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Chapter 6

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6:1 And I beheld, when the little Ram opened one out of the seven seals, and I heard one out of the four living beings saying, as a voice of thunder: “Come and behold (א,* א)!”

Word for word (25 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus): And (i/I)-beheld when opened the little-ram one out-of (of)-the seven seals, and (i/I)-heard one out-of (of)-the four living-beings saying as (a)-voice (of)-thunder: come and behold.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The king in Aram said to his slave:) "’Come here’/’go there’, behold where (Elisha is), and having dispatched away I will take him." And it was brought up a message to him, saying: "Behold, (he is) in Dothan." (2 Kings 6:13, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said:) “Come here, behold the works of the Lord.” (Ps 46:8a or Ps 46:9a, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said:) “Come here and behold the works of God.” (Ps 66:5a, Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) “And I beheld and I fall/’sink down’ against my face and I heard a voice talking.” (Ezek 1:28b, Greek OT)


The Latter Revelation:

Jesus says to (His disciples): “How many loaves do you have? Withdraw, behold!” (Mark 6:38a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Jesus) said to (the two disciples): "Come and behold (א,* א, A)!" (John 1:39a)

Philip said to (Natanael): "Come/go and behold!" (John 1:46b)

Behold, He comes in company with the clouds. (Rev 1:7a)

Rays of light and voices and peals of thunder go out, out of the throne. (Rev 4:5a)

In a middle of the throne and (in) a circle of/from the throne (were) four living beings, being full of eyes in front of and ‘from behind’/behind. (Rev 4:6b)

Behold, the Lion * (א,* א) out of the tribe of Judas, the Root of David, has conquered to open the scroll and loosen (א,* א) its seven seals. And I beheld ‘in a middle of’/’between (on one hand)’ the throne and the four living beings and ‘in a middle of’/’(on the other hand)’ the elders a little Ram standing as having been (and being) slaughtered. (Rev 5:5b-6a)


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “the little Ram opened one out of the seven seals”, see Rev 5:5b-6a. Concerning “the four living beings”, see Rev 4:6b. Concerning “voice of thunder”, see Rev 4:5a.


Additional studies:

Gen 37:14; John 11:34; Rev 6:3.


Donald Guthrie "The Lamb in the Structure of the Book of Revelation"; Vox Evangelica 12 (1981): 64-71.

Norman Hillyer "'The Lamb' in the Apocalypse"; The Evangelical Quarterly 39.4 (Oct.-Dec. 1967): 228-236.

R.J. Korner "'And I saw . . .' An Apocalyptic Literary Convention for Structural Identification in the Apocalypse"; (the journal) Novum Testamentum 42.2 (2000): 160-183.

Jan Lambrecht "The Opening of the Seals (Rev 6:1-8:6)"; Biblica 79 (1998): 198-221.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-27; 2012-06-18; 2015-02-13)

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6:2a And I beheld, and behold, a white horse.

Word for word (6 words in the Greek text): and (i/I)-beheld, and behold (a)-horse white


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The wife said to the daughters of Jerusalem: “Solomon) is white and fire-coloured.” (Song of Solomon 5:10a, Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) “ I have beheld (and behold) the night, and behold, a male (having been and being) thrown/jumped against, against a fire-coloured horse … and behind him fire-coloured and starling(?)-coloured and parti-coloured and white horses.” (Zech 1:8, Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) “I beheld, and behold, four wagons … In/with the first wagon fire-coulored horses and in/with the second wagon black horses and in/with the third wagon white horses and in/with the fourth wagon parti-coloured, starling(?)-coloured horses. (Zech 6:1b-3, Greek OT)


The Latter Revelation:

(Two of Jesus' disciples) lead (א*) the foal towards (Him). (Mark 11:7a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

On the following day (Jesus) wanted to come out into Galilee, and He finds Philip. And Jesus says to him: "Follow Me!" (John 1:43)

Behold, He comes in company with the clouds. (Rev 1:7a)

(The ones who have not stained their garments) will walk about in company with Me in white (things), because they are worthy. The one conquering will in this way be wrapped up in white garments. (Rev 3:4b-5a, “Sardes”)

After these things I beheld, and behold, a door being (and having been) opened in the heaven. (Rev 4:1a)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

Sanhedrin 93a distinguishes red, yellow and white horses and says, that the appearance of a white horse is a favourable sign. In the later rabbinic writings the coming of the Messiah was associated with the sight of a horse. (J. Massyngberde Ford "Revelation" p 97-98)

I wonder, what Benka would say, if he saw my white horse with the golden mane. My Miramis with the golden hoofs and the golden mane. . . . That I got him, came about like this: . . . (One morning) when I came down to the rose-garden, a white horse came galloping towards me, and never I have seen a horse gallop like this. . . . Oh, my Miramis, I liked him from the very first moment. . . . And we rode out to the green meadows, which lay outside the rose-garden. (Astrid Lindgren "Mio, min Mio" p 34-38; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

(1907 May 7th) In the morning black and white horses first met (from Circus), one ran up on the pavement in the direction of me, immediately after that a blinding white one, arching its neck and looked at me. After that when I came in front of my street-door, I saw three white horses in a row at the garderner's; later on the day four horses, of them three white. . . . White horses = victory. (August Strindberg "Ockulta dagboken" p 259; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Sivar Ahlrud, Oloph Bexell, Charles Darwin, Charles Dickens, P. Fjellstedt, Hans Greén, Carl Grimberg, Hans-Eric Holger, Anders Hultman, Juan Ramon Jiménez, Bror Kugelberg, Olle Larsson, Sven Lidman, Olaf Moe, Fredrik Nielsen, Anna Maria Roos, Johan Ludvig Runeberg, Viktor Rydberg, Dieter Schröder, Julia Stadius, John Stott, Paul Wern, Gustaf Wikner, Eric Wärenstam.


My own comments and speculations:

The Greek word “pôlos” for “foal” in Mark 11:7 is easy to associate with a horse. The name “Philip” means “friend of horses”.

Concerning “I beheld, and behold”, see also Rev 4:1a. Concerning “behold”, see also Rev 1:7a. Concerning “white”, see Rev 3:4b-5a.


Greek words:

(h)ippos (horse) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Rev 6:2 – Judith 1:13; 2:5; 6:3; 7:2,6,20; 9:7; 16:3; 1 Macc 3:39; 4:1,7,28,31; 6:38; 8:6; 9:4,11; 10:73,77,79,81-83; 12:49; 13:22; 15:13; 16:5,7; 2 Macc 3:25; 10:24,29; 11:2; 15:20; Wisdom of Solomon 19:9; Sir 30:8; 33:6; 48:9; Jas 6:3; Rev 6:4-5,8; 9:7,9,17,19; 14:20; 18:13; 19:11,14,18-19,21. Cf. also Filippos in Matt 10:3; Mark 3:18; John 1:43-46,48; 6:5,7; 12:21-22; 14:8-9.


Additional studies:

Zech 6:6; Rev 6:4-5; 19:11,14.


R.J. Korner "'And I saw . . .' An Apocalyptic Literary Convention for Structural Identification in the Apocalypse"; (the journal) Novum Testamentum 42.2 (2000): 160-183.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-27; 2012-06-18; 2015-02-14)

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6:2ba ... and the One being seated against it having a bow and a crown was given to Him.

Word for word (11 words in the Greek text): and the-(one) being-seated against it having (a)-bow and was-given (to)-him (a)-crown


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(God said to Noah:) “I put/set My bow in the cloud, and it will be into/for a sign of a covenant ‘upwards middle’/between Me and the earth.” (Gen 9:13, Greek OT)

That day the Lord of hosts will be the crown of the hope, the plaited one of the glory. (Is 28:5a, Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) “As a beholding of a bow, when it – according to the circumstances – may be in the cloud in/on a day of rain, in this way (is) the standing of the splendour ‘in a circle from’/’all around’. This/such (is) the beholding of a likeness of (the) glory of the Lord.” (Ezek 1:28a, Greek OT)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “The sign of the Son of the Man will ‘be brought’/come to light in heaven, and all the tribes of the earth will * (א*) ‘cut themselves’/mourn, and they will behold the Son of the Man coming upon the clouds of the heaven in company with ability and much glory.” (Matt 24:30)

Having plaited a thorny crown (the soldiers) put it round about (Jesus). (Mark 15:17b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

The soldiers plaited a crown out of thorns and put (it) on (Jesus') head. (John 19:2a)

(Elders) being (and having been) wrapped up in white (things) (א,*א) and (with) golden crowns against their heads. (Rev 4:4b)

(The elders) * (א*) throw their crowns ‘in the very eyes of’/before the throne, saying: “Worthy are You, Lord (א,* א), the Lord and our God.” (Rev 4:10b-11a)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

Hodges … identifies the rider on the white horse with the Messiah and the rider in Rev 19 … He sees the first horseman as coming forth at the beginning of the divine judgements on the earth and the last horseman as revealed at the consummation of these judgements. In Rev 6 the victory is predicted, in ch. 19 it is realized. … Some of the church fathers, such as Irenaeus … do identify the first horse with Christ and the victory of the Gospel, which must be preached first before the judgements are given on the earth; cf. Mark 13:10; Matt 10:23. (J. Massyngberde Ford "Revelation" p 105)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Dick Harrison, David Hedegård, Harald Rasmussen, Einar Thomassen, P. Waldenström.


My own comments and speculations:

Jesus Christ is the first and the last One in an old age (cf. Rev 1:17) just as the first One also in a new age. In the Revelation there are totally at eight occasions mentioned horses in connection to the “seating” (Greek: kathêmai) of one or several persons. At the first, the sixth, the seventh and the eighth occasion the horse is white. At the sixth occasion the horse is ridden by the One having died in stead of sinners. At the seventh and the eighth occasion it is the same rider who completes an old age and begins a new one, the kingdom of a thousand years. Cf. Rev 6:4-5,8; 9:17; 19:11,19,21.


Greek words:

toxon (bow) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Rev 6:2 – Judith 9:7; Wisdom of Solomon 5:21; Sir 43:11; 50:7.


Additional studies: Ps 7:12(13); 45:5(6); Is 49:2; Lam 2:4; 3:12; Hos 2:18; Hab 3:8-9; Zech 6:11; 10:4; Matt 10:23; 24:14; Mark 13:10; Luke 21:11; John 6:27; 19:5; Rev 1:13-16; 9:7; 14:14; 19:12.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-27; 2012-06-18; 2015-02-14)

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6:2bb He came out conquering and He conquered (א,* א).

Word for word (5 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus): and (he)-came-out conquering and (he)-conquered.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(David said to the Lord: “In) You, Lord, (is) the greatness and the ability and the object of boasting and the conquest and the stability, because You are a Master of all in the heaven and upon the earth.” (1 Chron 29:11a, Greek OT)

(David said to God:) “You may conquer in 'the thing to be judged Yourself'/'Your judging'.” (Ps 51:4b or 51:6b, Greek OT)


The Latter Revelation:

(The Lord said:) “A reed having been (and being) crushed (My boy) will not break down/off, and a smouldering linen/wick He will not quench, till He – according to the circumstances – may throw/bring out the judgment into conquesting/conquest.” (Matt 12:20)

(Jesus said:) "When – according to the circumstances - the stable one, having been (and being) armed, may watch the 'of himself'/own court, his ‘things beginning under’/properties are in peace. But since – according to the circumstances – a more stable than he is (א*) having come against (him), may conquer him, he lifts/takes away’ from him his full armour on/in which he ‘was (and had been) persuaded’/’relied (and had relied)’ and ‘gives asunder’/distributes his spoils.” (Luke 11:21-22)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) ”These things I have talked (and talk) (with) you, in order that you may have peace in Me. In the adornment/’adorned world’ you have oppression. However, be confident. I have conquered (and conquer) the adornment/’adorned world’.” (John 16:33)

(The ones who have not stained their garments) will walk about in company with Me in white (things), because they are worthy. The one conquering will in this way be wrapped up in white garments. (Rev 3:4b-5a, “Sardes”)

The one conquering, I will give him to sit down in company with Me in/at My throne, as and/also I conquered and sat down in company with My Father in/at His throne. (Rev 3:21, ”Laodicea”)

Behold, the Lion * (א,* א) out of the tribe of Judas, the Root of David, has conquered to open the scroll and loosen (א,* א) its seven seals. (Rev 5:5b)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: Hugo Linder, Harald Rasmussen, Enock H. Skooglund, Einar Thomassen, Nils Tägt.


My own comments and speculations:

The conquest/victory belongs to the Lord and nobody else. Cf. 1 Chron 29:11.


Additional studies:

2 Macc 10:38; Wisdom of Solomon 10:2; Matt 24:14; Mark 13:10; Rom 8:37; 1 Cor 15:54-57.


Tremper Longman III "The Divine Warrior: The New Testament Use of an Old Testament Motif"; Westminster Theological Journal 44 (1982): 292-307.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-27; 2012-06-18; 2015-02-14)

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6:3 And when It opened the second seal, I heard the second living being saying: “Come and behold (א,*א)!”

Word for word (15 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus): And when (it)-opened the seal the second, (i/I)-heard the second living-being saying: come and behold.


The Latter Revelation:

Likewise and/also (with) the second and the third till the seventh. (Matt 22:26)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

Behold, He comes in company with the clouds. (Rev 1:7a)

The first living being (was) like a lion and the second living being like a young bull and the third living being having the face as like (one with) a man(א,* א) and the fourth living being (was) like a flying eagle. (Rev 4:7)

I beheld, when the little Ram opened one out of the seven seals, and I heard one out of the four living beings saying, as a voice of thunder: “Come and behold (א,*א)!” (Rev 6:1)


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning this verse, see Rev 6:1.


Additional studies:


Jan Lambrecht "The Opening of the Seals (Rev 6:1-8:6)"; Biblica 79 (1998): 198-221.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-27; 2012-06-18; 2015-02-14)

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6:4 And I beheld, and behold (א,* א), another fire-coloured horse came out. And to the One being seated against it, it was given to Him to take the peace out of the earth, and in order that they might (א,* א) slaughter one another. And a great dagger was given to Him.

Word for word (30 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus): and (i/I)-beheld and behold came-out another horse fire-coloured, and (to)-the-(one) being-seated against it (it)-was-given (to)-him (to)-take the peace out of the earth and in-order-that (they)-might-slaughter and (it)-was-given (to)-him (a)-dagger great.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The wife said to the daughters of Jerusalem: “Solomon) is white and fire-coloured.” (Song of Solomon 5:10a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said about His people:) “I have let (and I let) My peace stand aloof from this people.” (Jer 16:5b, Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) “The dagger of the Lord!” (Jer 47:6a, Greek OT)

The king of Babylon slaughtered the sons of (the king of Judas) … and he slaughtered all the leaders of Judas. (Jer 52:10a, Greek OT)

(The prophet said to the Lord): “You have thrust/pushed away my soul out of peace.” (Lam 3:17a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) “I shall call against (Gog) every fear. A dagger of a man will be against his brother.” (Ezek 38:21, Greek OT)

(Daniel said:) “I (continually) looked at ... when thrones were put/’set up’ and an Old of days (continually) was seated, having a wrapper as if (it was) white (Theod) snow and the growth of hair of His head as if (it was) white clean wool. The throne (was) as if (it was) a flame of fire. (Dan 7:9, Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) “ I have beheld (and behold) the night, and behold, a male (having been and being) thrown/jumped against, against a fire-coloured horse … and behind him fire-coloured and starling(?)-coloured and parti-coloured and white horses.” (Zech 1:8, Greek OT)

(A male) said (to the prophet): “These (horses) are (the ones) whom the Lord has dispatched (and dispatches) out (to) the thing to go on a way round the earth.” (Zech 1:10b, Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) “I beheld, and behold, four wagons … In/with the first wagon fire-coulored horses and in/with the second wagon black horses and in/with the third wagon white horses and in/with the fourth wagon parti-coloured, starling(?)-coloured horses. (Zech 6:1b-3, Greek OT)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said: “Eliah was taken up) in a storm of fire, in a wagon of/with horses of a colour of fire.” (Sir 48:9)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “You may not adopt as a law ‘in order that’/that I came to throw/bring a peace against the earth. I did not come to throw/bring a peace however/but a dagger.” (Matt 10:34)

(Jesus said to the Pharisees:) "Every kingdom having been divided into portions 'down from'/'at variance with' itself is desolated, and every city or habitation having been divided into portions 'down from'/'at variance with' itself will not stand." (Matt 12:25)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Nation will rise against nation and kingdom against kingdom … They will give you ‘to the side of’/over into oppression and will kill you. … Many will ‘be caused to stumble’/stumble and they will give one another ‘to the side of’/over into oppression (א,* א).” (Matt 24:7a,9a,10b)

(Jesus said:) "When – according to the circumstances - the stable one, having been (and being) armed, may watch the 'of himself'/own court, his ‘things beginning under’/properties are in peace. But since – according to the circumstances – a more stable than he is (א*) having come against (him), may conquer him, he lifts/takes away’ from him his full armour on/in which he ‘was (and had been) persuaded’/’relied (and had relied)’ and ‘gives asunder’/distributes his spoils.” (Luke 11:21-22)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "I have come to throw a fire against the earth, and what I want if/that it already was/were fastened/fixed up! But I have a baptism to be baptized, and how (do) I (not) ‘hold Myself together’/’constrain Myself’ till (the time) whatever/’in which’ it may be ended. Do you think that I have become/come to your side to give peace in/on the earth? Definitely not I say to you, 'however or'/’on the other side’ division. For it will be from the now, (that) five in one house having been (and being) divided asunder, three on/'for the sake of' two and two on/'for the sake of' three, they will be divided asunder." (Luke 12:49-53a)

Sopater (son) of Pyrrhus (= fire-coloured) (continually) accompanied together with (Paul). (Acts 20:4a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

… I beheld, and behold, a door being (and having been) opened in the heaven. (Rev 4:1a)

Seven torches of fire (are) burning ‘in the very eyes of’/before the throne, which are the seven spirits of God. (Rev 4:5b)

(The little Ram) having … seven eyes, which are the seven spirits of God, having been (and being) dispatched away into every/all the earth. (Rev 5:6b)

And I beheld, and behold, a white horse. (Rev 6:2a)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

When God (in Gen 11:7) said that the languages of the workers would be “confused” some rabbis interpreted that to mean “I will see that their own lips will be their destruction.” On one occasion a worker asked for water and another responded with a cup of dirt. Then the first worker attacked the second, splitting the skull of the second worker. And when one worker asked for an axe, the second brought a shovel, whereupon the first split the second's skull. And so the workers began to destroy each other. (Michael E. Williams “Genesis” p 64; Genesis Rabbah 38.10)

What a world, what an existence! To read the newspapers is a hopeless occupying. Battue with bombs and machine-guns after women and children in Finland, the seas full of mines and submarines, neutral seamen who die or at best at the last moment are saved on a little raft after days and nights of hardships, the tragedy of the Polish population behind closed scenes (nobody is allowed to know what happens, but something nevertheless is in the newspapers), special parts in the trams for "the German master race", the Poles are not allowed to be seen outdoors after eight o'clock in the evening and other similar things. The Germans speak about their "hard but righteous dealing" with the Poles - and then one can understand. What a hatred it will become! The world must at last become so full of hatred, that we all choke of it. I think, that divine judgment is over the world. In addition we have a bitter winter, which nobody has seen the like. . . . However I have bought myself a fur coat - despite twilight of the gods probably comes before I manage to wear it out. (Astrid Lindgren "Krigsdagböcker 1939-1945" p 41; 1940-02-09; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Lotta Hedman had been strange and confused since that night, when Sigrun had passed away. She had no calm and spoke loudly for herself. People thought, that she saw visions, and the one who apprehended something of her speech, probably heard, that it didn't concern anything else than the great world desolation and the rider on the red horse and about weeks of the year and wild animals and the miserable destruction of the whole earth. (Selma Lagerlöf "Bannlyst" p 170; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Lower class and upper class fight against each other just as in Athene and Rome. Hate! is the name of love, treachury the name of morals, faithlessnes the name of friendship. Everything is as it always has been among the children of this world! Is it strange then, that these coming to their senses flee to Christ, jump to the other side, taking death in advance! Why does the heart of man go backwards? Because these earthly things take too much time, so that one has not time to live and be educated. (August Strindberg "En blå bok III" p 887; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

(1903 April 4th) In the night after 2 o'clock I woke up after a painful dream. . . . I find myself in a wooded ground. A man on a red horse pursued me. I tried to beat the horse, but he turned his body in a semicircle enclosing me, that I could not come out. The man spoke abusive words. . . . (Carl Larsson who I earlier had seen in the dream) then seemed to defend me. I asked who the man on the red horse was. They said steward Wahlström "who would be promoted something". . . . April 5th . . . footnote: The Red Horse in Rev means War and Bloodshed. (August Strindberg "Ockulta dagboken" p 168-169; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

If we at last approached the subject, and the great questions, so it most often happened that one by one spoke, while the other waited for a rejoinder with lowered eyes in order to then speak a while of his, which was not an answer back but often neither rhyme nor reason. Or it happened in an absolutely demonic way that all spoke at one and the same time, without anyone seemed to understand what the others meant. - A babel ending with quarrel and the impossibility to understand one another. - You certainly do not understand what I say! - it was the usual cry of distress. . . . Every night when I went home from such a café meeting I felt the vanity in these dissipations, where one really wanted to hear the own voice and press own opinions on others. My brain was as torn to pieces or as uprooted and sown with seeds of weeds needing to be raked away before they germinated. (August Strindberg "Ensam" p 13; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

The law regulating the relations between the two kingdoms, which contained provisions of a certain exemption from duty between Norway and Sweden, was cancelled 1897, and with this the kingdoms stood against each other as foreign countries. But of strangers soon became enemies, and they began to arm and threaten. Arms were procured, forts built and ships bought. The cry for war was heard on both sides of the Keel, whether seriously meant or not is difficult to determine. (August Strindberg "Ett fritt Norge" p 85; Neue Freie Presse 1905-06-20, translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

The one who does not believe in a coming Europe must live in Switzerland some time: there he will see the experiment already done. There "the hereditary foes" live round one another: Germans and French, former Austrians and former Italians, and they are proud of being called Swiss, which shows that it is not the hate of the races but something entirely else exciting the peoples against one another! (August Strindberg "Från det vaknande Italien" p 97; Pegli-Genova March 1884; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

(The baroness said to Charlotte: "I only want to say, that when Karl-Artur declared, that he could have been bishop over the whole Sweden, it came a little derisive laugh from the woman sitting on the bottom of the carriage under his feet. And this he heard, and from this hour, you see, his wrath turned to her. He stamped on the floor of the carriage asking how she dared to laugh, she, who was to blame for all his unhappiness, she, who had separated him from his young lady, from his mother, from his wife, she, who was the cause to that he was not more a priest and was allowed to preach in the churches, she, who was the snare round his neck, who was the poisonous snake dripping venom in his wound every day, she, who would not stop provoking him, until he at last had to stab the knife in her. . . . And now the two began to quarrel. No, I cannot tell what they said to one another. It was terrible." (Selma Lagerlöf "Anna Svärd" p 266-267; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

How long shall we plot one against the other, like wild beasts; like fishes? Nay rather, the wild beasts do not plot against each other, but (against) animals of a different tribe. A bear for instance does not readily kill a bear, nor a serpent kill a serpent, having respect for the sameness of race. (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers XIV:480)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Alf Ahlberg, Sivar Ahlrud, Svetlana Aleksijevitj, Carl Jonas Love Almqvist, Ann-Charlotte Alverfors, Ewert Amnefors, Ivo Andric, Miguel Angel Asturias, Honoré de Balzac, Ingmar Bergman, Natanael Beskow, John H.Y. Briggs, Albert Ulrik Bååth, Camilo José Cela, Stig Dagerman, G. Dahl, Muhammed el-Hamzawi, Lars Magnar Enoksen, Inger Frimansson, Gustaf Fröding, Erik Gustaf Geijer, Göran Greider, Carl Grimberg, Dick Harrison, Staffan Heimersson, Alf Henrikson, Torsten Holm, Homeros, Aldous Huxley, Johannes V. Jensen, Ragnar Järhult, Svetlana K-v, Aleksis Kivi, Lars Levi Laestadius, Hans Larsson, Olle Larsson, Sven Lidman, Jonas Lie, Martin Luther, Vilhelm Moberg, Torsten Nilsson, Anders Nohrborg, Blaise Pascal, Lewi Pethrus, J. von Pflugk-Harttung, Viktor Rydberg, Torgny Segerstedt, Hj. Selldén, Isaac Basjevis Singer, Östen Sjöstrand, Bruno Sollerman, Alexander Solsjenitsyn, Milton Steinberg, Nathan Söderblom, Anton Tjechov, F. Voltaire, Johan Olof Wallin, Michael E. Williams, Tore Zetterholm, Emile Zola.


My own comments and speculations:

There is an interesting allusion to the texts in the Synoptics, where Jesus says, that He has not come to bring peace on earth. In these texts we have the same “keywords” as in Rev 6:4. In Matt 10:34 we have “peace, earth, dagger” and in Luke 12:49-51 “fire, peace, earth”. This we can compare with the words in Rev 6:4: “fire-coloured, peace, earth, dagger”.

Compare the Targum to Gen 11 where it is said that men began to kill one another, when God scattered the united people in Babel.

Concerning “I beheld, and behold”, see Rev 4:1a and 6:2a.


The one hating his brother is in the gloom and wanders about in the gloom and does not know where he withdraws, because the gloom has blinded his eyes. (1 John 2:11)

In this it is visible, (who are) the children of God and the children of the slanderer. 'Every the'/everyone not making/practising righteousness is not out of God, and/nor the one not welcoming his brother. (1 John 3:10)

You may welcome one another, not entirely as Cain, (who) (continually) was out of the evil one, and he slaughtered his brother. And in grace/favour of what did he slaughter him? Because his works (continually) were evil but the ones of his brother righteous. (1 John 3:11b-12)


Greek words:

purros (fire-coloured) (in the NT + examples in the OT) Zech 1:8; 6:2; Acts 20:4; Rev 6:4 – Gen 25:30; Rev 12:3.


Additional studies:

Gen 19:24; Judges 7:22; 2 Kings 1:10-12; 2 Chron 20:23; Ps 104:4; Is 29:6; Ezek 21:9-10,14,28; Zech 14:13; Sir 45:19; Matt 13:40; 17:15; Mark 9:22; Luke 9:54; 17:29-30; John 14:27; 18:10-11; Acts 2:19; 1 Cor 3:13; 2 Thess 1:8; Heb 1:7; 11:34; 2 Pet 3:7; Rev 1:14; 2:18; 4:1; 5:9; 6:2,9; 8:5,7-8; 10:1; 13:13; 17:16; 18:8,24; 19:12; 20:9.


R.J. Korner "'And I saw . . .' An Apocalyptic Literary Convention for Structural Identification in the Apocalypse"; (the journal) Novum Testamentum 42.2 (2000): 160-183.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-27; 2012-06-18; 2015-02-14)

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6:5a And when It opened the third seal, I heard the third living being saying: “Come and behold (א,* א).”

Word for word (15 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus): And when (it)-opened the seal the third, (i/I)-heard the third living-being saying: come and behold.


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

The first living being (was) like a lion and the second living being like a young bull and the third living being having the face as like (one with) a man (א,*א) and the fourth living being (was) like a flying eagle. (Rev 4:7)

I beheld, when the little Ram opened one out of the seven seals, and I heard one out of the four living beings saying, as a voice of thunder: “Come and behold (א,* א)!” (Rev 6:1)

When (the little Ram) opened the second seal, I heard the second living being saying: “Come and behold (א,*א)!” (Rev 6:3)


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning this passage, see Rev 6:1 and 6:3.


Additional studies:


Jan Lambrecht "The Opening of the Seals (Rev 6:1-8:6)"; Biblica 79 (1998): 198-221.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-28; 2012-06-19; 2015-02-15)

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6:5b And I beheld, and behold, a black horse, and the One being seated against it having a yoke in His hand.

Word for word (15 words in the Greek text): and (i/I)-beheld (a)-horse black, and the-(one) being-seated against it having (a)-yoke in the hand his.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The wife said to the daughters of Jerusalem: “Solomon) is white and fire-coloured. … His locks of hair (are) ... black as raven.” (Song of Solomon 5:10a,11b, Greek OT)

(The prophet said to the leaders of Israel: “You shall have) a righteous yoke and a righteous measure and a righteous corn-measure.” (Ezek 45:10, Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) “ I have beheld (and behold) the night, and behold, a male (having been and being) thrown/jumped against, against a fire-coloured horse … and behind him fire-coloured and starling(?)-coloured and parti-coloured and white horses.” (Zech 1:8, Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) “I beheld, and behold, four wagons … In/with the first wagon fire-coulored horses and in/with the second wagon black horses and in/with the third wagon white horses and in/with the fourth wagon parti-coloured, starling(?)-coloured horses. (Zech 6:1b-3, Greek OT)

Year 170 the yoke of the nations was lifted from Israel. (1 Macc 13:41)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said:) "Come here towards Me, all being bothered and being (and having been) burdened, and I will bring you to rest. Lift My yoke against you, and learn * (א*), that I am mild and humble (in) the heart. And you will find rest (in) your souls. For My yoke (is) beneficial, and My load is light." (Matt 11:28-30)

(Peter said to some of the believers: ”Why do you want) to put against a yoke against the neck of the disciples, which ‘and not’/neither our parents ‘and not’/nor we were stable (enough) to bear?” (Acts 15:10b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

… I beheld, and behold, a door being (and having been) opened in the heaven. (Rev 4:1a)

I beheld, and behold, a white horse. (Rev 6:2a)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: Elisabeth Bergstrand-Poulsen, Fuad Esh-Shaib, Bo Frid, Carl Grimberg, Gunnar Hillerdal, G.O. Hyltén-Cavallius, Gunlög Järhult, William B. Silverman, Jesper Svartvik, Tomas Tranströmer, Eric Wärenstam.


My own comments and speculations:

The Greek word “zygon”, which in Rev 6:5 often is translated by “balance”, usually means “yoke”. However, the yoke could be used as a balance.

In Rev 6:2-5 we can see king Solomon as an OT-type of Jesus, who then is the one who sits on the white, fire-coloured and black horses.

Concerning “I beheld, and behold”, see Rev 4:1a and 6:2a.


Greek words:

zygos (yoke) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) 1 Macc 13:41; Matt 11:29-30; Acts 15:10; Rev 6:5 – 1 Macc 8:18,31; Sir 21:25; 28:19-20,25; 33:27; 40:1; 42:4; 51:26; Gal 5:1; 1 Tim 6:1.

melas (black) (in the NT + examples in the OT) Zech 6:2; Matt 5:36; Rev 6:5 – Lev 13:27; Zech 6:6; Sir 19:26; 2 Cor 3:3; 2 John v 12; 3 John v 13; Rev 6:12.


Additional studies:

Song of Solomon 1:5; Ezek 6:6; Sir 6:24-25.


R.J. Korner "'And I saw . . .' An Apocalyptic Literary Convention for Structural Identification in the Apocalypse"; (the journal) Novum Testamentum 42.2 (2000): 160-183.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-28; 2012-06-19; 2015-05-15)

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6:6a And I heard as a voice in a middle of the four living beings saying:

Word for word (10 words in the Greek text): and (i/I)-heard as (a)-voice in middle (of)-the four living-beings saying:


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The Lord said to His people:) "You will gain additional knowledge that I am in a middle of Israel and I (am) the Lord your God ... and I will pour out from My spirit against every/all flesh." (Joel 2:27a,28a, Greek OT)


The Latter Revelation:

Behold, a voice out of the heavens. (Matt 3:17a)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "Where two or three having been (and being) led together into My name, there I am in their middle." (Matt 18:20)

All in the synagogue were fulfilled (with) passion ... But having come through, through their middle, (Jesus) '(continually) went'/'went His way'. (Luke 4:28a,30)

(Jesus said to the apostles:) ”I am in your middle as the One rendering service.” (Luke 22:27b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven: John (said to the Pharisees): "I baptize in water. (In the) middle of you stood (and had stood) (P75, א,* א) One whom you do not know, * (א*, B) coming behind me, whose thong of His sandal I am not worthy ‘in order that’/that I may loosen." (John 1:26-27)

Jesus came and stood into the middle (of the disciples) and He says to them: "Peace to you." (John 20:19b)

Behold, I stand against the door, and I knock. If – according to the circumstances – anyone may hear My voice, I will (א,* א) and/both open the door and come into/in towards him, and I will take the chief meal in company with him and he in company with Me. (Rev 3:20, “Laodicea”)

I beheld ‘in a middle of’/’between (on one hand)’ the throne and the four living beings and ‘in a middle of’/’(on the other hand)’ the elders a little Ram standing as having been (and being) slaughtered. (Rev 5:6a)


Additional studies: Rev 1:10; 2:1; 4:5-6; 5:11; 6:1.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-28; 2012-06-19; 2015-02-15)


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6:6ba A corn-measure (about 1 litre) of bread-stuff for a silver-coin (denarius), and three corn-measures (about 1 litre each) of barleys/barley for a silver-coin (denarius).

Word for word (8 words in the Greek text): (a)-corn-measure (of)-bread-stuff (of/for)-(a)-silver-coin and three corn-measures (of)-barleys/barley (of/for)-(a)-silver-coin.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

Isaac sowed in that earth, and he found in that period of time (that the fields) gave hundredfold barley. (Gen 26:12, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Eli:) “I shall (for) Myself cause a faithful priest to stand up, who will make/do all the things, (which are) in My heart and in My soul. And I shall build him a faithful house, and he will come through/throughout in the very eyes of My Christ all the days. And it will be (that) the one ‘being over and above’/’having more than enough’ in your house will arrive and prostrate before him (in honour of him) (for) an obolcoin of silvermetal.” (1 Sam 2:35-36a, Greek OT)

Elisha spoke: “Hear the saying of the Lord: This is what the Lord says: ‘As/about this hour (the) following day a measure of finest wheaten flour (will be sold for) a (silver)shekel, and two measures of barley (for) a (silver)shekel in the gates of Samaria.” (2 Kings 7:1, Greek OT)

(The prophet said to the leaders of Israel: “You shall have) a righteous yoke and a righteous measure and a righteous corn-measure (about 1 litre).” (Ezek 45:10, Greek OT)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “What you – if according to the circumstances – may give ‘to the side of’/over, (you may give) in/with number and standing-place/weight.” (Sir 42:7a)


The Latter Revelation:

(John the Baptist said: "The One who comes behind me) ... will lead together His bread-stuff into the granary." (Matt 3:12a)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “The kingdom of the heavens is like leaven, which on a woman's having taken (it), she hid (it) in, into three corn-measures (about 13 litres each) of flour, till (the time in) which it was wholly leavened.” (Matt 13:33b)

Having ‘raised his voice together’/agreed with, in company with the workers ‘out of’/for a silver-coin (denarius) (for) the day, (the master of the house) dispatched them away into his vineyard. (Matt 20:2)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “In/with what/the measure you measure, it will be measured to you and it will be ‘put to’/added to you.” (Mark 4:24b)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Give and it will be given to you. A fine measure, having been (and being) pressed, moved to and fro, they will give overflowing into your bosom. For 'to what'/'with the' measure you measure, it will be measured out again to you.” (Luke 6:38)


Exegetes, evangelists and others: A denarius was a Roman silver coin equivalent to one day's wages. (J. Massyngberde Ford "Revelation" p 98)

about 2000 and time before

A choenix of grain was a daily ration for one man. (Walter Bauer "A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature" p 883)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Carin Bergström, Elsa Beskow, Sten Carlsson, Sven Dahl, Manne Eriksson, Rütger Essén, Dick Harrison, Sven Ingvar, Vilhelm Moberg, Carl Erik Nordenskjöld, Derek Walcott.


My own comments and speculations:

A disciple of Jesus will get a fine measure, “having been (and being) pressed, moved to and fro”, for the denarius, which is the wage after finished labour. And he will get an additional measure of barley, three measures in stead of two (cf. 2 Kings 7:1).


Greek words:

krithê (barley) (in the NT + one example in the Apocrypha) Rev 6:6 – Judith 8:2.

choinix (corn-measure) Ezek 45:10; Rev 6:6 – Ezek 45:11.


Additional studies: Matt 7:2; 20:9-13; 22:19; Mark 12:15; Luke 13:20-21; 20:24; Eph 4:7,16; Rev 7:3; 9:4.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-28; 2012-06-19; 2015-02-15)

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6:6bb And you may not act unrighteously (towards) the olive-oil and the wine.

Word for word (8 words in the Greek text): and the olive-oil and the wine not (you)-may-act-unrighteously-(towards).


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Moses said to Israel: “The Lord your God) will give the rain ... (so that) you will carry in your bread-stuff and your wine and your olive oil.” (Deut 11:14, Greek OT)

(The king of Tyre said to Solomon:) “Let now my lord dispatch away to his boys the bread-stuff and the barley and the olive-oil and the wine.” (2 Chron 2:15a, Greek OT; cf. Song of Solomon 5:10-11)

(The prophet said to the leaders of Israel: “You shall have) a righteous yoke and a righteous measure and a righteous corn-measure (about 1 litre).” (Ezek 45:10, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to the prophet: “Israel) has not knowledge, that I have given (and give) her the bread-stuff and the wine and the olive oil.” (Hos 2:8a, Greek OT)

(The Lord will say to His people:) ”Behold, I dispatch out to you the bread-stuff and the wine and the olive oil. And you will be fulfilled/satiated with them, and I will ‘not not’/not any longer give you into a reproach in/among the nations.” (Joel 2:19b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said Jerusalem:) "I shall begin the thing to hit you (and) make you unseen/disfigured on/'for the sake of' your misses (of My mark). ... You shall sow and you may not/certainly not mow, you shall press an olive-tree and you may not/certainly not besmear olive-oil, and you may not/certainly not drink wine!" (Micah 6:13,15a, Greek OT)


The Latter Revelation:

(The master of the house said to one of the workers:) “Comrade, I do not act unrighteously (towards) you. Did you by no means ‘raise your voice together’/agree with me for a silver-coin (denarius)?” (Matt 20:13b)

The foolish (virgins) spoke to the sensible ones: “Give us out of your olive-oil, because our torches are quenched.” But the sensible answered saying: “They may not at any time ‘not (א,* א, A) be’/be enough for us and you.” (Matt 25:8-9a)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “From just now I may not/certainly not drink out of this * (P37*,א*) produce of the vine, till that day when I – according to the circumstances – may drink it new in company with you in the kingdom of My Father.” (Matt 26:29b)

(At the banquet in the habitation of Levi/Matthew Jesus said to the Pharisees and their scribes:) "No one throws/puts young/fresh wine into old leather bags; ‘but if not’/otherwise the young/fresh wine at any rate will ‘break ... in pieces’/rend the leather bags, and it will be poured out, and the leather bags will be perished.” (Luke 5:37)

Having come to (the wounded man, a certain Samaritan) bound up his wounds, pouring olive oil and wine against (them). (Luke 10:34a)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Having called to 'one everyone'/'each one' of his lord's debtors (the householder/steward) said to the first one: ‘How much are you indebted my lord?’ But/and he spoke: ‘A hundred footpaths (א,* א) of olive oil.’ But he spoke to him: ‘Receive your ‘letters (of the alphabet)’/document and having sit down, write quickly fifty.’ ... And the lord praised/’was praiseful’ against the householder/steward of the unrighteousness, that he made/acted sensibly, because the sons of this age are more sensible over/than the sons of light are into/’for the purpose of’ the generation of themselves." (Luke 16:5-6,8)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

As the threebedleader tasted the water having become (and becoming) wine, and he did not know from where it is/was – but the servants, the ones having ladled (and ladling) out the water, knew – the threebedleader raises his voice to(wards) the bridegroom and says to him: "Every man puts/’puts out’ the fine wine first and when they – according to the circumstances – may have been made drunk the less/inferior. You have kept (and keep) the fine wine till just now." (John 2:9-10)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

And so it becomes examination . . . Madicken is allowed to tell about the merciful Samaritan, and him she likes, oh, the one being able to be as good and helpful as he was! Madicken sees all of it as clearly as if she herself had been there on the road between Jerusalem and Jericho. She sees how the Samaritan comes riding finding him bleeding by the roadside, that poor man who the robbers almost have killed, and how the Samaritan then anoints his wounds with oil and wine. . . . Now she knows, what they can play, the play of the Samaritan. . . . At last Lisabet comes down from the attic, absolutely furious. "How long must one sit there and anoint and anoint with wine and paraffin, have you thought", she asks angrily. Lisabet thinks that oil is the same thing as paraffin oil, but so it is not, Madicken declares. "Have you anointed him with paraffin, then (Mattis) does not live all night long." (Astrid Lindgren "Madicken och Junibackens Pims" s 117-118,136; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

It is not wine which makes drunkenness, but the evil purpose, and the using it beyond due measure. (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers XIV:402)

Wine and oil ... (were) regarded as the common dressing for wounds (Jer. Ber. 3a; Shabb.134a). (Alfred Edersheim "The Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah Part II" p 238)

Greece has a Mediterranean climate, and produces the normal Mediterranean crops. But the most distinctively Greek of them is, and was, the olive. It was cultivated in Greece from very early times. ... Throughout the great period of Minoan and Mycenaean civilisation, plentiful evidence attests an extensive production of olive oil, which may even have been exported to Egypt and elsewhere in the Near East. ... The olive is an important food. ... In antiquity olive oil had several other uses - as an embrocation, as a vehicle for perfume, and above all as fuel for lamps. If we add together the parts played in modern life by butter, cooking fat, soap, and paraffin, we shall appreciate what the olive meant to ancient Greeks. ... In classical antiquity Greece was famous for its wines, and remained so through medieval times. ... Olives and vines may have been the main cause of the tremendous prosperity of the Aegean in the Bronze Age. ... But their economic importance, however great, is not all. ... 'Wine and olive oil', said the elder Pliny in the first century AD, 'are the two liquids that the human body finds most congenial, the one for internal and the other for external use.' It was in this spirit that the Greeks were grateful for them, attributing their presence in Greece to divine intervention. The vine, they alleged, was brought by Dionysus, the olive created by Athena, the one the son and the other the daughter of the King of the Gods, Zeus. (Maurice Pope "The Ancient Greeks - How they lived and worked" p 44-45)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Augustinus, Leif Carlsson, Henry Daniel-Rops, Per G. Ekström, Dick Harrison, Pär Lagerkvist, Martin Luther, Harry Martinson, Lewi Pethrus, Olaus Petri, Anton Tjechov, F. Voltaire.


My own comments and speculations:

The olive-oil and the wine shall be spared to be used in the service of the kingdom of God (cf. Matt 25:8-9; 26:29; Luke 10:34).


James said to the believers: “Is anyone in/among you weak, let him call to (himself) the elders of the (assembly) of called out and let them pray against/over him having smeared him (with) olive-oil in the name of the Lord, and the vow of the faith will save/preserve the one being fatigued, and the Lord will raise him.” (Jas 5:14-15a)


Greek words:

elaion (olive-oil) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Matt 25:8; Luke 10:34; 16:6; Rev 6:6 – Tobit 1:7; Judith 10:5; 11:13; Sir 39:26; 45:15; Susanna v 17(Theod); Matt 25:3-4; Mark 6:13; Luke 7:46; Heb 1:9; Jas 5:14; Rev 18:13.


Additional studies: Deut 28:51; 1 Kings 17:12-14; Job 24:11; Ps 23:4-5; Eccl 9:7-8; Matt 9:17; Mark 2:22; 15:23; Rev 14:10; 19:15.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-28; 2012-06-19; 2015-02-15)

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6:7 And when It opened the fourth seal, I heard (the) voice of the fourth living being saying: “Come and behold (א,* א).”

Word for word (16 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus): And when (it)-opened the seal the fourth, (i/I)-heard (a)-voice (of)-the (of)-fourth (of)-living-being saying: come and behold.


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

The first living being (was) like a lion and the second living being like a young bull and the third living being having the face as like (one with) a man (א,*א) and the fourth living being (was) like a flying eagle. (Rev 4:7)

I beheld, when the little Ram opened one out of the seven seals, and I heard one out of the four living beings saying, as a voice of thunder: “Come and behold (א,* א)!” (Rev 6:1)

When (the little Ram) opened the second seal, I heard the second living being saying: “Come and behold (א,*א)!” (Rev 6:3)

And when (the little Ram) opened the third seal, I heard the third living being saying: “Come and behold (א,* א).” (Rev 6:5a)


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning this verse, see Rev 6:1 and 6:3.


Additional studies:


Jan Lambrecht "The Opening of the Seals (Rev 6:1-8:6)"; Biblica 79 (1998): 198-221.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-28; 2012-06-19; 2015-02-16)

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6:8aa And I beheld, and behold, a light green horse.

Word for word (6 words in the Greek text): and (i/I)-beheld, and behold (a)-horse light-green.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(When the sons of Israel and the alien) will behold the blows of that earth/land and its sicknesses which the Lord has dispatched away against it, (they will say:) “ ... Every/all light green may not ascend against it.” (Deut 29:22b-23a, Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) “ I have beheld (and behold) the night, and behold, a male (having been and being) thrown/jumped against, against a fire-coloured horse … and behind him fire-coloured and starling(?)-coloured and parti-coloured and white horses.” (Zech 1:8, Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) “I beheld, and behold, four wagons … In/with the first wagon fire-coulored horses and in/with the second wagon black horses and in/with the third wagon white horses and in/with the fourth wagon parti-coloured, starling(?)-coloured horses. (Zech 6:1b-3, Greek OT)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus) 'arranged on'/ordered (the disciples) to ‘lean up’/’lay down’ (א ,*א, B*) all ‘drinking-bouts drinking-bouts’/’by drinking-bouts’ on the light green grass. (Mark 6:39)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

After these things I beheld, and behold, a door being (and having been) opened in the heaven. (Rev 4:1a)

I beheld, and behold, a white horse. (Rev 6:2a)

And I beheld, and behold (א,* א), another fire-coloured horse came out. (Rev 6:4a)

I beheld, and behold, a black horse. ... (Rev 6:5b)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

The Apocalypse … has set “death” upon a “green horse”. (Tertullian, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol IV, p 98)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Svetlana Aleksijevitj.


My own comments and speculations:

The colour of the horse of Death is the same as the light green surface of the grass of Hades/’the underworld’ (cf. Mark 6:39 and the continuation here in Rev 6:8).

Concerning “I beheld, and behold”, see Rev 4:1a and 6:2a.


Greek words:

chlôros (light green) (in the NT) Mark 6:39; Rev 6:8 – Rev 8:7; 9:4.


Additional studies:

Rev 8:7; 9:4.


R.J. Korner "'And I saw . . .' An Apocalyptic Literary Convention for Structural Identification in the Apocalypse"; (the journal) Novum Testamentum 42.2 (2000): 160-183.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-28; 2012-06-19; 2015-02-16)

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6:8ab And the one being seated above it, a name to him (was) death (א,*א). And Hades (continually) followed * (א,* א) him.

Word for word (13 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus): and the-(one) being-seated above it, (a)-name (to)-him death, and the Hades (continually)-followed him.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The Lord said to Job:) “Are the gates of death opened to you (with) fear, but/and on beholding you 'were . . . frightened'/'did . . . set yourself in fear' the door-keepers of Hades?” (Job 38:17a, Greek OT)

(The leaders of the people in Jerusalem) spoke: “We have made a covenant in company with Hades, and in company with death we have ‘put together’/’made a treaty’.” (Is 28:15a, Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) “I beheld, and behold, above the expanse, the one in favour of the head of the cherubim, (something was) as a stone of sapphire, a likeness (to) a throne upon them.” (Ezek 10:1a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) “I will deliver (Israel) out of a hand of Hades, and I will redeem them out of death. Death, where (is) your justice? Hades, where (is) your sting?” (Hos 13:14a; Greek OT)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said: “Eliah raised) a dead (body) out of death and out of Hades in/with a saying of (the) Highest One.” (Sir 48:5a)


The Latter Revelation:

To the ones being seated in a district and a shadow of death, to them a light stuck up." (Matt 4:16b)

(Jesus said:) “You, Capernaum, ‘not will’/will you be heightened till heaven? You will be precipitated (א,* א) till Hades.” (Matt 11:23a)

(The disciples) led the ass and the foal and put/laid the garments upon, upon them, and (Jesus) sat down upon, above them. (Matt 21:7)

(Jesus said to Levi:) ”Follow Me!” And having stood up he followed Him. (Mark 2:14b)

(The lord said to his slave:) ”’Be having’/have (judicial) authority above/over ten cities.” (Luke 19:17b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

It became a man having been (and being) dispatched away from the side of God. A name to him (continually) was (א*) John. (John 1:6)

The One coming from above is above all. (John 3:31a)

I have the keys of (the) death and (the) Hades. (Rev 1:18b)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

In this verse there are two figures, death and Hades, but only one horse. (J. Massyngberde Ford "Revelation" p 99).

The poor little Salvationist working in slums, who lies on her deathbed, feels how she for every moment becomes more and more weak and faint. . . . Now, when she has been moved right farthest away in the room, she at last can see the undiscernible one who is to be found down at the door. It is a figure in black gown with a hood drawn over head and face. He holds in his hand a long scythe. She does not for a moment need to have doubts about who he is. "It is Death", she thinks. And she becomes afraid, because he has come too early for her. Otherwise he does not inspire her with fright. (Selma Lagerlöf "Körkarlen" p 382,387: translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

(Jönköping) trembled still (in the year 1835) in the memory of the passed year. Many thought, that the epidemic was an omen about the last judgment. Once, when it was spoken about those days in August, the bible with the big buckles was taken up, and it was read about a black horse and his rider, whose name was Death, about the fall of stars from the sky and a day of wrath, which is approaching. (Viktor Rydberg "Från barndomen" p 112; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Alf Ahlberg, Woody Allen, Ingmar Bergman, Marcus Birro, H.J. Blackham, T.S. Eliot, Erik Gustaf Geijer, Agne Hamrin, Olov Hartman, Verner von Heidenstam, Ebba Lindqvist, Olaus Magnus, H.M. Melin, Lilija Michajlovna Kuzmenkova, Vilhelm Moberg, Axel Munthe, James Innel Packer, Hallgrimur Petrusson, Abraham Rundbäck, Adam Schaff, Fjodor Sologub, Georg Stiernhielm, Tom Stoppard, Margareta Strömstedt, Esaias Tegnér, Anthony C. Thiselton, Anton Tjechov, Kristin Zeiler.


My own comments and speculations:

The two figures, death and Hades, and one horse can be contrasted with the one figure Jesus above the two animals, the ass and the foal, in Matt 21:7. Observe that the word “epanô” (above) is used both in Matt 21:7 and Rev 6:8.

Concerning “Hades (continually) followed (death)”, see also Rev 1:18b.

Concerning “a name to him”, see also John 1:6-8.


Additional studies:

Prov 5:5; Sir 14:12; Luke 10:25; John 8:51-52; Rev 20:3,13-14; 21:4.


K.-J. Illman "'Döden' i Gamla testamentets formelspråk"; Svensk Exegetisk Årsbok 44 (1979): 23-37.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-28; 2012-06-19; 2015-02-16)

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6:8ba And (judicial) authority was given to them against the fourth/’fourth part’ of the earth ...

Word for word (9 words in the Greek text): and was-given (to)-them (judicial)-authority against the fourth (of)-the (of)-earth


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The Lord said to the prophet:) "You, son of man, take to yourself a large sword to sharp over/'more than' a barber's razor. You may acquire it for yourself and you shall lead it against, against your head and pass it over your head and against your beard. And you may take a yoke of 'little standing-places'/balances and you shall 'cause them to stand asunder'/'divide the hair'. The fourth/'fourth part' you shall burn up in fire in a middle of (Jerusalem) 'according to'/after the 'making full'/complement of the days of the enclosement." (Ezek 5:1-2a, Greek OT)

(Solomon said to the Lord:) “You have a (judicial) authority of life and death, and You lead down into gates of Hades and You lead up.” (Wisdom of Solomon 16:13)


The Latter Revelation:

Having come to/forward Jesus talked (with the eleven disciples) saying: "Every/all (judicial) authority in heaven and upon earth has been given to Me. Having gone * (א,*א,A) be/make disciples (of) all the nations." (Matt 28:18-19a; BG Ask-comment: Walter Bauer says in his Greek-English lexicon - p 485 - that the Greek word for "be or become a disciple" - as a transitive verb has the meaning of "make a disciple". Perhaps no translator has another meaning. But I am not sure that this is the johannine view. To be disciples in a company of all nations can cause the crowd of disciples to increase. Cf. John 17:21-23.)

(During) the command of Tiberius … Herod being leader of a fourth of Galilee …, a word of God became/came against/to John … (Luke 3:1a,2b)

(The lord said to his slave:) ”’Be having’/have (judicial) authority above/over ten cities.” (Luke 19:17b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

Martha, the sister of the one having come (and came) to an end, says to Him: “Lord, he already smells, for it is on the fourth day.” (John 11:39)

These things Jesus talked and having lifted against/up His eyes into the heaven He spoke: “Father, the hour has come (and comes). Glorify Your Son, in order that the Son may glorify You, entirely as You have given Him (judicial) authority of every/all flesh, in order that every (nation?) which You have given (and give) Him, I may to it (א*) give agelong life.” (John 17:1-2)

Pilate * (א,*A) says to (Jesus): “You do not talk (with) me? Do You not know, that I have (judicial) authority to ‘loosen from’/release You, and I have (judicial) authority to crucify You?” Jesus answered him: “You have (א,*א,A) not ‘no one’/any (judicial) authority ‘down from’/against Me, if it (continually) was/’has ... been’ (and is) not given you from above. Because of this the one having given Me ‘to the side of’/over to you has a greater miss (of the mark of God).” (John 19:10-11)

The one conquering and the one keeping My works until (the) end, to him I will give (judicial) authority upon/’with regard to’ the nations. And he will be a shepherd to them in/with a rod of iron, as it is crushed vessels of a potter, as and/also I have taken (and take) (judicial authority) from the side of My Father. (Rev 2:26-27 or 2:26-28a, “Thyatira”)


Additional studies: Matt 14:25.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-28; 2012-06-19; 2015-02-16)

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6:8bb ... to kill in/with large sword and in/with famine and in/with death/pestilence and by the little wild animals of the earth.

Word for word (15 words in the Greek text): (to)-kill in large-sword and in famine and in death and by the little-wild-animals (of)-the (of)-earth.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Eliphaz said to Job:) “You may not/certainly not fear from/for the rural/wild little wild beasts.” (Job 5:22b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Jerusalem:) “I shall dispatch out against you famine and evil little wild animals, and I shall punish you, and death/pestilence and blood will also come through against you, and I shall lead against, against you a large sword.” (Ezek 5:17a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) “If – according to the circumstances – I will dispatch out against Jerusalem my four evil procurations of justice: a large sword and famine and evil little wild animals and death/pestilence.” (Ezek 14:21a, Greek OT)

(Baruch said: “The people) died in evil hardships, in famine and in/with large sword and in apostleship/’dispatching away’.” (Baruch 2:25b)


The Latter Revelation:

(God said:) “The one saying/speaking badly/ill to father or mother, let him come to an end (with) death/pestilence.” (Matt 15:4b)

(Jesus continually) was in company with the little wild animals, and the messengers (continually) rendered service to Him. (Mark 1:13b)

(Simeon said to Mariam:) “A large sword will come and/also through your own soul, in what way – according to the circumstances - ‘countings altogether’/considerations out of many hearts may be revealed.” (Luke 2:35)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “They/there will be great shakings and ‘according to places’/'in one place after another' famines and plagues, both/furthermore frightful things and it/there will be great signs from heaven.” (Luke 21:11)

Having so shaken off the little wild animal into the fire (Paul) indeed suffered nothing bad. (Acts 28:5)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

Behold, I call (א*) (Jezebel) into a bed and the ones committing adultery in company with her into a great oppression, if – according to the circumstances – they will (א,* א, A) not change their minds ‘out of’/’away from’ her works, and her children I will kill in/with death/pestilence. (Rev 2:22-23a)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

The animals (are) regarded as agential instruments of a higher power. (Max Zerwick-Mary Grosvenor "A Grammatical Analysis of the Greek New Testament" p 752)

In its later stages the Allied blockade had done its work well. By the end of 1918, and even before the end of the war, the peoples of Central Europe were starving, and agricultural output was so low that there was no prospect of their being able to feed themselves for a long time. Russia, also, was in an exhausted state owing to the civil war and the decline of production. (W. Arthur Lewis "Economic Survey 1919-1939" p 16-17)

"In all my days death has been after me as a raging wolf", (Lotta Hedman said). "His designs against me have been manifold. He wanted to get at me, before I had left the womb. He sent out an insane one, who frightened my mother, so that I came to the world too early and miserable beyond measure. And once he wanted to drown me when I took a swim, and once he let a tree in the wood fall down over me, and once he let a serpent sting me in my foot, while I looked for berries, and once he threw me down from a scaffold. And with illness he has pained me quite beyond all bounds." (Selma Lagerlöf "Bannlyst" p 86; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

It is ringing all day. Green biers are carried over the churchyard. Sometimes a dark crowd of men stand round a black case. The gravediggers come and go with their spades. He must wear a copper-sheet with a blue silk-ribbon on his breast, and chew on a root all day. This is the cholera 1854. (August Strindberg "Tjänstekvinnans son" p 25; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

(The cruel foundry proprietor in Fors) wanted to lay the land waste as long as Bro church tower was seen. He wanted to see bear and fox in the dwellings of men. The fields would lie uncultivated, and neither dog nor cock would be heard in these districts. The cruel one wanted to serve his lord by bringing down calamity upon every man. This was what he had promised. And the men waited and saw in silent despair, for they knew, that the might of the cruel one was great, that he hated all living things, that he wanted to see the wilderness force its way down into the valley, and that he gladly would take the plague or the famine or the war in his service to drive away everybody loving the good, joybringing work. (Selma Lagerlöf "Gösta Berlings saga" p 259; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

(Jönköping) trembled still (in the year 1835) in the memory of the passed year. Many thought, that the epidemic was an omen about the last judgment. Once, when it was spoken about those days in August, the bible with the big buckles was taken up, and it was read about a black horse and his rider, whose name was Death, about the fall of stars from the sky and a day of wrath, which is approaching. It was also read out of another book, which first leaf showed with black ground a star shimmering in yellow and red in an envelope of fume, which was lengthened and likened a train. The word "the comet" often was named. In the evenings people stood in groups on the street. They talked seeing towards the sky. "The comet is seen clearly", the servant of the house said one evening, short before bedtime. She took the boy's hand leading him out. It was still not night-dark, but here and there stars twinkled in the dark blue, and among them the star with the train appeared. Many was outside beholding the omen. "The comet now is larger than yesterday", one said. Another said: "If some days and nights he is so large, that he covers the sky." People spoke about the burning of the world and the last day. Otherwise, when they after ended day's work gathered outside the doors of the houses, they used to joke and laugh. Now the men looked serious. Something heavy and oppressed was over them. (Viktor Rydberg "Från barndomen" p 112-113; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

"Maybe it is . . . the building contractor, who now goes over the ground and clear the land for the new building?" "What do you mean?" the monk said. "I mean the plague", (Erland said), "the black death, the bubonic plague, which ravages the world. I have before said you, what I saw in Germany, Italy, France, yes, wherever I steered my course. When I returned here, I left behind me a church-yard, all the countries in the south, filled with groaning, death and putrefaction. The men did not die otherwise than the corn falls for the scythe. . . . I have heard been told of towns, where a hundred thousand men died within few days. Is not this the building contractor, who is wandering over the ground of the world and clear the land for the new building?" (Viktor Rydberg "Singoalla" p 105; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

"Do they now know from where the black death came?" (doctor Laurentius asked). "Now they know it!" (the innkeeper answered). "From the large Tartariet or Sina. But the ground was ill, the water, the air. It began with a stinking, dark mist, earthquakes, floods, drought, even fire-balls appeared and wandering stars. But to Europe he came when the Mongols besieged Kaffa in the Crimea, and when the first ones died in the attacking army, they slang their corpses with catapults into the fortress; and with this the infection was spread. But it was a mysterious illness; consequently it one night slipped into a Carmelite convent in Marseille, it was the first of November 1347, and think, doctor, before morning all monks except one was dead. - Now monks, of course, certainly is a specially dirty race, and the nuns also for the rest. (August Strindberg "Hövdingaminnen" p 181; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Hjalmar Bjurulf, Valerij Brjusov, Gustaf Bång, Sten Carlsson, Elizabeth Charles, Marie Clark Nelson, Hilding Fagerberg, Carl Grimberg, Tullan Gunér, Dick Harrison, Alf Henrikson, Folke Henschen, Emil Hindenborg, Homeros, Victor Hugo, Håkan Håkansson, Herbert Johansson, Gustaf Jonasson, Eskil Jonsson, Ragnar Järhult, Lars-Olof Larsson, Sigurd Lindgren, Ingeborg Lindqvist, Martin Luther, Helmer Lång, H.M. Melin, Vilhelm Moberg, Arthur Montgomery, Ingun Montgomery, Janken Myrdal, Sten Nilsson, Pälle Näver, Bror Olsson, Karl Palmberg, Nils Palmborg, Olof Petersson, Lewi Pethrus, Nikolaj Prochorovitj Zjarkov, Per Richarsson, Anna Maria Roos, Abraham Rundbäck, Sven Edvin Salje, Sigurd Schartau, Harry Sjöman, Carl-Herman Tillhagen, Leo Tolstoj, F. Voltaire, Bertil Waldén, P. Waldenström, Gunnar Wetterberg, Sigurd Wildte, Thecla Wrangel, Elin Wägner.


My own comments and speculations:

In a restoration perspective we see how the punishment which struck the people of God now will come over their enemies.

I have translated “thêrion” according to the form of the word by “little wild animal”. In the eyes of God the wild animals are small (cf. Job 40-41), even if they are evil (Ezek 5:17; 14:21).


Greek words:

thêrion (little wild animal) (in the NT + examples in the OT) Job 5:22; Ezek 5:17; 14:21; Baruch 2:25; Mark 1:13; Acts 28:5; Rev 6:8 – Gen 1:24-25,30; Esther 8:12x(E24); Ezek 33:27; Dan 7:3,5-7,11,17,19,23; Judith 11:7; 1 Macc 6:35-37,43; 11:56; 2 Macc 5:27; 9:15; 10:6; 15:20-21; Wisdom of Solomon 7:20; 12:9; 16:5; 17:18(19) Sir 10:11; 12:13; 17:4; 39:30; Epistle of Jeremiah v 67; The Song of Praise of the Three Men v 58; Baruch 3:16; Acts 11:6; 28:4; Tit 1:12; Heb 12:20; Jas 3:7; Rev 11:7; 13:1-4,11-12,14-15,17-18; 14:9,11; 15:2; 16:2,10; 17:3,7-8,11-13,16-17; 19:19-20; 20:4,10.

limos (famine) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Luke 21:11; Rev 6:8 – Tobit 4:13; Judith 5:10; 7:14; 1 Macc 6:54; 9:24; 13:49; Sir 18:25; 39:29; 40:9; 48:2; Matt 24:7; Mark 13:8; Luke 4:25; 15:14,17; Acts 7:11; 11:28; Rom 8:35; 2 Cor 11:27; Rev 18:8.


Additional studies:

Jer 14:12; 15:2; 21:7-9; 24:10; 29:17-18; Ezek 5:12; 33:27; Matt 24:6-8.


Kim Paffenroth "Famines in Luke-Acts"; Expository Times 112.12 (2001): 405-407.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-28; 2012-06-20; 2015-02-17)

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6:9 And when It opened the fifth seal, I beheld below the sacrificial altar the souls of the men (א,* א) having been (and being) slaughtered because of the saying of God and because of the evidence which they (continually) had.

Word for word (28 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus prima manus): And when (it)-opened the seal the fifth, (i/I)-beheld below the sacrificial-altar the souls (of)-the (of)-men (of)-the-(ones) having-been-(and-being)-slaughtered because-of the saying (of)-the (of)-god and because-of the evidence which (they)-(continually)-had.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The Lord said to Moses: ”The priest) shall pour out every/all the blood of the young bull to the side of the step/foot of the sacrificial altar of the burnt offerings, which is to/at the side of the doors of the tent of the testimony.” (Lev 4:7b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Moses:) “The soul of every flesh is in its blood, and I have given (and give) it to you upon the sacrificial altar to ‘propitiate out’/propitiate on account of your souls.” (Lev 17:11a, Greek OT)

(Balaam said:) “Oh, that my soul may die in/among souls of righteous ones and oh, that my seed may become as the seed of these!” (Num 23:10b, Greek OT)

These (are) the evidences and the fundamental laws and the judicial verdicts, as many as Moses talked (with) the sons of Israel in the desolate (district) on their having come out of the earth/land of Egypt. (Deut 4:45, Greek OT)

The king of Babylon slaughtered the sons of (the king of Judas) … and he slaughtered all the leaders of Judas. (Jer 52:10a, Greek OT)

A saying of the Lord (continually) became/came towards Ezekiel. (Ezek 1:3a, Greek OT)

The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "The one having been sown against the rocky (ground), this is the one hearing the saying and straight off taking it in company with joy, but has not a root in himself, however/but is transitory. But/and having become oppression or pursuit because of the saying, he straight off is caused to stumble." (Matt 13:20-21)

Likewise and/also (with) the second and the third till the seventh. (Matt 22:26)

(Jesus said to the scribes and the Pharisees:) "Against you may come every/all righteous blood being poured out upon the earth from the blood of righteous Abel till the blood of Zechariah * (א*) whom you murdered meanwhile/between the temple and the sacrificial altar." (Matt 23:35)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Nation will rise against nation and kingdom against kingdom … They will give you ‘to the side of’/over into oppression and will kill you.” (Matt 24:7a,9a)

(The Syrophoenician woman said to Jesus:) “And/also the little dogs below the table eat from the crumbs of the little boys and girls.” (Mark 7:28b)

Some (continually) were by the side of (Jesus) in the same seasonable time bringing away a message to Him on account of the Galileans, whose blood Pilate had mixed ‘in company’/together with their sacrifices. (Luke 13:1)

(Jesus said to His disciples: “The persecution) will for you ‘step off’/lead into a testimony. … They will put (some) out of you to death.” (Luke 21:13,16b)

(The elders, the priest leaders and the scribes said: “Of) “what evidence have we yet need, for we have heard ourselves from His mouth.?” (Luke 22:71)

(Peter said to the Jews:) "Let you be saved from this crooked generation." The ones who indeed so having received his saying from (him) were baptized, and in that day ’as if’/about three thousand souls/persons were ‘put to’/added. (Acts 2:40b-41)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

In a beginning the Saying (continually) was, and the Saying (continually) was towards God, and the Saying (continually) was God. This was in a beginning (continually) (directed) towards God. (John 1:1-2)

It became a man having been (and being) dispatched away from the side of God. A name to him (continually) was (א*) John. This one came into/’for the purpose of’ an evidence, in order that he might be a witness on account of the light, in order that all might believe through him. (John 1:6-7)

Jesus said to (Nathanael): "Because I spoke to you that I beheld you below the fig tree, you believe. You will behold greater things than these." (John 1:50)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "They will make/cause you led away from the synagogue. However/certainly an hour comes, ‘in order that’/when 'every the'/everyone having killed you may think, (that) he carries a divine service to God." (John 16:2)

This is the disciple being a witness on account of these things and having written these things. And we know that his evidence is truthful. * (א*). (John 21:24)

(John) was a witness to the saying of God and the evidence of Jesus Christ, as many things as he beheld. (Rev 1:2)

(John) became/appeared in/on the island being called Patmos because of the saying of God and because of (א,*א) the evidence of Jesus. (Rev 1:9b)

And I beheld, and behold (א,* א), another fire-coloured horse came out. And to the One being seated against it, it was given to Him to take the peace out of the earth, and in order that they might (א,* א) slaughter one another. (Rev 6:4a)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

Rabbi Akiba is reputed to have said that whoever was buried in the land of Israel was considered as if he were buried under the altar. … The blood of a sacrifice, which was considered the life of the victim, ran down to the base of the altar; thus the life would literally be under the altar. (J. Massyngberde Ford "Revelation" p 110)

The most prominent object in the Court of the Priests was the immense altar of unhewn stones, a square of not less than 48 feet, and, inclusive of ’the horns,’ 15 feet high. ... Close by was the great heap of salt, from which every sacrifice must be salted with salt. On the altar, which at the top was only 36 feet wide, three fires burned, one (east) for the offerings, the second (south) for the incense, the third (north) to supply the means for kindling the other two. (Alfred Edersheim “The Temple” p 54-55)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Yngve Brilioth, Ingmar Brohed, Sven Danell, T.S. Eliot, Anders Fröjmark, Peter Halldorf, Olaf Moe.


Paul said to the believers in Rome: "I call you, brothers, to the side of through the ‘compassionate things’/compassion of God, to cause your bodies to stand by the side of (as) a living sacrifice, holy to God, well-pleasing, your divine service belonging to the saying." (Rom 12:1)


Greek words:

thysiastêrion (sacrificial altar) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Matt 23:35; Rev 6:9 – Esther 4:17o(C20); Judith 4:3,12; 8:24; 9:8; 1 Macc 1:54,59; 4:38,44-45,47,49-50,53,56,59; 5:1; 6:7; 7:36; 2 Macc 1:18-19,32; 2:5; 3:15; 4:14; 6:5; 10:3,26; 14:3,33; 15:31; Wisdom of Solomon 9:8; Sir 35:5(8); 47:9; 50:11,15; Baruch 1:10. Matt 5:23-24; 23:18-20; Luke 1:11; 11:51; Rom 11:3; 1 Cor 9:13; 10:18; Heb 7:13; 13:10; Jas 2:21; Rev 8:3,5; 9:13; 11:1; 14:18; 16:7.

pemptos (fifth) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Rev 6:9 – 2 Macc 7:15; 10:35; Baruch 1:2; Rev 9:1; 16:10; 21:20.


Additional studies:

Ex 29:12; Ps 8:6(7); Matt 24:14; Mark 12:21-22; 12:36; Luke 20:29-31; John 10:10; 21:19; Phil 2:17; 2 Tim 4:6; Heb 2:8; Rev 12:11,17; 18:24; 19:10; 20:4.


Beate Kowalski "Martyrdom and Resurrection in the Revelation to John"; Andrews University Seminary Studies 10.1 (Jan. 1972): 55-64.

Jan Lambrecht "The Opening of the Seals (Rev 6:1-8:6)"; Biblica 79 (1998): 198-221.

Michelle V. Lee "A Call to Martyrdom: Function as Method and Message in Revelation"; (tidskriften) Novum Testamentum 40.2 (1998): 164-194.

J.P. Lilley "The Altar in Joshua and Judges"; Tyndale Bulletin 5/6 (1960): 32-33.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-28; 2012-06-20; 2015-02-17)

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6:10a And they shouted (with) a great/loud voice saying:

Word for word (5 words in the Greek text): and (they)-shouted (with)-(a)-voice great saying:


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(On the third day by the mountain Sinai) a voice of the trumpet sounds greatly/loudly. … (Ex 19:16b, Greek OT)

The other/one (seraph) shouts (and has shouted) towards the other and he (continually/repeatedly) said: “Holy, holy, holy (is) the Lord of hosts. The every/whole earth (is) filled with His glory.” (Is 6:3, Greek OT)


The Latter Revelation:

The ones going before and the ones following (Jesus) (continually) shouted: “Hosanna! Being (and having been) blessed the one coming in a name of a lord.” (Mark 11:9)

All ‘of them’/together of the multitude of the disciples began rejoicing to praise God (with) a great/loud voice on account of all the (works of) ability which they beheld. (Luke 19:37b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

John is a witness on account of Him. And he has shouted (and shouts), saying: (John 1:15a)

(Jesus) screamed (with) a great/loud voice: "Lazarus, come here outside." (John 11:43b)

I heard behind me a great/loud voice as a trumpet. (Rev 1:10b)

And I beheld a stable messenger proclaiming in/with a great/loud voice: (Rev 5:2a)

… (I heard messengers) saying (with) a great/loud voice: “Worthy is the little Ram, the One having been (and being) slaughtered.” (Rev 5:12a)


Additional studies: Ezek 3:12; Rom 9:27; Gal 4:6.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-28; 2012-06-20; 2015-02-17)

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6:10ba The Master, the Holy and True One!

Word for word (6 words in the Greek text): (till)-(when) the master the holy-(one) and true-(one)


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Abram) spoke: “Master, Lord!” (Gen 15:8a, Greek OT)

(David said to the Lord: “In) You, Lord, (is) the greatness and the ability and the object of boasting and the conquest and the stability, because You are a Master of all in the heaven and upon the earth. (1 Chron 29:11a, Greek OT)

(Eliphaz said:) “I shall call to myself the Lord, the Master of all.” (Job 5:8b, Greek OT)

(Solomon said:) “The One who is the Master of all does not ‘dispatch under’/avoid ‘a face’/anyone.” (Wisdom of Solomon 6:7a)


The Latter Revelation:

(Simeon said:) “Master, now You ‘loosen Your slave from’/’let Your slave loose’.” (Luke 2:29a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

This is what the True One, the Holy One, says: ... (Rev 3:7b, “Philadelphia”)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

Dear Master! (Selma Lagerlöf "Brev 1 - 1871-1902" p 258; letter 1901-12-12 to Björnstierne Björnson; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Would You want to send Ibsen a copy of Damaskus and only say these words: Strindberg is ashamed that he as a prominent Swedish author did not take part in the congratulations to the Master, of whom he has learnt much. But he was downhearted and did not think that his congratulations could honour or give pleasure to any man on the earth. (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev XIII sept 1898-dec 1900" p 23-24; letter 1898-10-23 to Gustaf af Geijerstam; Ibsen, who 1898-03-03 had been 70 years old, made in April a journey to Stockholm and became an object of great congratulations; in a statement - reproduced in Malmö-Tidningen 1898-04-15 - Ibsen declared that he with interest had read the works of Strindberg and that he had become profoundly affected by the book Inferno; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

I have adepts in Prussia, Austria, England, Italy and had formerly in Sweden a disciple calling me the Master, and of course he ended as Judas, because he was of a bad character and lived badly. (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev XI maj 1895-nov 1896" p 26; letter 1895-06-07 to Anders Eliasson; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Give me the pleasure with the new year to introduce a more ordinary title when you write to me! Do so! (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev IX 1892-jan 1894" p 374-375; letter 1894-01-27 to Bengt Lidforss; Lidforss began his letters with "Lord and Master", although Strindberg earlier had declined himself such a title; from now on Lidforss in stead writes "Strindberg, Master"; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: H.C. Andersen, Jacob Bircherod, Björnstierne Björnson, August Bondeson, Gunilla Granberg, Carl Grimberg, Susanne Haltiner Nordström, Runer Jonsson, Pär Lagerkvist, Arthur Montgomery, Adam Oehlenschläger, Claes Pettersson, Sven Stolpe, Svend Erik Stybe.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “the Holy One and True One”, see Rev 3:7b. In a restoration perspective we can observe the inversion; “the True One, the Holy One” has become “the Holy and True One”.


You have ointment from the Holy One, and 'you know all ones'/'all of you have knowledge'. (1 John 2:20)


Greek words:

despotês (master) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Wisdom of Solomon 6:7; Luke 2:29; Rev 6:10 – Tobit 3:14; 8:17; Judith 5:20; 7:9; 9:12; 11:10; 2 Macc 5:17; 6:14; 9:13; 14:46; 15:22; Wisdom of Solomon 8:3; 11:26; 13:3,9; Sir 23:1; 34:24(29); 36:1; Epistle of Jeremiah v 5; Susanna v 5(Theod); The Prayer of Azariah v 14; Acts 4:24; 1 Tim 6:1-2; 2 Tim 2:21; Tit 2:9; 1 Pet 2:18; 2 Pet 2:1; Jude v 4.


Additional studies: Matt 21:36; Rev 4:8; 16:5.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-28; 2012-06-20; 2015-02-17)

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6:10bb Till when do You not judge and procure justice for our blood out of the ones dwelling upon the earth?

Word for word (15 words in the Greek text): till when ... not (you)-judge and procure-justice-(for) the blood our out-of the-(ones) dwelling upon the earth?


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

Cain stood up against his brother Abel and killed him. ... And God spoke: "What have you made/done? A voice of your brother's blood cries towards Me out of the earth." (Gen 4:8b,10, Greek OT)

The Lord God spoke to (Cain): "... 'Every the having killed'/'whoever kills' Cain, being procured seven/sevenfold justice he will be 'loosened from the side'/detached." (Gen 4:15a, Greek OT)

Be cheerful, heavens, together (with the Lord) and prostrate before Him (in honour of Him) all sons of God. Be cheerful nations, in company with His people, ... because (the Lord) will procure justice for the blood of His sons … (on) His enemies.” (Deut 32:43a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Jehu:) “You shall destruct wholly the house of Ahab your lord, ‘out of’/’away from’ My face and you shall out of a hand of Jezebel procure justice for the bloods/blood of My slaves the prophets, and for the bloods/blood of all the slaves of the Lord.” (2 Kings 9:7, Greek OT)

(David said to the Lord:) "My soul is extremely troubled. And You, Lord, till when? Turn next to (me), Lord. Deliver my soul, save me ‘with respect to’/’for the sake of’ Your mercy." (Ps 6:3-4 or 6:4-5, Greek OT)

(David said to God:) “You may conquer in 'the thing to be judged Yourself'/'Your judging'.” (Ps 51:4b or 51:6b, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said:) “Till when, Lord? Will You be wrathful into/’up to’ an end? ... Not at any time may the nations speak: ‘Where is their God?’ And let it be gained knowledge in/among the nations in the ‘very eyes’/sight of our eyes of the procuration of justice of the blood of Your slaves, the one's being (and having been) poured out.” (Ps 79:5a,10, Greek OT)

God, a zealot, and the Lord procuring justice, the Lord procuring justice in company with passion, the Lord procuring justice on His adversaries. (Nahum 1:2a, Greek OT)

(Some of the wicked Israelites said to the foreign king:) “Till when may you not make judgment and procure justice for our brothers?” (1 Macc 6:22b, Greek OT)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said: “Israel) sought out every evil thing, till a procuration of justice might come against them.” (Sir 47:25)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said:) “O generation, faithless and having been (and being) turned aside, till when shall I be in company with you, till when shall I hold up/’out with’ you?” (Matt 17:17a)

(Jesus said to the scribes and the Pharisees:) "Against you may come every/all righteous blood being poured out upon the earth from the blood of righteous Abel till the blood of Zechariah * (א*) whom you murdered meanwhile/between the temple and the sacrificial altar. Amen I say to you, all these things will arrive against this generation." (Matt 23:35-36)

(A widow said to a judge:) ”Procure me justice from my opponent!” … (The judge spoke in himself:) “At any rate 'because of'/because this widow 'to offer'/gives me bother, I will procure justice for her ….” And the Lord spoke: “… May not/certainly not God make a procuration of justice o His chosen, of the ones crying to Him day and night, and is (not) He long-suffering on/’for the sake of’ them? I say to you, that He will make the procuration of their justice in/with quickness.” (Luke 18:3b,5-8a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

The Jews so encircled (Jesus) and said to Him: "Till when do You lift/’take away’ our souls?" (John 10:24a)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "And having come that One will convict the adornment/’adorned world’ on account of miss (of the mark of God) and on account of righteousness and on account of judgment; on account of miss (of the mark of God) indeed, that they do not believe into Me." (John 16:8-9)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "These things I have talked (and talk) (with) you, in order that you may have peace in Me. In the adornment/’adorned world’ you have oppression. However, be confident. I have conquered (and conquer) the adornment/’adorned world’." (John 16:33)

(I will * (keep) (א,*א) you) out of the hour of the test, the (hour) being about to come upon the whole (inhabited) world to try the ones dwelling upon the earth. (Rev 3:10b, ”Philadelphia”)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

And so it becomes examination . . . Madicken is allowed to tell about the merciful Samaritan, and him she likes, oh, the one being able to be as good and helpful as he was! Madicken sees all of it as clearly as if she herself had been there on the road between Jerusalem and Jericho. She sees how the Samaritan comes riding finding him bleeding by the roadside, that poor man who the robbers almost have killed, and how the Samaritan then anoints his wounds with oil and wine. . . . Now she knows, what they can play, the play of the Samaritan. . . . At last Lisabet comes down from the attic, absolutely furious. "How long must one sit there and anoint and anoint with wine and paraffin, have you thought", she asks angrily. Lisabet thinks that oil is the same thing as paraffin oil, but so it is not, Madicken declares. "Have you anointed him with paraffin, then (Mattis) does not live all night long." (Astrid Lindgren "Madicken och Junibackens Pims" s 117-118,136; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

One chokes! I wish, that he (Hitler) might be allowed to die alone! I am glad to hear, that he is said to be sleepless and was going to die because of too much sleeping-drug the other night. German ravagings Europe around. Oh, Lord, how long? And all food they take, where they go on. The locusts of Egypt out on the rampage. (Astrid Lindgren "Krigsdagböcker 1939-1945" p 103; 1941-09-06; translation from the Swedish text)

Hatto, the hermit, stood there at the river-bank outside his cave praying the great prayer of his life. He asked God, that he might let the day of the judgment set in over this evil world. He called the trumpetblowing angels, who would proclaim the end of the domination of sin. He called the waves of the bloody sea, waves which would drown the unrighteous ones. He called the plague, which would fill the churchyards with heaps of corpses. . . . "Lord, where are the skies of fire, which laid Sodom waste? When do you open the springs of heaven, which lifted the arch to the top of Ararat? Is not your vat of patience emptied and the bowls of your deed empty? Lord, when do you come out of your breaking heaven?" (Selma Lagerlöf "Legenden om fågelboet" p 7-10; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Gajus: (Peter) is crucified. He, the disciple of the Lord, our firm defence and the support of the church. Erastus: The wild animal has killed the lamb. Alexander: Lord, You being holy and truthful, how long do you not judge and avenge our blood on the ones living on the earth? Gajus: Away with that talking! "Father forgive them, for they do not know what they do!" (August Strindberg "Lammet och vilddjuret" p 221-222; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

David ... suffered persecution from Saul for righteousness' sake, and fled from King Saul, and would not avenge himself of his enemy. (Irenaeus, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol I, p 498)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Albert Camus, Leif Carlsson, Runar Eldebo, T.S. Eliot, Hilding Fagerberg, Carl Grimberg, Hans Hallebo, David Hedegård, Verner von Heidenstam, Alf Henrikson, Olof Hermelin, Ulla Isaksson, Bernhard J:son Ernestam, Liselotte Johansson, Erik Axel Karlfeldt, Lars Levi Laestadius, Martin Luther, Vilhelm Moberg, Petrus M. Nicander, Fredrik Nielsen, Torsten Nilsson, John Ongman, Harald Rasmussen, Laurence Rees, Giorgos Seferis, Bo Setterlind, Sven Stolpe, Nathan Söderblom, Einar Thomassen, Anton Tjechov, Gustaf Ullman, P. Waldenström, Paul Wern.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “the ones who dwell upon the earth ”, see Rev 3:10b.


Greek words:

ekdikeô (procure justice) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) 1 Macc 6:22; Luke 18:3,5; Rev 6:10 – Judith 1:12; 2:1; 6:5; 7:28; 8:27; 16:17; 1 Macc 9:26; 15:21; 2 Macc 6:15; Sir 12:8; 23:21; 39:30; 46:1; Rom 12:19; 2 Cor 10:6; Rev 19:2.


Additional studies:

Gen 15:8; Num 31:2; 1 Sam 24:13; 2 Sam 2:26; Ps 90:13; 119:84; Zech 1:12; Jer 5:9,29; 9:9; Hab 1:2-4; Matt 23:33; 24:2-3; Mark 9:19; Luke 9:41; 13:1-2; Acts 10:42; Rom 2:16; 2 Thess 1:6-7; Heb 10:30; Rev 8:13; 11:10,18; 13:8,14; 16:5; 17:8; 18:20,24.


Joel Nobel Musvosi "The concept of vengeance in the book of Revelation in its Old Testament and Near Eastern context"; Andrews University Seminary Studies 26.1 (Spring 1988): 83-84.

Grant R. Osborne "Theodicy in the Apocalypse"; Trinity Journal 14.1 (1993): 63-77.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-28; 2012-06-20; 2015-02-17)

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6:11a And it was given to them, everyone, a white dress.

Word for word (6 words in the Greek text): and (it)-was-given (to)-them everyone (a)-dress white.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Judas) cleanses his dress in wine and his wrapper in blood of a grape. (Gen 49:11b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Moses:) “You shall make a holy dress to Aaron, your brother, into/’for the purpose of’ honour and glory.” (Ex 28:2, Greek OT)

David being/was girded around in a dress of fine linen ... and against/on David a dress of fine linen. (1 Chron 15:27, Greek OT)

(Haman) spoke towards the king: “A man whom the king wants to glorify, let the boys of the king carry a dress of fine linen, which the king is wrapped up in.” (Esther 6:7-8a, Greek OT)

(Solomon said:) “God has already been pleased with your pieces of workmanship. In every seasonable time let your garments stand/be white.” (Eccl 9:7b-8a, Greek OT)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said: “The king) says to his slaves: ‘The wedding banquet is indeed ready, but the ones being (and having been) called were (continually) not worthy.’ … Having come in to view the ones lying up/’down to table’, (the king) beheld there a man having not been (and being not) set/clothed in clothes of wedding banquet. And he says to him: ‘Comrade, how did you come in here not having clothes of wedding banquet?’ But 'the one'/he was gagged/nonplussed.” (Matt 22:8,11-12)

(Jesus') garments became glittering, exceedingly white, such as a fuller upon the earth is not able to whiten in this way. (Mark 9:3)

Having come into, into the memorial tomb, (the women) beheld a little young man being seated in the right (parts), being (and having been) wrapped up in a white dress. (Mark 16:5a)

The father spoke towards his slaves: “Quickly carry out the first/best dress and ‘set in’/clothe (my younger son).” (Luke 15:22a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(The ones who have not stained their garments) will walk about in company with Me in white (things), because they are worthy. The one conquering will in this way be wrapped up in white garments. (Rev 3:4b-5a)

I give you counsel to buy from the side of Me . . . white garments, in order that you may wrap up yourself in (them) and (that) the shame of your nakedness may not be made visible. (Rev 3:18a)

(Elders) being (and having been) wrapped up in white (things) (א,*א) and (with) golden crowns against their heads. (Rev 4:4b)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: Rudolf Björkman, Barthold Carlson, Sven Danell, E.J. Ekman, Magnus Gustafsson, Alf Henrikson, Gustaf Linder, Viktor Rydberg, Sigfrid Svensson.


My own comments and speculations:

The white garments in Rev 3:5 have here in Rev 6:11 become dresses. Concerning “white”, see also Rev 3:4b-5a.


Greek words:

stolê (dress) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Esther 6:8; Mark 16:5; Luke 15:22; Rev 6:11 – Esther 6:11; 8:15; Judith 10:7; 1 Macc 6:15; 10:21; 14:9; 2 Macc 3:15; 5:2; Sir 6:31; 45:10; 50:11; Baruch 4:20; Mark 12:38; Luke 20:46; Rev 7:9,13-14; 22:14


Additional studies:

Gen 27:15; 2 Chron 18:9; Is 61:10; Ezek 16:39; Dan 7:9; Zech 3:4-5; Matt 16:27; Rev 1:13; 2:23.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-29; 2012-06-20; 2015-02-17)

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6:11ba And it was spoken to them, in order that they might (א,* א) ‘be brought to rest’/rest still a small/little time.

Word for word (8 words in the Greek text): and (it)-was-spoken (to)-them in-order-that (they)-might-be-brought-to-rest still (a)-time small/little.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

Jacob went into earth/land of upstickings/east. ... And he beholds, and behold, a well in the plain, but/and there were (continually) three little flocks of sheep being brought to rest upon it. (Gen 29:1b-2a, Greek OT)

(Moses said to the people:) “The Lord will wage war on account of you, and you will be silent.” (Ex 14:14, Greek OT)

(David said to the leaders of Israel:) “Is by no means the Lord in company with you? ... ‘In a circle from’/’all around’ He has brought you to rest.” (1 Chron 22:18a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) “The unrighteous ones will be tossed about by the waves, and they will not be able to ‘be brought’/come to rest.” (Is 57:20, Greek OT)

(The man set/clothed in linen said to the prophet:) “You will be brought to rest and stand up against your glory into a consummation of days.” (Dan 12:13b, Greek OT)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said:) “Come here towards Me, all being bothered and being (and having been) burdened, and I will bring you to rest.”(Matt 11:28)

(Jesus) said to (His disciples): “Come here you yourselves 'according to the own thing'/'by yourselves' into a desolate place and ‘be brought’/come to rest few/’a little’.” (Mark 6:31a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

Jesus so spoke: “Still a small/little time I am in company with you. And I withdraw towards the One having sent Me.” (John 7:33)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

The verb (“rest” i Matt 11.28) ... belongs to the terminology of Jewish apocalyptic (Rev. 6.11; 14.13; Mt. 12.43). It is in the Kingdom, and through attachment to Jesus, that the faithful will find their rest. The future tense (in Matt 11.28) indicates, not a distant prospect, or a rest in the beyond, but the rest which those who follow Jesus will immediately find. (David Hill "The Gospel of Matthew" p 208)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Sven Danell, Gunnar Ekelöf, Martin Luther, H.M. Melin, Vilhelm Moberg, Carl Olof Rosenius.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “still a small/little time”, see also John 7:32-34.


Greek words:

anapauô (bring to rest) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Matt 11:28; Mark 6:31; Rev 6:11 – Esther 9:16-18,22; Sir 3:6; 18:16; 22:11; 31:21; 38:23; 40:6; 47:23; Matt 26:45; Mark 14:41; Luke 12:19; 1 Cor 16:18; 2 Cor 7:13; Philemon v 7,20; 1 Pet 4:14; Rev 14:13.


Additional studies: John 12:35; 13:33; 2 Thess 1:7; Heb 4:10.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-29; 2012-06-20; 2015-02-17)

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6:11bb ... till they will complete (א,* א), and/both their together-/fellow-slaves and their brothers, the ones being about to be slain as and/also they (themselves).

Word for word (16 words in the Greek text): till (they)-will-complete and the fellow-slaves and the brothers their the-(ones) being-about-to be-slain as and they-(themselves).


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

Tattenai … (and) Shethar-bozenai and his together-/fellow-slaves made/did carefully what Darius the king had ‘sent away’/ordered (concerning the continued work with the completion of the house of God). (Ezra 6:13b, Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) "I heard the one being (and having been) wrapped up in the things of fine linen, who (continually) was above the water of the river: 'Till a consummation of a seasonable time.' And he heightened the right hand and the left into the heaven." (Dan 12:7a, Greek OT)

(Tobias said:) ”A little demon slays (the males given to the bride).” (Tobit 6:14b, S)

(Judas spoke to the people.) Still (at his) completing a (military unit) was beheld … out of the mountain. (1 Macc 4:19)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "Do not fear from the ones slaying the body but being not able to kill the soul; but rather fear the One being able to perish and/both soul and body in Gehenna." (Matt 10:28)

Having come out that slave (who had got his debt forgiven) found one of his together-/fellow-slaves ... saying (to him): “Give back if you are indebted anything!” So having fallen/’fallen down’ his together-/fellow-slave (continually/repeatedly) called him to the side of (himself) saying: “Be long-suffering on/’for the sake of’ me, and I will give you back.” ... (But he) threw/put him into a watch/custody. ... So having beheld the things having become his together-/fellow-slaves ... made clear throughout to their lord all things having become. ... His lord says to him: ... Did you not and/also you (continually/repeatedly) have to have mercy on your together-/fellow-slave, as and/also I had mercy on you.” (Matt 18:28-33)

(The lord of the vineyard) dispatched away another (slave), and that one (the farmers) killed, and many others, indeed flaying whom/some but/and slaying whom/some. (Mark 12:5)

But since (Jesus) had completed all His words into/’purposed for’ the hearsays of the people, He came into, into Capharnaum. (Luke 7:1)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

I, John, your brother and a companion together with (you) in the oppression (and a kingdom and an endurance in Jesus. (Rev 1:9a)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

(The German shopkeeper) Knipperdolling again sat down. "How have you thought yourself", he went on, "that it possibly will go us anabaptists as it turned out for the villeins in Germany? . . . We are for the most part craftsmen and poor people and have not many horses and cuirass to put against the banners of the others. It is of course possible, that we experience the victory, but also possible, that it is late for a hundred, two hundred, many hundred years. Will your eagerness be cooled down at the thought of such a delay?" "Not at all", (master Gudmund's overseer) Klase answered. "I just the reverse do not without joy expect that we will get many martyrs to increase the crowd of the holy ones, who, when the fifth seal is broken, cry in a loud voice: 'How long, you holy and truthful Lord, do you wait to judge and to claim our blood of the ones dwelling on the earth?" To them and us it is, as you know, said that we are to patiently bide until the number of the blood witnesses has become full. We fight, to be sure, less for us than for the succeeding ones within the holy Christianity. (Viktor Rydberg "Vapensmeden" p 85; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Lars Levi Laestadius, Martin Luther, Erich Sauer.


(Paul said to the believers in Colossae:) “All things ‘according to’/concerning me, Tychicus, our welcomed brother and faithful servant and together-/fellow-slave in a lord, will give you knowledge.” (Col 4:7)


Greek words:

apoktennô (slay) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Tobit 6:14; Matt 10:28; Mark 12:5; Rev 6:11 – Tobit 6:15; Wisdom of Solomon 16:14; 2 Cor 3:6.

syndoulos (together-slave) Ezra 6:13; Matt 18:28-29,31,33; 24:49; Col 4:7; Rev 6:11 – Ezra 4:7,9,17,23; 5:3,6; 6:6; Col 1:7; Rev 19:10; 22:9.


Additional studies:

Matt 24:48-50; 2 Tim 4:8; Heb 11:40.


Beate Kowalski "Martyrdom and Resurrection in the Revelation to John"; Andrews University Seminary Studies 10.1 (Jan. 1972): 55-64.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-29; 2012-06-27; 2015-02-18)

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6:12a And I beheld, when It opened the sixth seal, and it became a great shaking.

Word for word (12 words in the Greek text): And (i/I)-beheld when (it)-opened the seal the sixth, and (a)-shaking great (it)-became.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The prophet said:) “A voice of a hearsay! Behold, it comes, and a great shaking.” (Jer 10:22a, Greek OT)


The Latter Revelation:

And behold, it became a great shaking in the sea. (Matt 8:24a)

Likewise and/also (with) the second and the third till the seventh. (Matt 22:26)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “They/there will be great shakings and ‘according to places’/'in one place after another' famines and plagues, both/furthermore frightful things and it/there will be great signs from heaven.” (Luke 21:11)

All at once it became a great shaking, so that the bases of the prison moved to and fro. But/and immediately all the doors were opened and all the bands were loosened up(א*). (Acts 16:26)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

And I beheld, when the little Ram opened one out of the seven seals. (Rev 6:1a)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

(1904 October) 23:e. Earthquake over all Sweden, the district of Kristiania and Jutland, but not in Copenhagen. Panic most in church during the service. . . . (Newspaper article:) Except on the south part of the Scandinavian peninsula the earthquakes have been observed in Denmark and the North of Germany and in the Baltic provinces. . . . The earthquake the 23rd of October was the most powerful having ever in historical time happened in the Scandinavian countries. (August Strindberg "Ockulta dagboken" p 215,220; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

I walked with light steps to the post office - there I found a letter with 5 or if it was six sealing-waxes, I do not dare to say. . . . When I came home . . . I broke with certain uneasiness the 6th seal and see - there was a letter from Hedberg held in a very kind tone. (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev I 1858-1876" p 44; letter 1870-10-08 to Strindberg's cousin Johan Oscar Strindberg; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Alkibiades: Do I see right, the skeleton moves! . . . Pericles: Keep quiet! The candles move on the table! Phidias: The salt-cellar moves. . . . Protagoras: The table totters . . . what is it? Euripides: And the sofa swings. . . . Socrates (rises): A god is near! The ground shakes, and I hear . . . Does the thunder roll? - No! - It is an earthquake. . . . I was five years old when Sparta was earthquaked, twenty thousand men died and only six houses remained! It was Sparta! Now it is Athene! Yes friends, a voice says me: before a man has reached maturity we are shot away as small birds. (August Strindberg "Hellas" p 92-93; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Lars Ahlberg, Carl Grimberg, Marianne Herrlin, Gerhard Johansson, Viktor Johansson, Sven Lidman, J.E. Lundahl, Richard Newton, Göran Palm, G.E. Söderberg, F. Voltaire.


Greek words:

seismos (shaking) (in the NT + one example in the Apocrypha) Matt 8:24; Luke 21:11; Acts 16:26; Rev 6:12 – Esther 1:1d(A4); Matt 24:7; 27:54; 28:2; Mark 13:8; Rev 8:5; 11:13,19; 16:18.


Additional studies:

Is 29:6-7; Ezek 38:19; Joel 2:10.


Jan Lambrecht "The Opening of the Seals (Rev 6:1-8:6)"; Biblica 79 (1998): 198-221.

Andrew E. Steinmann "The Tripartite structure of the sixth seal, the sixth trumpet and the sixth bowl of John's Apocalypse (Rev 6:12-7:17, 9:13-11-14, 16:12-16)"; Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 35.1 (March 1992): 69-79.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-29; 2012-06-27; 2015-02-18)

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6:12b-13a And the sun became black as a sack of hair, and the whole moon became as blood and the stars of the heaven fell against (א,* א) the earth.

Word for word: 6:12b (15 words in the Greek text; the sequence of the words according to Sinaiticus) and the sun black became as (a)-sack (of)-hair and the moon whole became as blood. 6:13a (9 words in the Greek text) and the stars (of)-the (of)-heaven fell against the earth


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The Lord said to Moses:) “You shall make a shelter of skin of hair upon the tent. (Ex 26:7a, Greek OT)

(The prophet said concerning Babylon:) “Behold, for a day of the Lord ... comes (with) passion and wrath to put/make the whole (inhabited) world desolate, and to perish the missers (of the mark of God) out of it. For the stars of the heaven ... and every/all the adornment of the heaven will not give the light and the sun sticking up will be gloomed, and the moon will not give its light.” (Is 13:9-10, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) “I shall set/clothe the heaven in darkness, and I will put/make its cloak as a sack.” (Is 50:3a, Greek OT)

(The horn) will be heightened till the stars of the heaven, and (some) from/of the stars fell (Theod) against the earth. (Dan 8:10a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) “I shall give omens in the heaven and upon the earth, blood and fire and hazes of smoke. The sun will be turned about into darkness and the moon into blood before the great and conspicuous day of the Lord come/comes.” (Joel 2:30-31, Greek OT)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples: “Straightaway after the great oppression) the sun will be gloomed, and the moon will not give its splendour, and the stars will fall out of (א,* א) the heaven, and the abilities/powers of the heavens will move to and fro.” (Matt 24:29b)

(Jesus said:) "Woe to you, Chorazin, woe to you, Bethsaida, because if the abilities/’works of ability’ having become/’come about’ in you had been become/made in Tyre and Sidon, they had - according to the circumstances - changed their minds long ago, being seated in sack and ashes.” (Luke 10:13)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Signs will be in sun and moon and constellations.” (Luke 21:25a)

The sun will be turned about into darkness and the moon into blood, before the great * (א,*א) day of the Lord come/comes. (Acts 2:20)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

His head and His hairs/hair (were) white as white wool, as snow. (Rev 1:14a)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

"If (the people) saw the miracle, would their eyes be opened?" (Borg asked). "Perhaps! If the wonder inspired with fear", (Maria answered). "Well, so they will get the wonder! Tomorrow at ten o'clock the omen will happen!" . . . (The following morning) they saw the people gathered together at the capes of the harbour. . . . Having come out on the hill, the women stopped like panic-stricken, when they in the clear and sunny morning saw a deathly pale colossal moon rise over a cemetary with black cypresses swimming on the surface of the sea. . . . The fact is, you see, that the intended marble palace of the manager had unintentionally become set in an advanced bending rock wall on the one side and on the other by a top of a pine tree, so that the slab of lime showed itself circular and with the too faintly painted windows imitating the map of the moon slab. The people having been given notice about the event of the wonder at the appointed time, as promised by the manager, looked at the appearing man with frightened but reverent eyes. . . . The matter already had got a precarious turn, and the manager resorted all his skill to explain the involuntary wonder, but in vain. . . . (The preacher) took up a Bible out of his pocket . . . reading: "And I looked when He broke the sixth seal. . . . The whole moon became like blood. And the stars of the sky fell to the earth. . . . Hide us from the presence of Him who sits on the throne, and from the wrath of the Lamb; for the great day of their wrath has come and who is able to stand?" (August Strindberg "I havsbandet" p 116-122; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

(Jönköping) trembled still (in the year 1835) in the memory of the passed year. Many thought, that the epidemic was an omen about the last judgment. Once, when it was spoken about those days in August, the bible with the big buckles was taken up, and it was read about a black horse and his rider, whose name was Death, about the fall of stars from the sky and a day of wrath, which is approaching. It was also read out of another book, which first leaf showed with black ground a star shimmering in yellow and red in an envelope of fume, which was lengthened and likened a train. The word "the comet" often was named. In the evenings people stood in groups on the street. They talked seeing towards the sky. "The comet is seen clearly", the servant of the house said one evening, short before bedtime. She took the boy's hand leading him out. It was still not night-dark, but here and there stars twinkled in the dark blue, and among them the star with the train appeared. Many was outside beholding the omen. "The comet now is larger than yesterday", one said. Another said: "If some days and nights he is so large, that he covers the sky." People spoke about the burning of the world and the last day. Otherwise, when they after ended day's work gathered outside the doors of the houses, they used to joke and laugh. Now the men looked serious. Something heavy and oppressed was over them. (Viktor Rydberg "Från barndomen" p 112-113; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Svetlana Aleksijevitj, Elisabeth Bergstrand-Poulsen, Kåre Boberg, C. Brockelmann, Linné Eriksson, Dawid Friberg, Carl Grimberg, Verner von Heidenstam, Alf Henrikson, Ludvig Holstein, Erik Axel Karlfeldt, Viktor Kuprevitj, Lars Levi Laestadius, Sigurd Lindgren, Mo Yan, Fredrik Nielsen, Harry Sjöman, Anton Tjechov, Maksimilian Volosjin, P. Waldenström.


Greek words:

sakkos (sack) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Luke 10:13; Rev 6:12 – Esther 4:1-4; Judith 4:10-12,14; 8:5; 9:1; 10:3; 1 Macc 2:14; 3:47; 2 Macc 3:19; 10:25; Baruch 4:20; Matt 11:21; Rev 11:3.

selênê (moon) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Matt 24:29; Luke 21:25; Acts 2:20; Rev 6:12 – Sir 27:11; 43:6-7; Epistle of Jeremiah v 59,66; The Prayer of Azariah v 39; Mark 13:24; 1 Cor 15:41; Rev 8:12; 12:1; 21:23.

trichinos (of hair) Ex 26:7; Rev 6:12 – Zech 13:4.


Additional studies: Gen 37:34; 2 Kings 1:8; 19:2; Is 34:2-4; 37:2; 58:5; Joel 2:10; 3:15; Amos 8:9; Matt 5:36; Mark 13:25; Luke 21:11; Rev 8:10,12; 9:1.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-29; 2012-06-27; 2015-02-18)

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6:13b ... as a fig tree, throwing/shedding (א,* א) its late figs being shaken under/by a great wind.

Word for word (10 words in the Greek text): as (a)-fig-tree throwing the late-figs its under (a)-wind great being-shaken.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(When the first men had missed the mark of God) the eyes of the two were opened throughout, and they gained knowledge, that they (continually) were naked. And they sewed leaves of a fig tree and made themselves (clothes) girded (them) around. (Gen 3:7, Greek OT)

The bases of the heaven were troubled together/utterly and were rended in pieces, because (the Lord) was passionate (for the sake of the enemies of David). (2 Sam 22:8b, Greek OT)

(Solomon said to the woman:) “Behold, the storm ‘has come by the side of’/’is past’ … The fig-tree has ‘carried out of’/shed its late figs.” (Song of Solomon 2:11a,13a, Greek OT)

(With) the hard spirit/wind (the Lord) (of) a spirit of passion take/took up (Israel) for Himself. (Is 27:8b, Greek OT)

All the constellations, it will fall … as it falls leaves from a fig tree. (Is 34:4b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) “A spirit/wind of ‘making full’/complement will arrive (with) Me. But/and now I talk judicial verdicts towards (Judas and Jerusalem).” (Jer 4:12, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Nineveh:) “All your forts (are) fig trees having guardians. If – according to the circumstances – they may move to and fro, they/’the fruits’ will fall into mouth of an eating one.” (Nah 3:12, Greek OT)

The earth was shaken against its dwelling ones, and every house of Jacob was set/clothed in shame. (1 Macc 1:28)

(Solomon said: “A wicked one) will move to and fro by a wind ... (Wisdom of Solomon 4:4b)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “Behold the heaven and the heaven of the heaven, abyss and earth, to and fro they will move in/at the visitation (of the Lord). Together/’at the same time’ the mountains and the bases of the earth are shaken together into/’for the purpose of’ the same trembling ‘in the thing to see’/’when He sees’ on/over (them).” (Sir 16:18-19)


The Latter Revelation:

On (Jesus') having come into, into (a disgraced) Jerosolyma/Jerusalem, every/all the city was shaken. (Matt 21:10a)

Having beheld one fig tree (alone) upon the way, (Jesus) came against it and did not find anything in it, ‘if not’/except leaves only, and He says to it: “Oh that (א,* א) it may not become fruit out of you any longer into the (coming) age.” And immediately the fig tree was dried. (Matt 21:19)

The ones keeping (watch) were shaken from/for the fear of (the messenger of the Lord) and became as dead (bodies). (Matt 28:4)

(Jesus said to His disciples: “After the great oppression) the stars will be falling/’falling down’ out of the heaven, and the abilities/powers, the ones in the heavens, will move to and fro.” (Mark 13:25)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

Nathanael says to (Jesus): "From where have You knowledge of me?" Jesus answered and spoke to him: "Before Philip ‘to raise’/raised his voice (towards) you being underneath the fig tree, I beheld you." (John 1:48)

Jesus said to (Nathanael): "Because I spoke to you that I beheld you below the fig tree, you believe. You will behold greater things than these." (John 1:50)

Both/further the sea (continually) was aroused of/’because of’ (the) great/strong wind (which was) blowing. (John 6:18)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

In Uppsala at the same time as the publication of "Röda Rummet" a student had risen with an enthusiasm which was unexpected in such a sceptical period, and he had spoken for the suffering mankind, with the consequence that the food stuck all the persons celebrating the anniversary in their throats. It became a new terrible outcry - and a new reaction! I thought and worked. Perhaps the fruit was not ripe when I shook the tree 1879, I thought. Perhaps it has got ripe now! Autumn 1883 "Det Nya Riket" was published. I shook hard that time and now the apples fell down, so that it clattered in the ground; wormeaten, fully riped, yes, some of them entirely rotten! And that many struck me on my head I need not add. (August Strindberg "Den litterära reaktionen i Sverige" p 349; deleted section; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Eskil Källquist, Viktor Rydberg, Henryk Siekiewicz, Tomas Tranströmer, Derek Walcott.


Greek words:

olynthos (late fig) Song of Solomon 2:13; Rev 6:13.

seiô (shake) (in the NT + one example in the Apocrypha) 1 Macc 1:28; Matt 21:10; 28:4; Rev 6:13 – Matt 27:51; Heb 12:26.


Additional studies: Ps 148:8; Is 28:4; Jer 8:16; 24:2; 29:17; Hos 9:10; Joel 1:7; Jonah 1:4; Matt 14:24; 21:20-21; 24:29,32-33; Mark 11:13-14,20-21; 13:28; Luke 13:6-9; 21:29-30; Jas 3:12.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-29; 2012-06-27; 2015-02-18)

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6:14a And the heaven was ’separated away from’/separated, being wound as a scroll (א,*א).

Word for word (7 words in the Greek text): and the heaven was-separated-away-from as (a)-scroll being-wound


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

The heaven will be wound as a scroll. (Is 34:4a, Greek OT)

(The male said to the prophet: "The Levitical priests) shall take the young bull, the one on account of miss (of the mark of God), and burn (it) down in the (place) having been (and being) separated away of/from the house ‘from outside of’/outside the holy things.” (Ezek 43:21, Greek OT)


The Latter Revelation:

A scroll of the prophet Isaiah was 'given on'/'handed to' (Jesus). (And He unfolded it). (Luke 4:17a)

It became a sharp disagreement (between Paul and Barnabas), so that 'to be separated them'/'they were separated' away from one another. (Acts 15:39a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

Jesus so indeed and/also made many other signs in the very eyes of His disciples, (signs) which it is not being (and not having been) written in this scroll. (John 20:30)

(The voice said to John): “Write into a scroll what you see.” (Rev 1:11a)

(John beheld) a scroll being (and having been) written in front of (א,* א) and from behind. … (Rev 5:1b)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

“The very heaven shall be rolled together as a scroll;” nay, it shall come to nothing along with the earth itself, with which it was made in the beginning. (Tertullian, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol III, p 496)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Werner Aspenström, Bob Dylan, Bo Frid, Enock H. Skooglund, Jesper Svartvik.


Greek words:

apochôrizô (separate away from) Ezek 43:21; Acts 15:39; Rev 6:14.

(h)elissô (wind) Is 34:4; Rev 6:14 – Job 18:8.


Additional studies: Ps 102:26(27); 104:2; Is 40:22; 2 Pet 3:10; Rev 20:11; 21:1.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-29; 2012-06-27; 2015-02-18)

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6:14b And every mountain and hill (א,* א) were stirred out of their places.

Word for word (10 words in the Greek text): and every mountain and hill out-of the places their were-stirred-out.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Deborah and Barak sang:) “Mountains moved to and fro from face of the Lord, this Sinai from face of the Lord, the God of Israel.” (Judges 5.5, Greek OT, A)

(The Lord said to Judas:) “The mountains will (not) be substituted/removed, nor your hills will depart, in this way nor the mercy from the side of Me will ‘leave out’/disappear.”(Is 54:10a, Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) “I beheld the mountains, and they (continually) were quivering. And all the hills (were) troubled/’stirred up’.” (Jer 4:24, Greek OT)

(The Assyrians) came out of mountains ... and their cavalry veiled/covered hills. (Judith 16:3)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “Behold the heaven and the heaven of the heaven, abyss and earth, to and fro they will move in/at the visitation (of the Lord). Together/’at the same time’ the mountains and the bases of the earth are shaken together into/’for the purpose of’ the same trembling ‘in the thing to see’/’when He sees’ on/over (them).” (Sir 16:18-19)

Bless the Lord, mountains and hills. (The Prayer of Azariah v 52a)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus) says to (His disciples:) “For because of your ‘a few’/little faith, amen I say to you: ‘If – according to the circumstances – you may have faith as a scarlet kernel of mustard, you will speak to this mountain: ‘Step ‘in from’/’from here’ over there’, and it will step over, and nothing will be unable to you.” (Matt 17:20)

(Jesus said to the crowds and to His disciples: “The scribes and the Pharisees) do not want to stir (the weighty loads on men's shoulders with) their finger.” (Matt 23:4b)

(Jesus said to the daughters of Jerusalem: “Men) will began to say to the mountains: ‘Fall against us’ and to the hills: ‘Veil us.’” (Luke 23:30)

(Tertullus said about Paul: “We have found) this male a plague ... stirring a standing/resistance (among) all the Jews.” (Acts 24:5a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

Recollect so from where you have fallen (and fall) and change your mind and make/do the first works. But if not, I come to you and I will stir your lampstand out of its place, if you – according to the circumstances – may not change your mind. (Rev 2:5, “Ephesos”)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: Victor Hugo.


Greek words:

bounos (hill) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Judith 16:3; The Prayer of Azariah v 52; Luke 23:30; Rev 6:14 – Luke 3:5.


Additional studies: Num 23:9; Judges 5:4; Ps 18:7(8); Is 5:25; 13:13; 33:20; 40:4; 64:1,3; Hos 10:8; Nahum 1:5; Judith 16:15; Sir 16:19; 43:16; Rev 16:20.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-29; 2012-06-27; 2015-02-19)

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6:15aa And the kings of the earth and the great men and the leaders of a thousand (men) …

Word for word (11 words in the Greek text): and the kings (of)-the (of)-earth and the great-men and the leaders-of-a-thousand


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The father-in-law Jethro said to Moses:) "You will be entirely ruined ... you and every/all this people, who are in company with you. This word (to judge between a man and his neighbour) is weighty to you. You will not be able to make/do it alone. So now hear Me and I will give you counsel, and God will be in company with you. Become you to the people the things towards God. ... And you will be able to stand by the side of, and every/all this people also will arrive into their place in company with peace. ... And Moses ‘said at’/named able males from every/all Israel and made them ... leaders of a thousand (men) and of a hundred (men) and of fifty (men) and of ten (men)." (Ex 18:18b-19a,23b,25a, Greek OT)

(The king of the Chaldeans) carried all the heaps/treasures of (the) king (of Judas) and of great men into, into Babylon. (2 Chron 36:18b, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said:) "The kings of the earth stood ‘by the side of’/near and the leaders were led together ... ‘down from’/against the Lord and ‘down from’/against His Anointed (Christ)." (Ps 2:2a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to His Son.) “You will be a shepherd to (the kings of the earth) in/with a rod of iron (and) crush them as a vessel of a potter.” (Ps 2:9, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said:) “I will put/make (David, My slave), a first-born, high ‘by the side of’/’in comparison with’ the kings of the earth.” (Ps 89:27 or 89:28, Greek OT)

A day of the Lord of hosts (will come) against every insolent and overweening (one), against every/everyone (being) high and aloft, and they will be humbled. (Is 2:12, Greek OT)

(In that day) the Lord will lead (His) hand against, against the adornment of the heaven and against the kings of the earth. (Is 24:21, Greek OT)

The leaders (of the earth) will not be, for its kings and its leaders and its great men will be/come into perdition. (Is 34:12, Greek OT)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said:) “What does it seem to you, Simon? From whom do the kings of the earth take ends/toll or tax, from their sons or from the aliens?” (Matt 17:25b)

Having become a seasonable day ... Herod made a chief meal for his great men and for the leaders of a thousand (men) and for the first ones of Galilee. (Mark 6:21)

The kings of the earth stood ‘by the side of’/near and the leaders were led together ... ‘down from’/against the Lord and ‘down from’/against His Anointed (Christ). (Acts 4:26)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

The cohort and “the leader of a thousand (men)” and the rowers/servants of the Jews took so together Jesus and bound Him. (John 18:12)

(Joybringing grace and peace) from Jesus Christ, the faithful witness, the first-born of the dead (bodies) and the leader of the kings of the earth. (Rev 1:5a)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

(Nathan Söderblom), the archbishop, is very human, it is for that reason he really is charming, and he was angry and forgot himself, he also. I want to say about the archbishop that he probably has the makings of a great man. He has such a great thought, "kungstanken" (the leading idea), as Ibsen says, he is strong, indefatigable, he can enchant, he never is so free and easy as when several thousand men have their eyes on him, he is rather regardless of other people, this is a very characteristic quality of a great man. He could be prime minister in England and yes, I think, that if anyone will be able to unite Christianity, it will be he. But never think, that he is not also very human and makes many blunders. (Selma Lagerlöf "Brev 2 - 1903-1940" p 228; letter 1925-11-12 to Elise Malmros; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

An author with the conviction that he benefits does not care whether he is regarded great or not, (least of all an author who does not think any thing is so great) but he restricts himself to be useful. (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev IV 1884" p 376; letter 1884-11-07 to Olof Gustav Nilsson; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

(Björnstjerne Björnson) travels through all big towns in Scandinavia and is everywhere greeted as a triumphator. Nature had richly endowed him with all the merits which an average person never would manage to acquire with a whole life of work and trouble. Born with caul, which popular belief wants that all their heroes must be, strong and shapely, with majestic bodily structure, into possession of a pliable and powerful voice, he knew to get quite an enchanted auditorium in tension and emotion, to get the audience to laugh or weep. . . . Until now Björnson is victorious without dispute. (August Strindberg "Björnstjerne Björnson" p 111; Tiden 1884-07-09 and 1884-07-10; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Our time has left to the ones being astern to find out whether men are great or not; itself she does not want to judge, but only explain, and this not at least because one by observations of long duration and deep-going mental activity thought oneself have found that the work of the individual "great man" is a co-operation of the whole living and all the dead generations together. To communicate pictures of famous ones will for a coming generation only have the intention to show in what relation their works can stand to the personality as far as this has find expression in the face, the position and movement of the body and so on. (August Strindberg "Carl Larsson - Ett svenskt porträtt med fransk bakgrund" p 28; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

If (Leonardo da Vinci) in the gallery of great men stands unattained in the manysidedness of the genius, however he does not stand alone. He is "the first of peers". In order to hold us only to the circle of artists - who does not remember Michel Angelo and Peter Paul Rubens? (Viktor Rydberg "En underbar man - Leonardo da Vinci" p 77; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Carl Allgén, Ingvar Andersson, Henrik Berg, George W. Bush, Fredrik Böök, Barthold Carlson, Allan Ellenius, Henrik Elmgren, Carl von Feilitzen, Bo Frid, Lennart Gustavsson, Dick Harrison, Alf Henrikson, Folke Holmér, Kazuo Ishiguro, Hans Jacobsson, Eyvind Johnson, Carl J. Kullenbergh, Olle Larsson, Sven Larsson, Magnus Lehnberg, Jon Meacham, Vilhelm Moberg, Karl Modin, Bertil Nordenstam, John Samuelson, Harry Sjöman, Sven Stolpe, Ingrid Sundström, Jesper Svartvik, Gunnel Swärd, Kjell Swärd, Leo Tolstoj, P. Waldenström.


Greek words:

megistan (great man) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Mark 6:21; Rev 6:15 – Judith 2:2; 5:22; 1 Macc 9:37; Sir 8:8; 10:24; 11:1; 20:27-28; 23:14; 28:14; 32:9; 33:19; 38:3; 39:4; Rev 18:23.


Additional studies: Ps 110:5; Dan 3:2; Rev 18:23; 19:18.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-29; 2012-06-27; 2015-02-19)

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6:15ab … and the rich and the stable and every slave and every (א*) free (man) …

Word for word (12 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus prima manus): and the rich-(ones) and the stable-(ones) and every slave and every free-(man)


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The Lord said to Moses/Israel:) “If you – according to the circumstances – may acquire a Hebrew boy, he shall be a slave to you (for) six years, but (in) the seventh year he shall go away (as) a free (man) (as) a benefit.” (Ex 21:2, Greek OT)

The (ten) men, the ones having ascended together in company with (Caleb to Canaan) spoke that/: “We do not ascend, because we - according to the circumstances - may not/certainly not be able to ascend towards the nation, because it is more stable rather/than us.” (Num 13:31 or 13:32, Greek OT)

(The king of Babylon) led the stable ones of the earth away from home out of Jerusalem into Babylon. (2 Kings 24:15b, Greek OT)

(Solomon said:) “The one having ‘been (and is) persuaded’/’relied (and relies)’ on riches, this one will fall.” (Prov 11:28a, Greek OT)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said:) “What does it seem to you, Simon? From whom do the kings of the earth take ends/toll or tax, from their sons or from the aliens?” … Jesus uttered to him: “Consequently the sons are at any rate free (men).” (Matt 17:25b,26b)

(Jesus said:) “Woe to you, the rich ones.” (Luke 6:24a)

(Jesus said:) "When – according to the circumstances - the stable one, having been (and being) armed, may watch the 'of himself'/own court, his ‘things beginning under’/properties are in peace. But since – according to the circumstances – a more stable than he is (א*) having come against (him), may conquer him, he lifts/takes away’ from him his full armour on/in which he ‘was (and had been) persuaded’/’relied (and had relied)’ and ‘gives asunder’/distributes his spoils.” (Luke 11:21-22)

God spoke to (a rich man:) “Thoughtless (man)! This night they demand back your soul from you. But the things you have made ready, to whom will it be?” (Jesus said:) “In this way (is) the one heaping for himself and not being rich into/’for the purpose of’ God.” (Luke 12:20-21)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Those Jews who to begin with believed Jesus said to Him:) “We are a seed of Abraham, and we have ever/never been (and are) slaves to ‘no one’/anyone. How do/’is it that’ You say that/: ‘You will become free?’” (John 8:33)

(You say:) “I am rich and am (and have been) rich, and I have need of (א,*א) nothing, and you do not know that you are the wretched and pitiable and poor and beggarly and naked.” (Rev 3:17b, “Laodicea”)

(The messengers said: “Worthy is the little Ram, the One having been – and being – slaughtered) to take … riches. …” (Rev 5:12b)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

In (Rev 6.15) seven social classes are mentioned. The number seven indicates completeness. Therefore the author's meaning is that no enemy of God, no matter what his position in society, will escape the terrors. Amos 2:14-16 lists seven classes of soldiers in his description of the great battle in which Israel will be defeated. (J. Massyngberde Ford "Revelation" p 112)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Viktor Rydberg.


Additional studies: Jer 9:23-24; Amos 2:14-16; Col 3:11; Rev 13:16; 19:18.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-29; 2012-06-27; 2015-02-19)

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6:15b ... hid themselves into the caves and into/among the rocks of the mountains.

Word for word (11 words in the Greek text): hid themselves into the caves and into the rocks (of)-the (of)-mountains.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Adam and Eve) heard the voice of the Lord God walking about in the ‘place by the side of apprehension’/Paradise in the afternoon, and both Adam and his woman hid themselves from the face of the Lord God in a middle of the wood/trees of the ‘place by the side of apprehension’/Paradise. (Gen 3:8, Greek OT)

Lot ascended out of Zoar and was (continually) seated in/on the mountain and his two daughters in company with him, for he feared to dwell in Zoar. And he inhabited in the cave, he and his two daughters in company with him. (Gen 19:30, Greek OT)

The people (of Israel) hid themselves in the caves, … in/among the rocks. (1 Sam 13:6b, Greek OT)

(The prophet said to the house of Jacob:) “Come now into, into the rocks and hide into the earth … into the caves and into the splits/fissures of the rocks … from the face/presence of the fear of the Lord and from the glory of His stability, when He – according to the circumstances – may stand up to cause the earth to quake.” (Is 2:10a,19, Greek OT)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to the moneychangers and the ones selling pigeons:) “You make (My house) a cave of robbers.” (Matt 21:13b)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Let the ones (being) in Judea flee against (א,* א) the mountains.” (Matt 24:16)

The rocks were split … and many bodies of the holy ones, having been (and being) fallen asleep, were raised. (Matt 27:51b-52)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(The Jews) so lifted stones, in order that they might throw against Him. But Jesus was hidden and He came out, out of the sanctuary. (John 8:59)

(The memorial tomb) was a cave and on it a stone (continually) lay on. (John 11:38b)

(Jesus said to the crowd): “As you have the light, believe into the light, in order that you may become sons of a light.” These things Jesus talked (about), and having gone away He was hidden from them. (John 12:36)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

The unknown: "Let us go hiding us in the mountains with our distress . . . " "The lady: "Yes, the mountains hide! - "But first I must in and light a candle to my good Saint Elisabeth . . . come!" . . . The unknown: "Oh well; of course I always can pass, but stay I do not!" The lady: "This you do not know! - Come! - In there you will hear new songs!" The unknown goes after her towards the church doorway: "Perhaps!" The lady: "Come!" (August Strindberg "Till Damaskus I" p 157; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Ljudmila Dmitrijevna Poljanskaja, Carl Grimberg, Erik Axel Karlfeldt, Sven Lidman, Vilhelm Moberg, Olof Petersson, Lewi Pethrus, Derek Walcott, Per Wirtén.


Greek words:

petra (rock) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Matt 27:51; Rev 6:15 – Judith 16:15; 2 Macc 1:16; 4:41; 14:45; Wisdom of Solomon 11:4; 17:17(19); Sir 40:15; Matt 7:24-25; 16:18; 27:60; Mark 15:46; Luke 6:48; 8:6,13; Rom 9:33; 1 Cor 10:4, 1 Pet 2:8; Rev 6:16.


Additional studies: Jer 4:29; 1 Macc 9:38; 2 Macc 10:6; Sir 17:15; Is 26:20-21; 33:16; Jonah 1:3,10; Mark 11:17; Luke 19:46; 21:21; Heb 11:38.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-29; 2012-06-27; 2015-02-19)

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6:16a And they say to the mountains and to the rocks: “Fall against us and hide us from a face/presence of the One being seated on (א,* א) the throne.”

Word for word (20 words in the Greek text): and (they)-say (to)-the mountains and (to)-the rocks: fall against us and hide us from (a)-face (of)-the-(one) being-seated on the throne.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Adam and Eve) heard the voice of the Lord God walking about in the ‘place by the side of apprehension’/Paradise in the afternoon, and both Adam and his woman hid themselves from the face of the Lord God in a middle of the wood/trees of the ‘place by the side of apprehension’/Paradise. (Gen 3:8, Greek OT)

(The prophet said to the house of Jacob:) “Come now into, into the rocks and hide into the earth … into the caves and into the splits/fissures of the rocks … from the face/presence of the fear of the Lord and from the glory of His stability, when He – according to the circumstances – may stand up to cause the earth to quake.” (Is 2:10a,19, Greek OT)

(The Lord said: “Israel) will speak to the mountains: ‘Veil us’ and to the hills: ‘Fall against us’.” (Hos 10:8b, Greek OT)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “You may not speak that/: “I shall hide from the Lord, and who will remember me out of height?” (Sir 16:17a)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “The works of every/everyone (are) flesh in the very eyes of (the Lord), and it/there is not (anything) to be hidden from His eyes.” (Sir 39:19)


The Latter Revelation:

Jesus was transformed in front of (James, John and Peter), and His face shone as the sun. (Matt 17:2a)

(Jesus) says to (His disciples:) “For because of your ‘a few’/little faith, amen I say to you: ‘If – according to the circumstances – you may have faith as a scarlet kernel of mustard, you will speak to this mountain: ‘Step ‘in from’/’from here’ over there’, and it will step over, and nothing will be unable to you.” (Matt 17:20)

(Jesus said to the daughters of Jerusalem: “Men) will began to say to the mountains: ‘Fall against us’ and to the hills: ‘Veil us.’” (Luke 23:30)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

This is the judgment, that the light has come (and comes) into the adornment/’adorned world’ and the men welcomed the darkness rather than the light, for their works (continually) were evil. For every/everyone practising the worthless hates the light and does not come towards the light, in order that his works may not be convicted. (John 3:19-20)

(The Jews) so lifted stones, in order that they might throw against Him. But Jesus was hidden and He came out, out of the sanctuary. (John 8:59)

Behold, a throne (continually) lay in the heaven, and (One) being seated against the throne. (Rev 4:2b)

The living beings – according to the circumstances – may (א,* א) give glory and honour and thankfulness to the One being seated on the throne. (Rev 4:9a)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

(Pastor) Suenonius was the first one who recovered. "Woe, woe!" he cried in a terrible voice, in that he rose stretching his arms towards the height. "The last time of the world has come. The day of the wrath of the Lord must be called down upon the earth because of such hellish crimes. Wrap your faces, throw yourselves to the earth, cry that the mountains shall cover you. Woe, it serves no purpose. At the sound of the last trump the mountains will crack, the earth open its bosom and all your abomination be viewed by His eye. Woe, it is soon to late to cry Kyrie eleeson . . . Lord, have mercy!" (Viktor Rydberg "Fribytaren på Östersjön II" p 299; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Carl Grimberg, Lars Levi Laestadius, Sven Lidman, Bo Setterlind.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “The One being seated on the throne”, see Rev 4:2b and 4:9a.


Additional studies: Ex 2:15; Ps 51:11(13); Ezek 38:20; Sir 12:8; Luke 9:29; Rev 4:9; 5:1,7; 9:6; 12:14; 20:11.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-29; 2012-06-27; 2015-02-19)

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6:16b-17 ... and from the wrath of the little Ram, because the great day of their wrath has come and who is able to stand?”

Word for word: 6:16b (6 words in the Greek text): and from the wrath (of)-the (of)-little-ram 6:17 (13 words in the Greek text): because came the day the great (of)-the (of)-wrath their, and who is-able-to stand?


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The psalmist said to the Lord:) “Who will stand against You, from/'owing to' Your wrath then/’at that time’?” (Ps 76:7b or 76:8b, Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) “The day of the Lord (is) great, great and extremely conspicuous. And who will be fit (on) it/’that day’?” (Joel 2:11b, Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) “From/’owing to’ the face/ presence of the wrath (of the Lord), who will stand under (it)? Who will stand against in the wrath of His passion? His passion melts beginnings/leaderships, and the rocks were ground asunder from/’owing to’ Him.” (Nahum 1:6, Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) “Near (is) the great day of the Lord, near and extremely quick … A day of wrath (is) that day.” (Zeph 1:14a,15a, Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) “Who will stay behind a day of ‘way in’/entrance (of the Lord)? Or who will stand 'under in'/underneath His sight?” (Mal 3:2a, Greek OT)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus saw) round about in company with wrath, together with being sorrowful, (at the men in the synagogue), on/’for the sake of’ the hardening of their heart. (Mark 3:5a)

(John the Baptist) said to the crowds going out to be baptized by him: "Products/brood of adders! Who has underneath/secretly shown you (that you can) to flee from the ‘being about’/approaching wrath?" (Luke 3:7)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “It will be a great necessity upon the earth and a wrath to this people.” (Luke 21:23b)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Be sleepless/awake in every seasonable time and 'be in need of'/'strive after' 'in order that'/that you may be entirely stable to flee away (from) all these things being about to become/’come about’ and to stand in front of the Son of the Man.” (Luke 21:36)

The sun will be turned about into darkness and the moon into blood, before the great * (א,*א) day of the Lord come/comes. (Acts 2:20)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

The one believing into the Son has agelong life. * (א*) The one disobeying the Son shall not behold life, however/but the wrath of God stays against him. (John 3:36)

Since it (continually) was a preparation, in order that the bodies might not stay upon the cross in/on the sabbath – for that day of the sabbath (continually) was great – the Jews so asked Pilate, in order that their legs might be broken down/off and lifted/’taken away’. (John 19:31)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

The question: Who is able to stand? … is taken from Nahum 1:6 and Mal 3:2. It is probably meant to be associated with the Lamb, who is depicted in ch. 5 as standing and with the redeemed, who are portrayed in 7:9-10 as standing. (J. Massyngberde Ford "Revelation" p 112)

"If (the people) saw the miracle, would their eyes be opened?" (Borg asked). "Perhaps! If the wonder inspired with fear", (Maria answered). "Well, so they will get the wonder! Tomorrow at ten o'clock the omen will happen!" . . . (The following morning) they saw the people gathered together at the capes of the harbour. . . . Having come out on the hill, the women stopped like panic-stricken, when they in the clear and sunny morning saw a deathly pale colossal moon rise over a cemetary with black cypresses swimming on the surface of the sea. . . . The fact is, you see, that the intended marble palace of the manager had unintentionally become set in an advanced bending rock wall on the one side and on the other by a top of a pine tree, so that the slab of lime showed itself circular and with the too faintly painted windows imitating the map of the moon slab. The people having been given notice about the event of the wonder at the appointed time, as promised by the manager, looked at the appearing man with frightened but reverent eyes. . . . The matter already had got a precarious turn, and the manager resorted all his skill to explain the involuntary wonder, but in vain. . . . (The preacher) took up a Bible out of his pocket . . . reading: "And I looked when He broke the sixth seal. . . . The whole moon became like blood. And the stars of the sky fell to the earth. . . . Hide us from the presence of Him who sits on the throne, and from the wrath of the Lamb; for the great day of their wrath has come and who is able to stand?" (August Strindberg "I havsbandet" p 116-122; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Elisabeth Beskow, Bo Giertz, Sven Lidman.


Additional studies: Ps 2:12; 95:11; 139:7; Is 13:9; 63:4; Jer 30:7; Joel 1:15; 2:1,31; Zeph 1:18; 2:3; Mal 4:5; Matt 3:7; John 5:22; Rom 2:5,8; 3:5; 5:9; 9:22; 12:19; Eph 2:3; 5:6; Col 3:6; 1 Thess 1:10; 2:16; 5:9; 1 Pet 4:17-18; Rev 11:18; 14:10,19; 15:1,7; 16:1,14,19; 19:15.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-29; 2012-06-27; 2015-02-19)

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