Back to chapter listing

Chapter 7

quick navigation to the verses:
| 1 | 2a | 2b | 3 | 4-8 | 9a | 9b | 10 | 11a | 11b | 12 | 13-14a | 14b | 15a | 15b | 16a | 16b | 17a | 17b


7:1 And (א,* א) after this I beheld four messengers standing against the four corners of the earth, getting power over the four winds of the earth, in order that a wind might (א,* א) not blow upon the earth ‘and not’/nor upon the sea ‘and not’/nor against every/any tree.

Word for word (34 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus): And after this (i/I)-beheld four messengers 'standing-(and-having-stood)'/standing against the four corner (of)-the (of)-earth, getting-power-over the four winds (of)-the (of)-earth in-order-that not might-blow (a)-wind upon the earth and-not upon the sea and-not against every tree.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Abraham said to the three men:) “I will take bread, and you will eat, and after this you will ‘come by the side of’/’go on’ into/in your way.” (Gen 18:5a, Greek OT)

(One woman said about another woman:) “Let (the son) ‘and not’/neither be mine ‘and not’/nor hers. ... “ (1 Kings 3:26b, Greek OT)

The gates (of the house of God) (continually) were ‘according to’/opposite the four winds, ‘according to’/opposite upstickings/east, sea/west, ‘north wind’/north, ‘south wind’/south. (1 Chron 9:24, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said: “The righteous one) will be as the wood having been (and being) planted to the side of the passages/ways of the waters. … The wicked ones (are) not in this way, not in this way, 'however or'/but (are) as the foam, which the wind tosses out from face of the earth. Because of this wicked ones will not 'stand up'/stand in judgment.” (Ps 1:3a,4-5a, Greek OT)

(The woman said:) “... I found him whom my soul welcomed. I ‘got power (over)’/seized him, and I will not let him be.” (Song of Solomon 3:4a, Greek OT)

(The Lord) will lift/’lift up’ a sign into/'purposed for' the nations and will lead together the perished ones of Israel and lead together the sown asunder ones of Judas out of the four wings/corners of the earth. (Is 11:12, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) “I shall lead four winds out of the four borders of the heaven against, against Elam, and I will sow them asunder in/with all these winds.” (Jer 49:36a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to the prophet/Israel:) “’A goal’/’an ultimate objective’ arrives! The goal/’ultimate objective’ arrives against the four wings/corners of the earth.” (Ezek 7:2b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to the prophet:) “Prophecy, son of a man, prophecy against the spirit and speak to the spirit: ‘This is what the Lord says: Come out of the four spirits, and puff on, into these dead (bodies), and let them live.’” (Ezek 37:9b, Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) “Behold, four winds of the heaven fell in, into the great sea.” (Dan 7:2b, Greek OT)

(The messenger said to the prophet:) “These (four horses) are the four winds of the heaven going out to stand by the side of the Lord of the every/whole earth.” (Zech 6:5b, Greek OT)

(Solomon said to the Lord:) “You have arranged every thing throughout (with) measure and number and standing-place/balance.” (Wisdom of Solomon 11:20b)


The Latter Revelation:

(John the Baptist said:) “Already the axe lies towards the root of the trees. Every tree so making/bearing not fine fruit is cut out and thrown into fire." (Matt 3:10)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “I say to you not to swear wholly/’at all’, ‘and not’/neither in/by the heaven … ‘and not’/nor in/by the earth … ‘and not’/nor into/by (a disgraced) Jerosolyma/Jerusalem … ‘and not’/nor in/by your head.” (Matt 5:34-36a)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “When you (א* sing.) – according to the circumstances – may pray, you (א* sing.) shall not be as the hypocrites, because they ‘are friends with’/like to pray in the synagogues and in the corners of the streets.” (Matt 6:5a)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “You will gain additional knowledge of (the false prophets) from/’owing to’ their fruits. … Every tree making/bearing not fine fruit is cut out.” (Matt 7:16a,19a)

(Jesus said:) “'Every the'/everyone hearing these My sayings and not making/doing them will be like a foolish male, whoever built his habitation against the sand. And the wet descended, and the rivers came and * (א*) cut/struck towards that habitation and it fell and its falling (continually) was great. (Matt 7:26-27)

(Jesus said to His disciples: “The Son of the Man) will dispatch away His messengers ‘in company’/together with a great trumpet. And they will lead together against/’in quest of’ His chosen ones out of the four winds from borders (in one end) of heavens till (the other end of) their borders.” (Matt 24:31)

Herod/’Herod's men’ ... ‘got power (over)’/seized John and bound him. (Mark 6:17a)

Having beheld (His disciples) being tormented in the driving, for it/there (continually) was a wind opposite them, around the fourth watch of the night (Jesus) comes towards them. (Mark 6:48a)

(The blind said:) “I see the men, because I behold (them) walking about as trees.” (Mark 8:24b)

(Jesus said to His disciples: “The Son of the Man) will dispatch away His (א,*א,A) messengers and lead together against/’in quest of’ His chosen ones out of the four winds, from border of the earth till border of heaven.” (Mark 13:27)

(Jesus said to the crowds:) “If the adversary is divided asunder against himself, how will his kingdom stand?” (Luke 11:18a)

Having blown ‘from under’/gently south wind (and) having thought the intention to have got (and get) power over (the wind) ... (Paul and the other persons on the boat) (continually) sailed rather close by, to/by the side of Kreta. (Acts 27:13)

‘And not’/neither sun ‘and not’/nor stars ‘being/were conspicouos’/’showed themselves’ against/during more/several days. (Acts 27:20a)

Having lifted against/up the top-sail (in) the blowing (breeze) (the ones on the boat continually) kept/steared down into/towards the beach. (Acts 27:40b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

After this (Jesus) descended into Capharnaum, He and His mother and His brothers * (א,*א). (John 2:12a)

Both/further the sea (continually) was aroused of/’because of’ (the) great/strong wind (which was) blowing. (John 6:18)

Every creature which (is) in the heaven and upon the earth * (א,* א) and upon the sea, and the things in them, all I and/also (א,* א) heard saying. (Rev 5:13a)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

“Tree” might be used here in the metaphorical sense and therefore be equivalent to … “those who dwell (on the earth)”. (J. Massyngberde Ford "Revelation" p 115)

"Child", the major's widow says solemnly, "there was an old woman in Ekeby, who held the winds of heaven caught. Now she is imprisoned, and the winds are free. Is it not to be wondered, that it goes a storm through the country? I, being old, have seen it before, Your Ladyship. I know it. I know, that the roaring storm of God will come over us. Now it soughs on over the big kingdoms, now over the little, forgotten villages. No one forgets the storm of God. It comes over great ones as over little ones. It is magnificent to see the storm of God come. The storm of God, you blessed weather of the Lord, blow over the earth! Voices in the air, voices in the waters, sound and terrify! Make the storm of God roaring! Make the storm of God horrifying! May the heavy squalls go off over the country, rush forward towards tottering walls, break the locks having rusted and the houses leaning to fall! Agony will spread over the country. The little bird nests will fall from their hold on the branch. The hawk nest on the top of the pine will be shaken to the ground with a loud noise, and as far as the nest of the great horned owl in the crevice the wind will hiss with its dragon's tongue. We thought, that everything was good here with us, but it was not so. Certainly the storm of God is needed. I understand it, and I do not complain. I only wanted, that I was allowed to go to my mother." At once she collapses. "Go now, young woman!" she says. "I have no time more. I must go. Go now, and be on your guard against the ones riding on the clouds of storm." (Selma Lagerlöf "Gösta Berlings saga" p 150; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Alf Ahlberg, H.C. Andersen, D.O. Belfrage, Björnstierne Björnson, C.S. Lewis, Osip Mandelstam, Dieter Schröder, Bo Setterlind, William B. Silverman, Anton Tjechov.


My own comments and speculations:

In Jewish number symbolism the number four – and here the four mesengers/corners/winds – represent the world and the whole created universum. Cf. My own comments and speculations to John 19:23-24.


Greek words:

gônia (corner) (in the NT + examples in the OT) Matt 6:5; Rev 7:1 – Ex 26:23; Ps 116:22; Susanna v 38(Theod); Matt 21:42; Mark 12:10; Luke 20:17; Acts 4:11; 1 Pet 2:7; Rev 20:8.

dendron (tree) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Matt 3:10; 7:19; Mark 8:24; Rev 7:1 – Sir 14:18; Susanna v 54,58; Matt 7:17-18; 12:33; 13:32; 21:8; Luke 3:9; 6:43-44; 13:19; 21:29; Jude v 12; Rev 7:3; 8:7; 9:4.

mête (and not) (in the NT + one example in the OT) 1 Kings 3:26; Matt 5:34-36; Acts 27:20; Rev 7:1 – Matt 11:18; Mark 3:20(א,*א); Luke 9:3; Acts 23:8,12,21; 2 Thess 2:2; 1 Tim 1:7; Heb 7:3; Jas 5:12; Rev 7:3.


Additional studies: Dan 11:4; Zech 2:6; Matt 7:24-27; 14:24; 24:31; Luke 13:8-9; John 11:7a,11a; 19:28; Rev 9:14; 14:18; 16:5; 20:8.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-30; 2012-06-28; 2015-02-20)

Back to the top

7:2a And I beheld another messenger ascending from ‘an upsticking of a sun’/east, having a seal of a living God.

Word for word (12 words in the Greek text): And (i/I)-beheld another messenger ascending from (an)-upsticking (of)-(a)-sun having (a)-seal (of)-(a)-god living


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Jacob) dreamt, and behold, a ladder being set fast in/on the earth, of which head/top overcame/reached into the heaven, and the messengers of God (continually) ascended and (continually) descended upon it! (Gen 28:12, Greek OT)

(Israel said:) "Which flesh, whichever has heard a voice of a living God talking out of a middle of the fire, as we, and (which still) will live?" (Deut 5:26, Greek OT)

(Deborah and Barak said: “May) the ones welcoming (the Lord be) as a way out of a sun in its ability.” (Judges 5:31a, Greek OT, B)

(God said:) ”Who has aroused righteousness from upstickings/east?” (Is 41:2a, Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) “Behold, the glory of the God of Israel came (continually) ... towards upstickings/east. … And the glory of the Lord came into, into the house ‘according to’/opposite the way of/through the gate seeing/facing ‘according to’/opposite upstickings/east.” (Ezek 43:2a,4, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to the prophet:) “It will be in the place, where it was spoken to (the sons of Israel): 'You (are) not My people', there they will be called: 'Sons of a living God'.” (Hos 1:10b, Greek OT)

(Baruch said:) “Stand up, Jerusalem, and stand upon the high and see round about towards upsticking/east and behold your children being (and having been) led together from settings of sun till (its) upstickings with the holy word rejoicing at the mention/renown of God.” (Baruch 5:5)

(Daniel said to the king of Babylon:) “I shall prostrate before the Lord my God (in honour of Him), because this One is a living God.” (Bel and the Dragon v 25a, Theod)


The Latter Revelation:

Soothsayers from upstickings/east became to the side of into (a disgraced) Jerosolyma/Jerusalem, saying: ”Where is the One having been brought forth, a King of the Jews? For we have beheld His star in the upsticking/east, and we have come to prostrate ourselves before Him (in honour of Him).” (Matt 2:1b-2)

Simon Peter 'having answered'/'answered and' spoke (to Jesus:) "You are the christ/'anointed one', the Son of the living God." (Matt 16:16)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Just as the ray of light’/lightning comes out from upstickings/east and ‘brings to’/gives light till settings/west, in this way will the ‘being by the side of’/coming of the Son of the Man be.” (Matt 24:27)

The form of (the messenger was) (א*) as a ray of light. (Matt 28:3a)

(Zacharias said:) "'An upsticking'/'a sunrise' will inspect us out of a height." (Luke 1:78b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Jesus said to Nathanael): "You will behold the heaven opened, and the messengers of God ascending and descending against the Son of the Man." (John 1:51b)

(Jesus said to the crowd:) “Do not work (for) the consumption perishing, however/but (for) * (א,* א) (the consumption) staying into/for an agelong life, which the Son of the Man gives (א,*א) to you, for this One the Father, God, has sealed.” (John 6:27)

(Jesus said to the Jews:) “Entirely as the living Father has dispatched Me away, and I live because of the Father, and the one chewing Me, and/also that one will live because of Me.” (John 6:57)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

(Oskar) pointed out over the landscape lying there just washed in the morning light. He stopped for a moment and looked round about. "God of living ones, what nice and beautiful it is at this time of the year. It is not to be wondered that one wants to be out of doors and walk." (Astrid Lindgren "Rasmus på luffen" p 154; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

The rural dean turned and twisted the task in his thoughts. It was one thing in which Gille put his confidence and reliance, and it was this, that he had not drunk water out of the lake where he hooked and netted. But what kind of faith was now that thing to pay attention to? It was a false support, which would fail this night, for the dean had heard that they waited for Gille down in the depth. It was a rotten plank, which would not bear him. If he continued to trust in it, he would be lost. The dean clearly saw, that this plank had to be pulled away from Gille Folkesson, before it was too late. If he only had not to trust in that thing, he would not longer pin his faith on lake-sprite and water-sprite but on living God. Had he not the plank to trust in, he would be saved to life and limb coming glad and happy to his young wife. . . . Was there a greater sin than to leave a man in mind and body in the possession of the dark powers? (Selma Lagerlöf "Vattnet i kyrkviken" p 428-429; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Tired with bottomless doubts (Axel Wallenberg) sails so far in the west of the sunset, that he at last begins to stick up in the east of the sunrise, and there he has a feeling of a possible solution of the enigmas of the world on a higher level with the help of equations of the higher degrees. (August Strindberg "Förord till Axel Wallenbergs Skrifter" p 8; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

A letter-writer accidentally passes number 42 Rue de Provence finding over its door an inscription. . . . Culte évangélique. Chapell Taitbout. . . . In the forecourt of the unpretentious chapel it is handed me a card, on which is printed, that Sunday the 25th of January pastor de Pressensé preaches over the following suject: The living God of the Gospel (Luke XI:2). (Viktor Rydberg "Strövtåg i Paris" p 224; year 1873; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Carl Jonas Love Almqvist, Sven-Erik Brodd, Ingmar Gustafsson, Fredrik Nielsen, Torsten Nilsson, Folke Thorell.


Greek words:

anatolê (upsticking/east) (in the NT + one example in the Apocrypha) Matt 2:1-2; 24:27; Luke 1:78; Rev 7:2 – 2 Macc 10:28; Matt 2:9; 8:11; Luke 13:29; Rev 16:12; 21:13.


Additional studies: Is 41:25; Rev 7:3; 9:4.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-30; 2012-06-28; 2015-02-21)

Back to the top

7:2b And he shouted (with) a great/loud voice to the four messengers, to whom it was given to them to act unrighteously (against) the earth and the sea.

Word for word (16 words in the Greek text): and (he)-shouted (with)-voice great (to)-the four messenger, (to)-whom (it)-was-given (to)-them (to)-act-unrighteously (against)-the earth and the sea


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

To (one as a son of man) was given the beginning and the honour and the kingdom, and all the peoples, tribes, tongues will be slaves to Him. His (judicial) authority (is) an agelong (judicial) authority, and His kingdom will not be ruined throughout. (Dan 7:14, Greek OT, Theod)


The Latter Revelation:

(After His conversation with the Pharisees Jesus said to the disciples:) “Not all have room for this saying, however/’on the other hand’ (the ones) to whom it is (and has been) given.” (Matt 19:11b)

(The master of the house said to one of the workers:) “Comrade, I do not act unrighteously (towards) you. Did you by no means ‘raise your voice together’/agree with me for a silver-coin (denarius)?” (Matt 20:13b)

(Jesus said to the seventy:) “Behold, I have given (and give) you the (judicial) authority to tread above serpents and scorpions and against every ability of the enemy, and nothing will (א,* א, A) * (א*) act unrighteously (against) you.” (Luke 10:19)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

Pilate * (א*,A) says to (Jesus): “You do not talk (with) me? Do You not know, that I have (judicial) authority to ‘loosen from’/release You, and I have (judicial) authority to crucify You?” Jesus answered him: “You have (א,*א,A) not ‘no one’/any (judicial) authority ‘down from’/against Me, if it (continually) was/’has ... been’ (and is) not given you from above.” (John 19:10-11a)

The one conquering may not/certainly not be treated unrighteously ‘out of’/’in consequence of’ the second death. (Rev 2:11b, “Smyrna”)

To the One being seated against (the fire-coloured horse), it was given to Him to take the peace out of the earth, and in order that they might (א,* א) slaughter one another. And a great dagger was given to Him. (Rev 6:4b)

You may not act unrighteously (towards) the olive-oil and the wine. (Rev 6:6b)

(The souls of the slaughtered witnesses) shouted (with) a great/loud voice. (Rev 6:10a)

I beheld four messengers standing against the four corners of the earth, getting power over the four winds of the earth, in order that a wind might (א,* א) not blow upon the earth ‘and not’/nor upon the sea ‘and not’/nor against every/any tree. (Rev 7:1)


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “shouted (with) a great/loud voice”, see Rev 6:10a. Concerning “the four messengers” and “the earth and the sea”, see Rev 7:1b.


Additional studies: Tobit 6:15; Rev 9:14; 18:2.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-30; 2012-06-28; 2015-02-22)

Back to the top

7:3 ... saying: “You may not act unrighteously (against) the earth, ‘but not’/nor (א,*א) (against) the sea, ‘but not’/nor (א,*א) (against) the trees, till we may have sealed the slaves of our God upon their foreheads.”

Word for word (22 words in the Greek text): saying: not (you)-may-act-unrighteously (against)-the earth but-not (against)-the sea but-not (against)-the trees, till (we)-may-have-sealed the slaves (of)-the (of)-god our upon the foreheads their.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

The Lord God put a sign for Cain, the thing that every/everyone finding him (could) not ‘take him up for himself’/’get rid of him’. (Gen 4:15b, Greek OT)

(The messengers said to Lot, who was together with his wife and his two daugthers:) “Saving save your soul. You may not see round about into the things behind ‘but not’/nor you may stand/stop in every/any district round about. …” (Gen 19:17b, Greek OT)

(Moses said to the elders of Israel:) "Take a bundle of hyssop and having dipped (it) from the blood to the side of the door ‘make (it) sit down’/’apply (it)’ to the lintel and from the blood upon both of the standing-places/door-posts ... (When the Lord beholds the blood, He will) not let the destroyer be (alone) to come into, into your habitations to hit (you)." (Ex 12:22a,23b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Moses: “The plate with the engraved ‘A holy place of the Lord’) shall be upon Aaron's forehead.” (Ex 28:38a, Greek OT)

(David said:) “The Lord will redeem the souls of His slaves, and all hoping against Him may not/certainly not err/offend.” (Ps 34:22 or 34:23, Greek OT)

(The Lord) spoke towards (the man set/clothed in linen): “Come … through a middle (of) Jerusalem and give the sign against the foreheads of the males sighing over ... all the lawlessnesses becoming/’coming about’ in a middle of it.” And to (the six other men) He spoke: “… You may not draw near all against whom the sign is.” (Ezek 9:4-5a,6a, Greek OT)

(Solomon said:) “Lord, ‘according to’/concerning all things You have made Your people great and You have glorified and not ‘beheld over’/despised (it) standing by the side of (it) in every seasonable time and place.” (Wisdom of Solomon 19:22)


The Latter Revelation:

(Simeon said:) “Master, now You ‘loosen Your slave from’/’let Your slave loose’.” (Luke 2:29a)

(Jesus) said to the one having called/invited (and calling/inviting) Him: “When you – according to the circumstances – may make/give a breakfast or a chief meal, do not raise your voice (against) your friends, ‘but not’/nor (against) your brothers, ‘but not’/nor (against) your relatives, ‘but not’/nor (against) rich neighbourings, 'not at any time'/'in order that ... not' they may and/also call/invite you instead/’in turn’, and it may become a requital instead/’in turn’ to you.” (Luke 14:12)

(Jesus said to the apostles:) “When you – according to the circumstances – may have made/done all the things having been throughout arranged to you, say that/: “We are useless slaves. We have made/done (and makes/does) what we (continually) were indebted to make/do.” (Luke 17:10b)

(The young girl said about Paul and the ones being with him:) “These men are slaves of God ... “ (Acts 16:17b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

The one conquering may not/certainly not be treated unrighteously ‘out of’/’in consequence of’ the second death. (Rev 2:11b, “Smyrna”)

(I saw a scroll) having been (and being) sealed entirely (with) seven seals. (Rev 5:1b)

Every creature which (is) in the heaven and upon the earth * (א,* א) and upon the sea, and the things in them, all I and/also (א,* א) heard saying. (Rev 5:13a)

You may not act unrighteously (towards) the olive-oil and the wine. (Rev 6:6b)

I beheld four messengers standing against the four corners of the earth, getting power over the four winds of the earth, in order that a wind might (א,* א) not blow upon the earth ‘and not’/nor upon the sea ‘and not’/nor against every/any tree. (Rev 7:1)

(The messenger) shouted (with) a great/loud voice to the four messengers, to whom it was given to them to act unrighteously (against) the earth and the sea. (Rev 7:2b)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

In Ps Sol 15:8(6) the “mark of God is upon the righteous that they may be saved” but the “mark of destruction” is upon the forehead of the wicked, 15:10. (J. Massyngberde Ford "Revelation" p 118)

(Gen 4:15) is elaborated in the Palestinian Targum to Gen 4:15 …: ”And the Lord sealed upon the face of Kain the mark of the Name great and honourable, that any one who might find him should not kill him when he saw it upon him.” (J. Massyngberde Ford "Revelation" p 121)

Concerning the promises about God's care of his people, where will you begin or end? It is not given any book, hardly any chapter in the Old Testament, which not have such a promise or intimation of it. What promises about God's true charge, help and protection were not given to Abraham! So to Moses, to the children of Israel and to Joshua. So to the prophets, Eliha, Elisha, Jeremiah and others. But above all to and through king David. There is, as someone has said, one promise in the psalms for every distress a man can come in. And the life-span of all these persons shows that God faithfully kept his promises to them, protected them, led them and at last "helped them out of all their distress". (Karl Palmberg "Ur livskällan. Andra årgången." p 43; Karl Palmberg /1842-1920/ was from 1883 a Lutheran clergyman in Månsarp in the diocese of Växjö and president in Jönköpings Missionsförening (Missionary Society) 1886-1911; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

A being, who can believe and pray, who can forget itself to be merged in love and consideration for others and who still in its last while feels the pain of the bystanders more deep than the agony of death, such a being bears the sign of eternity impressed on its forehead, and for it the gate of death is the propylaeas to a higher reality than the one, which our earthly senses are able to understand. (Viktor Rydberg "Tal vid Callas grav" p 182; words of remembrance 1880-09-09 when Rydberg's sister-in-law was put down in the grave)

Over Ingrid's features there was one half gloomy, half contemptuous smile. She answered calmly: " . . . I have lived for a long time, experienced much and through diligently observance won some insight into a certain skill, which does not lie open for all . . . The skill that in the outer man, as in an often dusky mirror, behold the inner. . . . That I do not, as the women of the people wandering about, search the lines of the hand in order to read the fates of a man, but far more plain pick them out upon her forehead. (Viktor Rydberg "Fribytaren på Östersjön I" p 24-25; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Carl Boberg, Leif Carlsson, Olof von dalin, P. Fjellstedt, Jane Fredlund, Erik Gustaf Geijer, Carl Grimberg, Raymond Hammer, Albert Holmén, W.E. Johns, Lars Levi Laestadius, Martin Luther, Sven-Erik Pernler, Vibeke Olsson, Ashton Oxenden, Efraim Palmqvist, Lewi Pethrus, Isaac Basjevis Singer, Birgit Th. Sparre, Tomas Tranströmer, Fredrik Wislöff.


My own comments and speculations:

Cf. Psalms of Solomon 15:6: “The sign of God (will be) against (the) righteous ones into saving.”

Concerning “the earth … the sea … the trees”, see Rev 7:1.


Paul said to the believers in Ephesos: "In (Christ) you and/also, having heard the saying of the truth, the good little message of your saving, having and/also believed in Him, have been sealed (with) the Holy Spirit of the promise. (Eph 1:13b)


Greek words:

metôpon (forehead) (in the NT + examples in the OT) Ezek 9:4; Rev 7:3 – Ex 28:38; 1 Sam 17:49; 2 Chron 26:19-20; Is 48:4; Rev 9:4; 13:16; 14:1,9; 17:5; 20:4; 22:4.


Additional studies: 2 Chron 6:23; Ps 27:9; 91:7-16; Is 26:20; Zeph 2:3; Mal 3:17; John 3:33; 6:27; 15:15; Acts 4:29; 1 Cor 10:13; Eph 1:13; 4:30; 1 Pet 2:16; Rev 2:20; 10:4; 19:2,5; 20:3; 22:3,6.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-30; 2012-06-28; 2015-02-22)

Back to the top

7:4-8 And I heard the number of the ones having been (and being) sealed, one hundred and forty-four of the number of one thousand having been (and being) sealed out of every tribe of (the) sons of Israel. Out of (the) tribe of Judas twelve of the number of one thousand having been (and being) sealed, out of (the) tribe of Reuben twelve of the number of one thousand, out of (the) tribe of Gad twelve of the number of one thousand, out of (the) tribe of Asher twelve of the number of one thousand, out of (the) tribe of Nephthalim twelve of the number of one thousand, out of (the) tribe of Manasseh twelve of the number of one thousand, * (א,* א), out of (the) tribe of Levi twelve of the number of one thousand, out of (the) tribe of Issachar twelve of the number of one thousand, out of (the) tribe of Zabulon twelve of the number of one thousand, out of (the) tribe of Joseph twelve of the number of one thousand, out of the tribe of Benjamin twelve of the number of one thousand having been (and being) sealed.

Word for word: 7:4 (16 words in the Greek text): And (i/I)-heard the number (of)-the-(ones) having-been-(and-being)-sealed, one-hundred forty four (of)-the-number-of-one-thousand having-been-(and-being)-sealed out-of every tribe (of)-sons (of)-Israel. 7:5 (16 words in the Greek text) out-of tribe (of)-Judas twelve (of)-the-number-of-one-thousand having-been-(and-being)-sealed, out-of tribe (of)-Reuben twelve (of)-the-number-of-one-thousand, out-of tribe (of)-Gad twelve (of)-the-number-of-one-thousand 7:6 (15 words in the Greek text) out-of tribe (of)-Asher twelve (of)-the-number-of-one-thousand, out-of tribe (of)-Nephthalim twelve (of)-the-number-of-one-thousand, out-of tribe (of)-Manasseh twelve (of)-the-number-of-one-thousand 7:7 (10 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus) out-of tribe (of)-Levi twelve (of)-the-number-of-one-thousand, out-of tribe (of)-Issachar twelve (of)-the-number-of-one-thousand 7:8 (16 words in the Greek text) out-of tribe (of)-Zaboulon twelve (of)-the-number-of-one-thousand, out-of tribe (of)-Joseph twelve (of)-the-number-of-one-thousand, out-of tribe (of)-Benjamin twelve (of)-the-number-of-one-thousand having-been-(and-being)-sealed.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The Lord said:) "Abram . . . will be into a great and much/many-headed nation." (Gen 18:18a, Greek OT)

Jacob's sons (continually/-) were twelve; sons of Leah: Jacob's first-born Reuben, Simeon, Levi, Judas, Issachar, Zabulon; but/and sons of Rachel: Joseph and Benjamin; but/and sons of Bilhah, Rachel's ‘young girl’/maid: Dan and Nephthalim; but/and sons of Zilpah, Leah's ‘young girl’/maid: Gad and Asher. (Gen 35:22b-26a, Greek OT)

(Jacob said to Joseph:) “Now your two sons, the ones becoming to you in Egypt before 'the thing me come'/'I came' towards you into Egypt, Ephraim and Manasseh, so are to me as Reuben and Simeon shall be to me.” (Gen 48:5, Greek OT)

(Jacob said to his sons:) “Let Dan become a serpent upon a way, (a serpent) ‘being set in’/’laying on’, upon a path.” (Gen 49:17a, Greek OT)

All these (are) the twelve sons of Jacob. … (Their father) blessed them, everyone ‘according to his blessing’/’in relation to his suitability’. (Gen 49:28, Greek OT)

A son of an Israelite woman came out in/among the sons of Israel, and this (continually) was a son of an Egyptian. And the one out of the Israelite woman and the man, the Israelite, combatted (with one another) in the camp. And having 'named on'/'called by name' the son of the Israelite woman cursed the name. And they led him towards Moses. And the name of his mother was Shelomith, a daughter of Dibri, out of the tribe of Dan. ... (The Lord said to Moses:) "Let the one ‘naming the name of the Lord’/’calling the Lord by name’ be put to death (with) death. Let every/’all the’ synagogue of Israel throw stones at him (with) stones." (Lev 24:10-11,16a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Moses:) “Take a beginning/census of every synagogue of sons of Israel ‘according to’/after their kinsfolks, ‘according to’/after the houses of their fathers, ‘according to’/after a number out of their name, ‘according to’/after their head, every male.” (Num 1:2, Greek OT)

(The result) of the inspection out of the tribe of Reuben (was) 46 of the number of one thousand and 500, ... of Simeon 59 of the number of one thousand and 300, ... of Judas 74 of the number of one thousand and 600, ... of Issachar 54 of the number of one thousand and 400, ... of Zabulon 57 of the number of one thousand and 400, ... of Ephraim 40 of the number of one thousand and 500, ... of Manasseh 32 of the number of one thousand and 200, ... of Benjamin 35 of the number of one thousand and 400, ... of Gad 46 of the number of one thousand and 560, ... of Dan 62 of the number of one thousand and 700, ... of Asher 41 of the number of one thousand and 500, ... of Nephthalim 53 of the number of one thousand and 400, ... (totally) 603 of the number of one thousand and 550. (But the Levites were not inspected) ... (Num 1:21-49, Greek OT)

The inspection of the popular (assemblies) of called out of Reuben became 43 of the number of one thousand and 730, ... of Simeon 22 of the number of one thousand and 200, ... of Judas 76 of the number of one thousand and 500, ... of Issachar 64 of the number of one thousand and 300, ... of Zabulon 60 of the number of one thousand and 500, ... of Gad 40 of the number of one thousand and 500, ... of Manasseh 52 of the number of one thousand and 700, ... of Ephraim 32 of the number of one thousand and 500, ... of Benjamin 45 of the number of one thousand and 600, . . . of Dan 64 of the number of one thousand and 400, ... of Asher 53 of the number of one thousand and 400, ... of Nephthalim 45 of the number of one thousand and 400. This (is) the inspection of (the) sons of Israel: 601 of the number of one thousand and 730. (Num 26:7-51, Greek OT)

(Moses said:) “When the Highest One divided asunder (the) nations, as He sowed asunder (the) sons of Adam, He ‘caused ... to stand’/set (the) frontiers of (the) nations according to (the) number of (the) messengers of God.” (Deut 32:8, Greek OT)

The cities, the ones being divided by a boundary-line, of the sons of Ephraim (lay) upwards a middle of the inheritance of the sons of Manasseh. (Joshua 16:9a, Greek OT)

The inheritance (of the tribe of the sons of Simeon was) upwards a middle of the share of inheritance of sons of Judas. (Joshua 19:1b, Greek OT, A)

The inheritance of a tribe of sons of Simeon (was taken) from the share of inheritance of Judas, because it was become a greater portion of sons of Judas (than) theirs. And the sons of Simeon inherited in a middle of their share of inheritance. (Joshua 19:9, Greek OT)

In those days there (continually) was not a king in Israel, and in the those days the tribe of Dan sought an inheritance for itself to dwell (in), because till those days an inheritance had not fallen to it in a middle of tribes of Israel. (Judges 18:1, Greek OT)

(The king) put the one (golden young cow) in Bethel, and the one/other he gave/consecrated in Dan. And this saying/event became into a miss (of the mark of God). (1 Kings 12:29-30a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Israel:) "It is great to you 'to yourself be'/'that you are' called My boy/servant to cause the tribes of Jacob to stand and to turn the asunderspread sowing of Israel next to (Me)." (Is 49:6a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to His people:) “Out of Dan (you) will hear a voice/sound ‘of (the) sharpest’/’very quick’ horses. ... I dispatch out serpents into you, putting (you) to death ... and they will bite you.” (Jer 8:16-17, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to the prophet:) “This is what the Lord God says: ‘These frontiers of the earth/land you shall give as an inheritance to the twelve tribes of the sons of Israel. ... ‘“ ... Manasseh one (part) ... Ephraim one (part). (Ezek 47:13b; 48:4b,5b, Greek OT)

(The king of Assyria said to his officer/general:) ”You shall take in company with yourself foot-soldiers, 120 of the number of one thousand, and ... (horsemen), twelve of the number of one thousand.” (Judith 2:5b; cf. Judith 2:15)

The male of (Judith), Manasseh, ... died in days of harvest of barleys/barley, for ... the heat came against his head. (Judith 8:2b-3a)

(Solomon said to the Lord:) “You have arranged every thing throughout (with) measure and number and standing-place/balance.” (Wisdom of Solomon 11:20b)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “A lawless tribe will be desolated.” (Sir 16:4b)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said to the Lord:) “Lead together all tribes of Jacob.” (Sir 36:10a or 36:13a)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said: “The Lord) ‘dispatched throughout’/authorized the portion/part (of Jacob). In tribes He divided in twelve portions/parts.” (Sir 44:23b)


The Latter Revelation:

Hezekiah begot Manasseh, but/and Manasseh begot Amos. (Matt 1:10a)

Having entirely left Nazareth (and) having come into Capernaum (Jesus) dwelt by the side of the sea in frontiers of Zabulon and Nephthalim. (Matt 4:13)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) ”I have not been dispatched away ‘if not’/except into the sheep, the ones having been (and being) perished of the house of Israel.” (Matt 15:24b)

Jesus spoke to (His disciples): ”Amen I say to you that/: ‘You, the ones having followed Me in the regeneration, when the Son of the Man may – according to the circumstances – sit down upon His throne of glory, and/also you yourselves (א,*א) will be seated against twelve thrones, judging the twelve tribes of Israel.’” (Matt 19:28)

(Jesus said to the one who had drawn his dagger:) "Do you think that I am not able call to the side of My Father, and He here (א*) will just now cause to stand by the side of Me more than twelve legions of messengers?" (Matt 26:53)

(Jesus said to Peter, James, John and Andrew:) "Into all the nations, first (into) a people (א*), the good little message must be proclaimed." (Mark 13:10)

Both (Zacharias and Elizabeth) (continually) were righteous opposite God, going/walking blameless in all the commandments and fundamental laws of the Lord. (Luke 1:6)

It/there (continually) was a prophetess, Anna, a daughter of Phanuel, out of (the) tribe of Asher. (Luke 2:36a)

(Jesus said to the Pharisees and the scribes:) “It will be joy in the heaven on/’for the sake of’ one misser (of the mark of God) changing his mind, (more) than on/’for the sake of’ ninety-nine righteous whoever/who have not need of change of mind.” (Luke 15:7b)

(Jesus said to the Pharisees:) "The kingdom of God does not come in company with ‘a keeping to the side of’/’an observation’. Nor will they speak 'Behold, here!' or 'There!' for behold, the kingdom of God is within you/’the limits of you’." (Luke 17:20b-21)

(Judas was) out of the number of the twelve. (Luke 22:3b)

In these days having stood up in a middle of the brothers Peter spoke, both/and a crowd of names (continually) were against/at the same (place) as if 120. (Acts 1:15)

(Peter said to the Israelites:) ”Having caused (Jesus) to stand up first to you, God dispatched (Him) away blessing you ‘in the to turn’/’to turn’ back everyone from your evil things.” (Acts 3:26)

The Lord spoke towards (Ananias): “Go, because this one (Saul) is a ‘vessel of choice’/’chosen instrument’ to Me to bear My name in the very eyes of nations, ‘both and’/both kings both/and sons of Israel.” (Acts 9:15)

(Peter said:) “(God) dispatched away the saying to the sons of Israel, (the saying) bringing a good little message (concerning) peace through Jesus Christ. (Acts 10:36a)

(The Lord said:) “After these things I will turn back and build up the tent of David, the one having been (and being) fallen, and its things having been (and being) turned down/over (א,*א,B) I will build up and set it up upright.” (Acts 15:16)

(Paul said:) “... Serving (God) in/with zeal night and day our twelvetribeship hopes to attain (the hope God has promised).” (Acts 26:7a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

The males so ‘fell up’/’lay back’, the number (was) as/about three (א*) thousand. (John 6:10b)

(Jesus said to the Jews:) “I know, that you are a seed of Abraham.” (John 8:37a)

The seven (assemblies) of called out, into Ephesos and into Smyrna and into Pergamos and into Thyatira * (א*) and into Philadelphia and into Laodicea.” (Rev 1:11b)

The number of (the messengers) was of the number of ten thousand of the number of ten thousand and the number of one thousand of the number of one thousand. (Rev 5:11b)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 - about 1500

In Tg. Ps.-J. (Targum Pseudo-Jonathan) to Num 22:41 … it is said that during Israel's wanderings in the wilderness the tribe of Dan reached at the edge of the people and were uncovered by the “clouds of glory” that covered the people as a protection from heat, rain etc. Without this divine protection it was overpowered by attacks from Israel's enemies, fell away and never entered the Promised Land as the other tribes did. (Håkan Ulfgard "Feast and future" p 74)

The word “legion” is used in the NT to represent a very great number. The evil spirit in Mark 5:9 … said that his name was Legion “because we are many”. (Illustrerat Bibellexikon p 3455)

The omission of the tribe of Dan may be because Dan was guilty of idolatry on many occasions (Lev. 24:11; Judg. 18; 1 Kings 12:28,29). (C.C Ryrie "The Ryrie Study Bible" p 1904)

A legion (numbered) in the time of Augustus about 6,000 soldiers. (Walter Bauer "A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature" p 468)


about 1500 and time before

(Jeremiah) indicates the tribe from which (Antichrist) shall come, where he says: ”We shall hear the voice of his swift horses from Dan … .” This, too, is the reason that this tribe is not reckoned in the Apocalypse along with those which are saved. (Irenaeus, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol I, p 559)

On Deut. xxxiii. 5 the Jer. Targum speaks of a king whom the tribes of Israel shall obey, this being evidently the King Messiah. (Alfred Edersheim "The Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah Part II" p 715)

Taking the widest and most generous views of the Rabbis (concerning the existence after death), they may be thus summed up: All Israel have share in the world to come; the pious among the Gentiles also have part in it. Only the perfectly just enter at once into paradise; all the rest pass through a period of purification and perfection, variously lasting, up to one year. But notorious breakers of the law, and especially apostates from the Jewish faith, and heretics, have no hope whatever, either here or hereafter! (Alfred Edersheim “Jewish Social Life” p 180)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Karl Barth, Håkan Bengtsson, Per Beskow, Paul Borchsenius, Bo Brander, Leif Carlsson, Sven Danell, Kerstin Ekman, Ulf Ekman, P. Fjellstedt, Birger Gerhardsson, Bo Giertz, Jan Arvid Hellström, C.G. Hjelm, Herbert Johansson, Ulrik Josefsson, Lars Lindberg, Martin Luther, Olaf Moe, Nils Henrik Nilsson, Olle Nystedt, Harald Rasmussen, Anders Runesson, C.C. Ryrie, Ragnar Samuelson, Martha Sandwall-Bergström, Göran Skytte, Erik Sollerman, Knut Svensson, Einar Thomassen, P. Waldenström, Eric Wärenstam.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning Matt 26:53 as a background to the twelve tribes in Rev 7:4, compare Deut 32:8 where “the sons of Israel” in the Hebrew reading become “the messengers of God” in the Greek OT. More than 12 legions = more than 72000 (cf. Bauer above). 72000 is half the number of 144000.

In the Pentateuch the total number in the tribes is named last. Here in the Revelation we have the sum first. A restoration perspective?

As in 1 Chron 4-7 Dan is not named among the twelve tribes. Compare Rev 1:11 where Sardis is not named among the seven (assemblies) of called out and 1 Chron 2:13-15 where Shammah is not named among the eight sons of Jesse. Dan, Sardis and Shammah give particularly negative associations in the groups in which they are named. Compare My own comments and speculations to Rev 1:11b. Because Rev 7:4 says that every tribe is included in the 144000, it is probable that also the tribe of Dan has 12000 persons as the other tribes. However this is not explicitly said.

The 132000 in Rev 7:5-8 (S*) correspond to 132000 (120000 + 12000) in Judith 2.

In the Sinaiticus' reading also the tribe of Simeon is excluded. Probably this tribe will be seen as a part of the tribe of Judas (cf. Joshua 19:9). Another reason to the exclusion of Simeon/Simon can be, that John do not want to name this name a 25th time. Compare also that Matthew in Matt 1:1-17 speaks about fourteen generations from Babylon to Christ but only names thirteen. However, Jesus here can represent two generations, Jesus and Christ. See also My own comments and speculations to John 21:17.

That Manasseh is named but not Ephraim can be understood, if we see the tribe of Ephraim as a part of Manasseh (cf. Joshua 16:9) and possibly also in a restoration perspective as a restoration of Judith's male, who was met with misfortune (Judith 8:2-3).


Paul said to the believers in Rome: “A hardening has become (and becomes) from a part (in) Israel until (the time in) which the complement of the nations may come into (it), and in this way every/all Israel will be saved entirely as it has been (and is) written: ‘The One delivering will arrive out of Zion. He will turn away wickedness from Jacob.’ And this (is) the covenant (with) them from the side of Me, when I – according to the circumstances – may take ‘off for Myself’/away their misses (of My mark).” (Rom 11:25b-27)

(Men of faith living in an earlier time) may not be made perfect separated (from) us. (Heb 11:40b)


Greek words:

Asêr (Asher) (in the NT) Luke 2:36; Rev 7:6.

Beniamin (Benjamin) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Rev 7:8 – Esther 1:1a(A1); 2:5; Acts 13:21; Rom 11:1; Phil 3:5.

Gad (Gad) (in the NT) Rev 7:5.

Zaboulôn (Zabulon) (in the NT) Matt 4:13; Rev 7:8 – Matt 4:15.

Issachar (Issachar) (in the NT) Rev 7:7.

Leui (Levi) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Luke 3:29; Rev 7:7 – Tobit 1:7; Sir 45:6; Mark 2:14; Luke 3:24; 5:27,29; Heb 7:5,9.

Manassês (Manasseh) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Judith 8:2; Matt 1:10; Rev 7:6 – Judith 8:7; 10:3; 16:22-24.

Nephthalim (Nephthalim) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Matt 4:13; Rev 7:6 – Tobit 1:1-2,4-5; 7:3; Matt 4:15.

Roubên (Reuben) (in the NT) Rev 7:5.


Additional studies:

Gen 29:31-35; 30:5-13,18-24; Ex 1:1-4; 30:12; Num 1:18; 26:2; Joshua 4:4-5,8; 1 Chron 27:1; Ezra 2:2; Neh 7:7; Ezek 48:1-7,23-27; Judith 2:15; Luke 22:30; Jas 1:1; Rev 9:16; 14:1,3; 21:12.


Richard J. Bauckham "The List of the Tribes in Revelation 7 Again"; Journal for the Study of the New Testament 42 (1991): 99-115.

A.S. Geyser "Jesus, the Twelve and the twelve tribes in Matthew"; Neotestamentica 12.1 (1978): 1-19.

Scott Hafemann "Eschatology and Ethics: The Future of Israel and the Nations in Romans 15:1-13"; Tyndale Bulletin 51.2 (2000): 161-192.

Baruch Halpern "Why Manasseh is blamed for the Babylonian Exile: the Evolution of a Biblical Tradition"; Vetus Testamentum 48.4 (1998): 473-514.

Christopher R. Smith "The Tribes of Revelation 7 and the Literary Competence of John the Seer"; Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 38.2 (June 1995): 213-218.

Adylson Valdes "Number 666 and the Twelve Tribes of Israel"; Revista Biblica 68:3-4 (2006): 191-214.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-30; 2012-06-28; 2015-02-23)

Back to the top

7:9a After these things I beheld, and behold, a much/many-headed crowd, which no one (continually/never) was able to number it, out of every nation and (out of) tribes and peoples and tongues.

Word for word (21 words in the Greek text): After these-(things) (i/I)-beheld, and behold (a)-crowd much, which number it no-one (continually/never)-was-able-to out-of every nation and (out-of all)-tribes and peoples and tongues.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The Lord said to Abram:) "I will make you into a great nation." (Gen 12:2a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Abram:) “Count up the stars, if you may be able to count up the number out of them.” And He spoke: “In this way your seed will be.” (Gen 15:5, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) "All the nations of the earth will be blessed in (Abram)." (Gen 18:18b, Greek OT)

(Jacob said to God:) “You spoke: ‘I will … put/make your seed as the sand of the sea, which will not be numbered ‘from the multitude’/’because of the magnitude’.” (Gen 32:12, Greek OT)

(Moses said to Pharao:) “After these things I will come/go out.” … (Ex 11:8b, Greek OT)

(Solomon said to the Lord:) “Your slave (is) in middle of Your people which You have taken out, a much/many-headed people which will not (be able to) be numbered.” (1 Kings 3:8, Greek OT)

(God) made two shares of inheritance, one to the people of God and one to all the nations. (Esther 10:3gb/F7b, Greek OT)

(Solomon said to God:) “Let the name (of the king) be ‘being blessed’/blessed into the ages, before the sun his name will stay throughout, and in him all the tribes of the earth will be blessed. All the nations will call him happy.” (Ps 72:17; Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Israel:) "It is great to you 'to yourself be'/'that you are' called My boy/servant to cause the tribes of Jacob to stand and to turn the asunderspread sowing of Israel next to (Me). Behold, I have put/set (and put/set) you into a covenant of descent, into a light of nations 'to be you'/'that you are' into a saving till 'a last'/'an end' of the earth." (Is 49:6, Greek OT)

(The Lord said: “The remaining of Israel), a much/many-headed crowd, ... will turn away/back here.” (Jer 31:8b, Greek OT)

To (one as a son of man) was given the beginning and the honour and the kingdom, and all the peoples, tribes, tongues will be slaves to Him. His (judicial) authority (is) an agelong (judicial) authority, and His kingdom will not be ruined throughout. (Dan 7:14, Greek OT, Theod)

(The Lord said to the prophet:) "The number of the sons of Israel (continually) was as the sand of the sea, which will not (be able to) be measured out, nor be counted up the number out of." (Hos 1:10a, Greek OT)

All the nations will serve Nebuchadnezzar and all the tongues and their tribes will call against him (as) into a god. (Judith 3:8b)

(The Jews) became into a 'much multitude'/'many-headed people', and the number of their descent/descendants (continually) was not (possible to number). (Judith 5:10b)

(Solomon said:) “Lord, ‘according to’/concerning all things You have made Your people great and You have glorified and not ‘beheld over’/despised (it) standing by the side of (it) in every seasonable time and place.” (Wisdom of Solomon 19:22)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “ ... Nations (will) be blessed in a seed (of Abraham).” (Sir 44:21a)


The Latter Revelation:

Soothsayers from upstickings/east became to the side of into (a disgraced) Jerosolyma/Jerusalem, saying: ”Where is the One having been brought forth, a King of the Jews? For we have beheld His star in the upsticking/east, and we have come to prostrate ourselves before Him (in honour of Him).” (Matt 2:1b-2)

(Jesus said to the ones who followed Him:) "Many will arrive from upstickings/east and settings/west and ‘be caused to lay down’/’lean back’ in company with Abraham and Isaac and Jacob in the kingdom of the heavens." (Matt 8:11)

(Jesus said to His disciples: “Of you and/also all the hairs of the head having been (and being) numbered are (numbered).” (Matt 10:30)

(Jesus said to the crowds:) “The kingdom of the heavens is like a scarlet kernel of mustard … . It is indeed smaller than all seeds but ... it becomes a tree.” (Matt 13:31b-32a)

(Jesus said to His eleven disciples:) "Having gone * (א,*א,A) be/make disciples (of) all the nations." (Matt 28:19a; BG Ask-comment: Walter Bauer says in his Greek-English lexicon - p 485 - that the Greek word for "be or become a disciple" - as a transitive verb has the meaning of "make a disciple". Perhaps no translator has another meaning. But I am not sure that this is the johannine view. To be disciples in a company of all nations can cause the crowd of disciples to increase. Cf. John 17:21-23.)

(Jesus said:) “David himself says/calls (the anointed one) ‘Lord’, and from where is his son?” And a (א,*א) much/many-headed crowd heard (Jesus) gladly. (Mark 12:37)

(Jesus said to Peter, James, John and Andrew:) "Into all the nations, first (into) a people (א*), the good little message must be proclaimed." (Mark 13:10)

Suddenly it became/appeared together with the messenger a multitude of an heavenly army praising God. (Luke 2:13a)

(Simeon said:) "My eyes have beheld Your saving, which You have made ready ‘according to’/after a face/figure of all peoples, a light into a revelation of nations and a glory of Your people Israel." (Luke 2:30-32)

After these things (Jesus) came out and viewed a toll collector (with) name Levi, being seated against the toll-house. And He says (א,* א) to him: “Follow Me!” (Luke 5:27)

Having descended (from the mountain) in company with (the twelve) (Jesus) stood upon a level place. And (there were) a much/many-headed crowd of His disciples and a much/many-headed multitude of the people. (Luke 6:17a)

* (א*) Males (continually) were dwelling into/in Jerusalem, (males) standing in awe of (God) from every nation of the ones (being) underneath the heaven. ... (Everyone heard) the own language (be spoken). ... (Peter said:) "This is the thing having been (and being) spoken through the prophet Joel. 'And it will be/happen in the last days, God says: 'I will pour out from My spirit against every/'every kind of' flesh.'" (Acts 2:5,8,16-17a)

(Jacob said:) “Simeon has ‘been in command out’/explained ... (that) God has inspected/’cared for’ to take a people out of nations for His name.” (Acts 15:14)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

After these things Jesus went away on the other side of the Sea of the Galilee of the Tiberias. But a much/many-headed crowd (continually) followed Him. (John 6:1-2a)

(Jesus said to the Pharisees:) “However, I have and/also sheep, which is/are not out of this court. And/also those ones I must lead, and they may (א,* א, A) hear My voice, and it (P66,א,*A) will become one flock, one shepherd.” (John 10:16)

Jesus spoke to (Martha): “I am the resurrection and the life. The one believing into Me, and/also if he – according to the circumstances – may die, he will live. And 'every the'/everyone living and believing into Me may not/certainly not die into the (coming) age.” (John 11:25-26)

On the following day a (P2,א,*א,A) much/many-headed crowd, the one having come into/to the feast (and) heard that/: “Jesus comes into (a disgraced) Jerosolyma/Jerusalem”, took the palm-twigs of the dates and came out into a ‘going to meet’/meeting (with) Him. (John 12:12-13a)

But/and Pilate and/also wrote a superscription and put upon the cross. But/and it (continually) was (and had been) written: “Jesus, the Nazoraean, the King of the Jews.” So many of the Jews read this superscription, because the place whereat Jesus was crucified (continually) was near the city, and it (continually) was (and had been) written in Hebrew, in Latin (and) in Greek. (John 19:19-20)

Behold, He comes in company with the clouds. (Rev 1:7a)

After these things I beheld, and behold, a door being (and having been) opened in the heaven. (Rev 4:1a)

(The living beings and the elders sang:) “Worthy are You (little Ram) to take the scroll and to open its seals, because You were slaughtered. And (for) God in/with Your blood You bought us (א,* א) out of every tribe and tongue and people and nation.” (Rev 5:9b)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 - about 1500

During the first seven years (2009 - 2015) of this website (www.johnbible.se) the following countries (or in a few cases districts) have visited the website (within parenthesis month - year is noted for the first visit): Sweden (February 2009), United States (March 2009), Japan (June 2010), Taiwan (June 2010), Spain (June 2010), Norway (June 2010), Germany (June 2010), Great Britain (June 2010), Finland (July 2010), Russian Federation (July 2010), Israel (July 2010), Australia (July 2010), Switzerland (July 2010), Belgium (July 2010), Denmark (August 2010), France (August 2010), Luxembourg (August 2010), Italy (August 2010), Turkey (August 2010), South Africa (September 2010), Canada (September 2010), Hongkong (September 2010), Netherlands (September 2010), Hungary (September 2010), Nicaragua (October 2010), Estonia (October 2010), Portugal (October 2010), Indonesia (October 2010), Brazil (October 2010), Poland (October 2010), South Korea (November 2010), Austria (November 2010), Ukraine (December 2010), India (December 2010), Slovak Republic (December 2010), Peru (December 2010), China (January 2011), Romania (January 2011), Czech Republic (January 2011), Iceland (January 2011), Georgia (January 2011), Latvia (February 2011), Thailand (February 2011), Faroe Islands (March 2011), Argentina (March 2011), United Arab Emirates (March 2011), Egypt (March 2011), Mexico (March 2011), Ireland (March 2011), Iran (March 2011), Croatia (March 2011), Moldova (March 2011), Chile (March 2011), Angola (March 2011), Greece (March 2011), Malta (March 2011), Singapore (April 2011), Kuwait (April 2011), Uganda (May 2011), Tanzania (September 2011), Saudi Arabia (October 2011), Republic of Serbia (October 2011), Niger (October 2011), Palestinian Territories (November 2011), Philippines (December 2011), Azerbaidjan (January 2012), Qatar (January 2012), Aland islands (February 2012), Jordan (February 2012), Pakistan (April 2012), Kazakhstan (April 2012), Botswana (April 2012), Tunisia (May 2012), Panama (May 2012), Lithuania (May 2012), Virgin Islands (May 2015), Bahamas (May 2012), Bermuda (June 2012), Barbados (June 2012), Colombia (June 2012), Vietnam (June 2012), Seychelles (July 2012), Malaysia (July 2012), Slovenia (July 2012), Vatican City State (July 2012), New Zealand (July 2012), Bangladesh (August 2012), Albania (August 2012), Venezuela (August 2012), Morocco (September 2012), Bulgaria (September 2012), Zimbabwe (September 2012), Myanmar (November 2012), Cyprus (November 2012), Ghana (November 2012), Bosnia-Herzegovina (December 2012), Montenegro (December 2012), Madagascar (January 2013), Monaco (February 2013), Turkmenistan (April 2013), Kenya (May 2013), Macau (May 2013), Paraguay (June 2013), Lebanon (June 2013), Armenia (July 2013), Swaziland (August 2013), Macedonia (September 2013), Bolivia (January 2014), Cambodia (January 2014), Bahrain (January 2014), Ecuador (February 2014), Dominican Republic (February 2014), Algeria (February 2014), Iraq (March 2014), Belarus (March 2014), Greenland (March 2014), Turks and Caios Islands (April 2014), Nepal (April 2014), Guatemala (April 2014), Honduras (May 2014), Antigua and Barbuda (May 2014), Ivory Coast (May 2014), Puerto Rico (May 2014), Namibia (May 2014), Suriname (July 2014), Mauritius (July 2014), Guinea (August 2014), Mongolia (August 2014), Guatemala (August 2014), Cameroon (September 2014), Cape Verde (December 2014), Gibraltar (December 2014), Costa Rica (January 2015), Sri Lanka (January 2015), Trinidad and Tobago (January 2015), Lesotho (May 2015), Maldives (May 2015), Andorra (May 2015), Sudan (August 2015), Syria (September 2015), Oman (September 2015), Uruguay (October 2015).

What has been worked by the light, which during dark times has come from Jerusalem, it can neither be measured nor be counted. (Selma Lagerlöf "Ljuslågan" p 158; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

That You have realized that every man has his religion according to his means is a progress. After about two months' Struggle here with pious Catholics, wanting to save me with Catholicism, peace was concluded when I explained, that my claims to heaven were not so great but that I restricted myself to a place behind Jews and Mohammedans; that I thought every region had its justified religion; that all heaven-stormers had broken their wings; that all attempts to universal powers or universal religions have been punished and so on. . . . Religion is the product of the living of every individual here and there and adapt itself hardly to propaganda fo all. Nothing is for all. And it is therefore this devouring-desire for all the others goes against the grain. This is the great dragon, soul eater, vampire. (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev XI maj 1895-nov 1896" p 384-385; letter 1896-11-07 to Torsten Hedlund; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

(Sweden's) people has perhaps more than any other an inclination to forget itself, in order to live in the weal and woe of mankind. . . . A small people with a glorious historical object and therefore with a great responsibility to God may be able to see the truth in its face, acknowledge the law of decay which rules over all temporal, and say loudly, that it can die, but with honour, in the fulfilling of its task. China's long life is not to prefer to Hellas' short and beautiful. Everybody feeling in this way is warmed by the vision of the poet, in which the last Swede dies on Sweden's last banner, for it is a death, which secures immortality to a deceased people. . . . Modest as (Carl Wilhelm August Strandberg) was, he wanted in clothing foreign poems in Swedish attire see his calling much more than in the creating of independent pieces of poetry. But whichever domain he moved he was the master of the word. . . . The pious patriarch (Jesper Svedberg) hoped that the Swedish language, such as he could admire it in his bible, would survive judgment day and sound in the eternal Jerusalem before the face of the Lord. Then he says, every people without any learning will understand the languages of the others and agree with them, when they sing the song of Moses, the servant of God, and the lamb, but when Sweden's angel begins to sing, all the other peoples will sing with us Swedes in Swedish: Nu tacker Gud, allt folk, med hjärtats fröjd och gamman/Now, all peoples, thank God merrily with all your heart! (Viktor Rydberg "Minnestal över C.W.A. Strandberg - Inträdestal i Svenska Akademien 1878" p 124,131,145,147-148; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


about 1500 and time before

Rome is a true America where everything is mixed and boiled, all kinds of people are received as citizens, all gods are added to its collection. The Roman history is uninteresting till Caesar and August, when it becomes Roman. The caesars are perfect citizens of the world. Claudius was born i Lyon, Pertinax in Liguria, Septimus Severrus was African, Macrinus Numidian, Maximinus was son of a Goth and an Alan woman, Philippus Arabs was Arab; Trajanus, Hadrianus, Marcus Aurelius, Commodus were Spaniards. To pick out the extraction of the Illyrian caesars is impossible, for Illyria was originally populated by tribesmen of the Thracians and are mixed with Phoenicians, Italians and Celts. . . . The imprisoned Dacian (Pharnese) is a Russian farmer. Pan (Ludovici) is the Jew of the East. Peto and Aria (Ludovici) can be seen in Kristiania. Marsyas (Medici) is Silen, Socrates Pelasgian, Phrygian. (August Strindberg "Världshistoriens Mystik" p 49-50; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

The Gentiles who have believed on (Christ), and have repented of the sins which they have committed, they shall receive the inheritance along with the patriarchs and the prophets, and the just men who are descended from Jacob, even although they neither keep the Sabbath, nor are circumcised, nor observe the feasts. (Justin Martyr, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol I, p 207)

It was not merely for these who believed on Him in the time of Tiberius Caesar that Christ came, nor did the Father exercise His providence for the men only who are now alive, but for all men altogether, who from the beginning, according to their capacity, in their generation have both feared and loved God, and practised justice and reverence towards their neighbours, and have earnestly desired to see Christ, and to hear His voice. (Irenaeus, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol I, p 494)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Eskil Albertsson, Svetlana Aleksijevitj, Kwame Bediako, Carl Grimberg, G.A. Gustafson, Dick Harrison, Hans Larsson, Ebba Lindqvist, David Livingstone, Martin Luther, Olaus Magnus, Olaf Moe, John Ongman, C. René Padilla, Pansy, K.A. Rundbäck, Anders Runesson, Milton Steinberg, John Stott, A.M. Strinnholm, Ingvar Svanberg, Knut Svensson, Adolf Thomander, Mats Tunehag.


My own comments and speculations:

It is a great thing to belong to one by God chosen nation (John 7:4-8) and not less great to belong to a chosen mankind in Christ, consisting of individuals called out of all nations, of tribes, peoples and tongues (cf. John 1:34; 15:5).

Concerning “after these things I beheld, and behold”, see also Rev 4:1a. Concerning “out of every nation and (out of) tribes and peoples and tongues”, see Rev 5:9bb.


Paul said to the believers in Rome: "It says/'is written': 'Be cheerful, nations, in company with the people of (God).'" (Rom 15:10b)


Greek words:

arithmeô (number) (in the NT + one example in the Apocrypha) Matt 10:30; Rev 7:9 – Judith 2:15; Luke 12:7.


Additional studies: Gen 13:16; 16:10; Deut 1:10; 10:22; Job 25:3; Is 60:22; Jer 46:23; Dan 3:4,7,29; 5:19; 6:25; 7:27; Matt 14:14; 26:47; Mark 6:34; 12:38; John 6:5; 11:52; 17:20; Acts 8:33; Rom 1:5; Heb 11:12.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-01; 2012-06-29; 2015-02-24)

Back to the top

7:9b ... standing ‘in the very eyes of’/before the throne and in the very eyes of the little Ram, being (and having been) wrapped up in white dresses and (with) date-twigs in their hands.

Word for word (17 words in the Greek text): 'standing-(and-having-stood)'/standing in-the-very-eyes-of (of)-the (of)-throne and in-the-very-eyes-of (of)-the (of)-little-ram being-(and-having-been)-wrapped-up-in dresses white and (with)-date-twigs in the hands their.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The Lord said to Moses:) "You have found (and find) joybringing (grace) in the very eyes of Me, and I know you ‘to the side of’/’in comparison with’ all." (Ex 33:17b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Moses and Israel:) “(On) the first day (of the Pitching/Feast of Tents) you shall take fruit of wood of seasonable hour ... of date-twigs ... to be cheerful opposite the Lord your God (for) seven days.” (Lev 23:40, Greek OT)

(Solomon said:) “God has already been pleased with your pieces of workmanship. In every seasonable time let your garments stand/be white.” (Eccl 9:7b-8a, Greek OT)

A thousand of a number of one thousand (continually) performed public duties to (the Old of Days), and ten thousand of a number of ten thousand stood (and had stood) by the side of Him. And a court of justice sat down, and books were opened. (Dan 7:10b, Greek OT, Theod)

(The priest leader) Jesus (continually) was (and had been) set/clothed in dirty garments, and he stood before (the) face of the messenger. (Zech 3:3, Greek OT)

Simon threw out (the males from the border/castle) and made (it) clean from the abominations. (Simon's people) came into, into it ... in company with ... palm-twigs ... A great enemy had been crushed (and driven) out of Israel. ... It stood/’was fixed’ ‘according to’/after a period of time, the thing to lead/keep this day in company with cheerfulness. (1 Macc 13:50b-52a)

(Maccabaeus and his men took) … date-twigs having hymns (to the Lord). (2 Macc 10:7a)


The Latter Revelation:

The most/’very great’ crowd (continually) extended/’spread out’ their garments in/on the way, but/and others cut (continually) branches from the trees and * (א*) extended/’spread out’ in/on the way. And the crowds going before Him and the ones following Him (continually/repeatedly) shouted saying: "Hosanna to the Son of David. Being (and having been) blessed the one coming in a name of a lord. Hosannah in the highest things!" (Matt 21:8-9)

(Jesus said:) “David himself says/calls (the anointed one) ‘Lord’, and from where is his son?” And a (א,*א) much/many-headed crowd heard (Jesus) gladly. And in His teaching He (continually/repeatedly) said: See/keep (away) from the scribes, the ones wanting to walk about in dresses.” (Mark 12:37-38a)

Having come into, into the memorial tomb, (the women) beheld a little young man being seated in the right (parts), being (and having been) wrapped up in a white dress. (Mark 16:5a)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “I say to you, every/everyone who may – according to the circumstances – confess in/with Me in front of the men, the Son of the Man will confess in/with him in front of * (א*) (the things) of God. But the one having denied Me in the very eyes of the men will be denied ‘in the very eyes of’/before * (א*) (the things) of God.” (Luke 12:8-9)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Be sleepless/awake in every seasonable time and 'be in need of'/'strive after' 'in order that'/that you may be entirely stable to flee away (from) all these things being about to become/’come about’ and to stand in front of the Son of the Man.” (Luke 21:36)

(Paul and the others on the boat tried to) attain Date/Date-twig/Phoenix, a harbour of Crete, to be by the side of the tempest. ... (Acts 27:12b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

On the following day a (P2,א,*א,A) much/many-headed crowd, the one having come into/to the feast (and) heard that/: “Jesus comes into (a disgraced) Jerosolyma/Jerusalem”, took the palm-twigs of the dates and came out into a ‘going to meet’/meeting (with) Him. (John 12:12-13a)

But (Jesus') mother and His mother's sister, Mariam (א,*א) of Clopas, and Mariam (א,*א) from Magdala stood by the cross ... and the disciple whom He (continually) welcomed. (John 19:25(25b)-26a)

(Against a middle of the seven lampstands I beheld one like a son of a man), ... being (and having been) set/clothed (in) a robe reaching to the feet and being (and having been) girded around at the nipples (with) a golden girdle. (Rev 1:13b)

‘Become being awake’/’wake up’ and ‘set fast’/confirm the rest, which (continually) was about to die, for I have not found (and do not find) your works having been (and being) completed in the very eyes of My God. (Rev 3:2, “Sardis”)

He who conquers shall in this way be wrapped up in white garments, and I will not/certainly not wipe out his name out of the book of the life, and I will confess his name in front of (א,*א) My Father and in the very eyes of His messengers. (Rev 3:5, “Sardis”)

Behold, a throne (continually) lay in the heaven, and (One) being seated against the throne. (Rev 4:2b)

I beheld ‘in a middle of’/’between (on one hand)’ the throne and the four living beings and ‘in a middle of’/’(on the other hand)’ the elders a little Ram standing as having been (and being) slaughtered. (Rev 5:6a)

It was given to (the ones being slaughtered), everyone, a white dress. (Rev 6:11a)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

(My longing) flew over groves of olive trees and the villages and towns of Canaan, out of which crowds marched away with palms and festival attires on paths fringed by cedars with white lambs being sacrifice wreathed; in west the way of the sea gleamed, where the ships swam, swan by swan. But the earth seemed more and more farther, and Salem was in a river of air with golden pinnacles more and more nearer. - . . . With golden pinnacles in ether nice and streaming banners innumerable, there on the crest of the wall wings whizzed, there crowds of late ones soared. And there, and there! I see it accurately; there a dear becks, a well known one, a gloriously clear and pure character, the dead one, who once was my all. I fly to rest in her arms, to sink warm to mother's breast the trembling lark harbour of my longing. (Viktor Rydberg "Träsnittet i psalmboken" p 22-23; depicted time: 1838-1845; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Stig Abrahamsson, Ingvar Andersson, Carl Boberg, Leif Carlsson, O. Carling, Carl Grimberg, Alf Henrikson, John Johnaeus, Rudyard Kipling, Lars Levi Laestadius, Selma Lagerström, Harry Martinson, Johan Ludvig Runeberg, Milton Steinberg.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “the little Ram”, see Rev 5:6a. Concerning “white dresses”, see Rev 6:11a.


Additional studies:

Neh 8:15; 2 Macc 14:4; Acts 10:30; Rev 3:4,18; 4:4; 7:14-15; 19:8; 20:12; 22:3.


Donald Guthrie "The Lamb in the Structure of the Book of Revelation"; Vox Evangelica 12 (1981): 64-71.

Norman Hillyer "'The Lamb' in the Apocalypse"; The Evangelical Quarterly 39.4 (Oct.-Dec. 1967): 228-236.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-01; 2012-06-29; 2015-02-24)

Back to the top

7:10 And they shout (with) a great/loud voice, saying: “The saving (belongs) to our God, the One being seated on the throne and to the little Ram into the (coming) ages of the (coming) ages. Amen (א*).”

Word for word (24 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus prima manus): and (they)-shout (with)-(a)-voice great saying: the saving (to)-the god our (to)-the-(one) being-seated on the throne and (to)-the little-ram into the ages (of)-the (of)-ages. amen.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(David said:) “The saving (is) of the Lord..” (Ps 3:8a or 3:9a, Greek OT)

(David said: “The Lord is) a horn of my saving ... .” (Ps 18:2b or 18:3b, Greek OT)

(The Lord) drank down the death ... and again God took off/away every teardrop from every face ... And it will be spoken (on) that day: "Behold our God, on whom we (continually) hoped", and we may exult and we shall be cheerful on/’for the sake of’ our saving.” (Is 25:8-9, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Israel:) "It is great to you 'to yourself be'/'that you are' called My boy/servant to cause the tribes of Jacob to stand and to turn the asunderspread sowing of Israel next to (Me). Behold, I have put/set (and put/set) you into a covenant of descent, into a light of nations 'to be you'/'that you are' into a saving till 'a last'/'an end' of the earth." (Is 49:6, Greek OT)


The Latter Revelation: :

(Simeon said:) "My eyes have beheld Your saving, which You have made ready ‘according to’/after a face/figure of all peoples, a light into a revelation of nations and a glory of Your people Israel." (Luke 2:30-32)

Every/all flesh will behold the means of saving of God. (Luke 3:6)

(Peter said to the leaders of the people and to the elders:) “The saving is not in another (than Jesus).” (Acts 4:12a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Jesus said to the woman:) “We prostrate ourselves (in adoration) (towards) what we know, because the saving is out/’on the basis’ of the Jews..” (John 4:22b)

To (Jesus Christ is) the glory and the power into the (coming) ages of the (coming) ages. Amen. (Rev 1:6b)

(I am) the One living, and I became a dead (body), and behold, I am a living one into the (coming) ages of the (coming) ages. (Rev 1:18a)

Behold, a throne (continually) lay in the heaven, and (One) being seated against the throne. (Rev 4:2b)

When the living beings – according to the circumstances – may (א,* א) give glory and honour and thankfulness to the One being seated on the throne, to the One living into the (coming) ages of the (coming) ages, the twenty-four elders will and/also (א,* א) fall/’sink down’ in the very eyes of the One being seated upon the throne, and they will prostrate themselves before the One living into the (coming) ages of the (coming) ages (in honour of Him). Amen (א,* א). (Rev 4:9-10a)

I beheld against the right (hand) of the One being seated upon the throne ... (Rev 5:1a)

I beheld ‘in a middle of’/’between (on one hand)’ the throne and the four living beings and ‘in a middle of’/’(on the other hand)’ the elders a little Ram standing as having been (and being) slaughtered. (Rev 5:6a)

(The little Ram) came and It takes (and has taken) (the scroll) out of the right (hand) of the One being seated upon the throne. (Rev 5:7)

To the One being seated upon (א,* א) the throne and to the little Ram (be) the blessing and the honour and the glory and the power into the (coming) ages of the (coming) ages. (Rev 5:13b)

(The souls of the slaughtered witnesses) shouted (with) a great/loud voice saying: … (Rev 6:10a)

They say to the mountains and to the rocks: “Fall against us and hide us from a face/presence of the One being seated on (א,* א) the throne.” (Rev 6:16a)

(The messenger) shouted (with) a great/loud voice to the four messengers, to whom it was given to them to act unrighteously (against) the earth and the sea. (Rev 7:2b)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: Chas. E. Cowman, Sven Danell.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “shout (with) a great/loud voice, saying”, see Rev 6:10a. Concerning “God, the One being seated on the throne”, see Rev 4:2b and 4:9b. Concerning “the little Ram”, see Rev 5:6a. Concerning “the ages of the ages. Amen”, see Rev 1:6b.


Additional studies: Ps 62:1-2(2-3),6-7(7-8); Is 43:11; Jer 3:23; Jonah 2:9(10); Baruch 4:29; Luke 1:69,76-77; John 11:43; Rev 12:10; 19:1; 22:3.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-01; 2012-06-29; 2015-02-25)

Back to the top

7:11a And all the messengers stood in a circle of/around the throne and the elders and the four living beings.

Word for word (15 words in the Greek text): And all the messengers 'stood-(and-had-stood)'/stood (in)-(a)-circle (of)-the (of)-throne and (of)-the elders and (of)-the four living-beings.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Moses) spoke: “The Lord arrives … together with the number of ten thousand ... messengers in company with Him.” (Deut 33:2, Greek OT)

A thousand of a number of one thousand (continually) performed public duties to (the Old of Days), and ten thousand of a number of ten thousand stood (and had stood) by the side of Him. And a court of justice sat down, and books were opened. (Dan 7:10b, Greek OT, Theod)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Behold/’take heed’ (that) you may not ‘consider down’/downgrade one of these small/little ones (who believe into Me), for I say to you, that their messengers in heavens ‘through every thing’/always see the face of My Father, the One (being) in heavens.” (Matt 18:10)

Having seen Himself round about (at) the ones being seated (in) a circle around Him, (Jesus) says: “Behold, My mother and My brothers.” (Mark 3:34)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “I say to you, every/everyone who may – according to the circumstances – confess in/with Me in front of the men, the Son of the Man will confess in/with him in front of * (א*) (the things) of God. But the one having denied Me in the very eyes of the men will be denied ‘in the very eyes of’/before * (א*) (the things) of God.” (Luke 12:8-9)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

He who conquers shall in this way be wrapped up in white garments. And I will not/certainly not wipe out his name out of the book of the life, and I will confess his name in front of (א,*א) My Father and in the very eyes of His messengers. (Rev 3:5)

(There are) priests (א,*A) in a circle from the throne, like of emerald (in) beholding, and in a circle from the throne (were) twenty-four thrones and against the thrones being twenty-four elders seated. (Rev 4:4a)

In a middle of the throne and (in) a circle of/from the throne (were) four living beings, being full of eyes in front of and ‘from behind’/behind. (Rev 4:6b)

I beheld, and I heard as (א,*א) a voice of many messengers (in) a circle (around) the throne and the living beings and the elders. (Rev 5:11a)

I beheld four messengers standing against the four corners of the earth. (Rev 7:1a)


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “circle of/around the throne”, see Rev 4:6b. Concerning “the living beings”, see Rev 4:6b.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-01; 2012-06-29; 2015-02-25)

Back to the top

7:11b And they fell/sank down against/on their faces ‘in the very eyes of’/before the throne and prostrated themselves before God (in honour of Him).

Word for word (13 words in the Greek text): and (they)-fell in-the-very-eyes-of (of)-the (of)-throne against the faces their and '(kissed-towards)'/'prostrated-themselves-(before)' the god.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Abigail) fell/’fell down’ in the very eyes of David against/on her face and prostrated herself before him (in honour of him) against the earth. (1 Sam 25:23b, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said:) “Come, we may prostrate ourselves and fall/’fall down’ before (the Lord) (in honour of Him).” (Ps 95:6a, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said:) “Prostrate yourselves before (the Lord) (in honour of Him), all His messengers.” (Ps 97:7b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Jerusalem: “The nations) will prostrate themselves before you against face of the earth and lick the gravel of your feet. And you will gain knowledge, that I (am) the Lord, and to (you) will not be put a shame.” (Is 49:23b, Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) “The glory of the Lord stood (on the plain) … and I fell/'fell down' against/on my face.” (Ezek 3:23b, Greek OT)

(Daniel said: “... I fell/'fell down' against/on my face (before the messenger). … And on his talking in company with me, I fell asleep against/with (my) face on the ground. And having touched me he raised me upon the place.” (Dan 8:17a,18, Greek OT)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) ”Every/all the common people ... fell/sank down against face against the earth to prostrate themselves before their Lord (in honour of Him).” (Sir 50:17a)


The Latter Revelation:

(The disciples) fell/’fell down’ against/on their face/faces and feared extremely. And/but Jesus came forward and having touched them He spoke: “Rise and do not fear!” (Matt 17:6b-7a)

(One of ten) fell/’fell down’ against/on (the) face to the side of (Jesus') feet, being thankful to Him. And he (continually) was a Samaritan. (Luke 17:16)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

The twenty-four elders will and/also (א,* א) fall/’sink down’ in the very eyes of the One being seated upon the throne, and they will prostrate themselves before the One living into the (coming) ages of the (coming) ages (in honour of Him). Amen (א,* א). (Rev 4:10a)


My own comments and speculations: Concerning ”fell/’fell down’” and “prostrated themselves before God”, see also Rev 4:10a.


Additional studies: Rev 11:16.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-01; 2012-06-29; 2015-02-26)

Back to the top

7:12 ... saying: “Amen, the blessing and the glory and the wisdom and the thankfulness and the honour and the ability and the stability to our God into the (coming) ages of the (coming) ages. Amen.”

Word for word (31 words in the Greek text): saying: amen, the blessing and the glory and the wisdom and the thankfulness and the honour and the ability and the stability (to)-the god our into the ages (of)-the (of)-ages. amen.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Manasseh said to the Lord:) “Every ability of the heavens sings hymns to You, and the glory is Yours into the (coming) ages. Amen.” (The Prayer of Manasseh v 15b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

To (Jesus Christ is) the glory and the power into the (coming) ages of the (coming) ages. Amen. (Rev 1:6b)

When the living beings – according to the circumstances – may (א,* א) give glory and honour and thankfulness to the One being seated on the throne, to the One living into the (coming) ages of the (coming) ages, the twenty-four elders will fall/’sink down’ in the very eyes of the One being seating upon the throne, and they will prostrate themselves before the One living into the (coming) ages of the (coming) ages. Amen (א,* א). (Rev 4:9-10a)

(I heard messengers) saying (with) a great/loud voice: “Worthy is the little Ram, the One having been (and being) slaughtered to take the ability and riches and wisdom and stability and honour and glory and blessing.” (Rev 5:12)

(The much/many-headed crowd) shout (with) a great/loud voice, saying: “The saving (belongs) to our God, the One being seated on the throne and to the little Ram into the (coming) ages of the (coming) ages. Amen (א*).” (Rev 7:10)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

Thanks, and honour! (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev XVII 13 juli 1908-april 1909" p 264; letter 1909-01-15 to Johan Nordling; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: O. Carling, Martin Luther, Olaf Moe, Sven Nilsson.


My own comments and speculations:

The sevenfold praise is preceded by a sixth and is followed by a seventh ”Amen” in the Revelation (S*).

Concerning “the blessing and the glory and the honour and the stability”, see Rev 5:12bb Concerning “the wisdom and the ability”, see Rev 5:12ba. Concerning “into the (coming) ages of the (coming) ages. Amen.”, see Rev 1:6b.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-01; 2012-06-29; 2015-02-26)

Back to the top

7:13-14a And one * (א,* א) of the elders answered, saying to me: “These, the ones being (and having been) wrapped up in the white dresses, who are they, and from where have they come?” And I speak (and have spoken) to him: “My lord, you know.”

Word for word: 7:13 (19 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus) And answered one (of)-the elders saying (to)-me: these the-(ones) being-(and-having-been)-wrapped-up-in the dresses the white who are-(they) and from-where came-(they)? 7:14a (7 words in the Greek text) and (i/I)-speak-(and-have-spoken) (to)-him: lord my, you 'know-(and-have-known)'/know.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

The messenger of the Lord spoke (to the woman who to Abram would bear a son “according to the flesh”): “Hagar … from where do you come and where do you go?” (Gen 16:8a, Greek OT)

(Seeing Isaac coming Rebekah) spoke to the boy/servant: "Who is that man, going in the plain into our meeting?" But/and the boy/servant spoke: "This is my lord." But having taken the harvest tool she (continually) wrapped up herself. (Gen 24:65, Greek OT)

(Jesus/Joshua said to the Hivites:) “From where are you, and 'from where from the side of'/'from the side of what' have you become (and become) by the side of?” (Joshua 9:8b, Greek OT)

(The wife of Manoah said:) "I did not ask from where (the man of God) is, and he did not bring away a message (about) his name to me." (Judges 13:6b, Greek OT, B)

(The Lord) spoke towards (the prophet): “Son of man, if these bones will live?” And he spoke: “Lord, You have insight in these things.” (Ezek 37:3, Greek OT)

(The prophet) spoke: “Lord, what (are) these?” (Zech 1:9a, Greek OT)


The Latter Revelation:

The disciples say to (Jesus): "From where in a desert (are) so many breads/loaves to us, so that (they can) feed a so much/many-headed crowd?” (Matt 15:33)

(Jesus said to the priest leaders and the elders of the people:) “From where was (continually) the baptism of John, out of heaven or out of men?” … They answered (that they did) not know from where. (Matt 21:25a; Luke 20:7)

Having come into, into the memorial tomb, (the women) beheld a little young man being seated in the right (parts), being (and having been) wrapped up in a white dress. (Mark 16:5a)

(Elizabeth said:) “From where (is) this to me, in order that the mother of my Lord may come towards me?” (Luke 1:43)

(Jesus said:) “From (the time in) which the master of the house – according to the circumstances – may have risen and shut up the door, you may begin * (א*) to knock at the door, saying: ‘Lord, open to us.’ And ‘having answered’/’he will answer and’ speak to you: ‘I do not know you, from where you are.’ … ‘I do not know from where you are.” (Luke 13:25,27a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

This is the evidence of John, when the Jews had dispatched away priests and Levites * (P66,75,א,*א) out of (a disgraced) Jerosolyma/Jerusalem, in order that they might fall/’fall down’ (א,*א) (towards) him (and ask): "Who are you? … They so spoke to him: "Who are you, in order that we may give an answer to the ones having sent us." (John 1:19,22a)

Nathanael says to (Jesus): "From where have You knowledge of me?" (John 1:48a)

The threebedleader tasted the water having become (and becoming) wine, and he did not know from where it is/was – but the servants, the ones having ladled (and ladling) out the water, knew. (John 2:9)

(Jesus) had knowledge of all (men) and ... He (continually) had not need ‘in order that’/that anyone might be a witness on account of the man, for He Himself had (continually) knowledge of what (continually) was in the man. (John 2:24b-25)

(Jesus said to Nicodemus:) "The Spirit blows whereat/where it wants, and you hear its voice. However, you do not know from where it comes, and where it withdraws. In this way is 'every the'/everyone having been (and being) begotten out of the water and (א,*א) the Spirit." (John 3:8)

(The woman said to Jesus:) “From where have You the living water?” (John 4:11b)

Having so lifted against/up the eyes and viewed that a much/many-headed crowd comes towards Him, He says towards Philip: “From where may we buy breads/bread, in order that these ones may eat?” This He (continually) said to try him, for He Himself knew (and had known) what He (continually) was about to make/do. (John 6:5-6)

(Some of the inhabitants of a disgraced Jerosolyma/Jerusalem so said about Jesus): “We know from where this One is. * (א,* א) When – according to the circumstances – the christ/'anointed one' may come, no one has knowledge from where He is.” (John 7:27)

Jesus answered and spoke to (the Pharisees): "And if I – according to the circumstances – am a witness on account of Myself, My evidence is truthful, because I know from where I came and where I withdraw. * (א,*א) You do not know from where I come and (א,*א) where I withdraw.” (John 8:14)

(The Jews) (continually) said to (Jesus): "Who are You?" (John 8:25a)

And (Pilate) again came into, into the Praetorium, and he says to Jesus: “From where are You?” But Jesus did not give him an answer. (John 19:9)

Jesus says to (the disciples): “Come here (and) breakfast.” But ‘no one’/none of the disciples, knowing that it is the Lord, (continually) took courage to search Him out (by asking): “Who are You?” (John 21:12)

Recollect so from where you have fallen (and fall) and change your mind and make/do the first works. (Rev 2:5a, “Ephesos”)

You have few/’a few’ names in Sardis, which have not soiled their garments. And they will walk about in company with Me in white (things), because they are worthy. The one conquering will in this way be wrapped up in white garments. (Rev 3:4-5a)

And one of the elders said to me: “Do not weep!” (Rev 5:5a)

It was given to (the ones having been slaughtered), everyone, a white dress. (Rev 6:11a)

(I beheld a much/many-headed crowd) standing ‘in the very eyes of’/before the throne and in the very eyes of the little Ram, being (and having been) wrapped up in white dresses and (with) date-twigs in their hands. (Rev 7:9b)


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “white dresses”, see Rev 6:11a.


Additional studies: Gen 29:4; Jer 15:18-19; Dan 7:16; Zech 1:19; Tobit 7:3; Matt 13:27,54,56; Mark 6:2; Rev 4:4.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-01; 2012-06-29; 2015-02-27)

Back to the top

7:14b And he spoke to me: “These are the ones coming out of the great oppression, and they have cleansed their dresses and whitened them in the blood of the little Ram.”

Word for word (25 words in the Greek text): and (he)-spoke (to)-me: these are the-(ones) coming out-of the oppression the great and (they)-cleansed the dresses their and whitened them in the blood (of)-the (of)-little-ram.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Judas) cleanses his dress in wine and his wrapper in blood of a grape. (Gen 49:11b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Moses:) “'They may'/'let (the people)' cleanse the garments.” … And they cleansed the garments. (Ex 19:10b,14b, Greek OT)

Behold, a day of darkness and ... oppression and ... great trouble upon the earth. (Esther 1:1g/A7, Greek OT)

(David said to God:) “Make me clean from my miss (of Your mark) ... Cleanse me and I shall be whitened over/’more than’ snow.” (Ps 51:2a,7b or 51:4a,9b, Greek OT)

(The wife said to the daughters of Jerusalem: “Solomon) is white and fire-coloured.” (Song of Solomon 5:10a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to His people:) “Bathe, become clean, take off/away the evil things from your souls (the things which are) over against My eyes. Cease from your evils. ... Come here and we may ‘count throughout’/consider … if – according to the circumstances – your misses (of My mark) may be as crimson, I shall whiten (them) as snow, but/and if – according to the circumstances – they may be as scarlet, I shall whiten (them) as wool.” (Is 1:16,18, Greek OT)

(The prophet said about Judas:) "Into/with a voice/sound of a circumcision (the Lord) fastened/fixed up fire against her, the great oppression against (her), her branches became useless." (Jer 11:16b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) “That day (is) great, and there is not (any) of such kind. And it is a narrow time for Jacob, and/but from this he will be saved.” (Jer 30:7b, Greek OT)

(After Judas' death) it became a great oppression in Israel, whichever/which has not become, not from which/the day a prophet was beheld (among) them. (1 Macc 9:27)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said: “The Lord) saves in a seasonable time of oppression.” (Sir 2:11b)

(Baruch said:) “Jerusalem, ’set out’/’strip off’ your dress of grief and ill-treatment/humilation and set/clothe yourself into the (coming) age in the comely appearance of the glory from the side of God. Wrap up yourself in the double (garment) of righteousness, the one from the side of God.” (Baruch 5:1-2a)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Having gone * (א,* א, A) be/make disciples (of) all the nations, baptizing them/'the disciples' into the name of the Father and the Son and the Holy Spirit.” (Matt 28:19; BG Ask-comment: Walter Bauer says in his Greek-English lexicon - p 485 - that the Greek word for "be or become a disciple" - as a transitive verb has the meaning of "make a disciple". Perhaps no translator has another meaning. But I am not sure that this is the johannine view. To be disciples in a company of all nations can cause the crowd of disciples to increase. Cf. John 17:21-23.)

(Jesus') garments became glittering, exceedingly white, such as a fuller upon the earth is not able to whiten in this way. (Mark 9:3)

(Jesus said to His disciples: “In) those days it will be such an oppression as has not become of such kind from a beginning of an creation, which God created, till the now and not/certainly not may become.” (Mark 13:19)

(The fishermen) (continually) cleansed the nets. (Luke 5:2b)

(Paul and Barnabas said to the disciples:) “Through many oppressions we must come into, into the kingdom of God.” (Acts 14:22b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

It became so a searching ‘out of’/of the disciples of John in company with Jews (P66,א*) on account of purification. And they came towards John and spoke to him: “Rabbi, the One who (continually) was in company with you on the other side of the Jordan, to whom you have been (and are) a witness, behold, this One baptizes and all come towards Him.” (John 3:25-26)

Simon Peter says to Him: “Lord, not my feet only, however/but and/also the hands and the head.” Jesus says to him: “The one having been (and being) bathed has not need * (א,*א) to wash however/but is clean whole/’all over’.” (John 13:9-10a)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "These things I have talked (and talk) (with) you, in order that you may have peace in Me. In the adornment/’adorned world’ you have oppression. However, be confident. I have conquered (and conquer) the adornment/’adorned world’." (John 16:33)

(Jesus) * (א*) welcoming us and having loosened * (א*) out of our misses (of the mark of God) in/with His blood. (Rev 1:5b)

I, John, your brother and a companion together with (you) in the oppression. (Rev 1:9a)

You have and/also all oppressions (א*) because of My name. (Rev 2:3a, “Ephesos”)

I know your works and (א,*א) (your) oppression and beggary – however you are rich. (Rev 2:9a, “Smyrna”)

Behold, the slanderer is about to throw (some) out of you into watch/custody, in order that you may be tried, and you will have oppression (for) ten days. (Rev 2:10a, “Smyrna”)

Behold, I call (א*) (the woman Jezebel) into a bed and the ones committing adultery in company with her into a great oppression, if – according to the circumstances – they will (א,* א, A) not change their minds ‘out of’/’away from’ her works, and her children I will kill in/with death/pestilence. (Rev 2:22-23a, “Thyatira”)

(They sang:) “And for God by (His) blood (the little Ram) bought us (א,* א) out of every tribe and tongue and people and nation.” (Rev 5:9b)

It was given to (the ones having been slaughtered), everyone, a white dress. (Rev 6:11a)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 - about 1500

Note that “leukainô” (whiten) is in the aorist tense, indicating completed action in the past. (J. Massyngberde Ford "Revelation" p 119)

The sacramental children in Östra Ämtervik always are in the habit of being dressed in black, but when it now is three manor-house children, who will go up to the Holy communion, so the vicar Lindegren's wife in Halla has proposed, that at least those three should be dressed in white. She thinks, that the three little sweet children really are to be pitied, she says, if they have to go up the altar rails in heavy, black, unbecoming woolen dresses. And think, that Mrs. Lindegren manages to persuade both father and mother and Mr. Kalle and Mrs. Augusta and Mr. and Mrs. Nilsson, so that they decide to go from the old custom and let Anna and Hilda and Emilie become dressed in white. . . . When (they) step into sanctuary in their white dresses, it is as a murmur goes through the whole church. (Selma Lagerlöf "Ett barns memoarer" p 192-196; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

(Johan) has seen the glory of the upper classes in the distance. He longs to come there as to a native country, but the slave blood of his mother arises against it. He reveres by instinct the upper classes, reveres it too much to dare to hope to come there. And he knows that he does not belong to it. But neither he belongs to the slaves. This becomes one of the discords in his life. . . . The mother took pride in the learning of her son and boasted of it for her lady-friends. In the family the word student often was as a ghost. At the student meeting in the beginning of the fifties of the nineteenth century the city was inundated by white caps. - Imagine when you get white cap! the mother said. (August Strindberg "Tjänstekvinnans son" p 34,41; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


about 1500 and time before

Let us become clean to the utmost of our power. ... Thou seest that we must cleanse ourselves (Is. 1:16), and then God cleanses us. For having first said: “Wash you, make you clean,” He then added “I will make you white.” (Is. 1:17-18) (Chrysostom commenting Heb 7, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers XIV:426)

We, after we have thus washed him who has been convinced and has assented to our teaching, bring him to the place where those who are called brethren are assembled. (Justin Martyr, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol I, p 185)

Tribulation is necessary for those who are saved ... (so that) they may be fitted for the royal banquet. (Irenaeus, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol I, p 557)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Einar Adell, Eskil Albertsson, Carl Allgén, Ewert Amnefors, Elisabeth Beskow, Nils-Arvid Bringéus, Lisa Bysell, Fredrik Böök, Anna-Maria Claesson, Sven Danell, Gustaf Doolke, Thomas de Witt Talmage, Esbjörn Eftring, Runar Eldebo, Linné Eriksson, C.J. Hamilton, Anna Hellström, Svening Johansson, Ulrik Josefsson, E. Judah, E.J. Ekman, David Kerr, Bengt Kindbom, Märtha Klaesson, Lars Levi Laestadius, Olle Larssson, Amy Le Feuvre, Sven Lidman, Olof David Lindwall, Mario Vargas Llosa, Josef Lundin, Vilhelm Moberg, D.L. Moody, Herta Müller, Eduard Mörike, Lizzel Nelson, Philip Nelson, Fredrik Nielsen, Anders Nohrborg, Christian Nygaard-Andersen, Martin P:son Nilsson, Karl Palmberg, Efraim Palmqvist, Carl Olof Rosenius, Abraham Rundbäck, Viktor Rydberg, Sven Edvin Salje, E. Sanders, Gunnar E. Sandgren, Giorgos Seferis, Gunnar Söderström, Rudof Vrba, P. Waldenström, Gustaf Wikner, Elin Wägner, Per Wästberg, Manne Zettergren, Emile Zola.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “dresses and whitened them”, se also Rev 6:11a. Concerning “the great oppression”, see also Rev 2:22-23a. Concerning “the blood of the little Ram”, see also Rev 5:9b.


If we – according to the circumstances – may confess our misses (of the mark of God), He is faithful and righteous, in order that He may let our (א,* א) misses (of His mark) be to us and make us clean from every unrighteousness. (1 John 1:9)


Greek words:

leukainô (whiten) (in the NT) Mark 9:3; Rev 7:14.

plynô (cleanse) (in the NT + examples in the OT) Gen 49:11; Ps 51:2(4),7(9); Luke 5:2; Rev 7:14 – Rev 22:14


Additional studies:

Ex 8:22-23; 9:26; 24:8; Ps 37:39; Is 33:2; Jer 14:8; 15:11; Ezek 13:13-14; 44:17; Dan 11:35; 12:1; Zeph 2:1-3; Zech 3:3-5; 1 Macc 9:27; 2 Macc 1:7; Matt 24:21,29; Mark 13:24; John 1:29,36; 19:34; Rom 8:31-39; Heb 9:14; 1 Pet 4:12-19; 1 John 1:7; Rev 3:4-5,10; 5:6; 7:9.


K.C. Hason "Blood and Purity in Leviticus and Revelation"; Listening: Journal of Religion and Culture 28 (1993): 215-230.

Grant R. Osborne "Theodicy in the Apocalypse"; Trinity Journal 14.1 (1993): 63-77.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-01; 2012-06-29; 2015-02-28)

Back to the top

7:15a Because of this they are ‘in the very eyes of’/before the throne of God, and they serve Him day and night in His temple.

Word for word (18 words in the Greek text): because-of this (they)-are in-the-very-eyes (of)-the (of)-throne (of)-the (of)-god and (they)-serve him day and night in the temple his.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Moses said to Israel:) “You shall fear the Lord your God and you shall serve Him.” (Deut 6:13a, Greek OT)

To (one as a son of man) was given the beginning and the honour and the kingdom, and all the peoples, tribes, tongues will be slaves to Him. His (judicial) authority (is) an agelong (judicial) authority, and His kingdom will not be ruined throughout. (Dan 7:14, Greek OT, Theod)

(Judith said to Holophernes:) “Your female slave is God-fearing and attending night and day the God of the heaven.” (Judith 11:17a)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “The ones serving (the wisdom) will perform public duties to (one being) holy.” (Sir 4:14a)


The Latter Revelation:

Jesus says to (the slanderer): "Withdraw, adversary, for it has been (and is) written: 'You shall prostrate yourself (towards) the Lord your God (in adoration of Him) and Him alone you shall serve.'" (Matt 4:10)

(Jesus said to the scribes and the Pharisees:) “The one having sworn in/by the heaven swears in/by the throne of God and in/by the One being seated above it.” (Matt 23:22)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “If the master of a house had known of what kind watch/”time of the night” the thief comes, he had - according to the circumstances - been awake and had not – according to the circumstances - allowed his habitation to be dug through. Because of this become and/also you ready, because The Son of the Man comes at an hour which you do not think.” (Matt 24:43b-44)

(Two witnesses said: “Jesus) uttered: ‘I am able to loosen down/up the temple of God and build it (א,*א) through/during three days.’” (Matt 26:61)

(A widow) did not stand aloof of/from the sanctuary, serving night and day (with) fastings and prayers. (Luke 2:37b)

(Paul said:) “... Serving (God) in/with zeal our twelve tribes hope to attain (the hope God has promised).” (Acts 26:7a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

Joybringing (grace) (with) you and peace from the One who is and the One who (continually) was and the One who comes and from the seven spirits * (א,* א, A) ‘in the very eyes of’/before His throne. (Rev 1:4b)

Behold, a throne (continually) lay in the heaven, and (One) being seated against the throne. (Rev 4:2b)

Seven torches of fire (are) burning ‘in the very eyes of’/before the throne, which are the seven spirits of God. (Rev 4:5b)

‘in the very eyes of’/before the throne (there is) as a sea of crystal, like rock crystal. (Rev 4:6a)

(The four living beings) have not rest, day and night saying: “Holy, holy, holy, holy, holy, holy, holy, holy (א*) the Lord God, the All-powerful, the One who (continually) was and the One who is and the One who comes.” (Rev 4:8b)

(The elders) * (א*) throw their crowns ‘in the very eyes of’/before the throne, saying: “Worthy are You, Lord (א,* א), the Lord and our God.” (Rev 4:10b-11a)

(I beheld a much/many-headed crowd) standing ‘in the very eyes of’/before the throne and in the very eyes of the little Ram, being (and having been) wrapped up in white dresses and (with) date-twigs in their hands. (Rev 7:9b)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: Birgitta Fritz, Viktor Johansson, Nils Tägt, Carl Wilson.


My own comments and speculations: Concerning “day and night”, see also Rev 4:8b.


Greek words:

latreuô (serve) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Sir 4:14; Matt 4:10; Luke 2:37; Acts 26:7; Rev 7:15 – Judith 3:8; Luke 1:74; 4:8; Acts 7:7,42; 24:14; 27:23; Rom 1:9,25; Phil 3:3; 2 Tim 1:3; Hebr 8:5; 9:9,14; 10:2; 12:28; 13:10; Rev 22:3.


Additional studies: Ex 40:34; 1 Kings 8:10-11; 1 Chron 9:33; Rev 11:1,19; 16:17; 21:22.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-02; 2012-06-29; 2015-03-01)

Back to the top

7:15b And the One being seated upon the throne has knowledge of (א*) them.

Word for word (8 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus prima manus): and the-(one) being-seated upon the throne has-knowledge-of them.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(David said to Solomon:) " ... The Lord lets all hearts undergo a test and has knowledge of every device." (1 Chron 28:9a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) “I had knowledge of Ephraim, and Israel is not away from Me.” (Hos 5:3a, Greek OT)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus) spoke to (the Pharisees): "You are the ones justifying yourselves in the very eyes of the men, but God has knowledge of your hearts." (Luke 16:15a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

Nathanael said to (Jesus): "From where have You knowledge of me?" (John 1:48a)

(Jesus) Himself had (continually) knowledge of what (continually) was in the man. (John 2:25b)

(Jesus said:) “I am the fine Shepherd and I have knowledge of the ones (being) Mine, and the ones (being) Mine have knowledge of Me, entirely as the Father has knowledge of Me, and I have knowledge of the Father. And I give (P45,P66,א*) My soul in favour of the sheep.” (John 10:14-15)

Behold, a throne (continually) lay in the heaven, and (One) being seated against the throne. (Rev 4:2b)

The living beings may (א,* א) – according to the circumstances – give glory and honour and thankfulness to the One being seated on the throne. (Rev 4:9a)

The twenty-four elders will and/also (א,* א) fall/’sink down’ in the very eyes of the One being seated upon the throne, and they will prostrate themselves before the One living into the (coming) ages of the (coming) ages (in honour of Him). Amen (א,* א). (Rev 4:10a)

I beheld against the right (hand) of the One being seated upon the throne … (Rev 5:1a)

(The little Ram) came and It takes (and has taken) (the scroll) out of the right (hand) of the One being seated upon the throne. (Rev 5:7)

To the One being seated upon (א,* א) the throne and to the little Ram (be) the blessing and the honour and the glory and the power into the (coming) ages of the (coming) ages. (Rev 5:13b)

They say to the mountains and to the rocks: “Fall against us and hide us from a face/presence of the One being seated on (א,* א) the throne.” (Rev 6:16a)


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “The One being seated upon the throne”, see Rev 4:2b and 4:10a.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-02; 2012-06-29; 2015-03-01)

Back to the top

7:16a They will not be hungry * (א,* א), nor they will thirst any longer.

Word for word (5 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus):not (they)-will-be-hungry nor (they)-will-thirst any-longer


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Moses said to Israel: "The Lord) treated you ill and let you famish.” (Deut 8:3a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said: "My people) will not be hungry, nor (it) will thirst." (Is 49:10a, Greek OT)

(Solomon said to Wisdom:) “You gave (Your thirsting people) profused water, which they had not hoped for.” (Wisdom of Solomon 11:7b)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "Happy the ones being hungry and thirsting (for) the righteousness, because they themselves will be fed." (Matt 5:6)

(The ones out/’on the basis’ of the ‘parts of a good name’/left) will answer (the King) saying: “Lord, when did we beheld You being hungry or thirsting ... ?” Then He will answer them saying: “Amen, I say to you, as much as you have not made/done on/’for the sake of’ one of these least ones (of My brothers), you have nor made/done for Me.” (Matt 25:44-45)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven: The woman says towards (Jesus): “Lord, give me this water, in order that I may not thirst but/and not may come through hitherward to ladle out.” (John 4:15)

(Jesus said to the crowd:) “I am the bread of the life. The one coming towards Me may not/certainly not be hungry, and the one believing into Me will not/certainly not ever thirst.” (John 6:35)


Paul said to the believers in Corinth: "Until the hour just now we are and/both hungry and thirst." (1 Cor 4:11a)


Additional studies: Ps 107:5-6; Is 48:21; Luke 6:21.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-02; 2012-06-29; 2015-03-01)

Back to the top

7:16b Not/certainly nor/neither the sun may fall/’fall down’ against them, nor every/any scorching heat ...

Word for word (10 words in the Greek text): nor not may-fall against them the sun nor every scorching-heat


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Jacob said to Laban:) “I became (by) the day burning together/’in connection’ with the scorching heat.” (Gen 31:40a, Greek OT)

The Lord spoke to Moses: "Take all the rulers of the people and expose them to shame by the side of the Lord over against the sun, and the wrath of the passion of the Lord may turn away from Israel." (Num 25:4, Greek OT)

(The Lord said: "My people) will not be hungry, nor (it) will thirst, nor a heat will hit them, nor the sun." (Is 49:10a, Greek OT)

It became/’came about’ together/’at the same time’ (as) 'the thing to stick'/'the sticking' up of the sun. And God commanded a spirit together with a burning heat, and the sun hit against the head of Jonah. And he was little/faint in the soul ... and spoke: “(It would be) fine/better to me to die than to live.” (Jonah 4:8, Greek OT)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “Who will stand under (the sun) opposite its scorching heat?” (Sir 43:3b)


The Latter Revelation:

On the sun's having stuck up (the sowing) was scorched. And because have/'it had' not a root, it was dried.” (Matt 13:6)

(The ones who had been first hired with wages said: ) “These last ones have made/done one hour, and you have made them equal (with) us, the ones having borne the weight of the day and the heat.” (Matt 20:12)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “In those days, after that oppression, the sun will be gloomed.” (Mark 13:24a)

Having raised his voice (the rich man in Hades) spoke: “Father Abraham, have mercy on me, and send Lazarus, in order that he may dip the border/tip of his finger (in) water and cool my tongue, because I ‘am caused’/feel pain in this flame.” (Luke 16:24)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

Have just read Jonah book, wonder if I not am a Jonah, who resists the calling, by laziness, by cowardice. The Eternal One says to Jonah: Go into Nineveh saying that they will die! But Jonah does not, but runs away with a ship. So he becomes heaved into the sea, is saved and goes quite fleeting into Nineveh prophesying shortly: Repent, for You shall die! - This is all! And so he makes off sitting down in the sunshine under the gourd. . . . Tired the sun sticks my crown, after the gourds and the humble abode having run their way. (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev XI maj 1895-nov 1896" p 205; letter 1896-06-05 to Torsten Hedlund; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Remarkable was the year when the cavaliers reigned. It seems to me, as if the unrest of the men then would have disturbed the peace of the dead things. . . . Never people had heard the thunder cause so much damage already before midsummer, after midsummer it was not heard more. Then the drought came. . . . The sunshine alone was streaming down over the earth. . . . While the rye grains wither away in their small ears, while the potatoes cannot store up nourishment out of the ground, while the cattle with red eyes and panting of heat crowd together round the drying springs, while the agony for the future presses the heart together, curious speech goes through the district. "Such a visitation does not occur without cause", the people say. . . . The priest in Broby has become a demon of the drought. It seems to the farmers, as if the old miser sat watching the springs of heaven. . . . "Pray God for rain!" (Gösta Berling) says (to the priest). "The vicar will preach next Sunday. Pray then God for rain! . . . It will become the sign." . . . When the parish clerk and organist began to play the concluding psalm, the first raindrops already clattered against the green window-panes. . . . Alas! What great their distress had been! . . . But God is good. God lets rain fall. What a joy, what a joy! (Selma Lagerlöf "Gösta Berlings saga" s 320-331; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Sven Danell, Nikolaj Gogol, Harry Martinson, Vilhelm Moberg, Harry Sjöman.


Greek words:

kauma (scorching heat) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Sir 43:3; Rev 7:16 – Tobit 2:9; Sir 43:4; Baruch 2:25; Susanna v 15; Rev 16:9.


Additional studies: Deut 28:22; Job 15:30; 24:19; 30:30; Ps 19:6(7); 121:6; Is 4:6; 24:6; 25:4-5; 66:15; Jer 17:8; Judith 8:2-3; Sir 35:24(26); Mark 4:6; Rev 16:9.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-02; 2012-06-30; 2015-03-02)

Back to the top

7:17a ... because the little Ram, the One upwards/above a middle of the throne, will be a shepherd to them, and He will show them the way upon springs of waters of life.

Word for word (17 words in the Greek text): because the little-ram the-(one) upwards middle (of)-the (of)-throne will-be-a-shepherd (to)-them, and (he)-will-show-the-way upon (of)-(a)-life springs (of)-water


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

Israel came into Ailim, and there (continually) were twelve springs of waters and seventy trunks of dates, but/and there they threw up a wall to the side of, to the side of the waters. (Ex 15:27, Greek OT)

The cities, the ones being divided by a boundary-line, of the sons of Ephraim (lay) upwards a middle of the inheritance of the sons of Manasseh. (Joshua 16:9a, Greek OT)

The inheritance (of the tribe of the sons of Simeon was) upwards a middle of the share of inheritance of sons of Judas. (Joshua 19:1b, Greek OT, A)

(David said:) "The Lord is a shepherd to me. ... He ‘supported me out’/’brought me up’ upon a water of rest. … He showed me the way against paths of righteousness with respect to His name.” (Ps 23:1a,2b,3b, Greek OT)

(The Lord) will lead (the ones who thirst) through springs of waters. (Is 49:10b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) "My slave David (is) a leader in a middle of (My people), and one shepherd will be (a shepherd) of all." (Ezek 37:24a, Greek OT)


The Latter Revelation:

((The Lord said:) “Out of (Bethlehem) a commander will come out, whoever/who will be a shepherd to My people Israel.” (Matt 2:6b)

(An) enemy sows (and has sown) (א*) against darnels upwards a middle of the bread-stuff. ... (Matt 13:25b)

Peter spoke to (Jesus): "Lord, if You are, exhort me to come towards You against the waters." But/and He spoke: "Come!" (Matt 14:28b-29a)

(The woman said:) “If – according to the circumstances – I may touch and/namely if – according to the circumstances – His garments, I will be saved.” And straight/’straight off’ the spring of her blood was dried. (Mark 5:28-29a)

(Jesus) came through Sidon into/to the Sea of the Galilee upwards a middle of the frontiers of Decapolis. (Mark 7:31b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

Jesus answered and spoke to (the woman): "'Every the'/everyone drinking out of this water will thirst again, but the one drinking (א*) out of the water, which I will give him, will not/certainly not thirst into the (coming) age, however/but the water, which I will give him, will in him become a spring of water, springing/’welling up’ into an agelong life." The woman says towards Him: “Lord, give me this water, in order that I may not thirst but/and not may come through hitherward to ladle out.” (John 4:13-15)

In/on the last day, the great (day) of the feast, Jesus stood and (continually/repeatedly) (P66, א,* א) shouted, saying: “If – according to the circumstances – anyone may thirst: ‘Come * (P66,א*) and drink!’ The one believing into Me – entirely as the writing spoke – out of his belly rivers of living water will flow.” (John 7:37-38)

(Jesus said to the Pharisees:) “The one coming into/in through the door is a shepherd of the sheep. To this one the doorkeeper opens, and the sheep hear his voice, and he raises his voice (towards) his own sheep ‘according to name’/’after their names’, and he leads them out.” (John 10:2-3)

(Jesus said to the Pharisees:) "I am the fine shepherd. The fine shepherd gives (P45,א*) His soul in favour of the sheep." (John 10:11)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "When - according to the circumstances – that One, the Spirit of truth may come, He will show you the way in * (א*) the truth." (John 16:13a)

(Jesus) says to (Simon Peter): "Be a shepherd to My sheep." (John 21:16b)

In middle of the throne and (in) a circle of/from the throne (were) four living beings, being full of eyes in front of and ‘from behind’/behind. (Rev 4:6b)

I beheld ‘in a middle of’/’between (on one hand)’ the throne and the four living beings and ‘in a middle of’/’(on the other hand)’ the elders a little Ram standing as having been (and being) slaughtered. (Rev 5:6a)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

(The dove) sang so fair about Jesus Christ and about the joyness and the glory of the kingdom of heaven, and she welcomed all being burdened and having had enough of the hardships of this life. ... Now again the mist dispersed, the sky was blue as a field of linen and the larks rose above. Then (the mother and the children) saw out in the sea a green island with white sandy beaches, where men dressed in white wandered hand in hand. And the setting sun illuminated the golden roof of a colonnade, where white fires burnt under holy bowls of sacrifice; and over the green island a rainbow in rosy-red and reed-green extended. - What is it, mother? The mother could not answer. - Is it the kingdom of heaven, which the dove sang about? What is kingdom of heaven, mother? - It is the place, child, where all are friends, the mother answered, where there are no sorrow, nothing disturbing the peace. - Then I want to come there, the child said. - So I want, said the tired, abandoned, tried mother. (August Strindberg "I midsommartider" p 87-88,95; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Miguel de Cervantes, Fredrik Hammarsten, Homeros, Liselotte J. Andersson, Amy Le Feuvre.


My own comments and speculations:

In the present age it is the Spirit who on the earth shows the way in the truth. In the heavenly world it is Jesus Himself (the Son) who shows the way upon springs of waters of life (Rev 7:17). In the New Jerusalem there is no need of showing the way to any such springs of water. A river of water of life is in the middle of the street of the city (Rev 22:1-2). And the inhabitants of the city will behold the face of Jesus (Rev 22:4). And God Himself (the Father) will be in company with them (Rev 21:3).

Concerning “the little Ram” and “a middle of the throne”, see also Rev 5:6a.


Additional studies:

2 Sam 5:2; 7:7; 1 Chron 11:2; Ps 80:1(2); Is 40:11; Jer 31:9; Ezek 34:23; Zech 14:8; Wisdom of Solomon 9:11; 10:10,17; Rev 14:4,7; 21:6; 22:1.


R. Paul Stevens "Poems for People in Distress: The Apocalypse of John and the Contemplative Life." Themelios 18.2 (1993): 11-14.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-02; 2012-06-30; 2015-03-03)

Back to the top

7:17b And God will wipe out every teardrop from (א,* א) their eyes.

Word for word (10 words in the Greek text): and will-wipe-out the god every teardrop from the eyes their.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(David said to the Lord:) “You cause me to hear exultation and cheerfulness ... wipe out all my lawlessnesses.” (Ps 51:8a,9b or 51:10a,11b, Greek OT)

(The Lord) drank down the death ... and again God took off/away every teardrop from every face ... And it will be spoken (on) that day: "Behold our God, on whom we (continually) hoped", and we may exult and we shall be cheerful on/’for the sake of’ our saving.” (Is 25:8-9, Greek OT)

Weeping (Jerusalem) wept in a night, and her teardrops (were) upon her cheeks. From all the ones welcoming her, ‘it does not begin under’/’there is not’ (any) 'calling ... to the side of'/consoling her. All the ones being friends with her ... have become into/to enemies for her. (Lam 1:2, Greek OT)


The Latter Revelation:

Having stood herself weeping behind to/by the side of the feet of (Jesus), (the woman who was a misser of the mark of God) began to wet His feet (with) the teardrops and she * (P3, א*, A) wiped off (with) the hairs/hair of her head and ‘was entirely friends with’/kissed (continually/repeatedly) His feet and smeared (them continually with) the ointment oil. (Luke 7:38)

(Paul said to the elders in Ephesos: “During) a space of three years, night and day, I did not cease bringing to mind ‘one every’/’each one’ in company with tears.” (Acts 20:31b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

Having so taken a pound of a much honoured ointment oil of nard, connected with faith, Mary (P66,א,*א) smeared the feet of Jesus and wiped off His feet (with) her hairs/hair. (John 12:3a)

I will not/certainly not wipe out his name out of the book of the life and I will confess his name in front of (א,*א) My Father and in the very eyes of His messengers. (Rev 3:5b)

I (continually) wept much, because no one was found worthy to open the scroll ‘and not’/and to see (into) it. And one out of the elders says to me: “Do not weep!” (Rev 5:4-5a)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

This day a life - when it has been as best, it has been weeping and gnashing of teeth, Melker thought. Blut now the evening came with peace and clearness, and he had forgiven himself all his nonsense. Doubtless life surely nevertheless was a clever thing with its constant variation, one hour weeping and gnashing of teeth, next hour the purest joy and all sorts of sweetnesses,as, Melker thought, just smoked Baltic herring, butter and new potatoes. . . . "Yes, my friends", Melker said, "it is just as I always am in a habit to say - this day a life!" "And what a "heavenly" life too", Pelle said. (Astrid Lindgren "Vi på Saltkråkan" p 147-148; the Swedish word "himla" is associated with "himmel/heaven", therefore the translation "heavenly", otherwise the Swedish word "himla" perhaps better will be translated with "awful"; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

(The dove) sang so fair about Jesus Christ and about the joyness and the glory of the kingdom of heaven, and she welcomed all being burdened and having had enough of the hardships of this life. ... Now again the mist dispersed, the sky was blue as a field of linen and the larks rose above. Then (the mother and the children) saw out in the sea a green island with white sandy beaches, where men dressed in white wandered hand in hand. And the setting sun illuminated the golden roof of a colonnade, where white fires burnt under holy bowls of sacrifice; and over the green island a rainbow in rosy-red and reed-green extended. - What is it, mother? The mother could not answer. - Is it the kingdom of heaven, which the dove sang about? What is kingdom of heaven, mother? - It is the place, child, where all are friends, the mother answered, where there are no sorrow, nothing disturbing the peace. - Then I want to come there, the child said. - So I want, said the tired, abandoned, tried mother. (August Strindberg "I midsommartider" p 87-88,95; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Brother Oskar, what shall I say You to consolation? Perhaps so - but this You know before! What happens is the best - some meaning it must be, otherwise we would not submit to live any longer! - Blessed the ones being allowed to go! - We meet them, be sure of it! And then! "Then we will smile" not only to this but to everything, all difficult we have gone through here in life, which at last for all that is a going through! - to something we do not know - but still something better! We will all meet and first then we will find the reconciliation! Then we will keep Christmas as we did when we were children! (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev II 1877-1882" p 219; letter 1880-12-26 to the cousin Johan Oscar Strindberg, whose daughter Elsa - five years old - had died 1880-12-20)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Werner Aspenström, Liselotte J Andersson, Hilding Fagerberg, Carl Grimberg, Olov Hartman, Sven Lidman, D.L. Moody, Helmer V. Nyberg, Aasmund Olafsen Vinje, K.A. Rundbäck, Henrik Schartau, Jakob Tegengren.


Greek words:

dakryon (teardrop) (in the NT + examples in the OT) Is 25:8; Lam 1:2; Luke 7:38; Acts 20:31; Rev 7:17 – Tobit 7:16; Sir 22:19; 38:16; Luke 7:44; Acts 20:19; 2 Cor 2:4; 2 Tim 1:4; Heb 5:7; 12:17; Rev 21:4.


Additional studies: 2 Kings 20:5; Ps 6:6(7); 39:12(13); 42:3(4); 56:8(9); 80:5(6); 126:5; Is 38:5; Jer 9:18; 13:17; 14:17; 31:16; Lam 1:16; 2:18; Sir 12:16; Matt 5:4; Luke 6:21; 7:46; John 11:2,33-34; 2 Cor 5:8; Phil 1:23.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-07-02; 2012-06-30; 2015-03-04)

Back to the top

Valid XHTML 1.0 Strict      Valid CSS!