matt 27:34a)

Some (continually) were by the side of (Jesus) in the same seasonable time bringing away a message to Him on account of the Galileans, whose blood Pilate had mixed ‘in company’/together with their sacrifices. (Luke 13:1)

(Jesus said to His disciples: ”On) the day Lot came ‘out of’/out from Sodom fire and sulphur ‘gave wet'/rained from heaven and perished all of them (א,*א,A).” (Luke 17:29)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

about 2000 and time before

The messenger takes (and has taken) the olibanum censer and filled it out of the fire of the sacrificial altar and threw (it) into/to the earth. (Rev 8:5a)

The seven messengers having the seven trumpets made themselves ready in order that they might sound the trumpets. (Rev 8:6)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

The first trumpet recalls the seventh Egyptian plague when God sent thunder, hail and fire upon the earth; Exod 9:23-26. (J. Massyngberde Ford "Revelation" p 154)

Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Leif Carlsson, Otto Funcke, Seamus Heaney, Erik Axel Karlfeldt.


Greek words:

mignymi (mix) (in the NT) Matt 27:34; Luke 13:1; Rev 8:7 – Rev 15:2.

chalaza (hail) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Wisdom of Solomon 16:16; Rev 8:7 – Wisdom of Solomon 5:22; 16:22; Sir 39:29; 43:15; 46:5; Rev 11:19; 16:21.


Additional studies: Joshua 10:11; Job 38:22-23; Ps 8:13(14); 78:47-48; 105:32; 148:8; Is 28:2; Jer 30:30; Ezek 10:2; 13:11,13; 38:22; Sir 46:6; Luke 9:54; 12:49; Rev 11:19;15:2; 16:21.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-04; 2012-07-01; 2015-03-13)

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8:7b And the third of the earth was burned down, and the third of the trees were burned down, and every light green grass was burned down.

Word for word (17 words in the Greek text): And the third (of)-the (of)-earth was-burned-down and the third (of)-the (of)-trees were-burned-down and every graas light-green was-burned-down.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(God said: “I have given to the one having) in itself a soul of life every light green grass into/to consumption . . . .” (Gen 1:30b, Greek OT)

Nothing light green was not/- left behind in the woods/trees and/or in ‘every herb’/’all herbs’ of the plain in every earth/ground of Egypt. (Ex 10:15b, Greek OT)

(When the sons of Israel and the alien) will behold the blows of that earth/land and its sicknesses which the Lord has dispatched away against it, (they will say:) “ ... Every/all light green may not ascend against it.” (Deut 29:22b-23a, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said: “The righteous one) will be as the wood having been (and being) planted to the side of the passages/ways of the waters.” (Ps 1:3a)

(David said: “The lawless) will quickly be dried away as if (they were) grass.” (Ps 37:2a, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said:) “Let (all the ones hating Zion) become as grass of roofs, which is dried before 'the thing to be drawn out'/'it has become long'.” (Ps 129:6, Greek OT)

(The woman said to Solomon:) “As an apple in the woods/trees of the oak-wood, in this way (is) my nephew/welcomed upwards/in a middle of the sons.” (Song of Solomon 2:3a, Greek OT)

(A voice said to the prophet:) “Every/all glory of a man (is) as a flower of grass.” (Is 40:6b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to His people:) “Do not fear, because I have redeemed you. I have called you (by) your name, you are Mine. And if you – according to the circumstances – may step through, through water, I am in company with you. And rivers will not ripple over (you) together with you. And if you – according to the circumstances – may come through, through fire, you may not/certainly not be burned down, and a flame will not burn you down.” (Is 43:1b-2, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to the prophet:) "You, son of man, take to yourself a large sword to sharp over/'more than' a barber's razor. You may acquire it for yourself and you shall lead it against, against your head and pass it over your head and against your beard. And you may take a yoke of 'little standing-places'/balances and you shall 'cause them to stand asunder'/'divide the hair'. The fourth/'fourth part' you shall burn up in fire in a middle of (Jerusalem) 'according to'/after the 'making full'/complement of the days of the enclosement." (Ezek 5:1-2a, Greek OT)

(The herald of the king said:) “Every/everyone who – according to the circumstances – may not having fallen/’fallen down’ prostate himself (before the golden image), him they shall throw in, into the furnace of the burning fire.” … (The king said:) “I behold four males being (and having been) loosened/released wandering about in the fire and no ruin/harm became in them, and the beholding of the fourth (has) a likeness of a messenger of God (Theod: ... with a son of God).” (Dan 3:6,25b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said concerning the house of David and the inhabitants of Jerusalem:) "I will lead the third (part of the people) through fire and cause them to glow as the silvermetal 'is caused to glow'/glows and prove them as the goldmetal is proved. It will call against My name, and I will 'hear on'/'listen to' it and I will speak: 'This is My people.' And it will speak: 'The Lord, my God.'" (Zech 13:9, Greek OT)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said: ”The Highest One) will ’quench from’/extinguish young verdure as a fire.” (Sir 43:21b)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “You will gain additional knowledge of (the false prophets) from/’owing to’ their fruits. … Every tree making/bearing not fine fruit is cut out and is thrown into a fire.” (Matt 7:16a,19a)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “The kingdom of the heavens is like leaven, which on a woman's having taken (it), she hid (it) in, into three corn-measures (about 13 litres each) of flour, till (the time in) which it was wholly leavened.” (Matt 13:33b)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) ”Just as the darnels are collected and burned down (in) fire, in this way it will be in the consummation of the age.” (Matt 13:40)

(Jesus) 'arranged on'/ordered (the disciples) to ‘lean up’/’lay down’ (א ,*א, B*) all ‘drinking-bouts drinking-bouts’/’by drinking-bouts’ on the light green grass. (Mark 6:39)

(The blind said:) “I see the men, because I behold (them) walking about as trees.” (Mark 8:24b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) " If – according to the circumstances – a certain (person) may not have stayed in Me, he has been thrown outside as the twig and been dried. And they lead it (א,*א) together (with other twigs) and throw (them) into the fire, and it is burnt." (John 15:6)

I beheld, and behold, a light green horse. And the one being seated above it, a name to him (was) death (א,*א)Death. And Hades (continually) followed * (א,*א) him. (Rev 6:8a)

I beheld four messengers standing against the four corners of the earth, getting power over the four winds of the earth, in order that a wind might (א,*א) not blow upon the earth ‘and not’/nor upon the sea ‘and not’/nor against every/any tree. (Rev 7:1)

(The messenger) said (to the four messengers): “You may not act unrighteously (against) the earth, ‘but not’/nor (א,*א) (against) the sea, ‘but not’/nor (א,*א) (against) the trees, till we may have sealed the slaves of our God upon their foreheads.” (Rev 7:3)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

“Tree” might be used here in the metaphorical sense and therefore be equivalent to … “those who dwell (on the earth)”. (J. Massyngberde Ford "Revelation" commenting Rev 7:1, p 115)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Svetlana Aleksijevitj, Sven Alverlin, Ruth Klüger, Harry Sjöman, Alexander Solsjenitsyn, Tomas Tranströmer, Rudolf Vrba.


Greek words:

katakaiô (burn down) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Matt 13:40; Rev 8:7 – 1 Macc 5:68; 2 Macc 10:36; The Epistle of Jeremiah v 54; Matt 3:12; 13:30; Luke 3:17; Acts 19:19; 1 Cor 3:15; Heb 13:11; Rev 17:16; 18:8.


Additional studies: Judges 9:8-15; 2 Sam 8:2; 2 Kings 19:26; Ps 37:35-36; 92:7(8);102:5,11(12); Is 7:2; 37:27; 51:12; 56:3; 65:22; Ezek 31:3-18; Dan 4:7-23(10-26); Matt 3:10; 7:17-19; 12:33; 14:19; Luke 3:9; 6:43-44; 13:21; John 6:10; Jas 1:9-11;1 Pet 1:24; Rev 8:6,8-12; 9:4,15,18; 12:4.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-04; 2012-07-01; 2015-03-14)

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8:8 And the second * (א,* א) sounded the trumpet, and (something) as a great mountain, burning (in) fire, was thrown into the sea, and the third of the sea became blood.

Word for word (21 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus): And the other sounded-the-trumpet. and as (a)-mountain great (in)-fire burning (it)-was-thrown into the sea, and became the third (of)-the (of)-sea blood.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

The Lord spoke towards Moses: “Speak to your brother Aaron: ‘Take your rod and stretch out your hand against the waters of Egypt and against their rivers and against their canals and against their marshes and against every their water standing together/still, and they will be blood.’” And it became blood in every/all earth/land of Egypt, both in the (vessels) of wood and in the (vessels) of stone. (Ex 7:19, Greek OT)

(On the third day by the mountain Sinai) a voice of the trumpet sounds greatly/loudly. … (Ex 19:16b, Greek OT)

(Moses said to Israel:) “You came to/forward and stood underneath/below the mountain (Horeb/Sinai) and the mountain (continually) burned (with) fire till the heaven.” (Deut 4:11a, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said:) "We will not fear, 'in the thing to be troubled the earth'/'when the earth is troubled' and 'be put in company with mountains'/'mountains are altered' in hearts of seas." (Ps 46:2 or 46:3, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said: “The Lord) ‘turned about’/altered the waters (of Egypt) into blood.” (Ps 105:29a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Babylon:) “I shall give/’give ... over’ you as a mountain being (and having been) set on fire.” (Jer 51:25b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Babylon:) “Who are you, the great mountain?” (Zech 4:7a, Greek OT)


The Latter Revelation:

... Again the slanderer takes (Jesus) to the side of (himself) into/to an exceedingly high mountain and shows Him all the kingdoms of the adornment/’adorned world’ and their glory. And he spoke to Him: "All these things I will give You, if – according to the circumstances – on having fallen/’sunk down’ You may prostrate Yourself before me (in honour of me)." (Matt 4:8-9)

Peter says to (Jesus): "Rabbi, behold, the fig tree which You cursed has been (and is) dried." And ‘having answered’/’Jesus answered and’ says to (the disciples): "If (א,*א) you have a faith of God, amen I say to you, that the one who – according to the circumstances – may speak to this mountain: 'Be lifted and be thrown into the sea', and may not doubt in his heart however/but may believe, that what he talks becomes/’comes about’, it will be/’come about’ for him.” (Mark 11:21b-23)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

Every mountain and hill (א,* א) were stirred out of their places. (Rev 6:14b)

They say to the mountains and to the rocks: “Fall against us and hide us from a face/presence of the One being seated on (א,* א) the throne.” (Rev 6:16a)

I beheld the seven messengers who stand in the very eyes of God, and seven trumpets were given to them. (Rev 8:2)

The seven messengers having the seven trumpets made themselves ready in order that they might sound the trumpets. (Rev 8:6)

The third of the earth was burned down, and the third of the trees were burned down, and every light green grass was burned down. (Rev 8:7b)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

The second (trumpet) has some analogy with the first Egyptian plague when the Nile turned to blood and all the fish died; Exod 7:20-21. (J. Massyngberde Ford "Revelation" p 154-155)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Elisabeth Beskow.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “sounded the trumpet”, see also Rev 8:2; 8:6.


Additional studies: Ex 4:9; 7:17-21; Deut 5:23; Ps 78:44; Is 15:9; 34:3; Matt 21:21; Mark 11:23; Rev 11:6; 16:3.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-04; 2012-07-01; 2015-03-15)

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8:9 And the third part (א,* א) of the creatures, the ones in the sea, the ones having a soul, died. And the third of the boats were ruined throughout.

Word for word (20 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus): and died the third part (of)-the (of)-creatures (of)-the-(ones) in the sea the-(ones) having (a)-soul and the third (of)-the (of)-boats were-ruined-throughout.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

God spoke: "Let the waters lead out creeping animals of/with living souls." (Gen 1:20a, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said to the Lord:) “The earth was completed/satiated of Your acquisition/possessions. This/’here (is)’ the sea, the great and spacious, there (are) creeping animals that is/have not a number, living beings, small in company with great. There boats go through.” (Ps 104:24b-26a, Greek OT)

A day of the Lord of hosts (will come) against every insolent overweening (man), against every/everyone (being) high and aloft, and they will be humbled. … against every boat of sea. (Is 2:12,16a, Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) "Hear a saying of the Lord, sons of Israel, for the reason that (it is) a judgment to the Lord towards the ones dwelling (on) the earth, for the reason that (there is) not truth, nor mercy, nor additional knowledge of God upon the earth. … And the fishes/fish of the sea will ‘leave out’/disappear." (Hos 4:1,3b, Greek OT)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "The kingdom of the heavens is like a drag-net having been thrown into the sea and led together (fish) out of every descent, which, when it was completed, having caused (it) to go/come up against the beach and having sat down, they collected the fine ones into receptacles, but the rotten/bad ones they threw outside." (Matt 13:47-48)

(The disciples) take (Jesus) to the side of, as/because He (continually) was in the boat. And other boats were (continually) in company with Him. And it becomes a hurricane, a great wind, and the waves threw/laid against into the boat, so that the boat already was filled (with water). (Mark 4:36b-37)

(Jesus said to His disciples: “Make yourselves) an inexhaustible heap/treasure in the heavens, whereat ... moth does not ruin throughout.” (Luke 12:33)

(Paul said to the ones being on the boat:) “None/no soul will be ‘throwing away’/lost more than the boat.” (Acts 27:22b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

On the following day the crowd, standing (and having stood) on the other side of the sea, beheld that another little boat was not (continually/-) there ‘if not’/except one, that one into which Jesus' disciples had stepped in (א*), and that Jesus had not come into, into the boat together with His disciples, however/but His disciples had gone away alone. (On) the boats' - out/’on the basis’ of Tiberias – so having come upon/near (א,*א), near the place whereat/where they had eaten the bread (which) the Lord having/had ‘been thankful’/’given thanks’ and having beheld that Jesus (continually) was not there (א*), nor His disciples, they ascended into the boat (א*) and came into Capharnaum seeking Jesus. (John 6:22-24)

Every creature which (is) in the heaven and upon the earth * (א,* א) and upon the sea, and the things in them, all I and/also (א,* א) heard saying: “To the One being seated upon (א,* א) the throne and to the little Ram (be) the blessing and the honour and the glory and the power into the (coming) ages of the (coming) ages.” (Rev 5:13)


My own comments and speculations:

Perhaps there is a special theological meaning in “ploion”, the Greek word for “boat”. In John 6:22-24 in the reading of Sinaiticus, prima manus, the word for the boat of the disciples is “ploiarion”, a little boat. The other boats are said to be larger boats as here in Rev 8:9. This can mean that the little boats of the disciples do not belong to the boats which are ruined. Cf. Ps 16:10 where we have the noun of the Greek word, which here is translated by “ruin throughout”: (David said to the Lord:) “You will not give/permit your pious one to behold ruin throughout.” Cf. My own comments and speculations to John 6:66-69.


Greek words:

diaftheirô (ruin throughout) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Luke 12:33; Rev 8:9 – 2 Macc 12:23; Wisdom of Solomon 16:5,19; 18:12; 2 Cor 4:16; 1 Tim 6:5; Rev 11:18.


Additional studies: 2 Chron 20:37; Zeph 1:3; Matt 8:24; Luke 8:23; 2 Cor 11:25; Rev 18:19.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-04; 2012-07-01; 2015-03-16)

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8:10a And the third messenger sounded the trumpet. And a great star fell out of the heaven, burning as a torch.

Word for word (15 words in the Greek text): And the third messenger sounded-the-trumpet. and fell out-of the heaven (a)-star great burning as (a)-torch.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Israel) will take/'take up' this wailing against the king of Babylon and speak in that day: "... How fell/'(did not) ... fall' the Morningstar, the one sticking up early in the day, fall out of, out of the heaven! The one dispatching away (men) towards all the nations may be crushed into/against the earth!" (Is 14:4a,12, Greek OT)

(The horn) will be heightened till the stars of the heaven, and (some) from/of the stars fell (Theod) against the earth. (Dan 8:10a, Greek OT)

… The eyes (of the man set/clothed in linen) were as if (they were) torches of fire. (Dan 10:6a, Greek OT)

(The beholding of the wagons of the Medes and the Babylonians is) as torches of fire, and (as) to run/drive (right) through as rays of light. (Nahum 2:4b, Greek OT)

(The enemy of the Jews) fall/fell from the wagon. … No one was able to carry of to the side of (the one) a small/little (while) formerly thinking (he would) touch stars of the heavens. (2 Macc 9:7b-10a)

Elijah, a prophet as a fire, stood up and his saying (continually) burnt as a torch. (Sir 48:1)


The Latter Revelation:

(Soothsayers from upstickings/east said:) “Where is the One having been brought forth, a King of the Jews? For we have beheld His star.” (Matt 2:2a)

(Jesus said to His disciples: “After the great oppression) the stars will be falling/’falling down’ out of the heaven, and the abilities/powers, the ones in the heavens, will move to and fro.” (Mark 13:25)

(Jesus said to the seventy:) "I (continually) looked at the adversary, having fallen out of the heaven as a ray of light." (Luke 10:18)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Jesus said to the crowd:) " Now a judgment is of/upon this adornment/’adorned world’. Now the leader of this adornment/’adorned world’ will be thrown out outside." (John 12:31)

Seven torches of fire (are) burning ‘in the very eyes of’/before the throne, which are the seven spirits of God. (Rev 4:5b)

The stars of the heaven fell against (א,* א) the earth. (Rev 6:13a)

I beheld the seven messengers who stand in the very eyes of God, and seven trumpets were given to them. (Rev 8:2)

The seven messengers having the seven trumpets made themselves ready in order that they might sound the trumpets. (Rev 8:6)


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “sounded the trumpet”, see Rev 8:2 and Rev 8:6.


Additional studies: Judges 5:20; John 16:11; Rev 9:1;12:4.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-04; 2012-07-01; 2015-03-17)

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8:10b And it fell against the third of the rivers and against the springs of the waters.

Word for word (13 words in the Greek text): and (it)-fell against the third (of)-the (of)-rivers and against the springs (of)-the (of)-waters.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

The Lord spoke towards Moses: “Speak to your brother Aaron: ‘Take your rod and stretch out your hand against the waters of Egypt and against their rivers and against their canals and against their marshes and against every their water standing together/still.” (Ex 7:19a, Greek OT)

Israel came into Ailim, and there (continually) were twelve springs of waters and seventy trunks of dates, but/and there they threw up a wall to the side of, to the side of the waters. (Ex 15:27, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said: “The Lord) having turned the rock into lakes of waters and the cutting border into springs of waters. (Ps 114:8, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said:) “Upon/by the rivers of Babylon, there (the exiled and tormented people) sat down and wept. ... Daughter of the wretched Babylon ... Happy (the one) who will ‘get power (over)’/seize and dash your infants to the ground towards the rock.” (Ps 137:1a,8a,9, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) “In/on the day (Egypt) descended into Hades … I stood against/near its rivers and hindered a multitude of water.” (Ezek 31:15a, Greek OT)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said:) "'Every the'/everyone hearing these My sayings and not making/doing them will be like a foolish male, whoever built his habitation against the sand. And the wet descended, and the rivers came and * (א*) cut/struck towards that habitation and it fell and its falling (continually) was great. (Matt 7:26-27)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

Jesus answered and spoke to (the woman): “Every/everyone drinking out of this water will thirst again, but the one drinking (א*) out of the water, which I will give him, will not/certainly not thirst into the (coming) age, however/but the water, which I will give him, will in him become a spring of water, springing/’welling up’ into an agelong life." The woman says towards Him: “Lord, give me this water, in order that I may not thirst but/and not may come through hitherward to ladle out.” (John 4:13-15)

The little Ram, the One upwards/above a middle of the throne, will be a shepherd to them, and He will show them the way upon springs of waters of life. (Rev 7:17a)

The third of the earth was burned down, and the third of the trees were burned down, and every light green grass was burned down. (Rev 8:7b)

The third of the sea became blood. And the third part (א,* א) of the creatures, the ones in the sea, the ones having a soul, died. And the third of the boats were ruined throughout. (Rev 8:8b-9)


Additional studies: Is 49:10; 58:11; Hab 3:8; Matt 7:24-25; Luke 6:47-49; Rev 14:7; 16:4.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-04; 2012-07-01; 2015-03-18)

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8:11 And the name of the star is said/called * Little (א*) wormwood, and the third of the waters became into a little/small (א,* א) wormwood, and many of the men died out of the waters, because they were made bitter.

Word for word (25 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus prima manus): and the name (of)-the (of)-star is-said little-wormwood, and became the third (of)-the (of)-waters into (a)-little-wormwood and many (of)-the men died out-of the waters because (they)-were-made bitter.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

The Lord spoke towards Moses: “Speak to your brother Aaron: ‘Take your rod and stretch out your hand against the waters of Egypt and against their rivers and against their canals and against their marshes and against every their water standing together/still, and they will be blood.’” And it became blood in every/all earth/land of Egypt, both in the (vessels) of wood and in the (vessels) of stone. … The fishes/fish in the river ‘came to an end’/died, and the river 'smelt on'/tainted, and the Egyptians were not able to drink water out of the river. (Ex 7:19,21a, Greek OT)

(Israel) (continually) went three days in the desolate (district) and (continually) did not find water so that (they would be able to) drink. But they came into Marah, and (the people) were not able to drink (the water) out of Marah, for it (continually) was bitter. Because of this the name of that place was 'named on'/'given the name' Bitter. ... But (Moses) cried towards the Lord, and the Lord showed him a wood. And he threw it in, into the water, and the water was made sweet. (Ex 15:22b-23,25a, Greek OT)

Some (of the people) ‘left entirely from (Moses)’/reserved part of (the manna)' into/until ‘early in the day’/’the morning’. And it ‘boiled out’/’swarmed with’ worms, and it 'smelt on'/tainted. And Moses ‘was made’/grew bitter on them. (Ex 16:20, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) “The grape (of our enemies is) a grape of gall, a bunch of grapes (being) bitter for them.” (Deut 32:32b, Greek OT)

(Solomon said:) “Nevertheless you will afterwards find (the harlot) more bitter (than) gall (Hebrew: wormwood).” (Prov 5:4a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Israel:) "I planted you, a fruit-bearing vine, every/wholly true. How have you been turned/changed into bitterness, the alien vine?" (Jer 2:21, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Tyre: “The sailors and all the look-out men of the sea) will weep on account of you in a bitterness of a soul and (with) a bitter mourning.” (Ezek 27:31b, Greek OT)


The Latter Revelation:

(The people in the synagogue said:) “Is not (Jesus) the son of the carpenter? Is not His mother said/called Mariam?” (Matt 13:55a)

And having come out outside (Peter) wept bitterly. (Matt 26:75b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

So Mary (P45,P66,א,*א), as she came whereat/where Jesus (continually) was, having beheld Him she fell/’sank down’ towards His feet, saying to Him: “Lord, if You (continually) had been here, my brother had – according to the circumstances - not died.” (John 11:32)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

The third (trumpet) portrays a reverse of the miracle of the sweetening of water which occurred at Marah; Exod 15:22-25. Marah means bitterness; cf. the Wormwood in Rev 8. (J. Massyngberde Ford "Revelation" p 155)

"Taklagsöl" is among the best I have written. There I also have deposited discoverings; among other things Wormwood is a Serum-Therapy-plant; it holds in Absintin C16 H22 a base which also is find in the Bile's Biliprasin C16 H22 xx. Therefore the Wormwood resembles the Bile and is used in the diseases of the stomach (and the bile). (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev XV april 1904-april 1907" p 359-360; letter 1907-04-07 to Emil Schering; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

1904 September 12th. . . . Gloomy and bitter mood. Have been ill and taken wormwood a couple of days. (August Strindberg "Ockulta dagboken" p 212; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Why I do not return (to Sundsvall), I cannot say. I had too full of enjoyment there in order that I would want to come again and lap the dregs out of the joy cup, perhaps there also is wormwood in the bottom! (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev VIII jan 1890-dec 1891" p 340; letter 1891-09-09 to Robert Thegerström; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Is it then no one more than I, who (here in Paris) wants to behold the sculptures over the victories of the French weapons in Belgium, Germany, Italy and Egypt reading the hundreds of names of the army leaders of the first republic and the first empire? Has the memory of 1870 mixed too much wormwood in the cup, out of which they otherwise so gladly intoxicated themselves? (Viktor Rydberg "Strövtåg i Paris" p 218; Paris år 1873; Göteborgs Handels- och Sjöfartstidning 1874; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Rabbi Gamaliel, the teacher of St. Paul, said: ‘Whoever does not explain three things in the Passover has not fulfilled the duty incumbent on him. These three things are: the Passover lamb, the unleavened bread, and the bitter herbs. The Passover lamb means that God passed over the blood-sprinkled place on the houses of our fathers in Egypt; the unleavened bread means that our fathers were delivered out of Egypt (in haste); and the bitter herbs mean that the Egyptians made bitter the lives of our fathers in Egypt.’ (Alfred Edersheim “The Temple” p 237)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: H.C. Andersen, Tage Aurell, Märta Berg, Elisabeth Beskow, Donald A. Carson, Jane Fredlund, Rob. Fur, Erik Gustaf Geijer, Alf Henrikson, Victor Hugo, Erik Axel Karlfeldt, G. Kurze, Sigurd Lindgren, Anna Lorentz, Mo Yan, Vilhelm Moberg, Fredrik Nielsen, Efraim Palmqvist, Nelly Sachs, Gunnar E. Sandgren, Jaroslav Seifert, Michail Sjolochov, Eric Sköld, August Strindberg, Esaias Tegnér, Anton Tjechov, John Törnquist, Einar Wallquist, Arvid Zakrisson.


My own comments and speculations:

In a restoration prespective we can compare how the bitter water in Marah became sweet with how the sweet water here in Rev 8:11 becomes bitter.

Observe the resemblance between the expressions “is said/called the * little (א*) Wormwood” (Rev 8:11) and “is … said/called Mariam” (Matt 13:55). The name Mariam means “bitterness”.


Greek words:

apsinthion (little wormwood) Rev 8:11.

pikrainô (make bitter) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Rev 8:11 – Tobit 5:14; 1 Macc 3:7; Col 3:19; Rev 10:9.


Additional studies: Ex 32:20; Deut 29:17-18; Ps 105:29; Jer 9:15; 23:15; Lam 3:15; Amos 6:12; Luke 1:27; 10:39; 22:62; John 2:10; Jas 3:11.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-04; 2012-07-01; 2015-03-19)

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8:12 And the fourth messenger sounded the trumpet. And the third of the sun was struck and the third of the moon and the third of the stars, in order that the third of them might be gloomed, and (that) the day might not ‘be brought to’/give light (for) the third of it and the night likewise.

Word for word (38 in the Greek text): And the fourth messenger sounded-the-trumpet. and was-struck a third (of)-the (of)-sun and the third (of)-the (of)-moon and the third (of)-the (of)-stars, in-order-that might-be-gloomed the third (of)-them and the day not might-be-brought-to-light the third (of)-it and the night likewise.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

It became a darkness, a dusky whirlwind, against every/’the whole’ earth/land of Egypt (for) three days. (Ex 10:22b, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said:) “My heart has been struck as if (it was) grass and it has been dried/’withered away’.” (Ps 102:4a or 102:5a, Greek OT)

(Solomon said:) “In days of your youth remember the One having created you ... 'till where not'/before the sun and the light and the moon and the stars are gloomed.” (Eccl 12:1a,2a, Greek OT)

(The prophet said concerning Babylon:) “Behold, for a day of the Lord ... comes (with) passion and wrath to put/make the whole (inhabited) world desolate, and to perish the missers (of the mark of God) out of it. For the stars of the heaven ... and every/all the adornment of the heaven will not give the light and the sun sticking up will be gloomed, and the moon will not give its light.” (Is 13:9-10, Greek OT)

“I will veil you entirely in the thing to be quenched, and I will let heaven and its stars grow dark, I will veil sun in a cloud and moon may not/certainly not ‘be brought to’/give its light. All the things ‘bringing to light’/giving light in the heaven will grow dark against you, and I will give darkness against your earth/land,” says the Lord, the Lord (to Egypt). (Ezek 32:7-8, Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) “Before the face of (the ability of the Lord) the earth will be ‘poured together’/confounded and the heaven shaken, the sun and the moon grow dark and the stars will set/reduce their splendour.” (Joel 2:10, Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) “The sun and moon will grow dark, and the stars will set/reduce their splendour.” (Joel 3:15, Greek OT)


The Latter Revelation:

Having secretly called the soothsayers Herod examined exactly from the side of them the time of the ‘being brought to light’/appearing of the star. (Matt 2:7)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Just as the ray of light’/lightning comes out from upstickings/east and ‘brings to’/gives light till settings/west, in this way will the ‘being by the side of’/coming of the Son of the Man be.” (Matt 24:27)

(Jesus said to His disciples: “Straightaway after the great oppression) the sun will be gloomed, and the moon will not give its splendour. … ” (Matt 24:29b)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Signs will be in sun and moon and constellations.” (Luke 21:25a)

‘And not’/neither sun ‘and not’/nor stars ‘being/were conspicouos’/’showed themselves’ against/during more/several days. (Acts 27:20a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

His sight/countenance ‘brings to’/gives light as the sun (א,*א) in its ability. (Rev 1:16b)

And the sun became black as a sack of hair, and the whole moon became as blood and the stars of the heaven fell against (א,* א) the earth. (Rev 6:12b-13a)

I beheld the seven messengers who stand in the very eyes of God, and seven trumpets were given to them. (Rev 8:2)

The seven messengers having the seven trumpets made themselves ready in order that they might sound the trumpets. (Rev 8:6)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

The fourth (trumpet) resembles the ninth plague when there was thick darkness over Egypt for three days; Exod 10:21-23. (J. Massyngberde Ford "Revelation" p 155)


My own comments and speculations: Concerning “sounded the trumpet”, see Rev 8:2 and Rev 8:6. Concerning “the third”, see Rev 8:7b.


Greek words:

plêssô (strike) (in the NT + examples in the OT) Ps 102:4(5); Rev 8:12 – Ex 9:31-32.

skotizô (gloom) (in the NT + examples in the OT) Eccl 12:2; Is 13:10; Matt 24:29; Rev 8:12 – Ps 69:23(24); Mark 13:24; Rom 1:21; 11:10; Rev 8:12(א,*א).


Additional studies: Gen 1:14-17; Ps 105:28; Joel 2:2,31; Amos 5:18; 8:9; Matt 8:12; John 8:12, 11:44; Acts 2:20; Phil 2:15; Rev 21:23.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-04; 2012-07-01; 2015-03-20)

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8:13a And I beheld, and I heard (the sound of) an eagle flying in midheaven ...

Word for word (9 words in the Greek text): And (i/I)-beheld, and (i/I)-heard (of)-one/an eagle flying in midheaven


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Moses said to Israel:) “As an eagle 'to shelter'/shelters its nest ... the Lord (spread out) His wings (and) received/accepted (His people).” (Deut 32:11a, Greek OT)

The sun stood ‘according to’/at a middle of the heaven. ... (Joshua 10:13b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) “I led against, against a mother of a youth a wretchedness in/at midday. I suddenly tossed trembling and haste/pains against her.” (Jer 15:8b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to the prophet about Israel:) “As an eagle against a house of the Lord ... they have stepped by the side of My covenant and have been wicked ‘down from’/against My law.” (Hos 8:1b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to the prophet:) “It will be in that day ... (that) the sun will set at midday and the light will in a day grow dark upon the earth.” (Amos 8:9, Greek OT)

(Solomon said to the Lord: “When) a still silence surrounded all the things, and a night reached the middle (of its course) in (its) own quickness, your ‘all-ably’ saying, a severe warrior, came from heavens out of thrones of kingdoms into a middle of the destructive earth (with) a sharp sword.” (Wisdom of Solomon 18:14-15a or 18:14-16a)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "'See in'/'fix your eyes' into the flying creatures of the heaven." (Matt 6:26a)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Whereat – if according to the circumstances - the fall/corpse may be, there the eagles will be led together.” (Matt 24:28)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “The sign of the Son of the Man will ‘be brought’/come to light in heaven.” (Matt 24:30a)

Straight off ascending out of the water (Jesus) beheld the heavens being split, and the Spirit as a pigeon descending and staying against (א,* א) Him. (Mark 1:10)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

The first living being (was) like a lion and the second living being like a young bull and the third living being having the face as like (one with) a man (א,* א) and the fourth living being (was) like a flying eagle. (Rev 4:7)


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “eagle flying”, see also Rev 4:7.


Greek words:

mesouranêma (midheaven) Rev 8:13 – Rev 14:6; 19:17.


Additional studies: Ex 19:4; Deut 28:49; Job 5:14; Prov 30:17; Is 16:2-3; 59:10; Jer 48:40; 49:22; Rev 14:6; 19:17.

(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-05; 2012-07-02; 2015-03-21)

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8:13b ... saying (with) a great/loud voice: “Woe, woe, woe, to the ones inhabiting upon the earth, out/’in consequence’ of the rest of voices of the trumpet of the three messengers being about to sound the trumpet.”

Word for word (23 words in the Greek text): saying (with)-(a)-voice great: woe woe woe (to)-the-(ones) inhabiting upon the earth out-of the rest (of)-voices (of)-the (of)-trumpet (of)-the three messengers (of)-the-(ones) being-about-to sound-the-trumpet.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The prophet said:) “Fear and pit and snare against you inhabiting ‘in upon’/upon the earth.” (Is 24:17a, Greek OT)

(The prophet said to the people of God:) “Behold, the Lord leads the wrath from the holy against, against the ones inhabiting ‘in upon’/upon the earth.” (Is 26:21a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) “It will arrive an ‘propitiation out’/propitiation, and (Israel) will seek peace, and/but it will not be (so). It will be woe on woe.” (Ezek 7:25-26a, Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) "Hear a saying of the Lord, sons of Israel, for the reason that (it is) a judgment to the Lord towards the ones dwelling (on) the earth, for the reason that (there is) not truth, nor mercy, nor additional knowledge of God upon the earth." (Hos 4:1, Greek OT)

This is what the Lord God, the All-powerful, says: “In all streets (there is) mourning, and in all ways it is spoken: ‘Woe, woe.’” (Amos 5:16a, Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) "I lifted my eyes and beheld, and behold, a flying sickle. … (The messenger) spoke towards me: “This (is) the vengeance going out against the face of ‘every the’/’the whole’ earth.” (Zech 5:1b,3a, Greek OT)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “Woe, cowardly hearts and hands having stood by the side of and a misser (of the mark of God) stepping against, against two paths. Woe a heart being by the side of, because it does not believe. Because of this it will not be sheltered. Woe you having perished (and perishing) the endurance, and what will you make/do, when the Lord – according to the circumstances – may inspect?” (Sir 2:12-14)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Woe to the ones having (child) in womb and the ones sucking in those days!” (Matt 24:19)

(Jesus said to the Pharisees:) “Woe to you, the Pharisees! … Woe to you * (א,*א) Pharisees! … Woe to you!” (Luke 11:42a,43a,44a)

(Jesus said to the lawyers:) “To you the lawyers, woe! … Woe to you! … Woe to you, the lawyers!” (Luke 11:46a,47a,52a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

Jesus (said to Peter): “Will you put/inter your soul in favour of Me? Amen, amen, I say to you: ‘A rooster may not/certainly not ‘raise its voice’/crow, till (the time in) which you will deny away (א,* א, A) Me three times.’” (John 13:38)

Being so evening to that one/first day of sabbaths and the doors being (and having been) shut whereat the disciples (continually) were because of the fear of (or: for) the Jews, Jesus came and stood into the middle, and He says to them: “Peace to you.” … He (א,*א) so said to (the ten disciples) again: “Peace to you.” … And after eight days again (Jesus') disciples were inside and Thomas was in company with them. Jesus comes, (while) the doors are shut and He stood into the middle and spoke: "Peace to you." (John 20:19,21a,26)

I heard behind me a great/loud voice as a trumpet saying: “Write into a scroll what you see.” (Rev 1:10b-11a)

(I will * (keep) (א,*א) you) out of the hour of the test, the (hour) being about to come upon the whole (inhabited) world to try the ones dwelling upon the earth. (Rev 3:10b, “Philadelphia”)

Rays of light and voices and peals of thunder go out, out of the throne. (Rev 4:5a)

And I beheld a stable messenger proclaiming in/with a great/loud voice: “Who (is) worthy to open the scroll and loosen its seals?” (Rev 5:2)

… (I heard messengers) saying (with) a great/loud voice: “Worthy is the little Ram, the One having been (and being) slaughtered.” (Rev 5:12a)

(The souls of the slaughtered witnesses) shouted (with) a great/loud voice, saying: “The Master, the Holy and True One! Till when do You not judge and procure justice for our blood out of the ones dwelling upon the earth? (Rev 6:10)

(The messenger) shouted (with) a great/loud voice to the four messengers, to whom it was given to them to act unrighteously (against) the earth and the sea, saying: “You may not act unrighteously (against) the earth, ‘but not’/nor (א,*א) (against) the sea, ‘but not’/nor (א,*א) (against) the trees, till we may have sealed the slaves of our God upon their foreheads.” (Rev 7:2b-3)

(The much/many-headed crowd) shout (with) a great/loud voice, saying: “The saving (belongs) to our God, the One being seated on the throne and to the little Ram into the (coming) ages of the (coming) ages. Amen (א*).” (Rev 7:10)

I beheld the seven messengers who stand in the very eyes of God, and seven trumpets were given to them. (Rev 8:2)

The seven messengers having the seven trumpets made themselves ready in order that they might sound the trumpets. (Rev 8:6)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

Pelle Dieden was here a while before Christmas and told a little from Norway. Pontus de la Gardie's daughter is married in Norway. She had told Pelle, that her grandfather, count Löwenskiöld, had become brought to forced labour in north Norway together with several other trusted men from his district as a retribution because some Norwegians in a village in the nearness had murmured, when a German soldier in a cinema queue had pushed his way before all others and moreover behaved insolently. The poor count had not even a notion that a cinema performance had taken place. Such is the German justice. And after the count had been brought away, two lorries drove up to the castle and a crowd of German soldiers stalked in taking all what they got hold of, among other things 2.000 bottles of wine, all tinned food, all soap, not even a single little piece of soap to an infant baby they were allowed to keep.. Then soldiers got helplessly drunk and forced the old countess to make tea at three o'clock in the night. In (the prison) Grini Pelle declared, that according to what she had heard Norwegians being there protest, they are beaten at best three times a day, otherwise four times a day. Woe them when the day of retribution comes. (Astrid Lindgren "Krigsdagböcker 1939-1945" p 151; 1942-12-25; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

If the inexperienced one knew what suffering a divorce between husband and wife involves, he would think it over before he went his way. The two souls are so grown together, that the releasing of the personality becomes the most painful operation which exists. It is a kind of death. . . . The memories being common will be divided, but cannot be shared. The crushed illusions from the first spring days of love create the faith in all; it goes a cry of woes through the worlds, as if a crime is committed, a hopeless one as the sin against the Holy Spirit; the love, the creative force of God, the heat of the sun of the sky, the origin of life have ceased to exist, chaos and the darkness begin again; it is a spiritual death, without consolation, without hope. (August Strindberg "En blå bok II" p 748; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

The one who now gets a patch of ground and learns to handle it, this one saves himself away from the flood. Here crises will become which we never have seen. "The rings" kill the shops. Woe the small shopkeepers! I do not speak about any revolutions, for such ones will not happen; I speak about the inner crises being at hand. . (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev IV 1884 p 318; letter 1884-09-05 to the brother Axel Strindberg; "the rings" = the so called workmen's rings, a kind of consumer's co-operative unions; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

(Pastor) Suenonius was the first one who recovered. "Woe, woe!" he cried in a terrible voice, in that he rose stretching his arms towards the height. "The last time of the world has come. The day of the wrath of the Lord must be called down upon the earth because of such hellish crimes. Wrap your faces, throw yourselves to the earth, cry that the mountains shall cover you. Woe, it serves no purpose. At the sound of the last trump the mountains will crack, the earth open its bosom and all your abomination be viewed by His eye. Woe, it is soon to late to cry Kyrie eleeson . . . Lord, have mercy!" (Viktor Rydberg "Fribytaren på Östersjön II" p 299; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Assim's mother with her skinny fingers seized (Singoalla's) locks hissing: "It is you, who has brought shame and misfortune over us. Woe you, woe you! Your blond lover shall die, he shall be torn to pieces, he shall be consumed by poison . . . yes, you! the poison-drink, prepared by my hand, rages in his bowels. You see, his head sinks towards his breast, his cheeks yellows as the poisonous buttercup . . . it already works." (Viktor Rydberg "Singoalla" p 78; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Lars Ahlberg, Leif Carlssson, Eyvind Johnson, Erik Axel Karlfeldt, Thomas a Kempis.


My own comments and speculations:

In a restoration perspective we can compare what once stroke Israel (Ezek 7:25-26) with what now strikes the earth.

Concerning “a great/loud voice”, see also Rev 1:10b. Concerning “the ones inhabiting upon the earth ”, see also Rev 3:10b. Concerning “voices”, see also Rev 4:5a. Concerning “messengers being about to sound the trumpet”, see also Rev 8:2 and Rev 8:6.


Greek words:

ouai (woe) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Sir 2:12-14; Matt 24:19; Luke 11:42-44,46-47,52; Rev 8:13 - Tobit 10:5; Judith 16:17; Sir 41:8; Matt 11:21; 18:7; 23:13,15-16,23,25,27,29; 26:24; Mark 13:17; 14:21; Luke 6:24-26; 10:13; 17:1; 21:23; 22:22; 1 Cor 9:16; Jude v 11; Rev 9:12; 11:14; 12:12; 18:10,16,19.


Additional studies: Num 21:29; Eccl 10:16; Is 1:4,24; 3:9; 5:8; 10:5; 28:1; 29:1; 33:1; Jer 13:27; 50:27; Ezek 2:10; 16:23; Hos 9:12; Amos 5:18; Hab 2:6,12; Matt 23:13-29; John 3:16; 20:29; 1 Cor 9:16; Rev 9:1,13; 11:10,15; 13:8,14.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-05; 2012-07-02; 2015-03-22)

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