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Chapter 5

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5:1a And I beheld against the right (hand) of the One being seated upon the throne ...

Word for word (10 words in the Greek text): And (i/I)-beheld against the right-(hand) (of)-the-(one) being-seated upon the throne


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

Micaiah spoke: “… Hear a word of the Lord ...: “I beheld the Lord, the God of Israel, being seated upon His throne.” (1 Kings 22:19a, Greek OT)

(David said to God:) “Your right (hand) hand took ‘in stead’/’part with’ me.” (Ps 63:8b or 63:9b, Greek OT)

… (The prophet) beheld the Lord being seated upon a throne, high and being lifted upon/up. (Is 6:1a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Israel:) “My right (hand) made the heaven firm. …” (Is 48:13b, Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) “And I beheld, and behold, a hand being (and having been) stretched out towards me.” (Ezek 2:9a, Greek OT)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples: “The heaven) is a throne of God.” (Matt 5:34b)

Having plaited a crown out of thorns (the soldiers) put (it) upon, upon the head of (Jesus) and a reed in His right hand, and having fallen down in front of Him on their knees they ‘jested with’/mocked Him saying: “Rejoice, the (א,* א, A) King of the Jews!” (Matt 27:29)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Jesus) said to (His disciples): "Throw the net into/towards the right part of the boat, and you will find." (John 21:6a)

And in His right hand (one like a son of a man) (continually) had (א*) seven stars … and He put/laid His right (hand) against (א,* א), against me. (Rev 1:16a,17a)

(As for) the mystery of the seven stars which you beheld upon my right (hand) ... : the seven stars are messengers of the seven (assemblies) of called out … (Rev 1:20)

To the messenger of the (assembly) of called out in Ephesos write: “This is what the One ‘getting power (over)’/seizing stars in His right hand (א*) says.“ (Rev 2:1a)

And behold, a throne (continually) lay in the heaven, and (One) being seated against the throne. (Rev 4:2b)

The twenty-four elders will and/also (א,* א) fall/’sink down’ in the very eyes of the One being seated upon the throne, and they will prostrate themselves before the One living into the (coming) ages of the (coming) ages (in honour of Him). Amen (א,* א). (Rev 4:10a)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: Carl Olof Rosenius.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “seated upon the throne”, see Rev 4:2b and 4:10a.


Additional studies:

John 18:10; Rev 4:9; 5:7,13.


J. Daryl Charles "An Apocalyptic Tribute to the Lamb (Rev 5:1-14)"; Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 34.4 (1991): 461-473.

J. Daryl Charles "Imperial Pretensions and the Throne-Vision of the Lamb: Observations on the Function of Revelation 5"; Criswell Theological Review 7.1 (1993): 85-97.

R.J. Korner "'And I saw . . .' An Apocalyptic Literary Convention for Structural Identification in the Apocalypse"; (the journal) Novum Testamentum 42.2 (2000): 160-183.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-24; 2012-06-13; 2015-02-07)

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5:1ba ... a scroll being (and having been) written in front of (א,* א) and from behind ...

Word for word (5 words in the Greek text): (a)-scroll having-been-(and-being)-written in-front-of and from-behind


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

Having taken the scroll of the covenant (Moses) read it into the ears of the people.” (Ex 24:7a, Greek OT)

(Moses had) the two tablets of testimony in his hands, tablets of stones having been (and being) written down out/’on the basis’ of their both parts. ‘In from’/’from here’ and ‘in from’/’from there’ they had (continually) been (and were). (Ex 32:15b, Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) “And I beheld, and behold, a hand being (and having been) stretched out towards me, and in it a ‘bed's head’/beginning of a scroll. … and in it (continually) was (and had been) written the (things being) from behind and the (things being) in front of.” (Ezek 2:9,10b, Greek OT)


The Latter Revelation:

A scroll of the prophet Isaiah was 'given on'/'handed to' (Jesus). (Luke 4:17a)

(Jesus said:) “Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites, because you make the cup and the small dish clean from the outside but ‘from inside’/within they are full of, out of raping and incontinence ... full of bones of dead (bodies) and every/all impurity.” (Matt 23:25,27b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

Jesus so indeed and/also made many other signs in the very eyes of His disciples, (signs) which it is not being (and not having been) written in this scroll. (John 20:30)

(The voice) said: “Write into a scroll what you see.” (Rev 1:11a)

In a middle of the throne and (in) a circle of/from the throne (were) four living beings, being full of eyes in front of and ‘from behind’/behind. (Rev 4:6b)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: Gillis Gerleman.


Additional studies:

Ps 139:16; Rev 10:9-10; 20:12.


J. Daryl Charles "An Apocalyptic Tribute to the Lamb (Rev 5:1-14)"; Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 34.4 (1991): 461-473.

J. Daryl Charles "Imperial Pretensions and the Throne-Vision of the Lamb: Observations on the Function of Revelation 5"; Criswell Theological Review 7.1 (1993): 85-97.

Carol J. Rotz-J.A. du Rand "The One who sits on the throne: towards a theory of theocentric characterisation according to the Apocalypse of John"; Neotestamentica 33.1 (1999): 91-112.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-24; 2012-06-13; 2015-02-07)

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5:1bb ... being (and having been) sealed entirely (with) seven seals.

Word for word (3 words in the Greek text): having-been-(and-being)-entirely-sealed (with)-seals seven


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The Lord said:) “The grape (of our enemies is) a grape of gall, a bunch of grapes (being) bitter for them. Their wine (is) a passion of dragons and a passion of ... shields/adders. Have not these things ... been sealed in/among My heaps/treasures? In a day I will give back a procuration of justice.” (Deut 32:32b-35a, Greek OT)

(Job said:) ”How shall a mortal of blood (be able to) be righteous by the side of the Lord ... the One saying to the sun and it does not stick up but/and (the One who) seals entirely ‘according to’/downwards stars ... the One making the Pleiades (= the Seven Stars)? (Job 9:2b,7,9a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to the prophet:) “All these words will be to you as the sayings of this scroll having been sealed.” (Is 29:11a, Greek OT)

(This is a saying of the Lord:) “I wrote into a scroll, and I sealed (it).” (Jer 32:10a, Greek OT)

(The messenger said to the prophet:) “Seventy periods of seven days have been scratched/severed together against your people and against the holy city … to seal misses (of the mark of God) ... and to seal a beholding and a prophet and to anoint a holy of holies.” (Dan 9:24, Greek OT Theod)

(The man set/clothed in linen said to Daniel:) “… Veil the commands and seal the scroll till a seasonable consummation time. … The sayings being/are sealed till a seasonable goal/end time.” (Dan 12:4a,9b, Greek OT, 9b Theod)


The Latter Revelation:

Having sealed the stone (the priest leaders and the Pharisees) secured the grave in company/co-operation with the custodia/guard. (Matt 27:66b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven: (Jesus said to the crowd:) “Do not work (for) the consumption perishing, however/but (for) * (א,* א) (the consumption) staying into/for an agelong life, which the Son of the Man gives (א,*א) to you, for this One the Father, God, has sealed.” (John 6:27)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

The number (seven) is chosen intentionally, because it designates completeness, perfection, totality. (J. Massyngberde Ford "Revelation", commenting on Rev 1:4, p 376).


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: D.O. Belfrage, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Dick Harrison.


Greek words:

katasfragizô (seal entirely) Job 9:7; Rev 5:1 – Job 37:7; Wisdom of Solomon 2:5.

sfragis (seal) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Rev 5:1 – Tobit 9:5; Sir 17:22; 22:27; 32:5-6; 38:27; 42:6; 45:11-12; 49:11; Bel and the Dragon v 17; Rom 4:11; 1 Cor 9:2; 2 Tim 2:19; Rev 5:2,5,9; 6:1,3,5,7,9,12; 7:2; 8:1; 9:4.


Additional studies:

Ex 28:21,36; 1 Kings 21:8; Neh 9:38-10:1; Is 8.16; Jer 32:10-11; Rev 7:3; 10:4; 20:3.


Gordon Campbell "Findings, Seals, Trumpets and Bowls: Variations Upon the Theme of Covenant Rupture and Restoration in the Book of Revelation"; Westminster Theological Journal 66.1 (Spring 2004): 71-96.

J. Daryl Charles "An Apocalyptic Tribute to the Lamb (Rev 5:1-14)"; Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 34.4 (1991): 461-473.

J. Daryl Charles "Imperial Pretensions and the Throne-Vision of the Lamb: Observations on the Function of Revelation 5"; Criswell Theological Review 7.1 (1993): 85-97.

Dale Ralph Davis "Relationship between the seals, trumpets and bowls in the Book of Revelation"; Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 16.3 (Summer 1973): 149-158.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-24; 2012-06-13; 2015-02-08)

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5:2a And I beheld a stable messenger proclaiming in/with a great/loud voice:

Word for word (8 words in the Greek text): and (i/I)-beheld (a)-messenger stable proclaiming in (a)-voice great:


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Moses said to Israel:) “The Lord your God, ... the great and stable God and the fearful.” (Deut 10:17a, Greek OT)

(Daniel said: “The messenger Gabriel – the name means ‘God is strength/stability’), whom I had beheld (in a sleep/dream), ... came to (me) and talked in company with me and spoke: ‘Daniel, I have just now come out to show you underneath/secretly a mind/thought. ... You are pitiable. And/but understand the command throughout.’” (Dan 9:21b-22,23b, Greek OT)

(The Lord) the Fearful One and Stable One and Righteous One and Merciful One, the alone/only King and beneficial. (2 Macc 1:24b)


The Latter Revelation:

(John the Baptist said to the Pharisees and Sadducees:) “… The One coming behind me is more stable than me/I.” (Matt 3:11a)

(Jesus said to His disciples: “The Son of the Man) will dispatch away His messengers ‘in company’/together with a great trumpet. And they will lead together against/’in quest of’ His chosen ones.” (Matt 24:31a)

Entirely as it has been (and is) written in the prophet Isaiah: “Behold, I dispatch away My messenger before your face, who will entirely prepare your way. A voice being cried in the desolate (district): ‘Make the way of (a) lord ready. Make His paths straight.’” ... And he (continually) proclaimed. (Mark 1:2-3,7a)

The messenger spoke to (Zacharias): “I am Gabriel (the name means ‘God is strength/stability’) the one standing by the side of (God) in the very eyes of God, and I have been dispatched away to talk towards you and to bring these good little messages to you.” (Luke 1:19)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Jesus) screamed (with) a great/loud voice: "Lazarus, come here outside." (John 11:43b)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

The Greek for (strong messenger) may merely mean a mighty or powerful messenger, but it might also refer to the messenger Gabriel, Hebrew for “God is strength”. (Massyngberde Ford p 85)


My own comments and speculations:

The Greek word “ischyros” I translate by “stable” in stead of by the more usual “strong”, because I judge that “strong” is more connected with the Greek word “sthenaros”.

Concerning “in/with a great/loud voice”, see also Rev 1:10b.


Greek words:

ischyros (stable) (in the NT + examples in the OT) Deut 10:17; 2 Macc 1:24; Matt 3:11; Rev 5:2 - Gen 41:31; Ex 19:19; Judges 5:13A; 9:51B; 2 Kings 24:15; Jer 50:34; 1 Macc 1:4; 2:42,66; 3:15,17; 4:7,30; 6:6; 11:15; 2 Macc 14:1; Wisdom of Solomon 6:8; 10:5; Sir 6:21; 8:12; 15:18; Epistle of Jeremiah v 35; Matt 12:29; Mark 1:7; 3:27; Luke 3:16; 11:21-22; 15:14; 1 Cor 1:25,27; 4:10; 10:22; 2 Cor 10:10; Heb 5:7; 6:18; 11:34; 1 John 2:14, Rev 6:15; 10:1; 18:2,8,10,21; 19:6,18.

kêrussô (proclaim) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Mark 1:7; Rev 5:2 – Esther 6:9,11; 1 Macc 10:64; Matt 3:1; 4:17,23; 9:35; 10:7,27; 11:1; 24:14; 26:13; Mark 1:4,14,38-39,45; 3:14; 5:20; 6:12; 7:36; 13:10; 14:9; Luke 3:3; 4:18-19,44; 8:1,39; 9:2; 12:3; 24:47. Acts 8:5; 9:20; 10:37,42; 15:21; 19:13; 20:25; 28:31; Rom 2:21; 10:8,14-15; 1 Cor 1:23; 9:27; 15:11-12; 2 Cor 1:19; 4:5; 11:4; Gal 2:2; 5:11; Phil 1:15; Col 1:23; 1 Thess 2:9; 1 Tim 3:16; 2 Tim 4:2; 1 Pet 3:19.


Additional studies:

Dan 8:16-19; Luke 1:26-27; Rev 14:9; 18:21.


J. Daryl Charles "An Apocalyptic Tribute to the Lamb (Rev 5:1-14)"; Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 34.4 (1991): 461-473.

J. Daryl Charles "Imperial Pretensions and the Throne-Vision of the Lamb: Observations on the Function of Revelation 5"; Criswell Theological Review 7.1 (1993): 85-97.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-24; 2012-06-13; 2015-02-08)

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5:2b-3 “Who (is) worthy to open the scroll and loosen its seals?” And no one in the heaven and not (א,*א) upon the earth * (א,* א) was able to open the scroll, and not (א,* א) to see (into) it.

Word for word: 5:2b (10 words in the Greek text) who worthy (to)-open the scroll and loosen the seals its? 5:3 (16 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus) and no-one was-able-to in the heaven and-not upon the earth (to)-open the scroll and-not (to)-see (into)-it.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Melchizedek) blessed (Abram) and spoke: “(May) Abram be (and have been) blessed (in) God the Highest One, who created the heaven and the earth.” (Gen 14:19, Greek OT)

In/on (the) hand of every man (God) seals entirely, in order that every man may have knowledge of the weakness of himself. (Job 37:7, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to the prophet:) “All these words will be to you as the sayings of this scroll having been sealed, which if – according to the circumstances – they may give it to a man having insight in letters (of the alphabet), saying, ‘Read these things’, and he will speak: ‘I am not able to read, for it is sealed’. And this scroll will be given into hands of a man having not insight in letters (of the alphabet), and one will speak to him, ‘Read this’, and he will speak: ‘I have not insight in letters (of the alphabet).” (Is 29:11-12, Greek OT)

(Israel) spread out the scroll of the law, 'on account of'/to get the guidance' which the nations ‘investigating out’/investigate of the likenesses of their idols/images. (1 Macc 3:48)

(Solomon said:) “God tried (the righteous) and found ‘them worthy of Himself’/’that they were Him worthy’.” (Wisdom of Solomon 3:5b)

(The wisdom) goes herself about seeking the ones (being) her worthy and kindly she displays to them in/on their paths and in every after-thought she goes to meet them.” (Wisdom of Solomon 6:16)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples: “Pray in this way: ‘Our Father,) become/’be ... done’ Your will, as in heaven and/also upon earth.’” (Matt 6:10b)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Into which city or village you – according to the circumstances – may come into, search out who is worthy in it and stay there till you – according to the circumstances – may come out.” (Matt 10:11)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “The one being friends with father or mother over/’more than with’ Me is not worthy of Me; and the one being friends with son or daughter over/’more than with’ Me is not worthy of Me. And (the one) who does not take his cross and follow behind Me is not worthy of Me.” (Matt 10:37-38)

(Jesus) taught (the people in Nazaret) in their synagogue, so that they were overwhelmed and said: “From where (are) this wisdom and the abilities to this One?” (Matt 13:54b)

(Jesus said: “The king) says to his slaves: ‘The wedding banquet is indeed ready, but the ones being (and having been) called were (continually) not worthy.’ … Having come in to view the ones lying up/’down to table’, (the king) beheld there a man having not been (and being not) set/clothed in clothes of wedding banquet. And he says to him: ‘Comrade, how did you come in here not having clothes of wedding banquet?’ But 'the one'/he was gagged/nonplussed.” (Matt 22:8,11-12)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “All the tribes of the earth will * (א*) ‘cut themselves’/mourn, and they will behold the Son of the Man coming upon the clouds of the heaven in company with ability and much glory.” (Matt 24:30b)

Entirely as it has been (and is) written in the prophet Isaiah: “Behold, I dispatch away My messenger before your face, who will entirely prepare your way. A voice being cried in the desolate (district): ‘Make the way of (a) lord ready. Make His paths straight.’” ... And he (continually) proclaimed, saying: "Behind me comes the One (being) more stable (than) me/I, of/for whom I am not fit, having bent, to loosen the thong of His sandals.". (Mark 1:2-3,7)

John answered saying to all: "I indeed baptize you (with) water, but it comes the One (being) more stable than me/I, whose thong of His sandals I am not fit to loosen." (Luke 3:16a)

A scroll of the prophet Isaiah was 'given on'/'handed to' (Jesus). (And He unfolded it). (Luke 4:17a)

(The elders of the Jews, dispatched away by the “leader of a hundred men”, said to Jesus:) “He is worthy.” … (The “leadership of a hundred men” sent friends, saying to Jesus:) “… I am not fit, in order that You may come in underneath my roof. Therefore I did not think myself worthy to come towards you .” (Luke 7:4b,6b-7a)

(Jesus said to the apostles:) “When you – according to the circumstances – may have made/done all the things having been throughout arranged to you, say that/: “We are useless slaves. We have made/done (and makes/does) what we (continually) were indebted to make/do.” (Luke 17:10b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

John (said to the Pharisees): "I baptize in water. (In) your middle stood (and had stood) (P75, א,* א) One whom you do not know, * (א*, B) coming behind me, whose thong of His sandal I am not worthy ‘in order that’/that I may loosen." (John 1:26-27)

(Jesus said to the Jews:) “I am not able to do anything (away) from/'owing to' Myself..” (John 5:30a)

You have few/’a few’ names in Sardis, which have not soiled their garments. And they will walk about in company with Me in white (things), because they are worthy. (Rev 3:4)

This is what the True One, the Holy One, says, (the One) having the key of David, the One opening and no one will shut, and (the One) shutting and no one will (א,*א) open. I know your works. Behold, I have given (and give) a door having been (and being) opened in the very eyes of you, which no one is able to shut * (א,*א). You have small/little ability and you have kept My saying and have not denied My name. (Rev 3:7b-8, “Philadelphia”)

Behold, I stand against the door, and I knock. If – according to the circumstances – anyone may hear My voice, I will (א,* א) and/both open the door and come into/in towards him, and I will take the chief meal in company with him and he in company with Me. (Rev 3:20, “Laodicea”)

After these things I beheld, and behold, a door being (and having been) opened in the heaven. (Rev 4:1a)

(Worthy are … the Lord and our God) to take the glory and the honour and the ability. (Rev 4:11b)

(I saw a scroll) having been (and being) sealed entirely (with) seven seals. (Rev 5:1b)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

In frenzy Öman's wife appeared together with a crowd of women carrying in triumph the taken back seine. . . . In a hurry knowing his authority violated, (the comptroller) put on his hat, went down to the overseer . . . who had to give a helping hand. . . . (The overseer) rushed forward to the crowd of women and grasped the seine: "Damned shrews, do you not know that it is penal servitude to break the lock and the seal of the Crown!" The shrews answered . . . that they didn't care a damned hang about the lock and the seal of the Crown and that the two lords were of such nature that they could at any time be put in (the prison) Långholmnen. (August Strindberg "I havsbandet" p 70; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Carl Jonas Love Almqvist, Vilhelm Moberg, Joanne Kathleen Rowling.


My own comments and speculations:

Observe the near connection between the Gospel of John (1:27) and the Revelation. Neither John the Baptist – and no one born of women was greater than John - nor anybody else in heaven or on earth was worthy to loosen what was the object of Jesus.

Concerning the sealed scroll, see Rev 5:1bb.

Additional studies:

Gen 1:1; 14:22; Ex 20:4; Deut 4:17-18; 5:8; Matt 3:11; 27:46,50; Mark 1:7; 15:34; John 1:18; 1 Cor 8:5; Phil 2:10; Rev 5:5,13; 10:2; 14:7; 18:21.


J. Daryl Charles "An Apocalyptic Tribute to the Lamb (Rev 5:1-14)"; Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 34.4 (1991): 461-473.

J. Daryl Charles "Imperial Pretensions and the Throne-Vision of the Lamb: Observations on the Function of Revelation 5"; Criswell Theological Review 7.1 (1993): 85-97.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-24; 2012-06-14; 2015-02-08)

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5:4-5a And I (continually) wept much, because no one was found worthy to open the scroll ‘and not’/and to see (into) it. And one out of the elders says to me: “Do not weep!”

Word for word: 5:4 (13 words in the Greek text) and (i/I)-(continually)-wept much, because no-one worthy was-found (to)-open the scroll and-not see (into)-it. 5:5a (9 words in the Greek text) and one out-of the elders say (to)-me: not weep.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The prophet said:) “A holy people will inhabit in Zion, and a Jerusalem (with) weeping wept: ‘Have mercy on me’.” (Is 30:19a, Greek OT)

In this way the Lord spoke (to Rachel): “Let your voice leave off from weeping and your eyes from your tears. … (There is) an abiding for your children.” (Jer 31:16a,17a, Greek OT)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "Happy the ones now weeping, because they (א*) will laugh." (Luke 6:21b)

Having beheld (the widow who had lost her only son), the Lord was moved in His inward vital parts against (א,* א) her and He spoke to her: “Do not weep!” … And the dead (body) sat up and began to talk. (Luke 7:13,15a)

All (continually) wept and (continually) ‘cut themselves’/mourned (the daughter of the synagogue leader). But (Jesus) spoke: "Do not weep, for she has not died however/but she sleeps." (Luke 8:52)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

As so Jesus beheld her weeping and the Jews having come together with her weeping, He was indignant in/with the spirit and troubled Himself and spoke: “Where have you put/laid (and puts/lays) him?” They say to Him: “Lord, come and behold.” And (א*) Jesus shed tears. (Joh 11:33-34)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Amen, amen, I say to you that/: ‘You will weep and wail, but the adornment/’adorned world’ will rejoice. You will be sorrowful, however/but your sorrow will become into/’for the purpose of’ joy.’” (John 16:20)

In a circle from the throne (were) twenty-four thrones and against the thrones being twenty-four elders seated. (Rev 4:4a)


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “worthy to open the scroll”, see Rev 5:2b-3. Concerning the elders, see Rev 4:4. Concerning "weep", see John 11:33-38a.


Additional studies:

Ps 6:8(9),10(11); Is 65:19; Lam 1:2-3,16; Ezek 24:16,23; Luke 23:28; John 11:33-35; Rev 10:2.


J. Daryl Charles "An Apocalyptic Tribute to the Lamb (Rev 5:1-14)"; Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 34.4 (1991): 461-473.

J. Daryl Charles "Imperial Pretensions and the Throne-Vision of the Lamb: Observations on the Function of Revelation 5"; Criswell Theological Review 7.1 (1993): 85-97.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-24; 2012-06-14; 2015-02-09)

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5:5b Behold, the Lion * (א,* א) out of the tribe of Judas, the Root of David, has conquered to open the scroll and loosen (א,* א) its seven seals.

Word for word (20 words in the Greek text): behold conquered the lion out-of the tribe (of)-Judas, the root (of)-David (to)-open the scroll and loosen the seven seals its.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Jacob said:) “Judas (is) a young animal of lion. Out of a sprout, my son, you have ascended. Having ‘fallen up’/'lain back' you fell asleep as a lion and as a young animal. Who will raise him? A leader will not 'leave out'/disappear out of Judas and (not one) being in command out of His thighs, till - according to the circumstances - he (Hebrew: Shiloh) may come, (and) the things lying from/apart (will come) to him, and he himself (will be) an expectation of nations." (Gen 49:9-10, Greek OT)

(Balaam said:) "I shall show him and/but by no means now. I call him happy, and/but he does not draw near. A constellation shall stick up out of Jacob, and a man shall stand up out of Israel." (Num 24:17a, Greek OT)

(David said to the Lord: “In) You, Lord, (is) the greatness and the ability and the object of boasting and the conquest and the stability, because You are a Master of all in the heaven and upon the earth … From the side of You (are) the riches and the glory.” (1 Chron 29:11a,12a, Greek OT)

(David said to God:) “You may conquer in 'the thing to be judged Yourself'/'Your judging'.” (Ps 51:4b or 51:6b, Greek OT)

A rod will come out, out of the root of Jesse, and a flower will ascend out of the root. (Is 11:1, Greek OT)

(The slave of the Lord) brought up a message opposite (the Lord) as a little boy, as a root in a thirsty earth. (Is 53:2a, Greek OT)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “A seed of the ones having welcomed (the Lord) He does not/certainly not 'lift out'/'take away' ... and (He gave) to David a root out of him.” (Sir 47:22b)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said: “The people of God) they were scattered asunder in every/all the earth, and the people left entirely/behind only a few persons and a leader in the house of David.” (Sir 48:15b or 48:15b-16a)


The Latter Revelation:

A book of (the) origin of Jesus Christ, son of David. (Matt 1:1a)

Jacob begot Judas and his brothers. (Matt 1:2b)

(The Lord said:) “A reed having been (and being) crushed (My boy) will not break down/off, and a linen/wick being smouldering He will not quench, till He – according to the circumstances – may throw/bring out the judgment into conquesting/conquest.” (Matt 12:20)

(All the crowds) (continually) said (about Jesus): "Surely is not this One the Son of David?” (Matt 12:23)

Joseph ascended from Galilee, out of (the) city Nazaret, into Judea, into (the) city of David, whichever/which is called Bethlehem, because of 'be him'/'his being' out of (the) house and lineage of David. (Luke 2:4)

(John the Baptist said:) ”Already the axe lies towards the root of the trees.” (Luke 3:9a)

(Jesus said:) "When – according to the circumstances - the stable one, having been (and being) armed, may watch the 'of himself'/own court, his ‘things beginning under’/properties are in peace. But since – according to the circumstances – a more stable than he is (א*) having come against (him), may conquer him, he lifts/takes away’ from him his full armour on/in which he ‘was (and had been) persuaded’/’relied (and had relied)’ and ‘gives asunder’/distributes his spoils.” (Luke 11:21-22)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Jesus said to the Samaritan woman:) “You prostrate yourselves (in adoration) (towards) what you do not know. We prostrate ourselves (in adoration) (towards) what we know, because the saving is out/’on the basis’ of the Jews.” (John 4:22)

(“Others” said:) “Has definitely (א*;א) not the writing spoken, that the christ/'anointed one' comes out of the seed of David and from Bethlehem, the village whereat/where David (continually) was?” (John 7:42)

(Jesus said:) “Now a judgment is of/upon this adornment/’adorned world’. Now the leader of this adornment/’adorned world’ will be thrown out outside.” (John 12:31)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) ”These things I have talked (and talk) (with) you, in order that you may have peace in Me. In the adornment/’adorned world’ you have oppression. However, be confident. I have conquered (and conquer) the adornment/’adorned world’.” (John 16:33)

But/and Pilate and/also wrote a superscription and put upon the cross. But/and it (continually) was (and had been) written: “Jesus, the Nazoraean, the King of the Jews.” (John 19:19)

Behold, He comes in company with the clouds. (Rev 1:7a)

(This is what the True One, the Holy One, says, the One) having the key of David … (Rev 3:7b)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

"We are (Jonatan Lejonhjärta) on the track", Kader said. "Tengil waits for him." "I understand this", Jossi said. "Young Lejonhjärta is more dangerous than anyone else, this I have, as we know, said you. For he is really a lion." "I felt proud, where I lay, that Jonatan was such a lion." And what consolation it was to know that he lived! . . . In any case he lived, think, that he lived! (Astrid Lindgren "Bröderna Lejonhjärta" p 85; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: Ingvar Andersson, Stefan Andhé, Raine Borg, P. Fjellstedt, Bo Frid, Dick Harrison, Alf Henrikson, Carl J. Kullenbergh, Thorvald Källstad, C.S. Lewis, Sven Lidman, Ingun Montgomery, Jesper Svartvik, Bengt Söderberg, Göran Tunström, Kallistos Ware, N.P. Wetterlund.


My own comments and speculations: Concerning “open the scroll and loosen its (seven) seals”, see Rev 5:2b-3.

“The Root of David”, see also Rev 22:16.


It is manifest before all that our Lord has stuck (and sticks) up out of Judas. (Heb 7:14a)


Greek words: riza (root) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Sir 47:22; Luke 3:9; Rev 5:5 – Tobit 5:14; Judith 6:13; 7:12; 1 Macc 1:10; Wisdom of Solomon 3:15; 7:20; 15:3; Sir 1:6,20; 10:15; 23:25; 40:15; Matt 3:10; 13:6,21; Mark 4:6,17; 11:20; Luke 8:13; Rom 11:16-18; 15:12; 1 Tim 6:10; Heb 12:15; Rev 22:16.


Additional studies:

Prov 30:30; Is 11:10; 31:4; Ezek 19:2-6; Hos 5:14; 11:10; Matt 22:42,45; John 4:43-45; 19:15-16,30; Rom 1:3; Rev 2:7,11,17,26; 3:5,11,21; 4:7; 5:2-3,6,9-10; 10:2.


J. Daryl Charles "An Apocalyptic Tribute to the Lamb (Rev 5:1-14)"; Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 34.4 (1991): 461-473.

J. Daryl Charles "Imperial Pretensions and the Throne-Vision of the Lamb: Observations on the Function of Revelation 5"; Criswell Theological Review 7.1 (1993): 85-97.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-25; 2012-06-14; 2015-02-09)

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5:6a And I beheld ‘in a middle of’/’between (on one hand)’ the throne and the four living beings and ‘in a middle of’/’(on the other hand)’ the elders a little Ram standing as having been (and being) slaughtered ...

Word for word (19 words in the Greek text): And (i/I)-beheld in middle (of)-the (of)-throne and the four living-beings and in middle (of)-the (of)-elders (a)-little-ram 'standing-(and-having-stood'/standing as having-been-(and-being)-slaughtered.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

Abraham stretched out his hand to take the dagger to slaughter his son. ... Abraham ... took the male sheep and carried it up/forth into a wholly offering of fruits in stead of Isaac, his son. (Gen 22:10,13b, Greek OT)

(Jacob said:) "An evil little wild animal ... has raped Joseph." (Gen 37:33b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Mose: “The paschal lamb) shall for you be a perfect, male sheep, one year old. You shall take it from the rams and the he-goats.” (Ex 12:5; Greek OT)

(David said to the Lord:) “I will describe Your name to my brothers; in a middle of an (assembly) of called out I will sing hymns to You.” (Ps 22:22 or 22:23, Greek OT)

(The slave of the Lord was) as a sheep (that) is led against slaughter. … (Is 53:7b, Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) ”I was as an innocent little ram being led of the thing to be sacrificed (and) I had not knowledge.” (Jer 11:19a, Greek OT)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “Wisdom of a scribe (is) leisure in a good seasonable time, and the one lessening himself, it will practise/manage him to ‘be made’/become wise.” (Sir 38:24)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "Where two or three having been (and being) led together into My name, there I am in their middle." (Matt 18:20)

… After three days (Jesus' parents) found Him in the sanctuary, sitting still in a middle of the teachers and hearing them and questioning them. (Luke 2:46)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “I dispatch you away as rams in a middle of wolves.” (Luke 10:3b)

(Jesus said to the apostles:) ”I am in your middle as the One rendering service.” (Luke 22:27b)

(Jesus) Himself stood in a middle (of the eleven and the other disciples) and says to them: "Peace to you." (Luke 24:36b)

Having gazed into the heaven (Stephen) beheld a glory of God, and Jesus standing out of the right (parts) of God. (Acts 7:55b)

The contents of the writing which (the eunuch continually/repeatedly) read (of Jesus) (continually) was this: “As a sheep he was led against slaughter.” (Acts 8:32a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

John (said to the Pharisees): "I baptize in water. (In the) middle of you stood (and had stood) (P75, א,* א) One whom you do not know, * (א*, B) coming behind me, whose thong of His sandal I am not worthy ‘in order that’/that I may loosen." (John 1:26-27)

On the following day (John the Baptist) sees Jesus coming towards him, and he says: “Behold, the Lamb of God, the One lifting/’taking away’ the miss (of the mark of God) of the adornment/’adorned world’!” (John 1:29)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “If so I, the Lord and the Teacher, have washed your feet, and/also you are indebted to wash the feet of one another. For I have given (and give; P66, א,* א, A) you a prototype, in order that and/also you may make/do entirely as I have made/done to you.” (John 13:14-15)

(Jesus) says to (Simon Peter): "Tend My little rams." (John 21:15b)

(I am) the One living, and I became a dead (body), and behold, I am a living one into the (coming) ages of the (coming) ages. (Rev 1:18a)

To the messenger of the (assembly) of called out in Ephesos write: “This is what the One ‘getting power (over)’/seizing stars in His right hand (א*) says, the One walking about in a middle of the seven golden lampstands.” (Rev 2:1)

In a circle from the throne (were) twenty-four thrones and against the thrones being twenty-four elders seated. (Rev 4:4a)

In a middle of the throne and (in) a circle of/from the throne (were) four living beings, being full of eyes in front of and ‘from behind’/behind. (Rev 4:6b)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 - about 1500

In the light of the life, death and resurrection of Jesus, the author of John … may have seen the Lord as the martyred prophet par excellence replacing Isaac. … It was later Christian authors who made the association with the Suffering Servant (Acts 8:32, citing Is 53:7; cf. 1 Pet 2:21-25). (J. Massyngberde Ford "Revelation" p 91)

The angry ram from Norrgården (Northyard) . . . stood there with his big, curved horns looking insidious. For he leaps over all fences and butts all he sees. . . . Ulrik is the name of this ram. . . . Now he certainly was more angry than usually. He bent down his head and came running against us. . . . Ulrik did not look as if he thought he would get tired of watching over us. (Astrid Lindgren "Bara roligt i Bullerbyn" p 77-79; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

The wild geese . . . saw the sheep very well. . . . A big ram with long, twisted horns seemed to be the most noble of them. . . . "The foxes come sneaking over us by night, when we are sleeping in the caves", (the ram said). . . . "Push now straight on!" the boy whispered. The big ram pushed, and the first fox was thrown head first back towards the opening. . . . "Now I think, they have got enough for this night", the boy said. - "So I think", the big ram said. "Now lie down on my back and creep down in the wool! You can deserve to have it good and warm after all wind, in which you have been out." (Selma Lagerlöf "Nils Holgerssons underbara resa genom Sverige" p 149-153; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


about 1500 and time before

I am born under the sign the Ram. Its sign represents the Sacrifice. . . . But it also means: Spring, something new. . . . The ram is the planet Mars with Martial destruction. . . . "Out of his mouth a two-edged sword went out . . . " . . . Have You seen any man so baited as I? The ram the scapegoat! (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev XI maj 1895-nov 1896" p 281-282; letter 1896-07-20 to Torsten Hedlund; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

The ram having been slain, (Isaac) was saved: so that by means of the ram (Abraham) received him again, having slain it in his stead. But these things were types: for here it is the Son of God who is slain. ... Since the sacrifice had been completed, and Isaac slain in purpose, therefore (God) gave him to the Patriarch. (Chrysostom commenting Heb 11:17-19, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers XIV:478-479)

Who are they that are saved now and receive life eternal? Is it not those who love God, and who believe His promises, and who “in malice have become as little children?” (Irenaeus, The Ante-Nicene Fathers vol I, p 502; cf. 1 Cor 14:20)

In the case of a sheep or a she-goat six priests carried the sacrifice ... while in that of a ram twelve, and in that of a bullock four-and-twenty priests were needed for the service. ... The burnt-offering was always to be a male animal ... as indicating strength and energi ... (and) was the only sacrifice which non-Israelites were allowed to bring. ... The animal brought for a trespass-offering was to be a male (generally a ram). ... (The public sin-offerings) were always male. (Alfred Edersheim “The Temple” p 117,127-129)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Eskil Albertsson, Stefan Andhé, Chris Byworth, Stefan Einhorn, Abd el-Qadir es-Samihi, Hilding Fagerberg, Bo Frid, Knut Hamsun, Homeros, Bengt Hägglund, Harry Lenhammar, C.S. Lewis, Martin Luther, Olaus Magnus, Vilhelm Moberg, Marit Paulsen, Harald Rasmussen, Harry Sjöman, Sven Stolpe, Jesper Svartvik, Einar Thomassen, Kerry Usher, P. Waldenström, N.P. Wetterlund.


My own comments and speculations:

The little Ram in Rev 5:6 (Greek: “arnion”) is not the same Lamb as in John 1:29 (Greek: “amnos”). It is important for John to describe the history of the Old Testament and of the Synoptics with as many different words and expressions as possible. We can also observe the contrast (and the likeness!) between “the little Ram” here and “the little wild animal” in Gen 37:33.

Jesus is the “little” Ram among the disciples-rams (cf. Luke 10:3 and John 13:5). But also the disciples need to be little (cf. John 21:15). Furthermore, in the light of the quotation above of Edersheim we can see the twelve disciples as priests carrying the offered ram Jesus. Cf. John 1:26 (lamb = six priests) and John 1:36 (lamb = six priests), together two lambs with twelve priests/apostles.

Concerning the translation “little ram”, see My own comments and speculations to John 21:15.


Paul said: “I am the least of the apostles, (one) who is not fit to be called an apostle. … (I am) less than the least of all holy ones. … (Of missers of the mark of God) I am first.” (1 Cor 15:9a; Eph 3:8a; 1 Tim 1:15b)

(The Son said to His Father): "I will bring away a message (about) Your Name to My brothers. In a middle of an (assembly) of called out I will sing hymns to You." (Heb 2:12)

In this is the welcome of God (א,*א), not that we welcomed (א,*א) God, however/but that He Himself welcomed us and has dispatched (and dispatches) (א,*א) away His Son (to be) a propitiation on account of our misses (of His mark). (1 John 4:10)


Greek words:

sfazô (slaughter) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Rev 5:6 – 1 Macc 1:2; 2:24; 1 John 3:12; Rev 5:9,12; 6:4,9; 13:3,8; 18:24.


Additional studies:

Deut 33:17; 2 Kings 10:7; Jer 52:10; Mark 9:36-37; John 1:36; Acts 2:22; Rev 5:8,13-14; 6:1,6,16; 7:9-10,14,17; 12:11; 14:1,4,10; 15:3; 17:14; 19:7,9; 21:9,14; 21:22-23,27; 22:1-3.


M.R.J. Bredin "The Influence of the Aqedah on Revelation 5:6-9"; Irish Biblical Studies 18.1 (1996): 26-43.

J. Daryl Charles "An Apocalyptic Tribute to the Lamb (Rev 5:1-14)"; Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 34.4 (1991): 461-473.

J. Daryl Charles "Imperial Pretensions and the Throne-Vision of the Lamb: Observations on the Function of Revelation 5"; Criswell Theological Review 7.1 (1993): 85-97.

Donald Guthrie "The Lamb in the Structure of the Book of Revelation"; Vox Evangelica 12 (1981): 64-71.

Norman Hillyer "'The Lamb' in the Apocalypse"; The Evangelical Quarterly 39.4 (Oct.-Dec. 1967): 228-236.

Beate Kowalski "Martyrdom and Resurrection in the Revelation to John"; Andrews University Seminary Studies 10.1 (Jan. 1972): 55-64.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-25; 2012-06-14; 2015-02-09)

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5:6b ... having seven horns and seven eyes, which are the seven spirits of God, having been (and being) dispatched away into every/all the earth.

Word for word (18 words in the Greek text): having horns seven and eyes seven which are the seven spirits (of)-the (of)-god having-been-(and-being)-dispatched-away into every/all the earth.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The seer Hanani said to the king of Judas:) “The eyes of the Lord see on, in/on the whole earth to be entirely stable in every heart (being) ‘filled with’/satiated towards Him.” (2 Chron 16:9, Greek OT)

(David said: “The Lord is) a horn of my saving ... .” (Ps 18:2b or 18:3b, Greek OT)

(Solomon said:) “In every place (are) the eyes of the Lord, they spy both bad and good ones.” (Prov 15:3, Greek OT)

A spirit of God will ‘be brought’/come to rest against (a rod out of the root of Jesse); a spirit of wisdom and understanding, a spirit of counsel and stability, a spirit of knowledge and reverence. (Is 11:2, Greek OT)

(The messenger said to the prophet:) “These seven are the eyes of the Lord seeing against, against ‘every the’/’the whole’ earth.” (Zech 4:10b, Greek OT)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to the priest leaders and the Pharisees: “A king) dispatched away his slaves to call the ones being (and having been) called into the wedding banquets/festivals, and/but (continually/repeatedly) they did not want to come.” (Matt 22:3)

Having come to/forward Jesus talked (with the eleven disciples) saying: “Every/all (judicial) authority in heaven and upon earth has been given to Me.” (Matt 28:18)

(Zacharias said: “The Lord God of Israel) has raised a horn of saving for us in a house of His boy David. (Luke 1:69)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "Having come will the Son of the Man consequently find the faith upon the earth?" (Luke 18:8b)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "I dispatch away the promise of My Father against you. But you, sit down in the city till (the time in) which you may be set/clothed in ability out of (the) height." (Luke 24:49)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

Nathanael says to (Jesus): "From where have You knowledge of me?" Jesus answered and spoke to him: "Before Philip ‘to raise’/raised his voice (towards) you being underneath the fig tree, I beheld you." (John 1:48)

God did not dispatch away the Son into the adornment/’adorned world’, in order that He might judge the adornment/’adorned world’, however/but in order that the adornment/’adorned world’ might be saved through Him. (John 3:17)

(Jesus) so spoke to (the ten disciples) again: “Peace to you. Entirely as the Father has dispatched (and dispatches) Me away, and/also I will (א*) send you.” And having spoken this He puffed in/on (them), and He says to them: “Take holy spirit.” (John 20:21-22)

Joybringing (grace) (with) you and peace from the One who is and the One who (continually) was and the One who comes and from the seven spirits * (א,* א, A) ‘in the very eyes of’/before His throne. (Rev 1:4b)

His eyes (were) as a flame of fire. (Rev 1:14b)

This is what the One having the seven spirits of God and the seven stars says: “I know your works, that you have a name, that you live, and/but you are (a) dead (body).” (Rev 3:1b, “Sardis”)

Seven torches of fire (are) burning ‘in the very eyes of’/before the throne, which are the seven spirits of God. (Rev 4:5b)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

A wrong interpretation of Exod 34:29,35 gave rise to the idea that Moses had two horns on his face; the word “to shine” Heb. qâran, was confused with “horn” Heb. qeren. (J. Massyngberde Ford "Revelation" p 87)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Dick Harrison.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “sent away into”, see also John 3:16-18.


Greek words:

keras (horn) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Luke 1:69; Rev 5:6 – Judith 9:8; 1 Macc 2:48; 9:1,16; 2 Macc 15:20; Sir 47:5,7,11; 49:5; Rev 12:3; 13:1,11; 17:3,7,12,16.


Additional studies:

Gen 16:13; 2 Sam 22:3; Ps 112:9; 148:14; Jer 16:17; Dan 7:20-24; 8:3; Zech 3:9; Acts 2:4; Rev 4:8; 12:3; 13:1,11; 17:3,7,12,16.


M.R.J. Bredin "The Influence of the Aqedah on Revelation 5:6-9"; Irish Biblical Studies 18.1 (1996): 26-43.

J. Daryl Charles "An Apocalyptic Tribute to the Lamb (Rev 5:1-14)"; Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 34.4 (1991): 461-473.

J. Daryl Charles "Imperial Pretensions and the Throne-Vision of the Lamb: Observations on the Function of Revelation 5"; Criswell Theological Review 7.1 (1993): 85-97.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-25; 2012-06-14; 2015-02-10)

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5:7 And It came and It takes (and has taken) (the scroll) out of the right (hand) of the One being seated upon the throne.

Word for word (12 words in the Greek text): and (it)-came and (it)-takes-(and-has-taken)-(it/'the scroll') out-of the right-(hand) (of)-the-(one) being-seated upon the throne.


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

The twenty-four elders will and/also (א,* א) fall/’sink down’ in the very eyes of the One being seated upon the throne, and they will prostrate themselves before the One living into the (coming) ages of the (coming) ages (in honour of Him). Amen (א,* א). (Rev 4:10a)

I beheld against the right (hand) of the One being seated upon the throne a scroll being (and having been) written in front of (א,* א) and from behind, being (and having been) sealed entirely (with) seven seals. (Rev 5:1)


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “out of the right hand”, see Rev 5:1. Concerning “the One being seated upon the throne”, see Rev 4:2 and 4:10a.


Additional studies:


M.R.J. Bredin "The Influence of the Aqedah on Revelation 5:6-9"; Irish Biblical Studies 18.1 (1996): 26-43.

J. Daryl Charles "An Apocalyptic Tribute to the Lamb (Rev 5:1-14)"; Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 34.4 (1991): 461-473.

J. Daryl Charles "Imperial Pretensions and the Throne-Vision of the Lamb: Observations on the Function of Revelation 5"; Criswell Theological Review 7.1 (1993): 85-97.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-26; 2012-06-14; 2015-02-10)

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5:8a And when It took the scroll, the four living beings and the twenty-four elders fell/’sank down’ in the very eyes of the little Ram, everyone having a zither ...

Word for word (20 words in the Greek text): And when (it)-took the scroll, the four living-beings and the twenty four elders fell in-the-very-eyes-of (of)-the (of)-little-ram having everyone (a)-zither ...


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Jubal continually) was (the father of) the ones having ‘shown entirely’/taught in stringed instrument and zither. (Gen 4:21b, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said:) “Confess the Lord in/with zither.” (Ps 33:2a, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said:) “Praise (God) in/with stringed instrument and zither.” (Ps 150:3b, Greek OT)

(The sacrificial altar of the burnt offering) was renewed in/with lays and zithers and ... cymbals. (1 Macc 4:54b)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said to his pious sons:) “Give asunder/throughout a scent and praise (with) a song. Bless the Lord on/’for the sake of’ all the works. Give greatness to His name and confess out/frankly in/with His praise, in/with lays of lips and in/with (zithers; Greek: kinyra) and in this way you shall speak in/with a ‘confession out’/’frankly confession’ that/: “All the works of the Lord (are) extremely fine, and every command will be in His seasonable time.” (Sir 39:14b-16a)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to the crowds: “With) what shall I make this generation like? It is like little boys and girls being seated in the market-places, who raise their voices towards the other (little boys and girls); they say: “We played on the flute (to) you, and you did not dance. We wailed and you did not ‘cut yourselves’/mourn.” (Matt 11:16-17)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

In a circle from the throne (were) twenty-four thrones and against the thrones being twenty-four elders seated. (Rev 4:4a)

In a middle of the throne and (in) a circle of/from the throne (were) four living beings, being full of eyes in front of and ‘from behind’/behind. (Rev 4:6b)

The twenty-four elders will and/also (א,* א) fall/’sink down’ in the very eyes of the One being seated upon the throne, and they will prostrate themselves before the One living into the (coming) ages of the (coming) ages (in honour of Him). Amen (א,* א). (Rev 4:10a)

I beheld against the right (hand) of the One being seated upon the throne a scroll being (and having been) written in front of (א,* א) and from behind, being (and having been) sealed entirely (with) seven seals. (Rev 5:1)

I beheld ‘in a middle of’/’between (on one hand)’ the throne and the four living beings and ‘in a middle of’/’(on the other hand)’ the elders a little Ram standing as having been (and being) slaughtered. (Rev 5:6a)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

kithára Zither (Friedrich Rehkopf "Septuagintavokabular" p 167)

When brother Mattias had received the death-sacraments, he seized with the one hand Gudmund's, with the other the rector's. . . . I die filled of trust. Greet the harp-player saying him, that I hope to hear his voice in the choirs round the throne of the lamb." (Viktor Rydberg "Vapensmeden" p 142-143; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

"Do you not hear?" (bishop Petros said to the pillar saint, father Simon). "Here men appoach. It comes a boat on the river. Let nobody see, that you have left your place up there!" Petros's reminders were supported by the tones of a zitter, which accompanied a lively, clear, melodious song, sometimes interrupted by laughters and glad, conversing voices. The boat, from where these sounds were heard, approached with slow and uniform strokes of the oars in the silvern water. (Viktor Rydberg "Den siste atenaren I" p 141-142; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Plato tells of his fellow-countrymen the Athenians: "When they send their children to a teacher, they heart this one wide more to care for the good discipline of the children than to teach them to read and play zither. . . . Music-teachers also care for good manners . . . and after the boys have acquired the zither play, they teach them songs of other good poets, which songs let accompany themselves with zither; by which they develope with the boys the feeling to pace and tone, so that their tempers become more gentle and that they become able to act and speak, after they have become more sensitive to pace and tone, for the whole life of man is in need of equanimity and harmony. (Viktor Rydberg "Modersmålets litteratur i skolorna" p 257-258; Göteborgs Handelstidning 1861-01-26 - 1861-02-06; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Socrates: Euripides loves Aspasia, as we all do, and therefore he cannot be a woman-hater; he loves with Pericles' approval Aspasia's beauty of mind, and is therefore not a woman-hater; about Aspasia's body it is not much good to say, and that is no business of us! Is Aspasia beautiful, Phidias? Phidias: Aspasia is not beautiful, but her soul is beautiful and good. . . . Aspasia is the shell of the zither, without which our strings sound nothing. (August Strindberg "Hellas" p 87-88; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Eric S. Alexandersson, Werner Aspenström, Ignatius Aphram I Barsoum, Anton Blanck, Clarence Blomquist, Erik Gustaf Geijer, Verner von Heidenstam, Alf Henrikson, Viktor Johansson, Christofer Klasson, Martin Lönnebo, Oscar Lövgren, Olaus Magnus, Verner Malmsten, Harry Martinson, Mo Yan, Fredrik Nielsen, K.A. Rundbäck, Tomas Sjödin, Herbert Sundemo, Rabindranath Tagore, Thomas a Kempis.


My own comments and speculations:

In Rev 4:10 it is said that the twenty-four elders will fall/’sink down’ in the very eyes of the One being seated upon the throne. Now in Rev 5:8 they fall/’sink down’ in the very eyes of the little Ram. The little Ram (the Son) is as honoured as He who is seated upon the throne (the Father). Cf. John 5:22-23.

Concerning “the four living beings”, see Rev 4:6b. Concerning “the twenty-four elders”, see Rev 4:4a. Concerning “the little Ram”, see Rev 5:6a.


Greek words:

kithara (zither) (in the NT + one example in the Apocrypha) 1 Macc 4:54; Rev 5:8 – 1 Cor 14:7; Rev 14:2; 15:2.


Additional studies:

1 Sam 10:5; 2 Sam 6:5; 1 Chron 13:8; 15:28; 25:1,3,6; 2 Chron 5:12; 20:27-28; 29:25-26; Neh 12:27; Job 21:12; 30:31; Ps 33:2-3; 43:4; 57:8-9(9-10); 71:22; 81:2-3(3-4); 92:1-3(2-4); 98:5; 108:2-3(3-4); 137:1-2; 147:7; 150:3-5; Is 23:16; 24:8; Ezek 26:13; Matt 9:23; Luke 7:31-32; Rev 18:22.


M.R.J. Bredin "The Influence of the Aqedah on Revelation 5:6-9"; Irish Biblical Studies 18.1 (1996): 26-43.

J. Daryl Charles "An Apocalyptic Tribute to the Lamb (Rev 5:1-14)"; Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 34.4 (1991): 461-473.

J. Daryl Charles "Imperial Pretensions and the Throne-Vision of the Lamb: Observations on the Function of Revelation 5"; Criswell Theological Review 7.1 (1993): 85-97.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-26; 2012-06-14; 2015-02-10)

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5:8b … and golden bowls being full of incenses which (א,*א) are (the) (א*) prayers of the holy ones.

Word for word (10 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus prima manus): and bowls golden being-full-of incenses which are prayers (of)-the (of)-holy-(ones).


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The Lord said to Moses:) “You shall make … the bowls (of the sacrificial altar).” (Ex 27:3a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Moses:) “You shall make a sacrificial altar of incense.” (Ex 30:1a, Greek OT)

This (was) the renewal of the sacrificial altar from the side of leaders of the sons of Israel (in) the day (Moses) anointed it: … twelve golden insence dishes, filled with incense. (Num 7:84a,86a, Greek OT)

(Solomon) made a hundred golden bowls (to the temple). (2 Chron 4:8b, Greek OT)

(David said:) “Fear the Lord, His holy ones, because it/there is not a/any want to the ones fearing Him.” (Ps 34:9 or 34:10, Greek OT)

(David said to the Lord:) “Straighten my prayer entirely as incense in the very eyes of You.” (Ps 141:2a, Greek OT)

Everyone (of the elders) (continually) had his censer in the hand, and the haze of the incense ascended. (Ezek 8:11b, Greek OT)

Holy ones of a highest one will take the kingdom to the side (them) and ‘keep ... down’/possess the kingdom till/’as long as’ the age and till/’as long as’ the age of the ages. (Dan 7:18, Greek OT)

(Raphael said:) “I am Raphael, one out of the seven holy messengers who carry up the prayers of the holy ones towards (the glory of the Holy One) and (who) go into (His dwelling-place) ‘in the very eyes of’/before the glory of the Holy One.” (Tobit 12:15, BA)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said to his pious sons:) “Give asunder/throughout a scent and praise (with) a song. Bless the Lord on/’for the sake of’ all His works. Give greatness to His name and confess out/frankly in/with praise, in/with lays of lips and in/with (zithers; Greek: kinyra) and in this way you shall speak in/with a ‘confession out’/’frankly confession’ that/: “All the works of the Lord (are) extremely fine, and every command will be in His seasonable time.” (Sir 39:14b-16a)


The Latter Revelation:

(The soothsayers) carried to (Jesus) gifts; gold and olibanum/frankincense and myrrh. (Matt 2:11b)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “All things as many as you – according to the circumstances – may demand in the prayer, believing, you shall take.” (Matt 21:22)

The memorial tombs were opened, and many bodies of the holy ones, having been (and being) fallen asleep, were raised. (Matt 27:52)

Every/'the whole' multitude of the people was (continually) praying outside (at) the hour of the incense. (Luke 1:10)

(A widow) did not stand aloof of/from the sanctuary, serving night and day (with) fastings and prayers. (Luke 2:37b)

(The Pharisees and their scribes) spoke towards (Jesus): "Because of what (א*,A) do the disciples of John frequently fast and make/perform prayers, likewise and/also (the disciples) of the Pharisees, but/while Yours eat and drink?" But Jesus spoke towards them: "The sons of the bridechamber are not able to * (א*) fast, (the time) in which the bridegroom is in company with them(, are they)?" (Luke 5:33-34)

All these were (continually) unanimously ‘being patient to’/patient (in) the prayer. (Acts 1:14a)

(The ones having received Peter's saying continually) ‘were being patient’/adhered to the teaching of the apostles and the communion, to the fragmenting/breaking of the bread and the prayers. (Acts 2:42)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “If you – according to the circumstances – may stay in Me and My words may stay in you, what – if according to the circumstances – you may want, you will (א,* א) demand and it will become/’come about’ for you.” (John 15:7)

A revelation of Jesus Christ which God gave Him to show to His holy ones (א*) the things which must become/’come about’ in/with quickness. (Rev 1:1a)

Having turned myself next to I beheld seven golden lampstands. (Rev 1:12b)

(Against a middle of the seven lampstands I beheld one like a son of a man), ... being (and having been) clothed (in) a robe reaching to the feet and being (and having been) girded around at the nipples (with) a golden girdle. (Rev 1:13b)

(Elders) being (and having been) wrapped up in white (things) (א,*א) and (with) golden crowns against their heads. (Rev 4:4b)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

Now I was in the point of answering all this kindness (on account of my birthday and my illness); and I had yesterday morning begun working with telegraph and post. But during the day the work got beyond my control, and so I had to leave all of it and literally go to bed. . . . Now I consequently stop and in the hope of getting absolution. All the kind blue papers I shall keep in a box, which must not become any censer to a sweet scent. It only is to become a memory, and for my children an inheritance, with which duties follow. (August Strindberg "Ett tack" s 195-196; Afton-Tidningen 1912-01-23; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

The omens of the day had all been favourable. All without one, which one still tried to give a happy interpretation. It was whispered something about an altar, which stood close to the "cella" of the Capitolian Jupiter. They had in the morning sacrificed an incense there, but the smoke had ascended vehemently and thickened to a cloud, which still remained like a black stain on the otherwise pink sky. (Viktor Rydberg "Simon undergörarens himmelsfärd" p 37; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

In the Holy Place (of the temple) were, to the south, the golden candlestick; to the north, the table of shewbread; and beyond them the altar of incense, near the entrance to the Most Holy. (Alfred Edersheim “The Temple” p 58)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Åke Andrén, Robert Brow, William Dalrymple, Charles Dickens, Adolphine Fogtmann, Erik Gustaf Geijer, Sven Lidman, Jonas Lie, Mao Dun, Bertil Nilsson, Efraim Palmqvist, Sigurd Schartau, Tomas Sjödin, Harry Sjöman, Hjalmar Söderberg, Anton Tjechov, Göran Åberg.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “bowls being full of”, see also Rev 15:7; 21:9a.


Greek words:

thymiama (incense) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Luke 1:10; Rev 5:8 – Tobit 8:2; 2 Macc 2:5; 10:3; Wisdom of Solomon 18:21; Sir 45:16; 49:1; Luke 1:11; Rev 8:3-4; 18:13.

proseuchê (prayer) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Tobit 12:15; Acts 1:14; 2:42; Rev 5:8 – Tobit 3:16; 12:8; Judith 12:6; 13:10; 1 Macc 3:46; 5:33; 7:37; 12:11; 2 Macc 1:23-24; Wisdom of Solomon 18:21; Sir 3:5; 7:10,14; 34:26(31); 35:17(21); 39:5-6; 51:13; Baruch 2:14; 3:4. Matt 21:13,22; Mark 9:29; 11:17; Luke 6:12; 19:46; 22:45; Acts 3:1; 6:4; 10:4,31; 12:5; 16:13,16; Rom 1:9(10); 12:12; 15:30; 1 Cor 7:5; Eph 1:16; 6:18; Phil 4:6; Col 4:2,12; 1 Thess 1:2; 1 Tim 2:1; 5:5; Philemon v 4,22; Jas 5:17; 1 Pet 3:7; 4:7; Rev 8:3-4.

fialê (bowl) (in the NT + one example in the Apocrypha) Rev 5:8 – 1 Macc 1:22; Rev 15:7; 16:1-4,8,10,12,17; 17:1; 21:9.


Additional studies:

Ex 30:1-10; Num 7:14,20,26,32,38,44,50,56,62,68,74,80; 2 Chron 4:22; Prov 15:29; Is 56:7; Dan 4:14(17); 7:21-22,25; 8:13; Zech 14:5; John 14:13-14; Rev 11:18; 13:7,10; 14:12; 15:7; 17:1,6; 18:20; 19:8; 20:9; 21:9; 22:21.


M.R.J. Bredin "The Influence of the Aqedah on Revelation 5:6-9"; Irish Biblical Studies 18.1 (1996): 26-43.

J. Daryl Charles "An Apocalyptic Tribute to the Lamb (Rev 5:1-14)"; Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 34.4 (1991): 461-473.

J. Daryl Charles "Imperial Pretensions and the Throne-Vision of the Lamb: Observations on the Function of Revelation 5"; Criswell Theological Review 7.1 (1993): 85-97.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-26; 2012-06-14; 2015-02-10)

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5:9a And they sing a new lay saying:

Word for word (5 words in the Greek text): and (they)-sing (a)-new lay saying:


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

David being/was girded around in a dress of fine linen and the Levites lifting/lifted the ark of the covenant of the Lord and the ones singing psalms and Chenaniah, the leader of the ones singing lays and against/on David a dress of fine linen. (1 Chron 15:27, Greek OT)

(David said:) “God, I will sing a new lay to You. In/with a stringed instrument (with) ten strings I will play to You.” (Ps 144:9, Greek OT)

(The sacrificial altar of the burnt offering) was renewed in/with lays and zithers ... (1 Macc 4:54b)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said to his pious sons:) “Give asunder/throughout a scent and praise (with) a song. Bless the Lord on/’for the sake of’ all the works. Give greatness to His name and confess out/frankly in/with His praise, in/with lays of lips and in/with (zithers; Greek: kinyra) and in this way you shall speak in/with a ‘confession out’/’frankly confession’ that/: “All the works of the Lord (are) extremely fine, and every command will be in His seasonable time.” (Sir 39:14b-16a)


The Latter Revelation:

Having singing hymns (Jesus and His disciples) came out into/to the Mountain of the Olive-trees. (Matt 26:30)

(The people in the synagogue) were all of them amazed, so that seek/'they sought' themselves together with * (א,* א, B) themselves, saying: “What is this? A new teaching!” (Mark 1:27a)

‘According to’/by midnight on their praying Paul and Silas (continually/repeatedly) sang hymns to God. (Acts 16:25a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "A new commandment I give you.” (John 13:34a)

In the place whereat He was crucified it/there (continually) was a garden, and in the garden a new memorial tomb in which no one ‘nor yet’/not (continually) had been (and was) put/laid. (John 19:41)

(To the one conquering I will give) a white voting-stone and against the voting-stone a new name is (and has been) written, which no one knows ‘if not’/except the one taking (it). (Rev 2:17b)

Against (the pillar) I will write the name of My God and the name of the city of My God, the new Jerusalem, the one descending out of the heaven from My God, and My name, the new one. (Rev 3:12b, ”Philadelphia”)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

(The sibyl) listened with all her soul to the angelic song being gradually louder. At last it was so loud, that it woke the shepherds. They rose on their elbows seeing shining crowds of silvery angels moving up in the darkness in long, floating tracks like migratory birds. Some of them had lutes and violins in their hands, others had zithers and harps, and their song rang as cheerful as children's laughter and as carefree as larktwitter. (Selma Lagerlöf "Kejsarens syn" p 14; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

The unknown: "Let us go hiding us in the mountains with our distress . . . " "The lady: "Yes, the mountains hide! - "But first I must in and light a candle to my good Saint Elisabeth . . . come!" . . . The unknown: "Oh well; of course I always can pass, but stay I do not!" The lady: "This you do not know! - Come! - In there you will hear new songs!" The unknown goes after her towards the church doorway: "Perhaps!" The lady: "Come!" (August Strindberg "Till Damaskus I" p 157; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

I had been in Katolska kyrkan (Catholic church in Stockholm) with maternal aunt earlier, and when we had gone from the church, aunt had always praised the beautiful song, but I had not myself been able to hear, that it was beautiful. . . . But now, while I sat mourning the dead (who had gone drowning herself), now I heard every tone and was surprised at how beautiful all of it was. . . . I thought . . . that she with the song said me, that I would not mourn her any more. She heard song, which was still more beatiful than the one I listened to, and she did not more remember the suffering of her earthly life. With this it came such a delicious consolation to me, that I had to weep. . . . "I really think that I wanted to weep, also I", (aunt said). Then we sat holding one another in hand, aunt and I, as long as the song remained. (Selma Lagerlöf "Dagbok för Selma Ottilia Lovisa Lagerlöf" p 159-160; 1873-03-17; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Nils Afzelius, Elisabeth Beskow, Hjalmar Bjurulf, Rudolf Björkman, Robert Bos, Th. Brieger, Ingmar Brohed, Magnus Jacob Crusenstolpe, E.J. Ekman, Berndt Gustafsson, Jan Arvid Hellström, Martin Luther, Olaf Moe, Ingun Montgomery, Lisa Murpy, Fredrik Nielsen, Efraim Palmqvist, Lewi Pethrus, Hilding Pleijel, Sven Edvin Salje, Inger Selander, Gösta Stavman, Per-Evert Tingberger, Anton Tjechov, Karl-Erik Tysk, Folke H. Törnblom, Paul Wern, Gideon Wikström.


Greek words:

adô (sing) (in the NT) Rev 5:9 – Eph 5:19; Col 3:16; Rev 14:3; 15:3.

ôdê (lay) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) 1 Macc 4:54; Rev 5:9 – Tobit 2:6; 1 Macc 13:51; 2 Macc 7:6; Sir 39:15; 47:17; Eph 5:19; Col 3:16; Rev 14:3; 15:3.


Additional studies:

Ex 15:1; Deut 31:30; Ps 33:2-3; 40:3(4); 96:1; 98:1; 149:1; Is 42:10; Judith 16:13; Mark 14:26.


M.R.J. Bredin "The Influence of the Aqedah on Revelation 5:6-9"; Irish Biblical Studies 18.1 (1996): 26-43.

J. Daryl Charles "An Apocalyptic Tribute to the Lamb (Rev 5:1-14)"; Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 34.4 (1991): 461-473.

J. Daryl Charles "Imperial Pretensions and the Throne-Vision of the Lamb: Observations on the Function of Revelation 5"; Criswell Theological Review 7.1 (1993): 85-97.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-26; 2012-06-14; 2015-02-11)

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5:9ba Worthy are You to take the scroll and to open its seals, because You were slaughtered.

Word for word (12 words in the Greek text): worthy are-(you) (to)-take the scroll and open the seal its, because (you)-were-slaughtered


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The psalmist said to the Lord:) “Propitiation is by the side of You.” (Ps 130:4, Greek OT)


The Latter Revelation:

(The two disciples) spoke towards one another: "Was by no means our heart/hearts (continually) burning in us as/while (Jesus) (continually) talked (with) us in/on the way, as/while He (continually) opened the writings throughout to us?" (Luke 24:32)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven: (The messenger said:) ““Who (is) worthy to open the scroll and loosen its seals?” And no one in the heaven and not (א,* א) upon the earth * (א,* א) was able to open the scroll, and not (א,* א) to see (into) it. (Rev 5:2b-3)

I beheld ‘in a middle of’/’between (on one hand)’ the throne and the four living beings and ‘in a middle of’/’(on the other hand)’ the elders a little Ram standing as having been (and being) slaughtered. (Rev 5:6a)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: Origenes, John Stott.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “worthy to take the scroll and to open its seals”, see also Rev 5:2b-3. Concerning “You were slaughtered”, see Rev 5:6a.


Additional studies:


M.R.J. Bredin "The Influence of the Aqedah on Revelation 5:6-9"; Irish Biblical Studies 18.1 (1996): 26-43.

J. Daryl Charles "An Apocalyptic Tribute to the Lamb (Rev 5:1-14)"; Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 34.4 (1991): 461-473.

J. Daryl Charles "Imperial Pretensions and the Throne-Vision of the Lamb: Observations on the Function of Revelation 5"; Criswell Theological Review 7.1 (1993): 85-97.

Beate Kowalski "Martyrdom and Resurrection in the Revelation to John"; Andrews University Seminary Studies 10.1 (Jan. 1972): 55-64.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-26; 2012-06-14; 2015-02-11)

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5:9bb And (for) God in/with Your blood You bought us (א,* א) out of every tribe and tongue and people and nation.

Word for word (18 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus): and (you)-bought (for)-the god us in the blood your out-of every tribe and tongue and people and nation.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The Lord said to Abram:) “In you all the tribes of the earth will be blessed in.” (Gen 12:3b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Jacob:) “In you and in your seed all the tribes of the earth will be blessed in.” (Gen 28:14b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Moses:) “The soul of every flesh is in its blood, and I have given (and give) it to you upon the sacrificial altar to ‘propitiate out’/propitiate on account of your souls.” (Lev 17:11a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Zion:) ”You were sold ‘(as) a benefit’/gratis, and you will not be redeemed in company with silvermetal.” (Is 52:3b, Greek OT)

To (one as a son of man) was given the beginning and the honour and the kingdom, and all the peoples, tribes, tongues will be slaves to Him. His (judicial) authority (is) an agelong (judicial) authority, and His kingdom will not be ruined throughout. (Dan 7:14, Greek OT, Theod.; in the other Greek text we also have the word “nations”)

All the nations will serve Nebuchadnezzar and all the tongues and their tribes will call against him (as) into a god. (Judith 3:8b)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "The kingdom of the heavens is like a heap/treasure having been (and being) hidden in the field, which having found a man hid. And from/’owing to’ his joy he withdraws and sells all things, as many as he has, and buys that field.” (Matt 13:44)

And having taken a cup and having ‘been thankful’/’given thanks’, (Jesus) gave to (His disciples) saying: “Drink out of it, all (of you). For this is My blood of the covenant, which is poured out on account of many into/’for the purpose of’ a ‘letting be’/’leaving alone’ of misses (of the mark of God).” (Matt 26:27-28)

(Simeon said:) "My eyes have beheld Your saving, which You have made ready ‘according to’/after a face/figure of all peoples, a light into a revelation of nations and a glory of Your people Israel." (Luke 2:30-32)

They were all fulfilled of/with holy spirit and began to talk the other tongues/languages. (Acts 2:4a)

(Paul said to the elders of Ephesos:) “The Holy Spirit has put/made you inspectors to be shepherds (over) the (assembly) of called out of God, which He ‘made about Himself’/acquired through the own blood.” (Acts 20:28b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Jesus said to the Jews:) “The one chewing My flesh and drinking My blood has agelong life, and I will cause him to stand up the last day.” (John 6:54)

(Joybringing grace and peace from Jesus Christ) * (א*) welcoming us and having loosened * (א*) out of our misses (of the mark of God) in/with His blood. (Rev 1:5b)

And all the tribes of the earth will ‘cut themselves (over)’/mourn * (א*) Him. Yes. Amen. (Rev 1:7b)

I give you counsel to buy from the side of Me goldmetal ‘having been (and being) caused to glow’/’having glown (and glowing)’ out of fire, in order that you may be rich. (Rev 3:18a, “Laodicea”)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

The OT speaks of “buying” effected by Yahweh; through the mediation of the Sinai Covenant the people of Israel became the property or special possession of Yahweh, “the people that Yahweh acquired for Himself”, or more exactly “a most precious thing”, heb. segullah. Dr. Freedman has reminded me that segullah was the privy purse of the king; Israel was therefore Yahweh's private possession, whereas the other nations were in the public domain. (J. Massyngberde Ford "Revelation" p 94)

The disciple asked: I confess, that I never have properly understood the expiatory work. - You mean understand with the common sense? This one cannot. The highest questions are not able to be solved as equations of the sixth degree, but we get the solution as a gift if we pray nicely. As to the redemption work of Christ you can understand it by analogy. You remember when you had debts, so that it was run in your door all day, and you had to go out early in the morning to . . . flee from your creditors. At last you feared your room, so that you did not dare to go home to sleep. You sat on a seat in a park saying to yourself: This is hell! Then a man knowing you came, he payed your debts, and you called him your saviour. Do you not see that the one can pay for the other and save him. This, it is true, was possible to understand. - Well, but to do a bad action undone one cannot. - No, but to wipe it out of my and others' memory this can the almighty. (August Strindberg "En blå bok I" p 42; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

This, The Holy Blood Altar (in St. Jakobus' Church in Rothenburg), was carved and set up between the years 1499 and 1505 and commissioned by the Rothenburg Town Council so as to provide an honourable respository for a relic of Holy Blood. According to legend, it is said that 3 drops of Christ's blood is contained within a capsule of rock crystal in the gold-plated cross (1270) and this is what has given the altar its name. (Wolfgang Kootz "Rothenburg on the Tauber" p 29-31)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Stig Abrahamsson, J. Anjou, Sven Danell, Hilding Fagerberg, Bo Giertz, S. Henriks, Eric Hertz, C.G. Hjelm, Frideborg Lindqvist, Martin Luther, Betty Mahmoody, Vilhelm Moberg, Olaf Moe, Fabian Månsson, Johan Nordahl Brun, J. Nyrén, John Ongman, Efraim Palmqvist, Lewi Pethrus, Joanne Kathleen Rowling, Adolf Saphir, Knut Svensson, Nathan Söderblom, R.A. Torrey, Kallistos Ware, Stig Wikström.


Paul said to the believers in Corinth: “You were bought (of/with)’an honour’/’a price’. Do not become slaves of men.” (1 Cor 7:23)

But if we – according to the circumstances – may walk about in the light, as He is in the light, we have communion in company with one another, and the blood of Jesus, His Son, makes us clean from every miss (of the mark of God). (1 John 1:7)

In this we have (and have had) knowledge of the welcome, because that One put/intered His soul in favour of us. And/also we are indebted to put/inter the souls in favour of the brothers. (1 John 3:16)

This is the One having come through water and blood and spirit (א,* א, A), Jesus Christ, not in the water only, however/but in the water and in * (א,* א) blood and the Spirit is the One being a witness, because the Spirit is the truth. (1 John 5:6)


Greek words:

glôssa (tongue) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Judith 3:8; Acts 2:4; Rev 5:9 – 2 Macc 7:10; 15:33; Wisdom of Solomon 1:6; 10:21; Sir Prologue; 4:29; 5:13-14; 6:5; 17:6; 19:16; 20:18; 21:7; 22:27; 25:7-8; 26:6; 28:14-15,17-18; 36:23(25); 37:18; 40:21; 51:5,22; Baruch 4:15; Epistle of Jeremiah v 7. Mark 7:33,35; Luke 1:64; 16:24; Acts 2:3,11,26; 10:46; 19:6; Rom 3:13; 14:11; 1 Cor 12:10,28,30; 13:1,8; 14:2,4-6,9,13-14,18-19,22-23,26-27,39; Phil 2:11; Jas 1:26; 3:5-6,8; 1 Pet 3:10; 1 John 3:18; Rev 7:9; 10:11; 11:9; 13:7; 14:6; 16:10; 17:15.


Additional studies:

Gen 10:5; Ex 3:7; 12:3-13,21-27; 19:5; Deut 7:6; 14:2; 26:18; 1 Chron 21:24; Ps 22:27(28), 72:11; 74:2; 86:9; 102:22(23); 135:4; Is 43:21; 45:23; 56:7; 66:18; Dan 3:4,7,29; 5:19; 6:25; Hos 3:2; Mal 3:17; Matt 13:46; 24:14,30; 27:6-8; 28:19; Mark 7:35; 11:17; 13:10; 14:24; Luke 22:20,44; John 19:34; Rom 3:25; 1 Cor 6:20; 11:25; Gal 3:13; Eph 1:7; 2:13; Col 1:14,20; Heb 9:12,14,22; 10:10,19; 1 Pet 1:19; 2 Pet 2:1; 1 John 5:8; Rev 14:3-4; 17:15.


M.R.J. Bredin "The Influence of the Aqedah on Revelation 5:6-9"; Irish Biblical Studies 18.1 (1996): 26-43.

J. Daryl Charles "An Apocalyptic Tribute to the Lamb (Rev 5:1-14)"; Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 34.4 (1991): 461-473.

J. Daryl Charles "Imperial Pretensions and the Throne-Vision of the Lamb: Observations on the Function of Revelation 5"; Criswell Theological Review 7.1 (1993): 85-97.

K.C. Hason "Blood and Purity in Leviticus and Revelation"; Listening: Journal of Religion and Culture 28 (1993): 215-230.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-26; 2012-06-14; 2015-02-11)

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5:10 ... and You have made them a kingdom and a priestly office (א,* א) to our God, and they will be kings upon the earth.

Word for word (14 words in the Greek text): and (you)-made them (to)-the god our (a)-kingdom and (a)-priestly-office and (they)-will-be-kings upon the earth.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Joseph's brothers) (continually) spoke to him: “Being king you shall not be king against/over us, (shall you)?” (Gen 37:8a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Moses/Israel:) “You will be to Me a royal priesthood and a holy nation.” (Ex 19:6a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Moses:) "It will be a priestly office to (Aaron and his sons) for Me into the (coming) age. ..." (Ex 29:9b, Greek OT)

It will be for (Phinehas) and his seed in company with him a covenant of an agelong priestly office, in stead of (his) being zealous for his God, and he ‘propitiate out’/propitiated ‘on account’/’for the sake’ of the sons of Israel. (Num 25:13, Greek OT)

(The prophet said to the people in Jerusalem:) “You will be called priests of the Lord.” (Is 61:6a, Greek OT)

The kingdom and the (judicial) authority and their magnificense and the beginning of all the kingdoms underneath the heaven (the judgment) gave to a holy people of a Highest One to be kings (over) an agelong kingdom, and all (judicial) authorities will arrange themselves to Him and obey Him. (Dan 7:27, Greek OT)

(Solomon said:) “The reflection of (righteous ones is) by the side of a highest one. Because of this they will take the royal palace of the comely appearance and the fine diadem out of a hand of the Lord. (Wisdom of Solomon 5:15b-16a)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said: “God) ‘caused ... to stand’/appointed (Aaron) to an agelong covenant and gave to him a priestly office of a people.” (Sir 45:7a)


The Latter Revelation:

Jesus spoke to (His disciples): ”Amen I say to you that/: ‘You, the ones having followed Me in the regeneration, when the Son of the Man may – according to the circumstances – sit down upon His throne of glory, and/also you yourselves (א,*א) will be seated against twelve thrones, judging the twelve tribes of Israel.’” (Matt 19:28)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "Do not fear, small/little, little flock, because your Father has been pleased with giving you the kingdom." (Luke 12:32)

(Jesus said to the guests:) “'Every the'/everyone heightening oneself will be humbled, and the one humbling oneself will be heightened.” (Luke 14:11)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

Jesus (said to Pilate): “My kingdom is not out of this adornment/’adorned world’. If My kingdom (continually) was out of this adornment/’adorned world’, My rowers/servants (continually) had – according to the circumstances – fought, in order that I might not had been given ‘to the side of’/’over to’ the Jews. But now My kingdom is not from here." (John 18:36)

(Jesus Christ) has made us a kingdom, priests to His God and Father. (Rev 1:6a)

I, John, your brother and a companion together with (you) in the oppression and a kingdom and an endurance in Jesus. (Rev 1:9a)

The one conquering, I will give him to sit down in company with Me in/at My throne, as and/also I conquered and sat down in company with My Father in/at His throne. (Rev 3:21, ”Laodicea”)

The One being seated (is) like a jasper stone and a carnelian (in) beholding, and (there are) priests (א*,A) in a circle from the throne, like of emerald (in) beholding. (Rev 4:3)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

Three hymns are sung as the Lamb takes the scroll. The first 5:9-10 is by the living creatures and the elders. It echoes Exod 19:6. (J. Massyngberde Ford "Revelation" p 94)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Bo Frid, Erich Sauer, Jesper Svartvik.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “made them a kingdom”, see also Rev 1:6a. “They will be kings”, see also Rev 20:5b.


Paul said to the believers in Rome: “The ones taking in life what is over and above of the joybringing (grace) and the benefit of righteousness will be kings through the One, Jesus Christ.” (Rom 5:17)

Peter said to the believers: “You (are) a chosen descent, a royal/kingly priesthood, a holy nation.” (1 Pet 2:9a)


Greek words:

basileuô (be king) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Rom 5:17; Rev 5:10 – Esther 1:1a(A1),11; 4:17b(C2); 10:3l(F11); Tobit 1:15; 1 Macc 1:7,10,16; 6:2,15; 11:9; Sir 47:13. Matt 2:22; Luke 1:33; 19:14,27; Rom 5:14,21; 6:12; 1 Cor 4:8; 15:25; 1 Tim 6:15; Rev 11:15,17; 19:6; 20:4,6; 22:5.

(h)ierateia (priestly office) (in the NT + one example in the Apocrypha) Sir 45:7; Rev 5:10 – Luke 1:9; Heb 7:5.


Additional studies:

Ex 40:15; Num 3:10; 18:7; Dan 7:18; Matt 23:12; Luke 18:14; 22:30; John 3:5; 1 Cor 6:3; 1 Pet 2:5.


J. Daryl Charles "An Apocalyptic Tribute to the Lamb (Rev 5:1-14)"; Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 34.4 (1991): 461-473.

J. Daryl Charles "Imperial Pretensions and the Throne-Vision of the Lamb: Observations on the Function of Revelation 5"; Criswell Theological Review 7.1 (1993): 85-97.

A. Gelston "The Royal Priesthood"; The Evangelical Quarterly 31.3 (1959): 152-163.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-26; 2012-06-15; 2015-02-11)

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5:11a And I beheld, and I heard as (א,*א) a voice of many messengers (in) a circle (around) the throne and the living beings and the elders.

Word for word (17 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus): And (i/I)-beheld, and (i/I)-heard as (a)-voice (of)-messengers (of)-many (in)-(a)-circle-(around) (of)-the (of)-throne and (of)-the (of)-living-beings and (of)-the (of)-elders.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The Lord said to Job: “Where were you,) when the constellations became (and) all My messengers praised Me (with) a great/loud voice?” (Job 38:7, Greek OT)

Seraphim stood (in) a circle (around the Lord). (Is 6:2a, Greek OT)

(Raguel) blessed the God saying: “Blessed are You, God, in/with every clean and holy blessing, and let all Your holy ones bless You and all Your creations and all Your messengers and let Your chosen ones bless You into/for all the ages.” (Tobit 8:15a, BA)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “When the Son of the Man – according to the circumstances – may come in His glory, and all the messengers in company with Him, then He will sit down upon His throne of glory. (Matt 25:31)

Having seen Himself round about (at) the ones being seated (in) a circle around Him, (Jesus) says: “Behold, My mother and My brothers.” (Mark 3:34)

Suddenly it became/appeared together with the messenger a multitude of an heavenly army praising God. (Luke 2:13a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Jesus said:) “Father, glorify Your name.” A voice so came out of the heaven: “I and/both have glorified and will again glorify (it). So the crowd, the one standing (by), * (א,* א) having heard (it), (continually) said: “It has become (and becomes) thunder.” Others (continually) said: “A messenger has talked (and talks) (with) Him.” Jesus answered * (א,*א): “This voice has not become/come (and does not become/come) because of Me, however/but because of You.” (John 12:28-30)

I heard behind me a great/loud voice as a trumpet. (Rev 1:10b)

The One being seated (is) like a jasper stone and a carnelian (in) beholding, and (there are) priests (א*,A) in a circle from the throne, like of emerald (in) beholding. (Rev 4:3)

In a circle from the throne (were) twenty-four thrones and against the thrones being twenty-four elders seated. (Rev 4:4a)

Rays of light and voices and peals of thunder go out, out of the throne. (Rev 4:5a)

In a middle of the throne and (in) a circle of/from the throne (were) four living beings, being full of eyes in front of and ‘from behind’/behind. (Rev 4:6b)

And I beheld a stable messenger proclaiming in/with a great/loud voice. (Rev 5:2a)


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “(in) a circle (around) the throne”, see also Rev 4:6b. Concerning “the living beings”, see Rev 4:6b.


Additional studies:

Rev 5:6,8,14.


J. Daryl Charles "An Apocalyptic Tribute to the Lamb (Rev 5:1-14)"; Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 34.4 (1991): 461-473.

J. Daryl Charles "Imperial Pretensions and the Throne-Vision of the Lamb: Observations on the Function of Revelation 5"; Criswell Theological Review 7.1 (1993): 85-97.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-26; 2012-06-15; 2015-02-12)

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5:11b And the number of them (continually) was of the numbers/number of ten thousand of the numbers/number of ten thousand and the numbers/number of one thousand of the numbers/number of one thousand ...

Word for word (10 words in the Greek text): and (continually)-was the number (of)-them (of)-the-number-of-ten-thousand (of)-the-number-of-ten-thousand and (of)-the-number-of-thousand (of)-the-number-of-thousand


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The brother and the mother of Rebekah said to her:) “Become into the number of one thousand of the number of ten thousand ... ” (Gen 24:60b, Greek OT)

(Moses said:) “When the Highest One divided asunder nations, as He sowed asunder sons of Adam, He ‘caused ... to stand’/set frontiers of nations according to a number of messengers of God.” (Deut 32:8, Greek OT)

(The Lord arrives) together with a number of ten thousand ... messengers in company with Him, and He spared His people. (Deut 33:2b-3a, Greek OT)

A thousand of a number of one thousand (continually) performed public duties to (the Old of Days), and ten thousand of a number of ten thousand stood (and had stood) by the side of Him. And a court of justice sat down, and books were opened. (Dan 7:10b, Greek OT, Theod)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to the one who had drawn his dagger:) "Do you think that I am not able call to the side of My Father, and He here (א*) will just now cause to stand by the side of Me more than twelve legions of messengers?" (Matt 26:53)

(Jesus said to the many crowds:) “What king, going to ‘throw together with’/meet the other king into a war, will by no means, having first sat down, ‘take counsel’/consider, if he is able in/with ten of the number of one thousand to go to meet the one coming against him in company with twenty of the number of one thousand?” (Luke 14:31)

(The brothers in Jerusalem said to Paul:) “Brother, you 'look at'/observe how many of the number of ten thousand they are in/among the Jews of the ones having believed (and believing) ... (Acts 21:20b)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: Amy Le Feuvre, Nikolaj Gogol, Magnus Ottosson, Pansy, Bo Setterlind, Erik Johan Stagnelius, Paul Wern, Mo Yan.


My own comments and speculations: Observe the ”restoration” in Rev 5:11. The ten thousand, mentioned last in Dan 7:10, now are the first, while the ten thousand, mentioned first in Dan 7:10, now are the last.


Greek words:

myrias (the number of ten thousand) (in the NT) Acts 21:20; Rev 5:11 – Luke 12:1; Acts 19:19; Heb 12:22; Jude v 14; Rev 9:16.

chilias (the number of one thousand) (in the NT + examples in the OT) Gen 24:60; Dan 7:10; Luke 14:31; Rev 5:11 – Ps 68:17(18); 2 Macc 11:4; Acts 4:4; 1 Cor 10:8; Rev 7:4-8; 11:13; 14:1,3; 21:16.


Additional studies:


J. Daryl Charles "An Apocalyptic Tribute to the Lamb (Rev 5:1-14)"; Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 34.4 (1991): 461-473.

J. Daryl Charles "Imperial Pretensions and the Throne-Vision of the Lamb: Observations on the Function of Revelation 5"; Criswell Theological Review 7.1 (1993): 85-97.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-26; 2012-06-15; 2015-02-12)

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5:12a saying (with) a great/loud voice: “Worthy is the little Ram, the One having been (and being) slaughtered.”

Word for word (9 words in the Greek text): saying (with)-(a)-voice great: worthy is the little-ram the-(one) having-been-(and-being)-slaughtered


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

I heard behind me a great/loud voice as a trumpet. (Rev 1:10b)

I beheld a stable messenger proclaiming in/with a great/loud voice: ““Who (is) worthy to open the scroll and loosen its seals?” (Rev 5:2)

I beheld ‘in a middle of’/’between (on one hand)’ the throne and the four living beings and ‘in a middle of’/’(on the other hand)’ the elders a little Ram standing as having been (and being) slaughtered. (Rev 5:6a)

Worthy are You to take the scroll and to open its seals, because You were slaughtered. … (Rev 5:9b)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: Viktor Johansson, Lars Levi Laestadius, H. Martensen-Larsen, Gustav Sandwall, Joh. Westberg.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “the little Ram, being (and having been) slaughtered”, see also Rev 5:6a; “(with) a great/loud voice”, Rev 1:10b.


Additional studies:

Rev 13:8.


J. Daryl Charles "An Apocalyptic Tribute to the Lamb (Rev 5:1-14)"; Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 34.4 (1991): 461-473.

J. Daryl Charles "Imperial Pretensions and the Throne-Vision of the Lamb: Observations on the Function of Revelation 5"; Criswell Theological Review 7.1 (1993): 85-97.

Beate Kowalski "Martyrdom and Resurrection in the Revelation to John"; Andrews University Seminary Studies 10.1 (Jan. 1972): 55-64.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-26; 2012-06-15; 2015-02-12)

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5:12ba ... to take the ability and riches and wisdom.

Word for word (7 words in the Greek text): (to)-take the ability and riches and wisdom


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(David said to the Lord: “In) You, Lord, (is) the greatness and the ability … From the side of You (are) the riches and the glory.” (1 Chron 29:11a,12a, Greek OT)

(God said to Solomon:) “The wisdom and the understanding I give to you.” (2 Chron 1:12a, Greek OT)

(Solomon said:) “In hands (of wisdom is) numberless riches.” (Wisdom of Solomon 7:11b)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “Every/all wisdom (is) from the side of the Lord, and in company with Him it is into the (coming) age.” (Sir 1:1)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “One is wise, extremely fearful, (one) being seated upon His throne.” (Sir 1:8)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “The wisdom of the Lord (is) much/great, (and He is) stable in sovereignty and (the One) seeing all the things.” (Sir 15:18)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus) taught (the people in Nazaret) in their synagogue, so that they were overwhelmed and said: “From where (are) this wisdom and the abilities to this One?” (Matt 13:54b)

God spoke to (a rich man:) “Thoughtless (man)! This night they demand back your soul from you. But the things you have made ready, to whom will it be?” (Jesus said:) “In this way (is) the one heaping for himself and not being rich into/’for the purpose of’ God.” (Luke 12:20-21)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

I know your works and (א,*א) (your) oppression and beggary – however you are rich. (Rev 2:9a, “Smyrna”)

You have small/little ability and you have kept My saying and have not denied My name. (Rev 3:8b, “Philadelphia”)

(You say:) “I am rich and have been rich (and am rich), and I have need of (א,*א) nothing .” (Rev 3:17b, “Laodicea”)

I give you counsel to buy from the side of Me goldmetal ‘having been (and being) caused to glow’/’having glown (and glowing)’ out of fire, in order that you may be rich. (Rev 3:18a, “Laodicea”)

(Worthy are … the Lord and our God) to take the glory and the honour and the ability. ... (Rev 4:11b)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: Fredrik Nielsen, A.M. Strinnholm.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “take the ability”, see also Rev 4:11ba. Concerning "wisdom", see also Rev 13:18a.


Paul said to the believers in Rome: “O, depth of riches and wisdom and knowledge of God!” (Rom 11:33a)


Greek words:

ploutos (riches) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Wisdom of Solomon 7:11; Rom 11:33; Rev 5:12 – Esther 1:4; 5:11; 10:2; Tobit 12:8; 1 Macc 6:1; Wisdom of Solomon 5:8; 7:8,13; 8:5,18; Sir 10:30-31; 11:14,18; 13:24; 14:3; 18:25; 21:4; 24:17; 28:10; 30:16; 31:1; Matt 13:22; Mark 4:19; Luke 8:14; Rom 2:4; 9:23; 11:12,33; 2 Cor 8:2; Eph 1:7,18; 2:7; 3:8,16; Phil 4:19; Col 1:27; 2:2; 1 Tim 6:17; Heb 11:26; Jas 5:2; Rev 18:17.

sofia (wisdom) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Sir 1:1; 15:18; Matt 13:54; Rev 5:12 – Judith 8:29; 11:8,20; 2 Macc 2:9; Wisdom of Solomon 1:4,6; 3:11; 6:9,12,20-23; 7:7,12,15,21(22),24,28,30; 8:5,17; 9:2,4,6,9,17-18; 10:4,8-9,21; 14:2,5. Sir Prologue; 1:4,6,14,16,18,20,25-27; 4:11,24; 6:18,22,37; 11:1; 14:20; 15:3,10; 18:28; 19:20,22-23; 20:30-31; 21:11,18; 22:6; 23:2; 24:1,25; 25:5,10; 27:11; 37:21; 38:24; 39:1,6,10; 40:20; 41:14-15; 42:21; 43:33; 44:15; 45:26; 50:27; 51:13,17; Baruch 3:12,23. Matt 11:19; 12:42; Mark 6:2; Luke 2:40,52; 7:35; 11:31,49; 21:15; Acts 6:3,10; 7:10,22; Rom 11:33; 1 Cor 1:17,19-22,24,30; 2:1,4-7,13; 3:19; 12:8; 2 Cor 1:12; Eph 1:8,17; 3:10; Col 1:9,28; 2:3,23; 3:16; 4:5; Jas 1:5; 3:13,15,17; 2 Pet 3:15; Rev 7:12; 13:18; 17:9.


Additional studies:

2 Chron 9:22; Ps 51:6(8); 103:20-21; Is 11:2; Wisdom of Solomon 8:3; 9:1-4; Baruch 3:29; Luke 19:37; 1 Cor 2:8; Jas 5:1-2.


G. Ahlström "The House of Wisdom"; Svensk Exegetisk Årsbok 44 (1979): 74-76.

J. Daryl Charles "An Apocalyptic Tribute to the Lamb (Rev 5:1-14)"; Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 34.4 (1991): 461-473.

J. Daryl Charles "Imperial Pretensions and the Throne-Vision of the Lamb: Observations on the Function of Revelation 5"; Criswell Theological Review 7.1 (1993): 85-97.

Gordon Haddon Clark "Wisdom in First Corinthians"; Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 15.4 (Fall 1972): 197-205.

Michael V. Fox "Ideas of Wisdom in Proverbs 1-9"; Journal of Biblical Literature 116.4 (1997): 613-633.

Jeffrey S. Lamp "Wisdom in Col 1:15-20: Contribution And Significance"; Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 41.1 (1998): 45-53.

Dan G. McCartney "The wisdom of James the just"; Southern Baptist Journal of Theology 4.3 (Fall 2000): 52-64.

W. Stanford Reid "The Beginning of Wisdom"; The Evangelical Quarterly 48.3 (July-Sept. 1976): 144-153.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-26; 2012-06-15; 2015-02-12)

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5:12bb ... and stability and honour and glory and blessing.

Word for word (8 words in the Greek text): and stability and honour and glory and blessing.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Job said:) ”By the side of (the Lord) are power and stability.” (Job 12:16a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to His boy:) “I will ... put against ... My blessings against your children. (Is 44:3, Greek OT)

(The prophet said to the king of Babylon:) “The Lord of the heaven gave (you) the beginning/leadership and the kingdom and the stability and the honour and the glory.” (Dan 2:37b, Greek OT)

The Lord (is) long-suffering, and His stability (is) great. (Nahum 1:3a, Greek OT)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) "Blessing of the Lord (is) in a wage of a reverent one.” (Sir 11:22a)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “The eyes of the Lord (are) against/over the ones welcoming Him. (He is) a protection, a sovereignty and a support of stability, a shelter from heat and a shelter from midday, a watch from ‘cutting towards’ and a help from fall, heightening up a soul and giving eyes light, giving healing, life and blessing.” (Sir 34:16-17 or 34:19-20)


The Latter Revelation:

(The Son of the Man will say:) "Come here, the ones having been (and being) blessed of My Father, inherit the kingdom having been (and being) made ready for you from a foundation of an adornment/’adorned world’." (Matt 25:34b)

John answered saying to all: "I indeed baptize you (with) water, but it comes the One (being) more stable than me/I, whose thong of His sandals I am not fit to loosen." (Luke 3:16a)

A messenger from heaven ‘was beheld’/appeared (to Jesus, a messenger) being stable in Him. (א*) (Luke 22:43)

Having lifted His hands against (the disciples) (Jesus) blessed them. And it became in His blessing them, (that) He stood asunder/apart from them * (א*). (Luke 24:50b-51)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Jesus said to the Jews:) “The one not honouring the Son does not honour the Father having sent Him.” (John 5:23)

To (Jesus Christ) be the glory and the power into the (coming) ages of the (coming) ages. Amen. (Rev 1:6b)

The living beings may (א,* א) – according to the circumstances – give glory and honour and thankfulness to the One being seated on the throne. (Rev 4:9a)

(Worthy are … the Lord and our God) to take the glory and the honour and the ability. (Rev 4:11ba)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: Björnstjerne Björnson, Per Olov Enquist, Fr. Engelke, Sven Lidman, Väinö Linna, Carl Henrik Martling, Margareta Melin, John Stott, Lars Vitus.


My own comments and speculations: The Greek word “ischys” I translate by “stability” in stead of by the more usual “strength”, because I judge that “strength” is more connected with the Greek word “sthenos”.

Concerning “honour and glory”, see also Rev 4:9a and Rev 4:11ba.


Paul said to the believers in Ephesos: “Blessed (be) the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, the One having blessed us in/with every spiritual blessing in the heavenly (places) in Christ.” (Eph 1:3)

Paul said to the believers in Thessalonica: “Whoever (do not obey the good little message of our Lord Jesus) will (as) justice pay agelong destruction from the face of the Lord and from the glory of His stability.” (2 Thess 1:9)


Greek words:

eulogia (blessing) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Sir 11:22; Eph 1:3; Rev 5:12 – Tobit 5:17; 1 Macc 3:7; Wisdom of Solomon 15:19; Sir 3:8-9; 7:32; 33:17; 34:17(20); 36:16(19); 37:24; 39:22; 44:22-23(23); 45:1; 46:11; 47:6; 50:20-21; Rom 15:29; 16:18; 1 Cor 10:16; 2 Cor 9:5-6; Gal 3:14; Heb 6:7; 12:17; Jas 3:10; 1 Pet 3:9; Rev 5:13; 7:12.

ischys (stability) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Sir 34:16(19); 2 Thess 1:9; Rev 5:12 – Tobit 11:16; 13:6(8)(BA); 14:8-9; Judith 5:3; 11:7; 13:8,19; 16:13; 1 Macc 2:46; 3:19,35; 4:32; 6:47; Wisdom of Solomon 2:11; 10:2; 12:16-18; 16:16. Sir 3:13; 5:2; 6:29; 9:2; 11:12; 14:13; 16:7; 17:3; 19:28; 26:19; 28:10; 31:30; 38:5,18; 39:28; 40:26; 43:30; 45:8,12; Baruch 1:12; 3:14; The Prayer of Azariah v 21;. Mark 12:30,33; Luke 10:27; Eph 1:19; 6:10; 1 Pet 4:11; 2 Pet 2:11; Rev 7:12.


Additional studies:

Gen 1:28; 12:2-3; 22:17; 49:25; Lev 25:21; Deut 10:17; 2 Chron 16:9; Ps 29:11; Is 2:19,21; 11:2; 44:3; 61:9; 2 Macc 1:24; Matt 3:11; Mark 1:7; Luke 1:42.


J. Daryl Charles "An Apocalyptic Tribute to the Lamb (Rev 5:1-14)"; Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 34.4 (1991): 461-473.

J. Daryl Charles "Imperial Pretensions and the Throne-Vision of the Lamb: Observations on the Function of Revelation 5"; Criswell Theological Review 7.1 (1993): 85-97.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-26; 2012-06-15; 2015-02-13)

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5:13a And every creature which (is) in the heaven and upon the earth * (א,* א) and upon the sea, and the things in them, all I and/also (א,* א) heard saying:

Word for word (23 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus): and every creature which in the heaven and upon the earth and upon the sea and the-(things) in them all and/also (i/I)-heard saying:


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(God said to Moses:) “In six days the Lord made the heaven and the earth and the sea and all the things in them.” (Ex 20:11a, Greek OT)

(David said:) “Bless the Lord, all His works, in every place of His mastership.” (Ps 103:22a, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said: “The Lord made) the heaven and the earth, the sea and all the things in them.” (Ps 146:6a, Greek OT)

(Raguel) blessed the God saying: “Blessed are You, God, in/with every clean and holy blessing, and let all Your holy ones bless You and all Your creations and all Your messengers and let Your chosen ones bless You into/for all the ages.” (Tobit 8:15a, BA)

(Solomon said to the Lord: “You prepared) a man (with) Your wisdom, in order that he might be master by Your creatures having/’that had’ become.” (Wisdom of Solomon 9:2)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples: “Pray in this way: ‘Our Father,) become Your will, as in heaven and/also upon earth.’” (Matt 6:10b)

(Jesus) comes towards (the disciples) walking about upon the sea, and He (continually) wanted to come to the side of them. But beholding Him upon the sea walking about they thought that/: “It is a phantom!” (Mark 6:48b-49a)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “For in those days it will be a time of oppression such as has not become from a beginning of the creation, which God created, until now and never will be.” (Mark 13:19)

(The believers in Jerusalem said to God:) “Master, You (are) the One having made the heaven and the earth and the sea and all the things in them.” (Acts 4:24b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

All things became through (the Saying), and separate from It nothing (P66, א*) became that has become (and becomes). (John 1:3)

Both/further the sea (continually) was aroused of/’because of’ (the) great/strong wind (which was) blowing. Being (and having been) so driven as/about twenty-five or thirty stadia, they look at Jesus walking about upon the sea. (John 6:18-19a)

You created all the things, and because of Your will they (continually) were and were created. (Rev 4:11b)

No one in the heaven and not (א,* א) upon the earth * (א,* א) was able to open the scroll, and not (א,* א) to see (into) it. (Rev 5:3)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

Such a lay, such a song! (Jan in Skrolycke) lay holding his eyes together, but in stead he heard all the better. There was not a sound escaping him. When the first verses were sung, it came an interlude without words, and just this it was, that was the glorious. It vas music this! Not only the little young trees along the old highway, but the whole wood played together. There were organs and drums and trumpets. There were small thrush flutes and chaffinch squeaks, there were brooks and water-sprites, there were ringing harebells and thundering woodpeckers. Never he had heard anything so fine. And never he had listened to any music in this way. It remained in his ears, so that he never could forget it. (Selma Lagerlöf "Kejsarn av Portugallien" p 102; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Margit Assarsson, C.J. Berg, Herved Berlin, Leif Carlsson, Erik Gustaf Geijer, Phil. G. Goulding, Paulus Mar Gregorios, Carl Grimberg, Alf Henrikson, Ulrik Josefsson, Lars Levi Laestadius, A.W. Larsson, Anna Maria Lenngren, Helge Lööf, Lewi Pethrus, Bo Setterlind, Jacob Tegengren, Frans Tiger, Anders Wallenius.


My own comments and speculations:

In a restoration perspective we see how the expression “all the things in them” (Ex 20:11; Ps 146:6; Acts 4:2) here is changed to “the things in them all”.


Paul said to the believers in Colossae: "In (Christ) every/all the complement was pleased (with) to dwell and through Him ‘change entirely from’/reconcile all the things into Him ... either/both the things upon the earth either/and the things in the heavens. (Col 1:19-20)

(James said: “We should be) a certain ‘from a beginning’/’first fruit’ of the creatures (of the Lord).” (Jas 1:18b)


Greek words:

ktisma (creature) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Wisdom of Solomon 9:2; Jas 1:18; Rev 5:13 – Wisdom of Solomon 13:5; 14:11; Sir 36:14(17); 38:34; 1 Tim 4:4; Rev 8:9.


Additional studies:

Ps 148:1-13; 150:6; Acts 14:15; 17:24; Phil 2:10; Rev 10:6; 14:7.


J. Daryl Charles "An Apocalyptic Tribute to the Lamb (Rev 5:1-14)"; Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 34.4 (1991): 461-473.

J. Daryl Charles "Imperial Pretensions and the Throne-Vision of the Lamb: Observations on the Function of Revelation 5"; Criswell Theological Review 7.1 (1993): 85-97.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-27; 2012-06-18; 2015-02-13)

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5:13b To the One being seated upon (א,* א) the throne and to the little Ram (be) the blessing and the honour and the glory and the power into the (coming) ages of the (coming) ages.

Word for word (24 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus): (to)-the-(one) being-seated upon the throne and (to)-the little-ram the blessing and the honour and the glory and the power into the ages (of)-the (of)-ages.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(David said:) “The Lord spoke to my Lord: ‘Be seated ‘out of’/at My right (parts), till I – according to the circumstances – may put Your enemies a footstool of Your feet.’” (Ps 110:1, Greek OT)

(Tobias) blessed the Lord God into the (coming) ages of the (coming) ages. (Tobit 14:15b, S)

(King Antiochus wanted to brought down a message) the power of God. (2 Macc 9:17b)

(Solomon prayed to the Lord:) “Give me the wisdom sitting by the side of Your thrones." (Wisdom of Solomon 9:4a)


The Latter Revelation:

(Mary said: “The Lord) has made/shown power in/with His arm.” (Luke 1:51a)

(Jesus said:) “From the now the Son of the Man will 'be be'/be seating ‘out of’/at the right (hand side) of the ability of God.” (Luke 22:69)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Jesus said to the Jews:) “All may honour the Son entirely as they may honour the Father. The one not honouring the Son does not honour the Father having sent Him.” (John 5:23)

(Jesus said to His Father:) "Now glorify You Me, Father, by the side of Yourself (with) the glory, which I (continually) had by the side of You before the adornment/’adorned world’ was by the side of You." (John 17:5)

To (Jesus Christ is) the glory and the power into the (coming) ages of the (coming) ages. Amen. (Rev 1:6b)

The one conquering, I will give him to sit down in company with Me in/at My throne, as and/also I conquered and sat down in company with My Father in/at His throne. (Rev 3:21)

And behold, a throne (continually) lay in the heaven, and (One) being seated against the throne. (Rev 4:2b)

The living beings may (א,* א) – according to the circumstances – give glory and honour and thankfulness to the One being seated on the throne. (Rev 4:9a)

The twenty-four elders will and/also (א,* א) fall/’sink down’ in the very eyes of the One being seated upon the throne, and they will prostrate themselves before the One living into the (coming) ages of the (coming) ages (in honour of Him). Amen (א,* א). (Rev 4:10a)

(Worthy are … the Lord and our God) to take the glory and the honour and the ability. ... (Rev 4:11b)

I beheld ‘in a middle of’/’between (on one hand)’ the throne and the four living beings and ‘in a middle of’/’(on the other hand)’ the elders a little Ram standing as having been (and being) slaughtered. (Rev 5:6a)

Worthy is the little Ram, the One having been (and being) slaughtered to take the ability and riches and wisdom and stability and honour and glory and blessing. (Rev 5:12b)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

Let us choose that Virtue which will suffice us through all eternity: wherein we shall be continually, and shall enjoy the everlasting things; which may we all attain, in Christ Jesus our Lord, with whom to the Father together with the Holy Ghost be glory, power, honor, now and for ever and world without end. Amen. (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers XIV:446)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Josef Carlsson, Leif Carlsson, Sven Danell, Ylva Eggehorn, Gunnar Fjellestad, Lars Levi Laestadius, Martin Luther, Vilhelm Moberg, Stephen Neill, Carl Fr. Peterson, Einar Rimmerfors, Toije Samuelsson, Anders Wejryd, Christy Wilson.


My own comments and speculations:

In a restoration perspective we see how the “glory and honour” in Rev 4:9a and “the glory and the honour” in Rev 4:11ba are “restored” by the reversed “honour and glory” in Rev 5:12bb and “the honour and the glory” here in Rev 5:13b.

Concerning “To the One being seated upon the throne”, see Rev 4:2b and 4:10a. Concerning “the little Ram”, see Rev 5:6a. Concerning “blessing”, see Rev 5:12bb. Concerning “honour and glory”, see Rev 4:9a and Rev 4:11ba. Concerning “the power into the (coming) ages of the (coming) ages”, see Rev 1:6b.


Additional studies:

1 Chron 29:11-12; Mark 10:27; Luke 22:69; Rev 22:1,3.


J. Daryl Charles "An Apocalyptic Tribute to the Lamb (Rev 5:1-14)"; Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 34.4 (1991): 461-473.

J. Daryl Charles "Imperial Pretensions and the Throne-Vision of the Lamb: Observations on the Function of Revelation 5"; Criswell Theological Review 7.1 (1993): 85-97.

Carol J. Rotz-J.A. du Rand "The One who sits on the throne: towards a theory of theocentric characterisation according to the Apocalypse of John"; Neotestamentica 33.1 (1999): 91-112.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-27; 2012-06-18; 2015-02-13)

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5:14 And the four living beings (continually) said: “Amen.” And the elders fell/’sank down’, and they prostrated themselves.

Word for word (12 words in the Greek text): and the four living-beings (continually)-said: amen. and the elders fell and '(kissed-towards)'/'prostrated-themselves'.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

The herald proclaimed to the crowds: “To you – nations and districts, peoples and tongues – it is brought a message (from) the side of (the king): “When you – according to the circumstances – may hear the voice/sound of ... every/all descents/kinds of musicians, having fallen/’sunk down’, prostrate yourselves before the golden image (in honour of it).” (Dan 3:4-5a, Greek OT)


The Latter Revelation:

Having falling/’sunk down’ (the soothsayers, who Herod had ordered to seek out for the little Boy) prostrated themselves before (Jesus). ... (Matt 2:11b)

(The slanderer showed Jesus) all the kingdoms of the adornment/’adorned world’ and their glory. And he spoke to Him: "All these things I will give You, if – according to the circumstances – on having fallen/’sunk down’ You may prostrate Yourself before me (in honour of me)." (Matt 4:8b-9)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Jesus) says to (Nathanael): "Amen, amen, I say to you." (John 1:51a)

(Jesus said to the woman:) "However, an hour comes, and it is now, when the true ‘prostrators’ will prostrate themselves before the Father (in honour of Him) in spirit and truth. For the Father seeks (certainly) and/also of such kind the ones prostrating (towards) Him (in adoration of Him). God (is) spirit, and the ones prostrating themselves * (א*) must prostrate themselves in a spirit of (א*) truth." (John 4:23-24)

So Mary (P45,P66,א,*א), as she came whereat/where Jesus (continually) was, having beheld Him she fell/’sank down’ towards His feet. (John 11:32a)

To (Jesus Christ is) the glory and the power into the (coming) ages of the (coming) ages. Amen. (Rev 1:6b)

In a circle from the throne (were) twenty-four thrones and against the thrones being twenty-four elders seated. (Rev 4:4a)

In a middle of the throne and (in) a circle of/from the throne (were) four living beings, being full of eyes in front of and ‘from behind’/behind. (Rev 4:6b)

The twenty-four elders will and/also (א,* א) fall/’sink down’ in the very eyes of the One being seated upon the throne, and they will prostrate themselves before the One living into the (coming) ages of the (coming) ages (in honour of Him). Amen (א,* א). (Rev 4:10a)


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “the four living beings”, see Rev 4:6b. Concerning “the elders”, see Rev 4:4a. Concerning “Amen”, see Rev 1:6b. Concerning fell/’sank down’ and … prostrated”, see also Rev 4:10a.


Paul said to the believers in Corinth: “If – according to the circumstances – you may bless (in) (א*,A) spirit, how will the one ‘completing upwards’/upcompleting the place of the single citizens (be able to) speak the ‘Amen’ on/to your thankfulness, ‘already since’/since he does not know what you say?” (1 Cor 14:16)


Additional studies:

Matt 18:26; Rev 3:9; 5:8,11; 7:12; 19:4.


J. Daryl Charles "An Apocalyptic Tribute to the Lamb (Rev 5:1-14)"; Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 34.4 (1991): 461-473.

J. Daryl Charles "Imperial Pretensions and the Throne-Vision of the Lamb: Observations on the Function of Revelation 5"; Criswell Theological Review 7.1 (1993): 85-97.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-27; 2012-06-18; 2015-02-13)

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