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Chapter 4

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4:1a After these things I beheld, and behold, a door being (and having been) opened in the heaven.

Word for word (10 words in the Greek text): After these-(things) (i/I)-beheld. and behold (a)-door being-(and-having-been)-opened in the heaven.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Abraham) beheld, and behold, a flame of/from the earth/land ascended as if (it was) a haze of/from a furnace. (Gen 19:28b, Greek OT)

(Jacob) was aoused from his sleep and spoke: “ ... This is the house of God, and this (is) the gate of the heaven.” (Gen 28:16-17, Greek OT)

(Moses said to Pharao:) “After these things I will come/go out.” … (Ex 11:8b, Greek OT)

Having come into/through all the doors (Esther) stood/sat down in the very eyes of the king. (Esther 5:1ca/D6a)

(God) opened doors of heaven, and He gave (His people) wet, manna to eat, and He gave them bread of heaven. (Ps 78:23b-24, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) “I will give the key of the house of David on (Eliakim's) shoulder, and he will open, and it/there is not (anyone) shutting up, and he will shut up, and it/there is not (anyone) opening.” (Is 22:22, א*)

The heavens were opened, and (the prophet) beheld beholdings of God. (Ezek 1:1b, Greek OT)

(Daniel said:) "I lifted my eyes, and I beheld, and behold, a (certain) man, one being (and having been) set/clothed in (clothes) of fine linen. (Dan 10:5a, Greek OT)


The Latter Revelation:

Having been baptized Jesus straight/’straight off’ ascended from the water; and behold, the heavens were opened, and (John) beheld a (א,*א,B) spirit of God descending as if (it was) a pigeon * (א*,B) coming against Him. (Matt 3:16)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “The sign of the Son of the Man will ‘be brought’/come to light in heaven.” (Matt 24:30a)

After these things (Jesus) came out and viewed a toll collector (with) name Levi, being seated against the toll-house. And He says (א,* א) to him: “Follow Me!” (Luke 5:27)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Demand and it will be given you; seek and you will find; knock and it will be opened to you.” (Luke 11:9b)

(Jesus said:) “From (the time in) which the master of the house – according to the circumstances – may have risen and shut up the door, you may begin * (א*) to knock at the door, saying: ‘Lord, open to us.’ And ‘having answered’/’he will answer and’ speak to you: ‘I do not know you, from where you are.’ … (But men) will arrive from upstickings/east and settings/west and * (א,*א,A) north wind/north and south wind/south and lean up/back in the kingdom of God.” (Luke 13:25,29)

(Stephen) spoke: “Behold, I look at the heavens being (and having been) opened throughout and the Son of the Man standing out of the right (parts) of God.” (Acts 7:56)

(God) had opened a door of faith to the nations. (Acts 14:27b)

A vision was beheld to Paul through/during the night. (Acts 16:9a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Jesus said to Nathanael): "You will behold the heaven opened, and the messengers of God ascending and descending against the Son of the Man." (John 1:51b)

After these things it/there (continually/-) was the (א,*א) feast of the Jews, and Jesus ascended into (a disgraced) Jerosolyma/Jerusalem. (John 5:1)

After these things Jesus went away on the other side of the Sea of the Galilee of the Tiberias. (John 6:1)

(Jesus said to the Pharisees:) “The one coming into/in through the door is a shepherd of the sheep. To this one the doorkeeper opens, and the sheep hear his voice, and he raises his voice (towards) his own sheep ‘according to name’/’after their names’, and he leads them out. … I am the door. If – according to the circumstances – anyone may come into/in through Me, he will be saved and he will come into/in and come out and find pasture.” (John 10:2-3,9)

After these things Jesus again made Himself visible to the disciples upon the Sea of Tiberias. (John 21:1a)

Behold, He comes in company with the clouds. (Rev 1:7a)

Write so the things which you have beheld, and the things which are and the things which must (א*) be about to become after these things. (Rev 1:19)

(This is what the True One, the Holy One, says, the One) having the key of David, the One opening and no one will shut, and (the One) shutting and no one will (א,*א) open. I know your works. Behold, I have given (and give) a door having been (and being) opened in the very eyes of you, which no one is able to shut * (א,*א). (Rev 3:7b-8a, “Philadelphia”)

Behold, I stand against the door, and I knock. If – according to the circumstances – anyone may hear My voice, I will (א,* א) and/both open the door and come into/in towards him, and I will take the chief meal in company with him and he in company with Me. (Rev 3:20, “Laodicea”)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: Samuel Josef Agnon, Bo Frid, Gillis Gerleman, Ragnar Samuelsson, Jesper Svartvik.


Additional studies:

Is 6:1; Mark 1:10; Luke 3:21; Acts 10:11; Rev 6:2,4(א,*א),5,8; 7:9; 14:1,14; 15:5; 18:1; 19:11.


Mark Dever "A Vision of God: Ezekiel 1:1-20"; Southern Baptist Journal of Theology 2.4 (Winter 1998): 16-23.

R.J. Korner "'And I saw . . .' An Apocalyptic Literary Convention for Structural Identification in the Apocalypse"; (the journal) Novum Testamentum 42.2 (2000): 160-183.

D. Mathewson "Assessing Old Testament Allusions in the Book of Revelation"; The Evangelical Quarterly 75.4 (Oct.-Dec. 2003): 311-325.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-22; 2012-06-12; 2015-02-01)

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4:1ba And behold (א,*א), the first voice, which I heard, talking in company with me as a trumpet, saying:

Word for word (14 words in the Greek text): and behold the voice the first which (i/I)-heard as (a)-trumpet talking in-company-with me saying:


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(On the third day by the mountain Sinai) a voice of the trumpet sounds greatly/loudly. … And the Lord spoke to (Moses). (Ex 19:16b,24a, Greek OT)


The Latter Revelation:

Having been baptized Jesus straight/’straight off’ ascended from the water; and behold, the heavens were opened, and (John) beheld a (א,*א,B) spirit of God descending as if (it was) a pigeon * (א*,B) coming against Him. And behold, a voice out of the heavens saying: (Matt 3:16-17a)

(Jesus said to His disciples: “The Son of the Man) will dispatch away His messengers ‘in company’/together with a great trumpet. And they will lead together against/’in quest of’ His chosen ones.” (Matt 24:31a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

Behold, He comes in company with the clouds. (Rev 1:7a)

(John said:) “I heard behind me a great/loud voice as a trumpet. … I turned myself next to, to see the voice whichever/which (continually) talked in company with me.” (Rev 1:10b,12a)


Additional studies: Ex 19:19; 20:18; Mark 1:10-11; John 11:43; Luke 3:21-22; 1 Cor 14:8; Heb 12:19; Rev 11:12.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-22; 2012-06-12; 2015-02-01)

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4:1bb Ascend here, and I will show you what things must become after these things.

Word for word (10 words in the Greek text): ascend here, and (i/I)-will-show you which/what-(things) must become after these-(things).


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Moses said to Pharao:) “After these things I will come/go out.” … (Ex 11:8b, Greek OT)

The Lord spoke to (Moses): “Advance, descend and ascend (to the mountain Sinai), you and Aaron in company with you, but do not let the priests and the people advance to ascend towards God, (so that) the Lord may not at any time perish from/’owing to’ them.” (Ex 19:24, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Israel:) “From the now I have made the new things audible to you, (things) which it is about to become. …” (Is 48:6b, Greek OT)

(Daniel said to the king:) “It/there is a God in heaven uncovering mysteries, (a God) who has manifested to king Nebuchadnezzar the things which must become/’come about’ upon the last days.” (Dan 2:28a, Greek OT)


The Latter Revelation:

Beholding the crowds (Jesus) ascended into/on the mountain. (Matt 5:1a)

From then/’that time’ Jesus Christ (א*,B*) began to show His disciples, that He must go away into (a disgraced) Jerosolyma/Jerusalem. (Matt 16:21a)

(Jesus said to one of His disciples:) “How may so the writings be completed, because it must become in this way?” (Matt 26:54)

After these things (Jesus) came out and viewed a toll collector (with) name Levi, being seated against the toll-house. And He says (א,* א) to him: “Follow Me!” (Luke 5:27)

... (Zaccheus) ascended against/into a fig-mulberry, in order that he might behold (Jesus). (Luke 19:4a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

No one has ascended (and ascends) into the heaven, ‘if not’/except the One having descended out of the heaven, the Son of the Man. (John 3:13)

After these things it/there (continually/-) was the (א,*א) feast of the Jews, and Jesus ascended into (a disgraced) Jerosolyma/Jerusalem. (John 5:1)

(Jesus said to the Jews:) “The Father is friends with the Son and shows Him all things He Himself makes.” (John 5:20a)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) " For (the Spirit of truth) will not talk from Itself, however/but as many things as It * (א,*א) hears, It will talk, and It will bring up a message to you (about) the coming things.” (John 16:13b)

(Jesus said to Mariam:) “Go towards the (א*) brothers and speak to them: “I ascend towards 'the Father My'/'My Father' and your Father and My God and your God.” (John 20:17b)

A revelation of Jesus Christ which God gave Him to show to His holy ones (א*) the things which must become/’come about’ in/with quickness. (Rev 1:1a)

Write so the things which you have beheld, and the things which are and the things which must (א*) be about to become after these things. (Rev 1:19)

After these things I beheld, and behold, a door being (and having been) opened in the heaven. (Rev 4:1a)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: Hjalmar Alving, Göran Burenhult, Atle Burman, Carl Grimberg, Gudmar Hasselberg, Efraim Palmqvist, Seymor Rossel, Ragnar Samuelsson, Torgny Segerstedt.


My own comments and speculations:

To understand the importance of the ascension of the apostle John we can compare this event with the unique ascension of the Son of the Man. (John 3:13).

Concerning “after these things”, see also Rev 4:1a.


Additional studies: Ex 19:3; 24:1; Jer 23:18; Matt 14:23; 15:29; Mark 3:13; Luke 9:28; John 14:8-9; 2 Cor 12:2; Rev 11:12; 17:1; 21:9-10; 22:1,6,8.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-22; 2012-06-12; 2015-02-01)

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4:2a Straightaway I became in spirit.

Word for word (4 words in the Greek text): Straightaway (i/I)-became in spirit.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The prophet said:) “A spirit took me up.” (Ezek 3:12a, Greek OT)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus) says to (the Pharisees): “How does David so in spirit call (Christ) ‘Lord’?” (Matt 22:43a)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “When you – according to the circumstances – may hear (of) wars and unstable conditions, do not be frightened, for these things must become first, however/but the end (will) not (be) straightaway.” (Luke 21:9)

(Peter said to the ones who were circumcised:) “I (continually) was in a city Joppa praying, and in a standing out of myself I beheld a vision.” (Acts 11:5a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Jesus said to the woman:) "However, an hour comes, and it is now, when the true ‘prostrators’ will prostrate themselves before the Father (in honour of Him) in spirit and truth. For the Father seeks (certainly) and/also of such kind the ones prostrating (towards) Him (in adoration of Him). God (is) spirit, and the ones prostrating themselves * (א*) must prostrate themselves in a spirit of (א*) truth." (John 4:23-24)

I became in spirit in/on the day belonging to the Lord. (Rev 1:10a)


Additional studies:

Rev 17:3.


Richard J. Bauckham "The Role of the Spirit in the Apocalypse"; The Evangelical Quarterly 52.2 (1980): 66-83.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-22; 2012-06-12; 2015-02-01)

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4:2b And behold, a throne (continually) lay in the heaven, and (One) being seated against the throne.

Word for word (12 words in the Greek text): and behold (a)-throne (continually)-lay in the heaven, and against the throne being-seated


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

Micaiah spoke: “… Hear a word of the Lord ...: “I beheld the Lord, the God of Israel, being seated upon His throne.” (1 Kings 22:19a, Greek OT)

Having come into/through all the doors (Esther) stand/set down in the very eyes of the king. (Esther 5:1ca/D6a)

(David said:) “ … The throne of (the Lord is) in heaven.” (Ps 11:4a, Greek OT)

… (The prophet) beheld the Lord being seated upon a throne, high and being lifted upon/up. (Is 6:1a, Greek OT)

... In/at that seasonable time they will call Jerusalem: “Throne of the Lord.” (Jer 3:17a, Greek OT)

(The prophet said: “From high above the firmament over the heads of the living beings there was) a likeness of a throne ... and upon the likeness of the throne (there was) from above a likeness as a form of a man. (Ezek 1:26b, Greek OT)

(Daniel said:) “I (continually) looked at ... when thrones were put/’set up’ and an Old of days (continually) was seated, having a wrapper as if (it was) white (Theod) snow and the growth of hair of His head as if (it was) white clean wool. The throne (was) as if (it was) a flame of fire. (Dan 7:9, Greek OT)

(Baruch said to the Lord:) “You being/are seated (into) the (coming) age, and we perishing/perish (into) the (coming) age.” (Baruch 3:3)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples: “The heaven) is a throne of God.” (Matt 5:34b)

(Jesus said to the scribes and the Pharisees:) “The one having sworn in/by the heaven swears in/by the throne of God and in/by the One being seated above it.” (Matt 23:22)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “When the Son of the Man – according to the circumstances – may come in His glory, and all the messengers in company with Him, then He will sit down upon His throne of glory. (Matt 25:31)

(Two of Jesus' disciples) lead (א*) the foal towards (Him), and they throw their garments on it. And they are seated (א*) against it. (Mark 11:7)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

No one has ever beheld (and beholds) God. An only descendant, a God, the One being into/in the bosom of the Father, that One has ‘been in command out’/explained Him. (John 1:18)

Joybringing (grace) (with) you and peace from the One who is and the One who (continually) was and the One who comes and from the seven spirits * (א,* א, A) ‘in the very eyes of’/before His throne. (Rev 1:4b)

Behold, He comes in company with the clouds. (Rev 1:7a)

The one conquering, I will give him to sit down in company with Me in/at My throne, as and/also I conquered and sat down in company with My Father in/at His throne. (Rev 3:21, ”Laodicea”)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

Compare: “The cosmology of the heavenly journey consists of the heavens. God's throne is placed in the tenth heaven. ... In the shorter recension, however, there are only seven heavens. What is contained in the seventh heaven includes what we meet in the longer version's three last heavens, that is, the eighth, ninth and tenth. ... The heavenly journey has the function of bestowing upon Enoch a unique identity and giving him a heavenly status.” (Leif Carlsson ”Round trips to heaven” p 87-88 commenting Enoch's Heavenly Journey in the Second Book of Enoch)

Compare: “It is true that the heavenly journey which Abraham takes is temporary, but it anticipates and, at the same time, confirms his future heavenly status. ... The heavenly journey functioned as a substitute for a lost temple. Earlier, one could have contact with God through the temple. That path was now closed, but the desire for a continual contact with God remained. There was, in other words, a need for individual heavenly journeys.” (Leif Carlsson ”Round trips to heaven” p 131,148, commenting Abraham's Heavenly Journey in the Apocalypse of Abraham)

Hellenistic Judaism showed little interest in the eschatological throne of divine judgement, but it was a subject of concern to Palestinian and rabbinic Judaism and became an important feature in Jewish mysticism, especially the Kabbalah. It was thought to have been made before the creation of the world (Pesachim 54a). The importance given to the throne in Revelation would not suggest Hellenistic influence. (J. Massyngberde Ford "Revelation" p 71)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Margit Assarsson, Sven Danell, Vilhelm Moberg, Olaf Moe, Bror Olsson, John Stott.


Additional studies:

2 Chron 18:18; Ps 47:8(9); 103:19; Ezek 10:1; Matt 19:28; 1 Tim 6:16; Rev 4:9-10; 5:1,7,13; 6:16; 7:10,15; 19:4; 21:5.


Carol J. Rotz-J.A. du Rand "The One who sits on the throne: towards a theory of theocentric characterisation according to the Apocalypse of John"; Neotestamentica 33.1 (1999): 91-112.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-22; 2012-06-12; 2015-02-01)

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4:3 And the One being seated (is) like a jasper stone and a carnelian (in) beholding, and (there are) priests (א*,A) in a circle from the throne, like of emerald (in) beholding.

Word for word (17 words in the Greek text): and the-(one) being-seated like beholding (a)-stone jasper and (a)-carnelian in-a-circle-from the throne like beholding (of)-emerald.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The Lord said to Moses/Israel:) “You will be to Me a royal priesthood and a holy nation.” (Ex 19:6a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Moses:) ”You shall weave down/entirely a web in (the breast-shield of the judgments) (with) stone down/entirely (in) four rows; a row of stones shall be carnelian, topaz and emerald, the row the one; and the second row: coal and sapphire and jasper; and the third row: amber and agate and amethyst; and the fourth row chrysolite and little beryl and onyx; being (and having been) veiled/covered around (with) goldmetal.” (Ex 28:17-20a, Greek OT)

(David was) good in beholding to/before the Lord. And the Lord spoke towards Samuel: “Stand up and anoint David, because this one is good.” (1 Sam 16:12b, Greek OT)

(David said to the leaders of Israel:) “Is by no means the Lord in company with you? ... ‘In a circle from’/’all around’ He has brought you to rest.” (1 Chron 22:18a, Greek OT)

(The prophet said to the people in Jerusalem:) “You will be called priests of the Lord.” (Is 61:6a, Greek OT)

In the middle (of the cloud there were something) as a likeness (with) four living beings. And this (was) their beholding: A likeness of a man (was) on them. (Ezek 1:5, Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) “As a beholding of a bow, when it – according to the circumstances – may be in the cloud in/on a day of rain, in this way (is) the standing of the splendour ‘in a circle from’/’all around’. This/such (is) the beholding of a likeness of (the) glory of the Lord.” (Ezek 1:28a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to the king of Tyre:) In the delicacy of the ‘place by the side of apprehension’/Paradise of God you became. And 'to be (and have been)'/'you were (and had been)' set/clothed in every beneficial stone: 'Carnelian ... and emerald ... and jasper ... .'" (Ezek 28:13a, Greek OT)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “Ezekiel … beheld a beholding of glory.” (Sir 49:8a)

(Taking up) a dress of glory ... (the great priest) glorified a wrapper/wall of a holy place. But/and in the thing to receive a limb/’pieces from the sacrifice’ out of the hands of the priests. ... (there was) in a circle from/round him a crown of brothers. ... And all the sons of Aaron (were there) in their glory. (Sir 50:11-12a,13a)


The Latter Revelation:

In the days of Herod, king of Judea, ‘it became’/’there was’ a certain priest (with) name Zacharias out of Abijah's (section of ) daily service. (Luke 1:5a)

(Peter said: “In the last days) your youths/’young men’ will behold beholdings, and your elders will dream dreams.” (Acts 2:17b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

And we viewed His glory, a glory as of an only descendant from the side of a father, filled with joybringing (grace) and truth. (John 1:14b)

(Jesus Christ) has made us a kingdom, priests to His God and Father. (Rev 1:6a)

To the messenger of the (assembly) of called out in Sardis write. (Rev 3:1a)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

“jasper and carnelian … emerald” These are referred to in Exod. 28:17-21, where they explicitly represent three of the twelve tribes of Israel. The passage describes the priest leader's breastplate. … Note that jasper and carnelian are the last and first stones i.e. Benjamin the youngest and Reuben the eldest. ... Cf. also Ezek 28:13, where the carnelian, jasper and emerald are among the stones of paradise. (Massyngberde Ford p 71)

When general (Löwensköld's) coffin was put down in the walled sepulchral chamber, which he had prepared for himself in Bro churchyard, the ring of the king remained sitting on the forefinger of his left hand. There were many of the present, who complained about this that such a jewel was to accompany dead man in the tomb, for the ring of the general was almost as known and famous as he himself. People told, that there were so much gold in it, that it could have been enough to buy a farm, and that the red carnelian, where the monogram of the king was engraved, had not less value. (Selma Lagerlöf "Löwensköldska ringen" p 8-9; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Chas. E. Cowman, Maksim Gorkij, C.G. Hjelm, P. Waldenström.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning Massyngberde Ford's comment above, so can the words in Rev 4:3 also be seen in a restoration perspective. The first stone (= the oldest son) now is the last one, and the last stone (= the youngest son) is the first one. For a more thorough comment, see My own comments and speculations to Rev 21:19-20.


Having so a great priest leader, having come (and coming) through the heavens, Jesus, the Son of God, we may ‘have power over’/’hold fast’ the confession. (Heb 4:14a)


Greek words:

iaspis (jasper) Ex 28:18; Ezek 28:13; Rev 4:3 – Ex 36:18; Is 54:12; Rev 21:11,18-19.

kyklothen (in a circle from) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Sir 50:12; Rev 4:3 – 1 Macc 5:65; Sir 45:9; 46:5,16; 47:7; 51:4; (4 Macc 14:17); Rev 4:4,8.

(h)orasis (beholding) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Sir 49:8; Acts 2:17; Rev 4:3 – Tobit 12:19; Sir 11:2; 19:29; 25:17; 34:3; 46:15; 48:22; Rev 9:17.

sardion (carnelian) (in the NT + examples in the OT) Ex 28:17; Ezek 28:13; Rev 4:3 - Ex 25:7; Rev 21:20.

smaragdinos (of emerald) Rev 4:3


Additional studies:

Ex 39:10-13; Ps 84:11(12); Ezek 1:27-28; Heb 2:17; 3:1; 5:5; 8:1; 9:11; 10:21; Rev 4:9,17; 5:10; 20:6; 21:20.


Mark Dever "A Vision of God: Ezekiel 1:1-20"; Southern Baptist Journal of Theology 2.4 (Winter 1998): 16-23.

Carol J. Rotz-J.A. du Rand "The One who sits on the throne: towards a theory of theocentric characterisation according to the Apocalypse of John"; Neotestamentica 33.1 (1999): 91-112.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-22; 2012-06-12; 2015-02-02)

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4:4a And in a circle from the throne (were) twenty-four thrones and against the thrones being twenty-four elders seated ...

Word for word (15 words in the Greek text): And in-a-circle-from the throne thrones twenty four and against the thrones twenty four elders being-seated ...


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

Having ‘left out’/’breathed his last’ Abraham died in a fine old age, an old man. (Gen 25:8a, Greek OT)

(Elijah) finds Elisah ... in/with cattles/oxen – twelve pairs of cattles/oxen in the very eyes of him ... and (Eliah) came against, against him and tossed his sheep's skin against, against him. And (Elisah) left the oxen entirely. (1 Kings 19:19b-20a, Greek OT)

(There were) sixteen leaders into/’purposed for’ fatherly houses of Eleazar and eight of the sons of Ithamar according to their fatherly houses. And (David) divided them according to share of inheritance ... because they (continually) were leaders of the holy ones and leaders of the Lord. … The eighth (share came out) for Abijah. (1 Chron 24:4b-5a,10b, Greek OT)

The Lord will be king in Zion and in Jerusalem, and He will be glorified in the very eyes of the elders. (Is 24:23b, Greek OT)

(The prophet said: “As) I (continually) was seated in the house, and the elders of Judas (continually) were seated in the very eyes of me … (I beheld) a likeness of a male … And a spirit took me up ‘upwards middle of ... upwards middle of’/between the earth and the heaven and led me into Jerusalem in a beholding of God against the frontdoors of the gate/entrance of (the temple). … And behold, the glory of ... God of Israel (continually) was there. . . . Upon/at the front doors of the temple of the Lord, ‘upwards middle of ... upwards middle of’/between the forecourt and the sacrificial altar, (are) as/about twenty (New Amercan Standard: about twenty-five) males (with) their back parts towards the temple of the Lord and their faces over against. And these prostrate themselves before the sun (in honour of it). (Ezek 8:1b-4,16b, Greek OT)

(Solomon said to the Lord:) “You have arranged every thing throughout (with) measure and number and standing-place/balance.” (Wisdom of Solomon 11:20b)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “Stand yourself in a multitude of elders.” (Sir 6:34a)


The Latter Revelation:

Jesus spoke to (His disciples): ”Amen I say to you that/: ‘You, the ones having followed Me in the regeneration, when the Son of the Man may – according to the circumstances – sit down upon His throne of glory, and/also you yourselves (א,*א) will be seated against twelve thrones, judging the twelve tribes of Israel.’” (Matt 19:28)

In the days of Herod, king of Judea, ‘it became’/’there appeared’ a certain priest (with) name Zacharias out of Abijah's (section of ) daily service. (Luke 1:5a)

Having stretched their hands (Paul and Barnabas) (elected) elders ‘according to’/’in every’ (assembly) of called out. (Acts 14:23a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

The Jews so spoke towards Him: “You have/'do ... reach' not yet fifty years, and Abraham has beheld (and behold) You (P75,א*)?” (John 8:57)

(There are) priests (א*,A) in a circle from the throne, like of emerald (in) beholding. (Rev 4:3b)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

The elders represent Israel. They are associated with the kingship or the ruling power over the state. According to Sir 44-49 there are twenty-four fathers of Israel, “our fathers in their generations”, “leaders of the people”, who stood valiantly for Yahweh and did not submit to pagan rulers; cf. Sir 48:12b. … The twenty-four elders, according to Johannine usage, may have a double meaning and represent both the fathers of Israel and the twenty-four courses of priests and Levites. (J. Massyngberde Ford "Revelation" p 80-81)

In the early Church ... there were the elders. They were the local officials and their authority was confined to the place where they were set apart. (William Barclay “The Acts of the Apostles” p 91)

The works of the arts must (nowadays) pass the purgatory of the critics, which is the with fear seen but inevitable interval in the wandering to heaven, where thrones are held in readiness to the chosen ones of the arts. (Viktor Rydberg "Målarens psykologi" p 31; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

It is, to be sure, rather odd that I always have had more respect for the ones being younger than for the older ones. For I have felt that the younger ones to some extent are superior, because they are born without the delusions in which we older have lived and that they have got the new thoughts from the beginning, are consequently more safe - they continued what we concluded. (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev V 1885-juli 1886" p 302; letter 1886-03-21 to Gustaf Steffen, born 1864; Strindberg was born 1849-01-22; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

An old man sits in taverns. An old man hurries to horse-races – an old man goes up into theaters, running with the crowd like children. Truly it is a shame and a mockery, to be adorned outside with gray hairs, but within to have the mind of a child. (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers XIV:401)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Chinua Achebe, Eric Axelsson, Rudolf Björkman, Michael Bond, Ingmar Brohed, Leif Carlsson, William Dalrymple, Kate Douglas, Alan Dufberg, P. Fjellstedt, Emilia Fogelklou, Jane Fredlund, Bo Frid, Carl Grimberg, Berndt Gustafsson, Erik J. Holmberg, Bob Holmes, Viktor Johansson, Kurt Kleiner, K.E. Laman, Sigurd Lindgren, Fredrik Nielsen, Bertil Nilsson, Don C. Ohadike, Edvard Rohde, Adolf Schück, Jesper Svartvik, Anton Tjechov, P. Waldenström, Paul Wern, Göran Åberg, Josef Öhrneman.


My own comments and speculations:

The number 24 – and here the 24 thrones and the 24 elders – can represent the old and the new Israel together. An alternative possibility is to see them as the 24 prophets (incl. John the Baptist) of the old covenant. Cf. Rev 21:12-14 and My own comments and speculations to John 6:16-21.


Greek words:

presbyteros (elder) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Sir 6:34; Acts 14:23; Rev 4:4 – Judith 6:16,21; 7:23; 8:10; 10:6; 13:12; 1 Macc 1:26; 7:33; 11:23; 12:35; 13:36; 14:9,20,28; 16:2; 2 Macc 5:13; 8:30; 13:13; 14:37; Wisdom of Solomon 8:10; Sir 7:14; 25:4,20; 32:3; Baruch 1:4; Susanna v 5,8,16,18,41,50; Matt 15:2; 16:21; 21:23; 26:3,47,57; 27:1,3,12,20,41; 28:12; Mark 7:3,5; 8:31; 11:27; 14:43,53; 15:1; Luke 7:3; 9:22; 15:25; 20:1; 22:52; John (8:9); Acts 2:17; 4:5,8,23; 6:12; 11:30; 15:2,4,6,22-23; 16:4; 20:17; 21:18; 23:14; 24:1; 25:15; 1 Tim 5:1-2,17,19; Tit 1:5; Heb 11:2; Jas 5:14; 1 Pet 5:1,5; 2 John v 1; 3 John v 1; Rev 4:10; 5:5-6,8,11,14; 7:11,13; 11:16; 14:3; 19:4.


Additional studies: Ex 17:5-6; 18:12; 19:7; 24:1,9-10,14; Lev 4:15; Num 11:16,24-25,30; 16:25; Deut 31:9,28; 32:7; Joshua 7:6; 8:10; 9:11; 23:2; 24:1; Judges 2:7; Ruth 4:2,4,9,11; 1 Sam 4:3; 30:26; 2 Sam 3:17; 5:3; 12:17; 17:4,15; 1 Kings 8:1; 20:7-8; 21:8; 2 Kings 6:32; 10:1,5; 19:2; 23:1; 1 Chron 11:3; 15:25; 21:16; 24:1-19; 2 Chron 5:2,4; 34:29; Ezra 10:14; Job 12:20; Ps 105:22; 107:32; Is 3:2,14; 9:15; 37:2; Jer 19:1; 26:17; 29:1; Lam 1:19; 2:10; 4:16; 5:12; Ezek 8:12; 9:6; 14:1; 20:1,3; Sir 44-49; Luke 22:30,66; Acts 5:21; 22:5; Eph 2:6; 1 Tim 4:14; 2 Tim 2:12; Rev 2:26; 20:4.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-23; 2012-06-12; 2015-02-02)

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4:4b ... being (and having been) wrapped up in white (things) (א,*א) and (with) golden crowns against their heads.

Word for word (10 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus): being-(and-having-been)-wrapped-up-in in white-(things) and against the heads their crowns golden.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(David) took the crown (of gold) (from the king) … and it (continually) was upon David's head. (2 Sam 12:30a, Greek OT)

(David) took the crown (of gold) (from the king) … and it (continually) was against David's head. (1 Chron 20:2a, Greek OT)

(Mordecai) came out being dressed up in the kingly dress and having a golden crown and a purple diadem of fine linen. But beholding (him) the ones (being) in Susa rejoiced. (Esther 8:15, Greek OT)

(David said to the Lord:) “You put a crown out of a valuable stone against the head (of the king).” (Ps 21:3b or 21:4b, Greek OT)

(Solomon said:) “God has already been pleased with your pieces of workmanship. In every seasonable time let your garments stand/be white.” (Eccl 9:7b-8a, Greek OT)

(The woman said:) “Come out (daughters of Zion) and behold in/at king Solomon in/with the crown, in/with which his mother has crowned him in/on a day of his marriage and in/on a day of a cheerfulness of his heart.” (Song of Solomon 3:11, Greek OT)

(Jerusalem) will be a crown of beauty in (the) hand of the Lord. (Is 62:3a, Greek OT)

(Daniel said:) “I (continually) looked at ... when thrones were put/’set up’ and an Old of days (continually) was seated, having a wrapper as if (it was) white (Theod) snow and the growth of hair of His head as if (it was) white clean wool. The throne (was) as if (it was) a flame of fire. (Dan 7:9, Greek OT)

(The messenger said to Tobias:) “Anoint in the gall in (the) eyes of a man ... (with) white things upon them, puff against, against them, upon the white things, and (the eyes) are healthy.” (Tobit 6:9, S)

(Israel) adorned entirely the thing (being) ‘according to’/on the face of the temple with golden crowns. (1 Macc 4:57a)

(Solomon said:) "In the age virtue being crowned advances around." ... (Wisdom of Solomon 4:2b)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach said: “Every man has great want of leisure) from (one) wearing ‘of hyacinth’/dark-blue and crown and till (one) being wrapped up in (what is) made of coarse linen. (Sir 40:4a)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach said:) “Above a (bandage of the head Aaron wore) a golden crown.” (Sir 45:12a)


The Latter Revelation:

(The soothsayers) carried to (Jesus) gifts; gold and olibanum/frankincense and myrrh. (Matt 2:11b)

(Jesus') garments became glittering, exceedingly white, such as a fuller upon the earth is not able to whiten in this way. (Mark 9:3)

Having plaited a thorny crown (the soldiers) put it round about (Jesus). (Mark 15:17b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

Having plaited a crown out of thorns the soldiers put (it) on the head (of Jesus) and wrapped Him up in a purple garment. (John 19:2)

(Mariam P66,א,*א) looks at *(א*) messengers in white garments, sitting down whereat the body of Jesus (continually) had lain. (John 20:12a)

(Jesus Christ) has made us a kingdom, priests to His God and Father. (Rev 1:6a)

Having turned myself next to I beheld seven golden lampstands and (against) (א,* א) a middle of the seven (א,*א) lampstands (one) like a son of a man, being (and having been) set/clothed (in) a robe reaching to the feet and being (and having been) girded around at the nipples (with) a golden girdle. (Rev 1:12b-13)

Become faithful until death, and I will give you the crown of the life. (Rev 2:10b, “Smyrna”)

They will walk about in company with Me in white (things), because they are worthy. The one conquering will in this way be wrapped up in white garments. (Rev 3:4b-5a, “Sardis”)

‘Get power over’/keep the thing which you have in order that anyone may not take your crown. (Rev 3:11b, “Philadelphia”)

I give you counsel to buy from the side of Me goldmetal ‘having been (and being) caused to glow’/’having glown (and glowing)’ out of fire, in order that you may be rich. (Rev 3:18a, “Laodicea”)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

Again I so turn into Banérgatan, slowly goes up to the end of the street, where earth ends and heaven steps in; in the corner at Karlavägen I see the sea (Värtan) and the skerries (Lidingön) and in northwest over the oaks it is written "Det växande slottet" (The growing castle) (Hästgärdeskasernen) in full illumination, for the sun has lighted candles in every pane; the golden crown shines highest up, and under the balcony a white character is standing. . . . I have never got to know what painted white thing it is, neither I want to know it, for it is much more interesting in that way. (August Strindberg "Stockholm klockan sju på morgonen" p 92; "Stockholm seven o'clock in the morning"; Dagens Nyheter 1905-12-24; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Hjalmar Fernström, Siv Fernström, Lennart Gustavsson, Barbro Jern, Nikolaj Kljujev.


Paul said to the believers in Corinth: “Every the'/everyone fighting has mastery over all things, those indeed so in order that they may take a corruptible crown but we an uncorruptible.” (1 Cor 9:25)


Additional studies: Esther 8:15; Job 19:9; Ps 132:18; Is 28:5; Jer 32:18; Lam 5:16; Ezek 16:12; 21:26; Zech 6:11; Epistle of Jeremiah v 8; Matt 27:29; Rev 4:10; 6:11; 7:9,13.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-23; 2012-06-12; 2015-02-03)

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4:5a And rays of light and voices and peals of thunder go out, out of the throne ...

Word for word (10 words in the Greek text): And out-of the throne go-out rays-of-light and voices and peals-of-thunder


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

And it became/’came about’ (by Sinai), (on) the third day, having become towards early morning, and voices and rays of light (continually) became. (Ex 19:16a, Greek OT)

… And behold, voices and noise, peals of thunder and a shaking; trouble upon the earth. (Esther 1:1d/A4, Greek OT)

The stable One will thunder in/with His wondrous voice. (Job 37:5a, Greek OT)

(David said: ”The) voice of the Lord (was) upon the waters; the God of the glory has thundered, the Lord upon many waters.” (Ps 29:3, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said to the Lord:) “Your voice of thunder (was) in the wheel/’whirl of the storm’. Your rays of light brought the (inhabited) world to light.” (Ps 77:18a or 77:19a, Greek OT)

(Solomon said:) “The vengeances came on the missers (of the mark of God), (but) not without the proofs of the thunderbolts having before become (and becoming) (in) the substinence, for righteously they (continually) suffered their own evils/’evil works’, for they had and/also ardently prosecuted ‘more severe’/’the most abominable’ hatred of foreigners.” (Wisdom of Solomon 19:13)


The Latter Revelation:

Behold, a voice out of the heavens. (Matt 3:17a)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Just as the ray of light’/lightning comes out from upstickings/east and ‘brings to’/gives light till settings/west, in this way will the ‘being by the side of’/coming of the Son of the Man be.” (Matt 24:27)

On (Jacob and John) (Jesus) put names/’the name’ Boanerges, which is/means Sons of Thunder. (Mark 3:17b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Jesus said:) “Father, glorify Your name.” A voice so came out of the heaven: “I and/both have glorified and will again glorify (it). So the crowd, the one standing (by), * (א,* א) having heard (it), (continually) said: “It has become (and becomes) thunder.” Others (continually) said: “A messenger has talked (and talks) (with) Him.” Jesus answered * (א,*א): “This voice has not become/come (and does not become/come) because of Me, however/but because of You.” (John 12:28-30)

I heard behind me a great/loud voice as a trumpet. (Rev 1:10b)

His voice (was) as a voice/sound of many waters. (Rev 1:15b)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

The following Sunday (pastor Suenonius) before the numerously assembled congregation delivered a sermon (in which he) related what he himself had experienced about the tricks of the witches, pointed out Ingrid on Tallbacken, Karin on Moen and two other women at their names, warned, threatened and punished. It was a sermon, which brutal eloquence impossibly could be surpassed. The church was filled with the voice of the preacher like the vault of heaven with the roaring of the thunder; his words, striking as lightnings, somtimes convulsed and paralyzed. . . . (The men) sat pale and trembling in their pews, now staring at the priest, now bending their heads under the flashes of lightning, which flamed from the pulpit. . . . When the sermon was over and the last psalm would be sung, only here and there voices could join in the song. (Viktor Rydberg "Fribytaren på Östersjön I" p 142-143; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

"Does (the boy) dare to sing in our presence? And when there is thunder! Have mercy, God! What a lightning!" . . . "Do you not hear the thunder?" (knight Erland) impetuously said seizing the boy in his arm. "Do you want to make fun of God's voice in the storm? Where have you learnt customs? Is it not fitting for the pious one to cross himself and bend his head for the lightning? Are you a heathen?" (Viktor Rydberg "Singoalla" p 118,121; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Verner von Heidenstam, Pär Lagerkvist, Vilhelm Moberg, Olof Pettersson, Harry Sjöman, Rune Storck, John Stott, Kallistos Ware, Emile Zola, Alf Åberg, Holger Åbyson.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “Voices … out of the throne”, see also Rev 19:5; 21:3.


Greek words:

astrapê (ray of light) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Matt 24:27; Rev 4:5 – Wisdom of Solomon 5:21; Sir 32:10; 43:13; Epistle of Jeremiah v 60; The Song of Praise of the Three Men v 50; Matt 28:3; Luke 10:18; 11:36; 17:24; Rev 8:5; 11:19; 16:18.


Additional studies:

Ex 20:18; Deut 33:2; Ps 29:3-9; Ezek 1:13-14; John 11:43; 18:37; Heb 12:18-19; Rev 3:20.


Mark Dever "A Vision of God: Ezekiel 1:1-20"; Southern Baptist Journal of Theology 2.4 (Winter 1998): 16-23.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-23; 2012-06-12; 2015-02-03)

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4:5b ... and seven torches of fire being burnt ‘in the very eyes of’/before the throne, which are the seven spirits of God.

Word for word (15 words in the Greek text): and seven torches (of)-fire burning in-the-very-eyes-of (of)-the (of)-throne, which are the seven spirits (of)-the (of)-god.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

A messenger of the Lord was beheld (to/by Moses) in a flame of fire out of the thorn-bush. (Ex 3:2a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Moses:) “You shall make a lampstand out of clean/pure goldmetal. … And you shall make its seven lamps.” (Ex 25:31a,37a, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said: “Lord, You) make spirits (Your) messengers and a flaming fire (Your) public servants .” (Ps 104:4, Greek OT)

A spirit of God will 'be brought'/come to rest against (a rod out of the root of Jesse); a spirit of wisdom and understanding, a spirit of counsel and stability, a spirit of knowledge and reverence. (Is 11:2, Greek OT)

(The Lord gives) back ... in a flame of fire. (Is 66:15b, Greek OT)

… The eyes (of the man set/clothed in linen) were as if (they were) torches of fire. (Dan 10:6a, Greek OT)

(A messenger) spoke towards (the prophet): “What do you see?” And he spoke: “I behold (and have beheld), and behold, a lampstand, ‘wholly golden’/’all of gold’, and the small torch above it and seven lamps above it. ... These seven are the eyes of the Lord seeing against, against ‘every the’/’the whole’ earth.” (Zech 4:2a,10b, Greek OT)

Elijah, a prophet as a fire, stood up and his saying (continually) burnt as a torch. (Sir 48:1)


The Latter Revelation:

(John the Baptist said: "The One coming behind me) will baptize you in holy spirit and fire." (Matt 3:11b)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “The kingdom of the heavens will be likened to ten virgins, whoever/who having taken their torches came out into/to a going of the bridegroom to meet.” (Matt 25:1)

Tongues as if (they were) of fire were beheld to (the disciples) ...and they were all fulfilled of/with holy spirit and began to talk the other tongues/languages entirely as the Spirit (continually) gave them to produce sounds. (Acts 2:3a,4)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

Joybringing (grace) (with) you and peace from the One who is and the One who (continually) was and the One who comes and from the seven spirits * (א,* א, A) ‘in the very eyes of’/before His throne. (Rev 1:4b)

His eyes (were) as a flame of fire. (Rev 1:14b)

This is what the One having the seven spirits of God and the seven stars says: “I know your works, that you have a name, that you live, and/but you are (a) dead (body).” (Rev 3:1b, “Sardis”)

I give you counsel to buy from the side of Me goldmetal ‘having been (and being) caused to glow’/’having glown (and glowing)’ out of fire, in order that you may be rich. (Rev 3:18a, “Laodicea”)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

The voice (in Rev 4:5) may refer to the voice of God (at Sinai) which was said to be heard in several different languages; cf. Shabbath 88b. (J. Massyngberde Ford "Revelation" p 73)


Additional studies: Gen 15:17; Rev 2:18; 5:6.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-23; 2012-06-12; 2015-02-03)

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4:6a And ‘in the very eyes of’/before the throne (there is) as a sea of crystal, like rock crystal.

Word for word (9 words in the Greek text): and in-the-very-eyes-of (of)-the (of)-throne as (a)-sea crystal like rock-crystal.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

Early in the day it became ... dew 'in a circle from'/'round about' the (walled) camp. And behold, against (the) face of the desolate (district there was something) thin (manna), as if (it was) a white little eye-ball/girl, as if (it was) ice upon the earth. (Ex 16:13b-14, Greek OT)

The form (of the manna was) a form of rock crystal. (Num 11:7b, Greek OT)

(Job said:) “Goldmetal and crystal will not be equal (with wisdom).” (Job 28:17a, Greek OT)

‘In favour of’/over head of the living beings (there was) as if a firmament, as a beholding of rock crystal, being (and having been) stretched out upon their wings, from above upon. (Ezek 1:22, Greek OT)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said: “When) a cold wind, a north wind, will blow, (there will) be ice (as) rock crystal upon water.” (Sir 43:20a)


The Latter Revelation:

Walking about to the side of the Sea of the Galilee, (Jesus) beheld two brothers. (Matt 4:18a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Do you not say that/: ‘It/there is yet a space of four months, and/’and so’ the harvest comes?’ Behold, I say to you, lift your eyes against and view the districts/fields, that they are white towards a harvest.” (John 4:35)

(Jesus said to the Jews:) "Your fathers ate the manna in the desolate (district), and they died. This One is the bread, the one descending out of the heaven, in order that a certain one may eat out of it and not die. I am the living bread, the one having descended out of the heaven. If – according to the circumstances – anyone may eat out of My (א,*א) bread, He will live into the (coming) age." (John 6:49-51a)

… Jesus again made Himself visible to the disciples upon the Sea of Tiberias. (John 21:1a)

... To the one conquering * (א,* א) I will give out of (א,* א) the manna having been (and being) hidden. (Rev 2:17a, “Pergamos”)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

This, The Holy Blood Altar (in St. Jakobus' Church in Rothenburg), was carved and set up between the years 1499 and 1505 and commissioned by the Rothenburg Town Council so as to provide an honourable respository for a relic of Holy Blood. According to legend, it is said that 3 drops of Christ's blood is contained within a capsule of rock crystal in the gold-plated cross (1270) and this is what has given the altar its name. (Wolfgang Kootz "Rothenburg on the Tauber" p 29-31)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Ragnar Bengtsson, Elisabeth Beskow, Johan Beyer, Jane Fredlund, Carl Grimberg, Olof Hartman, Alma Hongell, Efraim Palmqvist, Zacharias Topelius.


Greek words:

krystallos (rock crystal) (in the NT + examples in the OT) Num 11:7; Sir 43:20; Rev 4:6 – Job 6:16; Is 54:12; Wisdom of Solomon 16:22; Rev 22:1.

(h)yalinos (of crystal) Rev 4:6 – Rev 15:2. Cf. (h)yalos (crystal) in Job 28:17.


Additional studies: Gen 1:7; Ex 16:31; 24:10; 1 Kings 7:23-26; 2 Chron 4:2-5; Ps 104:3; Ezek 1:26; Rev 15:2; 21:18,21.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-23; 2012-06-12; 2015-02-04)

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4:6b And in a middle of the throne and (in) a circle of/from the throne (were) four living beings, being full of eyes in front of and ‘from behind’/behind.

Word for word (16 words in the Greek text): And in middle (of)-the (of)-throne and (in)-(a)-circle (of)-the (of)-throne four living-beings being-full-of eyes in-front-of and from-behind.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

Early in the day it became ... dew 'in a circle from'/'round about' the (walled) camp. And behold, against (the) face of the desolate (district there was something) thin, as if (it was) a white little eye-ball/girl, as if (it was) ice upon the earth. (Ex 16:13b-14, Greek OT)

The gates (of the house of God) (continually) were ‘according to’/opposite the four winds, ‘according to’/opposite upstickings/east, sea/west, ‘north wind’/north, ‘south wind’/south. (1 Chron 9:24, Greek OT)

Judas turned away/back, and behold, the war (was) to them out/'on the base' of the ones in front of and out/'on the base' of the ones ‘from behind’/behind. (2 Chron 13:14a, Greek OT)

Seraphim stood (in) a circle (around the Lord). (Is 6:2a, Greek OT)

In the middle (of the cloud there were something) as a likeness (with) four living beings. And this (was) their beholding: A likeness of a man (was) on them. ... ... And the living beings ran to and fro like bolts of ligtning. (Ezek 1:5, Greek OT, v 14 New Amercan Standard)

(The prophet said:) “In (the scroll) (continually) was (and had been) written the (things being) from behind and the (things being) in front of.” (Ezek 2:10b, Greek OT)

(Simon built a building with) stone out of the things ‘from behind’/behind and in front of. (1 Macc 13:27b)

(Solomon said to the Lord:) “You have arranged every thing throughout (with) measure and number and standing-place/balance.” (Wisdom of Solomon 11:20b)

(The prophet said to the Jews going into Babylon:) "Having beheld a crowd in front of and 'from behind'/behind (the idols) prostrating itself before them (in adoration of them), but/then speak to (your) mind: 'We must prostrate ourselves before You (in honour of You), Master.'" (Epistle of Jeremiah v 5)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said:) “Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites, because you make the cup and the small dish clean from the outside but ‘from inside’/within they are full of, out of raping and incontinence ... full of bones of dead (bodies) and every/all impurity.” (Matt 23:25,27b)

Having seen Himself round about (at) the ones being seated (in) a circle around Him, (Jesus) says: “Behold, My mother and My brothers.” (Mark 3:34)

On (Jesus’) being seating into/’up to’ the Mountain of the Olive-trees entirely opposite the sanctuary, Peter and James and John and Andrew questioned Him, ‘according to’/concerning their own. (Mark 13:3)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

When the soldiers so had crucified Jesus, they took His garments and made four parts, a part for everyone/each soldier * (א*). (John 19:23a)

(Against) (א,* א) a middle of the seven (א,*א) lampstands (I beheld one) like a son of a man. (Rev 1:13a)

(There are) priests (א*,A) in a circle from the throne, like of emerald (in) beholding. And in a circle from the throne (were) twenty-four thrones. (Rev 4:3b-4a)


My own comments and speculations:

In Jewish number symbolism the number four – and here the four living beings – represent the world and the whole created universum. Cf. My own comments and speculations to John 19:23-24.


Greek words:

gemô (be full of) (in the NT + examples in the OT) Matt 23:25,27; Rev 4:6 – Gen 37:25; Ps 10:7; 14:3; 2 Macc 3:30; Luke 11:39; Rom 3:14; Rev 4:8; 5:8; 15:7; 17:3-4; 21:9.

zôon (living being) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Rev 4:6 – Wisdom of Solomon 7:20; 11:15; 13:10,14; 15:18-19; 16:18; 17:18(19); 19:10,21; Sir 13:15; Heb 13:11; 2 Pet 2:12; Jude v 10; Rev 4:7-9; 5:6,8,11,14; 6:1,3,5-7; 7:11; 14:3; 15:7; 19:4.

kyklos (circle) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Mark 3:34; Rev 4:6 – Judith 7:20; 1 Macc 1:37; 3:25; 5:38; 7:17; 2 Macc 4:32; Wisdom of Solomon 7:19; 13:2; Baruch 2:4; Mark 6:6,36; Luke 9:12; Rom 15:19; Rev 5:11; 7:11.

opisthen (from behind) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) 1 Macc 13:27; Epistle of Jeremiah v 5; Rev 4:6 – 1 Macc 9:16; Matt 9:20; 15:23; Mark 5:27; Luke 8:44; 23:26; Rev 5:1.


Additional studies:

Ex 28:33-34; 1 Sam 4:4; 2 Sam 6:2; Ps 18:10(11); 80:1(2); 99:1; Is 37:15-16; Ezek 1:18; 9:3; 10:1-2; Mark 13:27; Acts 10:11; 11:5; 12:4; Rev 4:9; 5:1,6; 6:1,6; 14:3; 19:4.


Mark Dever "A Vision of God: Ezekiel 1:1-20"; Southern Baptist Journal of Theology 2.4 (Winter 1998): 16-23.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-23; 2012-06-12; 2015-02-04)

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4:7 And the first living being (was) like a lion and the second living being like a young bull and the third living being having the face as like (one with) a man (א,* א) and the fourth living being (was) like a flying eagle.

Word for word (30 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus): and the living-being the first like (a)-lion and the second living-being like (a)-young-bull and the third living-being having the face as like (a)-man and the fourth living-being like (an)-eagle flying.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

God spoke: “Let the waters lead out creeping animals (with) living souls and flying creatures flying upon the earth.” (Gen 1:20a, Greek OT)

(Jacob said: “Judas is) a young animal of a lion …” (Gen 49:9b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Moses/Israel:) “I took you up, as if upon wings of eagles, and I led you towards, towards Myself.” (Ex 19:4b, Greek OT)

And/concerning a resemblance of/to the faces (of the living beings), a face of a man and a face of a lion out of (the) right (parts) (on all) four and a face of a young bull out of (the) left (parts) (on all) four and a face of an eagle (on all) four. (Ezek 1:10, Greek OT)

(The Chaldeans) will fly as an eagle willing into/'for the purpose of' the thing to eat. (Hab 1:8b, Greek OT)


The Latter Revelation:

(The disciples of the Pharisees with the Herodians said to Jesus:) "Teacher, we know that You are truthful and teach the way of God in truth, and You do not care for on account of ‘no one’/anyone, for You do not see into/to a face/look of men." (Matt 22:16b)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Whereat – if according to the circumstances - the fall/corpse may be, there the eagles will be led together.” (Matt 24:28)

Having stood up (the son) came towards his father. But on his still holding far off, his father beheld him ... (and this man spoke to his slaves): "Carry the fattened young bull (and) sacrifice (it) and having eaten we may be cheerful." (Luke 15:20a,23)

There was (continually/-) and/also an inscription on/at (Jesus) (with) letters (in) Greek, (in) Latin, (in) Hebrew (א*): "This One (is) the King of the Jews." (Luke 23:38; cf. “the lion out of the tribe of Judas” in Rev 5:5)

(The “leadership of a hundred men” said about Jesus:) "Certainly this Man (continually) was righteous." (Luke 23:47b)

(The ones sitting in the council) beheld the face of (Stephen) as if (it was) a face of a messenger. (Acts 6:15b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

Jesus came so out outside, wearing the thorny crown and the purple garment. And He says to them: “Behold, the Man!” (John 19:5)

But/and Pilate and/also wrote a superscription and put upon the cross. But/and it (continually) was (and had been) written: “Jesus, the Nazoraean, the King of the Jews.” (John 19:19; cf. “the lion out of the tribe of Judas” in Rev 5:5)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

"The Eagle!" . . . The Eagle, a nom de guerre (fighting name) which Strindberg had taken among his friends, a name which Strindberg used long afterwards, for example in his letters to Harriet Bosse. . . . A pupil in Stockholm's Lyceum had in a lesson in Greek misheard when the fellows whispered the translation for him and in stead of "hören mig (hear me)" he had said "örnen (the eagle)". Strindberg, who only in second hand had heard the story, found it splendid and used "The Eagle" as a word of command, afterwards as a nom de guerre on himself. To that must be added that Strindberg on Kymmendö the summer 1871 had found a feather of an eagle, which he used to a pen. In the uncompleted autobiographical novel, which Strindberg wrote in the beginning of the seventies of the nineteenth century, the principal character is called The Eagle. (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev I 1858-1876" p 94-95; completing designation, which Strindberg used of himself in his letter to his cousin Johan Oscar; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

The cherubim were four-faced, and their faces were images of the dispensation of the Son of God. For (as the Scripture) says: “The first living creature was like a lion”, symbolizing His effectual working, His leadership and royal power; “the second was like a calf”, signifying (His) sacrificial and sacerdotal order; but “the third had, as it were, the face as of a man” – an evident description of His advent as a human being; “the fourth was like a flying eagle” pointing out the gift of the Spirit hovering His wings over the Church. (Irenaeus, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol I, p 428)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Erik Axel Karlfeldt, Olaf Moe, C. Skovgaard-Petersen, Sven Storck, John Stott.


Greek words:

aetos (eagle) (in the NT) Matt 24:28; Rev 4:7 – Luke 17:37; Rev 8:13; 12:14.

leôn (lion) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Rev 4:7 – Esther 4:17s(C24); 1 Macc 2:60; 3:4, 2 Macc 11:11; Wisdom of Solomon 11:17; Sir 4:30; 13:19; 21:2; 25:16; 27:10,28; 28:23; 47:3; Bel and the Dragon v 31,32(Theod),34; 2 Tim 4:17; Heb 11:33; 1 Pet 5:8; Rev 5:5; 9:8,17; 10:3; 13:2.

moschos (young bull) (in the NT) Rev 4:7 – Luke 15:23,27,30; Heb 9:12,19.

petomai (fly) (in the NT) Rev 4:7 – Rev 8:13; 12:14; 14:6; 19:17. Cf. petamai in Deut 4:17.

prosôpon (face) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Matt 22:16; Acts 6:15; Rev 4:7 – Esther 5:1b/D5,1d/D7,2a/D14; Tobit 3:6,12; 12:16; 13:6; Judith 2:7; 6:2; 7:18; 9:1; 10:7,23; 16:7; 1 Macc 1:22; 3:22,53; 4:40,57,61; 5:34,43; 15:39; 2 Macc 6:18; Wisdom of Solomon 6:7; 17:4; Sir 4:22; 7:24; 13:25; 19:27; 21:2; 25:17,23; 26:4-5,17; 35:12(15); 36:22(24); 42:1; 50:17; Epistle of Jeremiah v 20. Matt 6:16-17; 11:10; 17:2,6; 18:10; 26:39,67; Mark 1:2; 12:14; 14:65; Luke 2:31; 5:12; 7:27; 9:29,51-53; 10:1; 12:56; 17:16; 20:21; 21:35; 24:5; Acts 2:28; 3:13,20; 5:41; 7:45; 13:24; 17:26; 20:25,38; 25:16. 1 Cor 13:12; 14:25; 2 Cor 1:11; 2:10; 3:7,13,18; 4:6; 5:12; 8:24; 10:1,7; 11:20; Gal 1:22; 2:6,11; Col 2:1; 1 Thess 2:17; 3:10; 2 Thess 1:9; Heb 9:24; Jas 1:11,23; 1 Pet 3:12; Jude v 16; Rev 6:16; 7:11; 9:7; 10:1; 11:16; 12:14; 20:11; 22:4.

tetartos (fourth) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Rev 4:7 – Esther 10:3l(F11); Judith 12:10; 2 Macc 7:13; Sir 26:5; Matt 14:25; Mark 6:48; Acts 10:30; Rev 6:7-8; 8:12; 16:8; 21:19.


Additional studies:

Ezek 1:5,8; 10:14; Dan 7:3-8; Rev 6:1,3,5,7.


Mark Dever "A Vision of God: Ezekiel 1:1-20"; Southern Baptist Journal of Theology 2.4 (Winter 1998): 16-23.

Thomas Edward McComiskey "Alteration of OT Imagery in the Book of Revelation: Its Hermeneutical and Theological Significance"; Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 36.3 (1993): 307-316.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-23; 2012-06-12; 2015-02-04)

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4:8a And the four living beings, one, everyone (א,* א) of them, they (continually) had (א,* א) six wings upwards ‘in a circle from’/’round about’, and from inside they are full of eyes.

Word for word (16 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus): and the four living-beings, one everyone (of)-them (they)-(continually)-had upwards wings six in-a-circle-from and from-inside (they)-are-full-of eyes.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The Lord said to Moses:) “The cherubim will be stretching out the wings from above upon (the means of propitiation), overshadowing upon the means of propitiation with their wings; and their faces into/against one another.” (Ex 25:20a, Greek OT)

(Moses said to Israel:) “As an eagle 'to shelter'/shelters its nest ... the Lord (spread out) His wings (and) received/accepted (His people).” (Deut 32:11a, Greek OT)

Seraphim stood (in) a circle (around the Lord), to one/everyone six wings. (Is 6:2a, Greek OT)

In the middle (of the cloud there were something) as a likeness (with) four living beings. (Ezek 1:5a, Greek OT)

The backs of (the living beings) were filled with eyes 'in a circle from'/'round about' the four. (Ezek 1:18b, Greek OT)

The backs (of the cherubim) and their hands and their wings and the wheels were filled with eyes 'in a circle from'/'round about' their four wheels. (Ezek 10:12, Greek OT)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to Jerusalem:) “How many times have I wanted to lead together against/’in quest of’ your children, 'which a turn'/'the way' a hen against/’in quest of’ her ‘young birds’/chickens leads together underneath the wings, and/but you did not want.” (Matt 23:37b)

(On Jesus and His disciples') eating, (Jesus) spoke: "Amen, I say to you that one out of you will give Me ‘to the side of’/over." And being extremely sorrowful they began to say to Him, one everyone/’by one’: "Surely not I am, Lord?" (Matt 26:21-22)

… The Lord ‘showed up’/appointed and/also (א,* א, A) seventy others and dispatched them away ‘upwards two’/’two by two’ * (א,* א, A) before His face/person into every city and place where He Himself (continually) was about to come. (Luke 10:1)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

There (continually) were six water-pots of stone were * (א*) (made) ‘according to’/concerning the purification of the Jews, having room upwards for two or three firkin-measures. (John 2:6)

(There are) priests (א*,A) in a circle from the throne, like of emerald (in) beholding, and in a circle from the throne (were) twenty-four thrones and against the thrones being twenty-four elders seated. (Rev 4:3b-4a)

In a middle of the throne and (in) a circle of/from the throne (were) four living beings, being full of eyes in front of and ‘from behind’/behind. (Rev 4:6b)


My own comments and speculations:

The expression “one, everyone” occurs several times in 4 Macc (8:5,9; 13:13,18; 15:19; 16:24).


Greek words: esôthen (from inside) (in the NT + one example in the Apocrypha) Rev 4:8 – Bel and the Dragon v 7; Matt 7:15; 23:25,27-28; Mark 7:21,23; Luke 11:7,39-40; 2 Cor 7:5; Rev 11:2(א,*א).

pteryx (wing) (in the NT + one example in the Apocrypha) Matt 23:37; Rev 4:8 – Wisdom of Solomon 5:11; Luke 13:34; Rev 9:9; 12:14.


Additional studies:

Ex 37:9; Ruth 2:12;1 Kings 6:27; 8:6-7; 2 Chron 5:7-8; Rev 4:9; 5:6; 6:1,6; 7:11; 14:3; 15:7; 19:4.


Mark Dever "A Vision of God: Ezekiel 1:1-20"; Southern Baptist Journal of Theology 2.4 (Winter 1998): 16-23.

Thomas Edward McComiskey "Alteration of OT Imagery in the Book of Revelation: Its Hermeneutical and Theological Significance"; Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 36.3 (1993): 307-316.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-23; 2012-06-12; 2015-02-05)

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4:8b And they have not rest, day and night saying: “Holy, holy, holy, holy, holy, holy, holy, holy (א*) the Lord God, the All-powerful, the One who (continually) was and the One who is and the One who comes.”

Word for word (29 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus prima manus): and rest not (they)-have day and night saying: holy, holy, holy, holy, holy, holy, holy, holy 'lord the god'/'the Lord God' the all-powerful, the-(one)-(who) (continually)-was and the-(one) being and the-(one) coming.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

God spoke towards Moses: "I am the One who is." And He spoke: "In this way you shall speak to the sons of Israel: 'The One who is has dispatched (and dispatches) me away towards you.'" (Ex 3:14, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Moses:) ”Talk (with) the synagogue of the sons of Israel and speak towards them: ’You shall be holy, because I the Lord your God (am) holy.” (Lev 19:2, Greek OT)

(Esther said to the Jews:) “... You may not eat but/and not drink against/during three days, night and day.” (Esther 4:16a, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said: ”Happy a male who) will ‘care for in’/study the law (of the Lord) day and night.” (Ps 1:2b, Greek OT)

The other/one (seraph) shouts (and has shouted) towards the other and he (continually/repeatedly) said: “Holy, holy, holy (is) the Lord of hosts.” (Is 6:3a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) "That day God will lead the holy and the great and the stable dagger against, against the dragon, a fleeing serpent, against the dragon, a crooked serpent, and He will ‘take ... up for Himself’/’get rid of’ the dragon. (In) that day (there will be) a fine vineyard. Desiring (will) ‘begin out of’/issue ‘down from’/against her. I (am) a stable city, a city being besieged, (but) I will water it in vain. For it will be threshed a night, but/and a day the wall will fall." (Is 27:1-3, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) “I, God, (am) first, and into the things coming on I am.” (Is 41:4b, Greek OT)

... (Judas) has sat down in/among nations. She has not found a rest. (Lam 1:3a, Greek OT)

“Hear and be a witness on/’for the sake of’ the house of Jacob,” says the Lord God, the All-powerful. (Amos 3:13, Greek OT)

The Lord God, the All-powerful, (is) a name to Him. (Amos 4:13b, Greek OT)

(Solomon says: “I have knowledge of) beginning and end and middle of times.” (Wisdom of Solomon 7:18a)

(Azariah said:) “Bless the Lord, nights and days.” (The Song of Praise of the Three Men v 46a)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said:) “Happy ... happy ... happy ... happy ... happy ... happy ...happy ... happy.” (Matt 5:3-10)

(Jesus said to the scribes and the Pharisees:) “When – according to the circumstances – the unclean spirit may come out from the man, it 'comes through'/passes through waterless places, seeking rest, and does not find. Then it says: ‘I will turn myself next to, into my house, from which I came out.’ And having come it finds (it) being at leisure and (א,*א) being (and having been) swept and being (and having been) adorned. Then it goes and takes in company with itself by its side seven other spirits more evil than itself. And (on) their having come in it dwells there. And the last things of that man become worse than the first things." (Matt 12:43-45a)

(Jesus said:) “Many will come on/’for the sake of’ My name, saying that/: ‘I am’ and will lead many astray.” (Mark 13:6)

(The messenger said to Mary:) "A lord God will give (Jesus) the throne of His father David." (Luke 1:32b)

(Mary said:) “Holy (is) the name (of the able One).” (Luke 1:49b)

(A widow) did not stand aloof of/from the sanctuary, serving night and day (with) fastings and prayers. (Luke 2:37b)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “May not/certainly not God make the procuration of justice of His chosen ones, of the ones crying to Him day and night, and is He (not) long-suffering on/’for the sake of’ them? I say to you, that He will make the procuration of justice of (His chosen ones) in/with quickness.” (Luke 18:7-8a)

(In Lydda) Peter found a certain man (with) name Aineas, having ‘out of’/since eight years lying down upon a mattress, (a man) who (continually) was (and had been) ‘loosened from the side’/paralysed. And Peter spoke to him: “Aineas, Jesus Christ heals you. Stand up and extend/’stretch out’ yourself.” And straightaway he stood up. (Acts 9:33-34)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Jesus said to the Jews): “If – according to the circumstances – you may not believe Me (א,*א), that I am, you will die in your misses (of the mark of God).” (John 8:24b)

Jesus spoke to (the Jews): "Amen, amen, I say to you, before Abraham become/became, I am." (John 8:58)

(Jesus said to His Father:) "I am no longer in the adornment/’adorned world’. And/but they are themselves in the adornment/’adorned world’, and I come towards You. Holy Father, keep them in Your name, in which You have given * (P66,א,*א) Me, in order that they may be one entirely as we." (John 17:11)

Joybringing (grace) (with) you and peace from the One who is and the One who (continually) was and the One who comes. … (Rev 1:4b)

(The Lord God), the One who is and the One who (continually) was and the One who comes, the All-powerful. (Rev 1:8b)

This is what the True One, the Holy One, says: (Rev 3:7b, “Philadelphia”)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

Comparing the hymns in Revelation with other hymns in the NT reveals a vast difference between the two. The hymns in Revelation do not contain any Christology; most of them are composed of OT phrases and are closer to Jewish liturgical hymns or to the canticles in the Lucan infancy narratives than they are to other NT hymns. (J. Massyngberde Ford "Revelation" p 21)

The holy eightfold path (in the Buddhist Religion): 1. Right views. 2. Right intention. 3. Right speech. 4. Right action. 5. Right livelihood. 6. Right effort. 7. Right mindfulness. 8. Right concentration. (Richard H. Robinson-Willard L. Johnson "The Buddhist Religion" p 26)

In Germany the battle of Flanders is celebrated with an eight days' display of flags and a three days' clock-ringing. The battle is "a greater Waterloo, a greater Sedan, a greater Tannenberg than German history up to now has known". . . . Dunkirk has fallen and the last allied soldier has left the bloodest field of world history in the possesion of the enemy. And the battle of Flanders can become history as the up to now greatest and perhaps most notable of the encounters of mankind. . . . . . . "The swastika flag floats on the Eiffel Tower" it is printed on the news-bills this evening (the 14th of June 1940). The Germans are in Paris. Desert streets and barred up windows met them. It might be hard to be inhabitant in Paris. In Berlin they ring in the clocks and flag with all their strength. . . . . . . The day before yesterday, the third (of September 1943), on the day four years after England declared Germany war, the 8th army went over the Strait of Messina stepping ashore on the "toe" of Italy. . . . . . . Last evening the 8th of September (1943) I sat at Karin's bed-side reading "Captain Grant's children", when Lars climbed in informing that Italy had accepted capitulation without conditions. This of course was expected, but nevertheless it felt in a quite special way, that one experienced a red-letter date in this war, and I gave both children a twenty-five-öre-piece in commemoration. . . . The armistice was signed already the 3rd of September in Sicily, but has been kept secret, probably in order that the Italian navy would get time to run into allied harbours. . . . . . . Lili Marlene accompanied the German Africa corps on their victory marches. Lala Anderson's soft voice bore the melancholy tango out to the desert night - it caressed the ears of the Englishmen and conquered the eighth army. Every evening every radio set behind the English ranks was tuned in German stations. Lili Marlene became the new Tipperary of the British troops, it became - when the wind at last turned - the victory song of the eighth army, which sounded at El Alamein and Bizerte and accompanied to Sicilia and Italy. (Astrid Lindgren "Krigsdagböcker 1939-1945" p 52; 1940-06-05, 1940-06-14; 1943-09-05; 1943-09-08 and Dagens Nyheter 1944-05-21; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

(1904 May 11th) Västgöta student society (in Lund) has on account of the death of the societyfellow Axel Dalén put on 8 days' mourning. (August Strindberg "Ockulta dagboken" p 204; news-item; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Aron Andersson, Ignatius Aphram I Barsoum, Erik Gustaf Geijer, Birger Gerhardsson, Carl Grimberg, Dick Harrison, Alf Henrikson, Christofer Klasson, Hugo Linder, Martin Luther, Löbl-Schreyer, Martin Lönnebo, Carl Henrik Martling, Vilhelm Moberg, Hubert Neuwirth, Bertil Nilsson, Viktor Rydberg, Nelly Sachs, Anton Tjechov.


My own comments and speculations:

The eight-fold “holy” is an expression for the beginning of a new period, different from the preceding period. Observe the contrast to the eight unclean spirits in Matt 12:43-45. See also My own comments and speculations to John 21:4-7a about Christ as the first, seventh and eighth (cf. with the Massyngberde Ford-quotation above "do not contain any Christology").

Concerning “day and night”, see also Rev 7:15a; 12:10b; 20:10b.


Greek words:

anapausis (rest) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Matt 12:43; Rev 4:8 – Esther 9:17; Wisdom of Solomon 4:7; Sir 6:28; 11:19; 20:21; 22:13; 24:7; 28:16; 30:17; 31:3-4; 33:26; 40:5; 51:27; Matt 11:29; Luke 11:24; Rev 14:11.


Additional studies:

Lev 11:44; Joshua 1:8; 1 Chron 9:33; Neh 1:6; 4:9; Ps 22:2(3); 88:1(2); Is 62:6; Mark 5:5; John 4:26; 6:35,48; Acts 20:31; 26:7; 1 Thess 3:10; 1 Tim 5:5; 2 Tim 1:3; 1 Pet 1:16; Rev 1:18; 6:10; 7:15; 11:17; 14:11; 15:3; 17:11.


Thomas Edward McComiskey "Alteration of OT Imagery in the Book of Revelation: Its Hermeneutical and Theological Significance"; Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 36.3 (1993): 307-316.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-23; 2012-06-13; 2015-02-05)

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4:9a And when the living beings – according to the circumstances – may (א,* א) give glory and honour and thankfulness to the One being seated on the throne …

Word for word (15 words in the Greek text): And when-according-to-the-ciracumstances may-give the living-beings glory and honour and thankfulness (to)-the-(one) being-seated on the throne


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The Lord said:) "The ones glorifying Me I will glorify, and the one despising Me will be unhonoured." (1 Sam 2:30b, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said:) ”Carry to the Lord glory and honour.” (Ps 96:7b, Greek OT)

The Lord will be king in Zion and in Jerusalem, and He will be glorified in the very eyes of the elders. (Is 24:23b, Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) "Give glory to the Lord, your God, before 'the thing to grow'/'it grows' dark." (Jer 13:16a, Greek OT)

To (one as a son of man) was given the beginning and the honour and the kingdom, and all the peoples, tribes, tongues will be slaves to Him. His (judicial) authority (is) an agelong (judicial) authority, and His kingdom will not be ruined throughout. (Dan 7:14, Greek OT, Theod)

(The Lord said to the priests:) “A son glorifies a father and a slave his lord. And if I am a father, where is My glory?” (Mal 1:6a, Greek OT)

(Raphael said:) “I am Raphael, one of the seven messengers who stand by the side of (God) and go into (His dwelling-place) ‘in the very eyes of’/before the glory of the Lord.” (Tobit 12:15, S)

(Judith said:) “’To the side of’/besides all these things we may be thankful to the Lord, our God, Who tries us according as and/also our fathers.” (Judith 8:25)

(Solomon said to God:) “... One must be in advance of the sun against/’in quest of’ Your thankfulness and entreat you towards an upsticking of light.” (Wisdom of Solomon 16:28)


The Latter Revelation:

And having taken a cup and having ‘been thankful’/’given thanks’, (Jesus) gave to (His disciples) saying: “Drink out of it, all (of you). For this is My blood of the covenant, which is poured out on account of many into/’for the purpose of’ a ‘letting be’/’leaving alone’ of misses (of the mark of God).” (Matt 26:27-28)

(A messenger together with a multitude of the heavenly host said:) “Glory to God in highest things/heavens.” (Luke 2:14a)

Having behold that he had been healed, (the leper) returned (to Jesus) glorifying God in company with a great/loud voice. ... He fell/'fell down' against/on (the) face to the side of (Jesus') feet, being thankful to Him. And he (continually) was a Samaritan. ... (Jesus said:) "Were they not found having returned to give glory to God, ‘if not’/except this one, the one of other descent?" (Luke 17:15-18)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

And we viewed His glory, a glory as of an only descendant from the side of a father, filled with joybringing (grace) and truth. (John 1:14b)

(Jesus said to the Jews:) “Nor the Father judges ‘no one’/anyone, however/but has given (and gives) every/all judgment to the Son, in order that all may honour the Son entirely as they may honour the Father. The one not honouring the Son does not honour the Father having sent Him. ... I do not take glory from the side of men.” (John 5:22-23,41)

Jesus answered (the Jews): “I have not a little demon. However, I honour My Father, and you dishonour Me. But I do not seek My glory. It/there is the One seeking and judging.” (John 8:49-50)

(The Jews) so ‘out of’/’immediately after’, a second (time), raised their voices to the man who (continually) had been blind and spoke to him: “Give glory to God.” (John 9:24a)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “In this My Father was glorified, in order that you may carry/produce much fruit, and you will (א,* א, A) become disciples to Me.” (John 15:8)

But (א,* א) having (א,* א, A) come out, Jesus – knowing all the things coming against Him – spoke (א,* א, A) to them: “Whom do you seek?” They answered Him: “Jesus, the Nazoraean.” Jesus (א,*א,A) says to them: "I am." (John 18:4-5a)

To (Jesus Christ is) the glory and the power into the (coming) ages of the (coming) ages. Amen. (Rev 1:6b)

I am the Alpha and the Ô/Omega, a beginning and an end (א*),” says the Lord God. (Rev 1:8)

And behold, a throne (continually) lay in the heaven, and (One) being seated against the throne. (Rev 4:2b)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

When (Mr. Nilsson) sees Alva, he does not cry more but only wails and groans. "I have got some devilry round the leg which I cannot get rid of. God knows what it is but it gives pain." Alva at once launches. She has strong fingers and soon she has got Mr. Nilsson loose out of the fox-trap. Then he weeps for thankfulness. "The angel of Junibacken, your wage will become great in heaven and on earth, be sure of this!" (Astrid Lindgren "Madicken och Junibackens Pims" p 142-143; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

I'll always thank the Lord When my working day's through I get my sweet reward To be alone with you. (Bob Dylan "To Be Alone With You" p 239; 1969)

Dear child. . . . First and last! Be afraid in the prosperity! And do not forget to thank the Giver! We have no part in this miracle (with your success on the stage)! (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev XVIII maj 1909-maj 1910" p 185-186; letter 1909-10-20 to Greta Strindberg; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

(1900 May) 3rd. In the morning I met a poor old woman, who demanded a coin; she got a bigger one. She wept saying that she had slept on a flight of stairs in the night praying God to be allowed to meet a merciful man. I asked her not to forget to thank God. She asked if I had suffered much. . . . I answered that I had been as poor as she and had "demanded". . . . The same old woman, the same scene, the same place and the same words, year 1901, 31st of May. (August Strindberg "Ockulta dagboken" p 114; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Thank you for the charming letter doing my heart good! Such a letter I have always regarded as a gift from above sharing the thankfulness between him having written it and Him whose wisdom presents itself in the growth of the flower and the child as in the life of the star systems and whose goodness is the spring of all good things, which the men give one another. (Viktor Rydbergs brev III "Brev från Viktor Rydberg 1882-1895" p 58; letter 1887-11-12 to R. Malling-Hansen; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Today I received Nouvelle Revue last chapter at Société de Stockholm. . . . My mission in France is with that fulfilled for this time. I thank God (forgive the expression) that I did not got any help. (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev V 1885-juli 1886" p 202; letter 1885-11-10 to Albert Bonnier)

Thank you for the pleasant information, which you on behalf of the Faculty of Arts and Sciences, although until further notice between ourselves, have told me! On the asked question of course only one answer can be given. I am allowed to atend the olympiad of one hundred years of our culture, when one of my dearest friends hands me the laurel. I thank God in the first room and the Faculty of Arts and Sciences in the second for this joy. (Viktor Rydbergs brev II "Brev från Viktor Rydberg 1855-1881" p 219; letter in March 1877 to Carl Rupert Nyblom; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Anders Andersson, Yngve Brilioth, Sven Danell, Hilding Fagerberg, Emilie Flygare-Carlén, Carl Grimberg, Homeros, Anders Hultman, Anna Jennings, Viktor Johansson, Ulrik Josefsson, Aleksis Kivi, Carl J. Kullenbergh, Vilhelm Moberg, Seymor Rossel, Yrsa Stenius, Margareta Strömstedt, Ragnar Thoursie, P. Waldenström, Stig Wikström, Erik Wistrand.


My own comments and speculations:

“The One/God being seated on the throne”, see also Rev 6:16a; 7:10; 19:4; 21:5a. I have not been able to find the expression “on the throne” (epi tô thronô) in dative in any other of the books in the Bible. Otherwise we can for example find the expressions “upon the throne” (epi tou thronou) in genitive and “against the throne” (epi ton thronon) in accusative.

It is interesting, that John uses the letter ô (omega) to formulate a new expression. Perhaps the apostle wants to say, that he beholds what no one else has beheld. He beholds Him being “the Alpha and the Ô/Omega” (Rev 1:8; 22:13) and being seated on the throne of Ô/Omega. Cf. also My own comments and speculations to John 18:4-5 with references to other Bible passages in the Gospel of John.


Paul said to the believers in Rome: “To (God is) the glory into the (coming) ages. Amen.” (Rom 11:36b)

Paul said to the believers in Corinth: “If – according to the circumstances – you may bless (in) (א,* A) spirit, how will the one ’completing upwards’/upcompleting the place of the single citizens (be able to) speak the ‘Amen’ on/to your thankfulness, ‘already since’/since he does not know what you say?” (1 Cor 14:16)

Paul said to Timothy: "To the King of the ages, an alone/only God, immortal (and) impossible to behold, (be) honour and glory into the (coming) ages of the (coming) ages. Amen.” (1 Tim 1:17)

Peter said: “Having taken honour and glory from the side of God, a father, … (a voice said to Jesus:) 'This is My welcomed * (א,* א, A) Son.’” (2 Pet 1:17a)


Greek words:

eucharistia (thankfulness) Wisdom of Solomon 16:28; Rev 4:9 – Esther 8:12d(E4); Sir 37:11; Acts 24:3; 1 Cor 14:16; 2 Cor 4:15; 9:11-12; Eph 5:4; Phil 4:6; Col 2:7; 4:2; 1 Thess 3:9; 1 Tim 2:1; 4:3-4; Rev 7:12.


Additional studies: Ps 8:5(6); 29:1; 47:8(9); 96:8; Is 6:1; 2 Macc 2:27; Acts 28:15; Rom 1:21; 1 Cor 14:18; Col 1:3,12; 3:17; Philemon v 4; Heb 2:7; Rev 4:3; 5:13; 21:26.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-23; 2012-06-13; 2015-02-05)

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4:9b ... to the One living into the (coming) ages of the (coming) ages ...

Word for word (7 words in the Greek text): (to)-the-(one) living into the ages (of)-the (of)-ages.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The Lord says:) “I live into the (coming) age.” (Deut 32:40b, Greek OT)

(Moses said to the Lord:) "Before the mountains be/were beget ... and from the age till the age You are." (Ps 90:2, Greek OT)

Holy ones of a highest one will take the kingdom to the side (them) and ‘keep ... down’/possess the kingdom till/’as long as’ the age and till/’as long as’ the age of the ages. (Dan 7:18, Greek OT)

Tobit wrote a prayer into/for exultation and spoke: “Blessed (is) the living God into the (coming) ages and His kingdom.” (Tobit 13:1-2a, BA)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “Into the (coming) age the One living created 'all the things in common'/'the whole as communities'.” (Sir 18:1)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples: "The cursed ones who have not done anything to the least of My brothers) will go away into an agelong chastisement, but the righteous ones (who have done something to the least of My brothers) into an agelong life." (Matt 25:46)

On (the women's) leaning the faces into/to the earth (the two men) spoke towards (them): “What/why do you seek the living One in company with the dead (bodies)?” (Luke 24:5b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

To (Jesus Christ is) the glory and the power into the (coming) ages of the (coming) ages. Amen. (Rev 1:6b)

(I am) the One living, and I became a dead (body), and behold, I am a living one into the (coming) ages of the (coming) ages. (Rev 1:18a)


My own comments and speculations:

See also Rev 1:18a and My own comments and speculations to Rev 1:6b


Paul said to Timothy: "To the King of the ages, an alone/only God, immortal (and) impossible to behold, (be) honour and glory into the (coming) ages of the (coming) ages. Amen.” (1 Tim 1:17)

Peter said: "God may be glorified in all things through Jesus Christ, to whom the glory is and the power into the (coming) ages of the (coming) ages. Amen.” (1 Pet 4:11b)


Additional studies: Dan 4:31(34); 6:26; 12:7; Rom 11:36; 16:27; Gal 1:5; Eph 3:21; Phil 4:20; 2 Tim 4:18; Heb 13:21; 2 Pet 3:18; Rev 10:6; 15:7.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-23; 2012-06-13; 2015-02-06)

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4:10a ... the twenty-four elders will and/also (א,* א) fall/’sink down’ in the very eyes of the One being seated upon the throne, and they will prostrate themselves before the One living into the (coming) ages of the (coming) ages (in honour of Him). Amen (א,*א).

Word for word (22 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus): and will-fall the twenty four elders in-the-very-eyes-of (of)-the-(one) being-seated upon the throne and (they)-will-'(kiss-towards)'/'prostrate-themselves-(before)' the-(one) living into the ages (of)-the (of)-ages. amen.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Moses spoke to Israel: "This is what the Lord says:) 'Every first-born in (the) earth/land Egypt will come to an end from a first-born of Pharaoh, who is seated upon the throne.'" (Ex 11:5a, Greek OT)

… (The king) was (continually) seated upon the throne. (Esther 5:1ca/D6a, Greek OT)

… (The prophet) beheld the Lord being seated upon a throne, high and being lifted against/up. (Is 6:1a, Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) “Upon/at the front doors of the temple of the Lord, ‘upwards middle of ... upwards middle of’/between the forecourt and the sacrificial altar, (are) as/about twenty males (with) their back parts towards the temple of the Lord and their faces over against. And these prostrate themselves before the sun (in honour of it). (Ezek 8:16b, Greek OT)

The herald proclaimed to the crowds: “To you – nations and districts, peoples and tongues – it is brought a message (from) the side of (the king): “When you – according to the circumstances – may hear the voice/sound of ... every/all descents/kinds of musicians, having fallen/’sunk down’, prostrate yourselves before the golden image (in honour of it).” (Dan 3:4-5a, Greek OT)

Having fallen/’sank down’ against (her) face (Judith) prostrated before (Holophernes) (in honour of him), and/but his slaves raised her. (Judith 10:23b, Greek OT)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “One is wise, extremely fearful, (one) being seated upon His throne.” (Sir 1:8)

(Manasseh said to the Lord:) “Every ability of the heavens sings hymns to You, and the glory is Yours into the (coming) ages. Amen.” (The Prayer of Manasseh v 15b)


The Latter Revelation:

Having falling/’sunk down’ (the soothsayers, who Herod had ordered to seek out for the little Boy) prostrated themselves before (Jesus). ... (Matt 2:11b)

(The slanderer showed Jesus) all the kingdoms of the adornment/’adorned world’ and their glory. And he spoke to Him: "All these things I will give You, if – according to the circumstances – on having fallen/’sunk down’ You may prostrate Yourself before me (in honour of me)." (Matt 4:8b-9)

Jesus spoke to (His disciples): ”Amen I say to you that/: ‘You, the ones having followed Me in the regeneration, when the Son of the Man may – according to the circumstances – sit down upon His throne of glory, and/also you yourselves (א,*א) will be seated against twelve thrones, judging the twelve tribes of Israel.’” (Matt 19:28)

One of the leaders of the synagogue comes ... and having beheld (Jesus), he falls/’falls down’ towards His feet, and he calls Him many (times) to the side of, saying that/: "My little daughter has the last (hour), in order that having come You may put/lay the hands on her, in order that she may be saved and live." (Mark 5:22b-23)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Jesus said to the woman:) "However, an hour comes, and it is now, when the true ‘prostrators’ will prostrate themselves before the Father (in honour of Him) in spirit and truth. For the Father seeks (certainly) and/also of such kind the ones prostrating (towards) Him (in adoration of Him). God (is) spirit, and the ones prostrating themselves * (א*) must prostrate themselves in a spirit of (א*) truth." (John 4:23-24)

So Mary (P45,P66,א,*א), as she came whereat/where Jesus (continually) was, having beheld Him she fell/’sank down’ towards His feet. (John 11:32a)

To (Jesus Christ is) the glory and the power into the (coming) ages of the (coming) ages. Amen. (Rev 1:6b)

When I beheld Him, I fell/’sank down’ into/’up to’ (א,* א) His feet as a dead (body). (Rev 1:17a)

And behold, a throne (continually) lay in the heaven, and (One) being seated against the throne. (Rev 4:2b)

In a circle from the throne (were) twenty-four thrones and against the thrones being twenty-four elders seated. (Rev 4:4a)

(Glory and honour and thankfulness) to the One being seated on the throne, to One living into the (coming) ages of the (coming) ages. (Rev 4:9b)


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “Amen”, see Rev 1:6b. “Having fallen/’sunk down’”, see also Rev 5:14; 7:11b; 11:16; 19:4,10; 22:8.


Additional studies: Deut 32:40; Ps 47:8(9); Dan 4:34; 12:7; Matt 18:26; Rev 5:8,14; 10:6; 15:7.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-24; 2012-06-13; 2015-02-06)

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4:10b-11a And they * (א*) throw their crowns ‘in the very eyes of’/before the throne, saying: “Worthy are You, Lord (א,* א), the Lord and our God ... ”

Word for word: 4:10b (9 words in the Greek text) and (they)-throw the crowns their in-the-very-eyes-of (of)-the (of)-throne saying 4:11 (8 words in the Greek text) worthy (you)-are, lord the lord and god our.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(David said to the Lord:) "Arouse/awake Lord and give heed to my judgment, into/’for the purpose of’ my justice, my God and my Lord." (Ps 35:23, Greek OT)

(The prophet said bearing himself and Jerusalem in mind:) “The crown of our head has fallen. Woe to us presently, because we have missed (the mark of God)!” (Lam 5:16, Greek OT)


The Latter Revelation:

(The elders of the Jews, dispatched away by the “leader of a hundred men”, said to Jesus:) “He is worthy.” … (The “leadership of a hundred men” sent friends, saying to Jesus:) “… I did not think myself worthy to come towards you.” (Luke 7:4b,7a)

(Jesus said to the apostles:) “When you – according to the circumstances – may have made/done all the things having been throughout arranged to you, say that/: “We are useless slaves. We have made/done (and makes/does) what we (continually) were indebted to make/do.” (Luke 17:10b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

John (said to the Pharisees): "I baptize in water. (In) your middle stood (and had stood) (P75, א,* א) One whom you do not know, * (א*, B) coming behind me, whose thong of His sandal I am not worthy ‘in order that’/that I may loosen." (John 1:26-27)

Thomas answered and spoke to (Jesus): "'The Lord my'/'My Lord' and 'the God my'/'my God'!" (John 20:28)

(Jesus Christ) has made us a kingdom, priests to His God and Father. (Rev 1:6a)

Become faithful until death, and I will give you the crown of the life. (Rev 2:10b, “Smyrna”)

‘Get power over’/keep the thing which you have in order that anyone may not take your crown. (Rev 3:11b, “Philadelphia”)

(Elders) being (and having been) wrapped up in white (things) (א,*א) and (with) golden crowns against their heads. (Rev 4:4b)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: Carl Grimberg, Mikael Tellbe.


Additional studies: Prov 16:31; Jer 13:18; Ezek 21:26; Matt 3:11; 8:8; Mark 1:7; Luke 3:16; John 5:23; Acts 13:25; Rev 5:9,12.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-24; 2012-06-13; 2015-02-06)

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4:11ba ... to take the glory and the honour and the ability ...

Word for word (9 words in the Greek text): (to)-take the glory and the honour and the ability


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(David said to the Lord: “In) You, Lord, (is) the greatness and the ability … From the side of You (are) the riches and the glory.” (1 Chron 29:11a,12a, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said:) “The Lord has been/’begun to be’ king. He has set/clothed Himself in a comely appearance. The Lord has set/clothed Himself in ability and has girded Himself around.” (Ps 93:1a, Greek OT)

The Lord will be king in Zion and in Jerusalem, and He will be glorified in the very eyes of the elders. (Is 24:23b, Greek OT)

(Solomon said:) “The ability (of God) convicts the thoughtless ones.” (Wisdom of Solomon 1:3b)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “The Lord created much glory.” (Sir 44:2a)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to the Sadducees: “You do not know) the writings but/and not the ability of God.” (Matt 22:29b)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “All the tribes of the earth will * (א*) ‘cut themselves’/mourn, and they will behold the Son of the Man coming upon the clouds of the heaven in company with ability and much glory.” (Matt 24:30b)

(Jesus said to the priest leader:) “From just now you will behold the Son of the Man being seated out of the right (parts) of the Ability and coming upon the clouds of the heaven.” (Matt 26:64b)

Jesus spoke (to the priest leader): “I am. And you will behold the Son of the Man being seated out of the right (parts) of the Ability and coming in company with the clouds of the heaven.” (Mark 14:62)

‘Having answered the messenger’/’the messenger answered and’ spoke to (Mariam): "Holy spirit will come against, against you, and an ability of a highest One will overshadow you. Therefore the thing being begotten and/also will be called holy, a son of God." (Luke 1:35)

(Mary said:) “Holy (is) the name (of the able One).” (Luke 1:49b)

(A messenger together with a multitude of the heavenly host said:) “Glory to God in highest things/heavens and upon earth peace 'in men of satisfication'/'among men taking pleasure in good things'.” (Luke 2:14)

(Peter said to the people:) “Why do you wonder on/’for the sake of’ this, or why do you gaze at us as an own ability or a reverence has made (and makes) (the lame man) to walk about?” (Acts 3:12b)

(Luke said: “The barbarians/foreigners) honoured us (with) many honours.” (Acts 28:10a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

And we viewed His glory, a glory as of an only descendant from the side of a father, filled with joybringing (grace) and truth. (John 1:14b)

(Jesus said to the Jews:) “Nor the Father judges ‘no one’/anyone, however/but has given (and gives) every/all judgment to the Son, in order that all may honour the Son entirely as they may honour the Father. The one not honouring the Son does not honour the Father having sent Him.” (John 5:22-23)

(Jesus said to the Jews:) “I am not able to do anything from/'owing to' Myself.” (John 5:30a)

Jesus answered (the Jews): “I have not a little demon. However, I honour My Father, and you dishonour Me. But I do not seek My glory. It/there is the One seeking and judging.” (John 8:49-50)

To (Jesus Christ is) the glory and the power into the (coming) ages of the (coming) ages. Amen. (Rev 1:6b)

You have small/little ability and you have kept My saying and have not denied My name. (Rev 3:8b, “Philadelphia”)

The living beings may (א,* א) – according to the circumstances – give glory and honour and thankfulness to the One being seated on the throne. (Rev 4:9a)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: Elisabeth Beskow, Sven Larsson, Sven Lidman, Marita Lindgren-Fridell, Vilhelm Moberg, Watchman Nee, Sven Nilsson, K.A. Rundbäck, Bo Setterlind, Olof Sjöstrand, Carl Fr. Wislöff.


Paul said to the believers in Rome: “To (God is) the glory into the (coming) ages. Amen.” (Rom 11:36b)

Paul said to the believers in Corinth: “(The Lord) has spoken (and speaks) to me: ‘My joybringing (grace) is enough for you, for the ability is ended in weakness.’” (2 Cor 12:9a)

Paul said to Timothy: "To the King of the ages, an alone/only God, immortal (and) impossible to behold, (be) honour and glory into the (coming) ages of the (coming) ages. Amen.” (1 Tim 1:17)


Additional studies: Mal 1:6; Mark 13:26; Rom 16:27; Rev 5:13; 7:12; 11:15,17; 12:10; 14:7; 19:1.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-24; 2012-06-13; 2015-02-07)

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4:11bb ... because You created all the things, and because of Your will they (continually) were and were created.

Word for word (13 words in the Greek text): because you created the-(things) all and because-of the will your (they)-(continually)-were and were-created.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Melchizedek) blessed (Abram) and spoke: “(May) Abram be (and have been) blessed (in) God the Highest One, who created the heaven and the earth.” (Gen 14:19, Greek OT)

(Solomon said: “God) created all the things into/purposed to be.” (Wisdom of Solomon 1:14a)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “Into the (coming) age the One living created 'all the things in common'/'the whole as communities'.” (Sir 18:1)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples: “Pray in this way: ‘Our Father,) become/’be ... done’ Your will, as in heaven and/also upon earth.’” (Matt 6:10b)

(Jesus said:) "(The one) who – according to the circumstances – may make/do the will of God, this one is my brother and sister and mother." (Mark 3:35)

(Jesus said to His disciples: “In) those days it will be such an oppression as has not become of such kind from a beginning of a creation, which God created, till the now and not/certainly not may become.” (Mark 13:19)

(God made) the adornment/’adorned world’ and all the things in it ... (and gave) to every/all life and breath and all the things. (Acts 17:24a,25b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

In a beginning the Saying (continually) was. (John 1:1a)

All things became through (the Saying), and separate from It nothing (P66, א*) became that has become (and becomes). (John 1:3)

As many as took him, to them He gave (judicial) authority to become children of God, to the ones believing into His name, who were begotten not out of bloods/blood, nor out of a will of flesh, nor out of a will of a male, however/but out of God. (John 1:12-13)

(Jesus said to the Jews:) “My Father works till just now, and I work.” (John 5:17)

(Jesus said to the Jews:) “I am not able to make/do nothing/anything from/'owing to' Myself. Entirely as I hear, I judge. And My judgment is righteous, because I do not seek My will however/but the will of the One having sent Me.” (John 5:30)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

The rural dean was kind there on the parish cathetical meeting. He did not pretended that Lina had given a fault answer but in stead began to tell how God had created the world and all men living there and how remarkable His creation was. "Even you, Lina, is a real miracle", the dean assured, and he asked Lina if she had considered this and if she did not think it was remarkable that God had created her. This Lina thought, she said. But then she reflected. "Yes, but of course, I myself was, I suppose, not so remarkle to make. But all those flourishes in the ears, those I think it would be complicated to get together!" (Astrid Lindgren "Än lever Emil i Lönneberga" p 121; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Is now, my beloved ones, a demand from God (that we are to love him) unreasonable? Oh, may we tremble before such a thought! Unreasonable to love God, the origin and giver of all goodness and blessedness! If the created things, sun, moon, stars, down till the creeping creatures in the mould and the lilies in the valley, had tongue, they would strike up a joint song to their and our creator. And also the angelic hosts would mingle their praise with theirs. And nevertheless God does not seem to have proved the goodness and love of his heart as much to any other beings, not even to the angels, as to us men. Would then a human heart think or a human tongue express, that it is unreasonable to love such a God higher than everything else. . . . A field, lying below a rich spring, does not fade, not even in severe drought. The most glorious of the songs of praise of the bible ascended out of hearts and mouths of such ones knowing themselves own nothing good in themselves but who owned all good in God. A song of praise about what we ourselves are resembles the heavy mass of smoke following along the ground. A song of praise again about what God is resembles the column of smoke heightening itself straight up in the clear ether. That song of praise is born of heaven, and it ascends straight up towards heaven going into heaven. It is from God and it goes to God. In reality it is, spiritually taken, only the thing received by God which is given back and which can be given to God in song of praise and to our neighbour in the fruits of the spirit. Without such a reception our heart remains like the icy ground of winter, but with such a reception it becomes like the flowering field of summer. We give, because we have received, and we give of what we have received, like both the attire of the ground having become green and the beautiful fruits of the field are a gift of the sun. (Karl Palmberg "Ur livskällan. Tredje årgången" p 397,400; Karl Palmberg /1842-1920/ was from 1883 a Lutheran clergyman in Månsarp in the diocese of Växjö and president in Jönköpings Missionsförening (Missionary Society) 1886-1911; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

The muscles, the ones one does not see elsewhere than in the anatomy ward, constitute in itself an eternally standing proof that they have not made themselves or arisen, but that they are made by hand, by a mechanic, by a surgical instrument maker, a truss-maker, and a great artist. (August Strindberg "En blå bok III" p 836; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Being at home in the natural sciences since childhood, then follower of Darwin, I had discovered the unsatisfactory in this scientific method, which acknowledged the excellent mechanism of cosmos without admitting the existence of the mechanic. The weakness of the system betrayed itself in a general degeneration of the science, which had laid down for itself a boundary-line, above which one was not allowed to go on. We have solved all problems. The universe have no mysteries more. This conceited lie had provoked me already about year 1880, and during the following fifteen years I had made a revision of the natural sciences. (August Strindberg "Inferno" p 25-26; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

The amiable fellow-countrymen! When I was in foreign countries it was said: if Strindberg came home devoting himself to his country he would be well off. Now I came! And want to glorify the nature of Sweden. Have you seen! And such a winter I went through last year! That I did not remain in the mire! Oh, Country! Country! Our Country! (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev VIII jan 1890-dec 1891" p 106; letter 1890-10-13 to Ola Hansson; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: F. Bettex, J.P. Jacobsen, Amy Le Feuvre, Carl von Linné, Kerstin Midnäs, Vilhelm Moberg, Richard Newton, Johan Ludvig Runeberg, Gösta Sandberg, Enok H. Skooglund, John Stott, Knut Svensson, Z. Topelius.


Greek words:

ktizô (create) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Wisdom of Solomon 1:14; Sir 18:1; Mark 13:19; Rev 4:11 – Tobit 8:15(BA); Judith 9:12; 13:18; Wisdom of Solomon 2:23; 10:1; 11:17; 13:3; Sir 1:4,9; 7:15; 10:18; 17:1; 24:8-9; 31:13,27; 33:10; 38:1,4,12; 39:21,25,28-29; 40:1,10; 44:2; 49:14; Bel and the Dragon v 5; Rom 1:25; 1 Cor 11:9; Eph 2:10,15; 3:9; 4:24; Col 1:16; 3:10; 1 Tim 4:3; Rev 10:6.


Additional studies: Acts 14:15; Rev 5:13; 14:7.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-24; 2012-06-13; 2015-02-07)

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