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Chapter 3

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3:1a And to the messenger of the (assembly) of called out in Sardis write:

Word for word (8 words in the Greek text): And (to)-the messenger (of)-the in Thyatira (of)-(assembly)-of-called-out write:


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(When Jesse and his sons came, Samuel) beheld Eliab and spoke: “However/certainly the Lord's anointed (is) and/namely in the very eyes of (Him).” And/but the Lord spoke towards Samuel: “Do not see against, against his sight but/and not into the condition of his great size, because I have treated (and treat) him despicably. … And Jesse called Abinadab and he came by the side of ‘according to’/opposite the face of Samuel. And he spoke: “Nor this one has the Lord chosen.” And Jesse led Shammah by the side of (Samuel). And he spoke: “And in/through this one the Lord has not chosen.” And Jesse led his seven sons by the side of in the very eyes of Samuel. And Samuel spoke: “The Lord has not chosen in/through these.” And Samuel spoke towards Jesse: “Are (and have ... been) the very little boys left out?” And he spoke: “(It/there is) still the small one.” (1 Sam 16:6b-11a, Greek OT)

Jesse begot his first-born Eliab, Abinadab the second, Shimea the third, Nethanel the fourth, Raddai the fifth, Azom/Ozem the sixth, David the seventh. (1 Chron 2:13-15, Greek OT)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

Thomas, one of the twelve, called Twofold, (continually) was not in company with (the disciples) when Jesus came. … After eight days again (Jesus') disciples were inside and Thomas was in company with them. (John 20:24,26a)

(The voice) said (to John): “Send (the scroll) to the seven (assemblies) of called out, into Ephesos and into Smyrna and into Pergamos and into Thyatira * (א*) and into Philadelphia and into Laodicea.” (Rev 1:11b)

To the messenger of the (assembly) of called out in Ephesos write: (Rev 2:1a)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

See Exegetes, evangelists and others to Rev 1:11b.


My own comments and speculations:

See My own comments and speculations to Rev 1:11b.


Greek words:

Sardeis (Sardis) Rev 3:1 – Rev 3:4. Cf. My own comments and speculations to Rev 1:11b.


Additional studies:


David E. Aune "The Form and Function of the Proclamations to the Seven Churches (Revelation 2-3)"; New Testament Studies 36 (1990): 182-204.

James L. Boyer "Are the Seven Letters of Revelation 2-3 Prophetic?"; Grace Theological Journal 6.2 (1985): 267-273.

Robert L. Muse "Revelation 2-3: a critical analysis of seven prophetic messages"; Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 29.2 (June 1966): 147-161.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-19; 2012-06-08; 2015-01-22)

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3:1b This is what the One having the seven spirits of God and the seven stars says: “I know your works, that you have a name, that you live, and/but you are (a) dead (body).”

Word for word (25 words in the Greek text): '(The-but-things)'/'this-is-what' says the-(one) having the seven spirits (of)-the (of)-god and the seven stars: (i/I)-'know-(and-have-known)' your the works that (a)-name (you)-have that (you)-live, and dead (you)-are.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

The Lord spoke towards Moses: “... You have found (and find) joybringing (grace) in the very eyes of Me, and I know you ‘to the side of’/’in comparison with’ all." (Ex 33:17, Greek OT)

The Lord puts to death and produces living beings. He leads down into Hades and leads up. (1 Sam 2:6, Greek OT)

(Zophar said: “God) knows works of lawless ones.” (Job 11:11a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Job:) “Did you let/bring together a band of Pleiades (seven stars)?” (Job 38:31a, Greek OT)

(Solomon said:) “In every place (are) the eyes of the Lord, they spy both bad and good ones.” (Prov 15:3, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to His people:) “Bathe, become clean, take off/away the evil things from your souls (the things which are) over against My eyes. Cease from your evils.” (Is 1:16, Greek OT)

A spirit of God will ‘be brought’/come to rest against (a rod out of the root of Jesse); a spirit of wisdom and understanding, a spirit of counsel and stability, a spirit of knowledge and reverence. (Is 11:2, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to His people Israel:) “Do not fear, because I have redeemed you. I have called you (by) your name, you are Mine.” (Is 43:1b, Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) ”This is what the Lord says: ’On/’on the ground of’ the three impieties of (Gaza/Tyre/Idumaea/Ammon/Moab/Judas/Israel) and on/’on the ground of’ the four, I will not turn away to them.” ... Hear this saying, which the Lord has talked against you, house of Israel, and ‘down from’/against every tribe, which (He) led up out of (the) earth/land of Egypt, saying: “’More than’/however I had knowledge of you out of all tribes of the earth. Because of this I will procure justice against you for all your misses (of My mark).” (Amos 1:6a,9a,11a,13a; 2:1a,4a,6a; 3:1-2, Greek OT)

(Solomon said: ”Men) ’speak to’/call the bad things peace.” (Wisdom of Solomon 14:22b)


The Latter Revelation:

Having been baptized Jesus straight/’straight off’ ascended from the water; and behold, the heavens were opened, and (John) beheld a (א,* א, B) spirit of God descending as if (it was) a pigeon * (א*,B) coming against Him. (Matt 3:16)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "Give heed from/to the false prophets, whoever/who come towards you in clothes of sheep but from inside are rapacious wolves." (Matt 7:15)

(Jesus said to one of His disciples:) "Follow Me; and let the dead (bodies) be to bury their own dead (bodies)." (Matt 8:22b)

Having beheld one fig tree (alone) upon the way, (Jesus) came against it and did not find anything in it, ‘if not’/except leaves only, and He says to it: “Oh that (א,* א) it may not become fruit out of you any longer into the (coming) age.” And immediately the fig tree was dried. (Matt 21:19)

(The Son of the Man) will indeed cause the sheep to stand out/’on the basis’ of His right (parts) but the little goats out of the ’(parts) of a good name’/’left (parts)’. Then the king will speak to the ones out/’on the basis’ of His right (parts): “Come here, the ones having been (and being) blessed of My Father, inherit the kingdom having been (and being) made ready for you from a foundation of an adornment/’adorned world’.” (Matt 25:33-34)

... The daughter (continually) had an unclean spirit. (Mark 7:25a)

Some women (were together with Jesus, women) who (continually) were (‘and had been’/permanently) attended from/for unclean (א,* א) spirits and weaknesses. (Among these women was) Mary, being called “from Magdala”, from whom seven little demons had come (‘and come’/permanently) out. (Luke 8:2)

(Jesus said to the seventy:) “Rejoice because your names are (and have been) written in, in the heavens.” (Luke 10:20b)

(The father said to his slaves:) "This my son (continually) was (a) dead (body) and/but has ‘lived up’/’returned to life’." (Luke 15:24a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

The one making/doing the truth comes towards the light, in order that it may be made visible, that it is in God his works having been (and being) worked. (John 3:21)

(Jesus said to the Jews:) " Amen, amen, I say to you, that an hour comes * (א*), when the dead (bodies) may (P66, א,* א) hear the voice of the Son of God, and * (P66, א*) having heard they will live." (John 5:25)

The Saviour (א,*א) knew from (P66, א,* א) a beginning (that) some are the * (א,*א) believing ones and (that) someone (continually) was the one being about to give Him ‘to the side of’/over (P66, א,*א). (John 6:64b)

(Jesus said to the man who had been blind:) “Into/’for the purpose of’ a judicial verdict I came into this adornment/’adorned world’, in order that the ones not seeing may see and the ones seeing may become blind.” The ones out of the Pharisees being in company with Him heard * (א*) and spoke to Him: “Not are and/also we blind?” Jesus spoke to them: “If you may be blind, you (continually) had – according to the circumstances – not (any) miss (of the mark of God). But now you say that/: ‘We see.’ Your miss (of the mark of God) stays.” (John 9:39-41)

(The shepherd of the sheep) raises his voice (towards) his own sheep ‘according to name’/’after their names’… (John 10:3b)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) ”If – according to the circumstances – a certain (person) may not have stayed in Me, he has been thrown outside as the twig and been dried. And they lead it (א,*א) together (with other twigs) and throw (them) into the fire, and it is burnt.” (John 15:6)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “When – according to the circumstances – the One being called to the side of (you) may come, which I will send to you from the side of the Father, the Spirit of the truth, which goes out from the side of the Father, that One will be a witness on account of Me.” (John 15:26)

Joybringing (grace) (with) you and peace from the One who is and the One who (continually) was and the One who comes and from the seven spirits * (א,* א, A) ‘in the very eyes of’/before His throne and from Jesus Christ … the first-born of the dead (bodies) … And in His right hand He (continually) had (א*) seven stars. (Rev 1:4b-5a,16a)

(I am) the One living, and I became a dead (body), and behold, I am a living one into the (coming) ages of the (coming) ages. (Rev 1:18a)

The seven stars are the messengers of the seven (assemblies) of called out. … (Rev 1:20b)

To the messenger of the (assembly) of called out in Ephesos write: “This is what the One ‘getting power (over)’/seizing the seven stars in His right hand (א*) says, the One walking about in a middle of the seven golden lampstands: “I know your works…. Recollect so from where you have fallen (and fall) and change your mind and make/do the first works.” (Rev 2:1-2a,5a, “Ephesos”)

... the First (One) and the Last (One), who became a dead (body) and lived/’came to life’. (Rev 2:8a, “Smyrna”)

I know your works (א,*א). (Rev 2:9a, “Smyrna”)

I know where you dwell, whereat/where the throne of the adversary (is), and You get/have power over your (א*) name. … (Rev 2:13a, “Pergamos”)

I know your works ... and your last works (are) more than the first.. (Rev 2:19, “Thyatira”)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

If I somehow or other am not allowed to change air, if this helps, so I will die. But even the thought to be allowed to travel implies no enticement! No dreamed illusion can keep me up; no memory from former pleasant, peaceful days can amuse myself; I am spiritually dead, and I do not know anything more in the world, which I can wish myself! . . . Imaginations of an actor possibly have been able to wake me for some moments but so they have died like everything else. (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev I 1858-1876" p 127; letter 1872-09-30 to Eugène Fahlstedt; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

(The major's widow in Ekeby) stroke her fist in the table and let (the priest) plainly hear her thought. "Really, he wants to die, really, he wants it! I would not wonder much at that, if it was so, that he lived. See, such a thin body and such weak limbs and such eyes without lustre, and he means that he has something left to kill! Does he not think, that I stand here seeing how dead he is, Gösta Berling? I see, that he has a head as a death's-head, and I think, that the worms come out of his eye-sockets. Does he not notice, that he has his mouth full of dust? Does he not hear how the bones rattle, when he moves. He has drowned himself in brandy, Gösta Berling, and dead he is. . . . Does he not think, Gösta Berling, that most men in this world are dead or half-dead? Does he think that I live? Oh, no! Oh, no! . . . God knows how little life it is in me." (Selma Lagerlöf "Gösta Berlings saga" p 18-19; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Stig Abrahamsson, Marcus Birro, Nils Dahlberg, Charles Dickens, Runar Eldebo, Björne Erixon, John Galsworthy, Emil Gustafson, Pär Lagerkvist, Sven Lidman, Frank Mangs, Folke Nordangård, Göran Sahlberg, Gösta Sandberg, Tomas Sjödin, P. Waldenström, Jan-Erik Wikström, Yngve Ydreborg.


My own comments and speculations:

Jesus became (a) dead (body) but is alive (Rev 1:18). The (assembly) of called out in Sardis has a name that it is alive, but it is (a) dead (body). It is like the Pharisees in John 9:39-41. They say they are seeing, but they are blind. Cf. also the “dead” disciple Judas (see Rev 1:11b and Rev 16:3).


Paul said to the believers in Ephesos: “You being dead (bodies) (in) your falls from the side of (God) and misses (of the mark of God), (God made alive).” (Eph 2:1)

Paul said to Timothy: “The one living luxuriously is (and has been) deceased (even if she is) living.” (1 Tim 5:6)

James said: “The faith separated from works is (a) dead (body).” (Jas 2:26b)


Additional studies:

Job 24:23; 31:4; 34:21; Prov 5:21; Jer 16:17; Mark 11:13-14; Luke 15:32; Acts 8:8; 16:16, Rom 8:9; Phil 1:19; Col 2:13; Jas 2:17; Rev 3:8,15; 4:5; 5:6.


Birger Gerhardsson "De kristologiska utsagorna i sändebreven i Uppenbarelseboken (kap 2-3)"; Svensk Exegetisk Årsbok 30 (1965): 70-90.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-19; 2012-06-08; 2015-01-23)

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3:2 ‘Become being awake’/’wake up’ and ‘set fast’/confirm the rest, which (continually) was about to die, for I have not found (and do not find) your works having been (and being) completed in the very eyes of My God.

Word for word (20 words in the Greek text): become being-awake and set-fast the rest which (continually)-were/was-about (to)-die, not for (i/I)-have-found-(and-find) your the works having-been-(and-being)-completed in-the-very-eyes-of (of)-the (of)-god my.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The Lord said to His people:) “Bathe, become clean, take off/away the evil things from your souls (the things which are) over against My eyes. Cease from your evil things.” (Is 1:16, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to the shepherds of Israel:) ”The thing being (and having been) weak you have not ‘been stable in’/strengthened.” (Ezek 34:4a, Greek OT)

As the sun set, (the priest leader) Jonathan 'arranged on'/ordered those from the side of him to be awake. (1 Macc 12:27a)

(The priest leader Simon) ‘set fast’/confirmed all the humble of his people. (1 Macc 14:14a)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) ”Be so awake, because you do not know what kind of day your Lord comes.” (Matt 24:42)

Around the ninth hour Jesus cried upwards (with) a great/loud voice, saying: “Eloi, Eloi, (א,*א,B) lema sabachthani?” this is/means,”My God, My God, ‘in order that what’/why have You entirely left Me in (a place)?” (Matt 27:46)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Which/what I say to you, I say to all: ‘Be awake!’” (Mark 13:37)

(Jesus said to the Pharisees:) “The thing (being) high in/among men (is) an abomination in the very eyes of God.” (Luke 16:15b)

(Jesus said to Simon:) “(Jesus said to Simon:) "Once having turned yourself next to (Me), ‘set fast’/confirm your brothers." (Luke 22:32b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

The one making/doing the truth comes towards the light, in order that it may be made visible, that it is in God his works having been (and being) worked. (John 3:21)

These things He spoke, and after this He says to them: “Our friend Lazarus is (and has) fallen asleep. However I go in order that I may rouse him out of sleep. The disciples so spoke to Him: “Lord, if he is (and has) fallen asleep, he will be saved.” But Jesus said/spoke (and had said/spoken) on account of his death, but those thought, that He says/speaks on account of the sleeping of the sleep. (John 11:11-13)

(Jesus said to Mariam:) “Go towards the (א*) brothers and speak to them: “I ascend towards 'the Father My'/'My Father' and your Father and My God and your God.” (John 20:17b)

Remember so from what place you have fallen and change your mind and do the first works. (Rev 2:5a, “Ephesos”)

I know your works ... and your last works (are) more than the first. (Rev 2:19, “Thyatira”)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: Eskil Albertsson, Elisabeth Beskow, Gustaf Bjerkander, Lars Levi Laestadius, Martin Luther, Frank Mangs, A.W. Rendahl, Gösta Sandberg, Sven Stolpe, Gunnar Wennerberg, Göran Åberg.


My own comments and speculations:

In a restoration perspective we can compare "fallen asleep" and "death" in John 11:11-13 with "dead" and "wake up" here in Rev 3:1-2.


Greek words:

grêgoreô (be awake) (in the NT + examples in the OT) 1 Macc 12:27; Matt 24:42; Mark 13:37; Rev 3:2 – Neh 7:3; Matt 24:43; 25:13; 26:38,40-41; Mark 13:34-35; 14:34,37-38; Luke 12:37; Acts 20:31; 1 Cor 16:13; Col 4:2; 1 Thess 5:6,10; 1 Pet 5:8; Rev 16:15.

stêrizô (set fast) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) 1 Macc 14:14; Luke 22:32; Rev 3:2 – 1 Macc 2:17; 14:26; Sir 3:9; 5:10; 6:37; 13:21; 15:4; 22:16; 24:10; 39:32; 42:17; Luke 9:51; 16:26; Acts 18:23(P74,א,*א,A,B); Rom 1:11; 16:25; 1 Thess 3:2,13; 2 Thess 2:17; 3:3; Jas 5:8; 1 Pet 5:10; 2 Pet 1:12.


Additional studies: Judges 19:5,8; Matt 24:44; Luke 1:74-75; Acts 4:19; Rom 3:20; 1 Cor 15:34; Eph 5:14; 1 John 3:21-22.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-19; 2012-06-09; 2015-01-23)

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3:3a Recollect * (א,*א) how you have taken (and take) and (how you) heard and keep (it) and change your mind.

Word for word (9 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus): recollect how (you)-have-taken-(and-take) and heard and keep and change-(your)-mind.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Moses said to Israel:) "You shall welcome the Lord your God and watch/keep His watchings and His fundamental laws and His judgments all the days." (Deut 11:1, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Jerusalem:) “I have remembered mercy of your youth and welcome of your perfection/’full growth’. …” (Jer 2:2b, Greek OT)

(Tobit said to his son:) “You, (my son), keep the law.” (Tobit 14:9a, BA)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said: “The ones changing) their minds (the Lord) gave a way up.” (Sir 17:24a)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to a rich man:) “If you want to come into, into the life, keep the commandments.” (Matt 19:17b)

(Jesus said to His disciples: "Teach the future disciples) to keep all things as many as I have enjoined you.” (Matt 28:20a)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Do you not recollect … how many large baskets filled with fragments you lifted? They say to Him: “Twelve.” (Mark 8:18b-19)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “If – according to the circumstances – your brother may miss (the mark of God), 'honour on'/blame him, and if – according to the circumstances – he may change his mind, let him be. And if – according to the circumstances – he may miss (the mark of God) into/against you seven times ‘of the’/a day, and he seven times may turn himself next to, towards you saying ‘I change my mind’, you will let him be.” (Luke 17:3b-4)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

But as many as took him, to them He gave (judicial) authority to become children of God, to the ones believing into His name. (John 1:12)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “If – according to the circumstances – you may welcome Me, you may keep (P66,א,*א) My commandments. And I will ask the Father, and He will give you Another, One being called to the side of (you), in order that It may be in company with you into the (coming) age, the Spirit of the truth, which the adornment/’adorned world’ is not able to take.” (John 14:15-17a)

Recollect so from where you have fallen (and fall) and change your mind and make/do the first works. (Rev 2:5a, “Ephesos”)

Change your mind * (א,*א). (Rev 2:16a, “Pergamos”)

Behold, I call (א*) her into a bed and the ones committing adultery in company with her into a great oppression, if – according to the circumstances – they will (א,* א, A) not change their minds ‘out of’/’away from’ her works. (Rev 2:22, “Thyatira”)


(These things we write) on account of the Saying of the life, what (continually) was from a beginning, what we have heard (and hear), what our eyes have beheld (and behold), what we viewed and (what) our hands felt (on). (1 John 1:1)

What we – if according to the circumstances – may demand, we take from Him, because we may (א,*א,A) keep His commandments and (because) we make/do the pleasing things in the very eyes of Him. (1 John 3:22)

The one keeping His commandments stays in Him, and He in him. And in this we have knowledge, that He stays in us, out of the Spirit, of which He has given us. (1 John 3:24)

This is the welcome of God, in order that we may keep His commandments, and His commandments are not weighty. (1 John 5:3)


Additional studies: Ezek 23:19; Matt 16:9; 23:3; Luke 17:32; John 8:51-52; 14:23; 17:6; Acts 20:31; Eph 2:11-13; 1 Tim 4:14; 1 John 2:3-5; Rev 2:26; 3:8,19; 12:17; 14:12.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-19; 2012-06-09; 2015-01-23)

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3:3b If you so – according to the circumstances – may not change your mind (א*), I will arrive against you (א,*א) as a thief, and you will (א,*א) not/certainly not have knowledge of what kind hour I will arrive against you.

Word for word (18 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus): if-according-to-the-circumstances so not (you)-may-change-(your)-mind, (i/I)-will-arrive against you as (a)-thief, and not/certainly not (you)-will-have-knowledge-of what-kind hour (i/I)-will-arrive against you.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The psalmist said to the Lord:) “A seasonable time has arrived.” (Ps 102:13b or 102:14b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) “As thieves in a night (fruit gatherers) will put/lay their hand upon (the Idumaeans).” (Jer 49:9b, Greek OT)

(Joel prophecied: "A much/many-headed and stable people) will ascend against the habitations (in Jerusalem), and they will come into (them) through windows as thieves." (Joel 2:9b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Edom:) "If thieves came into/in towards you or robbers (by) night, where/how may you (not) - according to the circumstances - be tossed away?" (Obadiah v 5a, Greek OT)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "Upon the earth ... thieves dig through and steal." (Matt 6:19b)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Be so awake, because you do not know what kind of day your Lord comes. ... If the master of a house had known of what kind watch/”time of the night” the thief comes, he had - according to the circumstancess - been awake and had not – according to the circumstances - allowed his habitation to be dug through. Because of this become and/also you ready, because The Son of the Man comes at an hour which you do not think.” (Matt 24:42-44)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “If – according to the circumstances - the * (א*) bad slave may speak in his heart: ‘My lord “spends time”/tarries’ … the lord of that slave will arrive in/on a day, which he does not wait for, and in an hour, which he has not knowledge of.” (Matt 24:48,50)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Be so awake, because you do not know the day, nor the hour.” (Matt 25:13b)

Peter (said) towards (Sapphira): “’What that’/why did you wear together to try the Spirit of a lord? Behold, the feet of the ones having buried your male (are) on/at the door, and they will carry you out.” And immediately she fell towards his feet and she breathed out/’her last’. (Acts 5:9-10a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Jesus said to the Jews:) "Amen, amen, I say to you, that an hour comes * (א*), when the dead (bodies) may (P66, א,* א) hear the voice of the Son of God, and * (P66, א*) having heard they will live. … It comes an hour, in which all the ones in the memorial tombs may (P66, א,* א) hear His voice. And they shall go out, the ones having made/done the good things into a resurrection of life, but the ones having practised the worthless things into a resurrection of judgment." (John 5:25,28b-29)

(Jesus said to the Pharisees:) "Amen, amen, I say to you, the one not coming into, into the court of the sheep through the door, however/but ascending from another place, that one is a thief and a robber." (John 10:1)

Recollect so from where you have fallen (and fall) and change your mind and make/do the first works. But if not, I come to you and I will stir your lampstand out of its place, if you – according to the circumstances – may not change your mind. (Rev 2:5, “Ephesos”)

Change your mind * (א,*א). But if not, I come to you quickly.” (Rev 2:16a, “Pergamos”)

Behold, I call (א*) (Jezebel) into a bed and the ones committing adultery in company with her into a great oppression, if – according to the circumstances – they will (א,* א, A) not change their minds ‘out of’/’away from’ her works. (Rev 2:22, “Thyatira”)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

One recalls … the fact that the members of Qumran studied and prayed throughout the night, there being a rota so that people took one-third of the night to watch in prayer and study; 1QS 6:6-8. The messianic hour of judgement could not be known in advance. (Massyngberde Ford p 409)

Now (Pelle) understood how it would become. . . . Malin was going to marry and disappear. They would become alone with only Mrs. Nilsson who came four hours a day and then went her way. . . . (Melker) did not understand that it for Pelle was a question of life and death. "When will it happen?" Pelle persisted. "About that day and that hour we do not know anything", Melker said. "It is not anything you need to brood on, my little boy." But brooding Pelle had done since that time, not every hour, not even every day, but at regular intervals, when there was a special reason. (Astrid Lindgren "Vi på Saltkråkan" p 14-15; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Werner Aspenström, Alf Henrikson, Martin Luther, Carl Olof Rosenius.


Paul said to the believers in Thessalonica: “A day of a lord comes in this way as a thief in a night.” (1 Thess 5:2b)


Additional studies:

Job 24:14; Luke 12:39-40; 21:34-35; John 10:8,10; 2 Pet 3:10; Rev 16:15.


Robert L. Thomas "The 'Comings' of Christ in Revelation 2-3"; The Master's Seminary Journal 7.2 (Fall 1996): 153-181.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-19; 2012-06-09; 2015-01-23)

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3:4a However you have few/’a few’ names in Sardis, which have not soiled their garments.

Word for word (12 words in the Greek text): however (you)-have few names in Sardes, which not soiled the garments their.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

Having taken the tunic of Joseph (his brothers) slaughtered a he-goat of goats and soiled the tunic (with) the blood. (Gen 37:31, Greek OT)

The Lord spoke towards Moses: “... You have found (and find) joybringing (grace) in the very eyes of Me, and I know you ‘to the side of’/’in comparison with’ all." (Ex 33:17, Greek OT)

(Moses and Aaron registered the people) … according to a number of their names. … (Num 1:18b, Greek OT)

(The) name of David became (known) in every/all the earth. (1 Chron 14:17a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to His people Israel:) “Do not fear, because I have redeemed you. I have called you (by) your name, you are Mine.” (Is 43:1b, Greek OT)

(Israel said to the Lord:) “We have all become as unclean, (and) all our righteousness as a rag being set/laid aside.” (Is 64:6a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) “Priest and prophet have been soiled, and in My house I beheld their evil.” (Jer 23:11a, Greek OT)

(The inhabitants in Jerusalem) were soiled in blood, (that no one was able to touch) their (clothes). (Lam 4:14b, Greek OT)

(The priest leader) Jesus (continually) was (and had been) set/clothed in dirty garments, and he stood before (the) face of the messenger. (Zech 3:3, Greek OT)

As many as (continually) heard the name (of the Romans) (continually) feared from/’owing to’ them. (1 Macc 8:12b)

(Baruch said the Lord:) “Turn away Your passion from us, because we have been ‘left entirely’/spared few in/among the nations.” (Baruch 2:13)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Narrow (is) the gate and being (and having been) oppressed the way leading away into life, and few are the ones finding it.” (Matt 7:14)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "The harvest (is) indeed much/many-headed, but the workers (are) few.” (Matt 9:37)

(Jesus said to the priest leaders and the Pharisees:) “Many are called but few (are) chosen.” (Matt 22:14)

… The name (of Jesus) had become visible. (Mark 6:14a)

(Jesus said to the seventy:) “Rejoice because your names are (and have been) written in, in the heavens.” (Luke 10:20b)

Someone spoke to (Jesus): “Lord if/: ‘(Are) the ones being saved few?’” (Luke 13:23a)

A crowd of names (continually) were against/at the same (place) as if 120 (when Peter stood up in a middle of the brothers). (Acts 1:15b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(The shepherd) raises his voice (towards) his own sheep ‘according to name’/’after their names’, and he leads them out. (John 10:3b)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

The Rabbis laid down as a rule, that the learned ought to be most careful in their dress. ... To wear dirty clothes deserved death (Shabb. 114a); for ‘the glory of God was man, and the glory of man was his dress (Derekh Erets S. x towards the end).’ (Alfred Edersheim "The Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah Part I" p 620)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Björne Erixon, Frank Mangs, P.Waldenström.


Greek words: molynô (soil) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Rev 3:4 – Tobit 3:15; 1 Macc 1:37; 2 Macc 6:2; 14:3; Sir 13:1; 21:28; 1 Cor 8:7; Rev 14:4.


Additional studies: Lam 1:9; 1 Macc 3:18; Acts 17:4; Jude v 23; Rev 1:11; 11:13.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-19; 2012-06-09; 2015-01-24)

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3:4b-5a And they will walk about in company with Me in white (things), because they are worthy. The one conquering will in this way be wrapped up in white garments.

Word for word: 3:4b (9 words in the Greek text): and (they)-will-walk-about in-company-with me in white-(things), because worthy (they)-are. 3:5a (7 words in the Greek text): The-(one) conquering in-this-way will-be-wrapped-up in garments white.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The king) dispatched away Eliakim … and Shebna the scribe and the elders of the priests being (and having been) wrapped up in sacks towards Isaiah the prophet. (2 Kings 19:2a, Greek OT)

(Haman) spoke towards the king: “A man whom the king wants to glorify, let the boys of the king carry a dress of fine linen, which the king is wrapped up in.” (Esther 6:7-8a, Greek OT)

(Job said:) “Now, now they ‘laughed me down’/’guffawed at me’, (the) least ones now bring to mind to me in/’by means of’ a part whose fathers I (continually) treated despicable, whom I ‘was in command’/stated not be worthy (to be) dogs of/at my wanderings on pasture-grounds.” (Job 30:1, Greek OT)

(Solomon said:) “God has already been pleased with your pieces of workmanship. In every seasonable time let your garments stand/be white.” (Eccl 9:7b-8a, Greek OT)

(Solomon said: “Be cheerful, youth, and) walk about in ways of your heart and in a beholding of your eyes. And have knowledge that God will lead you in a judgment on/’for the sake of’ all these things.” (Eccl 11:9b, Greek OT)

(Daniel said:) “I (continually) looked at ... when thrones were put/’set up’ and an Old of days (continually) was seated, having a wrapper as if (it was) white (Theod) snow and the growth of hair of His head as if (it was) white clean wool. The throne (was) as if (it was) a flame of fire. (Dan 7:9, Greek OT)

(The king of Nineveh said:) “The men and the domestic animals were wrapped up in sacks.” (Jonah 3:8a, Greek OT)

(The messenger said to the prophet:) “Take off the dirty garments from (the priest leader).” And he spoke towards him: “Behold, I have taken (and take) off your lawlessnesses and set/clothe him in a robe reaching to the feet.” And he put a clean (turban) against, against his head. And he wrapped him up in garments.” (Zech 3:4b-5a, Greek OT)

(Maccabaeus had knowledge), that it is not through weapons, but – if according to the circumstances – ... to the worthy ones (the Lord) will ‘make ... about Himself’/acquire the conquest. (2 Macc 15:21b)

(Solomon said:) “God tried (the righteous) and found ‘them worthy of Himself’/’that they were Him worthy’.” (Wisdom of Solomon 3:5b)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “You may so not care, saying: 'What may we eat?' or 'What may we drink?' or 'In what may we wrap up ourselves?' For the nations seek after all these things. For your heavenly Father knows that you of these things need all of them.” (Matt 6:31-32)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “The one being friends with father or mother over/’more than with’ Me is not worthy of Me; and the one being friends with son or daughter over/’more than with’ Me is not worthy of Me. And (the one) who does not take his cross and follow behind Me is not worthy of Me.” (Matt 10:37-38)

(Jesus) was transformed in front of (Peter, James and John), and His face shone as the sun, but/and His garments became white as the light. (Matt 17:2)

(Jesus said: “The king) says to his slaves: ‘The wedding banquet is indeed ready, but the ones being (and having been) called were (continually) not worthy.’ … Having come in to view the ones lying up/’down to table’, (the king) beheld there a man having not been (and being not) set/clothed in clothes of wedding banquet. And he says to him: ‘Comrade, how did you come in here not having clothes of wedding banquet?’ But 'the one'/he was gagged/nonplussed.” (Matt 22:8,11-12)

(Jesus') garments became glittering, exceedingly white, such as a fuller upon the earth is not able to whiten in this way. (Mark 9:3)

(Jesus said to the much/many-headed crowd:) "’See from’/’beware of’ the scribes, the ones wanting to walk about in dresses and (get) greetings in the market places and first seats in the synagogues and first companies of guests in/at the chief meals, the ones eating down/up the habitations of the widows and (for) a pretence praying long." (Mark 12:38b-40a)

A certain youth being (and having been) wrapped up in a linen sheet upon (the) naked (body) (continually) followed together with (Jesus). And they ‘get power (over)/seize him. But having left the linen shirt entirely/behind he fled naked. (Mark 14:51-52)

Having come into, into the memorial tomb, (the women) beheld a little young man being seated in the right (parts), being (and having been) wrapped up in a white dress. (Mark 16:5a)

The father spoke towards his slaves: “Quickly carry out the first/best dress and ‘set in’/clothe (my younger son).” (Luke 15:22a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(John said to the Pharisees:) "(In) your middle stood (and had stood) (P75, א,* א) One whom you do not know, * (א*, B) coming behind me, whose thong of His sandal I am not worthy ‘in order that’/that I may loosen." (John 1:26b-27)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Do you not say that/: ‘It/there is yet a space of four months, and/’and so’ the harvest comes?’ Behold, I say to you, lift your eyes against and view the districts/fields, that they are white towards a harvest.” (John 4:35)

Again Jesus so talked (with the Pharisees), saying: “I am the light of the adornment/’adorned world’. The one following Me may not/certainly not walk about in the gloom, however/but will have the light of the life.” (John 8:12)

Jesus spoke to (the crowd): “Still a small/little time the light is in/among you. Walk about till/’as long as’ (P66, א,* א) you have the light, in order that gloom may not take you down/up. The one walking about in the gloom does not and/namely know, where he withdraws. As you have the light, believe into the light, in order that you may become sons of a light.” (John 12:35-36a)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "In the adornment/’adorned world’ you have oppression. However, be confident. I have conquered (and conquer) the adornment/’adorned world’." (John 16:33b)

(Mariam P66,א,*א) looks at *(א*) messengers in white garments, sitting down whereat the body of Jesus (continually) had lain. (John 20:12a)

To the one conquering * (א,* א) I will give to eat out of the wood of the life, which is in the ‘place by the side of apprehension’/Paradise of God. (Rev 2:7b, “Ephesos”)

The one conquering may not/certainly not be treated unrighteously ‘out of’/’in consequence of’ the second death. (Rev 2:11b, “Smyrna”)

... To the one conquering * (א,* א) I will give out of (א,* א) the manna having been (and being) hidden.. … (Rev 2:17a, “Pergamos”)

The one conquering and the one keeping My works until (the) end, to him I will give (judicial) authority upon/’with regard to’ the nations. (Rev 2:26, “Thyatira”)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

(Alva) is invited to wedding by her cousin Berta. . . . "But, dear me, I can of course not go to wedding", (she) says, "because I have no dress being good enough!" Then mother goes into her clothes closet . . . to see if she perhaps has some dress being able to suit Alva. This she has. A long, white muslin dress she brings out, and this she gives Alva. . . . "Oh, what you are beautiful", Madicken exclaims, "oh, you look like a bride!" "Although more beautiful", Lisabet says. Alva is pink round the cheeks and her eyes shine. "Yes, I also think that I do not look too bad. But what is Berta to say, if I come to her wedding and look like a bride, this she is to do and not I." "She is to say what she wants", mother thinks, "for that dress Alva is to have." (Astrid Lindgren "Madicken och Junibackens Pims" p 173-174; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

My need to fly in white clothes is as strong as to make a dirty mess of myself. (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev X febr 1894-april 1895" p 163; letter 1894-07-27 to Leopold Littmansson; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

No special disqualifications for the Levitical office existed, though the Rabbis insist that a good voice was absolutely necessary. It was otherwise with the priest's office. The first inquiry instituted by the Sanhedrim, who for the purpose sat daily in ‘the Hall of Polished Stones,’ was into the genealogy of a candidate. Certain genealogies were deemed authoritative. Thus, ‘if his father's name were inscribed in the archives of Jeshan at Zipporim, no further inquiry was made.’ If he failed to satisfy the court about his perfect legitimacy, the candidate was dressed and veiled in black, and permanently removed. If he passed that ordeal, inquiry was next made as to any physical defects, of which Maimonides enumerates a hundred and forty that permanently, and twenty-two which temporarily disqualified for the exercise of the priestly office. Persons so disqualified were, however, admitted to menial offices, such as in the wood-chamber, and entitled to Temple support. Those who had stood the twofold test were dressed in white raiment, and their names properly inscribed. (Alfred Edersheim “The Temple” p 95)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Ann-Charlotte Alverfors, J. A:son-Utas, Kiran Desai, T.S. Eliot, P. Fjellstedt, Bo Frid, Lu Xun, Carl Henrik Martling, Fredrik Nielsen, Efraim Palmqvist, Viktor Rydberg, Jesper Svartvik, Zacharias Topelius, Kallistos Ware.


My own comments and speculations:

The people of God (the priests) will wear better and better clothes: 1) White garments (3:4-5); 2) White dresses (6:11); 3) White, cleansed dresses (7:14); 4) Linen, clean (and) shining (15:6); 5) Fine linen, shining (and) clean (19:8).

Concerning “the one conquering”, see also Rev 2:7b.


Paul said to the believers in Ephesos: “Walk about as children of a light!” (Eph 5:8b)

I have written to you, youths, because you are stable and the saying of God stays in you, and you have conquered (and conquer) the evil one. (1 John 2:14b)

Every the/child being (and having been) begotten out of God conquers the adornment/’adorned world’. And this is the conquest, the one having conquered the adornment/’adorned world’, our faith. (1 John 5:4)


Additional studies:

Is 61:10; 2 Macc 11:8; Matt 10:11,13; 28:3; Luke 7:4-7, 15:19,21; Acts 1:10; Gal 3:27; Col 3:10; Rev 3:5,18; 4:4; 6:11; 7:9,13-15; 19:8,14.


Matthijs den Dulk "The Promises to the Conquerors in the Book of Revelation"; Biblica 87 (2006): 516-522.

Stephen L. Homcy "'To Him Who Overcomes': A Fresh Look at What 'Victory' Means for the Believer According to the Book of Revelation"; Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 38.2 (June 1995): 193-201.

James E. Rosscup "The 'overcomer' of the Apocalypse"; Grace Theological Journal 3.2 (Fall 1982): 261-286.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-19; 2012-06-09; 2015-01-24)

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3:5b And I will not/certainly not wipe out his name out of the book of the life, and I will confess his name in front of (א,*א) My Father and in the very eyes of His messengers.

Word for word (26 words in the Greek text): and not/certainly not (i/I)-will-wipe-out the name his out-of the book (of)-the (of)-life and (i/I)-will-confess the name his in-front-of the father my and in-the-very-eyes-of the messengers his.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Moses said to the Lord:) “If You indeed let the miss (of Your mark) be for (Your people), let (it) be. But if not, wipe me out, out of Your book, which You have written.” And the Lord spoke towards Moses: “If anyone has missed (and misses) (My mark) in the very eyes of Me, I will wipe him out, out of My book.” (Ex 32:32-33, Greek OT)

The Lord spoke towards Moses: “... You have found (and find) joybringing (grace) in the very eyes of Me, and I know you ‘to the side of’/’in comparison with’ all." (Ex 33:17, Greek OT)

(Moses said to Israel:) “The Lord may not/certainly not be very propitious to (a man whose mind bends aside from Him) … all the vengeances of this covenant which is (and have been) written in this scroll of the law will attach themselves in/to him, and the Lord will wipe out his name out of the thing (being) underneath the heaven.” (Deut 29:20, Greek OT)

(David said to God:) “Let (my adversaries) be wiped out, out of a book of living ones and let them not be written in company with righteous ones.” (Ps 69:28 or 69:29, Greek OT)

That day (will be a day) of oppression, such as not has become from the (time when the people) became till that day. And in that day 'every the'/’all the’ people, who – according to the circumstances – may be found having been (and being) written in, in the scroll (Greek OT Theod.: “in the book”), will be heightened. (Dan 12:1b, Greek OT)

A scroll of remembrance has been written in the very eyes of (the Lord) (with) the ones fearing the Lord and standing in awe of His name. (Mal 3:16b, Greek OT)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “... Till the age (the one understanding the law of the Highest One throughout) will not be wiped out.” (Sir 39:9a)

This (is) the book of the commands of God and the law (is) the one ‘beginning under’/being into the (coming) age. All the ones ‘getting power over’/keeping it (come) into life, but the ones leaving it entirely will die. (Baruch 4:1)


The Latter Revelation:

A book of (the) origin of Jesus Christ. (Matt 1:1a)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "Fear the One being able to perish and/both soul and body in Gehenna." (Matt 10:28b)

(Jesus said to the twelve:) "Every/everyone whoever will confess in/with Me in front of the men, I will and/also confess in/with him in front of My Father, the One (being) in * (P19, א,* א) heavens. But whoever may – according to the circumstances – deny Me in front of the men, I and/also will deny him in front of My Father, the One (being) in * (P19, א,* א) heavens.” (Matt 10:32-33)

Having come to/forward Jesus talked (with the eleven disciples) saying: "Every/all (judicial) authority in heaven and upon earth has been given to Me.” (Matt 28:18)

(Jesus said to the seventy:) “Rejoice because your names are (and have been) written in, in the heavens.” (Luke 10:20b)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “I say to you, every/everyone who may – according to the circumstances – confess in/with Me in front of the men, the Son of the Man will confess in/with him in front of * (א*) (the things) of God. But the one having denied Me in the very eyes of the men will be denied ‘in the very eyes of’/before * (א*) (the things) of God.” (Luke 12:8-9)

(Jesus said to the Pharisees and the scribes:) “It becomes joy in the very eyes of the messengers of God on/’on the ground of’ one misser (of the mark of God) changing his mind.” (Luke 15:10b)

(Peter said to the people:) “Change so your minds and turn yourselves next to, towards (א,* א, B) the thing (that) your misses (of the mark of God) be wiped out.” (Acts 3:19)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

Now I strike (Bengt) Lidforss out of the number of the living ones! He does not exist for me! His last exploit of all was for me utterly ghastly and I put off to tell it. I have once used the word "disreputable person" about him, and I repeat! (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev X febr 1894-april 1895" p 58; letter 1894-05-14 to Adolf Paul; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Sven Hultman, Ignatius Aphram I Barsoum, Liselotte J Andersson, Anders Jarlert, Lars Levi Laestadius, Sven Lidman, Kristina Lugn, Gunnar Olén, Gösta Sandberg, Ragnar Thoursie, P. Waldenström.


Greek words:

biblos (book) (in the NT + examples in the OT) Ex 32:32-33; Baruch 4:1; Matt 1:1; Rev 3:5 – Gen 2:4; Tobit 1:1; 6:13; 7:11-13(12-13); 2 Macc 6:12; 8:23; Sir Prologue; Baruch 1:3; Mark 12:26; Luke 3:4; 20:42; Acts 1:20; 7:42; 19:19; Phil 4:3; Rev 13:8(P47,א,*א); Rev 20:12(א,*א); Rev 20:15.

exaleifô (wipe out) (in the NT + examples in the OT) Ex 32:32-33; Ps 69:28(29); Sir 39:9; Acts 3:19; Rev 3:5 – Gen 7:4,23; Ps 51:1(3),9(11); 109:14; Tobit 4:19; 2 Macc 12:42; Sir 23:26; 41:11; 44:13,18; 46:20; 47:22; Col 2:14; Rev 7:17; 21:4


Additional studies:

Dan 7:10; Acts 5:11; Rev 13:8; 17:8; 21:27.


Matthijs den Dulk "The Promises to the Conquerors in the Book of Revelation"; Biblica 87 (2006): 516-522.

J. William Fuller "'I will not erase his name from the book of life' (Revelation 3:5)"; Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 26.3 (Sept. 1983): 297-306.

Stephen L. Homcy "'To Him Who Overcomes': A Fresh Look at What 'Victory' Means for the Believer According to the Book of Revelation"; Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 38.2 (June 1995): 193-201.

James E. Rosscup "The 'overcomer' of the Apocalypse"; Grace Theological Journal 3.2 (Fall 1982): 261-286.

Robert M. Royalty Jr "Etched or Sketched? Inscriptions and Erasures in the Messages to Sardis and Philadelphia (Rev 3:1-13)"; Journal for the Study of the New Testament 27.4 (2005): 447-463.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-19; 2012-06-09; 2015-01-24)

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3:6 The one having an ear, let him hear what the Spirit says to the (assemblies) of called out.

Word for word (10 words in the Greek text): The-(one) having (an)-ear let-him-hear what the spirit says (to)-the (assemblies)-of-called-out.


My own comments and speculations: Concerning this verse, see Rev 2:7a.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-19; 2012-06-09; 2015-01-24)

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3:7a And to the messenger of the (assembly) of called out in Philadelphia write:

Word for word (8 words in the Greek text): And (to)-the messenger (of)-the in Thyatira (of)-(assembly)-of-called-out write:


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The Lord said to Israel:) "Your hand shall not avenge and you shall not take offence at the sons of your people, and you shall welcome your neighbour as yourself. I am the Lord." (Lev 19:18, Greek OT)

(David sang:) "Behold 'however or'/however presently/already, what fine or what amusing (it is) the thing 'to dwell brothers'/'that brothers dwell' 'against themselves'/together ... because (in the place where they dwell together) there the Lord has enjoined the blessing and life till the (coming) age." (Ps 133:1,3b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said: “Tyre) did not remember a covenant of brothers.” (Amos 1:9b, Greek OT)

(The priest leader said:) “This one (having) brotherly friendship is the one praying much on account of the people and the holy city, Jeremiah, the prophet of God.” (2 Macc 15:14b)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to the blessed ones:) "As much as you have made/done against one of the least of these My brothers, you have made/done Me." (Matt 25:40b)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Have salt in yourselves and live in peace in/with one another.” (Mark 9:50b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "A new commandment I give you, that you may welcome one another, entirely as I have welcomed you, in order that and/also you may welcome one another. In/’by means of’ this all will gain knowledge of that you are disciples to Me, if you – according to the circumstances – may have a welcome in company with (א,*א) one another." (John 13:34-35)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “For (א*) you are My friends, if – according to the circumstances – you may make/do the things I enjoin you. No longer I say ”slaves” to you, because the slave does not know what his lord makes/does. But I have spoken/said (and speak/say) “friends” to you, because all things which I have heard from the side of My Father I have given you knowledge of.” (John 15:14-15)

(Jesus said to Mariam:) “Go towards the (א*) brothers and speak to them: “I ascend towards 'the Father My'/'My Father' and your Father and My God and your God.” Mariam from Magdala comes bringing a message to the disciples that/: “I have beheld (and behold) the Lord and He spoke these things to her/me.” (John 20:17b-18)

Send (the scroll) to the seven (assemblies) of called out, into Ephesos and into Smyrna and into Pergamos and into Thyatira * (א*) and into Philadelphia and into Laodicea.” (Rev 1:11b)

To the messenger of the (assembly) of called out in Ephesos write. (Rev 2:1a)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: Ingmar Brohed, Leif Carlsson, Axia Gustafsson, C.G. Hjelm, Alfons Holmqvist, Ulrik Josefsson, Severin Larsen, Sven Lidman, Carl Henrik Martling, Vilhelm Moberg, Fredrik Nielsen, Lewi Pethrus, Alf Sagnér.


My own comments and speculations:

The word “Philadelphia” means “brotherly friendship”. The name leads the thoughts to Jesus' new commandmen about welcoming one another, the eighth commandment and one of the seven (cf My comments and speculations to John 13:34-35). The assembly in Philadelphia is one of seven assemblies but can at the same time – because of its name and character – be said to be the eighth, the assembly belonging to a new age (cf. 1 John 4:8: “God is a welcome”). The assembly in Philadelphia is mentioned as the sixth of seven, which can be compared with the commandment to welcome one's neighbour in the Gospel of Matthew which is mentioned as the sixth (Matt 19:19) but also as the eight commandment (Matt 22:39).

The assembly also has similarities to the apostle John, the eighth and one of the seven (cf. John 13:23-25). Both John and the assembly is beloved and welcomed by Jesus (John 13:23 and Rev 3:9), and for both a door is open (Rev 3:8 and 4:1). Furthermore both have a connection to David, whose name means beloved (cf. also with “the key of David” in Rev 3:8).


Paul said to the believers in Rome: “(Have) tenderly friendship into one another (with) brotherly friendship, lead the way before one another (with) the honour.” (Rom 12:10)

Paul said to the believers in Thessalonica: "’On account of the brotherly friendship, you have not need (to have anyone) to write to you, for you yourselves are taught by God into the thing to welcome one another." (1 Thess 4:9)

Peter said to the believers: “(Show) in the reverence the brotherly friendship but/and in the brotherly friendship the welcome.” (2 Pet 1:7)


Additional studies:

Prov 18:24; Heb 13:1; 1 Pet 3:8; Rev 1:11.


David E. Aune "The Form and Function of the Proclamations to the Seven Churches (Revelation 2-3)"; New Testament Studies 36 (1990): 182-204.

James L. Boyer "Are the Seven Letters of Revelation 2-3 Prophetic?"; Grace Theological Journal 6.2 (1985): 267-273.

Robert L. Muse "Revelation 2-3: a critical analysis of seven prophetic messages"; Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 29.2 (June 1966): 147-161.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-20; 2012-06-09; 2015-01-25)

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3:7ba This is what the True One, the Holy One, says:

Word for word (6 words in the Greek text; the sequence of the words according to Sinaiticus): '(The-but-things)'/'this-is-what' says the-true-(one), the-holy-(one):


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

The Lord came by the side of before the face (of Moses) and called: "The Lord God, compassionate and merciful, long-suffering and much merciful and true." (Ex 34:6, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Israel:) ”I am the Lord your God. You shall be made holy and be holy, because I am holy.” (Lev 11:44, Greek OT)

(Azariah said:) "Israel (was) many days not in/with a true God." (2 Chron 15:3a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) ”Woe a nation ‘being a misser’/missing (My mark) … you have entirely left the Lord in (a place) and provoked the holy One of Israel to wrath.” (Is 1:4, Greek OT)

“... To whom have you likened Me ... ?”, the Holy One spoke. (Is 40:25, Greek OT)

(The Lord said: “The slaves with the new name) ... will bless God, the True One.” (Is 65:16a, Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) ”This is what the Lord says: ’On/’on the ground of’ the three impieties of (Gaza/Tyre/Idumaea/Ammon/Moab/Judas/Israel) and on/’on the ground of’ the four, I will not turn away to them.” ... Hear this saying, which the Lord has talked against you, house of Israel, and ‘down from’/against every tribe, which (He) led up out of (the) earth/land of Egypt, saying: “’More than’/however I had knowledge of you out of all tribes of the earth. Because of this I will procure justice against you for all your misses (of My mark).” (Amos 1:6a,9a,11a,13a; 2:1a,4a,6a; 3:1-2, Greek OT)

(Raphael said:) “I am Raphael, one out of the seven holy messengers who carry up the prayers of the holy ones towards (the glory of the Holy One) and (who) go into (His dwelling-place) ‘in the very eyes of’/before the glory of the Holy One.” (Tobit 12:15, BA)


The Latter Revelation:

‘Having answered the messenger’/’the messenger answered and’ spoke to (Mariam): "Holy spirit will come against, against you, and an ability of a highest One will overshadow you. Therefore the thing being begotten and/also will be called holy, a son of God." (Luke 1:35)

(Jesus said to the people in the synagogue:). “Upon/’with regard to’ truth I say to you: …” (Luke 4:25a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Simon Peter said to Jesus:) “We have believed (and believe) and have had (and have) knowledge, that You are the holy one of God.” (John 6:69)

Jesus says to (Thomas): “I am the way and the truth and the life.” (John 14:6a)

(Jesus said to His Father:) "This is the agelong life, ‘in order that’/that (the nations?) may have knowledge of You, the alone/only true God, and of Jesus Christ whom You have dispatched away." (John 17:3)

(Jesus said to His Father:) "I am no longer in the adornment/’adorned world’. And/but they are themselves in the adornment/’adorned world’, and I come towards You. Holy Father, keep them in Your name, in which You have given * (P66,א,*א) Me, in order that they may be one entirely as we." (John 17:11)

To the messenger of the (assembly) of called out in Ephesos write: “This is what the One ‘getting power (over)’/seizing stars in His right hand (א*) says: (Rev 2:1a)


You have ointment from the Holy One, and 'you know all ones'/'all of you have knowledge'. (1 John 2:20)


Additional studies:

Is 6:3; 12:6; 43:15; 48:17; Jer 10:10; John 6:69; 1 John 5:20; Rev 3:14; 6:10; 19:11.


Birger Gerhardsson "De kristologiska utsagorna i sändebreven i Uppenbarelseboken (kap 2-3)"; Svensk Exegetisk Årsbok 30 (1965): 70-90.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-20; 2012-06-09; 2015-01-25)

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3:7bb-8a ... the One having the key of David, the One opening and no one will shut, and (the One) shutting and no one will (א,*א) open. I know your works. Behold, I have given (and give) a door having been (and being) opened in the very eyes of you, which no one is able to shut (א,*א) ...

Word for word: 3:7bb (16 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus): the-(one) having the key (of)-the (of)-David, the-(one) opening and no-one will-shut and shutting and no-one will-open. 3:8a (14 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus) (i/I)-'know-(and-have-known)'/know your the works, behold (i/I)-have-given-(and-give) in-the-very-eyes-of you (a)-door having-been-(and-being)-opened which no-one is-able-to shut


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

The Lord God shut His chest/ark from outside. (Gen 7:16b, Greek OT)

(Zophar said: “God) knows works of lawless ones.” (Job 11:11a, Greek OT)

If – according to the circumstances – (the Lord) may throw down, who will build. If – according to the circumstances – (the Lord) may shut ‘down from’/against men, who will open. (Job 12:14, Greek OT)

(Solomon said:) “In every place (are) the eyes of the Lord, they spy both bad and good ones.” (Prov 15:3, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to His people:) “Bathe, become clean, take off/away the evil things from your souls (the things which are) over against My eyes. Cease from your evils.” (Is 1:16, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) “I will give the key of the house of David on (Eliakim's) shoulder, and he will open, and it/there is not (anyone) shutting up, and he will shut up, and it/there is not (anyone) opening.” (Is 22:22, א*)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to Peter:) “I will give you the keys of the kingdom of the heavens. And which/what you – if according to the circumstances – may bind upon the earth, it will be, having been (and being) bound in the heavens, and which/what you – if according to the circumstances - may loosen upon the earth, it will be, having been (and being) loosened in the heavens.” (Matt 16:19)

The ready ones came in, in company with (the bridegroom), into the wedding banquets, and the door was shut. But afterwards the rest of the virgins and/also come, saying: “Lord, lord, open for us.” But ‘having answered’/’he answered and’ spoke: “Amen I say to you: ‘I do not know you.’” (Matt 25:10b-12)

(The messenger said to Mary:) "A lord God will give (Jesus) the throne of His father David." (Luke 1:32b)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Knock and it will be opened to you. … To the one knocking it will be opened.” (Luke 11:9b,10b)

(Jesus said:) “From (the time in) which the master of the house – according to the circumstances – may have risen and shut up the door, you may begin * (א*) to knock at the door, saying: ‘Lord, open to us.’ And ‘having answered’/’he will answer and’ speak to you: ‘I do not know you, from where you are.’” (Luke 13:25)

(God) had opened a door of faith to the nations. (Acts 14:27b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

Jesus answered and spoke to (Nicodemus): "Amen, amen, I say to you: 'If – according to the circumstances – a certain (person) may not be begotten from above, he is not able to behold the kingdom of God.'" (John 3:3)

The one making/doing the truth comes towards the light, in order that it may be made visible, that it is in God his works having been (and being) worked. (John 3:21)

The Saviour (א,*א) knew from (P66, א,* א) a beginning (that) some are the * (א,*א) believing ones and (that) someone (continually) was the one being about to give Him ‘to the side of’/over (P66, א,*א). (John 6:64b)

But it (continually) was sabbath in/on the day Jesus made the clay and opened the eyes (of the man who formerly was blind). (John 9:14)

(Jesus said:) “I am the door. If – according to the circumstances – anyone may come into/in through Me, he will be saved and he will come into/in and come out and find pasture.” (John 10:9)

(Jesus said:) “And I give them agelong life, and they may not/certainly not perish into the (coming) age, and anyone may not/certainly (א,*א) not rape them out of My hand. What the Father has given (and gives) Me is greater than all (א*). And no one is able to rape out of the hand of the Father.” (John 10:28-29)

(Jesus) so spoke to (the eleven disciples) again: “Peace to you. Entirely as the Father has dispatched (and dispatches) Me away, and/also I will (א*) send you.” And having spoken this He puffed in/on (them), and He says to them: “Take holy spirit. According to the circumstances you may let the misses (of the mark of God) of some (persons) be. It will be (א*) let be (alone) to them. According to the circumstances you may ‘get power over’/seize (the misses of the mark of God) of some (persons). They/'these misses' have been (and are) ‘got power over’/seized.” (John 20:21-23)

Behold, He comes in company with the clouds. (Rev 1:7a)

I have the keys of (the) death and (the) Hades. (Rev 1:18b)

I know your works…. Recollect so from where you have fallen (and fall) and change your mind and make/do the first works. (Rev 2:2a,5a, “Ephesos”)

I know your works (א,*א). (Rev 2:9a, “Smyrna”)

I know where you dwell, whereat/where the throne of the adversary (is), and You get/have power over your (א*) name. … (Rev 2:13a, “Pergamos”)

(I know your works) and your last works (are) more than the first. (Rev 2:19b, “Thyatira”)

This is what the One having the seven spirits of God and the seven stars says: “I know your works, that you have a name, that you live, and/but you are (a) dead (body).” (Rev 3:1b, “Sardis”)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

You have given everything to me What can I do for You? You have given me eyes to see What can I do for You? ... Pulled me out of bondage and You made me renewed inside Filled up a hunger that had always been denied Opened up a door no man can shut and You opened it up so wide And You've chosen me to be among the few What can I do for You? (Bob Dylan "What Can I Do For You? p 428; 1980)

"Now we are beyond the mountains", Anna said. "But where is my red bird?" Mattias stood still in the winter wood and listened. "Behind the wall", he said. "He sings behind the wall there." There was in front of them a high wall and in the wall a gate. The gate stood ajar as if someone a moment ago had passed forgetting to shut behind him. The snow lay in drifts on the ground and the winterday was frosty and cold, but over the wall a cherry stretched its flowering white branches. "Cherries we also had at home in Sunnanäng (south meadow)", Anna said, "but not even there it flowered in winter." Mattias took Anna's hand, and so they went in through the gate. And then they saw the red bird, it was the first thing they saw. . . . There were many children playing there. . . . (The children) accompanied Mattias and Anna to the gate in the wall. It still stood ajar, and they could see the snowdrifts outside. "Why is the gate not shut", Anna said. "Of course the snow can blow in." "If the gate is shut, it can never more be opened", the children said. "Never more", Mattias asked. "No, never, never more", the children said. . . . (After a time they returned to the gate.) Mattias took Anna's hand leading her in through the gate. . . . Anna saw herself back through the gate out towards the darkness and the cold, and she shivered. "Why is that gate not shut", she said. "Oh, little Anna", Mattias said, "if the gate is shut, it can never more be opened, do you not remember it?" "Yes, certainly I remember it", Anna said. "Never, never more." They looked at one another, Mattias and Anna. They looked for a long time at one another, and so they smiled a little. And then they shut the gate quite silent and still. (Astrid Lindgren "Sunnanäng" p 124-130; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Do not let in anyone into the Chamber alone, for it is a mob of thieves. . . . And shut carefully. . . . Let whoever live there (in Kymendö this summer), (your brother-in-law) Philip or whoever feeling inclined, free of charge, at worst! But let no one into the Chamber! And shut carefully! (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev IV 1884" p 216-217; letter 1884-06-17 to Axel Strindberg; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Stig Abrahamsson, Einar Adell, Eskil Albertsson, Arvid Almquist, Eric H. Anderek, Åke Andrén, Ester Aronsson, Hjalmar Bergman, Oscar Bernadotte, Elisabeth Beskow, Raine Borg, Fredrika Bremer, Pearl S. Buck, Barthold Carlson, Tsistsi Chauke, Marcus Cheng, Hjalmar Danielson, Bob Dylan, Allan Eddeland, Bertil Edvardsson, Sven Engkvist, Runar Eldebo, Per Ericsson, Linné Eriksson, S.M. Fredén, Gullan Gerward, Carl Grimberg, Emil Gustafson, Lennart Gustavsson, Joel Halldorf, Seamus Heaney, David Hedegård, Alf Henrikson, Ellen Holzhausen-Idström, Anders Hultman, Anders Jarlert, Evy Juneswed, Erik Axel Karlfeldt, Nils Kullgren, Britten Kvist, Olle Larsson, U. Leander, Peder Lodenius, Sven F. Lunner, Filip Malmvall, Mathilda Malmvall, H.M. Melin, Vilhelm Moberg, Olaf Moe, Fredrik Nielsen, Sigurd Ohlsson, Roland Oscarsson, Börje Ottosson, Lage Pernveden, Lewi Pethrus, Joanne Kathleen Rowling, K.A. Rundbäck, Sven Edvin Salje, Gideon Samuelsson, Åke Sjöqvist, Enock H. Skooglund, Alfred Steiger, John Stott, Nils Sundgren, Knut Svensson, Tomas Tranströmer, P. Waldenström, Allan Wendefors, Olof Wennås, N.P. Wetterlund, Erik Wiberg, Yngve Ydreborg.


Additional studies:

1 Chron 9:27; Job 24:23; 31:4; 34:21; Prov 5:21; Jer 16:17; 30:9; Ezek 34:23-24; 37:24-25; Matt 7:7-8; Luke 1:69; John 20:23; Acts 5:19; 12:10,13-16; 16:26-27; 1 Cor 16:9; 2 Cor 2:12; Col 4:3; 2 Pet 1:11; Rev 3:12,20; 4:1; 5:5; 20:3.


Birger Gerhardsson "De kristologiska utsagorna i sändebreven i Uppenbarelseboken (kap 2-3)"; Svensk Exegetisk Årsbok 30 (1965): 70-90.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-20; 2012-06-10; 2015-01-25)

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3:8b ... because you have small/little ability and you have kept My saying and have not denied My name.

Word for word (15 words in the Greek text): because small (you)-have ability and (you)-kept my the saying and not denied-(you) the name my.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Moses said to Israel: "It was) not because you were a much/many-headed multitude ‘to the side of’/’in comparison with’ all the nations (that) the Lord took you for Himself before (them) and took you out, for you are only a few persons ‘to the side of’/’in comparison with’ all the nations.” (Deut 7:7, Greek OT)

David spoke towards (Goliath): “You come towards me in/with a large sword and in/with a spear and in/with a shield, and I go towards you in name of the Lord of hosts, of God of arranging Israel side by side, (the God) whom you to-day have reproached.” (1 Sam 17:45, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said:) "As/how good God (is) to Israel, to the ones (being) straight/honest (in) the heart. But (as for) me, the feet moved to and fro small/’a little’ to the side of.” (Ps 73:1-2a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to His people:) “Against ‘a certain’/this one I will see against 'however or'and against the humble one and quiet one and (the one) quivering (because of) My sayings.” (Is 66:2b, Greek OT)

(Judas said:) “It is not ability in multitude (which gives) conquest of a war, however/but the stability out of the heaven.” (1 Macc 3:19)

(Solomon said to the Lord:) “Wicked ones … (denied, that they) know/knew You.” (Wisdom of Solomon 16:16a)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "You will be being hated by all ones because of My name." (Matt 10:22a)

(Jesus said to the twelve:) “Whoever may – according to the circumstances – deny Me in front of the men, I and/also will deny him in front of My Father, the One (being) in * (P19, א,* א) heavens. You may not adopt as a law ‘in order that’/that I came to throw/bring a peace against the earth. I did not come to throw/bring a peace however/but a dagger.” (Matt 10:33-34)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “The one who – according to the circumstances – may give to one of these small ones (following Me) only a cup of cold (water) to drink, into/’for the purpose of’ a name of a disciple, amen, I say to you, he may not/certainly not perish/lose his wage.” (Matt 10:42)

(Jesus said to His disciples): ”Every/everyone whoever has let the woman (א*) be with respect to My name, will take a hundredfold, and inherit agelong life.” (Matt 19:29)

(The man gave to) everyone ‘according to’/after the own ability. … (Matt 25:15b)

The lord uttered to (his slave): “Well (done), good and faithful slave. You (continually) were faithful against/over few things. I will ‘cause ... to stand down’/appoint you upon many things, Come into, into the joy of your lord.” (Matt 25:21 and 25:23)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “(The one) who – if according to the circumstances – may be ashamed of Me and My sayings in this generation, the adulteress and a misser (of the mark of God), the Son of the Man will and/also be ashamed of him, when – according to the circumstances - He may come in the glory of His Father in company with the holy messengers.” (Mark 8:38)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “The heaven and the earth will come by the side of, but My sayings will not/certainly not come by the side of.” (Mark 13:31)

(Jesus) said towards all: ”If anyone wants to come behind Me, let him deny himself and lift his cross ‘according to day’/’day by day’ and follow Me.” (Luke 9:23)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “I say to you, every/everyone who may – according to the circumstances – confess in/with Me in front of the men, the Son of the Man will confess in/with him in front of * (א*) (the things) of God. But the one having denied Me in the very eyes of the men will be denied ‘in the very eyes of’/before * (א*) (the things) of God.” (Luke 12:8-9)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "Do not fear, small/little, little flock, because your Father has been pleased with giving you the kingdom." (Luke 12:32)

The Lord spoke to (His apostles): “If you have faith as a scarlet kernel of mustard, you – according to the circumstances – (continually) had said to the (P75,א,*א) fig-mulberry: ‘Be rooted out and be planted in the sea’, and – according to the circumstances – it had hearkened you.” (Luke 17:6)

(Jesus said to the apostles:) “When you – according to the circumstances – may have made/done all the things having been throughout arranged to you, say that/: “We are useless slaves. We have made/done (and makes/does) what we (continually) were indebted to make/do.” (Luke 17:10b)

(Peter said to the people:) “Why do you wonder on/’for the sake of’ this, or why do you gaze at us as an own ability or a reverence has made (and makes) (the lame man) to walk about?” (Acts 3:12b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

Jesus so (continually/repeatedly) said towards the Jews believing (and having believed) (in) Him: “If – according to the circumstances – you may stay in My saying, you are truly My disciples.” (John 8:31)

(Jesus said to the Jews:) “Amen, amen I say to you, if – according to the circumstances – anyone may keep My saying, He will (א,* א) not/certainly not look at death into the (coming) age.” The Jews * (P66,א,* א, B) spoke to Him: “Now we have gained (and gain) knowledge, that You have a little demon. Abraham died and the prophets, and You say: ‘If – according to the circumstances – anyone may keep My saying, He may not/certainly not taste death into the (coming) age.’” (John 8:51-52)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Little children!” (John 13:33a)

Jesus spoke to (Judas - not Iscariot): “If – according to the circumstances – anyone may welcome Me, he will keep My saying.” (John 14:23a)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) " If they have kept My saying, they will keep yours and/also. However, all these things they will make/do * (א*) because of My name, because they do not know the One having sent Me." (John 15:20b-21)

(Jesus said to His Father:) “I have made Your name visible to the men whom You gave Me out of the adornment/’adorned world’. (Continually) they were to You, and to Me You gave them, and they kept/observed (א,*א) Your saying.” (John 17:6)

Jesus so indeed and/also made many other signs in the very eyes of His disciples, (signs) which it is not being (and not having been) written in this scroll. But these are (and have been) written, in order that you may believe (present subjunctive א*,B) , that Jesus is the christ/'anointed one', the Son of God, and in order that believing you may have agelong (א,*א) life in His name. (John 20:30-31)

And you have and/also all oppressions (א*) because of My name, and you did not bother/’grow weary’ (א,*א). (Rev 2:3, “Ephesos”)

You get/have power over your (א*) name and did not deny My faith. … (Rev 2:13b, “Pergamos”)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

The tractate Menachot (from the Mishnah) closes with these words: ‘Alike as regards burnt-offerings of beasts and those of fowls (those of the poor) and the meat-offering, we find the expression “for a sweet savour,” to teach us, that to offer much or to offer little is the same, provided only that a person direct mind and heart towards God.’ (Alfred Edersheim "The Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah Part II" p 388)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Margit Assarsson, Sven Danell, E.J. Ekman, Bo Frid, Alf Henrikson, Martin Luther, H.M. Melin, Ragnar Ohlsson, John Ongman, Lewi Pethrus, Viktor Rydberg, Bo Setterlind, Thomas Sjödin, C. Skovgaard-Petersen, Jesper Svartvik, Jacob Tegengren.


Who is the liar, if not the one denying that/: ”Jesus is not the christ/'anointed one'.”? This is the antichrist, the one denying the Father and the Son. (1 John 2:22)


Additional studies:

Matt 17:20; Mark 9:42; Luke 9:48; 17:2; John 5:24; 8:43,52; 15:7.


Evald Lövestam "Apokalypsen 3:8b"; Svensk Exegetisk årsbok 30 (1965): 91-101.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-20; 2012-06-10; 2015-01-26)

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3:9a Behold, I have given (and give) (א,*א) (you) out of the synagogue of the adversary the ones saying themselves be Jews, and they are not, however/but they lie.

Word for word (17 words in the Greek text): behold (i/I)-have-given-(and-give) out-of the synagogue (of)-the (of)-adversary (of)-the-(ones) (of)-saying themselves Jews be, and not (they)-are however (they)-lie.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

It/there (continually) was not water (in/for) the synagogue, and they assembled themselves against Moses and Aaron. ... (They said to Moses:) "’In order that’/’because of’ what have you led the synagogue of the Lord up into this desolate (district)? ... And ‘in order that’/’because of’ this what/why have you led us up out of Egypt?" (Num 20:2,4a,5a, Greek OT)

Many of the nations (continually) were ‘cut round’/circumcised and (continually) lived in Jewish fashion because of the fear of the Jews. (Esther 8:17b, Greek OT)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “In a synagogue of missers (of the mark of God) fire will burn out (all), and in a disobedient nation wrath has burnt out (all).” (Sir 16:6)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “The synagogue of lawless ones and their consummation (is) a flame of fire.” (Sir 21:9b)


The Latter Revelation:

(John the Baptist said to many of the Pharisees and Sadducees coming for baptism:) "You may not think (that you can) say in yourselves: 'We have Abraham (as) father'. For I say you, that God is able to raise children to Abraham out of these stones." (Matt 3:9)

Jesus says to (the slanderer): "Withdraw, adversary, for it has been (and is) written: 'You shall prostrate yourself (towards) the Lord your God (in adoration of Him) and Him alone you shall serve.'" (Matt 4:10)

(Jesus said to His disciples: "The men) will whip you in their synagogues." (Matt 10:17b)

(Jesus said to the seventy:) “Behold, I have given (and give) you the (judicial) authority to tread above serpents and scorpions and against every ability of the enemy, and nothing will (א,* א, A) * (א*) act unrighteously (against) you.” (Luke 10:19)

Peter spoke: "Ananias, because of what has the adversary maimed (א*) your heart, 'to lie you'/'that you lie to' the Holy Spirit?" (Acts 5:3a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(The Jews who to begin with believed Jesus) answered and spoke to (Jesus): “Our father is Abraham.” Jesus says to them: “If you are children of Abraham, you (continually) made/’had done’ the works of Abraham. But now you seek to kill Me, a man who has talked (and talks) the truth to you, which I heard from the side of God. This Abraham did not make/do.” (John 8:39-40)

(Jesus said to those Jews who to begin with believed Him:) "Because of what have you not knowledge of My talking? Because you are not able to hear My saying. You are out of the father of ‘the slanderer’/Judas, and you want to make/do the desires of your father. That one (continually) was a man-slayer from a beginning, and he does not stand (and has not stood) in the truth, because it/there is not truth in him. When he – according to the circumstances – may talk the lie, he talks out of the own things, because he is a liar and ‘its father’/’the father of the lie’." (John 8:43-44)

The Jews had already put (and put) together in order that if – according to the circumstances – anyone may confess Him (to be) christ/anointed, he might become led away from the synagogue. (John 9:22b)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "They will make/cause you led away from the synagogue. However/certainly an hour comes, ‘in order that’/when 'every the'/everyone having killed you may think, (that) he carries a divine service to God." (John 16:2)

Behold, He comes in company with the clouds. (Rev 1:7a)

(I know) the blasphemy, the one (א,* א) out of the ones saying themselves be Jews and they are not however/but a synagogue of the adversary. (Rev 2:9b, “Smyrna”)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Martin Luther, Viktor Rydberg, Isaac Basjevis Singer.


Paul said to the believers in Corinth: “The adversery transforms himself into a messenger of light. So (it is) not a great thing, if and/also his servants and/also transform themselves as servants of righteousness.” (2 Cor 11:14b-15a)

If we – according to the circumstances – may speak, that we have communion in company with Him, and we may walk about in the darkness, we lie and do not make/do the truth. (1 John 1:6)


Greek words:

pseudomai (lie) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Acts 5:3; 1 John 1:6; Rev 3:9 – 1 Macc 11:53; Wisdom of Solomon 12:24; Susanna v 55,59(Theod); Bel and the Dragon v 11(12)(Theod); Matt 5:11; Acts 5:4; Rom 9:1; 2 Cor 11:31; Gal 1:20; Col 3:9; 1 Tim 2:7; Heb 6:18; Jas 3:14.


Additional studies: Rom 2:28-29.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-20; 2012-06-10; 2015-01-26)

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3:9b Behold, I will make them, ‘in order’/so that they will arrive and prostrate themselves before, ‘in the very eyes of’/before your feet and you will gain knowledge (א,*א), that I have welcomed you.

Word for word (17 words in the Greek text): behold (i/I)-will-make them in-order-that (they)-will-arrive and (they)-will-'(kiss-towards)'/'prostrate-themselves-(before)' in-the-very-eyes (of)-the (of)-feet your and (you)-will-gain-knowledge that i/I welcomed you.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Moses said to Israel: "It was) not because you were a much/many-headed multitude ‘to the side of’/’in comparison with’ all the nations (that) the Lord took you for Himself before (them) and took you out, for you are only a few persons ‘to the side of’/’in comparison with’ all the nations, however/but the Lord welcomed you ‘to the side of’/’in comparison with (them)." (Deut 7:7-8a, Greek OT)

(David said to the Lord:) “All the lineages of the nations will prostrate themselves before, in the very eyes of You.” (Ps 22:27b or 22:28b, Greek OT)

(David said to the Lord:) "All the nations as many as You have made will arrive and prostrate themselves before, ‘in the very eyes of’/before You, Lord." (Ps 86:9a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Israel:) “... You were glorified, and I have welcomed you.” (Is 43:4a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to His anointed:) “High/lofty males will step through/over against you, and they will be yours, and they will follow behind you being (and having been) bound (with) handcuffs They will come over in chains, and they will prostrate themselves before you (in honour of you), and they will pray in you, because God is in you, and they will speak: “It/there is not a god ‘more than’/except You.“ (Is 45:14b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Jerusalem: “The nations) will prostrate themselves before you against face of the earth and lick the gravel of your feet. And you will gain knowledge, that I (am) the Lord, and to (you) will not be put a shame.” (Is 49:23b, Greek OT)

The Lord was beheld to (Israel) from afar (and He said): “I have welcomed you to an agelong welcoming.” (Jer 31:3a, Greek OT)


The Latter Revelation:

(The slanderer said to Jesus:) ”If You so – according to the circumstances – may prostrate Yourself before (me), in the very eyes of me, all things will be Yours.” (Luke 4:7)

(After the death of the liars) it became a great fear against/over the whole (assembly) of called out and against/over all the ones hearing these things. (Acts 5:11)

Having falling/’falling down’ against the feet (of Peter) Cornelius prostrated himself before (him). (Acts 10:25b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(There) (continually) were some Greeks out of the ones ascending in order that they might prostrate themselves in/at the feast. (John 12:20)

(Jesus said to His Father: "I pray that) the adornment/’adorned world’ may have knowledge, that You have dispatched Me away and have welcomed them, entirely as You have welcomed Me." (John 17:23b)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: Fredrik Wislöff.


Paul said to the believing husbands in Ephesos: "Christ welcomed the (assembly) of called out and gave Himself ‘to the side of’/over in favour of her." (Eph 5:25b)


Additional studies: Deut 4:37; 10:15; 23:5; 1 King 10:9; 2 Chron 2:11; 9:8; Ps 72:9; Is 45:23; 60:14; 63:9; Hos 3:1; Matt 2:1-2; 4:8-9; John 11:3; 13:1,34; Rom 8:37; 2 Thess 2:16; Rev 15:4.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-20; 2012-06-10; 2015-01-26)

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3:10a Because you have kept the saying of My endurance, I and/also will * (keep) (א,*א) you ...

Word for word (9 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus): because (you)-have-kept the saying (of)-the (of)-endurance my, and/also-i/I you


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The Lord said to Israel:) "You shall watch/keep all My commands and My judicial verdicts and make/do them, which, having made/done them, a man will live in them." (Lev 18:5a, Greek OT)

(Moses said to Israel:) "It will be at the time when you – according to the circumstances – may hear all these fundamental laws and watch/keep and make/do them, (that the Lord your God) ... will welcome you." (Deut 7:12a,13a, Greek OT)

(Moses said to Israel:) "The Lord your God has led you in the desolate (district these forty years), in that way (that) He – according to the circumstances – might treat you ill and test you and have knowledge throughout of the things in your heart, if you might watch His commandments or not." (Deut 8:2b, Greek OT)

(Moses said to Israel:) “The Lord has to-day taken you for Himself ‘to become you’/’that you shall become’ a people being around Him … to watch/keep all His commandments and ‘be you’/’in order that He will set’ you ‘over high’/’high above’ all the nations, as (a people) He has made ‘to be named’/renowned, and/both an object of boasting and glorious.” (Deut 26:18-19a, Greek OT)

(Solomon said:) “Pronounced happy (is) the one watching/keeping the law.” (Prov 29:18b, Greek OT)

(Tobit said:) “You, (my son), keep the law.” (Tobit 14:9a, BA)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “You will be being hated by all ones because of My name, but the one having ‘stayed behind’/endured into an end, this one will be saved.” (Matt 10:22)

(Jesus said to a rich man:) “If you want to come into, into the life, keep the commandments.” (Matt 19:17b)

(Jesus said to His disciples: "Teach the future disciples) to keep all things as many as I have enjoined you.” (Matt 28:20a)

(Jesus said to His disciples: “The sowing) in the fine earth these are whoever having heard the saying, ‘keep it down’/’keep it’ in a fine and good heart, and carry fruit in endurance.” (Luke 8:15)

(Jesus said to a woman:) "Happy the ones hearing the saying of God and watching/keeping (it)." (Luke 11:28b)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Acquire/gain your souls in your endurance.” (Luke 21:19)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Jesus said to the Jews:) “Amen, amen I say to you, if – according to the circumstances – anyone may keep My saying, He will (א,* א) not/certainly not look at death into the (coming) age.” The Jews * (P66,א,* א, B) spoke to Him: “Now we have gained (and gain) knowledge, that You have a little demon. Abraham died and the prophets, and You say: ‘If – according to the circumstances – anyone may keep My saying, He may not/certainly not taste death into the (coming) age.’” (John 8:51-52)

I give them agelong life, and they may not/certainly not perish into the (coming) age, and anyone may not/certainly (א,*א) not rape them out of My hand. What the Father has given (and gives) Me is greater than all (א*). And no one is able to rape out of the hand of the Father. (John 10:28-29)

Jesus spoke to (Judas - not Iscariot): “If – according to the circumstances – anyone may welcome Me, he will keep My saying, and My Father will welcome him, and We will come towards him and make an abode by the side of him. The one not welcoming Me does not keep My sayings.” (John 14:23-24a)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "Entirely as the Father has welcomed Me, and/also I have welcomed you. Stay in the welcome, (in) My (welcome). If – according to the circumstances – you may keep My commandments, stay in My welcome, entirely as and/also (א,*א) I have kept (and keep) My Father's, My (א*) commandments, and stay in His welcome." (John 15:9-10)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “If they have kept My saying, they will keep yours and/also. However, all these things they will make/do * (א*) because of My name, because they do not know the One having sent Me.” (John 15:20b-21)

Happy the one reading and the ones hearing the saying (א,*א) of the prophecy and keeping the things having been (and being) written in it, for the seasonable time (is) near. (Rev 1:3)

I, John, your brother and a companion together with (you) in the oppression and a kingdom and an endurance in Jesus. (Rev 1:9a)

I know your works and your (א,* א) bother and your endurance. (Rev 2:2a, “Ephesos”)

I know your works and (your) welcome and faith and * (א*) endurance * (א,*א). (Rev 2:19a, “Thyatira”)

The one conquering and the one keeping My works until (the) end, to him I will give (judicial) authority upon/’with regard to’ the nations. (Rev 2:26, “Thyatira”)

Recollect * (א,*א) how you have taken (and take) and (how you) heard and keep (it) and change your mind. (Rev 3:3a, “Sardis”)

You have small/little ability and you have kept My saying and have not denied My name. (Rev 3:8b, “Philadelphia”)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: Elisabeth Beskow, Olof Djurfeldt, Olaf Moe, Watchman Nee, Lewi Pethrus, Thomas a Kempis.


Paul said to the believers in Rome: “The oppression ‘works entirely’/accomplishes endurance.” (Rom 5:3b)

(Paul and Silvanus and Timothy said to the believers in Thessalonica: “We remember) your work of the faith and (your) bother of the welcome and (your) endurance of the hope.” (1 Thess 1:3a)

Paul said to the believers in Thessalonica: “We ourselves boast in/of, in/of you in the (assemblies) of called out of God ‘in favour of’/over your endurance and faith in all your pursuits and oppressions, (in) which you hold up/out.” (2 Thess 1:4)

Paul said to Timothy: “If we ‘stay behind’/endure, we will and/also be kings together with (Christ Jesus).” (2 Tim 2:12a)


Additional studies: Ps 62:5(6); Matt 24:13; John 17:6.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-20; 2012-06-10; 2015-01-27)

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3:10b ... out of the hour of the test, the (hour) being about to come upon the whole (inhabited) world to try the ones dwelling upon the earth.

Word for word (18 words in the Greek text): out-of the hour (of)-the (of)-test the-(one) being-about-to come upon the (inhabited)-world whole (to)-try the-(ones) dwelling upon the earth.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Moses said to Israel:) "The Lord your God has led you in the desolate (district these forty years), in that way (that) He – according to the circumstances – might treat you ill and test you and have knowledge throughout of the things in your heart, if you might watch His commandments or not." (Deut 8:2b, Greek OT)

(God) made two shares of inheritance, one to the people of God and one to all the nations. And these two shares of inheritance came into an hour and a seasonable time and into a day of judgment in the very eyes of God and in all the nations. (Esther 10:3gb-h/F7b-8, Greek OT)

(David said: “The Lord) will judge the (inhabited) world in righteousness.” (Ps 9:8a or 9:9a, Greek OT)

(The prophet said to the people of God:) “Advance, my people! Come into, into your storehouses and shut up your doors. Hide yourself away for a small/little (while) ..., till the wrath of the Lord may – according to the circumstances - have come by the side of. For behold, the Lord leads the wrath from the holy against, against the ones inhabiting ‘in upon’/upon the earth.” (Is 26:20-21a, Greek OT)

(Judith said:) “’To the side of’/besides all these things we may be thankful to the Lord, our God, Who tries us according as and/also our fathers.” (Judith 8:25)

The earth was shaken against its dwelling ones, and every house of Jacob was set/clothed in shame. (1 Macc 1:28)

(Maccabaeus said: “Our enemies) ‘are (and have been) persuaded’/’trust (and have trusted)’ on/to weapons together and/with bold things, but we (Jews) ‘are (and have been) persuaded’/’trust (and have trusted)’ on/to God, the All-powerful, being (with) a nod able to throw down and/both the ones coming against us and the whole adornment/’adorned world’.” (2 Macc 8:18b)

(Solomon said:) “God tried (the righteous) and found ‘them worthy of Himself’/’that they were Him worthy’.” (Wisdom of Solomon 3:5b)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “The one fearing the Lord will not go away to meet evil, however/but in a test he will and/also be ‘taken out for himself’/’set free’.” (Sir 33:1)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus taught His disciples to pray in this way:) “You may not carry us into test.” (Matt 6:13a)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “This good little message of the kingdom will be proclaimed in the whole (inhabited) world into/’for a purpose of’ a testimony to all the nations, and then the end will arrive.” (Matt 24:14)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “If those days (of great oppression) were not mutilated, ‘every flesh was not’/’no flesh was’ – according to the circumstances – saved, but because of the chosen ones those days will be mutilated.” (Matt 24:22)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “The Son of the Man comes at an hour which you do not think.” (Matt 24:44b)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "Having come will the Son of the Man consequently find the faith upon the earth?" (Luke 18:8b)

(Jesus said to His disciples: “There will be) upon the earth anguish of/among (the) nations, and (א,* א) in/during puzzle sounds of sea and surge, on men's stopping breathing from/’owing to’ fear and expectation of the things coming upon the (inhabited) world. (Luke 21:25b-26a)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Be sleepless/awake in every seasonable time and 'be in need of'/'strive after' 'in order that'/that you may be entirely stable to flee away (from) all these things being about to become/’come about’ and to stand in front of the Son of the Man.” (Luke 21:36)

(God) has out of one made every nation of men to dwell upon every face/place of the earth, having marked out by boundaries and having commanded (and commanding) seasonable times and the boundaries of their habitation-place. (Acts 17:26)

(Paul said to the males in Athen: “God) has ‘caused ... to stand’/fixed a day in which He is about to judge the (inhabited) world in/with righteousness.” (Acts 17:31a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

For in this way God welcomed the adornment/’adorned world’, so that He gave the Son, the only descendant, in order that 'every the'/everyone believing into Him may not perish however/but have agelong life. For God did not dispatch away the Son into the adornment/’adorned world’, in order that He might judge the adornment/’adorned world’, however/but in order that the adornment/’adorned world’ might be saved through Him. The one believing into Him is not judged. * (א,* א, B) The one not believing has already been (and is) judged, because he has not believed (and does not believe) into the name of (the) Son of God, the only descendant. (John 3:16-18)

(Jesus said to the Jews:) "Amen, amen, I say to you, that an hour comes * (א*), when the dead (bodies) may (P66, א,* א) hear the voice of the Son of God, and * (P66, א*) having heard they will live." (John 5:25)

Having so lifted against/up the eyes and viewed that a much/many-headed crowd comes towards Him, He says towards Philip: “From where may we buy breads/bread, in order that these ones may eat?” This He (continually) said to try him, for He Himself knew (and had known) what He (continually) was about to make/do. (John 6:5-6)

(Jesus said:) “Now My soul is (and has been) troubled, and what may I speak? ‘Father, save Me out of this hour?’ However because of this I came into this hour.” (John 12:27)

Jesus answered (His disciples): “Just now you believe. Behold, an hour comes, and the hour (א*) has come, in order that you may be scattered, everyone into his own things, and you may let Me be alone.” (John 16:31-32a)

(Jesus said to His Father:) “I do not ask, in order that You may lift (My disciples) out of the adornment/’adorned world’, however/but that You may keep them out of the evil.” (John 17:15)

And having tried the ones saying themselves (be) apostles, and are not, and/also you found them (be) false. (Rev 2:2b, “Ephesos”)

… Behold, the slanderer is about to throw (some) out of you into watch/custody, in order that you may be tried, and you will have oppression (for) ten days. (Rev 2:10a, “Smyrna”)

If you so – according to the circumstances – may not change your mind (א*), I will arrive against you (א,*א) as a thief, and you will (א,*א) not/certainly not have knowledge of what kind hour I will arrive against you. (Rev 3:3b, “Sardis”)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

In the eschatological context of this prayer (“lead us not into temptation” in Matt 6:13), it may well include reference to the final testing of God's people, the suffering which precede the consummation of the Kingdom (cf. Matt. 24; Rev. 3:10). (David Hill "The Gospel of Matthew" p 139)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Samuel Johansson, H.M. Melin, Henrik Schartau.


My own comments and speculations:

As God in the old time tried His own people Israel, so He will in the future try those who dwell upon the earth.


James said: “Happy a male who stays behind a test, because having become approved, he will take the crown of life, which (God) has promised to the ones welcoming Him.” (Jas 1:12)


Greek words:

peirasmos (test) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Sir 33:1; Matt 6:13; Jas 1:12; Rev 3:10 – 1 Macc 2:52; Sir 2:1; 6:7; 27:5,7; 44:20; Matt 26:41; Mark 14:38; Luke 4:13; 8:13; 11:4; 22:28,40,46; Acts 20:19; 1 Cor 10:13; Gal 4:14; 1 Tim 6:9; Heb 3:8; Jas 1:2; 1 Pet 1:6; 4:12; 2 Pet 2:9.

oikoumenê (/inhabited/ world) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Matt 24:14; Luke 21:26; Acts 17:31; Rev 3:10 – Esther 3:13b(B2),13d(B4); 2 Macc 2:22; Wisdom of Solomon 1:7; The Epistle of Jeremiah v 61; The Prayer of Azariah v 22; Luke 2:1; 4:5; Acts 11:28; 17:6; 19:27; 24:5; Rom 10:18; Heb 1:6; 2:5; Rev 12:9; 16:14.


Additional studies: Ex 17:7; 20:20; Judges 2:22; Jer 6:27; 9:7; Wisdom of Solomon 11:9; Acts 17:26; 2 Thess 2:10; 2 Pet 2:9; Rev 6:10; 8:13; 11:10; 13:8,14; 16:14; 17:8.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-20; 2012-06-10; 2015-01-27)

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3:11a I come quickly.

Word for word (2 words in the Greek text): (i/I)-come quickly.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Moses said to Israel:) “If you – according to the circumstances – may not listen to the voice of the Lord your God to watch and make/do all His commandments … the Lord will dispatch out to you the lack and the greedy hunger … till He – according to the circumstances – may perish you in/with quickness.” (Deut 28:15a,20a, Greek OT)

A judgment of God has been given back to (Haman) through quickness. (Esther 8:12rb/E18b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Tyre and Sidon and every/’the whole’ Galilee of other tribes:) “Quickly I will give back ... into/’purposed for’ your heads.” (Joel 3:4b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) “Behold, I dispatch out My messenger and he will 'see against'/regard a way before My face, and the Lord whom you seek will suddenly arrive into His temple.” (Mal 3:1a, Greek OT)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “They had not knowledge till the inundation came and lifted/’took away’ all of them, in this way the ‘being by the side of’/presence of the Son of the Man will be. … The Son of the Man comes at an hour which you do not think.” (Matt 24:39,44b)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “I say to you, that (God) will make the procuration of justice of (His chosen ones) in/with quickness.” (Luke 18:8a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

A revelation of Jesus Christ which God gave Him to show to His holy ones (א*) the things which must become/’come about’ in/with quickness. (Rev 1:1a)

Change your mind * (א,*א). But if not, I come to you quickly. (Rev 2:16a, “Pergamos”)

If you so – according to the circumstances – may not change your mind (א*), I will arrive against you (א,*א) as a thief, and you will (א,*א) not/certainly not have knowledge of what kind hour I will arrive against you. (Rev 3:3b, “Sardis”)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

The risen Jesus' warning, ‘I come quickly’ (cf. Luke 18:7f.; Rev. 3:11; 22:7), is not a chronological marker but a pointer to the suddenness of the coming judgment. (E. Earle Ellis "The Gospel of Luke" p 182)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Göran Sahlberg, Gösta Sandberg.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “come quickly”, see also Rev 2:16.


Additional studies:

Rev 22:7,12,20.


Robert L. Thomas "The 'Comings' of Christ in Revelation 2-3"; The Master's Seminary Journal 7.2 (Fall 1996): 153-181.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-20; 2012-06-10; 2015-01-27)

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3:11b ‘Get power over’/keep the thing which you have in order that anyone may not take your crown.

Word for word (9 words in the Greek text): get-power-over (the-thing)-which (you)-have, in-order-that not-anyone may-take the crown your.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The woman said:) “... I found him whom my soul welcomed. I ‘got power (over)’/seized him, and I will not let him be.” (Song of Solomon 3:4a, Greek OT)

(The woman said:) “Come out (daughters of Zion) and behold in/at king Solomon in/with the crown, in/with which his mother has crowned him in/on a day of his marriage and in/on a day of a cheerfulness of his heart.” (Song of Solomon 3:11, Greek OT)

That day the Lord of hosts will be the crown of the hope, the plaited one of the glory. (Is 28:5a, Greek OT)

The ones being in command together ‘because of’/’with a view to’ the Lord will turn away/back and arrive into Zion in company with cheerfulness, and agelong cheerfulness (will be) in favour of their head. For upon their head (there will be) praise and gladness, and cheerfulness will take ‘them down’/’possession of them’, pain and sorrow and sighing have run away. (Is 35:10, Greek OT)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said: “The one fearing the Lord) will find cheerfulness and a crown of gladness and entirely inherit an agelong name.” (Sir 15:6)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “If (anyone) – according to the circumstances – may not ‘get power over’/keep in/with the fear of the Lord ‘according to haste’/’in earnestness’, his house will be turned over in/with quickness.” (Sir 27:3)

All the ones ‘getting power over’/keeping (the book of the commands of God) (come) into life. ... (Baruch 4:1b)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to the Pharisees and the scribes:) “Having let the commandment of God be, you ‘get power over’/embrace the tradition of the men.” (Mark 7:8)

(The disciples) ‘got power over’/embraced the saying, seeking together with (one another) towards themselves what the thing to stand up out of dead (bodies) is. (Mark 9:10)

Having plaited a thorny crown (the soldiers) put it round about (Jesus). (Mark 15:17b)

Stephen (= crown) (was) filled with joybringing (grace) and ability. (Acts 6:8a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

Having plaited a crown out of thorns (the soldiers) put (it) on (Jesus') head. (John 19:2a)

Become faithful until death, and I will give you the crown of the life. (Rev 2:10b, “Smyrna”)

You get/have power over your (א*) name and did not deny My faith. … (Rev 2:13b, “Pergamos”)

However I have few/’a few’ things ‘down from’/against you, because you have (some) there ‘getting power over’/embracing the teaching of Balaam. ... In this way and/also you have ones likewise ‘getting power over’/embracing the teaching of the Nicolaitans. (Rev 2:14a,15b, “Pergamos”)

‘Get power over’/keep what you have until the (time in which) I – according to the circumstances – will arrive. (Rev 2:25b, “Thyatira”)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

In rabbinic tradition, Shabbath 88a states that when the Israelites accepted the covenant (Exod 24:7) they were each crowned with two crowns by 600,000 messengers – the first when they said, ”We will do” and the second at the words “We will be obedient”. However, when they were told to remove their ornaments (Exod 33:6), these crowns were snatched away by 1,200,000 devils. In the messianic age, God will restore the crowns; cf. Isa 35:10. (J. Massyngberde Ford "Revelation" p 415)

”Hold fast that which thou hast, lest another take thy crown”, which example of perseverance and persistence is pointed out in Exodus, when Moses, for the overthrow of Amalek, who bore the type of the devil, raised up his open hands in the sign and sacrament of the cross, and could not conquer his adversary unless when he had stedfastly persevered in the sign with hands continually lifted up. (Cyprian, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol V, p 501)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Elisabeth Beskow, Josef Gustafsson, David Hedegård, Gunlög Järhult, Lars Levi Laestadius, Sigurd Lindgren, Gösta Sandberg, Arvid Zakrisson.


Paul said to the believers in Corinth: “Every the'/everyone fighting has mastery over all things, those indeed so in order that they may take a corruptible crown but we an uncorruptible.” (1 Cor 9:25)

James said: “Happy a male who stays behind a test, because having become approved, he will take the crown of life, which (God) has promised to the ones welcoming Him.” (Jas 1:12)

Additional studies: Ex 29:6; 39:30; Lev 8:9; Prov 12:4; Is 56:4-5; 2 Tim 2:5.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-20; 2012-06-10; 2015-01-27)

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3:12a The one conquering, (to) him (א*) I will make a pillar (in) (א*) the temple of My God, and it may not/certainly not come out outside * (א,* א).

Word for word (15 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus prima manus): The-(one) conquering (i/I)-will-make (to)-him (a)-pillar (in)-the temple (of)-the (of)-god my and outside not/certainly not (it)-may-come.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Lot's) woman saw against (Sodom), into the things behind, and she became a pillar of salt. (Gen 19:26, Greek OT)

The copper pillars in the house of the Lord … the Chaldeans crushed, and they took their copper and carried (it) away into Babylon. (Jer 52:17, Greek OT)

(Simon) made (seven pyramids with) artificial implements having been put round about, and he made full armours on the pillars into an agelong name. (1 Macc 13:29a)

... (Baruch took) the vessels of the house of the Lord, the ones having been carried out, out of the temple, to turn/carry them back into earth/land of Judas. (Baruch 1:8a)


The Latter Revelation:

(Two witnesses said: “Jesus) uttered: ‘I am able to loosen down/up the temple of God and build it (א,* א) through/during three days.’” (Matt 26:61)

(A widow) did not stand aloof of/from the sanctuary, serving night and day (with) fastings and prayers. (Luke 2:37b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

Jesus answered and spoke to them: "Loosen this temple, and in three days I will raise it." The Jews so spoke: "Forty-six years this temple has been built and You will raise it in three days?" But that (One) said (it) on account of the temple of His body. When He so was raised out of dead (bodies), His disciples remembered that He (continually/repeatedly) had said this; and they believed (in) the writing and (in) the saying which Jesus had spoken. (John 2:19-22)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "In the adornment/’adorned world’ you have oppression. However, be confident. I have conquered (and conquer) the adornment/’adorned world’." (John 16:33b)

To the one conquering * (א,* א) I will give to eat out of the wood of the life, which is in the ‘place by the side of apprehension’/Paradise of God. (Rev 2:7b, “Ephesos”)

The one conquering may not/certainly not be treated unrighteously ‘out of’/’in consequence of’ the second death. (Rev 2:11b, “Smyrna”)

... To the one conquering * (א,* א) I will give out of (א,* א) the manna having been (and being) hidden. (Rev 2:17a, “Pergamos”)

The one conquering and the one keeping My works until (the) end, to him I will give (judicial) authority upon/’with regard to’ the nations. (Rev 2:26, “Thyatira”)

The one conquering will in this way be wrapped up in white garments. (Rev 3:5a, “Sardis”)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

“A pillar in the temple of My God.” … referring to the custom of honouring a magistrate by placing a pillar in his name in one of the temples in Philadelphia. (C.C. Ryrie "The Ryrie Study Bible" p 1899)

What will G(ustaf) af G(eijerstam) here (in France)? Nothing to learn except that Sweden is a little fine model country - except the general weaknesses belonging to all countries with kings and queens, and with all miseries following with societies! . . . I shall never more leave Sweden, when I once come home. (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev III 1882-1883" p 339; letters 1883-10-27 to Pehr Staaff and 1883-10-29 to Rudolf Wall)

What was the matter with Gudmund? It was (Margareta's) question. She had hoped for him an autumn of life like a beautiful late summer. She had expected a new life of spring in the light and warmth of the vigorous activity of the son and of God's devoted zeal. Was not this one as a cedar on Libanon, determined to become a bearing beam in Zion's temple? Was not all what he wanted well-considered with long foreseeing wisdom and only aiming at what good is? (Viktor Rydberg "Vapensmeden" p 165; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Carl Grimberg, Berndt Gustafsson, Lars Hartman, Ulrik Josefsson, Sven Lidman.


My own comments and speculations:

The pillars in the old temple were carried away outside the temple to Babylon. In a restoration perspective we see how a pillar will come to the temple to remain there.


I have written to you, youths, because you are stable and the saying of God stays in you, and you have conquered (and conquer) the evil one. (1 John 2:14b)

Every the/child being (and having been) begotten out of God conquers the adornment/’adorned world’. And this is the conquest, the one having conquered the adornment/’adorned world’, our faith. (1 John 5:4)


Greek words:

stylos (pillar) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Rev 3:12 – Esther 1:6; Judith 13:9; 1 Macc 13:29; Wisdom of Solomon 18:3; Sir 24:4; 36:24(26); Gal 2:9; 1 Tim 3:15; Rev 10:1.


Additional studies:

1 Kings 7:3,21; 25:13; Jer 1:18; 27:19-22; Luke 22:62; John 2:21; 1 John 3:12; Rev 3:20; 7:15.


Matthijs den Dulk "The Promises to the Conquerors in the Book of Revelation"; Biblica 87 (2006): 516-522.

Stephen L. Homcy "'To Him Who Overcomes': A Fresh Look at What 'Victory' Means for the Believer According to the Book of Revelation"; Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 38.2 (June 1995): 193-201.

James E. Rosscup "The 'overcomer' of the Apocalypse"; Grace Theological Journal 3.2 (Fall 1982): 261-286.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-20; 2012-06-10; 2015-01-27)

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3:12b And against it I will write the name of My God and the name of the city of My God, the new Jerusalem, the one descending out of the heaven from My God, and My name, the new one.

Word for word (35 words in the Greek text): and (i/I)-will-write against it the name (of)-the (of)-god my and the name (of)-the (of)-city (of)-the (of)-god my, the new Jerusalem the-(one) descending out-of the heaven from the god my, and the name my the new.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The man) spoke to (Jacob): "What is your name?" But/and he spoke: "Jacob." But/and (the man) spoke to him: "Your name shall not any longer be called Jacob, however/but Israel shall be your name, because you have been stable in, in company with God and able in company with men." (Gen 32:27-28, Greek OT)

Moses spoke (directed) towards God: “Behold, I shall come towards the sons of Israel, and I shall speak towards them: ‘The God of your fathers has dispatched (and dispatches) me away towards you.’ They will ask me: 'What (is) a name to Him?' What shall I speak towards them?” And God spoke towards Moses: “I am the One who is.” And He spoke: “In this way you shall speak to the sons of Israel: ‘The One who is has dispatched (and dispatches) me away towards you.’” (Ex 3:13-14, Greek OT)

The Lord spoke to (Moses): “Advance, descend and ascend (to the mountain Sinai), you and Aaron in company with you, but do not let the priests and the people advance to ascend towards God, (so that) the Lord may not at any time perish from/’owing to’ them.” (Ex 19:24, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Jerusalem:) “You will be called a city of righteousness, Zion's faithful mother-city.” (Is 1:26b, Greek OT)

This is what the Lord says: “To the eunuchs as many as – according to the circumstances – may watch/keep My sabbaths and choose the things which I want and hold themselves next to My covenant, to them I will give in My house and 'in My wall'/'within My walls' a place to be named more powerful (than that) of sons and daughters. I will give them an agelong name, and it will not ‘leave out’/disappear.” (Is 56:4-5, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Jerusalem:) “Sons of ones having been (and was) given (authority) to humble you and provoke you will go towards you. And you will be called the city of the Lord, a Zion of (the) holy One of Israel.” (Is 60:14, Greek OT)

(The prophet said to Jerusalem: “The Lord) will call you your new name, which the Lord Himself will name.” (Is 62:2b, Greek OT)

(The Lord) will call the ones being slaves to Him (by) a new name. (Is 65:15b, Greek OT)

... In/at that seasonable time they will call Jerusalem: “Throne of the Lord.” (Jer 3:17a, Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) "This is the name, which (the Lord) will call/give (His righteous Upsticking to David): 'The Lord Josedek' (Josedek = The Lord is righteous)." (Jer 23:6b, Greek OT)

The name of (the new Jerusalem) from (that) day may – according to the circumstances - become: “It will be her name.” (Ezek 48:35b, Greek OT)

The leader of the eunuchs put names on (the three men of the tribe of Judas), on Daniel indeed Baltasar/Belteshazzar (a name which means "May Bel protect his life"). (Dan 1:7a, Greek OT)

(Nebuchadnezzar said:) “Daniel came – who has the name Baltasar/Belteshazzar ‘according to’/after the name of my god.” (Dan 4:5a or 4:8a, Greek OT, Theod)

Many nations will arrive from afar ... towards the holy name of the Lord God. (Tobit 13:11b or 13:13a, BA)

(Jonathan) made (Jerusalem) new. (1 Macc 10:10b)

(Simon) ... made full armours on the pillars into an agelong name. (1 Macc 13:29a)

(Judas practised) townlike/polite (things) ‘counting throughout’/reflecting in favour of a resurrection. (2 Macc 12:43b)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said: “The one fearing the Lord) will find cheerfulness and a crown of gladness and entirely inherit an agelong name.” (Sir 15:6)


The Latter Revelation:

Having been baptized Jesus straight/’straight off’ ascended from the water; and behold, the heavens were opened, and (John) beheld a (א,*א,B) spirit of God descending as if (it was) a pigeon * (א*,B) coming against Him. And behold, a voice out of the heavens saying: (Matt 3:16-17a)

(Jesus said to Simon Peter:) "Happy are you, Simon, a son of Jona, because flesh and blood have not revealed (it) to you, however/but My Father, the One (who is) in the heavens. But I and/also say to you, that you are Peter (= rocking-stone), and on this rock I will build My (assembly) of called out, and the gates of Hades shall not be entirely stable (with regard to) it." (Matt 16:17b-18)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(The shepherd of the sheep) raises his voice (towards) his own sheep ‘according to name’/’after their names’, and he leads them out. (John 10:3a)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “A new commandment I give you.” (John 13:34a)

In the place whereat He was crucified it/there (continually) was a garden, and in the garden a new memorial tomb in which no one ‘nor yet’/not (continually) had been (and was) put/laid. (John 19:41)

To the one conquering * (א,* א) I will give … a white voting-stone and against the voting-stone a new name is (and has been) written, which no one knows ‘if not’/except the one taking (it). (Rev 2:17b, “Pergamos”)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: Werner Aspenström, Berndt Gustafsson, Fredrik Nielsen, Peter Nilson, Ludvig Nordström, Olaf Moe, Viktor Rydberg, Anton Tjechov, P. Waldenström.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning the word “Jerusalem”, see My own comments and speculations to John 1:19.

Concerning “descending out of heaven”, see also John 6:45-51a.


Additional studies:

Ex 28:36; 1 Kings 7:21; Is 62:12; Jer 32:34; 33:16; 34:15; Matt 5:14; Gal 4:26; Phil 3:20; Heb 11:10; 12:22; 13:14; Rev 7:15; 14:1; 19:12-13,16; 21:2,10; 22:3-4.


K.M. Campbell "The New Jerusalem in Matthew 5:14"; Scottish Journal of Theology 31 (1978): 385-.

Matthijs den Dulk "The Promises to the Conquerors in the Book of Revelation"; Biblica 87 (2006): 516-522.

Stephen L. Homcy "'To Him Who Overcomes': A Fresh Look at What 'Victory' Means for the Believer According to the Book of Revelation"; Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 38.2 (June 1995): 193-201.

James E. Rosscup "The 'overcomer' of the Apocalypse"; Grace Theological Journal 3.2 (Fall 1982): 261-286.

Robert M. Royalty Jr "Etched or Sketched? Inscriptions and Erasures in the Messages to Sardis and Philadelphia (Rev 3:1-13)"; Journal for the Study of the New Testament 27.4 (2005): 447-463.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-20; 2012-06-10; 2015-01-28)

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3:13 The one having an ear, let him hear what the Spirit says to the (assemblies) of called out.

Word for word (10 words in the Greek text): The-(one) having (an)-ear let-him-hear what the spirit says (to)-the (assemblies)-of-called-out.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning this verse, see Rev 2:7a.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-20; 2012-06-10; 2015-01-28)

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3:14a And to the messenger of the (assembly) of called out in Laodicea write: “This is what the Amen says.”

Word for word (12 words in the Greek text): And (to)-the messenger (of)-the in Laodicea (of)-(assembly)-of-called-out write: '(The-but-things)'/'this-is-what' says the amen


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The prophet said:) ”This is what the Lord says: ’On/’on the ground of’ the three impieties of (Gaza/Tyre/Idumaea/Ammon/Moab/Judas/Israel) and on/’on the ground of’ the four, I will not turn away to them.” ... Hear this saying, which the Lord has talked against you, house of Israel, and ‘down from’/against every tribe, which (He) led up out of (the) earth/land of Egypt, saying: “’More than’/however I had knowledge of you out of all tribes of the earth. Because of this I will procure justice against you for all your misses (of My mark).” (Amos 1:6a,9a,11a,13a; 2:1a,4a,6a; 3:1-2, Greek OT)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

In the Gospel of John the apostle always uses the double "Amen, amen". (John 1:51; 3:3,5,11; 5:19,24-25; 6:26,32,47,53; 8:34,51,58; 10:1,7; 12:24; 13:16,20-21,38; 14:12; 16:20,23; 21:18)

To Him (is) the glory and the power into the (coming) ages of the (coming) ages. Amen. (Rev 1:6b)

Send (the scroll) to the seven (assemblies) of called out, into Ephesos and into Smyrna and into Pergamos and into Thyatira * (א*) and into Philadelphia and into Laodicea. (Rev 1:11b)

To the messenger of the (assembly) of called out in Ephesos write: “This is what the One ‘getting power (over)’/seizing stars in His right hand (א*) says, the One walking about in a middle of the seven golden lampstands. . . . However, this you have, that you hate the works of the Nicolaitans, which and/also I hate.” (Rev 2:1,6)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: David Alexander, P. Fjellstedt, Carl Henrik Martling, Viktor Rydberg.


My own comments and speculations:

Compare the negative opinion of Laodicea ("the justice of the people") with the view in Rev 2:6 of the Nicolaitens ("the victory of the people"). Perhaps we also can have a feeling of a restoration perspective in the first letters of the alphabet "lao" compared with "lai" in the word "nikolaitens".

Concerning “amen”, see also Rev 1:6b.


Paul said to the believers in Corinth: "As many as the promises of God (are) the Yes in Him, therefore (is) and/also through Him the Amen to God towards/to glory through us." (2 Cor 1:20)

Paul said to the believers in Colossae: “May (this letter) and/also be read in the Laodicean (assembly) of called out and the one ‘out of’/from Laodicea, in order that and/also you may read (it).” (Col 4:16b)


Additional studies:

Col 2:1; 4:12-16.


David E. Aune "The Form and Function of the Proclamations to the Seven Churches (Revelation 2-3)"; New Testament Studies 36 (1990): 182-204.

James L. Boyer "Are the Seven Letters of Revelation 2-3 Prophetic?"; Grace Theological Journal 6.2 (1985): 267-273.

Birger Gerhardsson "De kristologiska utsagorna i sändebreven i Uppenbarelseboken (kap 2-3)"; Svensk Exegetisk Årsbok 30 (1965): 70-90.

Robert L. Muse "Revelation 2-3: a critical analysis of seven prophetic messages"; Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 29.2 (June 1966): 147-161.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-21; 2012-06-11; 2015-01-28)

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3:14ba ... and (א*) the faithful Witness and the True One (א,* א).

Word for word (8 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus prima manus): and the witness the faithful and the true-(one)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Joybringing grace and peace) from Jesus Christ, the faithful witness. (Rev 1:5a)

(You did not deny My faith) in the days in which (א,*א) Antipas (was/lived), My witness, the (א,*א) faithful one, who was killed by the side of you, whereat/where the adversary dwells. (Rev 2:13b, “Pergamos”)

This is what the True One, the Holy One, says: ... (Rev 3:7b, “Philadelphia”)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: Folke Thorell.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “the faithful Witness”, see Rev 1:5. Concerning “the True One”, see Rev 3:7b. Concerning “Faithful … and … true”, see also Rev 19:11b; 21:5b; 22:6a.


Additional studies:

Ex 34:6; Num 12:7; Deut 7:9; 2 Chron 15:3; Ps 89:37(38); Prov 14:25; Is 65:16; Jer10:10; 42:5; Wisdom of Solomon 3:9; Matt 25:21,23; Luke 4:25.


Birger Gerhardsson "De kristologiska utsagorna i sändebreven i Uppenbarelseboken (kap 2-3)"; Svensk Exegetisk Årsbok 30 (1965): 70-90.

(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-21; 2012-06-11; 2015-01-28)

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3:14bb ... and (א,*א) the Beginning of the (assembly) of called out (א*) of God.

Word for word (7 words in the Greek text): and the beginning (of)-the (of)-(assembly)-of-called-out (of)-the (of)-god


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

In a beginning God made the heaven and the earth. (Gen 1:1, Greek OT)

Moses talked into the ears of every/'the whole' (assembly) of called out of Israel the words of this lay till into/’up to’ (the) end. (Deut 31:30, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said to the Lord:) "’The One’/You being a shepherd to Israel, pour (Your sovereignty) towards (us), ‘the One’/You showing Joseph the way as if (he was) sheep." (Ps 80:1a or 80:2a, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said:) “I will put/make (David, My slave), a first-born, high ‘by the side of’/’in comparison with’ the kings of the earth.” (Ps 89:27 or 89:28, Greek OT)

(Wisdom said:) "The Lord created me, a beginning of His ways, into/'for the purpose of' His works. Before the age He based Me in a beginning. ... (When) He (continually) made the bases of the earth stable, I (continually) was betrothed by the side of Him. I (continually) was towards (the place) where He rejoiced." (Prov 8:22-23,29b-30a, Greek OT)

(The Lord/Jeremiah said to Jeremiah/Jerusalem: “Israel was) to the Lord a beginning of His products/fruits.” (Jer 2:3b, Greek OT)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said: “The Wisdom) will open her mouth in an (assembly) of called out of a highest one: ‘… Before the age, from a beginning he created me.’” (Sir 24:2,9a)


The Latter Revelation:

If (the brother missing the mark of God) – according to the circumstances – may ‘hear ... from the side of’/ignore them, speak to the (assembly) of called out. (Matt 18:17a)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Then it will be a great oppression, such as it has not become (א,* א) from a beginning of an adornment/’adorned world’ till the now, nor not/certainly not, may become.” (Matt 24:21)

(Paul said to the elders of Ephesos:) “The Holy Spirit has put/made you inspectors to be shepherds (over) the (assembly) of called out of God, which He ‘made about Himself’/acquired through the own blood.” (Acts 20:28b)

(Paul said to the king:) “If (Christ is) first out of a resurrection of dead (bodies), He is about to bring down a message (about) a light both to the people and to the nations.” (Acts 26:23b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

In a beginning the Saying (continually) was, and the Saying (continually) was towards God, and the Saying (continually) was God. (John 1:1)

They * (א,* א) (continually) said to Him: “Who are You?” Jesus spoke to them: “(The One towards) the Beginning, (of) which I and/also talk (with) you. (John 8:25)

When (the shepherd) – according to the circumstances – may throw/bring the own ones * (א*) out, he goes in front of them, and the sheep follow him, because they know his voice. (John 10:4)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "I will come again and will take you to My side towards Myself, that where I am, there you may be also." (John 14:3b)

(Jesus said:) "Father, what You have given (and give) Me, I want (give) in order that whereat/where I am, and/also those may be in company with Me, in order that they may look at My glory, which You have given (and give) Me, because You welcomed Me before (the) foundation of an adornment/’adorned world’." (John 17:24)

John to the seven (assemblies) of called out, the ones in Asia. (Rev 1:4a)

(Joybringing grace and peace) from Jesus Christ, the faithful witness, the first-born of the dead (bodies): (Rev 1:5a)

“I am the Alpha and the Ô/Omega, a beginning and an end (א*),” says the Lord God. (Rev 1:8a)

(I know) the blasphemy, the one (א,* א) out of the ones saying themselves be Jews and they are not however/but a synagogue of the adversary. (Rev 2:9b)

Behold, I have given (and give) (א,*א) (you) out of the synagogue of the adversary the ones saying themselves be Jews, and they are not, however/but they lie. (Rev 3:9a)


Paul said to the believers in Corinth: “Now, now Christ has been (and is) raised out of dead (bodies), from a beginning of the ones having been (and being) fallen asleep … everyone in the own detachment (of soldiers): Christ a ‘from a beginning’/’first fruit’, thereupon the ones of Christ in/at His ‘being by the side of’/arrival.” (1 Cor 15:20,23)

Paul said to the believers in Colossae: “(Christ) … is a beginning, a first-born * (P46,א*) of the dead (bodies).” (Col 1:18a)


Additional studies:

Mark 13:19; John 1:3; Acts 5:31; Rom 8:29; 1 Cor 1:2; 10:32; 11:22; 15:9; Gal 1:13; Col 1:15-17; Heb 11:3; 12:2; Rev 1:17; 21:6; 22:13.


Birger Gerhardsson "De kristologiska utsagorna i sändebreven i Uppenbarelseboken (kap 2-3)"; Svensk Exegetisk Årsbok 30 (1965): 70-90.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-21; 2012-06-11; 2015-01-28)

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3:15a I know your works.

Word for word (4 words in the Greek text): (i/I)-'know-(and-have-known)'/know your the works


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

I know your works. (Rev 2:2a, “Ephesos”)

I know your works (א,*א). (Rev 2:9a, “Smyrna”)

I know where you dwell, whereat/where the throne of the adversary (is). (Rev 2:13a, “Pergamos”)

(I know) your works and your last works (are) more than the first. (Rev 2:19, “Thyatira”)

I know your works, that you have a name, that you live, and/but you are (a) dead (body). (Rev 3:1b, “Sardis”)

I know your works. (Rev 3:8a, “Philadelphia”)


My own comments and speculations:

See Rev 2:2a.


Additional studies: Job 11:11; 24:23; 31:4; 34:21; Prov 5:21; 15:3; Is 1:16; Jer 16:17.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-21; 2012-06-11; 2015-01-28)

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3:15b-17a ... that you are ‘and not’/neither cold ‘and not’/nor boiling. It was/’would be’ advantageous, (that) you (continually) were cold or boiling. In this way, because you are lukewarm and ‘and not’/neither boiling ‘and not’/nor cold, ‘cause your mouth to cease’/’shut your mouth’ (א*), because you say * (א,* א) ...

Word for word: 3:15b (11 words in the Greek text) that and-not cold (you)-are and-not boiling. it-was-advantageous cold (you)-(continually)-were or boiling. 3:16 (13 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus prima manus) in-this-way because lukewarm (you)-are and and-not boiling and-not cold cause-to-cease the mouth your. 3:17a (2 words in the Greek text) because (you)-say


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

All the sons of Israel (continually) grumbled throughout against Moses and Aaron, and every/’the whole’ synagogue spoke to them: “It had been advantageous to have died in the earth/land of Egypt or if we had died in this desolate (district).” (Num 14:2, Greek OT)

As (Moses) ‘was caused to cease’/ceased talking all these sayings ... the earth was opened and drank down (the rebellious) and their houses and all the men being in company with Corah and (also) their domestic animals. (Num 16:31a,32, Greek OT)

(David said:) “Cause your tongue to cease from (what is) bad.” (Ps 34:13a or 34:14a, Greek OT)

(Solomon said:) “Just as cold water (is) suitable to a thirsting soul, in this way (is) a good message ‘out of an earth’/’from a land’ from afar.” (Prov 25:25, Greek OT)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “If you – according to the circumstances – may puff into a spark, it will ‘burn out’/’blaze up’, and if you – according to the circumstances – may spit against it, it will be quenched.” (Sir 28:12)

(Baruch said to the Lord:) “We did not heard Your voice. … (So) the bones of our kings and the bones of our fathers be/were carried out, out of their place. And behold, (they lie on the ground in) the scorching heat of the day and (in) the frost of the night. … Hear the prayer of the ones (in) Israel having deceased (and deceasing) and sons of the ones missing (Your mark) opposite you.” (Baruch 2:24-25; 3:4)

(The three men in the burning fiery furnace said:) “Bless the Lord, fire and scorching heat … Bless the Lord, coldness and cold.” (The Song of Praise of the Three Men v 43a,44a)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “No one is able to be a slave to two lords, for or/either he will hate the one and welcome the other, or he will hold himself next to one and ‘consider down’/downgrade the other. You are not able to be a slave to God and mammon.” (Matt 6:24)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “The one who – according to the circumstances – may give to one of these small ones (following Me) only a cup of cold (water) to drink, into/’for the purpose of’ a name of a disciple, amen, I say to you, he may not/certainly not perish/lose his wage.” (Matt 10:42)

(Jesus said to the crowds: “With) what shall I make this generation like? It is like little boys and girls being seated in the market-places, who raise their voices towards the other (little boys and girls); they say: “We played on the flute (to) you, and you did not dance. We wailed and you did not ‘cut yourselves’/mourn.” (Matt 11:16-17)

(Jesus said: “The king) says to his slaves: ‘The wedding banquet is indeed ready, but the ones being (and having been) called were (continually) not worthy.’ … Having come in to view the ones lying up/’down to table’, (the king) beheld there a man having not been (and being not) set/clothed in clothes of wedding banquet. And he says to him: ‘Comrade, how did you come in here not having clothes of wedding banquet?’ But 'the one'/he was gagged/nonplussed.” (Matt 22:8,11-12)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Because of the lawlessness be/is made full, the welcome of the many will ‘be breathed’/cease.” (Matt 24:12)

Having been aroused (Jesus) 'honoured on'/blamed the wind and spoke to the sea: "Be quiet, be gagged (and remain gagged)!" And the wind 'grew weary'/slackened and it became a great calm. (Mark 4:39)

(Jesus) 'honoured on'/blamed the wind and the billow of the water, and it (א,* א) ‘was caused to cease’/ceased, and it became a calm. (Luke 8:24b)

(Apollos) (continually) was (and had been) resounded/informed (of) the way of the Lord and boiling (in) the spirit he (continually) talked and taught exactly/thoroughly the things on account of Jesus, having only insight in the baptism of John. (Acts 18:25)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

Because of this they (continually) were not able to believe, because Isaiah again spoke: “He has blinded (and blinds) their eyes and maimed (P66, P75, א,* א) their heart, in order that they may not behold (with) the eyes and understand (with) the heart and turn, and/’so that’ I will heal them. Isaiah spoke these things, because he beheld His glory, and he talked on account of Him. (John 12:39-41)

The slaves and the rowers/servants having made (and making) a charcoal heap stood (there), because it (continually) was a cold, and they (continually) warmed themselves. But and/also Peter, standing and warming himself, (continually) was in company with them. (John 18:18)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

(Lillebror) felt how wet Karlsson was, poor him, he must have flown around in the rain for a long time. "Do yo not freeze when you are wet like that?" Lillebror asked. It did not seem as if Karlsson had thought of that before, but now he felt. "Yes, it is so clearly that I am freezing", he said. "But is there anyone caring for it perhaps?" Is there anyone who becomes sad when his best friend is coming wet through, shaking with cold, and who sees to it that he gets his clothes off, hanging them up to dry and put on him a soft, comfortable bath-robe, going and make a little warm chocolate to him, also giving him a lot of buns and tucks him down in bed singing a little beautiful, sad song for him, so that he slowly is falling asleep, is it perhaps in that way?" . . . Lillebror was in a hurry to do all those things which Karlsson thought one ought to do for one's best friend. (Astrid Lindgren "Karlsson på taket smyger igen" p 71; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

(A man can be like one of these stones on the seashore) worn on all sides. . . . Everything is so good, so beautiful and so right. For all he himself nevertheless slips away. He has no side, where he can be seized. . . . These "smoothed stones" one often meets among priests and preachers and other readers. (Karl Palmberg "Pilgrims tillfälliga betraktelser" p 36-37; Karl Palmberg /1842-1920/ was from 1883 a Lutheran clergyman in Månsarp in the diocese of Växjö and president in Jönköpings Missionsförening (Missionary Society) 1886-1911; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

When (the little boy) in a while came back, he held both his hands spread out as a bowl and brought in this way some drops of water. "I wonder if the child now has taken it in his head to run fetching water to me?" the soldier thought. "This really lacks all sense. Would not a Roman legionary be able to stand a little warmth? What does that lad run around to help the ones needing no help? I have no mind to his mercy. I wish , that he, and all the ones resembling him, were away out of the world." . . . (The lad) rose on the tips of his toes stretching his hands as much as possible to the height, in order that the tall soldier easier would reach the water. The legionary again felt very much offended at the thing that a child wanted to help him, that he seized his spear to put the little one to flight. But now it happened that just in the same moment heat and sunshine with such a huge force streamed down over the war soldier, that he saw red flames in front of his eyes, and he felt the brain melt inside his head. He feared that the sun would murder him, if he could not at once find any relief. And beside himself with horror to the danger, in which he was, he threw his spear down to the ground, seized with both his hands the child, lifted it up sucking to himself as much as he could of the water, which the child held between his hands. Perhaps it only was a couple of drops he in this way got on his tongue, but more neither was needed. As soon as he had tasted the water, a sweet coolness came through his body, and he did not any more feel, that helmet and cuirass burnt and weighed. The sunbeams had lost their killing power. His dry lips again became soft, and the red flames no longer danced before his eyes. (Selma Lagerlöf "Betlehems barn" p 29-31; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

I almost think the eighties of nineteenth century nevertheless was more (than the young men of the nineties). There it was lived, here it is talked. Then momentary one wanted something; loved, hated, sinned and blasphemed! But these saloon atheists do nothing, are neither cold, nor warm! (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev XIII sept 1898-dec 1900" p 21; letter 1898-10-20 to Emil Kléen; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Cold water is death! for the nerves! except in extremely intense summer heat. (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev VII febr 1888-dec 1889" p 202; letter 1888-12-11 to Axel Strindberg; translation from the Swdish text: BG Ask)

(Marianne) had lain there in the bed writing a hymn to love. "You glorious having lifted me over myself!" she said. "In bottomless misery I lay, and you have changed it to a Paradise. On the iron handle of the shut gate my hands got caught and were lacerated, on the threshhold of my home my tears lie frozen to pearls of ice. The cold of wrath iced my whole heart, when I heard the blows on the back of my mother. In the cold drift I have wanted to sleep my wrath away, but you have come. If I compare my misery with the glory, which I have won with this, it seems to me nothing. (Selma Lagerlöf "Gösta Berlings saga" p 91-92; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

At the cornice it hang a long icicle, with which the sun had a dreadfully trouble. It began from above, melt loose a drop and then wanted to have this to fall to the ground along the icicle. But before it came half way, it again was stiffened. And the sunshine still tried again and still failed. But at last it was a freebooter to jet, which hung firm in the point of the icicle, a little one shining and emitting sparks with eagerness, and all at once it had reached its destination, a drop fell sounding to the ground. The foundry proprietor looked on laughing. "You was not a fool, you", he said to the sunbeam. (Selma Lagerlöf "Gösta Berlings saga" p 128; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

"She is cold, poor her", Nils said struggling out of his gray overcoat of rough homespun, "and such a witch she is, she probably is likely to have feeling, she as others." With these words Nils wrapped his coat around the girl taking her arm again. Although Elin hardly felt the cold, she still understood, that the farm-hand meant well, and this prove of humanity seized her so deep, that she burst into tears. (Viktor Rydberg "Fribytaren på Östersjön I" p 200; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Werner Hans Abrahamson, Stig Abrahamsson, Martin Allwood, Sven Alverlin, Joel Andersson, Ivo Andric, Werner Aspenström, Honoré de Balzac, Ida Beeth, David Bellingham, Elisabeth Beskow, Hjalmar Bjurulf, Clarence Blomquist, Nils Bolander, Lars-Ola Borglid, Nils-Arvid Bringéus, Valerij Brjusov, Lisa Bysell, O. Bång, F. Carlsnäs, Anna-Maria Claesson, Clemens av Alexandria, Stig Dagerman, Olof von Dalin, Charles Dickens, Ylva Eggehorn, Lena Einhorn, E.J. Ekman, Runar Eldebo, Harald Elovson, Fredrik Engelke, Albert Engström, Lars Magnar Enoksen, Per Ericsson, Björne Erixon, Hilding Fagerberg, Erik Floderus, Einar Genitz, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Carl Grimberg, Emil Gustafson, Lennart Gustavsson, Sven-Olof Hansén, Ola Hansson, Solveig Hansson, William Haslam, Seamus Heaney, Siv Henningson, Alf Henrikson, Rune Henriksson, Erik Herneby, Henrik Ibsen, Liselotte J Andersson, Lisa Janssen, Anders Jarlert, Johannes V. Jensen, Herbert Johansson, Viktor Johansson, Nils Jonsson, Gunlög Järhult, Ruth Klüger, Lars Levi Laestadius, Pär Lagerkvist, Anna-Maria Lenngren, Sven Lidman, Claes Lindskog, Erik Lundberg, Martin Lönnebo, H.M. Melin, Vilhelm Moberg, Patrick Modiano, Richard Newton, Fredrik Nielsen, Evert Nilsson, Carl Erik Nordenskjöld, Carl-Olof Nyréus, Christopher O'Regan, Göran Palm, Björn Palmgren, Lewi Pethrus, Folke Pira, Roland Rodby, Anna Maria Roos, Carl Olof Rosenius, Seymor Rossel, Eva Rydberg, Adam Schaff, William Shakespeare, Isaac Basjevis Singer, Wilh. Sjöholm, Klas Sjöland, Margareta Strömstedt, Hosea Svensson, Yvonne Teiffel, Anton Tjechov, Zacharias Topelius, Johan Turi, Anita Uhr, Nils Erik Villstrand, Derek Walcott, P. Waldenström, Ingrid Wallerström, P.G. Wermelin, Erik Wiberg, Anders Winbom, Tore Zetterholm.


Greek words:

zestos (boiling) Rev 3:15-16. Cf. zeô (boil) in Job 32:19; Acts 18:25; Rom 12:11.

ofelon (advantageous) (in the NT + examples in the OT) Num 14:2; Rev 3:15 – Ex 16:3; Num 20:3; 1 Cor 4:8; 2 Cor 11:1; Gal 5:12.

pauô (cause to cease) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Luke 8:24; Rev 3:16(א*) – Esther 5:1(D1); Tobit 14:1(BA); Judith 10:1; 14:9; 1 Macc 11:50; Sir 18:7; 23:16(17); 31:17; Luke 5:4; 11:1; Acts 5:42; 6:13; 13:10; 20:1,31; 21:32; 1 Cor 13:8; Eph 1:16; Col 1:9; Heb 10:2; 1 Pet 3:10; 4:1.

psychros (cold) Prov 25:25; Matt 10:42; Rev 3:15-16 – Sir 43:20; (4 Macc 11:26).

chlieros(א,* א) (lukewarm) Rev 3:16.


Additional studies:

Gen 31:40; Deut 6:5; Joshua 24:15; 1 Kings 1:2; 2 Kings 4:34; Eccl 4:11; Jer 37:30; Dan 6:22; Hos 7:6; Haggai 1:6; Matt 5:13-16; 12:30; Mark 9:49-50; Luke 14:34-35; 16:13; 2 Tim 3:5; Jas 1:8; 1 John 2:15.


Stanley E. Porter "Why the Laodiceans Received Lukewarm Water (Revelation 3:15-18"; Tyndale Bulletin 38 (1987): 143-149.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-21; 2012-06-11; 2015-01-29)

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3:17ba I am rich, and I am (and have been) rich, and I have need of (א,*א) nothing.

Word for word (8 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus): rich (i/I)-am, and (i/I)-am-(and-have-been)-rich and (of)-nothing need (i/I)-have.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

Ephraim spoke: “ … I am (and have been) rich. I have found (and find) a breathing-space for myself.” (Hos 12:8a, Greek OT)

(Solomon said:) “Let the fellow-man eulogize you and not your mouth, an alien and not your lips.” (Prov 27:2, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) “The ones selling (sheep) (continually/repeatedly) said: ‘Blessed (be) the Lord, and we are (and have been) rich.’ And their shepherds (continually) did not suffer nothing/anything on/with them.” (Zech 11:5b, Greek OT)

(Solomon said:) “I have judged/chosen (wisdom) before sceptres and thrones, and I ‘was in command’/meant riches (being) nothing in ‘judgment together’/comparison with her, nor I likened her (with) a dishonoured/invaluable stone, because 'the every'/all gold in her sight (is as) few/’a little’ heap of sand and silver is counted as clay opposite her. (Wisdom of Solomon 7:8-9)

(Solomon said: ”Men) ’speak to’/call the bad things peace.” (Wisdom of Solomon 14:22b)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said: “A man) being rich ... 'in the thing to speak him'/'in his speaking': “I have found rest and now I shall eat out of my good things ... he does not know what seasonable time he will come to the side of and entirely leave them to the others and die.” (Sir 11:18a,19)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “Matters/goods and stability heighten up a heart/courage, and fear of the Lord (is) over both.” (Sir 40:26a)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "Do not heap for you heaps upon the earth, whereat/where moth and consumption ‘make unseen’/disfigure and whereat/where thieves dig through and steal, but heap for you heaps in a heaven, whereat/where ‘and not’/neither moth ‘and not’/nor consumption ‘make unseen’/disfigure and whereat/where thieves do not dig through and (א,* א) steal." (Matt 6:19-20)

Ones being hungry (God) has fulfilled/satiated of/with good things, and ones being rich He has dispatched out empty/empty-handed. (Luke 1:53)

God spoke to (a rich man:) “Thoughtless (man)! This night they demand back your soul from you. But the things you have made ready, to whom will it be?” (Jesus said:) “In this way (is) the one heaping for himself and not being rich into/’for the purpose of’ God.” (Luke 12:20-21)

Having stood/stopped the Pharisee (continually/repeatedly) prayed these things * (א*): “God, I am thankful to You that I am not just as … adulterers or as and/also this one, the tax collector. … The tax collector, standing ‘from afar’/far, did not (continually) want nor/even to lift against/up the eyes into/to the heaven ... saying: ”God, be propitiated to me, the misser (of Your mark).” (Jesus said:) “This one descended into his house having been (and being) justified ‘to the side of’/’in comparison with’ that one, because 'every the'/everyone heightening himself will be humbled, but the one humbling himself will be heightened.” (Luke 18:11,13-14)

(Jesus) spoke to (His disciples): “When I dispatched you away far from a purse and a wallet and sandals, you were not in want of anything, (were you)?” But/and they spoke: “Of nothing.” (Luke 22:35)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

Jesus (said): “If – according to the circumstances – I may glorify Myself, My glory is nothing. My Father is the One glorifying Me. (John 8:54a)

‘Every the thing’/everything in the adornment/’adorned world’, the desire of the flesh and the desire of the eyes and the swaggering of the subsistence, is not out of the Father however/but is out of the adornment/’adorned world’. (1 John 2:16)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

Although I have been able to furnish new three rooms, I do not sit safe, because I am interested in a affair being dependent on the business activity. With this I only want to say: it is not so nice to be regarded rich! And perhaps nor to be it, for it is said to bring about so many troubles and be followed by indirect taxation, which sends word, when the door-bell is ringing all day. . . . Help you, I cannot! But if it is some consolation, that the one regarded as rich has not a very nice time and that he is not so rich, so take this consolation! (August Strindberg "Till 'De 600 arbetslöse' som sände mig lyckönskan på min 60-årsdag" p 128; Social-Demokraten 1909-01-29; Strindberg thanks 600 unemployed having gratulated him on his 60th birthday)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Ann-Charlotte Alverfors, UllaBritt Berglund, K. Brandi, Wayne A. Detzler, Björne Erixon, Bo Frid, Carl Grimberg, Ivan Karlstrand, Lars Levi Laestadius, Hans Larsson, Sven Lidman, Martin Luther, Vilhelm Moberg, D.L. Moody, Efraim Palmqvist, Viktor Rydberg, Sven Edvin Salje, Jesper Svartvik, Alf Tergel, Anton Tjechov, Birgitta Yavari.


Greek words:

plouteô (be rich) (in the NT + one example in the Apocrypha) Sir 11:18; Luke 1:53; 12:21; Rev 3:17 – Rom 10:12; 1 Cor 4:8; 2 Cor 8:9; 1 Tim 6:9,18; Rev 3:18; 18:3,15,19.


Additional studies:

Gen 30:43; Luke 18:11-12.


Stanley E. Porter "Why the Laodiceans Received Lukewarm Water (Revelation 3:15-18"; Tyndale Bulletin 38 (1987): 143-149.

M.J.S. Rudwick "The Lukewarmness of Laodicea"; Tyndale Bulletin 3 (1957): 2-3.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-21; 2012-06-11; 2015-01-29)

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3:17bb And you do not know, that you are the wretched and pitiable and beggarly and blind and naked.

Word for word (16 words in the Greek text): and not (you)-'know-(and-have-known)'/know that you are the wretched and pitiable and beggarly and blind and naked.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(When the first men had missed the mark of God) the eyes of the two were opened throughout, and they gained knowledge, that they (continually) were naked. (Gen 3:7a, Greek OT)

(Moses said to Israel: “If you will not obey the Lord) you will be feeling (at) midday as if (you were) the blind (one) feel/feeling in the darkness.” (Deut 28:29a, Greek OT)

(The prophet said to David:) “It/there (continually) were two males in one city, one rich and one needy. And to the rich (continually) was extremely many little flocks and herds of cattle. And to the needy (continually) was not anything however/except one small/little lamb. ... And (the rich) took (the lamb) of the needy. ... (David said to the prophet:) ”The male having done this (is) a son of death.” ... And (the prophet) spoke towards David: “You are the male.” (2 Sam 12:1b-7a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) “From/’owing to’ the wretchedness of the beggarly ones … I will ‘put (them) in saving’/’save (them)’..” (Ps 12:5a or 12:6a, Greek OT)

(Solomon said:) “The ones enriching themselves they ‘are having’/have nothing and the ones humbling themselves they are in much riches.” (Prov 13:7, Greek OT)

This is what the Lord says: “ . . . Let not the rich one boast in his riches, 'however or'/but let the one who boasts boast in this to perceive and have knowledge, that I am the Lord making/doing mercy.” (Jer 9:23b-24a, Greek OT)

(Gabriel said to Daniel:) “You are pitiable. And/but understand the command throughout.” (Dan 9:23b, Greek OT)

(The man set/clothed in linen said:) “O, Daniel, you are a pitiable man. ‘Understand throughout the commands, which I talk against you.” (Dan 10:11a, Greek OT)

(The man set/clothed in linen said to the prophet:) “You are a pitiable man, do not fear, be healthy.” (Dan 10:19a, Greek OT)

(Israel) have ‘given back’/sold . . . needy ones ‘with respect to’/’on account of’ sandals (and wants to throw) the gravel of the earth/ground . . . into/against heads of beggarlies. (Amos 2:6b-7a, Greek OT)

(Raguel said:) “O, wretched bad things, that a righteous male (as Tobit) had been blinded/blind. ...” (Tobit 7:6b or 7:7b, S)

(Solomon said: ”Men) ’speak to’/call the bad things peace.” (Wisdom of Solomon 14:22b)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "Happy the beggarly ones (in) the spirit, because theirs is the kingdom of the heavens." (Matt 5:3)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “The one having been sown into the thorns, this is the one hearing the saying and/but the care of the age and the cheating of the riches choke up the saying, and he becomes fruitless.” (Matt 13:22)

(Jesus said: “The king) says to his slaves: ‘The wedding banquet is indeed ready, but the ones being (and having been) called were (continually) not worthy.’ … Having come in to view the ones lying up/’down to table’, (the king) beheld there a man having not been (and being not) set/clothed in clothes of wedding banquet. And he says to him: ‘Comrade, how did you come in here not having clothes of wedding banquet?’ But 'the one'/he was gagged/nonplussed.” (Matt 22:8,11-12)

A certain youth being (and having been) wrapped up in a linen sheet upon (the) naked (body) (continually) followed together with (Jesus). And they ‘get power (over)’/seize him. But having left the linen shirt entirely/behind he fled naked. (Mark 14:51-52)

Ones being hungry (God) has fulfilled/satiated of/with good things, and ones being rich He has dispatched out empty/empty-handed. (Luke 1:53)

(Jesus said:) “Woe to you, the rich ones.” (Luke 6:24a)

(Jesus said to the Pharisees:) “ … The beggarly one died and was carried away by the messengers into Abraham's bosom. But and/also the rich man died and was buried. * (א*) Having lifted against/up his eyes in the Hades and ‘beginning under’/being in torments he beheld Abraham from from afar and Lazarus in his bosoms/bosom. And having raised his voice he spoke: “Father Abraham, have mercy on me, and send Lazarus, in order that he may dip the border/tip of his finger (in) water and cool my tongue, because I ‘am caused’/feel pain in this flame.” (Luke 16:22-24)

Having stood/stopped the Pharisee (continually/repeatedly) prayed these things * (א*): “God, I am thankful to You that I am not just as … adulterers or as and/also this one, the tax collector. … The tax collector, standing ‘from afar’/far, did not (continually) want nor/even to lift against/up the eyes into/to the heaven ... saying: ”God, be propitiated to me, the misser (of Your mark).” (Jesus said:) “This one descended into his house having been (and being) justified ‘to the side of’/’in comparison with’ that one, because 'every the'/everyone heightening himself will be humbled, but the one humbling himself will be heightened.” (Luke 18:11,13-14)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Jesus said to the man who had been blind:) “Into/’for the purpose of’ a judicial verdict I came into this adornment/’adorned world’, in order that the ones not seeing may see and the ones seeing may become blind.” The ones out of the Pharisees being in company with Him heard * (א*) and spoke to Him: “Not are and/also we blind?” Jesus spoke to them: “If you may be blind, you (continually) had – according to the circumstances – not (any) miss (of the mark of God). But now you say that/: ‘We see.’ Your miss (of the mark of God) stays.” (John 9:39-41)

Having so heard that/: “It is the Lord” Simon Peter girded himself throughout (with) the outer garment – for he (continually) was naked – and threw himself into the sea. (John 21:7b)

I know your works and (א,*א) (your) oppression and beggary – however you are rich. (Rev 2:9a, “Smyrna”)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

The teacher spoke: Do not envy anyone! I was a child, being a border in the country, in reduced circumstances, almost lived in a hut, ate out of a stonedish, sat on a wooden seat. But there was a castle in the nearness, a true castle with kings painted in the vestibule, and these were the forefathers of the young count. One Sunday we were let in, first in the castle and then in the garden; it was the Paradise; we were allowed to bathe and then to gather cherries, black as blood, goldenyellow, red as fire; the count looked on, but did not eat; perhaps he was satisfied. So we were separated, and the Paradise was shut for us. Fifty years later I saw the portrait of the young count, and so I got his fairy-tale. He looked unhappy, in despair, entirely tired of all. And he had been examined the most bitter of life, even a passing poverty. For he came under management sitting ten years in a foreign country in a boarding-house, which the crecitors paid for him, including a wife having married to the Paradise but directly having become driven out. The man had become nothing, had done nothing. He could not do anything, only wait for the meals. He had had riding-horses and hunting, had played and borrowed money. He had eaten truffle and drunk chateauwines but had, forty years old of age, to give up, for he got a red nose and pain in his big toe. His family tragedies I do not want to speak about. Now he sits immensely rich, but alone, educating the child of his housekeeper, a child who is his, but who not is allowed to bear his name. He eats floury porridge in the evenings and goes to bed at half past nine. The wine-cellar he does not dare to use, for then the big toe comes. His only relative happiness is that he still can take his walks, so that he can eat his porridge and sleep his night's sleep. (August Strindberg "En blå bok I" p 123; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

(The major) hears a faint noise from down in the church and thinks himself notice steps in the stairs. Yes, indeed, so it is, heavy steps are coming upstairs. . . . He sneaks away long in among beams and rafters and puts out the horny lantern. . . . The major knows him well, it is the stingy priest in Broby. He, who is well nigh insane of avariciousness, is in the habit of hiding his treasures in the most strange places. Now he comes with a bundle of bank-notes, which he wants to stick aside in the tower room. He does not know, that someone sees him. He lifts up a deal in the floor and lies down the money, and so he goes away. But the major is not slow. He lifts up the same deal. Oh, so much money! Bundle by bundle of bank-notes and between them brown leather bags full of silver coins. (Selma Lagerlöf "Gösta Berlings saga" p 109-110; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

It is not possible for him to be rich, who is not wealthy in his soul; like as it is not possible for him to be poor, who hath not the poverty in his mind. For if the soul is a nobler thing than the body, the less noble parts have not power to affect it after themselves; but the noble part draws over unto herself, and changes those that are not so noble. ... Seest thou that the soul then most of all is poor, when it is rich; and then is rich, when it is in poverty? (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers X:484)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Gunnar Adolfsson, Alf Ahlberg, Elisabeth Beskow, Sven Danell, Henry Daniel-Rops, Uno Myggan Eriksson, Bo Frid, Otto Funcke, Nikolaj Gogol, Carl Grimberg, Dag Hammarskjöld, Dick Harrison, Alf Henrikson, J.P. Jacobsen, Ruth Klüger, Lars Levi Laestadius, Pär Lagerkvist, Sven Lidman, Martin Luther, Vilhelm Moberg, Alfred Nilsson, Anders Nohrborg, Ingegerd Norman, L.C. Retzius, William Shakespeare, Margareta Strömstedt, Jesper Svartvik, Johan Olof Wallin, Fredrik Wislöff, Birgitta Yavari.


Paul said to the believers in Rome: “I wretched man! Who will deliver me out of this body of the death?” (Rom 7:24b)

Paul said to the believers in Corinth: “If we are (such ones) having hoped (and hoping) in Christ in this life only, we are the more/most pitiable of all men.” (1 Cor 15:19)


Greek words:

eleeinos (pitiable) Dan 9:23; 10:11,19; 1 Cor 15:19; Rev 3:17.

talaipôros (wretched) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Tobit 7:6(7); Rom 7:24; Rev 3:17 – Tobit 13:10(12); 2 Macc 4:47; Wisdom of Solomon 3:11.


Additional studies:

Deut 29:2-4; Is 6:9-10; Tobit 1:17; 4:16; Sir 11:18-19; 25:2; Matt 7:2-5; 13:12-15; 19:21-24; Mark 10:23-25; Luke 12:21; 14:12-13; 16:19-25; 18:14,22-25; 21:1-4; Rom 10:12; 2 Cor 8:9; 1 Tim 6:9,17-19; Jas 2:5-6,15-17; 5:1-6; 2 Pet 1:9; Rev 16:15; 17:16.


Stanley E. Porter "Why the Laodiceans Received Lukewarm Water (Revelation 3:15-18"; Tyndale Bulletin 38 (1987): 143-149.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-21; 2012-06-11; 2015-01-29)

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3:18a I give you counsel to buy from the side of Me goldmetal ‘having been (and being) caused to glow’/’having glown (and glowing)’ out of fire, in order that you may be rich.

Word for word (11 words in the Greek text): (i/I)-give-counsel you (to)-buy from-the-side-of me goldmetal having-been-(and-being)-caused-to-glow out-of fire, in-order-that (you)-may-be-rich.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The Lord ‘arranged together’/commanded Moses:) “Every concern which will come through in fire, it will and/also be made clean. Or however/also it will be purified (in) the purification of the water. And all things, as many things - if according to the circumstances – may not be go through, through fire, it will come through, through water. (Num 31:23, Greek OT)

(David said:) “… The word of the Lord (is) powerful, ‘having been (and being) caused to glow’/’having glown (and glowing).” (2 Sam 22:31a, Greek OT)

(Natan said to Bathseba:) “... I shall give you counsel.” (1 Kings 1:12a, Greek OT)

(David said:) “The sayings of the Lord (are) pure sayings (as) silvermetal ‘having been (and being) caused to glow’/’having glown (and glowing)’ (in) a proof (on) the earth, having been (and being) made clean seven times.” (Ps 12:6 or 12:7, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said to the Lord:) “I have welcomed Your commandments over/’more than’ gold.” (Ps 119:127a, Greek OT)

(Solomon said:) “A tongue of a righteous one (is) silver, ‘having been (and being) caused to glow’/’having glown (and glowing)’.” (Prov 10:20a, Greek OT)

(Solomon said:) “From the side of the Lord (is) the help.” (Prov 21:31b, Greek OT)

The ones thirsting, go against/’in quest of’ water and as many as have not silvermetal/money, having advanced, buy and drink without silvermetal/money and honour/price wine and tallow. (Is 55:1, Greek OT)

(Solomon said:) “I have judged/chosen (wisdom) before sceptres and thrones, and I ‘was in command’/meant riches (being) nothing in ‘judgment together’/comparison with her, nor I likened her (with) a dishonoured/invaluable stone, because 'the every'/all gold in her sight (is as) few/’a little’ heap of sand and silver is counted as clay opposite her. (Wisdom of Solomon 7:8-9)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “Have education in company ‘with in’/with a much/great number of silvermetal/’silver money’, and acquire much gold in/with it.” (Sir 51:28)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "The kingdom of the heavens is like a heap/treasure having been (and being) hidden in the field, which having found a man hid. And from/’owing to’ his joy he withdraws and sells all things as many as he has and buys that field. Again the kingdom of the heavens is like * (א,* B) a trader seeking fine pearls, but/and having find one much valuable pearl (and) having gone away he has disposed (and disposes) all things as many as he (continually) had, and he bought it." (Matt 13:44-46)

(The sensible ones said to the foolish ones:) “Go ... towards the ones selling and buy (olive-oil) for yourselves.” (Matt 25:9b)

Having repented (Judas) turned/’brought back’ the thirty silvermetals/’pieces of silver’ to the priest leaders and elders, saying: “Having given ‘to the side of’/over unpunished/innocent blood I have missed (the mark of God).” (Matt 27:3b-4a)

(Jesus said to a certain leader:) “Sell all things as many as you have and give (א,*א,A) (it) over to beggarly ones. … (The leader) became very sorrowful, for he (continually) was extremely rich.” (Luke 18:22b,23b)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) ”Let (now) the one having not (money) sell his garment and buy a dagger.” (Luke 22:36b; cf. the dagger of the Spirit, which is the word of God, see Eph 6:17)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Jesus') disciples had gone (and went) away into/to the city, in order that they might/would buy nourishments/food. … Jesus says to them: “My food is ‘in order that’/that I might make/do the will of the One having sent Me and make His work perfect.” (John 4:8,34)

Caiaphas (continually) was the one who had given the Jews counsel, that it 'carries/brings together'/'is profitable' (to get) one man to die in favour of the people. (John 18:14)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

The mother: "Do you call Ingeborg Fury?" The unknown (man): "Yes, so she is, and as such she is great. Her power of invention in tormenting me surpasses my most infernal ideas, and if I escape living out of her hands, then I come as clean as gold out of fire." (August Strindberg "Till Damaskus II" p 175; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Seize not ... gold, but seize that wealth which showeth gold to be but mud. ... Cast away the things which thou hast already in thy hands; for so long as thou graspest them thou wilt not be able to seize the other. For consider, I pray you, a man with his hands full of silver, will he be able, as long as he retains it, to seize on gold,unless he first cast away the silver, and be free? ... Let us cut asunder the cords, let us strip ourselves of the things of earth. (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers XIV:196-197)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Sven Danell, P. Fjellstedt, Bo Frid, Sven Lidman, Bo Setterlind, Birger Sjöberg, Jesper Svartvik, P. Waldenström, Birgitta Yavari.


My own comments and speculations:

The glowing goldmetal which will be bought is the Word of God.

Observe the allusion in Rev 3:17 (“wretched”) to Ps 12:5(6) (“wretchedness”) and the allusion in Rev 3:18 (“goldmetal having been and being caused to glow”) to Ps 12:6(7) (“silvermetal having been and being caused to glow”).


Greek words:

chrysion (goldmetal) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Rev 3:18 – Tobit 12:8; 13:16(17); Judith 2:18; 5:9; 8:7; 10:21; 1 Macc 1:23; 2:18; 3:41; 4:23; 6:1; 10:60; 11:24; 15:26; 16:19; 2 Macc 3:11; Sir 7:18-19; 8:2; 28:24; 29:11; 30:15; 31:5-6,8; 40:25; 41:12; 45:11; 47:18; 50:9; Baruch 3:17,30; Epistle of Jeremiah v 8-9,23,57; Acts 3:6; 17:29 (P41,P74,א,*א,A); 20:33; 1 Cor 3:12 (א,* א); Heb 9:4; 1 Pet 1:7,18; 3:3; Rev 21:18,21.


Additional studies:

Job 22:25; Ps 66:10; 119:72; Jer 4:30; 6:30; Zech 13:9; Mal 3:3; Wisdom of Solomon 3:6; Sir 2:5; Mark 16:1.


Stanley E. Porter "Why the Laodiceans Received Lukewarm Water (Revelation 3:15-18"; Tyndale Bulletin 38 (1987): 143-149.

G. van den Heever, G. "In purifying fire. World view and 2 Peter 3:10"; Neotestamentica 27.1 (1993): 107-118.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-21; 2012-06-11; 2015-01-30)

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3:18ba ... and white garments, in order that you may wrap up yourself in (them) and (that) the shame of your nakedness may not be made visible.

Word for word (13 words in the Greek text): and garments white in-order-that (you)-may-wrap-up-(yourself)-in and not may-be-made-visible the shame (of)-the (of)-nakedness your.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(When the first men had missed the mark of God) the eyes of the two were opened throughout, and they gained knowledge, that they (continually) were naked. And they sewed leaves of a fig tree and made themselves (clothes) girded (them) around. (Gen 3:7, Greek OT)

(Moses said to Israel: “If you – according to the circumstances – may not listen to the voice of the Lord, your God,) ... you will serve your enemies ... in nakedness.” (Deut 28:48a, Greek OT)

(Solomon said:) “God has already been pleased with your pieces of workmanship. In every seasonable time let your garments stand/be white.” (Eccl 9:7b-8a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) “Behold, I throw/lay in, into the bases of Zion, an expensive stone, a chosen, noble top cornerstone into its bases, and the one believing on/in it will not/certainly not be put to shame.” (Is 28:16b, Greek OT)

(The prophet said to Judas:) “And you, what will you do? If – according to the circumstances – you may wrap yourself in scarlet and adorn yourself with gold adornment, and if you – according to the circumstances – may anoint in your eyes with make-up, your elegance (is) into/in vain.” (Jer 4:30a, Greek OT)

(Daniel said:) “I (continually) looked at ... when thrones were put/’set up’ and an Old of days (continually) was seated, having a wrapper as if (it was) white (Theod) snow and the growth of hair of His head as if (it was) white clean wool. The throne (was) as if (it was) a flame of fire. (Dan 7:9, Greek OT)

(Daniel) heard the one being (and having been) wrapped up in the things of fine linen. (Dan 12:7a, Greek OT)

(The messenger said to the prophet:) “Take off the dirty garments from (the priest leader).” And he spoke towards him: “Behold, I have taken (and take) off your lawlessnesses and set/clothe him in a robe reaching to the feet.” And he put a clean (turban) against, against his head. And he wrapped him up in garments.” (Zech 3:4b-5a, Greek OT)

(Judith said to the Lord: “The ones of other descent) ... denudated a thigh (of the virgin) into/’for the purpose of’ shame.” (Judith 9:2a)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “(The one) who – if according to the circumstances – may be ashamed of Me and My sayings in this generation, the adulteress and a misser (of the mark of God), the Son of the Man will and/also be ashamed of him, when – according to the circumstances - He may come in the glory of His Father in company with the holy messengers.” (Mark 8:38)

(Jesus') garments became glittering, exceedingly white, such as a fuller upon the earth is not able to whiten in this way. (Mark 9:3)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Mariam P66,א,*א) looks at *(א*) messengers in white garments, sitting down whereat the body of Jesus (continually) had lain. (John 20:12a)

Having so heard that/: “It is the Lord” Simon Peter girded himself throughout (with) the outer garment – for he (continually) was naked – and threw himself into the sea. (John 21:7b)

You have few/’a few’ names in Sardis, which have not soiled their garments. And they will walk about in company with Me in white (things), because they are worthy. The one conquering will in this way be wrapped up in white garments. (Rev 3:4-5a, “Sardis”)

You do not know that you are the wretched and pitiable and poor and beggarly and naked. (Rev 3:17b, “Laodicea”)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

Answer me, what is the clothing we shall need (in the judgment) ... when the poor shall be clad with exceeding glory? ... Lend me the eyes of the soul, and I will show you the soul's nakedness. For what is the garment of the soul? Virtue, of course. And what its nakedness? Vice. ... Let us put on the glory of Christ: let us array ourselves with that beauty, that both here we may be praised, and there attain unto eternal good things. (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers XI:167)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Carl Jonas Love Almqvist, Hjalmar Alving, Åke Andrén, Jane Austen, Sven Danell, Emilie Flygare-Carlén, Bo Frid, Nikolaj Gogol, Dag Hammarskjöld, Gunnar Hasselberg, Victor Hugo, Lars Levi Laestadius, Sven Lidman, Hj. Melin, Vilhelm Moberg, Sven Stolpe, Jesper Svartvik, Anton Tjechov, Virginia Woolf, Emile Zola.


Peter said: "It surrounds/stands in a writing: 'Behold, I put/ lay in Zion a stone, a top cornerstone, chosen (and) noble/honoured, and the one believing on/in it will not/certainly not be put to shame.'" (1 Pet 2:6)


Greek words:

aischynê (shame) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Judith 9:2; Rev 3:18 – Judith 13:16; 14:18; 1 Macc 1:28; 2 Macc 5:7; Sir 4:21; 5:14; 20:22,26; 22:3; 25:22; 26:25; 29:14; 41:16; Baruch 1:15; 2:6; The Prayer of Azariah v 10,19; Luke 14:9; 2 Cor 4:2; Phil 3:19; Heb 12:2; Jude v 13.

gymnotês (nakedness) Deut 28:48; Rev 3:18 – Rom 8:35; 2 Cor 11:27.


Additional studies:

Is 47:2-3; 59:6; 61:10; Jer 13:26; Ezek 16:37; Dan 12:2; Micah 1:11; Nahum 3:5; Mark 16:5; Rom 3:22; Rev 4:4; 7:9,13; 11:3; 16:15; 17:4; 18:16; 19:8,13.


Stanley E. Porter "Why the Laodiceans Received Lukewarm Water (Revelation 3:15-18"; Tyndale Bulletin 38 (1987): 143-149.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-21; 2012-06-11; 2015-01-30)

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3:18bb ... and eyesalve to anoint in your eyes in order that you may see.

Word for word (8 words in the Greek text): and eyesalve (to)-anoint the eyes your in-order-that (you)-may-see.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(King Jerobeam said to his wife:) “Go into Shiloh. Behold, Ahijah the prophet (is) there. He talked against me to be king against/over this people. And take into your hand breads/loaves to the man of God and eyesalve to his children.” (1 Kings 14:2b-3a, Greek OT)

(The prophet said to Judas:) “And you, what will you do? If – according to the circumstances – you may wrap yourself in scarlet and adorn yourself with gold adornment, and if you – according to the circumstances – may anoint in your eyes with make-up, your elegance (is) into/in vain.” (Jer 4:30a, Greek OT)

(The messenger said to Tobias:) “Anoint in the gall in (the) eyes of a man ... (with) white things upon them, puff against, against them, upon the white things, and (the eyes) are healthy.” (Tobit 6:9, S)

(The messenger said to Tobias that the eyes of his father would be opened. He said:) "Anoint you so in the gall (of the fish) into his eyes." (Tobit 11:7b-8a, BA)


The Latter Revelation:

Having taken on/’hold of’ the hand of the blind, (Jesus) carried him out of on the outside of the village, and having spit into his looks/eyes (and) having put/laid the hands on him ... He put/laid the hands against, against his eyes and he saw/looked through (him) and he was restored and in a quite manifest way he saw/’fixed his eyes’ in all of them. And He dispatched him away into his house. (Mark 8:23a,25-26a)

The eyes (of the two disciples) (continually) ‘did not get power of the to gain’/’were prevented from gaining’ additional knowledge of (Jesus). (Luke 24:16)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Jesus) spat on the ground and made clay out of the spittle and anointed the clay upon (the blind) against the eyes. And He spoke to him: “Withdraw, wash into the pond of Siloam” – which is interpreted ‘Having been (and being) dispatched away’. He so went away and washed and came seeing. (John 9:6b-7)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: Augustinus, Ivar Bjarne, J.P. Magnusson.


My own comments and speculations:

The eyesalve is given to the children of God (cf. 1 Kings 14:3). Observe the contrast between what man in vain does in Jer 4:30 and what God gives in Rev 3:18.


You have ointment from the Holy One, and 'you know all ones'/'all of you have knowledge'. (1 John 2:20)


Greek words:

engchriô (anoint in) Jer 4:30; Tobit 6:9; Rev 3:18 – Tobit 2:10; 11:8(BA).

kollyrion (eyesalve) 1 Kings 14:3; Rev 3:18 – 1 Kings 12:24h-i.


Additional studies:

Ps 119:18,130; Prov 6:23; John 20:29; Acts 26:18; 2 Cor 4:6; Eph 1:18.


Stanley E. Porter "Why the Laodiceans Received Lukewarm Water (Revelation 3:15-18"; Tyndale Bulletin 38 (1987): 143-149.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-21; 2012-06-11; 2015-01-30)

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3:19a As many as I – if according to the circumstances – am friends with, I convict and educate.

Word for word (7 words in the Greek text): i/I so-many-as if-according-to-the-circumstances (i/I)-am-friends-with (i/I)-convict and (i/I)-educate.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The Lord said to Israel:) “You shall not hate your brother (in) your mind. You shall convict your neighbour (with) a reproof. ... You shall welcome your neighbour as yourself. I am the Lord.” (Lev 19:17a,18b, Greek OT)

(David said to the Lord:) “You may not convict me (in) Your passion but/and not educate me (in) Your wrath.” (Ps 6:1(2); 38:1(2), Greek OT)

(Asaph said to the Lord:) "You 'lifted afterwards'/'set out' a vine out of Egypt. . ... Inspect this vine. ... Let Your hand become/come against a male of Your right hand and against a son of man." (Ps 80:8a,14b,17a or 80:9a,15b,18a, Greek OT; cf. the place of the apostle John i John 13:23)

(The psalmist said:) “Happy a man whom You – according to the circumstances - may educate, Lord, and out of Your law You may teach him.” (Ps 94:12, Greek OT)

(Solomon said to his son:) “Do not regard the education of the Lord lightly but/and being convicted do not be loosened/wearied out by Him, for whom the Lord welcomes He educates.” (Prov 3:11-12a, Greek OT)

(Solomon said to his son:) “A commandment of a law (is) a lamp and a light, and refutation and education a way of life.” (Prov 6:23, Greek OT)

(Judith said to Israel: “Remember) as many things as it became/’came about’ to Jacob ... being a shepherd to the sheep of Laban ... , because entirely as (that) one was not caused to glow into/’for the purpose of’ the pain of (his) heart, and (the Lord) has not procured justice of us, however into/’for the purpose of’ a bringing to mind the Lord whips the ones drawing near Him.” (Judith 8:26b-27)

Educating in company with profit/misfortune (God) does not entirely leave His own people in (a place). (2 Macc 6:16b)

(Solomon said:) “Having been educated (in) few/little things (the righteous ones) will be treated well (in) great things.” (Wisdom of Solomon 3:5a)

(Solomon said:) “You are educated (with) my words, and you will be helped.” (Wisdom of Solomon 6:25)

(Solomon said to the Lord:) “Therefore You convict the ones falling by the side of ‘according to’/’because of’ few/’a few’, and in the ones missing (Your mark) You bring to mind reminding, in order that, having been changed/separated from the bad thing, they may believe against You, Lord.” (Wisdom of Solomon 12:2)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “’According to’/after the much/great mercy (of the Lord) in this way (is) and/also His much/great refutation/conviction.” (Sir 16:12a)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said: “The Lord) convicts and educates and teaches, and as a shepherd He turns Himself next to His little flock.” (Sir 18:13b)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “Convict a friend. Not at any time he has not/perhaps made/done (anything), and if he has made/done anything, not at any time he may ‘put to’/’do it again’.” (Sir 19:13)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “The one fearing the Lord receives education out of (Him).” (Sir 32:14a)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “If your brother – according to the circumstances – may miss (the mark of God) * (א,* א ,B), withdraw and convict him meanwhile/between you and him alone/only. If he – according to the circumstances – may hear you, you have gained your brother.” (Matt 18:15)

Moses was educated in every wisdom of (the) Egyptians. (Acts 7:22a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Jesus said to the Jews:) "It is (and) has been (and is) written in the prophets: 'And all will be taught of/by God.' 'Every the'/everyone having heard from the side of the Father and having learned comes towards Me." (John 6:45)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "I will not let you be left orphan. I come towards you." (John 14:18)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Every (twig) carrying/producing fruit, (My Father) cleans it, in order that it may carry/produce more fruit.”(John 15:2b)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “You are My friends, if – according to the circumstances – you may make/do the things I enjoin you.” (John 15:14)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "When – according to the circumstances – that One, the Spirit of the truth, may come, It will show you the way in * (א*) the truth." (John 16:13a)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “The Father Himself is friends with you, because you have been (and are) friends with Me and have believed (and believe) that I came out from the side of God.” (John 16:27)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

Miss Buck . . . came to apply for the post (as maid). . . . "I hope you like children, miss Buck, of course you do it?" (Lillebror's mother said). "Yes, if they are well brought up", Miss Buck said, and fastened her eyes on Lillebror. And again mother looked like that abashed. "I do not know precisely if Lillebror is so well brought up", she mumbled. "But he will become so", miss Buck said. "Only wait, I have been in charge of children before." . . . (Mother seemed to be) a little hesitant. She caressed Lillebror over his hair saying: "When it concerns him here it usually is best with kindness." "But it does not help always, I have observed", miss Buck said. "Children also need a firm hand." . . . (Miss Buck) decided that she would be called "housekeeper" and not "maid". . . . Father just then came home from the office, and mother presented: "Our housekeeper, miss Buck!" "Our housebuck (in English: longhorned beetle)", Lillebror said. Then he leaped out through the door as fast as he could. After him Bimbo came wildly barking. (Astrid Lindgren "Karlsson på taket flyger igen" p 47-50; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Today (1960), there are more than 2700 million (people on the earth). Now, of the adult portion of this population, about 50 per cent are absolutely illiterate. ... We must invest more of our resources to the qualitative improvement of man. ... What is needed is not merely more technical knowledge. What man today desperately needs is the kind of education that allows him to make a wise use of the techniques he possesses. ... For underdeveloped countries intensive and well organized educational schemes must be quickly developed. Educational assistance has to accompany or even precede technical and economic aid. There is nothing more dangerous than technical knowledge when unaccompanied by respect for human life and human values. ... Urgent action is needed lest the last state turn out to be worse than the first. (Carlo Cipolla "The Economic History of World Population" p 115-117; Quality or quantity?)

Our pedagogical Luther we still wait for. . . . I have in school questions gone over to Calvinistic opinions and think that the children being intended for learning something, they can not even the most bad teacher damage. The others on the contrary no sunshine of grace can effect. Cheer to fatalism, it is very comfortable, my fate is to be a heretic, but if people would judge me for what I believe in, they would have no end of trouble. . . . I have no time more. It is a good deal in my letter being not basic ideas, but, as I have said, I feel it so now. (Selma Lagerlöf "Brev 1 - 1871-1902" s 21-22; letter 1886-09-18 to Emilia Rydberg)

When a child is born in a civilized society, it is born with rights, because the society expects to be allowed to claim obligations from the newborn when the time has come. The child has right to food and elementary education, and the society is to feed and educate the children, whose parents through distress or carelessness are prevented from doing it, for even if the parents are careless fellows the child must not be punished for it. But because life is a stadium, where competition takes place, all should be prepared in the same way at the start. This occurs best in the comprehensive school, compulsary and a single one for all, where the elements are given tuition free. Learn reading, writing and arithmetic are called the keys to all knowledge, for with them one can then oneself learn the rest which are to be bought in the book-shop. The one having money and mind to learn more may do so, but with this any rank or other privileges must not follow than the one that everyone comes in one's place. (August Strindberg "Människans Rättigheter i ett civiliserat och kristet samhälle" p 181; Social-Demokraten 1912-01-22; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Someone was heard utter that "boys sometimes are to have a beating injustly to get used to the injustices of life". . . . He probably did not meant so preposterously, but only suggested that it comes about in this way all throughout one's life. But when everything else advances the public education of course should make progress towards enlightened humanity, and one has really created the office educationalist with the new subject pedagogy. And one probably is allowed to assume, that the ones choosing this career have studied the faculties of the child comparatively, comparing these with the ones of the full-grown, so that a just proportionalism can be applicable to the dealing with minors, and so that crime and penalty are balanced conscientiously and not with the thumb. (August Strindberg "Icke för Skolan utan för Livet" p 167; Afton-Tidningen 1911-06-17; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

In the homes old ideas probably remain, of demands for the absolute; the absolute obedience, the absolute clean fingers which nevertheless have to use less clean things. The first voice I have heard be raised for "Mercy to the children"! I noticed in the last number of "Hälsovännen", being published of the humanitarian and the friend of children, the children's specialist Dr Henrik Berg. He has not written this article himself, but he has let it be printed. (August Strindberg "Andra Tider" p 161-162; Afton-Tidningen 1911-05-27; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Since 1896 I call myself Christian (see Inferno). . . . Only with religion, or the hope of something better, the understanding of the innermost reason of life as a trial period, a school, perhaps a house of correction, it is possible to draw the burden of life with moderate resignation. Realizing the relative worthlessness of the outward vital conditions, when one lives in hope and faith, one receives this moral courage as the goodless one never receives, to give up all, suffer all in order to follow a calling, to speak out when others are silent. (August Strindberg "Tal till svenska nationen" p 15; Religion; Social-Demokraten 1910-07-19; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

When Zachris had become alone in the night after the feast with the death dance his thoughts fell into a new direction. . . . (The boys) could not write or count, they did not know how to behave among men. Their free education perhaps was a mistake, that they had been present in the bacchanals probably was not so wise; that they had been puffed out as geniuses, that they had been allowed to run in the theatre boxes, been interviewed and biographed in the newspapers propably had inspired them too high thoughts about themselves; but what would they become? Higher school examination was demanded to everything, and these ones had not elementary school education. (August Strindberg "Svarta fanor" p 160; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

1904 September 3rd. Life is so terribly unattractive, we men so abysmally evil, that if an authour would describe all what he has seen and heard no one could stand to read it. There are things which I remember I have seen and heard, with good, liked men, entitled to respect, but things which I have scratched out, never having been able to tell, and which I do not want to remember. Education and cultivation only seem to be masks on the animal, and virtue a dissimulation. The highest thing we can reach is to cover the wretchedness. (August Strindberg "Ockulta dagboken" p 211; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Do you each want to give me one Christmas present: a promise from each of You which You try to keep as good as You can. Karin: to not unneccessarily irritate men with presumption and contadictions, and to not oppress (Greta and Hans). Greta: to weigh her words and to not be too sensitive. Hans: to lay restraint upon his hasty temper. You see, if I had been able to all these things, life had been more tolerable for me and you. Life is a difficult thing and must be learnt. I could it not; and I had all Your faults, but also lacked Your merits. It is consequently not any sermon I am right to come with, only a prayer! for Your own sake! And now I wish You A Merry Christmas, also waiting for some lines from Greta and Hans. Keep so peace with one another and others. (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev XII dec 1896-aug 1898" p 228-229; letter 1897-12-04 to the children Karin, Greta and Hans Strindberg; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Read Job's Book! "Oh, happy is the man who God punishes!" This is plain seriousness, and probably means: God cares for him. The others he leaves alone in the wretchedness. And this: "Job drinks humiliations as water." He has understood the intention with the humiliations and is proud of being subject of the attention and shows in good spirits how he can swallow. Jeremiah also is sublime: "Oh, I almost have forgotten what happiness is!" Yes, I have. (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev XI maj 1895-nov 1896" p 289; letter 1896-07-23 to Torsten Hedlund; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

The young generation did not want to obey neither father or mother, still less strange persons. In vain Uffka tried to frighten them with hell. . . . The parents whipped them, but the boys set fire to cottages and haystacks and ran away to the wood. . . . (Lasse) had another method, which he put off as long as possible, because he himself disliked it both because of its being against nature and its inhumanity, since he, you know, as a young man had undergone the same treatment, which memories still haunted for him as the most horrible he had experienced. Every village would have a penitentiary room, where the children under six years old are shut up and every day with half starvation and with whipping by stick get accustomed to slavery, and by year in and year out hear the doctrine of hell and a new moral, which Lasse and Uffka had invented, successively get drummed into themselves the reverence and obedience they were not of nature obliged to give their lords. . . . The ones telling lies best and were most false were called good children and got gingerbread bisquits and honeycombs; the ones speaking truth and who were honest were whipped and without food. With this the foundation was laid to education. (August Strindberg "Svenska öden och äventyr 2" p 93-95; the short story "De lycksaliges ö" from 1890)

When I accepted Bonnier's bid and entered into deletions, I thought it concerned rough words. When I now see that it means to change my true description (Hemsöborna) to a false ideal book for bookkeepers of magazines and for sexless women, I take back the bid, and I authorize you to accept Looström's bid on 2 100 kronor, returning Bonnier 2 000 and keeping 100. This is very simple! Looström has to delete in consultation with me, when I come to Stockholm! By the way he is yet not as insolent as Bonnier and if the family Bonnier wants to educate young men, they have to do it; I am a middle-aged man and do not place myself under such a foul educator as Mr. B. (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev VI aug 1886-jan 1888" p 289-290; 1887-10-29 till Axel Strindberg; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Here (in the children's home) those children now are taken up, whose mothers have been of the lock-out for work. The unweaned children are visited by the mothers twice a day and are fetched in the evening in order to sleep with the mother. . . . At what you most is surprised is that the little ones so quickly have been able to be trained to the habit of to some extent an independent existence with no mother. They weep during the first days, but are soon accustomed to the nurse, and we saw with wonder, how the youngest ones woke up and became lying still without crying in order to be taken up. These babies already had got a valuable experience of life: that one cannot get one's own way in everything and least of all by cries. . . . (The children) are from first while educated for society in stead of living an existence of a child dependent on others, which the permanent hanging to the parents or discomfort creates, which one then cannot remedy in another way than with violent means. They already were tamed for cociety. Already! But it is true, to be sure, we are to be tamed. . . . The children are accustomed to regard one another as brothers and sisters. . . . Corporal punishment was forbidden. Rewards and punishments were distributed by committees, which were chosen by the pupils themselves and from time to time they drew aside in order to as a jury confer and judge the fellows. This is a great step forward in social education. (August Strindberg "Familistären i Guise" p 230-231,235-236; Politiken 1885-11-02 - 1885-11-14; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Isolation is good for a time but is not suitable for a long time! - You must live in a big boarding-house among many foreigners (no Scandinavians!). This is education. And read a foreign newspaper every day! (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev V 1885-juli 1886 s 5-6; letter 1885-01-01 to Verner von Heidenstam; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Are you sure that so-called education is a good thing! It lays our claims to life higher and makes us bad. I do not think to give my children other education than a living language, for they are to become Europeans. Then I must make text-books to them! . . . I do not think we are right to educate our children for our pleasure or our plans. Here terrible times come for a man of culture, for all begin to "simplify" themselves. Luxury men become needless and will be ruined. I think to educate my children bearing their future in mind, not mine. Strong bodies, strong wills, not despise any work! Do you know what abomination your daughter would learn here in Switzerland? Rotten Christian religion all day long; count the legs of fleas and sea urchins; names of oil-painters, three languages (and not know any), methods of calculation which only land-surveyors and railway engineers use; endless registers of kings and queens! And so on! I cannot do my person over again, but with my children I shall begin. (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev IV 1884 p 318; letter 1884-09-05 to the brother Axel Strindberg; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

(Evolution) advances by relapses . . . We can have a relapse, Master Olof, Luther, Darwin, Kant all have had relapses - for we are as individuals miserable and society (this Society of Jesus founded by the upper classes) whips us to relapses, education is like old syphilis, it reopens its wounds when we do not have a feeling of it. (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev IV 1884" p 204; letter 1884-06-09 to Carl Larsson)

I have discovered a printing-worksboy, of whom something can be done! . . . He is an orphanage child, that is without parents; he owns, it is true, foster-parents who certainly want but are not able to help him. . . . He is unusually well-read bearing his years in mind, clever and above all noticing. I cannot omit taking great pleasure in the thought, so to say, of moving over oneself into another to educate a child without being married, to implant one's opinions in a young mind, to be allowed to accompany an evolution, see how the first thankfulness disappears and how the independence claims its due - and so on. The boy should be educated to a free man with youthful opinions . . . and I wish become in stead of father, until further notice, which one may not refuse me. (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev I 1858-1876" p 130-131; letter December 1872 to the fellow student in Upsala the student society of Stockholm Eugène Fahlstedt; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

In the fifties and the sixties of the nineteenth century the knowledge of the faculties of the child might have been very low, for education in school seemed to be not at all for life, scarcely for the school. Parents sent children to school in order to get rid of them; the teachers received them, in order that they could not avoid it, and in order that they of course had to live. Except the school-teaching in separate subjects they were trained to Obedience, Alertness, Attention and Diligence. Disobedience or defiance no nine years old boy dared to put into practice, for "then one became killed". . . . To obey orders is not so easy for a child, if the order is preposterous. . . . What did the nine years old boy learn? . . . Well, he got the early idea that life was a hell and the men, particularly the teachers, were devils, and with this opinion also Swedenborg agrees! (August Strindberg "Icke för Skolan utan för Livet" p 167-168; Afton-Tidningen 1911-06-17; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

It was probably in 1857, or 54 years since I entered (Klara school). . . . In this house full-grown teachers, themselves full of imperfections, demanded the absolutely perfect by imperfect human children. From this Inferno plaintive cries of despair, shame and agony were heard right out to the street and all day long. . . . The lessons were "overread", often examined and approved at home, but there were nine years old children who could not learn lessons. They were so created. And therefore they were maltreated! (August Strindberg "Andra Tider" s 161; Afton-Tidningen 1911-05-27)

(Fritiof's) father died early . . . and then he was left in the hands of a mother, two sisters and some aunts. . . . Unmarried aunt Agata, the older sister of his (mother said that) it was a crime not chastise him. Fritiof did not understand in what the crime consisted, but aunt said that disobedience was a crime. Fritiof objected that they never had forbidden him to play with the children of the farm labourers, and this they neither had, for something like that never was called in question. But aunt maintained . . . (and) birched him. He was eight years old and rather grown-up. (August Strindberg "Giftas II" p 175-176; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

(Mr. Jensson) said pretty kindly to Benoni who now had quit his meal: "Tomorrow, Strand, you are to begin your school-attendance. You present yourself in the office tomorrow morning at nine o'clock sharp. Then I give you a testimonial, which affords you free teaching in the lancaster school, when you show it to schoolmaster Blomertz." . . . (During a lesson in Benoni Strand's first forenoon in the lancaster school) he walked dashingly up to schoolmaster Blomertz, unfolded his one sweater sleeve, stuck the one in this way exposed arm under the nose of the schoolmaster showing him the purple marks, which (the pupil) Lindholm's nails had caused in his flesh. "Here the schoolmaster can see, how he has pinched me, it was because of this I beat him. . . . Is it not a shame, Mr. schoolmaster, that a larger boy attacks a smaller? This is not brave, is it? It does not fit a Swede, does it? Karl XII did not do so. He beat with 8,000 Swedes 80,000 Russians at Narva . . . " "H'm", Blomertz said. He was quite discomposed by the little talker. "How do you know this?" "I have read it in history. And at Bender Karl XII beat . . . " "Yes, but then you can of course read from the book?" "This I learnt many years ago by my mother, although that Lindholm does not think, that I recognize Z . . . " "Yes, but then you can of course take your place in the fifth class", schoolmaster Blomertz exclaimed with a face getting light. . . . "Now go and place yourself in the fifth class." "Do they read Latin in the fifth class?" Benoni asked. "I have read till 'anno' in the Latin grammar." "Have you read Latin?" Blomertz put in, pleasantly surprised. "Then decline 'mensa' to the test." Benoni declined faultlessly and fluently. "Benoni Strand", Blomertz said patting him on the head, you certainly is too little to bear the truncheon of the overmonitors and neither you know the method of mutual instruction, nevertheless I do not regard this prevents that you today take your place in the upper eighth class, that is among the big boys in the circle here beside the teacher's desk. In the evening after the end of the reading-hour I want to speak more with you." With eyes sparkling with satisfaction Benoni marched to the one to him assigned place of honour. All the gentlemen overmonitors, to not speak of the rest of the numerous spectators, were very surprised at this sudden change in the fate of the newcomer. Just he was on his way to the low circle of the abcdians . . . (now he was) heightened to the indescribable glory of the upper eighth class. (Viktor Rydberg "Benoni Strand" p 174,183-185; the Lancashire school in Jönköping year 1839?; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

(Karl-Artur) had to admit that no man could have a better way with children than his wife. Just once he never saw, that he caressed them, and neither she beat them, but quarrel she could do with a will. . . . How she appeared did not matter, the little children found her always in the same way attractive. . . . The youngest child (liked Karl-Artur very much). She crept up in his knee. . . . She did not know that she had dirty fingers and a snotty nose. She could not understand why she quite ungently was sat down on the floor. So she began to yell. But then you would have seen the wife. She came running as a storm, took up the child and joined it close to her like to defend it against an enemy. (Selma Lagerlöf "Anna Svärd" p 134-135; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Since God is good, He corrects us, that we may be admonished by His holy chastisement. (Clement of Rome to the Corinthians, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol I, p 20)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Yngva Adell, Alf Ahlberg, Lars Ahlberg, Friedrich Ahlfeld, Inga Britt Allemark, Ewert Amnefors, Axel Andersson, Roger Andersson, Johann Arndt, Philip Assarsson, Augustinus, Laura A. Barter Snow, UllaBritt Berglund, Ingmar Bergman, Carin Bergström, Elisabeth Beskow, Elsa Beskow, Oloph Bexell, Hjalmar Bjurulf, Manfred Björkquist, Harry Blomberg, Axel Blomqvist, John Blomqvist, Enid Blyton, August Bondeson, Yngve Brilioth, Ingmar Brohed, Colin Brown, Ingrid Böhn-Jullander, Barthold Carlson, Anethe Carlsson, Carl Cederblad, Charlotte Christensen-Nugues, Winston Churchill, Charles Dickens, Henrik Elmgren, David Estborn, Horatia Ewing, Gunnar Fjellestad, J. Fjellstedt, Doris Florin, Emilia Fogelklou, Adolphine Fogtmann, Axel Forsström, A.P. Franklin, Elisabeth Fransson Malm, Emil Frommel, Arvid Gierow, Nikolaj Gogol, Röl Gording, Carl Grimberg, Jan Guillou, Axia Gustafsson, Lennart Gustavsson, Stig Hadenius, J.G. Hazén, David Hedegård, Eric Hedenblad, Hjalmar Hedfors, Alf Henrikson, Erik Herneby, Ingrid Hesslander, Ludvig Holberg, Erik Holmberg, Torsten Husén, Fritz Hägg, Herbert Johansson, Eskil Jonsson, Ragnar Josephson, Ragnar Järhult, Aleksis Kivi, Lars Levi Laestadius, Sven Lagerbring, John Landquist, Hans Larsson, Karl Larsson, Lars-Olof Larsson, Amy Le Feuvre, U. Leander, Märta Leijon, Anna Maria Lenngren, Sam Lidman, Sven Lidman, Sigurd Lindgren, Daniel Lindmark, Ingeborg Lindqvist, Sven Ljungberg, Gustaf Ljunggren, Anna Lorentz, C.F. Lundström, Martin Luther, Bo Lönnqvist, D.L. Moody, Fabian Månsson, Fredrik Nielsen, Elvy Nilbratt, Sigurd Ohlsson, Bror Olsson, Ragnar Olsson, Christopher O'Regan, Peter Oscarsson, J.G. Oxenstierna, Karl Palmberg, Efraim Palmqvist, Jessica Parland-von Essen, Lewi Pethrus, Olaus Petri, Hilding Pleijel, Nina Pleijel, Laurence Rees, Sigrid Rosell, Abraham Rundbäck, Eva Rydberg, Göran Sahlberg, Martha Sandwall-Bergström, Torgny Segerstedt, Reinhold Simmergren, Harry Sjöman, Olof Sjöstrand, Birgit Th Sparre, Benjamin Spock, Andreas Spole, Hesba Stretton, Ernst Söderlund, Rabindranath Tagore, Ragnar Thoursie, Thomas a Kempis, Anton Tjechov, Leo Tolstoj, Stig Tornehed, Fanny Tuxen, Sigrid Undset, Bo V:son Lundqvist, P. Waldenström, Gunnel Weidel Randver, Åke Whilney, Peter Wieselgren, Ernst Wigforss, Gun Wilstadius, Thecla Wrangel, Emile Zola, Göran Åberg, Anna Ölander.


Greek words:

paideuô (educate) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) 2 Macc 6:16; Wisdom of Solomon 3:5; 6:25; Sir 18:13; Acts 7:22; Rev 3:19 – 2 Macc 10:4; Wisdom of Solomon 6:11; 11:9; 12:22; Sir 6:32; 7:23; 10:1; 21:12,23; 23:15; 26:14; 30:2,13; 37:23; 40:29; 42:8; Luke 23:16,22; Acts 22:3; 1 Cor 11:32; 2 Cor 6:9; 1 Tim 1:20; 2 Tim 2:25; Tit 2:12; Heb 12:6-7,10.


Additional studies:

Gen 21:22-25; Lev 26:18; Deut 10:15; Job 5:17; Ps 118:18; 141:5; Wisdom of Solomon 11:26-12:1; Sir 30:1-3; 1 Tim 5:20; 2 Tim 4:2.


D.J. Lull "'The Law Was Our Pedagogue.' A Study in Galatians 3:19-25"; Journal of Biblical Literature 105 (1986): 425-440.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-21; 2012-06-11; 2015-01-30)

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3:19b So be zealous and change your mind.

Word for word (4 words in the Greek text): be-zealous so and change-your-mind.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said: “The ones changing) their minds (the Lord) gave a way up.” (Sir 17:24a)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “I was zealous for the good, and I may not/certainly not be ‘put a shame to’/ashamed.” (Sir 51:18b)

Eliah was taken up into the heaven in/by the thing to be zealous to zeal of a law. (1 Macc 2:58)


The Latter Revelation:

Simon, the one being called Zealot (was one of the disciples). (Luke 6:15b)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “If – according to the circumstances – your brother may miss (the mark of God), 'honour on'/blame him, and if – according to the circumstances – he may change his mind, let him be. And if – according to the circumstances – he may miss (the mark of God) into/against you seven times ‘of the’/a day, and he seven times may turn himself next to, towards you saying ‘I change my mind’, you will let him be.” (Luke 17:3b-4)

(The two disciples) spoke towards one another: "Was by no means our heart/hearts (continually) burning in us as/while (Jesus) (continually) talked (with) us in/on the way, as/while He (continually) opened the writings throughout to us?" (Luke 24:32)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

To the ones selling pigeons (Jesus) spoke: "Lift/take away these things from here! Do not make the house of My Father a house of a trading-place." His disciples remembered that it has been (and is) written: "Zeal of/for Your house will eat me down/up." (John 2:16-17)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "Yet a small/little (while) and the adornment/’adorned world’ no longer looks at Me. But you look at Me, because I live, and you will live ‘(middle voice)’/’with engagement’ (P66,א,*א,A)."

Recollect so from where you have fallen (and fall) and change your mind and make/do the first works. (Rev 2:5a, “Ephesos”)

Change your mind * (א,*א). (Rev 2:16a, “Pergamos”)

Behold, I call (א*) her into a bed and the ones committing adultery in company with her into a great oppression, if – according to the circumstances – they will (א,* א, A) not change their minds ‘out of’/’away from’ her works. (Rev 2:22, “Thyatira”)

Recollect * (א,*א) how you have taken (and take) and (how you) heard and keep (it) and change your mind. If you so – according to the circumstances – may not change your mind (א*), I will arrive against you (א,*א) as a thief, and you will (א,*א) not/certainly not have knowledge of what kind hour I will arrive against you. (Rev 3:3, “Sardis”)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

You can think that it is a contrast between this wildly romantic venture to move to Jerusalem and the wise and sensible farmers, who do not lose their balance for anything. I think I never have met finer and better people, so that I hope I shall be able to win them love and sympathy of men. . . . . . . You ought to see Jerusalem. I would grudge you to stand on the old temple place, it is so beautiful and grand, that one at once believes all being told about the glory of the temple and the greatness of the little people. And so Jerusalem, where the air is so hot of religion, where all men have experienced miracles, where the most calm men become fanatical, out of their senses during the struggle between all the varying sects. It is no pleasant city, but it is still remarkable to come across a whole society of fanatics. . (Selma Lagerlöf "Brev 1 - 1871-1902" p 237,269-270; letters 1901-04-12 to Elisabeth Grundtvig and 1902-06-15 to Georg Brandes; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Arvid Almquist, Carl Jonas Love Almqvist, Margit Assarsson, Thorwald Bergquist, Nils Bolander, Per G. Ekström, Björne Erixon, Emilia Fogelklou, Mauritz Gagnerud, Einar Genitz, Michael Harper, John Hedlund, Siv Henningson, Alf Henrikson, Ulla Isaksson, Lars Levi Laestadius, Sylvia Leijon, Erik Lindorm, Peter Lodenius, Harald Lundberg, Martin Luther, Vilhelm Moberg, Gabriel Mützenberg, Fredrik Nielsen, Tore Nilsson, Lewi Pethrus, Anna Maria Roos, Seymor Rossel, Viktor Rydberg, John Samuelson, Gudmund Leonard Silfverstolpe, Tage Sjöberg, Sven Stolpe, Sven Svensson, Anton Tjechov, John Westlin, Woodrow Wilson, Carl Fr. Wislöff.


Peter said: “Before all things having the zealous welcome into yourselves, because welcome will (P72,א,*א) veil a multitude of misses (of the mark of God). (Be) hospitable to friends into/’for the purpose of’ one another without grumbling.” (1 Pet 4:8-9)


Greek words:

zêloô (be zealous) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Sir 51:18; 1 Macc 2:58; Rev 3:19 – Judith 9:4; 1 Macc 2:24,27; 2 Macc 4:16; Wisdom of Solomon 1:12; Sir 9:11; 37:10; 45:18,23; Acts 7:9; 17:5; 1 Cor 12:31; 13:4; 14:1,39; 2 Cor 11:2; Gal 4:17-18; Jas 4:2.


Additional studies: Ps 69:9(10); Acts 1:13; 22:3; Rom 10:2; 2 Cor 9:2; Tit 2:14; 1 Pet 3:13.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-21; 2012-06-11; 2015-01-31)

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3:20 Behold, I stand against the door, and I knock. If – according to the circumstances – anyone may hear My voice, I will (א,* א) and/both open the door and come into/in towards him, and I will take the chief meal in company with him and he in company with Me.

Word for word (29 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus): Behold (i/I)-stand-(and-have-stood)'/stand against the door and (i/I)-knock. if-according-to-the-circumstances anyone may-hear the voice my and (i/I)-will-open the door, and (i/I)-will-come-into towards him and (i/I)-will-take-the-chief-meal in-company-with him and he in-company-with me.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

The Lord God shut His chest/ark from outside. (Gen 7:16b, Greek OT)

(Moses said to Israel: "The Lord will) cause you to stand up (as) a holy people to Himself, ‘which turn’/as He has sworn your fathers, if – according to the circumstances – you may listen to the voice of the Lord your God, and go in His ways." (Deut 28:9, Greek OT)

(David said to the Lord:) “You made a table ready in the very eyes of me.” (Ps 23:5a, Greek OT)

(David said:) “Taste and behold that the Lord (is) beneficial.” (Ps 34:8a or 34:9a, Greek OT)

(The welcomed of Solomon said:) “I sleep entirely/soundly, and/but my heart is sleepless. A voice of my nephew/loved. He knocks against the door. (He says:) “Open to me, my sister/loved!” … (She says:) “I opened to my nephew/loved, (but) my nephew/loved had ‘come by the side of’/passed.” (Song of Solomon 5:2a,6a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) "If - according to the circumstances - you may want and may listen to Me, you will eat the good things of the earth." (Is 1:19, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) “I will give the key of the house of David on (Eliakim's) shoulder, and he will open, and it/there is not (anyone) shutting up, and he will shut up, and it/there is not (anyone) opening.” (Is 22:22, א*)

(The Lord said:) "'In order'/'for the purpose' of what do you honour silvermetal and do not (honour) your toil into satiation/'what satiates'? Hear Me and eat good things, and your soul will revel in good things. Give heed (with) your ear lobes and follow on My ways. 'Hear upon'/'listen to' Me, and your soul will live in good things. And I shall put asunder/'in order' (with) you an agelong covenant." (Is 55:2-3a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said about the people of the new Jerusalem:) “It will be, before 'to shout (and to have shouted) them'/'they will shout (and have shouted)', I shall hear upon/’with regard to’ them.” (Is 65:24b; Greek OT)

(The Lord said to the prophet about Judas:) “Behold, … I will make visible/known to them to listen to (Me), and I will be a physician to her, and I will make peace and faith (with) them. (Jer 33:6, Greek OT)

When (the guests) had bathed and washed themselves and 'fallen up'/'lain back' to take the chief meal, Tobias spoke to Raphael: “Brother Azariah, speak to Raguel in that way that he may give me my sister Sarah (to wife).” And Raguel heard the saying and spoke to the boy: “Eat and drink and become gladly/glad this night.” (Tobit 7:9-10a, S)

Bagonas came into (the tent) and knocked (against the inner door) of the tent, for he conjectured that (Holophernes) sleep/slept entirely/soundly in company with Judith. But as no one ‘heard on’/’listened to’ (it), having 'dispatched throughout'/opened he came into, into the bed-chamber and found (Holophernes) ... (being a) dead (body). (Judith 14:14-15a)

(Solomon said:) “The Wisdom opened the mouth of dumb ones.” (Wisdom of Solomon 10:21a)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “Where (the wisdom) goes in, the Lord blesses.” (Sir 4:13b)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “When you – according to the circumstances – may pray, come/go into, into your storehouse and having shut your door pray to your Father, 'the One'/who (is) in the hidden, and your Father, the One seeing in the hidden will give you back.” (Matt 6:6)

(The “leader of a hundred men” said to Jesus:) “Lord, I am not fit, in order that you may come into/in underneath my roof. However only speak a saying, and my boy will be healed." (Matt 8:8b)

(Jesus said to the crowds:) ”The one having ears to hear (א,* א), let him hear.” (Matt 11:15)

(The voice said:) “This is My welcomed Son in/with whom I am pleased. Hear Him.” (Matt 17:5b)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “When you – according to the circumstances – may behold all these things, you have knowledge that (the Son of the Man) is near 'on doors'/'at the doors'.” (Matt 24:33b)

(Jesus said:) “Ephphatha!” which is “Be opened altogether!” (Mark 7:34b)

(Jesus said to His disciples: “Someone says to a friend standing outside his house:) ‘The door already is (and has been) shut. ... I am not able to, having stood up, give you (the bread you want).’ I say to you: ‘If and/also he, having stood up, will not give him because of the thing to be his friend, he will at any rate, having been risen, give him because of his shamelessness/’shameless persistence’ as many things as he needs.’ And I say to you: ‘Demand and it will be given you; seek and you will find; knock and it will be opened to you.” (Luke 11:7b-9)

(The Lord said to His disciples: “Be) like men ‘receiving towards’/welcoming their lord, when he may 'loosen up'/’set out’ ‘out of’/from the wedding banquets in order that, having come and knocked, they may straightaway open to him. Happy (are) those slaves whom, on (their) lord's having come, he will find being awake. Amen I say to you, that he will gird himself around and cause them to ‘lean back’/’lay down (at table)’. * (א*).” (Luke 12:36b-37)

(Jesus said:) “From (the time in) which the master of the house – according to the circumstances – may have risen and shut up the door, you may begin * (א*) to knock at the door, saying: ‘Lord, open to us.’ And ‘having answered’/’he will answer and’ speak to you: ‘I do not know you, from where you are.’ … (But men) will arrive from upstickings/east and settings/west and * (א,*א,A) north wind/north and south wind/south and lean up/back in the kingdom of God.” (Luke 13:25,29)

Having stood up (the son) came towards his father. But on his still holding far off, his father beheld him and was moved in his inward vital parts. And having run he 'fell against, against'/embraced his neck and 'was entirely friends with'/'kissed ... tenderly' him. The (younger) son spoke to (his father): "Father, I have missed (the mark of God) into/'with the purpose of' the heaven and in the very eyes of you. I am not any longer worthy to be called your son. ... (The father said to his slaves): "Carry the fattened young bull (and) sacrifice (it) and having eaten we may be cheerful, bgecause this my son (continually) was (a) dead (body) and/but has 'lived up'/'returned to life'. He (continually) was (and had been) perished and was found." And they began to be cheerful. (Luke 15:20-24)

As (Jesus) came against/’up to’ the place, having seen up (He) spoke towards (Zaccheus): “Zaccheus, 'having hasted'/'haste and' descend, for today I must stay in your house.” And having/he hasted and descended and received him underneath/familiarly rejoicing. (Luke 19:5-6)

(Jesus took) the cup after the thing to take/'have taken' the chief meal. (Luke 22:20a)

On Peter's still talking these words the Holy Spirit fell against, against all the ones hearing the saying. (Acts 10:44)

Having knocked (against) the door of the gateway a young girl came before/forth (א,*א). ... And having gained additional knowledge of the voice of Peter (the young girl) did not open the gateway from/’owing to’ the joy. (Acts 12:13a,14a)

(God) had opened a door of faith to the nations. (Acts 14:27b)

A certain woman (with) name Lydia ... (was from) a city of Thyatira. ... She (continually) heard (so that) the Lord opened (her) heart throughout. (Acts 16:14a)

Having heard (the disciples in Ephesos) were baptized into the name of the Lord Jesus. And on Paul's having put/laid hands/’his hands’ on them, the Holy Spirit came against them. (Continually) they both talked (with) tongues and prophesied. (Acts 19:5-6)

(Paul said to the Jews in Rome:) “Let it so be known to you, that this means of saving of God has been dispatched away to the nations; they themselves will and/also hear.” (Acts 28:28)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

The third day it became a wedding banquet in Cana of Galilee and the mother of Jesus (continually) was there. But Jesus and/also was called and His disciples into the wedding banquet. (John 2:1-2)

The one having the bride is bridegroom, but the friend of the bridegroom standing and hearing him, rejoices (with) joy because of the voice of the bridegroom. (John 3:29)

The woman, the Samaritan woman, * (א*) says to Him: “How (is it that) You, being a Jew, demand to drink from the side of me, being a woman, a Samaritan woman?” * (א*). Jesus answered and spoke to her: “If you knew the benefit of God and who the One is saying to you: ‘Give me to drink’, you had – according to the circumstances - demanded/asked Him and He had – according to the circumstances – given you living water.” (John 4:9-10)

(Jesus said to the Jews:) “Amen, amen I say to you, that the one hearing My saying and believing (in) the One having sent Me has agelong life and does not come into judgment, however/but has stepped (and steps) over out of the death into the life. Amen, amen, I say to you, that an hour comes * (א*), when the dead (bodies) may (P66, א,* א) hear the voice of the Son of God, and * (P66, א*) having heard they will live.” (John 5:24-25)

(Jesus said:) “The one being out of God hears the words of God.” (John 8:47a)

(Jesus said to the Pharisees:) “The one coming into/in through the door is a shepherd of the sheep. To this one the doorkeeper opens, and the sheep hear his voice, and he raises his voice (towards) his own sheep ‘according to name’/’after their names’, and he leads them out. … I am the door. If – according to the circumstances – anyone may come into/in through Me, he will be saved and he will come into/in and come out and find pasture.” (John 10:2-3,9)

(Jesus said to the Jews:) "My sheep hear My voice, and I have knowledge of them, and they follow Me." (John 10:27)

So ‘before six days of’/’six/seven days before’ the ‘paschal lamb’/Passover Jesus came into Bethany, whereat Lazarus (continually) was, whom Jesus had raised out of dead (bodies). They so made to Him a chief meal there. (John 12:1-2a)

Jesus answered and spoke to (Judas - not Iscariot): “If – according to the circumstances – anyone may welcome Me, he will keep My saying, and My Father will welcome him, and We will come towards him and make an abode by the side of him.” (John 14:23)

(Jesus said to Pilate:) “'Every the'/everyone being out of the truth hears My voice.” (John 18:37b)

Being so evening to that one/first day of sabbaths and the doors being (and having been) shut whereat the disciples (continually) were because of the fear of (or: for) the Jews, Jesus came and stood into the middle, and He says to them: “Peace to you.” (John 20:19)

Behold, He comes in company with the clouds. (Rev 1:7a)

(This is what the True One, the Holy One, says, the One) ... having the key of David, the One opening and no one will shut, and (the One) shutting and no one will (א,*א) open. I know your works. Behold, I have given (and give) a door having been (and being) opened in the very eyes of you, which no one is able to shut * (א,*א). (Rev 3:7b-8a, “Philadelphia”)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 - about 1500

The tradition says that the citizens of Sodom, though so wealthy that their streets were paved with gold, did not show hospitality to strangers. They would punish anyone who shared food with a stranger and even checked their trees to make sure the birds had not eaten from them. (Michael E. Williams “Genesis” p 102; Plaut p 135)

Feuillet finds a parallel in Song of songs 5:2 where the lover invites his bride into the garden to dine with him and in the synoptic texts where the Lord is said to be near, e.g. Mark 13:29, Matt 24:33, Luke 12:36. (J. Massyngberde Ford "Revelation" p 422)

I have thought out your career as an artiste. Do You want to hear my thoughts? Do You want to have a door-key stepping straight into my room without knocking in a time You decide. Here is equally lonesome, a little more beautiful, for I have adorned for You, Your white night-dress is washed hanging shining as snow beside a pair white shoes. (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev XV april 1904-april 1907" p 102; letter 1905-01-20 to Harriet Bosse; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

One can't help feeling sorry for (the wife)! . . . She had sat in the darkness with her hands before her eyes; but when she now looked up - the whole hall, the whole flat was illuminated; the table was laid with Christmas tree and Christmas presents; a merry rattle was heard from the kitchen with the fresh soughing from the tap of the water main; a light warm hand stroke along her cold cheek; and she heard a well-known voice whisper as a summer wind in the flowers of the wooded hillside: - My beloved! (August Strindberg "Pintorpa-fruns julafton" p 216; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

There you consequently stand, on the way to Christ. . . . Good luck! As much luck as one can expect. If we only could get enlighenment and certainty, it would be easier to respond to the voice being the truth. (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev XII dec 1896-aug 1898" p 259-260; letter 1898-01-31 to Axel Herrlin; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


about 1500 and time before

Deep in the Christian time among Scandinavians the idea lived that their heathen fathers believed in the existence of an Eden, from which sorrow, pain, defects, old age, illness and death were shut out. This Eden was called . . . "Not field of dead ones . . . earth of living men". It was situated not in heaven, but down there, neither on the surface of the earth, nor in the nether world, but separated from the built-up countries of men in a way, which did it not impossible, but nevertheless extremely venturesome to come there. A fairy-tale from the fourteenth century, taken up in the Flatö-book, and with some corrections in "Fornald. Sag. III", tells: Erik, the son of a Norwegian king of a little country, one Christmas Eve gave the promise to visit Odains-aker, and this rumour became known over all Norway. In company with a Danish prince, who also was called Erik, they set off. . . . At a distance they saw a tower. In that direction they continued to go, and they found, when they had come nearer, that the tower stood free in the air without foundation or posts. A ladder brought up to it. In the tower there was a room, arrayed with velvet, and there was a beautiful table with delicious dishes on silver plates and wine in golden drinking-vessels. There also were excellently made beds. The two men now were convinced that they had come to Odains-aker and they thanked God that they had achieved their goal. They refreshed themselves and went to sleep. In the sleep a beautiful boy came to Erik. The boy mentioned him by name, said himself be one of the angels watching the gate-way of Paradise, and also Erik's guardian angel, who was at his side, when he gave the promise to seek out Odains-aker. . . . The angel informed him that Odains-aker . . . where he now stayed was not the same place as Paradise, for to this only spirits are allowed to come, and this is the kingdom of spirits, Paradise, so glorious, that Odains-aker, in comparison with it, is as a waste. Nevertheless these two different districts border next to each other, and the river, which Erik had seen, has in Paradise its spring. (Viktor Rydberg "Mythen om underjorden" p 235-237; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

The most joyous of all sacrifices was the peace-offering, or, as from its derivation it might also be rendered, the offering of completion. This was indeed, a season of happy fellowship with the Covenant God, in which He condescended to become Israel's Guest at the sacrificial meal, even as He was always their Host. Thus it symbolised the spiritual truth expressed in Rev. iii. 20. (Alfred Edersheim “The Temple” p 134)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Ingegerd Ahlin, Karin Alvtegen, Ann-Charlotte Alverfors, Jane Austen, Erik Beijer, Elisabeth Beskow, Marcus Birro, Nils Bolander, Martin Buber, Chas. E. Cowman, Stig Dagerman, Sven Danell, Charles Dickens, Carl Anders Dymling, Ruth Etchells, Hilding Fagerberg, Bo Frid, O. Hallesby, Dag Hammarskjöld, Fredrik Hammarsten, Göran Janzon, Lasse Johansson-Lucidor, Susanne Järved, Adolf Kloo, Hans Larsson, Sven Lidman, Lars Lindberg, C.F. Lundström, Martin Luther, Margareta Malmgren, Verner Malmsten, Vilhelm Moberg, Alice Munro, Mamoru Nakamura, Anders Nohrborg, Eric Nordin, Eugene O'Neill, John Ortberg, Karl Palmberg, Boris Pasternak, Lewi Pethrus, Ellery Queen j:r, Viola Renvall, Allan Rydén, Nelly Sachs, Ragnar Samuelson, Gösta Sandberg, Bo Setterlind, John Sjögren, Erik Sonesson, John Stott, Jesper Svartvik, Helmut Thielicke, Thomas a Kempis, Kerry Usher, P. Waldenström, Wallström, Camilla, Wallström, Christer, Carl Fr. Wislöff, Fredrik Wislöff, Per-Olof Öhrn.


My own comments and speculations:

In Song of Solomon 5:2 the son of David stands at the door and knock. In Luke 13:25 it is the Lord who shuts and opens the door. So in the light of both the OT and the NT, Jesus, the Son of David and the Lord, is the One who both knocks at and opens the door to anyone who hears His voice.


Paul said to the believers in Galatia: “Only this I want to learn from you; did you take the Spirit out/’on the basis’ of works of a law or out/’on the basis’ of a hearsay of a faith?” (Gal 3:2)

But if we – according to the circumstances – may walk about in the light, as He is in the light, we have communion in company with one another, and the blood of Jesus, His Son, makes us clean from every miss (of the mark of God). (1 John 1:7)


Greek words:

deipneô (take the chief meal) Tobit 7:9(S); Luke 22:20; Rev 3:20 – Prov 23:1; Dan 11:27; Tobit 8:1; Luke 17:8; 1 Cor 11:25.

krouô (knock) Song of Solomon 5:2, Judith 14:14; Luke 11:9; 12:36; 13:25; Acts 12:13; Rev 3:20 – Judges 19:22; Matt 7:7-8; Luke 11:10; Acts 12:16.


Additional studies:

Prov 8:3,34; Judith 13:11-13; Wisdom of Solomon 6:14; Bel and the Dragon v 14-22; Matt 26:29; Mark 13:29; Luke 14:16; 22:19-20,30; John 14:21; 20:26; 1 Cor 11:23-25; Jas 5:9; Rev 2:5,16,25; 3:12.


Robert L. Thomas "The 'Comings' of Christ in Revelation 2-3"; The Master's Seminary Journal 7.2 (Fall 1996): 153-181.

Timothy Wiarda "Revelation 3:20: Imagery and Literary Context"; Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 38.2 (June 1995): 203-212.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-22; 2012-06-12; 2015-01-31)

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3:21 The one conquering, I will give him to sit down in company with Me in/at My throne, as and/also I conquered and sat down in company with My Father in/at His throne.

Word for word (24 words in the Greek text): The-(one) conquering (i/I)-will-give (to)-him (to)-sit-down in-company-with me in the throne my, as and-i/I conquered and sat-down in-company-with the father my in the throne his.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The Lord said:) “The house and the kingdom (of David) will be made faithful till a (coming) age in the very eyes of Me, and his throne will be 'being set up upright'/restored into the (coming) age.” (2 Sam 7:16, Greek OT)

(David said to God:) “You may conquer in 'the thing to be judged Yourself'/'Your judging'.” (Ps 51:4b or 51:6b, Greek OT)

(David said:) “The Lord spoke to my Lord: ‘Be seated ‘out of’/at My right (parts), till I – according to the circumstances – may put Your enemies a footstool of Your feet.’” (Ps 110:1, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to David:) “If – according to the circumstances - your sons may watch/keep My covenant and these My evidences, which I will teach them, their sons and/also will sit down upon your throne till the age.” (Ps 132:12, Greek OT)

(Daniel said:) “I (continually) looked at ... when thrones were put/’set up’ and an Old of days (continually) was seated, having a wrapper as if (it was) white (Theod) snow and the growth of hair of His head as if (it was) white clean wool. The throne (was) as if (it was) a flame of fire. (Dan 7:9, Greek OT)

The king made (Jonathan) sit down in company with him. (1 Macc 10:63a)


The Latter Revelation:

(The Lord said:) “A reed having been (and being) crushed (My boy) will not break down/off, and a smouldering linen/wick He will not quench, till He – according to the circumstances – may throw/bring out the judgment into conquesting/conquest.” (Matt 12:20)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “When the Son of the Man – according to the circumstances – may come in His glory, and all the messengers in company with Him, then He will sit down upon His throne of glory. (Matt 25:31)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “You are the ones having stayed (and staying) throughout/on in company with Me in My tests, and I put asunder/’in order’ to you, entirely as My Father has put asunder/’in order’ a kingdom to Me, in order that you may eat and drink upon/’with regard to’ My table in My kingdom, and you will be seated upon thrones judging the twelve tribes of Israel.” (Luke 22:28-30)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Because of this I have spoken (and speak) to you, because no one is able to come towards Me, if – according to the circumstances – it may not have been (and is) given him out of the Father.” (John 6:65)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) ”These things I have talked (and talk) (with) you, in order that you may have peace in Me. In the adornment/’adorned world’ you have oppression. However, be confident. I have conquered (and conquer) the adornment/’adorned world’.” (John 16:33)

Joybringing (grace) (with) you and peace from the One who is and the One who (continually) was and the One who comes and from the seven spirits * (א,* א, A) ‘in the very eyes of’/before His throne. (Rev 1:4b)

To the one conquering * (א,* א) I will give to eat out of the wood of the life, which is in the ‘place by the side of apprehension’/Paradise of God. (Rev 2:7b, “Ephesos”)

The one conquering may not/certainly not be treated unrighteously ‘out of’/’in consequence of’ the second death. (Rev 2:11b, “Smyrna”)

... To the one conquering * (א,* א) I will give out of (א,* א) the manna having been (and being) hidden. (Rev 2:17a, “Pergamos”)

The one conquering and the one keeping My works until (the) end, to him I will give (judicial) authority upon/’with regard to’ the nations. (Rev 2:26, “Thyatira”)

He who conquers shall in this way be wrapped up in white garments. (Rev 3:5a, “Sardis”)

The one conquering, (to) him (א*) I will make a pillar (in) (א*) the temple of My God, and it may not/certainly not come out outside * (א,* א). (Rev 3:12a, “Philadelphia”)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

Thou shalt be a companion of the Deity and a co-heir with Christ, no longer enslaved by lusts and passions and never again wasted by disease. For You have become God, for whatever sufferings thou didst undergo while being a man, these He gave to thee, because thou wast of mortal mould, but whatever it is consistent with God to impart, these God has promised to bestow upon thee, because You have been deified and begotten unto immortality. (Hippolytus “The refutation of all heresies”, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol V, p 153)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: A. Ohldén, Isaac Basjevis Singer.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “The one conquering”, see Rev 2:7b. In each of the (assemblies) of called out The one conquering receive a special promise from the Lord. An Israelite/Christian truly (cf. Gen 32:28; John 1:47) is a man who conquers in the spiritual fight. And the conquest that conquers the adornment/’adorned world’ is the faith in Jesus Christ, the Son of God (John 20:31; 1 John 5:4).


Paul said to Timothy: “If we ‘stay behind’/endure, we will and/also be kings together with (Christ Jesus).” (2 Tim 2:12a)

I have written to you, youths, because you are stable and the saying of God stays in you, and you have conquered (and conquer) the evil one. (1 John 2:14b)

Every the/child being (and having been) begotten out of God conquers the adornment/’adorned world’. And this is the conquest, the one having conquered the adornment/’adorned world’, our faith. (1 John 5:4)


Additional studies:

1 Kings 2:45; 1 Chron 17:12,14; 29:11-12; 2 Chron 18:18; Ps 55:19(20); Prov 29:14; Matt 19:27-29; 22:43-44; 23:2; 26:64; Mark 12:36; 14:62; Luke 20:42; 22:69; John 14:2-3; 17:5,24; Acts 2:29-30; 1 Cor 6:2; Eph 1:20; Heb 12:2; Rev 1:6; 5:5,13; 6:2; 17:14; 20:4; 22:1,3.


Matthijs den Dulk "The Promises to the Conquerors in the Book of Revelation"; Biblica 87 (2006): 516-522.

Stephen L. Homcy "'To Him Who Overcomes': A Fresh Look at What 'Victory' Means for the Believer According to the Book of Revelation"; Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 38.2 (June 1995): 193-201.

James E. Rosscup "The 'overcomer' of the Apocalypse"; Grace Theological Journal 3.2 (Fall 1982): 261-286.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-22; 2012-06-12; 2015-01-31)

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3:22 The one having an ear, let him hear what the Spirit says to the (assemblies) of called out.

Word for word (10 words in the Greek text): The-(one) having (an)-ear let-him-hear what the spirit says (to)-the (assemblies)-of-called-out.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning this verse, see Rev 2:7a.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-22; 2012-06-12; 2015-01-31)

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