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Chapter 2

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2:1 To the messenger of the (assembly) of called out in Ephesos write: “This is what the One ‘getting power (over)’/seizing the seven stars in His right hand (א*) says, the One walking about in a middle of the seven golden lampstands.”

Word for word (28 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus prima manus) (To)-the messenger (of)-the in Ephesos (of)-(assembly)-of-called-out write: '(The-but-things)'/'this-is-what' says the-(one) getting-power-(over)/seizing the seven stars in the right hand his, the-(one) walking-about in middle/'(the)-middle (of)-the seven lampstands the golden.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Adam and Eve) heard the voice of the Lord God walking about in the ‘place by the side of apprehension’/Paradise in the afternoon, and both Adam and his woman hid themselves from the face of the Lord God in a middle of the wood/trees of the ‘place by the side of apprehension’/Paradise. (Gen 3:8, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said to the Lord:) “I (am) in company with You through ‘every thing’/’all things’. You ‘got power (over)’/seized my right hand.” (Ps 73:23, Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) ”This is what the Lord says: ’On/’on the ground of’ the three impieties of (Gaza/Tyre/Idumaea/Ammon/Moab/Judas/Israel) and on/’on the ground of’ the four, I will not turn away to them.” ... Hear this saying, which the Lord has talked against you, house of Israel, and ‘down from’/against every tribe, which (He) led up out of (the) earth/land of Egypt, saying: “’More than’/however I had knowledge of you out of all tribes of the earth. Because of this I will procure justice against you for all your misses (of My mark).” (Amos 1:6a,9a,11a,13a; 2:1a,4a,6a; 3:1-2, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Israel:) “I led you up out of the earth/land of Egypt and led you around in the desolate (district).” (Amos 2:10a, Greek OT)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus) spoke to (the people in the synagogue): “What man will be ‘out of’/of you, who ‘will have’/has one sheep, and if – according to the circumstances – this may fall in into/- a pit (on) the sabbaths/sabbath, (who) by no means having (א,*א) ‘got power (over)’/seized (it) will raise it (א,*א)? (Matt 12:11)

... Having lifted the girdle of Paul and bound his feet and hands (the prophet) spoke: “This is what the Holy Spirit says.” (Acts 21:11a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

John (said to the Pharisees): "I baptize in water. (In) your middle stood (and had stood) (P75, א,* א) One whom you do not know.” (John 1:26)

Again Jesus so talked (with the Pharisees), saying: “I am the light of the adornment/’adorned world’. The one following Me may not/certainly not walk about in the gloom, however/but will have the light of the life.” (John 8:12)

(Jesus said to the Jews:) “And I give them agelong life, and they may not/certainly not perish into the (coming) age, and anyone may not/certainly (א,*א) not rape them out of My hand.” (John 10:28)

John to the seven (assemblies) of called out, the ones in Asia. (Rev 1:4a)

(As for) the mystery of the seven stars which you beheld upon my right (hand) and the seven golden lampstands: the seven stars are messengers of the seven (assemblies) of called out, and * (א*) seven lampstands are seven (assemblies) of called out. (Rev 1:20)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: Hilding Fagerberg, Carl Henrik Martling, Viktor Rydberg.


My own comments and speculations:

For more Bible passages, see Rev 1:12 (“seven golden lampstands”), Rev 1:13a (“in a middle of”) and Rev 1:16a (“seven stars in His right hand”).


Greek words:

(h)ode (this is what) (in the NT + examples in the OT) Acts 21:11; Rev 2:1 – Gen 25:24; 38:27; Jer 4:3; 7:3; Ezek 13:3; Luke 10:39; Jas 4:13; Rev 2:8,12,18; 3:1,7,14.


Additional studies:

John 3:35; 12:35; 13:3; Acts 18:19-20:1,16-17; 21:29; 1 Cor 15:32; 16:8; 1 Tim 1:3-4; 2 Tim 1:18; 4:12; 1 John 2:11; Rev 1:11-13,16.


David E. Aune "The Form and Function of the Proclamations to the Seven Churches (Revelation 2-3)"; New Testament Studies 36 (1990): 182-204.

James L. Boyer "Are the Seven Letters of Revelation 2-3 Prophetic?"; Grace Theological Journal 6.2 (1985): 267-273.

Birger Gerhardsson "De kristologiska utsagorna i sändebreven i Uppenbarelseboken (kap 2-3)"; Svensk Exegetisk Årsbok 30 (1965): 70-90.

F.F. Bruce "St. John At Ephesus"; Bulletin of the John Rylands Library Manchester 60.2 (Spring 1978): 339-361.

Robert L. Muse "Revelation 2-3: a critical analysis of seven prophetic messages"; Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 29.2 (June 1966): 147-161.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-13; 2012-06-04; 2015-01-10)

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2:2a I know your works and your (א,* א) bother and your endurance.

Word for word (12 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus): (i/I)-'know-(and-have-known)'/know the works your and the bother your and the endurance your.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Jacob said to Laban:) “God beheld my humiliation and the bother of my hands … .” (Gen 31:42b, Greek OT)

(Zophar said: “God) knows works of lawless ones.” (Job 11:11a, Greek OT)

(David said: “The Lord is) a succour in good seasonable times in/with oppression.” (Ps 9:9b or 9:10b, Greek OT)

(Solomon said:) “In every place (are) the eyes of the Lord, they spy both bad and good ones.” (Prov 15:3, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to His people:) “Bathe, become clean, take off/away the evil things from your souls (the things which are) over against My eyes. Cease from your evils.” (Is 1:16, Greek OT)

(The king heard of) the bothers/hardships (Jonathan and his brothers), which they had had, and he spoke: “We will not find one male of such kind (as Jonathan, will we)?” (1 Macc 10:15b-16a)

(Solomon said: “Wisdom) gave back/away to pious ones wage of their bothers.” (Wisdom of Solomon 10:17a)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “You will be being hated by all ones because of My name, but the one having ‘stayed behind’/endured into an end, this one will be saved.” (Matt 10:22)

(Jesus said:) "Come here towards Me, all being bothered and being (and having been) burdened, and I will bring you to rest." (Matt 11:28)

Jesus spoke (to some being there): "Let (the woman) be. What/why do you offer/make her bothers? She has worked/done a fine work in/with Me.” (Mark 14:6)

(The judge spoke in himself:) “At any rate 'because of'/because this widow 'to offer'/gives me bother, I will procure justice for her.” (Luke 18:5a)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Acquire/gain your souls in your endurance.” (Luke 21:19)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

The one making/doing the truth comes towards the light, in order that it may be made visible, that it is in God his works having been (and being) worked. (John 3:21)

For in this the saying is the (P66,א,* א, A) true one that/: ‘Another/one is the one sowing and another the one harvesting.’ I have dispatched (and dispatch) (א,*א) you away to harvest (for) what you have not bothered (and do not bother). Others have bothered (and bother), and you have come (and come) into their bother. (John 4:37-38)

The Saviour (א,*א) knew from (P66, א,* א) a beginning (that) some are the * (א,*א) believing ones and (that) someone (continually) was the one being about to give Him ‘to the side of’/over (P66, א,*א). (John 6:64b)

I, John, your brother and a companion with (you) in the oppression and a kingdom and an endurance in Jesus. (Rev 1:9a)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

Let us not then seek relaxation: for Christ promised tribulation to His disciples: and Paul says, “All who will live godly in Christ Jesus, shall suffer persecution.” (2 Tim. iii.12.) No noble-spirited wrestler, when in the lists, seeks for baths, and a table full of food and wine. This is not for a wrestler, but for a sluggard. For the wrestler contendeth with dust, with oil, with the heat of the sun's ray, with much sweat, with pressure and constraint. (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers XIV:392)


(Paul and Silvanus and Timothy said to the believers in Thessalonica: “We remember) your work of the faith and (your) bother of the welcome and (your) endurance of the hope.” (1 Thess 1:3a)


Additional studies: Job 24:23; 31:4; 34:21; Prov 5:21; Jer 16:17; Matt 26:10; 1 Cor 15:58; 2 Cor 11:27; 1 Thess 2:9; 2 Thess 3:8; 1 Tim 1:16; Heb 12:1; Rev 2:9,13,19; 3:1,8,15; 14:13.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-13; 2012-06-04; 2015-01-11)

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2:2ba ... and that you are not able to bear bad ones.

Word for word (6 words in the Greek text): and that not (you)-are-able-to bear bad-(ones)


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

Hezekiah, king of Judas, dispatched away messengers towards a king of Assyrians into Lachish, saying: “I have missed (and miss) (the mark of God). Turn away from me. What – if according to the circumstances - you may ‘put against’/’impose on’, against/on me I will bear.” (2 Kings 18:14a, Greek OT)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “Put (wisdom) under your shoulder/’upper arm’ and bear it. And you may not be indignant at her bands. … For upon her it/there is a golden adornment.” (Sir 6:25,30a)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said: “The) falling of bad (men) will arrive/come ‘according to’/with haste.” (Sir 20:18b)


The Latter Revelation:

(The ones who had been first hired with wages said: ) “These last ones have made/done one hour, and you have made them equal (with) us, the ones having borne the weight of the day and the heat.” (Matt 20:12)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “If – according to the circumstances - the * (א*) bad slave may speak in his heart: ‘My lord “spends time”/tarries’ … the lord of that slave will arrive in/on a day, which he does not wait for, and in an hour, which he has not knowledge of.” (Matt 24:48,50)

(Jesus said to the crowds:) “Whoever (who) does not bear his cross and come behind Me, is not able to be My disciple.” (Luke 14:27)

One of the badmen/criminals, having been hanged up, (continually) blasphemed (Jesus), saying: “Are you by no means the Christ? Save Yourself and us!” (Luke 23:39)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "A new commandment I give you, that you may welcome one another, entirely as I have welcomed you, in order that and/also you may welcome one another.” (John 13:34)

Bearing the cross Himself (Jesus) came out into what being said/called Place of a Skull, which is said/called in Hebrew, Golgotha. (John 19:17b)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: William Shakespeare, P. Waldenström.


My own comments and speculations:

In the Targum to Jer 7:11 the people of God is compared with an assembly of of evil men.


Paul said to the believers in Galatia: "Bear one another's weights and in this way you will ’complete ... upwards’/upcomplete the law of the Christ/'anointed One'. (Gal 6:2)


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-13; 2012-06-04; 2015-01-11)

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2:2bb And having tried the ones saying themselves (be) apostles, and are not, and/also you found them (be) false.

Word for word (13 words in the Greek text): and having-tried the-(ones) saying themselves apostles and not (they)-are and/also (you)-found them false.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

… God tried Abraham. (Gen 22:1a, Greek OT)

(Moses said to Israel:) "The Lord your God has led you in the desolate (district these forty years), in that way (that) He – according to the circumstances – might treat you ill and test you and have knowledge throughout of the things in your heart, if you might watch His commandments or not." (Deut 8:2b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) “The prophets prophesy unrighteously …, and My people welcomed (to have it) in this way!” (Jer 5:31a, Greek OT)

“Behold, I (am) towards the prophets, the ones prophesying false dreams,” (says the Lord), “… I did not dispatch them away, and I did not enjoin them.” (Jer 23:32a, Greek OT)

This is what the Lord says: “Woe to the ones who prophecy from their hearts and do not see on the whole. … seeing lies, divining vain things, the ones saying: “The Lord says”, and/but the Lord has not dispatched (and does not dispatch) them away.” (Ezek 13:3,6a, Greek OT)

(Judith said:) “’To the side of’/besides all these things we may be thankful to the Lord, our God, Who tries us according as and/also our fathers.” (Judith 8:25)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said: “As) a throat tastes foods of wild animals, in this way a heart perceives false sayings.” (Sir 36:19 or 36:21)

Daniel said: “These have been false witnesses ‘down from’/against (Susanna).” (Susanna v 49b, Theod)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "Give heed from/to the false prophets, whoever/who come towards you in clothes of sheep but from inside are rapacious wolves." (Matt 7:15)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “See (that) anyone may not lead you astray.” (Matt 24:4b)

(Jesus chose from His disciples) twelve, whom He and/also named apostles. (Luke 6:13b)

(Paul said to the elders of the assembly of called out in Ephesos:) "I know that after my departure weighty/burdensome wolves will come into, into you, not sparing the little flock." (Acts 20:29)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

Having so lifted against/up the eyes and viewed that a much/many-headed crowd comes towards Him, He says towards Philip: “From where may we buy breads/bread, in order that these ones may eat?” This He (continually) said to try him, for He Himself knew (and had known) what He (continually) was about to make/do. (John 6:5-6)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "Amen, amen, I say to you, a slave is not greater (than) his lord. Nor (is) an apostle greater than the one having sent him. If you know these things, happy are you, if you – according to the circumstances – may make/do them." (John 13:16-17)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

Luther: I grasp it as a warning to go back! If God says: forward Martin, so I go forward! . . . I do not understand circumlocutions and jokes. Schurff: So you speak! So you speak! You really deserved to be burnt as a blasphemer, if not as a heretic! Luther: Satan's apostle, leave me! (August Strindberg "Näktergalen i Wittenberg" p 143; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Martin Luther, John Stott.


Paul said to the believers in Corinth: “(These apostles are) false apostles, deceitful workers, transforming themselves into/to apostles of Christ.” (2 Cor 11:13)

Welcomed ones, do not believe (in) every spirit, however/but prove the spirits, if it is out of God, because many false prophets have come (and comes) out/’to an end’ into the adornment/’adorned world’. (1 John 4:1)


Greek words:

pseudês (false) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Sir 36:19(21); Susanna v 49; Rev 2:2 – Tobit 3:6; 14:6; 2 Macc 5:5; Wisdom of Solomon 14:28; Sir 34:1,4; Epistle of Jeremiah v 7,44,47,50,58; Susanna v 43; Acts 6:13; Rev 21:8.


Additional studies: Jer 23:16-32; Ezek 13:1-23; Matt 24:5,24; Acts 20:29-30; 1 Thess 5:21; 1 Tim 1:3; 2 Pet 2:1; 2 John v 7.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-13; 2012-06-04; 2015-01-11)

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2:3 And you have and/also all oppressions (א*) because of My name, and you did not bother/’grow weary’ (א,*א).

Word for word (12 words in the Greek text): and (you)-have and/also oppressions all because-of the name my and not (you)-bothered.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Jacob said to his household and all who were with him:) “God … ‘heard on’/’listened to’ me in a day of oppression. …” (Gen 35:3b, Greek OT)

The Lord had inspected the sons of Israel … because He had beheld their oppression … (Ex 4:31b, Greek OT)

(Moses said to Israel: “You will find the Lord) when you – according to the circumstances – may seek Him out, out of your whole heart and out of your whole soul in your oppression.” (Deut 4:29b, Greek OT)

(David said: “The ones who hated me) came beforehand before me in (the) day of my oppression, but the Lord became my ‘support against’/’point of support’. … He took me out for Himself, because He was pleased in/with me.” (2 Sam 22:19,20b, Greek OT)

(In Israel) a son and his father go in towards/to the same young girl, in what way they may profane the name of their God. (Amos 2:7b, Greek OT)


The Latter Revelation: (Jesus said:)

“Come here towards Me, all being bothered and being (and having been) burdened, and I will bring you to rest.” (Matt 11:28)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "The one having been sown against the rocky (ground), this is the one hearing the saying and straight off taking it in company with joy, but has not a root in himself, however/but is transitory. But/and having become oppression or pursuit because of the saying, he straight off is caused to stumble." (Matt 13:20-21)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Then they will give you ‘to the side of’/over into oppression and they will kill you. And you will be ‘being hated’/hated by * (א*) the nations because of my name.” (Matt 24:9)

(Paul and Barnabas said to the disciples:) “Through many oppressions we must come into, into the kingdom of God.” (Acts 14:22b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "These things I have talked (and talk) (with) you, in order that you may have peace in Me. In the adornment/’adorned world’ you have oppression. However, be confident. I have conquered (and conquer) the adornment/’adorned world’." (John 16:33)

I, John, your brother and a companion together with (you) in the oppression. (Rev 1:9a)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

Nothing is equal to longsuffering. Such a man is never insulted; but as bodies of adamant are not wounded, so neither are such souls. For they are above the reach of the darts. The longsuffering man is high, and so high as not to receive a wound from the shot. (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers XIV:468)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Torgny Wirén.


Paul said to the believers in Thessalonica: “We ourselves boast in/of, in/of you in the (assemblies) of called out of God ‘in favour of’/over your endurance and faith in all your pursuits and oppressions, (in) which you hold up/out.” (2 Thess 1:4)


Additional studies: 2 Kings 19:3-4; Ps 34:17(18); Is 33:2; 37:3-4; Dan 12:1; Obadiah v 13; Nahum 1:7; Matt 24:21,29; Mark 4:17; 13:19,24; John 16:21-22; Acts 7:10; 8:1; 11:19; 20:23; Rom 5:3; 8:35; 12:12; 2 Cor 1:4-5,8; 2:4; 4:17; 6:4; 7:4; 8:2; Eph 3:13; Phil 1:17; 4:14; Col 1:24; 1 Thess 1:6; 3:3,7; Heb 10:33; Rev 2:9-10,22.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-13; 2012-06-04; 2015-01-12)

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2:4 However, I have ‘down from’/against you, that you have let your first welcome be.

Word for word (11 words in the Greek text): however (i/I)-have 'down-from'/against you that the welcome your the first (you)-let-be.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The Lord said to Jerusalem:) “I have remembered mercy of your youth and welcome of your perfection/’full growth’. …” (Jer 2:2b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Israel:) “I led you up out of the earth/land of Egypt and led you around in the desolate (district).” (Amos 2:10a, Greek OT)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “If – according to the circumstances - you so may carry your gift to, against the sacrificial altar and you there may remember that your brother has something ‘down from’/against you, let your gift be there in front of the sacrificial altar and withdraw. First ‘be different’/’reconcile yourself’ (with) your brother and having come carry then your gift to (the sacrificial altar).” (Matt 5:23-24)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) The welcome of the many will ‘be breathed’/cease. But the one having stayed behind 'into an'/’up to the’ end, this one will be saved.” (Matt 24:12b-13)

(One of the scribes questioned Jesus:) "Of what kind is a first commandment of all?" Jesus answered that/: "First is 'Hear, Israel! The Lord our God is one Lord. And you shall welcome the Lord your God out of whole/all your heart and out of whole/all your soul and out of whole/all your mind and out of whole/all your stability.' A second one is (א,* א) this: 'You shall welcome your neighbour as yourself.' Greater than these ones is not another commandment." (Mark 12:28b-31)

According to a power of the Lord the saying (in Ephesos) increased and was stable. (Acts 19:20b)

It became a weeping of (the elders in Ephesos) and having fallen against, against the neck of Paul they (continually/repeatedly) ‘were entirely friends with’/’kissed ... tenderly’ him. (Acts 20:37b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

Before the Feast of the ‘paschal lamb’/Passover knowing that His hour had come in order that He might step over out of this adornment/’adorned world’ towards the Father, having welcomed the own, the ones in the adornment/’adorned world’, Jesus welcomed them into/’up to’ (the) end. (John 13:1)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “If – according to the circumstances – you may welcome Me, you may keep (P66,א,*א) My commandments.” (John 14:15)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "Entirely as the Father has welcomed Me, and/also I have welcomed you. Stay in the welcome, (in) My (welcome). If – according to the circumstances – you may keep My commandments, stay in My welcome, entirely as and/also (א,*א) I have kept (and keep) My Father's, My (א*) commandments, and stay in His welcome." (John 15:9-10)

When they so had breakfasted, Jesus says to Simon Peter: “Simon * (א), do you welcome Me more (than) these?” (John 21:15a)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

Feuillet finds here and in 3:20 an allusion to the Song of Solomon. (J. Massyngberde Ford "Revelation" p 387)

"You are my first love, Edvard", (Sigrun) suddenly said. She checked herself, took his hand leading him up to a window. "Look there out at the grass-plot!" she said. "There is a corner, which was overgrown with wild pansies, when we first moved here. They were, I suppose, at home there and every year they came up of themselves. Once I let lay out a flower-bed and planted other flowers, and they grew and flourished, they also. But now the flower-bed with the unknown flowers is away, and look, again the wild pansies begin to grow up out of the ground on their old place!" (Selma Lagerlöf "Bannlyst" p 222; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

The cherries are in bloom and the pike gives a start among the reeds in the little creek. The young wedded husband sits on the bench of the entrance hall of the farm-cottage, which he has rented for summer. . . . His young wife is unpacking the suit-cases, and the children are playing in the garden, where tulips and narcissi just have opened. "Would think it is nice to be in the country!" the man exclaims. "What I abhor the town." And he points to the smoky fumes being settled on the horizon in the direction where the town is afar off. "And if only the autumn has come, you abhor the country singing the praise of the town", the wife answers. . . . The air echoes of the chirp from the migratory birds coming in order to inspect and certify their nests of the last year, cemented fast under the gable of the cottage. "Of course the swallows bring happiness to the house, don't they, mummy?" says the little girl in the family. "Yes, my child", the mother answers. "And therefore one shall leave their nests alone. Remember this well, child, and observe how they love their country. They always return. . . . "To their first love", the man fills in. "And they go their way in the autumn, quite as I do!" (August Strindberg "Fosterlandsvännerna" p 211; Politiken 1885-09-03; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

"We go forward, they say!" (the young priest said to Botvid). "How long forward have we not went from the love of the first Christians, their contempt for earthly possessions, their hatred towards oppressors, their mutual love! Every little progress we take is, you know, a step back to the first innocent state we once have left. So let us go back, but long back, past convents and saints and pope, back to the times of the apostles, when all were united in the love of brotherhood, when there was nothing to contend for, and all were agreed in one faith, one hope! Let us again return right up to Christ with whom the world was born again." (August Strindberg "Svenska öden och äventyr 1" p 254; the short story "Utveckling" from 1883; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

No one is more stingy than the priest in Broby. . . . Right up to the road one can hear the bleating of the hungry sheep. . . . But a beatiful day in the beginning of August . . . a fine old unmarried woman comes going . . . to meet the Broby priest. It is with him she was in love in the days of her youth. . . . All what life still can give her is to again meet the beloved of her youth. . . . Towards the evening he offers her arm, and they walk in his old decayed garden. She does not see anything unattractive and anything which is not looked after properly. Overgrown bushes become trimmed hedges . . . in niches of dusky green white statues shine with youth, with faithfulness, with hope, with love. (Selma Lagerlöf "Gösta Berlings saga" p 266-267,270; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: David Atkinson, Erik Axelsson, Robert Banks, Jevgenij Baratynskij, Elisabeth Beskow, Erik Fagerlund, Christine Falkenland, Björn Hallström, Crick Holm, Ludvig Holstein, Victor Hugo, Sven Hultman, A. L:son Thomas, Lars Levi Laestadius, Sven Lidman, Arthur Lindhagen, Martin Luther, Frank Mangs, John McInnes, Olaf Moe, Petrus M. Nicander, Fritiof Nilsson Piraten, Magnus Nyman, Efraim Palmqvist, Lewi Pethrus, Carl Olof Rosenius, Viktor Rydberg, Gösta Sandberg, Tomas Sjödin, Howard A. Snyder, Erik Sonesson, John Stott, Wislawa Szymborska, G.E. Söderholm, Carl Olof Rosenius, Evert Taube, Owe Thörnqvist, Anton Tjechov, Zacharias Topelius, Stig Tornehed, James B. Torrance, P. Waldenström, Anders Österling.


My own comments and speculations:

In the light of Mark 12:28-31 the first welcome can be the Lord Himself. Cf. My own comments and speculations to John 21:15.


Additional studies: Song of Solomon 4:10; Hos 2:15; Acts 2:44-47; 1 Cor 13:1-13; 1 Tim 5:11-12; Rev 2:14,20.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-13; 2012-06-04; 2015-01-12)

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2:5 Recollect so from where you have fallen (and fall) and change your mind and make/do the first works. But if not, I come to you and I will stir your lampstand out of its place, if you – according to the circumstances – may not change your mind.

Word for word (28 words in the Greek text): recollect so from-where (you)-have-fallen-(and-fall) and change-(your)-mind and the first works make. if but not, (i/I)-come (to)-you and (i/I)-will stir the lampstand out-of the place its, if-according-to-the-circumstances not (you)-may-change-(your)-mind.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

Moses spoke towards the people: “Recollect this day, in which you came out, out of earth/land of Egypt, out of a house of slavery.” (Ex 13:3a, Greek OT)

(Solomon said:) “The one having ‘been (and is) persuaded’/’relied (and relies)’ on riches, this one will fall.” (Prov 11:28a, Greek OT)

(Solomon said:) “The righteous will fall seven times and he will stand up.” (Prov 24:16a, Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) “Behold Zion, the city of our means of saving. Your eyes shall behold Jerusalem, a rich city, which tents may not/certainly not be shaken, nor/’and certainly’ not its pegs of the tent may be stirred.” (Is 33:20a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Jerusalem:) “I have remembered mercy of your youth and welcome of your perfection/’full growth’. …” (Jer 2:2b, Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) ”This is what the Lord, the God of Israel, says: “Set your ways and your pursuits upright throughout, and I will ‘dwell you’/’let you dwell’ in this place.” (Jer 7:3, Greek OT)

(Tobit said to his son:) ”Recollect the Lord our Lord and ... make/do righteousness (in) all the days of your life and you may not go the ways of the unrighteousness.” (Tobit 4:5b, BA)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “The ones fearing the Lord, ‘stay up’/await His mercy and you may not ‘lean out’/’bend aside’, in order that you may not fall.” (Sir 2:7)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said: “The ones changing) their minds (the Lord) gave a way up.” (Sir 17:24a)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “You are the light of the adornment/’adorned world’. A city lying above a mountain is not able to be hidden/concealed, (is it)? Nor does (anyone) ‘burn a lamp’/’have a lamp burning’ and put it underneath the corn-measure however/but against the lampstand, and it shines to all the ones in the habitation.” (Matt 5:14-15)

(Jesus) '(continually) said'/'went on to tell' this parable: "A certain one (continually) had a fig tree being (and having been) planted in his vineyard. And he came seeking fruit in it and he did not find. But/and he spoke towards the vinedresser: 'Behold, three years from/after which (time) I come/”have come” seeking fruit in this fig tree, and I ‘do not find/’have not found’. Cut it out, ‘in order that what’/why does it and/also make the earth inactive/barren?' But/and 'having answered'/answering he says to him: ‘Lord, let (the fig tree) be and/also this year, till (the time) whichever/’in which’ I may dig around it and throw/put (on) dung. And if – according to the circumstances - it indeed may make/bear fruit into the ‘(year) being about’/’future (year)’, (fine); but if not, you will/may cut it out/down at any rate.’” (Luke 13:6-9)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Recollect the woman of Lot!” (Luke 17:32)

(Paul said the males in Athen:) ”In (God) we live and are stirred and are.” (Acts 17:28a)

The whole city was stirred, and it became a concourse of the people. (Acts 21:30a)

(Paul said to the king:) ”I have brought away a message to the nations (that they should) change their minds and turn next to, against God, practising works worthy the change of mind.” (Acts 26:20b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

A new commandment I give you, in order that you may welcome one another, entirely as I have welcomed you, in order that and/also you may welcome one another. In/’by means of’ this all will gain knowledge that you are disciples to Me, if you – according to the circumstances – may have a welcome in company with (א,*א) one another. (John 13:34-35)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Every twig in Me carrying/producing not/no fruit, He lifts/’takes ... up’ it.” (John 15:2)

Stay in Me, and I (stay) in you. Entirely as the twig is not able to carry/produce fruit from itself, if – according to the circumstances – it may not stay in the vine, in this way nor you (are able), if – according to the circumstances – you may not stay in Me. I am the vine, you (are) the twigs. The one staying in Me - and I in him - this one carries/produces much fruit, because separate from Me you are not able to make/do nothing/anything. If – according to the circumstances – a certain (person) may not have stayed in Me, he has been thrown outside as the twig and been dried. And they lead it (א,*א) together (with other twigs) and throw (them) into the fire, and it is burnt. (John 15:4-6)

Seven lampstands are seven (assemblies) of called out. (Rev 1:20b)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

"Think, one evening it came a ghost hand writing a warning on the wall to Frida! And this, I can assure you, she could need", Miss Bock said. "What kind of warning was it", Lillebror asked. Miss Bock thought. "Yes, however was it . . . yes, in this way it was: Be on your guard! It should be some more seriousness in your boundlessly short days!" Lillebror didn't look to understand anything of that, and neither he did it. Miss Bock had to explain. "It was a warning to Frida that she had to change her mind beginning to live a better life without so much nonsense and slovenliness." (Astrid Lindgren "Karlsson på taket flyger igen" p 74; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

(The Greek word “metanoia”) originally meant an afterthought. Often a second thought shows that the first thought was wrong; and so the word came to mean a change of mind. But, if a man is honest, a change of mind demands a change of action. (William Barclay “The Acts of the Apostles” p 28)

The disciple asked: Is one right to regret all one's past, if one discovers, that one has gone in delusion? - If you with regret mean wish undone, so you are not right; for there is something entitled in the life of every man, and every delusion becomes through the confutation an involuntary reason for the victory of truth; do you with regret mean to abhor you as bearer of falsenesses, you are right. Say something to your defence! - I can say: I was a child of an evil time; I was seduced by the seducers of my youth, no one named; my understanding was stronger than my divine reason; my flesh was able to beat my spirit; my inborn defiance, my hereditary, sensitive mind received impressions without criticism, in a word, I could call myself the victim of my seducers, of my inheritance, of my inborn weakness and sensitivity. Butt that my reason at last woke up, this I do not regard as a merit, but as a grace; that I have got time to confute my delusions, this I regard as the greatest happiness having ever happened to me, and therefore I do not wish my past undone, although I abhor it. (August Strindberg "En blå bok I" p 72; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Ulf Ekman, Hilding Fagerberg, C.G. Hjelm, Lars Levi Laestadius, Martin Luther, Vilhelm Moberg, Ingun Montgomery, Gösta Nicklasson, Fredrik Nielsen, J.P. Norberg, Efraim Palmqvist, Edvard Rohde, Tom Selander, Knut Svensson, Esaias Tegnér, P. Waldenström, Gunnel Weidel Randver, Morris West, Lars Wivallius.


My own comments and speculations:

The king in Jerusalem was the lamp of Israel. According to the Targum to Amos 9:1 God threatened to extinguish the lamp (= the king, cf. 2 Sam 21:17) of his people, if they didn't return to the law. The (assembly) of called out in Ephesos was represented by a lampstand, which God threatens to stir out of its place, if the (assembly) of called out didn't return to its first works.


Greek words:

kineô (stir) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Acts 17:28; 21:30; Rev 2:5 – 2 Macc 5:3; Sir 12:18; 13:7; The Epistle of Jeremiah v 26; The Song of Praise of the Three Men v 56; Matt 23:4; 27:39; Mark 15:29; Acts 24:5; Rev 6:14.

metanoeô (change one's mind) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Sir 17:24; Acts 26:20; Rev 2:5 – Wisdom of Solomon 5:3; Sir 48:15; The Prayer of Manasseh v 7,13; Matt 3:2; 4:17; 11:20-21; 12:41; Mark 1:15; 6:12; Luke 10:13; 11:32; 13:3,5; 15:7,10; 16:30; 17:3-4; Acts 2:38; 3:19; 8:22; 17:30; 2 Cor 12:21; Rev 2:16,21-22; 3:3,19; 9:20-21; 16:9,11.


Additional studies:

Jer 8:4-5; Matt 13:7; Mark 4:7,18-19,21; Luke 8:7,16; 11:33; Gal 5:4-7; Phil 2:15; Rev 2:2,16,22; 3:3,19-20.


Robert L. Thomas "The 'Comings' of Christ in Revelation 2-3"; The Master's Seminary Journal 7.2 (Fall 1996): 153-181.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-14; 2012-06-04; 2015-01-12)

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2:6 However, this you have, that you hate the works of the Nicolaitans, which and/also I hate.

Word for word (12 words in the Greek text): however this (you)-have, that (you)-hate the works (of)-the (of)-Nikolaitan which and-i/I hate.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Balaam said:) "Out of Mesopotamia Balak has sent after/for me, the king of Moab out of mountains from risings saying: 'Come here to implore/curse Jacob for me and come here, (and wish) Israel on/'under the rule of' the cursed for me!' What/how may I implore/curse (against) the one the Lord may not curse? Or what/how may I curse, the one God may not curse, because from a border of mountains I will behold him, and from hills I will understand towards him. Behold, a people will dwell alone and will not in/among nations be counted together with (them)! Who did exactly examine out of the seed of Jacob and who will count up the number out of popular assemblies of Israel? Oh, that my soul may die in/among souls of righteous ones and oh, that my seed may become as the seed of these!" And Balak spoke towards Balaam: "What have you made/done (and make/do) to me? I have called (and call) you into a damnation of my enemies. And behold, you have blessed (and bless) a blessing!" And Balaam spoke towards Balak: "Shall I by no means watch/observe to talk this, as much as - if according to the circumstances - God may throw/put in, into my mouth?" (Num 23:7b-12, Greek OT)

(Israel) was profaned into the daughters of Moab. And they called (the people) on/’for the sake of’ the sacrifices of their idols, and the people ate their sacrifices prostrated before their idols (in honour of them). (Num 25:1b-2, Greek OT)

(The females) (continually) were/caused the sons of Israel, according to the word of Balaam, the thing to stand aloof from and ‘behold over’/overlook the word of the Lord. (Num 31:16a, Greek OT)

(David said:) “Have I by no means hated the ones hating You, Lord? … I (continually) have hated them (with) perfect hatred.” (Ps 139:21a,22a, Greek OT)

And till/’as long as’ (the people) did not miss (the mark of God) in the very eyes of their God, the good things (continually) were in company with them, because a God hating unrighteousness is in company with them. (Judith 5:17)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) ”And/also the highest One has hated missers (of His mark).” (Sir 12:6a)


The Latter Revelation:

It became grumbling of/from the Greek-speaking towards the Hebrews ... (And the brothers inspected) ... seven males ’having been witnesses’/’obtaining a good witness’ filled with spirit and wisdom. ... And they were chosen ... and stood in the very eyes of the apostles. (Acts 6:1b-6a)

Every/all of the multitude chose ... Nicolaus ... (Acts 6:5b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

But it/there (continually) was a man out of the Pharisees. Nicodemus (was the) name to him, a leader of the Jews. (John 3:1)

Nicodemus answered (Jesus) and spoke to Him: "How are these things able to become/’come about’?" Jesus answered and spoke to him: “Are you the teacher of Israel and have not knowledge of these things?” (John 3:9-10)

Nicodemus, the one having the first (time) come towards Jesus (א,*א) a night, came having (א*) a medley (א*,B) of myrrh and aloes, as (if it was) a hundred pounds. (John 19:39)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 - about 1500

The best explanation of the Nikolaitans is cited by Charles (Revelation, I, 52), who says that the name appears to come from a translation into Greek of the name Balaam, in Hebrew two separate words, bala am, “he hath consumed the people” (a derivation found in Sanhedrin 105a, where balah am is an alternative reading). Nikolaus could be nika laon, “he overcame the people”. This play on words is thoroughly Semitic. … Although not originally a villain, Balaam gradually came to be regarded as the father of syncretism and mercenary business, a symbol of opposition to Yahweh. In rabbinic literature Balaam is represented as one of the seven heathen prophets standing in antithesis to Moses. … The impact of including in this apocalypse a reference to Balaam, associated with Nikolaitan, becomes clear. Balaam is the epitome of the false prophet, who seduces men to lewdness and obscene idolatry. (J. Massyngberde Ford "Revelation" p 391)

Victorinus of Pettau (c. A.D. 300), in the earliest extant Latin commentary on the Apocalypse, has this note on Rev. 2:6: “Before that time factious and pestilential men had made for themselves a heresy in the name of the deacon Nicolaus, teaching that meat offered to idols could be exorcized, so that it might be eaten, and that one who had committed fornication might receive absolution on the eighth day.” ... The Nicolaitan teaching ... apparently aimed at making the Christian path in a pagan world a little smoother by permitting so much compromise with idolatry as would satisfy imperial and social requirements. (FF Bruce "Commentary on the Book of the Acts" p 129)


about 1500 and time before

Nicolaus was one of the seven deacons who were appointed in the Acts of the Apostles. … (The) heresy of the Nicolaitans has been condemned by the Apocalypse of the Lord. (Tertullian, The Ante-Nicene Father Vol III, p 650)

The Nicolaitanes are the followers of that Nickolas who was one of the seven first ordained to the diaconate by the apostles. They lead lives of unrestrained indulgence. (Irenaeus, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol I, p 352)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Ulf Abel, E.J. Ekman, Björne Erixon, P. Fjellstedt, Hanna Friberg, Nikolaj Gogol, Hans Granlid, Edvin Larsson, Örjan Lindberger, Martin Luther, Carl Henric Martling, Mo Yan, Olaf Moe, Viktor Rydberg, Leo Tolstoj.


My own comments and speculations:

The names Nicodemus (John 3:1) and Nicolaus (Acts 6:5) can have the meaning of “the conquest of the popular assembly” resp. “the conquest of the people”. Compare with Rev 1:11 (Sinaiticus, prima manus) where the church in Sardes, one of the seven churches, is not found in the enumeration. Perhaps Nikolaus, one of the seven chosen men, can be seen as a correspondence to this church. See also My own comments and speculations to John 3:1-2, 3:14a and 1 John 5:4.

Concerning the allusion to Balaam, see Rev 2:14-15.


Greek words:

Nikolaitês (Nicolaitan) Rev 2:6 – Rev 2:15. Cf. Nikolaus Acts 6:5. See also Exegetes, evangelists and others and My own comments and speculations.


Additional studies:

Num 23:20-26; 24:9-10; John 7:50-52; 19:40-42; 2 Pet 2:15; Jude v 11; Rev 2:14-15; 3:14; 21:27.


Per Beskow (P. Janzon) "Nikolaiterna i Nya testamentet och i fornkyrkan"; Svensk Exegetisk Årsbok 21 (1956): 82-108.

W.M. Mackay "Another look at the Nicolaitans"; The Evangelic Quarterly 45.2 (Apr.-June 1973): 111-115.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-14; 2012-06-04; 2015-01-13)

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2:7a The one having an ear, let him hear what the Spirit says to the (assemblies) of called out.

Word for word (10 words in the Greek text): The-(one) having (an)-ear let-him-hear what the spirit says (to)-the (assemblies)-of-called-out.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

Moses called all the sons of Israel and spoke towards them: "You have beheld (and behold) all things, as many as the Lord made/did in (the) earth/land Egypt before the very eyes of you, Pharaoh and the ones attending him and every/all his earth/land, the great tests which your eyes have beheld (and behold), the signs and those great omens. And till this day the Lord has not given you a heart to know and eyes to see and ears to hear." (Deut 29:2-4, Greek OT)

Moses talked into the ears of every/'the whole' (assembly) of called out of Israel the words of this lay till into/’up to’ (the) end. (Deut 31:30, Greek OT)

(David said:) ”Into/’for the purpose of’ a hearsay of an ‘ear lobe’/ear (the people I had not knowledge of) hearkened me.” (Ps 18:45, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to the prophet:) “Go and speak to this people: ‘You will hear (in) a hearsay and you may not/certainly not 'let together'/perceive, and seeing you will see and you may not/certainly not behold, for the heart of this people has been thickened/hardened and (with) their ears they have heard weightily/painfully and their eyes have been closed, (so that) they not at any time may behold (with) the eyes and hear (with) the ears and 'let together'/perceive (with) the heart and turn themselves next to (Me) and/’so that’ I will heal them.’” (Is 6:9-10, Greek OT)

(The slave-servant said:) "The education of the Lord opens My ears, but/and I did not disobey." (Is 50:5a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to His people:) “Hear these things, foolish and heartless/unreasonable people … (it has been given) ears to them, and/but they hear not.” (Jer 5:21, Greek OT)

(The prophet said to Judas: “The Lord) has dispatched away towards you (His) slaves the prophets dispatching (them) away (from) early morning, and you have not listened ... (with) your ears.” (Jer 25:4a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) “Let the one hearing hear. And let the one disobeying disobey, for the reason that (Jerusalem) is a house making bitter by the side of (itself).” (Ezek 3:27b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Jerusalem: “The Babylonians and your other lovers) will take off your nostril and your ears. ... ” (Ezek 23:25b, Greek OT)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “An ear of a hearer (is) a desire of a wise.” (Sir 3:29b)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “If you – according to the circumstances – may welcome to hear, you may ‘receive out of’/learn, and if you – according to the circumstances – may lean your ear, you may be wise.” (Sir 6:33)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “Hear me, great men of a people and the ones being in command of (assemblies) of called out, give ear.” (Sir 33:19)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “I lent my ear few/’a few’ and received (wisdom).” (Sir 51:16a)

Baruch read the sayings of this scroll ... in ears of ‘every the’/’the whole’ people. (Baruch 1:3a)

(The Lord said:) “I will give (My people) a heart and hearing ears.” (Baruch 2:31b)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His apostles:) “What you hear into the ear, proclaim upon the buildings.” (Matt 10:27b)

(Jesus said to the crowds:) ”The one having ears to hear (א,* א), let him hear.” (Matt 11:15)

(Jesus said to His disciples: “With the people) the prophecy of Isaiah is ‘completed upwards’/upcompleted, the one saying: ‘You will hear (by) a hearsay and you may not/certainly not perceive … . for ... (with) their (א,* א) ears they have heard weightily/painfully ... (so that) they not at any time may ... hear (with) the ears and perceive (with) the heart and turn themselves next to (Me) and/’so that’ I will heal them.’ But happy your ... ears, because they hear.” (Matt 13:14-16)

If (the brother missing the mark of God) – according to the circumstances – may ‘hear ... from the side of’/ignore them, speak to the (assembly) of called out. (Matt 18:17a)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “If – according to the circumstances - your hand may cause you to stumble, cut it off; it is fine/’better for’ you to come into, into the life crooked, or/than having/with the two hands, come into (א*), into the Gehenna, into the unquenchable fire. … And if – according to the circumstances - your foot may cause you to stumble, cut it off; it is fine/’better for’ you to come into, into the life lame, or/than having/with the two feet, to be thrown into the Gehenna.” (Mark 9:43,45)

(Jesus said to the people in the synagogue:) “Today this writing is (and has been) completed in your ears.” (Luke 4:21b)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Put/lay these sayings into your ears.” (Luke 9:44a)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “What you have talked in the storehouses towards the ear, you will proclaim upon the buildings.” (Luke 12:3b)

One, a certain one out of (the ones standing around) hit the slave of the priest leader and took off his right ear. (Luke 22:50)

... Having lifted the girdle of Paul and bound his feet and hands (the prophet) spoke: “This is what the Holy Spirit says.” (Acts 21:11a)

(Paul said to the Jews in Rome:) "Finely the Holy Spirit talked towards your fathers through Isaiah the prophet, saying: ‘Go towards this people and speak: “A hearsay will hear and you may not/certainly not perceive ... for ... (with) the ears they have heard weightily/painfully ... (so that) they not at any time may ... hear (with) the ears ... and turn themselves next to (Me) and/’so that’ I will heal them.”’” (Acts 28:25b-27)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Jesus said to the Jews:) " Amen, amen, I say to you, that an hour comes * (א*), when the dead (bodies) may (P66, א,* א) hear the voice of the Son of God, and * (P66, א*) having heard they will live." (John 5:25)

(Jesus said to those Jews who to begin with believed Him:) “Because of what have you not knowledge of My talking? Because you are not able to hear My saying.”(John 8:43)

(The Jews) so spoke (to the man who had been blind): “What did (Jesus) made/do (with) you? How did He open your eyes?” He answered them: “I have already spoken (to) you, and you did not hear. What do you want to hear again? You do not want, and/also you, to become His disciples(, do you)?” (John 9:26-27)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) " I have still many things to say to you. However you are not able to bear (them) just now. But when – according to the circumstances – that One, the Spirit of the truth, may come, It will show you the way in * (א*) the truth. For It will not talk from Itself, however/but as many things as It * (א,*א) hears, It will talk, and It will bring up a message to you (about) the coming things.” (John 16:12-13)

Simon Peter, having a dagger, so drew it and hurt/struck the slave of the priest leader and cut off his right little ear. But a name to the slave (continually/-) was Malchus. Jesus so spoke to Peter: “Throw/put the dagger into the repository/sheath. The cup which the Father has given (and gives) Me, may not/certainly not I drink it?” (John 18:10-11)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

Jeremiah's lamentations! The children ill, all of them. One sleeps with one ear by nights in order to hear when the croup will come! (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev IV 1884" p 407, letter 1884-12-24 to Jonas Lie; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

The factory clock tolls. "May the one having ears, hear!"We here down at Ekeby smithy are on the point of perishing. The river is over us. . . . Out on the ice of Löven the young countess Dohna wanders. . . . Gösta (Berling) rises going out (in the dark, stormy night) to fetch his fiancée. . . . He looks out in the coal-black night. . . . And he hears, he hears. (Selma Lagerlöf "Gösta Berlings saga" p 218; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Nadezjda Afanasievna Burakova, Alf Ahlberg, Torsten Akrell, Stefan Andhé, Algot Anderberg, Johann Albrecht Bengel, Nils Bolander, Emilia Fogelklou, Bo Frid, Nikolaj Gogol, Carl Grimberg, Dick Harrison, Alf Henrikson, Aleksis Kivi, Lars Levi Laestadius, Karl Larsson, Lars-Olof Larsson, Jonas Lie, Sven Ljungberg, J.E. Lundahl, Martin Luther, N.P. Madsen, Mo Yan, Vilhelm Moberg, Origenes, Nelly Sachs, Gunnar E. Sandgren, M. Basilea Schlink, John Stott, Jesper Svartvik, Morris West.


My own comments and speculations:

Six times (Matt 11:15; 13:9,43; Mark 4:9; Luke 8:8; 14:35) Jesus in the Synoptics says: “The one having ears (to hear), let him hear.” Seven times (Rev 2:7,11,17,29; 3:6,13,22) Jesus in the Revelation says: "The one having an ear, let him hear." Once in the Synoptics (Mark 4:23) Jesus says: "If anyone has ears to hear, let him hear." Once in the Revelation (13:9) we read: "If anyone has an ear, let him hear."

The Synoptics are on the way into the perfect number seven (Mark 4:23) and the Revelation on the way into the number eight, the number of a new period (Rev 13:9).

The Synoptics usually tell about two ears. Cf. also the single sandal in John 1:27 with the sandals in Luke 3:16. But in Matt 10:27 Jesus tells about “the ear” in a similar way as in the Revelation. Cf. also Luke 12:3.

The people of God is pressed, and they are struck by many difficulties. But they only have perished one ear, a better situation compared to the faithless woman Jerusalem (Ezek 23:25), who perished both ears (but had one nostril left). However, observe the formulation in Rev 13:9: "If anyone has an ear." Among God's people there are those who are destined to perish both ears by being killed. (Cf. Rev 13:10).

See also My own comments and speculations to John 18:10-11.


Greek words:

ous (ear) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Sir 6:33; Baruch 1:3; 2:31; Matt 10:27; 11:15; 13:15-16; Luke 4:21; 9:44; 12:3; 22:50; Acts 28:27; Rev 2:7 – Wisdom of Solomon 1:10; 15:15; Sir 17:6; 38:28; Baruch 1:4; 2:16; Matt 13:9,43; Mark 4:9,23; 7:33; 8:18; Luke 1:44; 8:8; 14:35. Acts 7:51,57; 11:22; Rom 11:8; 1 Cor 2:9; 12:16; Jas 5:4; 1 Pet 3:12; Rev 2:11,17,29; 3:6,13,22; 13:9.


Additional studies: Ezek 12:1-2; Matt 13:13; 26:51; Mark 4:10-12; 9:47; 14:47; Luke 8:9-10; 22:51; Rev 19:10.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-14; 2012-06-04; 2015-01-13)

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2:7b To the one conquering * (א,* א) I will give to eat out of the wood of the life, which is in the ‘place by the side of apprehension’/Paradise of God.

Word for word (16 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus): (To)-the-(one) conquering i/I-will-give (to)-eat out-of the wood (of)-the (of)-life, which is in the place-by-the-side-of-apprehension (of)-the (of)-god.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

God let … every wood seasonable/’suitable for fruits of the season’ stick up out of, out of the earth into/to beholding and fine into/to consumption and the wood of the life in a middle of the ‘place by the side of apprehension’/Paradise. (Gen 2:9a, Greek OT)

(God said: “Adam may not) stretch out the hand and take of the wood of the life, and eat, and/’so that’ he will live into the (coming) age.” (Gen 3:22b, Greek OT)

... Before the thing God turn/turned down/over Sodom and Gomorrah (the valley of Jordan was) as the 'place of God by the side of apprehension'/'Paradise of God'. (Gen 13:10a, Greek OT)

(The evil) Haman was hung up upon the wood/’piece of wood’, which he had made ready for (the righteous) Mordecai. (Esther 7:10a, Greek OT)

(David said to God:) “You may conquer in 'the thing to be judged Yourself'/'Your judging'.” (Ps 51:4b or 51:6b, Greek OT)

(Wisdom) is a wood of life to all the ones holding themselves next to her. (Prov 3:18a, Greek OT)

Out of a fruit of righteousness a tree of life is produced. (Prov 11:30a, Greek OT)

Cypresses of such kind (as Egypt) were not begotten/produced in the ‘place by the side of apprehension’/Paradise of God. (Ezek 31:8a, Greek OT)

(Wisdom was) a steersman to the righteous through/’by means of’ a cheap wood/’piece of wood’. (Wisdom of Solomon 10:4b)

(Solomon said:) “Blessed a wood, through which it becomes righteousness.” (Wisdom of Solomon 14:7)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to the fig-tree:) “O that not any longer anyone into the (coming) age may not/- (wish) eat fruit out of you. ... ” (Mark 11:14b)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "The one having stayed behind 'into an'/’up to the’ end, this one will be saved." (Mark 13:13b)

(Jesus said:) "When – according to the circumstances - the stable one, having been (and being) armed, may watch the 'of himself'/own court, his ‘things beginning under’/properties are in peace. But since – according to the circumstances – a more stable than he is (א*) having come against (him), may conquer him, he lifts/takes away’ from him his full armour on/in which he ‘was (and had been) persuaded’/’relied (and had relied)’ and ‘gives asunder’/distributes his spoils.” (Luke 11:21-22)

(Jesus said to the daughters of Jerusalem:) ”If they make/do these things in/with the moist wood, what may it become in/with the dried out?” (Luke 23:31)

(Jesus) spoke to (the criminal): "Amen I say to you, today you will be in company with me in the ‘place by the side of apprehension’/Paradise." (Luke 23:43)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “No one can come to Me, unless it has been given him from the Father.” (John 6:65)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "In the adornment/’adorned world’ you have oppression. However, be confident. I have conquered (and conquer) the adornment/’adorned world’." (John 16:33b)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

The Israelite Temple (as with its predecessor, the tabernacle) was designed to be a “paradise on earth,” a meeting point between earth and heaven. (Michael E. Williams “Exodus-Joshua” p 98)

According to Jewish thought, paradise and the tree of life were to reappear at the end of time. (J. Massyngberde Ford "Revelation" p 388)

In LXX (the Greek word "paradeisos") is used of the earthly Eden (Gen. 2.8ff.). ... In Rev. 2.7 'the paradise of God' is the eschatological Eden (cf. Test. Levi xviii.10). The heavenly Paradise, the Eden above, appears in 4 Ezr. 4.7f.; 3 Bar. 4:8; TB Hagigah 15b; Gen. Rabba 65 on Gen 27.27, etc. (F.F. Bruce "1 and 2 Corinthians" p 247; comment to 2 Cor 12:3)

My ways have passed Inferno and Purgatorio without I have seen Paradiso, therefore Kierkegaard with his confessionless Christianity again has become my banner, which I in fact never have left, because the existence itself for me has been a great suffering. (August Strindberg "Minnen från Danmark" p 190-191; Politiken 1912-01-22 och Afton-Tidningen 1912-01-25; translation from the Swedish text. BG Ask)

The one being able to get on well here (down on the earth), this one is a pig; I know townsmen regarding themselves being in the Paradise, when they live in summer cottage, lay the banquet table with Chinese lanterns and let off fireworks afterwards. (August Strindberg "En blå bok I" p 65; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

The thing was that my grandfather in Minnesota had always described Sweden to me as a paradise. . . . Apples in America tasted like nothing compared with the juicy apples in Småland, strawberries in Sweden tasted much better than our American ones, and the pike in Långasjö were so marvellous that it was a shame to compare them with the fish in Minnesota. I listened to Grandfather's descriptions and as a child thought about them a great deal, and in my mind told myself, "Some day . . . some day . . . I will travel to Sweden . . . I will taste the apples and strawberries in paradise and the good fish that can be caught in Långasjö and which is better than any other fish." . . . I had expected that everything in Sweden would be large and magnificient, in accordance with Grandfather's descriptions. This turned out not to be so. The little red cottages along the road were picturesque but not imposing. The trees were small in comparison with the giant trees I had seen in various places in America, the locomotives were much smaller than our American engines, the same with the streetcars. But everything was clean and proper and there were flower beds around the railway stations. A little railroad station in America in those days looked like a junk heap in comparison with a Swedish one - here thrash lay in piles and there were no flowers. The villages in Sweden were not so different from small communities in America, but everything was cleaner and neater, and there were flowers everythere. As far as the larger cities were concerned, they were also as clean and freshly swept as though they had just been put in order to receive some distinguished guest. (Amandus Johnson "En svenskamerikan besöker sitt fosterland år 1906" p 258-259)

It grew wood rather high upwards the sides of (the mountain) Taberg, but the uppermost top was bare, and from there one could see widely around in all directions. . . . If one looked at north . . . the country looked as if it would have been modelled with greatest love and care. At that direction it was seen mere beautiful mountains, sweeping valleys and winding, small rivers till the large lake Vättern, which was ice-free and shining bright, as if it was not filled with water, but with a blue light. . . . It looked as if a blue shimmer had ascended from the lake and spread also over the country. Groves and heights and the roofs and the spires of the town Jönköping, peeping out on the shore of Vättern, lay wrapped around by a light blue colour caressing the eye. If there were countries in heaven, they surely also would be blue like that, the boy meditated thinking that he had got a little idea of how it looked in the Paradise. (Selma Lagerlöf "Nils Holgerssons underbara resa genom Sverige" s 210-211; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Have you (Drachmann's play After) the Fall or is it not printed? I would need to read it! Christmas draws near, this celebration etc. and the Paradise of the Children is opened. But ohne Geld kein Paradies! Consequently help! Help! Help! (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev VI aug 1886-jan 1888" p 317; letter 1887-12-06 to Axel Lundegård; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

The one having written 2 volumes in 2 months wanting to rest makes a pleasure-trip for two days, in order to get good food, look at beautiful view, play fine billiards. . . . He was tired of writing and wanted to rest in realities which he did not find. . . . Paradise, as we know, consists in having one's wish, however insignificant. I had not more than (one) wish on my way; the one to eat caviar. All the other wishes were crushed. So it became no Paradise. (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev V 1885-juli 1886" p 360-361; letter 1886-06-23 to Verner von Heidenstam; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

I knew, that at Titus' triumphal arch a street opens out, which, open for the public, leads upwards the precipices of the rock, where the shepherd Faustulus nursed a kingdom and the imperator August an empire. . . . In the walls I meet at certain distances niches with paintings, which remind of harder steps than the hardest a traveller eager to see has taken in a steep hill. . . . They represent the resting-places - "stations" as it is called - of Jesus' walk from Pilate's house to Golgatha. Here he bore his cross. I know, that in the next niche I shall see him sink down under it . . . that still farther up I shall see the tree of life, raised by executioner soldiers. (Viktor Rydberg "Karnevalen - Bonaventuras kloster - Äventyr på Korso" p 256-257; Rome 1874; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

All having got an opportunity of comparing the Roma of the pope and the States of the Church with the Roma of Italy only have one opinion of this, that the city during the last past four years has been changed much to its advantage. Of course I make an exception for the catholic priests, for which Rome ceased to be Paradise in the same time as it ceased to be the capital of ignorance and dirt. (Viktor Rydberg "Kyrkostatens Rom och Italiens" p 243; year 1874; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Some time ago a French bishop informed his hearers, what he thought himself know of the real cause to the many wars, which since the days of Arild and Ariovistus have been made between France och Germany."My children", he said; "our Lord, who has arranged all wisely, he has given the Germans a country suiting them, for it is acrid as their temper, unfruitful as their imagination, foggy as their intellect. I have myself been both in München and in Berlin, and I can assure you, that there is terribly. Us, on the other hand, the creator has blessed with glorious districts. What wonder then, that the barbarians want to deprive us our Paradise." (Viktor Rydberg "Strövtåg i Paris" p 213; year 1873 in Paris; Göteborgs Handels- och Sjöfartstidning 1874; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Grandmother had told about the Paradise, and she had thought that it looked there as in the little rose-plantation outside the west gable of Mårbacka. At the same time she knew that the Paradise had something with God to do. (Selma Lagerlöf "Mårbacka" p 38-43; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Svante sat upstairs in the comfortable hall of the house of bricks making fun of Margit. The girl sat right opposite him looking up to his face. . . . "Do you now want to sing anything for me?'" "About what?" "Something more about the garden of Eden, to which the star of Bethlehem shows." "I cannot write such a song I think you want, about the garden of Eden. I can do it another time. But nevertheless I shall sing something about it or about its mirage - about my own farewell from that mirage." Svnte took the harp: "Still the park of Eden is green - I have a memory, that I myself have been inside there. . . . The child is born here to the life of earth, which is not an Eden. But it happens, that while it breathes and grows here, it sees the Paradise shimmer right through the earthly sights and feels to be in Eden, although it does not think over it. . . . What it is beautiful there! It is a world of mere beautiful wonders with glassy water and with dusky groves, in which twilight golden apples glow, and underneath there wild strawberries shine red." (Viktor Rydberg "Vapensmeden" p 89-91; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Deep in the Christian time among Scandinavians the idea lived that their heathen fathers believed in the existence of an Eden, from which sorrow, pain, defects, old age, illness and death were shut out. This Eden was called . . . "Not field of dead ones . . . earth of living men". It was situated not in heaven, but down there, neither on the surface of the earth, nor in the nether world, but separated from the built-up countries of men in a way, which did it not impossible, but nevertheless extremely venturesome to come there. A fairy-tale from the fourteenth century, taken up in the Flatö-book, and with some corrections in "Fornald. Sag. III", tells: Erik, the son of a Norwegian king of a little country, one Christmas Eve gave the promise to visit Odains-aker, and this rumour became known over all Norway. In company with a Danish prince, who also was called Erik, he first went to Miklagård (Constantinople), which king took the young men in his service and had much use of their warlike competence. One day the king conversed in believed questions with the Norwegian Erik with the consequence that the king left the faith of his fathers letting baptize himself. He told his royal teacher the promise he has given to seek out Odains-aker . . . asking him, if he knew, where it was situated. The king thought, that Odains-aker was the same place which the Christians call Paradise, saying that it was situated to the east beyond the districts farthest out, but that nobody is likely to come there, because it is shut off with a wall of fire reaching up to the sky. However Erik was bound by his promise and went on the journey with his Danish namesake. . . . On the bridge of stone (over a river) a dragon lay with open jaws. . . . When Erik and his compatriot had been swallowed by the dragon, they thought themselves enveloped in smoke, but it was dispersed, and they were unhurt seeing in front of them the large plain sunlit and flower shrouded. Rivers of honey flew there, the air was still, but nearest the ground breathes were noticed, which brought around the sweet smell of the flowers. It never is dark in this country, and the objects do not throw any shadow. But the country seemed to be depopulated. However at a distance they saw a tower. In that direction they continued to go, and they found, when they had come nearer, that the tower stood free in the air without foundation or posts. A ladder brought up to it. In the tower there was a room, arrayed with velvet, and there was a beautiful table with delicious dishes on silver plates and wine in golden drinking-vessels. There also were excellently made beds. The two men now were convinced that they had come to Odains-aker and they thanked God that they had achieved their goal. They refreshed themselves and went to sleep. In the sleep a beautiful boy came to Erik. The boy mentioned him by name, said himself be one of the angels watching the gate-way of Paradise, and also Erik's guardian angel, who was at his side, when he gave the promise to seek out Odains-aker. . . . The angel informed him that Odains-aker . . . where he now stayed was not the same place as Paradise, for to this only spirits are allowed to come, and this is the kingdom of spirits, Paradise, so glorious, that Odains-aker, in comparison with it, is as a waste. Nevertheless these two different districts border next to each other, and the river, which Erik had seen, has in Paradise its spring. (Viktor Rydberg "Mythen om underjorden" p 235-237; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Alf Ahlberg, Carl Jonas Love Almqvist, Ingmar Bergman, Elisabeth Beskow, Harry Blomberg, Carl Boberg, Raine Borg, Fredrik Böök, Stig Dagerman, Bob Dylan, Rabbe Enckell, Lars Magnar Enoksen, Mary A. Fisher, Gillis Gerleman, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Nikolaj Gogol, Erik Herneby, Eyvind Johnson, Ulrik Josefsson, Erik Axel Karlfeldt, Sven Lidman, Herman Lindqvist, Löbl-Schreyer, Vilhelm Moberg, Ingun Montgomery, James Morris, Hubert Neuwirth, Petrus M. Nicander, G.H. Pember, Laurence Rees, Frans Eemil Sillanpää, William B. Silverman, Isaac Basjevis Singer, E. Aug. Skogsbergh, Sven Stolpe, Yvonne Teiffel, Anton Tjechov, J.R.R. Tolkien, Mario Vargas Llosa, P. Waldenström, Emile Zola, Göran Åberg.


My own comments and speculations:

The expression “the one conquering” occurs seven times in Rev 2-3 and once, the eighth time, in the new Jerusalem (Rev 21:7). Cf. My own comments and speculations to Rev 2:7a.

To the one conquering: See also Rev 2:11b,17b,26; 3:4b-5,12a. The seventh and the last time of an old age: Rev 3:21. The eighth and the first time of a new age: Rev 21:7. Cf. also the expression “the ones conquering” in Rev 15:2.

“(The) wood of (the) life”: See also Rev 22:2b,14,19.

The Greek word ”paradeisos” is here translated by ”place by the side of apprehension”. Usually the word otherwise is derived from an old Persian word, which means “enclosure” or “park”. Concerning the possibility of having a Greek meaning of a word from another language we can compare with Williams ”Exodus-Joshua” p 30: “Even though the name “Moses” is given a Hebrew explanation (linked either to his own being as one ‘drawn out’ of the Nile, or to Israel's being, which is ‘drawn out’ through the sea), ‘Moses’ is an Egyptian name, well-attested among the Pharaohs (Thut-mose, A-mose, Ka-mose). But ‘Moses’ by itself isn't really a full name at all; it means ‘born to/son of’ (Ka-mose would be son of Ka).”

The "paradeisos" of God probably is synonymous with "the new Jerusalem". Like there is a "paradeisos" on the present earth, there will be a "paradeisos" on the coming earth. On the "old" earth "paradeisos" is a garden with a tree of knowledge (= Jesus Christ, the Son of God), on the new earth "paradeisos" is a city with the tree of life, a tree which earlier existed in the "paradeisos" of this old earth.


I have written to you, youths, because you are stable and the saying of God stays in you, and you have conquered (and conquer) the evil one. (1 John 2:14b)

The perfect welcome throws the fear outside, because the fear has a chastisement, but the one fearing is not (and has not been) made perfect in the welcome. (1 John 4:18)

Every the/child being (and having been) begotten out of God conquers the adornment/’adorned world’. And this is the conquest, the one having conquered the adornment/’adorned world’, our faith. (1 John 5:4)


Greek words:

xylon (wood) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Esther 7:10; Wisdom of Solomon 10:4; 14:7; Luke 23:31; Rev 2:7 – Esther 5:14; 6:4; 7:9; 8:7; 2 Macc 1:21; Wisdom of Solomon 13:13; 14:1,21; Sir 6:3; 8:3; 27:6; 38:5; Baruch 5:8. Matt 26:47,55; Mark 14:43,48; Luke 22:52; Acts 5:30; 10:39; 13:29; 16:24; 1 Cor 3:12; Gal 3:13; 1 Pet 2:24; Rev 18:12; 22:2,14,19.

paradeisos (place by the side of apprehension) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Luke 23:43; Rev 2:7 – Sir 24:30; 40:17,27; Susanna 4(Theod),7(Theod),15(Theod),17-18(Theod),20(Theod),25-26(Theod),36,38(Theod); 2 Cor 12:4.


Additional studies:

Gen 1:29; 2:17; 3:1-3,6,24; Prov 13:12; 15:4; Ezek 28:13; 31:9; Matt 26:29; Rom 12:21; 1 John 2:13; 4:4; 5:5; Rev 12:11.


Matthijs den Dulk "The Promises to the Conquerors in the Book of Revelation"; Biblica 87 (2006): 516-522.

Stephen L. Homcy "'To Him Who Overcomes': A Fresh Look at What 'Victory' Means for the Believer According to the Book of Revelation"; Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 38.2 (June 1995): 193-201.

James E. Rosscup "The 'overcomer' of the Apocalypse"; Grace Theological Journal 3.2 (Fall 1982): 261-286.

P. Watson "The Tree of Life"; Restoration Quarterly 23 (1980): 232-238.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-14; 2012-06-04; 2015-01-13)

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2:8 And to the messenger of the (assembly) of called out in Smyrna (= Myrrh) write: “This is what the First (One) and the Last (One), who became a dead (body) and lived/’came to life’, says:”

Word for word (20 words in the Greek text): And (to)-the messenger (of)-the in Smyrna (of)-(assembly)-of-called-out write: '(The-but-things)'/'this-is-what' says the first and the last, who became (a)-dead-(one) and lived.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The Lord said to Moses:) “Take you sweet spices, the flower myrrh (= smyrna), chosen, five hundred shekels ... and you shall make (o these things) a holy olive-oil ointment.” (Ex 30:23a,25a, Greek OT)

Moses talked (words) into the ears of every/'the whole' (assembly) of called out of Israel. (Deut 31:30a, Greek OT)

The male was tossed in the grave of (the prophet) Elisha. And he went and touched the bones of Elisha, and he lived/’came to life’ and stood up against/on his feet. (2 Kings 13:21b, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said to the king:) "Your God has anointed You (with) oil of exultation ‘to the side of’/’in comparison with’ Your partners/fellows (of kings). From your garments (come fragrance of) myrrh (= smyrna) and dropping fluid and cassia." (Ps 45:7b-8a or 8b-9a, Greek OT)

(The bride said:) “I stood up to open ... My hands dripped (with) myrrh (= smyrna), my fingers (were) filled (with) myrrh (= smyrna).” (Song of Solomon 5:5a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) “I, God, (am) first, and into the things coming on I am.” (Is 41:4b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) “I (am) first, and I (am) after these things. And it/there is not a god more than Me.” (Is 44:6b, Greek OT)

The spirit came into, into (the bones), and they lived/’came to life’ and stood on their feet. … (Ezek 37:10b, Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) ”This is what the Lord says: ’On/’on the ground of’ the three impieties of (Gaza/Tyre/Idumaea/Ammon/Moab/Judas/Israel) and on/’on the ground of’ the four, I will not turn away to them.” ... Hear this saying, which the Lord has talked against you, house of Israel, and ‘down from’/against every tribe, which (He) led up out of (the) earth/land of Egypt, saying: “’More than’/however I had knowledge of you out of all tribes of the earth. Because of this I will procure justice against you for all your misses (of My mark).” (Amos 1:6a,9a,11a,13a; 2:1a,4a,6a; 3:1-2, Greek OT)

(Wisdom said:) “As cinnamon … I give (and have given) scent, and as chosen myrrh I 'gave asunder'/distributed fragrance.” (Sir 24:15a)


The Latter Revelation: (The soothsayers) carried to (Jesus) gifts; gold and olibanum/frankincense and myrrh (= smyrna). (Matt 2:11b)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Many first ones will be last ones and last ones (will be) first ones.” (Matt 19:30)

(The father said to his slaves:) "This my son (continually) was (a) dead (body) and/but has ‘lived up’/’returned to life’." (Luke 15:24a)

On (the women's) leaning the faces into/to the earth (the two men) spoke towards (them): “What/why do you seek the living One in company with the dead (bodies)?” (Luke 24:5b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

Jesus spoke to (Martha): “I am the resurrection and the life. The one believing into Me, and/also if he – according to the circumstances – may die, he will live.” (John 11:25)

Nicodemus, the one having the first (time) come towards Jesus (א,*א) a night, came having (א*) a medley (א*,B) of myrrh and aloes, as (if it was) a hundred pounds. (John 19:39)

“I am the Alpha and the Ô/Omega, a beginning and an end (א*),” says the Lord God. (Rev 1:8a)

(One like a son of a man) said: “ * (א*) I am the First (One) and the Last (One) and the One living, and I became a dead (body), and behold, I am a living one into the (coming) ages of the (coming) ages.” (Rev 1:17b-18a)

(As for) the mystery of the seven stars which you beheld upon my right (hand) and the seven golden lampstands: the seven stars are messengers of the seven (assemblies) of called out, and * (א*) seven lampstands are seven (assemblies) of called out. (Rev 1:20)

To the messenger of the (assembly) of called out in Ephesos write: “This is what the One ‘getting power (over)’/seizing the seven stars in His right hand (א*) says.” (Rev 2:1a)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: Leif Carlsson, Carl Henrik Martling.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “the First (One) and the Last (One)”, see also Rev 1:17b.


Paul said to the believers in Rome: “For into/’for the purpose of’ this Christ died and lived/’came to life’, in order that He may be lord both (with regard to) dead (bodies) and living (ones).” (Rom 14:9)


Additional studies:

Prov 7:17; Song of Solomon 3:6; 4:14; 5:1,13; Matt 10:28; Mark 15:23; Rev 1:4,11; 13:14.


David E. Aune "The Form and Function of the Proclamations to the Seven Churches (Revelation 2-3)"; New Testament Studies 36 (1990): 182-204.

James L. Boyer "Are the Seven Letters of Revelation 2-3 Prophetic?"; Grace Theological Journal 6.2 (1985): 267-273.

Birger Gerhardsson "De kristologiska utsagorna i sändebreven i Uppenbarelseboken (kap 2-3)"; Svensk Exegetisk Årsbok 30 (1965): 70-90.

Beate Kowalski "Martyrdom and Resurrection in the Revelation to John"; Andrews University Seminary Studies 10.1 (Jan. 1972): 55-64.

Robert L. Muse "Revelation 2-3: a critical analysis of seven prophetic messages"; Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 29.2 (June 1966): 147-161.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-14; 2012-06-04; 2015-01-14)

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2:9a I know your works and (א,*א) (your) oppression and beggary – however you are rich – ...

Word for word (13 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus): (i/I)-'know-(and-have-known)'/know your the works and the oppression and the beggary, however rich (you)-are.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Jacob said to his household and all who were in company with him:) “God … having ‘heard on’/’listened to’ me in a day of oppression. …” (Gen 35:3b, Greek OT)

The Lord had inspected the sons of Israel … because He had beheld their oppression … (Ex 4:31b, Greek OT)

(Moses said to Israel: “You will find the Lord) when you – according to the circumstances – may seek Him out, out of your whole heart and out of your whole soul in your oppression.” (Deut 4:29b, Greek OT)

(David said: “The ones who hated me) came beforehand before me in a day of my oppression, and/but the Lord became my ‘support against’/’point of support’. … He took me out for Himself, because He was pleased in/with me.” (2 Sam 22:19,20b, Greek OT)

Zophar said: “ (God) knows works of lawless ones.” (Job 11:11a, Greek OT)

(Solomon said:) “The ones enriching themselves they ‘are having’/have nothing and the ones humbling themselves they are in much riches.” (Prov 13:7, Greek OT)

(Solomon said:) “In every place (are) the eyes of the Lord, they spy both bad and good ones.” (Prov 15:3, Greek OT)

(The boy of the Lord said:) "A spirit of the Lord … has dispatched (and dispatches) me away to a bring a good little message to the beggarly ones." (Is 61:1a, Greek OT)

(Israel) have ‘given back’/sold . . . needy ones ‘with respect to’/’on account of’ sandals (and wants to throw) the gravel of the earth/ground . . . into/against heads of beggarlies. (Amos 2:6b-7a, Greek OT)

(Tobit said to his son:) “Do not fear, (my) little boy, that we have been/become beggarly. To you many good things ‘begin under’/’there ... are’, if – according to the circumstances – you may fear God and flee from every miss (of His mark) and make/do the good things in the very eyes of the Lord, your God.” (Tobit 4:21, S)

(Solomon said:) ”What (is) richer than a wisdom working all the things.” (Wisdom of Solomon 8:5b)

(Solomon said: “Wisdom) enriched (the righteous).” (Wisdom of Solomon 10:11b)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “Remember a seasonable/certain time of famine in a seasonable/certain time of satiation, beggary and lack in days of riches.” (Sir 18:25)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "Happy the beggarly ones (in) the spirit, because theirs is the kingdom of the heavens." (Matt 5:3)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "The kingdom of the heavens is like a heap/treasure having been (and being) hidden in the field, which having found a man hid. And from/’owing to’ his joy he withdraws and sells all things as many as he has and buys that field. Again the kingdom of the heavens is like * (א,* B) a trader seeking fine pearls, but/and having find one much valuable pearl (and) having gone away he has disposed (and disposes) all things as many as he (continually) had, and he bought it." (Matt 13:44-46)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Then they will give you ‘to the side of’/over into oppression and they will kill you. ” (Matt 24:9a)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “This beggarly widow threw more than all the ones throwing into the treasury.” (Mark 12:43b)

(Jesus) found a (א,*א) place where it (continually/-) was (and had been) written: “A spirit of the Lord … has anointed me to bring a good little message to beggarly ones.” (Luke 4:17b-18a)

(Jesus said:) ”When you – according to the circumstances – may make a banquet, call beggarly ones.” (Luke 14:13a)

A certain beggarly one (with) name Lazarus, having been (and being) caused sores, had been (and was) thrown towards the gateway (of a rich man), and desiring/desired to be fed from (the things) falling from the table of the rich. … But it became/’came about’ (that) the beggarly one died and was carried away by the messengers into Abraham's bosom (where he was comforted). (Luke 16:20-21a,22a)

(The toll collector said:) ”God, be propitiated to me, the misser (of Your mark).” (Jesus said:) “This one descended into his house having been (and being) justified ‘to the side of’/’in comparison with’ that one, because 'every the'/everyone heightening himself will be humbled, but the one humbling himself will be heightened.” (Luke 18:13b-14)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

The one making/doing the truth comes towards the light, in order that it may be made visible, that it is in God his works having been (and being) worked in God. (John 3:21)

The Saviour (א,*א) knew from (P66, א,* א) a beginning (that) some are the * (א,*א) believing ones and (that) someone (continually) was the one being about to give Him ‘to the side of’/over (P66, א,*א). (John 6:64b)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "These things I have talked (and talk) (with) you, in order that you may have peace in Me. In the adornment/’adorned world’ you have oppression. However, be confident. I have conquered (and conquer) the adornment/’adorned world’." (John 16:33)

(Jesus Christ) has made us a kingdom, priests to His God and Father. (Rev 1:6a)

I, John, your brother and a companion together with (you) in the oppression. (Rev 1:9a)

To the messenger of the (assembly) of called out in Ephesos write: “This is what the One ‘getting power (over)’/seizing stars in His right hand (א*) says, the One walking about in middle of the seven golden lampstands: “I know your works.” (Rev 2:1-2a)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

Today it is Tuesday and in Saturday it is Saturday when the invoice will be paid. Yesterday I had become without dinner if I had not had enough strength of mind to borrow from the hotel proprietor. When You receive this letter in Friday I ask to get 300 Franc, 200 Kr. or less, in case of need overtelegraphed! Think, to sit and own 1000 Kr and nevertheless starve. Can you explain it, with materialismic reasons? (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev XII dec 1896-aug 1898" p 281; letter 1898-03-22 to Gustaf af Geijerstam; translation from the Swedish text)

These are wealthier than all, who have trampled under foot the desire or riches. (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers X:30)

It is not possible for him to be rich, who is not wealthy in his soul; like as it is not possible for him to be poor, who hath not the poverty in his mind. For if the soul is a nobler thing than the body, the less noble parts have not power to affect it after themselves; but the noble part draws over unto herself, and changes those that are not so noble. ... Seest thou that the soul then most of all is poor, when it is rich; and then is rich, when it is in poverty? (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers X:484)

Let us not think poverty an evil: sin is the only evil. For neither is wealth a good thing by itself: to be well-pleasing to God is the only good. (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers XIV:518)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Evert Adolfsson, Alf Ahlberg, Ingegerd Ahlin, Inger Ahlstedt-Yrlid, Eric S. Alexandersson, Carl Jonas Love Almqvist, Dan Andersson, Augustinus, UllaBritt Berglund, Arvid Bergstam, Erik Bernspång, John Blomqvist, Sven Danell, Echnaton, Albert Engström, Bo Frid, Carl Grimberg, Lennart Gustavsson, Gustav Haag, Rune Henriksson, C.G. Hjelm, Hjalmar Holmquist, Swening Johansson, Evy Juneswed, Ivar Karlstrand, Lars Levi Laestadius, Hans Larsson, Sven Lidman, Martin Luther, Enok Magnusson, Emil Malm, D.L. Moody, Ivan Oljelund, Jeanna Oterdahl, Johan Ludvig Runeberg, Ada Rydström, Bernhard Shaw, John Steinbeck, John Steiner, Bo-Anders Stenstrand, Jesper Svartvik, Thomas a Kempis, Lennart Thörn, Johan Olof Wallin, LisBeth Wedin, Paul Wern, N.P. Wetterlund, Owe Wikström, Fredrik Wislöff, Birgitta Yavari, Anders Österling.


My own comments and speculations:

Cf. Psalms of Solomon 15:1: “Solomon said: ‘ In my being oppressed … I was saved, for You, God, is a hope and a resort of the beggarly ones.’”


Paul said to the believers in Corinth: “(We live) as beggarly, but enriching many; as having nothing and ‘keeping down’/possessing all things.” (2 Cor 6:10b)

James said: “Has not God chosen the beggarly ones in the adornment/’adorned world’ (to be) rich in faith and heirs of the promise (א,* A), which He has promised to the ones welcoming Him?” (Jas 2:5b)


Greek words:

plousios (rich) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Wisdom of Solomon 8:5; Luke 16:21; Jas 2:5; Rev 2:9 – Esther 1:20; 1 Macc 6:2; Sir 8:2; 10:22,30; 13:3,18-23; 25:2; 26:4, 31:3,8; 44:6; Susanna v 4(Theod); Matt 19:23-24; 27:57; Mark 10:25; 12:41; Luke 6:24; 12:16; 14:12; 16:1,19,22; 18:23,25; 19:2; 21:1; 2 Cor 8:9; Eph 2:4; 1 Tim 6:17; Jas 1:10-11; 2:6; 5:1; Rev 3:17; 6:15; 13:16.

ptôcheia (beggary) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Sir 18:25; Rev 2:9 – Sir 10:31; 11:12,14; 13:24; 2 Cor 8:2,9.


Additional studies:

2 Kings 19:3-4; Job 24:23; 31:4; 34:21; Ps 69:33(34); 109:31; Prov 5:21; Eccl 4:13; Is 1:16; 33:2; 37:3-4; Jer 9:23-24; 16:17; Obadiah v 13; Nahum 1:7; Dan 12:1; Matt 11:5; 13:20-21; Mark 12:42-43; Luke 1:53; 6:20; 12:21; 19:8.


Grant R. Osborne "Theodicy in the Apocalypse"; Trinity Journal 14.1 (1993): 63-77.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-14; 2012-06-05; 2015-01-14)

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2:9b ... and the blasphemy, the one (א,* א) out of the ones saying themselves be Jews and they are not however/but a synagogue of the adversary.

Word for word (17 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus): and the blasphemy the-(one) out-of the-(ones) saying Jews be themselves and not (they)-are however (a)-synagogue (of)-the (of)-adversary.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The Lord said to Moses:) “Let the one ‘naming the name of the Lord’/’calling the Lord by name’ be put to death (with) death.” (Lev 24:16a, Greek OT)

It/there (continually) was not water (in/for) the synagogue, and they assembled themselves against Moses and Aaron. ... (They said to Moses:) "’In order that’/’because of’ what have you led the synagogue of the Lord up into this desolate (district)? ... And ‘in order that’/’because of’ this what/why have you led us up out of Egypt?" (Num 20:2,4a,5a, Greek OT)

Many of the nations (continually) were ‘cut round’/circumcised and (continually) lived in Jewish fashion because of the fear of the Jews. (Esther 8:17b, Greek OT)

(David said:) "Many dogs encircled me, a synagogue of (the) ones doing evil surrounded me." (Ps 22:16a or 22:17a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Edom:) “You may gain knowledge that I am the Lord. I have heard the voice of your blasphemies.” (Ezek 35:12a, Greek OT)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “In a synagogue of missers (of the mark of God) fire will burn out (all), and in a disobedient nation wrath has burnt out (all).” (Sir 16:6)

The synagogue of Korah (rose against Moses) in passion and wrath. (Sir 45:18b)


The Latter Revelation:

(John the Baptist said to many of the Pharisees and Sadducees coming for baptism:) "You may not think (that you can) say in yourselves: 'We have Abraham (as) father'. For I say you, that God is able to raise children to Abraham out of these stones." (Matt 3:9)

Jesus says to (the slanderer): "Withdraw, adversary, for it has been (and is) written: 'You shall prostrate yourself (towards) the Lord your God (in adoration of Him) and Him alone you shall serve.'" (Matt 4:10)

(Jesus said to His disciples: "The men) will whip you in their synagogues." (Matt 10:17b)

(Jesus said to the scribes and the Pharisees in a disgraced Jerosolyma/Jerusalem:) “I dispatch away towards you prophets and wise (men) and scribes. (Some) out of them you will kill and crucify.” (Matt 23:34a)

(Jesus said to the scribes:) “The one who – according to the circumstances – may blaspheme into/’for the purpose of’ the Holy Spirit has not a ‘letting be’/’leaving alone’ into the (coming) age, however/but will be (א,*א) liable to an agelong misdeed,” because they had said: "He has an unclean spirit." (Mark 3:29-30)

(The people in the synagogue said about Jesus:) "Is not this the carpenter, the son of Mary and the (א,* א) brother of Jacob and Josef (א,* א) and Judas and Simon, and are not his sisters here towards/‘compared to’ us?" And they ‘were caused to stumble’/’took offence’ in/at Him. (Mark 6:3)

All in the synagogue were fulfilled (with) passion ... But having come through, through their middle, (Jesus) '(continually) went'/'went His way'. (Luke 4:28a,30)

… The scribes and the Pharisees (said at the meeting between Jesus and the paralysed man): “Who is this One who talks blasphemies? Who is able to let misses (of the mark of God) be, if not God alone/only?” (Luke 5:21)

(Jesus said to the seventy:) “The one hearing you, hears Me, and the one not adopting you does not adopt Me, but the one not adopting Me does not adopt the One having dispatched Me away.” (Luke 10:16)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(The Jews who to begin with believed Jesus) answered and spoke to (Jesus): “Our father is Abraham.” Jesus says to them: “If you are children of Abraham, you (continually) made/’had done’ the works of Abraham. But now you seek to kill Me, a man who has talked (and talks) the truth to you, which I heard from the side of God. This Abraham did not make/do.” (John 8:39-40)

(Jesus said to those Jews who to begin with believed Him:) "Because of what have you not knowledge of My talking? Because you are not able to hear My saying. You are out of the father of ‘the slanderer’/Judas, and you want to make/do the desires of your father. That one (continually) was a man-slayer from a beginning, and he does not stand (and has not stood) in the truth, because it/there is not truth in him. When he – according to the circumstances – may talk the lie, he talks out of the own things, because he is a liar and ‘its father’/’the father of the lie’." (John 8:43-44)

The Jews had already put (and put) together in order that if – according to the circumstances – anyone may confess Him (to be) christ/smord, he might become led away from the synagogue. (John 9:22b)

(The Jews said to Jesus): “We do not stone You on account of a fine work however/but on account of a blasphemy, and because You, being a man, make Yourself God.” Jesus answered them: “Has it not been (and is it not) written in * (P45,א*) the law that/: ‘I spoke, you are gods.’ If He ‘spoke to’/called those ‘gods’, towards whom the saying of God became/came (and the writing is not able to be loosened), do you say to the One whom the Father made holy and dispatched away into the adornment/’adorned world’ that/: ‘You blaspheme’, because I spoke: ‘I am a Son of God’?” (John 10:33-36)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "They will make/cause you led away from the synagogue. However/certainly an hour comes, ‘in order that’/when 'every the'/everyone having killed you may think, (that) he carries a divine service to God." (John 16:2)

A revelation of Jesus Christ which God gave Him to show to His holy ones (א*) the things which must become/’come about’ in/with quickness. (Rev 1:1a)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

Some fight in vain, some find the helper, and it is only given one: Jesus Christ he is called, the subjugator of demons. You know that I was one and passed the fight, which nevertheles is not at an end. The apemen preach tolerance, with that meaning that one must have patience with them endlessly, let them undisturbed preach and make propaganda, while they more or less pursue the Christians. As soon as they scent Christian blood they shudder, then they begin to "exclude" the "unfaithful" one; his name is not named, and if it exists in print, so it is cut away; had he before belonged to the assembly of the apemen, so he is called apostate and must die as a traitor. (August Strindberg "En blå bok I" p 258; the word "apeman" Strindberg uses to describe the followers of the out-of-date naturalistic and darwinistic views of the eighties of the nineteenth century; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Satanism = to believe God be evil. (August Strindberg "Ockulta dagboken" p 64; quotation from Kabbala; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Th. Brieger, Carl Grimberg, Adolf Kloo, Martin Luther, Vilhelm Moberg, Fabian Månsson, Hesba Stretton, Stefan Zweig.


My own comments and speculations:

To use the word “blasphemy” about abuses against an assembly of called out is in fact possible in the light of the first and last verses in the Revelation (א*), where the Christians are called the holy ones. We can also compare with the words of Jesus in Luke 10:16.


Paul said to the believers in Corinth: “The adversery transforms himself into a messenger of light. So (it is) not a great thing, if and/also his servants and/also transform themselves as servants of righteousness.” (2 Cor 11:14b-15a)

Little boys (and girls), it is a last hour, and entirely as you have heard that antichrist comes, and/also now many antichrists have become (and become), from where we have knowledge, that it is a last hour. (1 John 2:18)


Additional studies:

Lev 24:10-11,16; Num 16:3; 27:17; Joshua 22:16; Ps 74:2; Mark 2:7; Luke 4:22; 23:2; John 4:22; Acts 17:7; 26:10-11; Rom 2:28-29; Eph 4:31; Tit 1:16; Rev 2:13,24; 3:9.


E. Lohse "Synagogue of Satan and Church of God"; Svensk Exegetisk Årsbok 58 (1993): 105-123.

P.G.R. Villiers "Prime evil and its many faces in the Book of Revelation"; Neotestamentica 34.1 (2000): 57-86.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-14; 2012-06-06, 2015-01-14)

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2:10aa Do not fear anything (of) the things you are about to suffer.

Word for word (5 words in the Greek text): not-anything fear what/the-(things) (you)-are-about-to suffer.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

After these words a word of the Lord became/came towards Abram in a vision, saying: “Do not fear, Abram!” (Gen 15:1a, Greek OT)

(Lot said to the men of Sodom:) “You may not make/do, not anything unrighteously into/’purposed for’ these males, who ... have come into, underneath the shelter of my wooden beams.” (Gen 19:8b, Greek OT)

Because of … as much as (the Jews) suffered (and had suffered) .. and as much as it had become/happened to them, (they celebrated Purim). (Esther 9:26b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to His people:) “Do not fear, because I have redeemed you. I have called you (by) your name, you are Mine. And if you – according to the circumstances – may step through, through water, I am in company with you. And rivers will not ripple over (you) together with you. And if you – according to the circumstances – may come through, through fire, you may not/certainly not be burned down, and a flame will not burn you down.” (Is 43:1b-2, Greek OT)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "Do not fear from the ones slaying the body but being not able to kill the soul; but rather fear the One being able to perish and/both soul and body in Gehenna." (Matt 10:28)

(On Pilate's) being seated upon the tribune his woman dispatched away (a message) towards him, saying (about Jesus: “Let there be) nothing ‘to you and to’/’between you and’ that righteous One, for because of Him I to-day suffered many things ‘according to’/during a dream." (Matt 27:19)

(The disciples) were troubled. But straight/’straight off’ (Jesus) talked in company with them, and He says to them: “Be confident! I am, do not fear!” (Mark 6:50b)

(Jesus) ‘honoured on’/’spoke seriously with’ (the disciples), in order that they might not say anything on account of Hem. And He began to teach them, that the Son of the Man must suffer many things." (Mark 8:30-31a)

The little demon … came ‘out of’/out from (the man) ‘having not’/’without having’ damaged him anything. (Luke 4:35b)

(Simon said:) ”’Strive after’/pray in favour of me towards the Lord in that way that not anything of which/the things you have spoken (and speak) may come against, against me.” (Acts 8:24b)

Having so shaken off the little wild animal into the fire (Paul) indeed suffered nothing bad. (Acts 28:5)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(The disciples) feared. But (Jesus) says to them: “I am. Do not fear.” (John 6:19b-20)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

In the Apocalypse divine protection is promised to our sufferings. “Fear nothing of these things,” it says, “which thou shalt suffer.” Nor does any one else promise to us security and protection, than He who also speaks by Isaiah, the prophet, saying: “Fear not; for I have redeemed thee, and called thee by Your name: Thou are mine. And if thou passest through the water, I am with thee, and the rivers shall not overflow thee. And if thou passest through the fire, thou shalt not be burned, and the flame shall not burn thee; for I, the Lord Your God, the holy One of Israel, am He who maketh thee safe.” (Cyprian, The Anti-Nicene Fathers V p 501-502)

The frequent charge that Buddhism is pessimistic because it declares life to be suffering is inaccurate. ... It is never denied that there is much happiness in the world. It is only asserted that sooner or later one must suffer because of separation from dear things, that worldly happiness is yoked to suffering. (Richard H. Robinson-Willard L. Johnson “The Buddhist Religion” p 28)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Chas.E. Cowman, Ulf Ekman, Nils Ferlin, Martin Luther, Niklas Piensoho, Harald Rasmussen, John Stott, Thomas a Kempis, Einar Thomassen.


The perfect welcome throws the fear outside, because the fear has a chastisement, but the one fearing is not (and has not been) made perfect in the welcome. (1 John 4:18)


Greek words:

mêdeis (not anyone/no one) (in the NT + one example in the Apocrypha) Matt 27:19; Mark 8:30; Luke 4:35; Acts 8:24; Rev 2:10 – 2 Macc 14:28; Matt 8:4; 9:30; 16:20; 17:9; Mark 1:44; 5:26,43; 6:8; 7:36; 9:9; 11:14; Luke 3:13-14; 5:14; 6:35; 8:56; 9:3,21; 10:4; Acts 4:17,21; 9:7; 10:20,28; 11:12,19; 13:28; 15:28; 16:28; 19:36,40; 23:14,22,29; 24:23; 25:17,25; 27:33; 28:6,18; Rom 12:17; 13:8; 1 Cor 1:7; 3:18,21; 10:24-25,27; 2 Cor 6:3,10; 7:9; 11:5; 13:7; Gal 6:3,17; Eph 5:6; Phil 1:28; 2:3; 4:6; Col 2:4,18; 1 Thess 3:3; 4:12; 2 Thess 2:3; 3:11; 1 Tim 4:12; 5:14,21-22; 6:4; Tit 2:8,15; 3:2,13; Heb 10:2; Jas 1:4,6,13; 1 Pet 3:6; 1 John 3:7; 3 John v 7; Rev 3:11.

paschô (suffer) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Esther 9:26; Acts 28:5; Rev 2:10 – 2 Macc 6:30; 7:18,32; 9:28; Wisdom of Solomon 12:27; 18:11,19; 19:13; Matt 16:21; 17:12; 27:19; Mark 5:26; 8:31; 9:12; Luke 9:22; 13:2; 17:25; 22:15; 24:26,46; Acts 1:3; 3:18; 9:16; 17:3; 1 Cor 12:26; 2 Cor 1:6; Gal 3:4; Phil 1:29; 1 Thess 2:14; 2 Thess 1:5; 2 Tim 1:12; Heb 2:18; 5:8; 9:26; 13:12; 1 Pet 2:19-20,23; 3:14,17; 4:1,15,19; 5:10.


Additional studies:

Gen 21:17; Joshua 8:1; 10:8; 11:6; Judges 6:23; 2 Chron 20:15-17; Is 7:4; 10:24; 37:6; 41:10,13-14; 43:5; 44:2,8; 51:7; 54:4; Jer 1:8; 10:5; 30:10; 42:11; 46:27-28; 51:46; Lam 3:57; Ezek 2:6; Dan 10:12,19; Joel 2:21-22; Haggai 2:5(6); Zech 8:13-15; Matt 10:26-31; 28:10; Mark 5:36; Luke 5:10; 8:50; 12:4-7,32; John 12:15; Acts 18:9; 27:24; Rev 11:18.


Grant R. Osborne "Theodicy in the Apocalypse"; Trinity Journal 14.1 (1993): 63-77.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-14; 2012-06-06; 2015-01-15)

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2:10ab Behold, the slanderer is about to throw (some) out of you into watch/custody, in order that you may be tried, and you will have oppression (for) ten days.

Word for word (16 words in the Greek text): behold is-about-to throw the slanderer out-of you into watch in-order-that (you)-may-be-tried and (you)-will-have oppression days ten.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Jacob said:) “God ... having ‘heard on’/’listened to’ me in a day of oppression. ...” (Gen 35:3b, Greek OT)

... Joseph's lord threw him in, into the fort. (Gen 39:20a, Greek OT)

(David said: “The ones who hated me) came beforehand before me in a day of my oppression, and/but the Lord became my ‘support against’/’point of support’. … He took me out for Himself, because He was pleased in/with me.” (2 Sam 22:19,20b, Greek OT)

The Lord spoke to the slanderer: "Behold, I give (Job) by the side of you. Only 'watch ... throughout'/spare his soul." (Job 2:6, Greek OT)

(Daniel said to the steward:) “Try your boys against/during ten days, and let us be given from the pulses of the earth …” (The steward) tried (Daniel, Hananiah, Mishael and Azariah) (during) ten days. And after the ten days their sight were brought to light finely and the condition of the mouth (was) better than the other youths eating the kingly chief meal. (Dan 1:12,14b-15, Greek OT)

(Solomon said:) “A trial of death touched and/also righteous ones ... (but) a blameless male ... stood against the wrath and ‘put on’/decided ‘a goal’/’an end’ for the profit/misfortune.” (Wisdom of Solomon 18:20-21a)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “Child, if you may come to be a slave to the Lord, make your soul ready into/’for the purpose of’ a test.” (Sir 2:1)


The Latter Revelation:

Jesus was led up by the Spirit into the desolate (district) to be tried by the slanderer. (Matt 4:1)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Then they will give you ‘to the side of’/over into oppression and they will kill you. ” (Matt 24:9a)

(The Lord said:) "This (woman), being a daughter of Abraham, whom the adversary had bound (for), behold, eighteen years, had she not to be loosened from this band (on) the sabbath day?" (Luke 13:16)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “They will throw/lay their hands ‘against against’/on you and pursue (you), giving you ‘to the side of’/over into the synagogues and watches/custodies, being led away against kings and commanders ‘with respect to’/’on account of’ My name.” (Luke 21:12b)

The Lord spoke (א,*א,A): "Simon, Simon, behold, the adversary has demanded ‘out you’/’your surrender’ to sift (you) as the bread-stuff. I have ‘been in need of’/’strived after’ on account of you, in order that your faith may not ‘leave out’/cease." (Luke 22:31-32a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “They will make/cause you led away from the synagogue. However/certainly an hour comes, ‘in order that’/when 'every the'/everyone having killed you may think, (that) he carries a divine service to God.” (John 16:2)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "These things I have talked (and talk) (with) you, in order that you may have peace in Me. In the adornment/’adorned world’ you have oppression. However, be confident. I have conquered (and conquer) the adornment/’adorned world’." (John 16:33)

I, John, your brother and a companion together with (you) in the oppression. (Rev 1:9a)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

The teacher went on: . . . The most difficult is to see the injustices in the woirld, but this you overcome by taking it as tests; if it goes right for the evil malignant one, it can't be helped, it is not intended for us, and his prosperity was not so nice on closer inspection. If you are pursued by misfortunes without your conscience explaining them as deserved, so take them easy, regard it as an honour to stand the test, and it will come a day, when it will turn to the better. Then you perhaps discover that the misfortunes were kind deeds, or at least opportunities to train your capacity. Do not envy anyone, you do not know what the envied is hiding, which you do not want to have, if it joined the booty. (August Strindberg "En blå bok I" p 45; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

The West became godless and therefore the black heathens got might to pain us. . . . (The cock) turned his head to me, flapped his wings as if he exhorted me to flight. But I objected: the enemies are over me, but it is to be mistrustful of God to flee. And I stayed. (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev XI maj 1895-nov 1896 p 264,276; letters 1896-07-13 and 1896-07-19, both to Torsten Hedlund; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: Jane Austen, Nils Bolander, Amadeus Creutzberg, J. Elder Cumming, Ylva Eggehorn, E.J. Ekman, Carl Grimberg, Peter Halldorf, Majken Johansson, Oscar Krook, Lars Levi Laestadius, Sven Lidman, Vilhelm Moberg, D.L. Moody, Lewi Pethrus, Niklas Piensoho, John Sjögren, Thomas a Kempis, Leo Tolstoj.


(Paul said to the believers in Corinth:) "In order that I may not 'be outdone'/'feel overly exalted', it was given me a pale (in) the flesh, a messenger of an adversary, in order that it might slap me * (א,* A). (2 Cor 12:7b)


Greek words:

deka (ten) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Luke 13:16; Rev 2:10 – Esther 9:10,13; Tobit 1:14; 4:20; 8:20; 10:7(BA); Sir 41:4; Matt 20:24; 25:1,28; Mark 10:41; Luke 14:31; 15:8; 17:12,17; 19:13,16-17,24-25; Acts 25:6; Rev 12:3; 13:1; 17:3,7,12,16.

Additional studies:

Gen 24:55; 35:3; Ex 4:31; Deut 4:29; Ps 34:19(20); Jer 17:10; Matt 25:36,39,43-44; Mark 1:12-13; Luke 4:1-2; John 16:21; Acts 5:17-23; 7:10; 12:4-10; 14:22; 16:23-27; 20:23; 22:4; 26:10; 2 Cor 6:5; 11:23; Phil 4:14; Heb 11:36; Rev 2:3,9; 3:10; 13:10.


Grant R. Osborne "Theodicy in the Apocalypse"; Trinity Journal 14.1 (1993): 63-77.

P.G.R. Villiers "Prime evil and its many faces in the Book of Revelation"; Neotestamentica 34.1 (2000): 57-86.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-14; 2012-06-06; 2015-01-15)

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2:10b Become faithful until death and I will give you the crown of the life.

Word for word (11 words in the Greek text): become faithful until death, and (i/I)-will-give you the crown (of)-the (of)-life.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The Lord said: “Moses) is faithful in My whole house.” (Num 12:7b, Greek OT)

(Solomon said:) “A faithful witness delivers a soul out of bad things.” (Prov 14:25a, Greek OT)

(The woman said:) “Come out (daughters of Zion) and behold in/at king Solomon in/with the crown, in/with which his mother has crowned him in/on a day of his marriage and in/on a day of a cheerfulness of his heart.” (Song of Solomon 3:11, Greek OT)

That day the Lord of hosts will be the crown of the hope, the plaited one of the glory. (Is 28:5a, Greek OT)

… (Judas) called to the side of (him) the ones hving fought nobly together with him as long as to death. (2 Macc 13:14a)

(Baruch said:) “Jerusalem, ’set out’/’strip off’ your dress of grief and ill-treatment/humilation and set/clothe yourself into the (coming) age in the comely appearance of the glory from the side of God. Wrap up yourself in the double (garment) of righteousness, the one from the side of God and put the head-dress of the agelong glory against, against your head.” (Baruch 5:1-2)


The Latter Revelation:

The lord uttered to (his slave): “Well (done), good and faithful slave. You (continually) were faithful against/over few things. I will ‘cause ... to stand down’/appoint you upon many things, Come into, into the joy of your lord.” (Matt 25:21 and 25:23)

Having plaited a thorny crown (the soldiers) put it round about (Jesus). (Mark 15:17b)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “If you have not become faithful in/with the alien thing, who will give you the thing (being) yours?” (Luke 16:12)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Acquire/gain your souls in your endurance.” (Luke 21:19)

(Paul said:) “I have pursued this way until death.” (Acts 22:4a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Jesus said to the Jews:) "Amen, amen I say to you, that the one hearing My saying and believing (in) the One having sent Me has agelong life and does not come into judgment, however/but has stepped (and steps) over out of the death into the life." (John 5:24)

Before the Feast of the ‘paschal lamb’/Passover knowing that His hour had come in order that He might step over out of this adornment/’adorned world’ towards the Father, having welcomed the own, the ones in the adornment/’adorned world’, Jesus welcomed them into/’up to’ (the) end. (John 13:1)

The soldiers plaited a crown out of thorns and put (it) on (Jesus') head. (John 19:2a)

And after eight days (Jesus') disciples (continually) again were inside, and Thomas was in company with them. Jesus comes, (while) the doors being (and having been) shut, and He stood into the middle and spoke: "Peace to you." Next He says to Thomas: "Carry your finger here and behold My hands and carry your hand and throw/lay (it) into/'up to' My rib and do not become faithless however/but faithful. (Joh 20:26-28)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

Queen (Margareta Lejonhuvud): "Mother, for the last time I appeal to you, do not wear this (Cistercian)dress:" . . . The mother-in-law (Ebba Karlsdotter, also called Eriksdotter, nun in Vreta convent, mother-in-law of king Gustav Vasa): "I do not change faith as you change your coat, and it is a promise to God behind this dress. The people menace my life, they may take it. The shroud I wear. . . . 'Be faithful until death and the crown of life will be yours!' This I once taught you, but you sold your birthright for a crown, which you soon do not own more!" (August Strindberg "Gustav Vasa" p 172-173; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

When buffeted ... we often are the first to act on the offensive, and think we are disgraced if we do not the same in return. Yes, and the mischief is, that when utterly worsted we think ourselves conquerors, and when lying undermost and receiving ten thousand blows from the devil, then we imagine that we are mastering him. Let us then, I exhort you, understand what is the nature of this victory, and this kind of nature let us follow after. To suffer evil is to get the crown. If then we wish to be proclaimed victors by God, let us not in these contests observe the laws of heathen games, but those of God, and learn to bear all things with longsuffering. (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers XIV:20)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Elisabeth Beskow, T.S. Eliot, Linné Eriksson, Carl Grimberg, Gunnar Hillerdal, Henrik Ibsen, Viktor Johansson, Lars Levi Laestadius, Harry Lenhammar, Sven Lidman, Robert D. Linder, Mereth Lindgren, Valborg Lindgärde, Marie Lindstedt Cronberg, Fredrik Nielsen, Harald Rasmussen, Viktor Rydberg, Torgny Segerstedt, Isaac Basjevis Singer, Carl Storck, John Stott, Edith Södergran, Thomas a Kempis, Einar Thomassen, Nils Erik Villstrand, Johan Olof Wallin.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “the crown of the life”, see also Rev 3:11b.


Paul said to the believers in Corinth: “Every the'/everyone fighting has mastery over all things, those indeed so in order that they may take a corruptible crown but we an uncorruptible.” (1 Cor 9:25)

James said: “Happy a male who stays behind a test, because having become approved, he will take the crown of life, which (God) has promised to the ones welcoming Him.” (Jas 1:12)

We know, that we have stepped (and step) over out of the death into the life, because we welcome our (א,*א) brothers. The one not welcoming stays in the death. (1 John 3:14)


Greek words:

achri(s) (until) (in the NT + examples in the OT) Acts 22:4; Rev 2:10 - Judges 11:33B; Job 32:11; 2 Macc 14:10,15; Matt 13:30(א*); Matt 24:38; Luke 1:20; 4:13; 17:27; 21:24; Acts 1:2,22(א,*א,A); 2:29; 3:21; 7:18; 11:5; 13:6,11; 20:11; 22:22; 23:1; 26:22; 27:33; 28:15; Rom 1:13; 5:13; 8:22; 11:25; 1 Cor 4:11; 11:26; 15:25; 2 Cor 3:14; 10:13-14; Gal 3:19; 4:2; Phil 1:5-6; Heb 3:13; 4:12; 6:11; Rev 2:10,25-26; 7:3; 12:11; 14:20; 15:8; 17:17; 18:5; 20:3.


Additional studies: Ex 29:6; 39:30; Lev 8:9; Prov 12:4; Is 35:10; Zech 6:14; Matt 10:22; 24:13; 25:23; 27:29; Luke 12:42-44; 16:10-11; 19:17; 1 Cor 4:2; Phil 3:14; 2 Tim 2:5; 4:7-8; 1 Pet 5:4; Rev 2:13,25-26; 3:11; 12:11; 17:14.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-14; 2012-06-06; 2015-01-15)

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2:11 The one having an ear, let him hear what the Spirit says to the (assemblies) of called out. The one conquering may not/certainly not be treated unrighteously ‘out of’/’in consequence of’ the second death.

Word for word (20 words in the Greek text): The-(one) having (an)-ear let-him-hear what the spirit says (to)-the (assemblies)-of-called-out. The-(one) conquering not/certainly not may-be-treated-unrighteously out-of the death the second.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

A messenger of the Lord called (to) Abraham a second (time) out of the heaven. (Gen 22:15, Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) “A saying of the Lord (continually) became/came towards me out/'on the basis' of a second (time).” (Jer 1:13a, Greek OT)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "Do not fear from the ones slaying the body but being not able to kill the soul; but rather fear the One being able to perish and/both soul and body in Gehenna." (Matt 10:28)

Having again, 'out of second'/'for the second time', gone away (Jesus) prayed. (Matt 26:42a)

(Jesus said to the seventy:) “Behold, I have given (and give) you the (judicial) authority to tread above serpents and scorpions and against every ability of the enemy, and nothing will (א,* א, A) * (א*) act unrighteously (against) you.” (Luke 10:19)

(Paul said to the governor:) “If I indeed so act unrighteously and practise (and have practised) something worthy death, I do not ‘demand from the side of’/reject the thing to die.” (Acts 25:11a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

Nicodemus says towards (Jesus): “How is a man able to be begotten being an old person? He is not able to come into his mother’s belly a second time and be begotten, is he?” (John 3:4)

The one having an ear, let him hear what the Spirit says to the (assemblies) of called out. To the one conquering * (א,* א) I will give to eat out of the wood of the life, which is in the ‘place by the side of apprehension’/Paradise of God. (Rev 2:7)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

McNamara cites Targum Isa 22:14 which is an oracle against Epicurean-minded Jews: “The prophet said: ‘With my ears was I hearkening when this was decreed before the Lord of Hosts: “This sin shall not be forgiven you till you die the second death, says the Lord of hosts.”’” (J. Massyngberde Ford "Revelation" p 393-394)

(The) goal (of Hinduism) is Nirvana, literally a blowing out. It is the extinction of hope, want, joy and sorrow. (Frank B. Rehnstrom "An Outline of Missionary Enterprise in India, Nepal & Pakistan" p 24)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Hilding Fagerberg, Homeros, V.J. Ljunggren, Viktor Rundgren, Anton Tjechov, Leo Tolstoj.


My own comments and speculations:

The expression “the second death” is not found in the OT. In the Targum on Jer 51:39 it is said, that Babylon shall die the second death and not live in the world to come. This second death is here understood as the perpetual sleep mentioned in Jer 51:39.

Concerning “The one having an ear … the (assemblies) of called out”, see Rev 2:7a. Concerning “the one conquering”, see Rev 2:7b.

“The second death”: See also Rev 20:6a,14; 21:8.


I have written to you, youths, because you are stable and the saying of God stays in you, and you have conquered (and conquer) the evil one. (1 John 2:14b)

Every the/child being (and having been) begotten out of God conquers the adornment/’adorned world’. And this is the conquest, the one having conquered the adornment/’adorned world’, our faith. (1 John 5:4)


Greek words:

adikeô (act/’be treated’ unrighteously) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Luke 10:19; Acts 25:11; Rev 2:11 – Esther 1:16; 4:1; Tobit 6:15; Judith 11:4; 2 Macc 14:28; Sir 4:9; 13:3; 35:13(16); Baruch 2:12; The Epistle of Jeremiah v 17,53; Matt 20:13. Acts 7:24,26-27; 25:10; 1 Cor 6:7-8; 2 Cor 7:2,12; Gal 4:12; Col 3:25; Philemon v 18; 2 Pet 2:13; Rev 6:6; 7:2-3; 9:4,10,19; 11:5; 22:11.


Additional studies:

Rev 6:6; 7:2-3; 9:4,10,19; 11:5; 20:6,14; 21:8.


Matthijs den Dulk "The Promises to the Conquerors in the Book of Revelation"; Biblica 87 (2006): 516-522.

Stephen L. Homcy "'To Him Who Overcomes': A Fresh Look at What 'Victory' Means for the Believer According to the Book of Revelation"; Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 38.2 (June 1995): 193-201.

James E. Rosscup "The 'overcomer' of the Apocalypse"; Grace Theological Journal 3.2 (Fall 1982): 261-286.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-15; 2012-06-06; 2015-01-16)

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2:12 And to the messenger of the (assembly) of called out in Pergamos write: “This is what the One having the two-mouthed sharp large sword says.”

Word for word (18 words in the Greek text): And (to)-the messenger (of)-the in Pergamos (of)-(assembly)-of-called-out write: This-is-what says the-(one) having the large-sword the two-mouthed the sharp:


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The prophet said:) ”This is what the Lord says: ’On/’on the ground of’ the three impieties of (Gaza/Tyre/Idumaea/Ammon/Moab/Judas/Israel) and on/’on the ground of’ the four, I will not turn away to them.” ... Hear this saying, which the Lord has talked against you, house of Israel, and ‘down from’/against every tribe, which (He) led up out of (the) earth/land of Egypt, saying: “’More than’/however I had knowledge of you out of all tribes of the earth. Because of this I will procure justice against you for all your misses (of My mark).” (Amos 1:6a,9a,11a,13a; 2:1a,4a,6a; 3:1-2, Greek OT)

(Idumaea has pursued) his brother in/with a large sword. ... (Amos 1:11b, Greek OT)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

Out of the mouth (of the Son of the Man) a two-mouthed sharp large sword going/went out. (Rev 1:16ab)

(As for) the mystery of the seven stars which you beheld upon my right (hand) and the seven golden lampstands: the seven stars are messengers of the seven (assemblies) of called out, and * (א*) seven lampstands are seven (assemblies) of called out. (Rev 1:20)

To the messenger of the (assembly) of called out in Ephesos write: “This is what the One ‘getting power (over)’/seizing stars in His right hand (א*) says, the One walking about in a middle of the seven golden lampstands.” (Rev 2:1)


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “the two-mouthed sharp large sword”, see Rev 1:16ab.


Additional studies:

Rev 1:11; 2:16; 19:15.


David E. Aune "The Form and Function of the Proclamations to the Seven Churches (Revelation 2-3)"; New Testament Studies 36 (1990): 182-204.

James L. Boyer "Are the Seven Letters of Revelation 2-3 Prophetic?"; Grace Theological Journal 6.2 (1985): 267-273.

Birger Gerhardsson "De kristologiska utsagorna i sändebreven i Uppenbarelseboken (kap 2-3)"; Svensk Exegetisk Årsbok 30 (1965): 70-90.

Robert L. Muse "Revelation 2-3: a critical analysis of seven prophetic messages"; Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 29.2 (June 1966): 147-161.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-15; 2012-06-06; 2015-01-16)

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2:13a I know where you dwell, whereat/where the throne of the adversary (is).

Word for word (8 words in the Greek text): (i/I)-'know-(and-have-known)'/know where (you)-dwell, whereat the throne (of)-the (of)-adversary


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Israel) will take/'take up' this wailing against the king of Babylon and speak in that day: "... How fell/'(did not) ... fall' the Morningstar, the one sticking up early in the day, fall out of, out of the heaven! The one dispatching away (men) towards all the nations may be crushed into/against the earth! But/then you spoke in your mind: 'I will ascend into the heaven, I will put/set my throne above the constellations of the heaven.'" (Is 14:4a,12-13a, Greek OT)

A saying of the Lord became/came towards (the prophet), (a saying) saying: "(You), a son of a man, you dwell in a middle of the unrighteous ones (of Jerusalem), who have eyes to the thing to see and do not see and have ears to the thing to hear and do not hear, for the reason that it is a house 'making bitter by the side of'/embittering." (Ezek 12:1-2, Greek OT)

(The king of Assyria) swore down from his throne and kingdom to ‘take up ... for himself’/’get rid of’ the ones dwelling in ... (with) his large sword ... (Judith 1:12b)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “The heaven … is a throne of God.” (Matt 5:34b)

(Jesus said to the scribes and the Pharisees:) “The one having sworn in/by the temple swears in/by it and in/by the One dwelling in it. And the one having sworn in/by the heaven swears in/by the throne of God and in/by the One being seated above it.” (Matt 23:21-22)

(Jesus said to the seventy:) "I (continually) looked at the adversary, having fallen out of the heaven as a ray of light." (Luke 10:18)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(The two disciples) spoke to (Jesus): "Rabbi" - which being interpreted (א*) ‘is said’/means teacher - "where do you stay?" He says to them: "Come and behold!" They so came and beheld where He stays; and they stayed by the side of Him that day. (John 1:38b-39a)

(Jesus said to the crowd:) "The leader of this adornment/’adorned world’ will be thrown out outside." (John 12:31b)

(Jesus said to His Father:) “I do not ask, in order that You may lift (My disciples) out of the adornment/’adorned world’, however/but that You may keep them out of the evil.” (John 17:15)

(I know) the blasphemy, the one (א,* א) out of the ones saying themselves be Jews and they are not however/but a synagogue of the adversary. (Rev 2:9b)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: Sven Danell, E.J. Ekman, John Stott, H.E. Wislöff.


Greek words:

katoikeô (dwell) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Judith 1:12; Matt 23:21; Rev 2:13 – Tobit 14:4; Judith 1:6-7,10-11; 2:28; 3:4; 4:6; 5:3,5,9,14,16; 7:13,20; 8:11; 11:2,14; 14:4; 15:6; 1 Macc 1:28; 3:34; 6:12; 2 Macc 3:1; 12:13; Wisdom of Solomon 1:4; Sir 10:2; Baruch 1:4; 3:20; 4:35. Matt 2:23; 4:13; 12:45; Luke 11:26; 13:4; Acts 1:19-20; 2:5,9,14; 4:16; 7:2,4,48; 9:22,32,35; 11:29; 13:27; 17:24,26; 19:10,17; 22:12; Eph 3:17; Col 1:19; 2:9; Heb 11:9; 2 Pet 3:13; Rev 3:10; 6:10; 8:13; 11:10; 13:8,12,14; 17:2,8.


Additional studies:

Rev 2:24; 13:2.


Steven J. Friesen "Satan's Throne, Imperial Cults and the Social Settings of Revelation"; Journal for the Study of the New Testament 27.3 (2005): 351-373.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-15; 2012-06-06; 2015-01-16)

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2:13ba And you get/have power over your (א*) name and did not deny My faith.

Word for word (11 words in the Greek text): and (you)-get-power-over the name your and not denied the faith my


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

Abram believed (in) God, and it was counted to him into righteousness. (Gen 15:6, Greek OT)

(Moses said to the Lord:) “If so – according to the circumstances – (Israel) may not believe me ‘but not’/or listen to My voice? For they will speak: ‘God has not been (and is not) beheld to you.’” … (Aaron) made the signs opposite (Israel). And the people believed. (Ex 4:1,30b-31a, Greek OT)

The Lord spoke towards Moses: “... You have found (and find) joybringing (grace) in the very eyes of Me, and I know you ‘to the side of’/’in comparison with’ all." (Ex 33:17, Greek OT)

(The Lord) blamed the Red Sea, and it was dried. And He showed (His people) the way in an abyss as in a desolate (district). ... And they believed in His sayings, and they sang His praise. (Ps 106:9,12, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to His people Israel:) “Do not fear, because I have redeemed you. I have called you (by) your name, you are Mine.” (Is 43:1b, Greek OT)

(Solomon said to the Lord:) “Wicked ones … (denied, that they) know/knew You.” (Wisdom of Solomon 16:16a)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “Every ... unrighteousness will be wiped out and faith will stand into the (coming) age.” (Sir 40:12)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “You may not adopt as a law that I came to loosen down/up the law or the prophets. I did not come to loosen down/up however/but to complete. For Amen I say to you: ‘Till – according to the circumstances - the heaven and the earth may go by the side of, not one “iota” (the smallest letter) or one tittle, may not/certainly not go by the side of from the Law, till – according to the circumstances – all things may become/’come about’.’” (Matt 5:17-18)

(Jesus said to the twelve:) "Whoever may – according to the circumstances – deny Me in front of the men, I and/also will deny him in front of My Father, the One (being) in * (P19, א,* א) heavens.” (Matt 10:33)

(The Canaanite woman said to Jesus:) “Lord, succour me. …” Then 'having answered Jesus'/'Jesus answered and' spoke to her: “O woman, your faith (is) great, let it become to you as you want!” (Matt 15:25b,27b-28a)

(The disciples) ‘got power over’/embraced the saying, seeking together with (one another) towards themselves what the thing to stand up out of dead (bodies) is. (Mark 9:10)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "If (א,* א) you have a faith of God … (The one) may not doubt in his heart however/but may believe, that what he talks becomes/’comes about’, it will be/’come about’ for him.” (Mark 11:22b,23b)

(Jesus) said towards all: ”If anyone wants to come behind Me, let him deny himself and lift his cross ‘according to day’/’day by day’ and follow Me.” (Luke 9:23)

(Jesus said to the seventy:) “Rejoice because your names are (and have been) written in, in the heavens.” (Luke 10:20b)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "Having come will the Son of the Man consequently find the faith upon the earth?" (Luke 18:8b)

All (the elders of the people) spoke (to Jesus): "So You are the Son of God?" But 'the One'/He (continually/-) uttered towards them: "You say that I am." But/and they spoke: "(Of) what evidence have we yet need, for we have heard ourselves from His mouth." (Luke 22:70-71)

(Jesus) spoke to (the Emmaus disciples): “O foolish (men) and slow (in) the heart to believe on/in all things which the prophets have talked! Must by no means the christ/'anointed one' suffer these things and come into, into His glory?" And having begun from Moses and from all the prophets He and/also (went on) to throughout/carefully interpret (א*) for them what (continually) was(א,* א) in * (א,* א) the writings, the things on account of Himself.” (Luke 24:25-27)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(John the Baptist) confessed and did not deny * (א,*א) that/: "I am not the christ/'anointed one'." (John 1:20)

(The shepherd of the sheep) raises his voice (towards) his own sheep ‘according to name’/’after their names’… (John 10:3b)

(Joybringing grace and peace) from Jesus Christ, the faithful witness, the first-born of the dead (bodies) and the leader of the kings of the earth. (Rev 1:5a)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: Karl-Erik Andersson, Bo Giertz, David Hedegård, Karl Palmberg, Joh. Rinman, Viktor Rydberg, Wera Saether, Mikael Tellbe, N.P. Wetterlund.


My own comments and speculations:

The name “Pergamos” means “stronghold/fortification”. Compare the similar word Pergê (Perga), a name which can mean “tower”. Cf. Acts 13:13-14; 14:25.


Paul said to the believers in Corinth: “Now, now faith, hope and welcome stay, these three things.” (1 Cor 13:13a)

Every the/child being (and having been) begotten out of God conquers the adornment/’adorned world’. And this is the conquest, the one having conquered the adornment/’adorned world’, our faith. (1 John 5:4)


Greek words:

pistis (faith) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Sir 40:12; Mark 11:22; Luke 18:8; 1 Cor 13:13; 1 John 5:4; Rev 2:13 – Esther 3:13c(B3); 1 Macc 10:27,37; 14:35; Wisdom of Solomon 3:14; Sir 1:27; 22:23; 27:16; 37:26; 45:4. Matt 8:10; 9:2,22,29; 15:28; 17:20; 21:21; 23:23; Mark 2:5; 4:40; 5:34; 10:52; Luke 5:20; 7:9,50; 8:25,48; 17:5-6,19; 18:42; 22:32; Acts 3:16; 6:5,7; 11:24; 13:8; 14:9,22,27; 15:9; 16:5; 17:31; 20:21; 24:24; 26:18. Rom 1:5,8,12,17; 3:3,22,25-28,30-31; 4:5,9,11-14,16,19-20; 5:1-2; 9:30,32; 10:6,8,17; 11:20; 12:3,6; 14:1,22-23; 16:26; 1 Cor 2:5; 12:9; 13:2; 15:14,17; 16:13; 2 Cor 1:24; 4:13; 5:7; 8:7; 10:15; 13:5; Gal 1:23; 2:16,20; 3:2,5,7-9,11-12,14,22-26; 5:5-6,22; 6:10. Eph 1:15; 2:8; 3:12,17; 4:5,13; 6:16,23; Phil 1:25,27; 2:17; 3:9; Col 1:4,23; 2:5,7,12; 1 Thess 1:3,8; 3:2,5-7,10; 5:8; 2 Thess 1:3-4,11; 2:13; 3:2. 1 Tim 1:2,4-5,14,19; 2:15; 3:9,13; 4:1,6,12; 5:8,12; 6:10-12,21; 2 Tim 1:5,13; 2:18,22; 3:8,10,15; 4:7; Tit 1:1,4,13; 2:2,10; 3:15; Philemon v 5-6. Heb 4:2; 6:1,12; 10:22,38-39; 11:1,3-9,11,13,17,20-24,27-31,33,39; 12:2; 13:7; Jas 1:3,6; 2:1,5,14,17-18,20,22,24,26; 5:15; 1 Pet 1:5,7,9,21; 5:9; 2 Pet 1:1,5; Jude v 3,20; Rev 2:19; 13:10; 14:12.


Additional studies: 1 John 2:22-23; Rev 2:17; 3:8; 14:12.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-15; 2012-06-06; 2015-01-17)

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2:13bb ... in the days in which (א,* א) Antipas (was/lived), My witness, the (א,* א) faithful one, who was killed by the side of you, whereat/where the adversary dwells.

Word for word (19 words in the Greek text): in the days in which Antipas the witness my the faithful-(one) who was-killed by-the-side-of you, whereat the adversary dwells.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Israel) will take/'take up' this wailing against the king of Babylon and speak in that day: "... How fell/'(did not) ... fall' the Morningstar, the one sticking up early in the day, fall out of, out of the heaven! The one dispatching away (men) towards all the nations may be crushed into/against the earth!" (Is 14:4a,12, Greek OT)

The tacticians and the satraps (continually) sought to find a pretence ‘down from’/against Daniel. And/but every pretence and fall from the side of (God) ... they did not find ‘down from’/against him, because he (continually) was faithful. And the tacticians spoke: “We will not found ‘down from’/against Daniel a pretence/motive ‘if not’/except in laws of his God.” (Dan 6:4-5, Theod)

(The Jews dispatched away Noumenios and Antipatros) towards Romans to renew the friendship towards/’in regard to’ them and the formerly alliance in war. (1 Macc 12:16b)

The Jews and the priests have been pleased with Simon being their commander and priest leader into the (coming) age till a faithful prophet (will) stand up. (1 Macc 14:41b)

(Solomon said:) “The faithful ones will abide (in) (the Lord) in welcome … “ (Wisdom of Solomon 3:9b)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Who is consequently the faithful and sensible slave, whom the lord has ‘caused to stand down’/set upon his habitation (א,* א) to give them the nourishment in a seasonable time? Happy (is) that slave.” (Matt 24:45-46a)

(Jesus said to the seventy:) "I (continually) looked at the adversary, having fallen out of the heaven as a ray of light." (Luke 10:18)

The faithful one in a least thing is faithful and/also in a much/great thing. (Luke 16:10a)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "You will take ability, on the Holy Spirit's having come against, against you, and you will be My witnesses." (Acts 1:8a)

(Peter and the apostles said to the priest leader and the Council:) "We are witnesses of/to these words and (so is) the Holy Spirit, which God gave to the ones obeying Him." (Acts 5:32)

Having taken up Paul (the soldiers) led him through/during night into Antipatris. (Acts 23:31b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Jesus said to the crowd:) "The leader of this adornment/’adorned world’ will be thrown out outside." (John 12:31b)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “They will make/cause you led away from the synagogue. However/certainly an hour comes, ‘in order that’/when 'every the'/everyone having killed you may think, (that) he carries a divine service to God.” (John 16:2)

(Jesus said to His Father:) “The words, which You have given (and give) (א,* א) Me, I have given (and give) to (the men whom You gave Me out of the adornment/’adorned world’). And they have themselves truly taken (them) * (א*), that I came out from the side of You. And they have believed, that You dispatched Me away.” (John 17:8)

(Jesus said to His Father:) "Entirely as You have dispatched Me away into the adornment/’adorned world’, and/also I have dispatched (My disciples) away into the adornment/’adorned world’.” (John 17:18)

This is the disciple being a witness on account of these things and having written these things. And we know that his evidence is truthful. * (א*). (John 21:24)

(Joybringing grace and peace) from Jesus Christ, the faithful witness. (Rev 1:5a)

Become faithful until death, and I will give you the crown of the life. (Rev 2:10b, ”Smyrna”)

I know where you dwell, where throne of the adversary (is). (Rev 2:13a)


My own comments and speculations:

The names Antipas, Antipatros (1 Macc 12:16; 14:22) and Antipatris (Acts 23:31) have the same meaning, “in stead of the father”. Antipas, an abridged form of Antipatros, also was the name of one of the kings with the name Herod, often mentioned in the Synoptics, for instance in Luke 3:1.


Greek words:

Antipas (Antipas) Rev 2:13. See My own comments and speculations.


Additional studies: 1 Macc 14:22; Acts 22:20; Rev 2:9; 11:3; 12:11; 17:6,14.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-15; 2012-06-06; 2015-01-17)

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2:14-15 However I have few/’a few’ things ‘down from’/against you, because you have (some) there ‘getting power over’/embracing the teaching of Balaam who taught * (א*) to throw/lay a stumbling block in the very eyes of the sons of Israel, to eat things sacrificed to idols and to fornicate. In this way and/also you have ones likewise ‘getting power over’/embracing the teaching of the Nicolaitans.

Word for word: 2:14 (24 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus prima manus) however (i/I)-have downwards you few-(things), because (you)-have there (ones)-getting-power-over the teaching (of)-Bileam, which taught (to)-throw (a)-stumbling-block in-the-very-eyes-of (of)-the (of)-sons (of)-Israel (to)-eat (things)-sacrificed-to-idols and (to)-fornicate. 2:15 (10 words in the Greek text) in-this-way have and/also you (ones)-getting-power-over the teaching (of)-the (of)-Nicolaitans likewise.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Israel) was profaned into the daughters of Moab. And they called (the people) on/’for the sake of’ the sacrifices of their idols, and the people ate their sacrifices prostrated before their idols (in honour of them). (Num 25:1b-2, Greek OT)

(The females) (continually) were/caused the sons of Israel, according to the word of Balaam, the thing to stand aloof from and ‘behold over’/overlook the word of the Lord. (Num 31:16a, Greek OT)

(Moses said:) “It shall not be fornicating from/’on the part of’ sons of Israel.” (Deut 23:17b, Greek OT)

(Jehu said to Joram:) “What peace, (because) the fornications of your mother Jezebel and her gifts still (are) the/so many.” (2 Kings 9:22b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to the house of Israel:) “I will sprinkle clean water against you, and you will be made clean from all your impurities and from all your idols, and I will clean you.” (Ezek 36:25, Greek OT)

The sons of Baia ... (continually) were into a snare and a stumbling block for the people (of Israel). ... (1 Macc 5:4b)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) ”The one treating the few things despicable will fall ‘according to small’/’after a little time’.” (Sir 19:1b)

All the ones ‘getting power over’/keeping (the book of the commands of God) (come) into life. ... (Baruch 4:1b)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "The one having been sown against the rocky (ground), this is the one hearing the saying and straight off taking it in company with joy, but has not a root in himself, however/but is transitory. But/and having become oppression or pursuit because of the saying, he straight off is caused to stumble." (Matt 13:20-21)

(Jesus said to His disciples: “Out of the heart) come evil ‘countings throughout’/considerations, murders, adulteries, fornications, thefts, false evidences, blasphemies. These are the things making the man common/unclean.” (Matt 15:19-20a)

(Jesus asked His disciples to beware of) the teaching of the Pharisees and the Sadducees.” (Matt 16:12b)

Having turned (Jesus) spoke to Peter: “Withdraw behind Me, adversary! You are a stumbling block to Me, because you do not consider the things of God however/but the things of the men.” (Matt 16:23)

The Pharisees and all the Jews do not eat, if they – according to the circumstances – do not frequently (א,* א) may wash their hands, ’getting power over’/embracing the tradition of the elders. And (coming) from a market place, they do not eat, if they - according to the circumstances – may not sprinkle (א,* א, B) (themselves). ... (Jesus said to the Pharisees and the scribes:) “Having let the commandment of God be, you ‘get power over’/embrace the tradition of the men.” (Mark 7:3-4a,8)

(The disciples) ‘got power over’/embraced the saying, seeking together with (one another) towards themselves what the thing to stand up out of dead (bodies) is. (Mark 9:10)

(John the Baptist) will turn many of the sons of Israel next to, against/to the Lord their God. (Luke 1:16)

(The Lord said:) “Martha, Martha, you care (about) and are distracted around/’in relation to’ many things. But it is (a matter) of few things or one thing (א*), for Mary has chosen the good portion, whichever/which shall not be taken off/from her." (Luke 10:41b-42)

(Jesus said to Peter:) “The one having had not knowledge but/and having made (things) worthy blows will be flayed (with) few (blows).” (Luke 12:48a)

(The brothers, both the apostles and the elders, wrote to the brothers in Antioch and Syria and Cilicia:) “It seemed (good) to the Holy Spirit and to us to put/lay on you nothing/no more weight more than these ‘of necessarily’/’necessary things’: to hold off from (things) sacrificed to idols and (from) blood and (from things/animals) strangled and (from) fornication.” (Acts 15:28-29a)

Paul's spirit (continually) was provoked in him, looking at the city being full of idols. (Acts 17:16b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

Jesus so answered (the Jews) and spoke: “My teaching is not Mine, however/but The One's having sent Me. If – according to the circumstances – anyone may want to make/do His will, he will gain knowledge about/of the teaching, whether it is out of God or I talk from Myself.” (John 7:16-17)

(Jesus said to those Jews who to begin with believed Him:) “You make/do the works of your father.” They * (א,* א, B) spoke to Him: “We are not (and have not been) begotten out/’in consequence’ of fornication. We have one Father, God.” (John 8:41)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "These things I have talked (and talk) (with) you, in order that you may * (א*) ‘be caused to stumble’/stumble. They will make/cause you led away from the synagogue. However/certainly an hour comes, ‘in order that’/when 'every the'/everyone having killed you may think, (that) he carries a divine service to God." (John 16:1-2)

This you have, that you hate the works of the Nicolaitans, which and/also I hate. (Rev 2:6)

You get/have power over your (א*) name and did not deny My faith. (Rev 2:13ba, ”Pergamos”)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

The disciple went on: Why I and many have had so difficult to become real Christians is, I suppose, because . . . we were educated in the apetheory, where we learnt that the man belonged to the zoology and not to the anthropology, that the physical process for the regeneration of the soul, which is called the conversion from the evil thing, was neurasthenia and was cured with warm baths and brominepotassium; when veterinaries sat as professors in philosophy and introduced zoology in the examination of priests and the serrvants of the Lord had to learn that religion was a rest from the Tertiary Age, that animals were more religious than man, and that man had created God. . . . It was a time of horror reminding of the Roman time of the Emperors, and like this it also heralded the arrival of Christianity. We, the ones being seduced, then became seducers, but thank God that there is no harm done. All serve, and we are able to serve as warning exampels, always something. (August Strindberg "En blå bok I" p 104; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

At the moment I do not see that it draws to Roman Catholicism for me, since I at my return here (to Paris) was met by the information that the prior in the Benedictine convent Solesme had become removed for sexual offence. And this was in the convent where I a year ago was going to search a "retraite" (that is: sojourn as a guest). (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev XII dec 1896-aug 1898" p 155; letter 1897-08-04 to Gustaf Gullberg; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Augustinus, Elisabeth Beskow, Björne Erixon, P. Fjellstedt, Martin Luther, Isaac Basjevis Singer, Anna Ölander.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning Balaam and the Nicolaitans, see “Exegetes, evangelists and others” and My own comments and speculations to Rev 2:6.

The expression “sons of Israel” is frequent in the OT. See also Rev 7:4; 21:12.


Paul said to the believers in Ephesos: “Know this, having knowledge of, that every fornicator or unclean or one urging more - who is an idolater - has not inheritance in the kingdom of Christ and of God.” (Eph 5:5)

Paul said to the believers in Thessalonica: "You turned yourselves next to, towards God from the idols to be slaves to a living and true God. (1 Thess 1:9b)


Greek words:

Balaam (Balaam) (in the NT + examples in the OT) Num 31:16; Rev 2:14 – Num 22-24; Deut 23:4-5; Joshua 13:22; 24:9; Micah 6:5; 2 Pet 2:15; Jude v 11.

eidôlothytos (sacrificed to idols) Acts 15:29; Rev 2:14 – (4 Macc 5:2); Acts 21:25; 1 Cor 8:1,4,7,10; 10:19; Rev 2:20.

oligos (few) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Sir 19:1; Luke 10:42; 12:48; Rev 2:14 – Judith 13:9; 1 Macc 3:18; 6:54; 7:1,28,50; 9:9; 12:45; 15:10; 2 Macc 1:15; 2:21; 6:17; 11:1; 12:34; Wisdom of Solomon 2:1; 3:5; 4:13; 15:8; 16:3; Sir 6:19; 20:12,15; 31:19; 32:8; 40:6; 43:32; 51:16,27; Baruch 2:13. Matt 7:14; 9:37; 15:34; 22:14; 25:21,23; Mark 1:19; 6:5,31; 8:7; Luke 5:3; 7:47; 10:2; 13:23; Acts 12:18; 14:28; 15:2; 17:4,12; 19:23-24; 26:28-29; 27:20; 2 Cor 8:15; Eph 3:3; 1 Tim 4:8; 5:23; Heb 12:10; Jas 4:14; 1 Pet 1:6; 3:20; 5:10,12; Rev 3:4; 12:12; 17:10.

porneuô (fornicate) (in the NT) Rev 2:14 – 1 Cor 6:18; 10:8; Rev 2:20; 18:3,9.

skandalon (stumbling block) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) 1 Macc 5:4; Matt 16:23; Rev 2:14 – Judith 5:20; Wisdom of Solomon 14:11; Sir 7:6; 27:23; Matt 13:41(42); 18:7; Luke 17:1; Rom 9:33; 11:9; 14:13; 16:17; 1 Cor 1:23; Gal 5:11; 2 Pet 2:7(8); 1 John 2:10.


Additional studies:

2 Macc 6:3-5; 1 Cor 10:20; Rev 21:8,27.


Meindert Dijkstra "Is Balaam Also Among the Prophets?"; Journal of Biblical Literature 114.1 (1995): 43-64.

David Frankel "The Deuteronomic Portrayal of Balaam"; Vetus Testamentum 46.1 (1996): 30-42.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-15; 2012-06-06; 2015-01-17)

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2:16 Change your mind * (א,*א). But if not, I come to you quickly, and I will wage war ‘in company with’/with them in/with the large sword of My mouth.

Word for word (17 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus): change-your-mind. if but not, (i/I)-come (to)-you quickly and (i/I)-will-wage-war in-company-with them in/with the large-sword (of)-the (of)-mouth my.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Joseph said to Pharao:) "On account of the thing to make the dream of Pharaoh a second time, twice, (it means) that the word from the side of God will be truthful, and God will make, make it quick." (Gen 41:32, Greek OT)

(Moses said to the people of God:) The Lord will wage war on account of you, and you will be silent.” (Ex 14:14, Greek OT)

(The sons of Israel) killed Balaam ... in/with a large sword ... (Num 31:8b, Greek OT)

(Moses said to Israel:) “If you – according to the circumstances – may not listen to the voice of the Lord your God to watch and make/do all His commandments … the Lord will dispatch out to you the lack and the greedy hunger … till He – according to the circumstances – may perish you in/with quickness.” (Deut 28:15a,20a, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said: “Let) two-mouthed large swords (be) in the hands (of the pious ones).” (Ps 149:6, Greek OT)

(The slave Israel said: “The Lord) has put/made My mouth as if (it was) a sharp dagger, and underneath the shelter of His hand He has hid me.” (Is 49:2a, Greek OT)

(Idumaea has pursued) his brother in/with a large sword. ... (Amos 1:11b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Tyre and Sidon and every/’the whole’ Galilee of other tribes:) “Quickly I will give back ... into/’purposed for’ your heads.” (Joel 3:4b, Greek OT)

Judas took Appolonios' dagger, and he (continually) was waging war in/with it in all his days. (1 Macc 3:12b)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “Fight till death on account of the truth, and the Lord God will wage war in favour of you.” (Sir 4:28)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said: “The ones changing) their minds (the Lord) gave a way up.” (Sir 17:24a)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “Every thing is swift opposite the Lord.” (Sir 18:26b)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “As a two-mouthed large sword (is) every lawlessness. Its blow is not a healing.” (Sir 21:3b)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “Many have fallen in a mouth of a dagger.” (Sir 28:18a)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Be well-disposed quickly to your opponent 'till whichever time'/’as long as’ you are in company with him in/on the way.” (Matt 5:25a)

(Simeon said to Mariam:) “A large sword will come and/also through your own soul, in what way – according to the circumstances - ‘countings altogether’/considerations out of many hearts may be revealed.” (Luke 2:35)

All (in the synagogue continually) were witnesses to (Jesus) and (continually) wondered on/at the sayings of joybringing (grace), (sayings) going out, out of His mouth. (Luke 4:22a)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “If – according to the circumstances – your brother may miss (the mark of God), 'honour on'/blame him, and if – according to the circumstances – he may change his mind, let him be. And if – according to the circumstances – he may miss (the mark of God) into/against you seven times ‘of the’/a day, and he seven times may turn himself next to, towards you saying ‘I change my mind’, you will let him be.” (Luke 17:3b-4)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “I say to you, that (God) will make the procuration of justice of (His chosen ones) in/with quickness.” (Luke 18:8a)

(Jesus said to His disciples: “This people) will fall (in) a mouth of a dagger.” (Luke 21:24a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

It became again a split in/among the Jews because of these sayings (of Jesus). (John 10:19)

A revelation of Jesus Christ which God gave Him to show to His holy ones (א*) the things which must become/’come about’ in/with quickness. (Rev 1:1a)

Out of the mouth (of the Son of the Man) a two-mouthed sharp large sword going/went out. (Rev 1:16ab)

Recollect so from where you have fallen (and fall) and change your mind and make/do the first works. But if not, I come to you and I will stir your lampstand out of its place, if you – according to the circumstances – may not change your mind. (Rev 2:5)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

The risen Jesus' warning, "I come quickly" (cf. Luke 18:7f.; Rev. 3:11; 22:7), is not a chronological marker but a pointer to the suddenness of the coming judgment. (E. Earle Ellis "The Gospel of Luke" p 182)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Werner Aspenström, Sven Danell, Folke Thorell, Gladys Knowlton, Fred Lemon, Gösta Sandberg, Eva Spångberg, Paul Wern.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “come quickly”, see also Rev 3:11; 11:14; 22:7,12,20.


The saying of God (is) … more cutting over/’more than’ every two-mouthed dagger. (Heb 4:12a)


Greek words:

polemeô (wage war) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) 1 Macc 3:12; Sir 4:28; Rev 2:16 – Esther 1:1f(A6); 8:13; 9:24; Judith 6:2; 7:11; 1 Macc 2:41,66; 3:2,10,14,58; 4:41; 5:3,16,30,35,50,57,65; 6:37,52,63; 8:10; 9:8-9,30,64; 10:75; 11:46,55,65; 12:24,40,53; 13:9; 14:1,13; 15:19,39; 16:2. Jas 4:2; Rev 12:7; 13:4; 17:14; 19:11.


Additional studies:

Lev 26:33; Deut 11:17; 32:35; Is 11:4; 27:1; 29:5; 42:25; 47:9; 60:22; Jer 12:12; 21:5; 47:6; Ezek 21:5; Matt 10:34; Luke 14:31; 1 Cor 5:6; Eph 6:17; 2 Thess 2:8; Rev 2:12,22; 3:3,19-20; 19:15,21.


Robert L. Thomas "The 'Comings' of Christ in Revelation 2-3"; The Master's Seminary Journal 7.2 (Fall 1996): 153-181.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-15; 2012-06-06; 2015-01-18)

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2:17a The one having an ear, let him hear what the Spirit says to the (assemblies) of called out. To the one conquering * (א,* א) I will give out of (א,* א) the manna having been (and being) hidden.

Word for word (18 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus): The-(one) having (an)-ear let-him-hear what the spirit says (to)-the (assemblies)-of-called-out. (To)-the-(one) conquering (i/I)-will-give out-of the manna the-(one) having-been-(and-being)-hidden.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

The Lord spoke towards Moses: "Behold, I will let breads/loaves out of the heaven rain for you. And the people shall come out and collect ‘the day into’/’day by’ day. In that way I shall try them, if they will go/walk (in) My law or not. And it will be the sixth day, and they shall make ready what - if accorrding to the circumstances - they may carry into (their habitations), and it will be double what they - if according to the circumstances - may have led together ‘according to day into’/’day after’ day." (Ex 16:4-5, Greek OT)

Moses spoke (to Israel): “This (is) the word which the Lord has arranged together: ‘Complete/fulfil the omer of the manna into/’for the purpose of’ a granary into/’purposed for’ your generations, in order that they may see the bread which you ate in the desolate (district), as/when the Lord led you out of the earth/land of Egypt.’” And Moses spoke towards Aaron: “Take a golden jar and throw in into it the gomer filled with the manna and you shall put it away opposite God into/’for the purpose of’ a keeping throughout into/’purposed for’ your generations.” 'Which a turn'/'as the way' the Lord arranged together to Moses, Aaron and/also put (it) away opposite the testimony into a keeping throughout. (Ex 16:32-34, Greek OT)

(God) gave (His people) wet, manna to eat, and He gave them bread of heaven. (Ps 78:24, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to His anointed:) “I will give you dark/secret heaps/treasures. I will open to you things hidden away, impossible to behold, in order that you may have knowledge, that I (am) the Lord God, the One calling (you by) your name, the God of Israel.” (Is 45:3, Greek OT)

(Jeremiah) came out into/to the mountain, where Moses, having ascended, viewed the inheritance of God. And having come Jeremiah found a cavernous house/dwelling, and there he carried into/in the tent and the chest/ark and the sacrificial altar of the incense, and he fenced in the door/entrance. And having come to/forward some of the ones following together with (Jeremiah), so that (they) with a sign (would) mark the way for themselves ... they were not able to find (it). But as Jeremiah had knowledge, being disconted (with) them, he spoke that/: “This place will and/namely be unknown till God – according to the circumstances – may lead together a leading together upon/’with regard to’ the people and become propitious. And then the Lord will show up these things.” (2 Macc 2:4b-8a)

All so (blessed) the Lord, the righteous judge making the things having been (and being) hidden visible. (2 Macc 12:41)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "The kingdom of the heavens is like a heap/treasure having been (and being) hidden in the field.” (Matt 13:44a)

(Jesus said: "The kingdom of God) is like a leaven, which having took a woman hid in into three corn-measures (about 13 litres each) of flour, till (the time in) which it was wholly leavened." (Luke 13:21)

(The disciples) did not 'let together'/perceive anything of (what Jesus had said about His death and resurrection.) This word (continually) was (and had been) hidden from them, and they had (continually) not knowledge of the things being said. (Luke 18:34)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Jesus said to the Jews:) “Your fathers ate the manna in the desolate (district), and they died. This One is the bread, the one descending out of the heaven, in order that a certain one may eat out of it and not die.” (John 6:49-50)

(Jesus said to the crowd): “As you have the light, believe into the light, in order that you may become sons of a light.” These things Jesus talked (about), and having gone away He was hidden from them. (John 12:36)

The one having an ear, let him hear what the Spirit says to the (assemblies) of called out. To the one conquering * (א,* א) I will give to eat out of the wood of the life, which is in the ‘place by the side of apprehension’/Paradise of God. (Rev 2:7)

The one having an ear, let him hear what the Spirit says to the (assemblies) of called out. The one conquering may not/certainly not be treated unrighteously ‘out of’/’in consequence of’ the second death. (Rev 2:11)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

There was a Jewish legend that the manna was laid up before the witness in the ark and hidden away in a cave on Mount Sinai to be revealed when the Messiah came. … The blessed were supposed to eat of this manna in the messianic kingdom. Perhaps this reward is promised as a contrast to eating food offered to idols (vs. 14). (J. Massyngberde Ford "Revelation" p 400)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Evan H. Hopkins, John Wesley.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “The one having an ear … the (assemblies) of called out”, see Rev 2:7a. Concerning “the one conquering”, see Rev 2:7b.


In (the ark there was) a golden jar having/holding the manna. … (Heb 9:4b)

I have written to you, youths, because you are stable and the saying of God stays in you, and you have conquered (and conquer) the evil one. (1 John 2:14b)

Every the/child being (and having been) begotten out of God conquers the adornment/’adorned world’. And this is the conquest, the one having conquered the adornment/’adorned world’, our faith. (1 John 5:4)


Additional studies:

Joshua 5:12; Matt 11:25; 13:35; 25:18; Luke 19:42; John 6:31; 8:59; 16:33; 1 John 3:2; Rev 4:6.


Matthijs den Dulk "The Promises to the Conquerors in the Book of Revelation"; Biblica 87 (2006): 516-522.

Stephen L. Homcy "'To Him Who Overcomes': A Fresh Look at What 'Victory' Means for the Believer According to the Book of Revelation"; Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 38.2 (June 1995): 193-201.

James E. Rosscup "The 'overcomer' of the Apocalypse"; Grace Theological Journal 3.2 (Fall 1982): 261-286.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-16; 2012-06-07; 2015-01-18)

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2:17b ... and * (א,* א) a white voting-stone and against the voting-stone a new name is (and has been) written, which no one knows ‘if not’/except the one taking (it).

Word for word (17 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus): and (a)-voting-stone white and against the voting-stone (a)-name new being-(and-having-been)-written which no-one 'knows-(and-have-known'/knows if not the-(one) taking.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The man) spoke to (Jacob): "What is your name?" But/and he spoke: "Jacob." But/and (the man) spoke to him: "Your name shall not any longer be called Jacob, however/but Israel shall be your name, because you have been stable in, in company with God and able in company with men." (Gen 32:27-28, Greek OT)

Having taken a voting-stone Zipporah ‘cut round’/circumcised the foreskin of her son ... and spoke: “It will be the blood of the circumcision of my little boy. (Ex 4:25, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to His anointed:) “I will give you dark/secret heaps/treasures. I will open to you things hidden away, impossible to behold, in order that you may have knowledge, that I (am) the Lord God, the One calling (you by) your name, the God of Israel.” (Is 45:3, Greek OT)

This is what the Lord says: “To the eunuchs as many as – according to the circumstances – may watch/keep My sabbaths and choose the things which I want and hold themselves next to My covenant, to them I will give in My house and 'in My wall'/'within My walls' a place to be named more powerful (than that) of sons and daughters. I will give them an agelong name, and it will not ‘leave out’/disappear.” (Is 56:4-5, Greek OT)

(The prophet said to Jerusalem: “The Lord) will call you your new name, which the Lord Himself will name.” (Is 62:2b, Greek OT)

(The Lord) will call the ones being slaves to Him (by) a new name. (Is 65:15b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said concerning Israel:) "I shall in passion sprinkle the stones, the throwing/falling rocking-stones. ... And I shall dig down the wall, which you have besmeared/whitewashed." (Ezek 13:13b-14a, Greek OT)

The name of (the new Jerusalem) from (that) day may – according to the circumstances - become: “It will be her name.” (Ezek 48:35b, Greek OT)

The leader of the eunuchs put names on (the three men of the tribe of Judas), on Daniel indeed Baltasar/Belteshazzar (a name which means "May Bel protect his life"). (Dan 1:7a, Greek OT)

(Nebuchadnezzar said:) “Daniel came – who has the name Baltasar/Belteshazzar ‘according to’/after the name of my god.” (Dan 4:5a or 4:8a, Greek OT, Theod)

(Zerubbabel) will carry ‘out of’/out the stone of the inheritance of/with an equality of joybringing (grace) of its joybringing (graces). (Zech 4:7b, Greek OT)

(Baruch said to Jerusalem:) “Your name will be called from the side of God into the (coming) age: “Peace of righteousness and glory of fear of God.” (Baruch 5:4b)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus) was transformed in front of (Peter, James and John), and His face shone as the sun, but/and His garments became white as the light. (Matt 17:2)

Jesus says to (the priest leaders and the elders): “Did you nor at any time read in the writings: ‘A stone which the ones building rejected, this has become into a head/beginning of a corner, from the side of the Lord this became, and it is wondrous in our eyes?’” (Matt 21:42)

(Jesus) put/laid on Simon a name, Peter. (Mark 3:16b)

On someones’ saying on account of the sanctuary, that it was (and had been) adorned (with) fine stones and consecrated gifts, (Jesus) spoke (to His disciples): “(Concerning) these things which you look at, days will come in which it/there shall not be ‘let be’/left stone on stone here (א,* א, B) which will not be loosened down/up.” (Luke 21:5-6)

(Paul said to the king: “On the question of) ‘taking up ... for themselves’/’getting rid of’ (the holy ones) I carried/laid down a voting-stone (against them).” (Acts 26:10b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

As many as took him, to them He gave (judicial) authority to become children of God, to the ones believing into His name. (John 1:12)

(Andrew) led (Simon) towards Jesus. Having seen/’fixed His eyes’ in him Jesus spoke: "You are Simon, the son of John; you will be called Cephas, which is interpreted Peter (= rocking-stone)." (John 1:42)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Do you not say that/: ‘It/there is yet a space of four months, and/’and so’ the harvest comes?’ Behold, I say to you, lift your eyes against and view the districts/fields, that they are white towards a harvest.” (John 4:35)

(The shepherd of the sheep) raises his voice (towards) his own sheep ‘according to name’/’after their names’, and he leads them out. (John 10:3a)

His head and His hairs/hair (were) white as white wool, as snow. (Rev 1:14a)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

In Rev, as in the rest of the New Testament, the colour white is especially related to the heavenly world. (Håkan Ulfgaard "Feast and future" p 81)

The Talmud mentions precious stones falling with the manna in the desert. … We also know, that the name of the Messiah was supposed to be engraved on a stone in the temple. … It was generally thought that the pronouncing or writing of the new name upon a person or thing implied that these were the property of the person named. (J. Massyngberde Ford "Revelation" p 400-401)

Seven years have gone after we buried Emil Kléen. . . . I, who was present at the great separation, saw how easy it was, when he, almost without body, fell asleep - or wake up, which is said to be the same thing. And for me it was a good learning to see how independently his spirit lived when the material substrate almost was consumed. His senses were extinguished, the hearing disappeared, the sight were weakened, and almost without nourishment there lay a skeleton of a child and spoke: beautifully, wisely, goodnaturedly, thankfully.When he no longer could speak, he took up a book pointing at a page: It was (H.C.) Andersen's fairy-tale "The stone of the wise", the stone which was found by the blind girl. Yes, lapis philosophorum, it was not only to make gold, and not to lengthen the life - it was something else! (August Strindberg "Förord till Emil Kléens Valda Dikter" p 93-94; October 1906; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

The Most Holy was now quite empty, a large stone, on which the high-priest sprinkled the blood on the Day of Atonement, occupying the place where the ark with the mercy-seat had stood. (Alfred Edersheim “The Temple” p 58)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Honoré de Balzac, Oloph Bexell, Marcus Birro, Clarence Blomquist, Bob Dylan, Elisabeth Fransson Malm, Bo Frid, Berndt Gustafsson, Lennart Gustavsson, Liselotte Johansson, Frideborg Lindqvist, Carl Henrik Martling, Olaf Moe, Fredrik Nielsen, Anders Nohrborg, Viktor Rydberg, Jesper Svartvik, Gunnar Söderström, Edvard Thermaenius, Tomas Tranströmer, P. Waldenström.


My own comments and speculations:

In a restoration perspective perhaps the name “May Bel protect his life” will be changed to “May the Lord protect his life”.


Greek words:

psêfos (voting-stone) (in the NT + one example in the OT) Ex 4:25; Acts 26:10; Rev 2:17.


Additional studies:

Gen 17:5,15; Is 44:5; Ezek 7:19; Zech 3:9; Matt 2:17; Mark 13:1-2; Luke 9:29; Rev 3:12; 13:18; 14:3,14; 19:12; 20:11.


Matthijs den Dulk "The Promises to the Conquerors in the Book of Revelation"; Biblica 87 (2006): 516-522.

Stephen L. Homcy "'To Him Who Overcomes': A Fresh Look at What 'Victory' Means for the Believer According to the Book of Revelation"; Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 38.2 (June 1995): 193-201.

James E. Rosscup "The 'overcomer' of the Apocalypse"; Grace Theological Journal 3.2 (Fall 1982): 261-286.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-16; 2012-06-07; 2015-01-18)

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2:18 And to the messenger of the (assembly) of called out in Thyatira write: “This is what the Son of God says, the One having His eyes as a flame of fire and His feet like copper from Lebanon (or: like copper similar olibanum/frankincense).”

Word for word (28 words in the Greek text): And (to)-the messenger (of)-the in Thyatira (of)-(assembly)-of-called-out write: '(The-but-things)'/'this-is-what' says the son (of)-the (of)-god, the-(one) having the eyes his as (a)-flame (of)-fire or the feet his like copper-from-libanon (alt. copper-similar-olibanum).


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The Lord said to Moses:) "You shall speak to Pharaoh: 'This is what the Lord says: Israel (is) My first-born son.'" (Ex 4:22, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said:) "The kings of the earth stood ‘by the side of’/near and the leaders were led together ... ‘down from’/against the Lord and ‘down from’/against His Anointed (Christ)." ... The Lord spoke towards me: ‘You are My son. Today I have begotten (and beget) you’" (Ps 2:2,7b, Greek OT)

The king spoke: “Behold, I behold four males being (and having been) loosened/released wandering about in the fire and no ruin/harm became in them, and the beholding of the fourth (has) a likeness of a messenger of God (Theod: ... with a son of God).” (Dan 3:25, Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) ”This is what the Lord says: ’On/’on the ground of’ the three impieties of (Gaza/Tyre/Idumaea/Ammon/Moab/Judas/Israel) and on/’on the ground of’ the four, I will not turn away to them.” ... Hear this saying, which the Lord has talked against you, house of Israel, and ‘down from’/against every tribe, which (He) led up out of (the) earth/land of Egypt, saying: “’More than’/however I had knowledge of you out of all tribes of the earth. Because of this I will procure justice against you for all your misses (of My mark).” (Amos 1:6a,9a,11a,13a; 2:1a,4a,6a; 3:1-2, Greek OT)

(The wicked ones say:) "If the righteous is a son of God, (God) will take 'in stead of'/'part with' him and deliver him out of a hand of (the ones) standing (and having stood) (him) against. . . . We shall 'administer justice entirely'/'give judgment against' (the righteous one) (to) an indecent/ugly death, for it will be 'a visitation'/'an inspection' of him 'out of'/'in consequence of' his sayings." (Wisdom of Solomon 2:18,20)


The Latter Revelation:

Simon Peter 'having answered'/'answered and' spoke (to Jesus:) "You are the christ/'anointed one', the Son of the living God." (Matt 16:16)

The priest leader spoke to (Jesus): "I bind You with oath down from the living God, in order that You may speak to us, if You are the christ/'anointed one', the Son of God." (Matt 26:63b)

(The “leader of a hundred men” and the ones who were in company with him) said: “Truly this (continually) was a son of God!” (Matt 27:54b)

‘Having answered the messenger’/’the messenger answered and’ spoke to (Mariam): "Holy spirit will come against, against you, and an ability of a highest One will overshadow you. Therefore the thing being begotten and/also will be called holy, a son of God." (Luke 1:35)

(The little demons said to Jesus:) "You are the Son of God!" And/but blaming them (Jesus) (continually) did not allow them to talk, because they knew ‘Him be the christ’/’that He was the anoited one’. (Luke 4:41b)

A certain woman (with) name Lydia ... (was from) a city of Thyatira. ... The Lord opened (her) heart throughout. (Acts 16:14a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Nathanael said to Jesus): "Rabbi, You are the Son of God. You are the King of Israel." (John 1:49b)

(Jesus said to the Jews:) "I am a son of God". (John 10:36b)

(Martha said to Jesus:) "I believe (and have believed), that You are the christ/'anointed one', the Son of God, the One coming into the adornment/’adorned world’." (John 11:27b)

Jesus so indeed and/also made many other signs in the very eyes of His disciples, (signs) which it is not being (and not having been) written in this scroll. But these are (and have been) written, in order that you may believe (present subjunctive א*,B) , that Jesus is the christ/'anointed one', the Son of God, and in order that believing you may have agelong (א,*א) life in His name. (John 20:30-31)

His eyes (were) as a flame of fire. (Rev 1:14b)

His feet (were) like copper from Lebanon (or: like copper similar olibanum/frankincense), as in a furnace glowing (and having glowed). (Rev 1:15a)

To the messenger of the (assembly) of called out in Ephesos write: “This is what the One ‘getting power (over)’/seizing stars in His right hand (א*) says, the One walking about in a middle of the seven golden lampstands.” (Rev 2:1)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: Arvid Bergstam.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “eyes as a flame of fire”, see Rev 1:14a. Concerning “feet like copper from Lebanon (or: like copper similar olibanum/frankincense)”, see Rev 1:15a. Concerning “the Son of God”, cf. My own comments and speculations to John 20:30-31.


Who is the one conquering the world, if not the one believing that Jesus is the Son of God. (1 John 5:5)


Additional studies:

Matt 4:3; Rev 1:11; 2:23-24.


David E. Aune "The Form and Function of the Proclamations to the Seven Churches (Revelation 2-3)"; New Testament Studies 36 (1990): 182-204.

James L. Boyer "Are the Seven Letters of Revelation 2-3 Prophetic?"; Grace Theological Journal 6.2 (1985): 267-273.

Birger Gerhardsson "De kristologiska utsagorna i sändebreven i Uppenbarelseboken (kap 2-3)"; Svensk Exegetisk Årsbok 30 (1965): 70-90.

I. Ljung "Om 'Isebel' i Samaria, Tyatira och frankerriket"; Svensk Exegetisk Årsbok 54 (1989): 127-134.

Robert L. Muse "Revelation 2-3: a critical analysis of seven prophetic messages"; Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 29.2 (June 1966): 147-161.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-16; 2012-06-07; 2015-01-19)

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2:19a I know your works and (your) welcome and faith and * (א*) endurance * (א,*א).

Word for word (13 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus prima manus): (i/I)-'know-(and-have-known)/know your the works and the welcome and the faith and the endurance.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

Abram believed (in) God, and it was counted to him into righteousness. (Gen 15:6, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Israel:) "Your hand shall not avenge and you shall not take offence at the sons of your people, and you shall welcome your neighbour as yourself. I am the Lord." (Lev 19:18, Greek OT)

(Zophar said: “God) knows works of lawless ones.” (Job 11:11a, Greek OT)

(Solomon said:) “In every place (are) the eyes of the Lord, they spy both bad and good ones.” (Prov 15:3, Greek OT)

(Solomon said:) “The faithful ones will abide (in) (the Lord) in welcome … “ (Wisdom of Solomon 3:9b)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “You will be being hated by all ones because of My name, but the one having ‘stayed behind’/endured into an end, this one will be saved.” (Matt 10:22)

(Jesus said to the blessed ones:) "As much as you have made/done against one of the least of these My brothers, you have made/done Me." (Matt 25:40b)

(Jesus said to His disciples: “The sowing) in the fine earth these are whoever having heard the saying, ‘keep it down’/’keep it’ in a fine and good heart, and carry fruit in endurance.” (Luke 8:15)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "Having come will the Son of the Man consequently find the faith upon the earth?" (Luke 18:8b)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Acquire/gain your souls in your endurance.” (Luke 21:19)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

The one making/doing the truth comes towards the light, in order that it may be made visible, that it is in God his works having been (and being) worked. (John 3:21)

The Saviour (א,*א) knew from (P66, א,* א) a beginning (that) some are the * (א,*א) believing ones and (that) someone (continually) was the one being about to give Him ‘to the side of’/over (P66, א,*א). (John 6:64b)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "A new commandment I give you, that you may welcome one another, entirely as I have welcomed you, in order that and/also you may welcome one another.” (John 13:34)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “These (signs) are (and have been) written, in order that you may believe (present subjunctive א*,B) , that Jesus is the christ/'anointed one', the Son of God.” (John 20:31a)

I, John, your brother and a companion together with (you) in the oppression and a kingdom and an endurance in Jesus. (Rev 1:9a)

I know your works and your (א,* א) bother and your endurance. (Rev 2:2a – “Ephesos”)

I know your works and (א,*א) (your) oppression and beggary – however you are rich. (Rev 2:9a – “Smyrna”)

You get/have power over your (א*) name and did not deny My faith. ... (Rev 2:13b, “Pergamos”)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: Lars Levi Laestadius, Olaf Moe.


Paul said to the believers in Corinth: “Now, now faith, hope and welcome stay, these three things.” (1 Cor 13:13a)

(Paul and Silvanus and Timothy said to the believers in Thessalonica: “We remember) your work of the faith and (your) bother of the welcome and (your) endurance of the hope.” (1 Thess 1:3a)

Paul said to the believers in Thessalonica: “We ourselves boast in/of, in/of you in the (assemblies) of called out of God ‘in favour of’/over your endurance and faith in all your pursuits and oppressions, (in) which you hold up/out.” (2 Thess 1:4)

This is His commandment, ‘in order that’/that we may (א,*א,A) believe (in) the name of His Son, Jesus Christ, and welcome one another, entirely as He ‘gave us a commandment’/’commanded us’. (1 John 3:23)


Additional studies: Job 24:23; 31:4; 34:21; Ps 133:1; Prov 5:21; Is 1:16; Jer 16:17; John 15:12,17; Gal 3:7; 5:6; 1 Tim 1:5; Rev 1:9; 3:10; 13:10; 14.12.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-16; 2012-06-07; 2015-01-19)

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2:19b ... and your last works (are) more than the first.

Word for word (9 words in the Greek text): and the works your the last more (of/than)-the first.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

Balak (dispatched) away leaders, more … than (the first). (Num 22:15, Greek OT)


The Latter Revelation:

(The master of the house) dispatched away other slaves, more than the first ones. (Matt 21:36a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(The crowd said to Jesus): “What may we make/do in order that we may work (for) the works of God?” Jesus answered and spoke to them: “This, it is the work of God, in order that you may believe into the One whom that One has dispatched away.” (John 6:29)

They (continually) said: "When the christ/'anointed one' – according to the circumstances – may come, not will He make/do more signs than this One makes/does (א*)?” (John 7:31b)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Amen, amen, I say to you, the one believing into Me, that one will and/also make/do the works which I make/do, and greater works than these he will make/do, because I go towards the Father.” (John 14:12)

I have ‘down from’/against you that you have let your first welcome be. Recollect so from where you have fallen (and fall) and change your mind and make/do the first works. (Rev 2:4-5a)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: Sven-Edvin Salje.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-16; 2012-06-07; 2015-01-19)

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2:20 However I have a much/great thing (א,* א) ‘down from’/against you, that you let the woman Jezebel be, the one saying herself be (א,*א) a prophetess, and she teaches and leads My slaves astray to fornicate and eat (things) sacrificed to idols.

Word for word (26 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus): however (i/I)-have downwards you (a)-much-(thing) that (you)-let-be the woman Jezebel, the-(one) saying herself (a)-prophetess be and (she)-teaches and leads-astray the my slaves (to)-fornicate and eat (things)-sacrificed-to-idols.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The prophet Balaam said to Balak's leaders:) “Run away towards your lord. God does not let me be (alone) to go in company with you.” (Num 22:13b, Greek OT)

(Balaam said: “Balaam) utters hearing (the) sayings of God, whoever/’Balaam who’ beheld (the) beholding of God.” (Num 24:4a, Greek OT)

(Israel) was profaned into the daughters of Moab. And they called (the people) on/’for the sake of’ the sacrifices of their idols, and the people ate their sacrifices prostrated before their idols (in honour of them). (Num 25:1b-2, Greek OT)

(Ahab, the king of Israel) 'took a woman'/married Jezebel, the daughter of Ethbaal, king of Sidonians, and he went and was slave to Baal and prostrated himself before him (to honour him). (1 Kings 16:31b, Greek OT)

(There was nothing so) vainly/foolish ‘more than’/except Ahab, as/when he disposed himself to make/do the evil thing in the very eyes of the Lord, as/when Jezebel his wife ‘put ... in company with’/altered him. (1 Kings 21:25, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Jehu:) “You shall destruct wholly the house of Ahab your lord, ‘out of’/’away from’ My face and you shall out of a hand of Jezebel procure justice for the bloods/blood of My slaves the prophets, and for the bloods/blood of all the slaves of the Lord.” (2 Kings 9:7, Greek OT)

(Jehu said to Joram:) “What peace, (because) the fornications of your mother Jezebel and her gifts still (are) the/so many.” (2 Kings 9:22b, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said:) “I have ‘been led’/gone astray as a perished sheep.” (Ps 119:176a, Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) “All we have ‘been led’/gone astray as sheep.” (Is 53:6, Greek OT)

The vain things (of Judas) have led them astray. ... (Amos 2:4b, Greek OT)

(In Israel) a son and his father go in towards/to the same young girl, in what way they may profane the name of their God. (Amos 2:7b, Greek OT)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples: “Out of the heart) come evil ‘countings throughout’/considerations, murders, adulteries, fornications, thefts, false evidences, blasphemies. These are the things making the man common/unclean.” (Matt 15:19-20a)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "False Christs and false prophets will rise ... so that and/also the chosen ones, if able/possible, will be (א,* א) led astray." (Matt 24:24)

(Continually Jesus) did not let the little demons be to talk. ... (Mark 1:34b)

(Jesus said:) “See/’take care’ that anyone may not lead you astray. Many will come on/’for the sake of’ My name, saying that/: ‘I am’ and will lead many astray.” (Mark 13:5b-6)

(The Lord said:) “Martha, Martha, you care (about) and are distracted around/’in relation to’ many things. But it is (a matter) of few things or one thing (א*), for Mary has chosen the good portion, whichever/which shall not be taken off/from her." (Luke 10:41b-42)

(The vinedresser said to “a certain one”:) “Lord, let (the fig tree) be and/also this year, till (the time) whichever/’in which’ I may dig around it and throw/put (on) dung. And if – according to the circumstances - it indeed may make/bear fruit into the ‘(year) being about’/’future (year)’, (fine); but if not, you will/may cut it out/down at any rate.” (Luke 13:8b-9)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “The faithful one in a least thing is faithful and/also in a much/great thing and the unrighteous one in a least thing is and/also unrighteous in a much/great thing. (Luke 16:10)

(The brothers, both the apostles and the elders, wrote to the brothers in Antioch and Syria and Cilicia:) “It seemed (good) to the Holy Spirit and to us to put/lay on you nothing/no more weight more than these ‘of necessarily’/’necessary things’: to hold off from (things) sacrificed to idols and (from) blood and (from things/animals) strangled and (from) fornication.” (Acts 15:28-29a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

I have ‘down from’/against you that you have let your first welcome be. (Rev 2:4, “Ephesos”)

This you have, that you hate the works of the Nicolaitans, which and/also I hate. (Rev 2:6, “Ephesos”)

However I have few/’a few’ things ‘down from’/against you, because you have (some) there ‘getting power over’/embracing the teaching of Balaam who taught * (א*) to throw/lay a stumbling block in the very eyes of the sons of Israel, to eat things sacrificed to idols and to fornicate. In this way and/also you have ones likewise ‘getting power over’/embracing the teaching of the Nicolaitans. (Rev 2:14-15, “Pergamus”)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

I think You are entirely on the false track! The Strindberg You now search is not the one You think! I am a Christian and is sure that the people shall not be educated with theatre and pictures, but in work and piety. In stead of the substitute art they own the original, God's glorious nature! You have gone astray! (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev 16, maj 1907-12 juli 1908" s 269-270; letter 1908-04-18 to Uno Stadius; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

"I am by the Lord appointed a shepherd over a small part of his large flock, I have a holy calling", (pastor Suenonius said). " . . . satan has with daring boldness begun to appear among us to seduce the assembly of God. We are menaced by the most terrible deluge, inasmuch as the evil one with granting of magical tricks snatches innumerable souls. . . . I want to eradicate the priests and priestesses of Baal out of my flock, before they have time to spread the contagion farther than they have done. . . . Our fathers, who were better and more pious than we, have decreed, that sorcery is a matter of life; man will be broken upon the wheel and woman be burnt . . . see sixth chapter in the high treason code and Västerås Charter 1527. . . . (Ingrid in Tallmossen) is the uppermost priestess in the temple of evil . . . she is the favourite bride of Leviathan." (Viktor Rydberg "Fribytaren på Östersjön I" p 136-138; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

The evil thing . . . already ravages withing the consecrated circle of church. With greater trouble God's governor (that is the pope) combats the inner enemies than the outer ones. Here the individual raises against the community, after he in his own reason, his own conscience, thought himself find leading truths, which he, without other authority than his own, sets over and against the regulations, which, given from above, has, in its divine origin, become confirmed by the pious faith of hundred generations. In this way the heresies arise, these cankers on the body of the assembly, which the iron must heal, when ointments do not help, and the fire, when not the iron. (Viktor Rydberg "Medeltidens magi" p 19; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Alf Ahlberg, Gottfried Arnold, Erland Carlsson, E.J. Ekman, Hilding Fagerberg, Otto Funcke, Bo Giertz, Carl Grimberg, Johan Gustafsson, Alf Henrikson, Lars Levi Laestadius, Selma Lagerlöf, Harry Lenhammar, Sven Lidman, Lars Lindberg, Martin Luther, Olaus Magnus, D.L. Moody, Ragnar Olsson, Bengt Pleijel, Anders Runesson, Gösta Sandberg, Gunnar E. Sandgren, Hjalmar Söderberg, N.P. Wetterlund, Göran Åberg.


My own comments and speculations:

The word ”Iezabel” means in Hebrew ”not exalted” or ”not married”/”without a husband”.

Concerning the allusions to Num 22-25, compare with the obvious allusions to these chapters in Rev 2:14 (cf. Ulfgard p 76).

Concerning “slave”, see also John 8:33-34 and Rev 1:1.


Paul said to the believers in Corinth: “The things which the nations (א,* א, A) sacrifice, they sacrifice to little demons and not to God, but/and I do not want you to become companions of the little demons.” (1 Cor 10:20b)

These things I have written on account of the ones leading you astray. (1 John 2:26)

Welcomed ones, do not believe (in) every spirit, however/but prove the spirits, if it is out of God, because many false prophets have come (and comes) out/’to an end’ into the adornment/’adorned world’. (1 John 4:1)


Greek words:

Iezabel (Jezebel) (in the NT) Rev 2:20.

profêtis (prophetess) Rev 2:20 – Ex 15:20; Judges 4:4; 2 Kings 22:14; 2 Chron 34:22; Is 8:3; Luke 2:36.


Additional studies:

Num 24:15-16; 2 Kings 9:30; Acts 15:20; 21:9; 1 John 1:8.


M.J. Selvidge "Powerful and powerless women in the Apocalypse"; Neotestamentica 26:1 (1992): 157-168.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-16; 2012-06-07; 2015-01-19)

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2:21 And I gave her time, in order that she might change her mind * (א*) ‘out of’/’in consequence of’ her fornication.

Word for word (10 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus prima manus): and (i/I)-gave her time, in-order-that (she)-might-change-her-mind out-of the fornication her.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The Lord said:) "I had knowledge of Ephraim, and Israel is not away from Me. ... Their thoughts did not give them the thing to turn next to, towards their God, because a spirit of fornication is in them, but they had not (any) additional knowledge of the Lord. (Hos 5:3a,4, Greek OT)

(Solomon said to the Lord:) “You have made Your sons hopeful, because You on/’for the sake of’ misses (of Your mark) (give) change of mind. For if You in company with a (wrath) ... of such kind punished the enemies of Your boys, (enemies) and/also being indebted to death, giving (them) times and place/opportunity ‘through which separation’/'for deliverance' (from) the badness, (and) in company with every exactness/carefulness you have judged Your sons.” (Wisdom of Solomon 12:19b-21a)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said: “The ones changing) their minds (the Lord) gave a way up.” (Sir 17:24a)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “If – according to the circumstances – your brother may miss (the mark of God), 'honour on'/blame him, and if – according to the circumstances – he may change his mind, let him be. And if – according to the circumstances – he may miss (the mark of God) into/against you seven times ‘of the’/a day, and he seven times may turn himself next to, towards you saying ‘I change my mind’, you will let him be.” (Luke 17:3b-4)

(Jesus said to a disgraced Jerosolyma/Jerusalem: “Your enemies) will dash you to the ground, and your children in/with you … (because) you had not knowledge of the seasonable time of your visitation/inspection.” (Luke 19:44)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “‘Us must’/’it is necessary to us to’ work (for) the works of the One having sent us (P66,P75,א*), till/’as long as’ it is day. Night comes, when no one is able to work. When I – according to the circumstances – may be in the adornment/’adorned world’, I am a light of the adornment/’adorned world’.” (John 9:4-5)

Recollect so from where you have fallen (and fall) and change your mind and make/do the first works. But if not, I come to you and I will stir your lampstand out of its place, if you – according to the circumstances – may not change your mind. (Rev 2:5, “Ephesos”)

Change your mind * (א,*א). But if not, I come to you quickly. (Rev 2:16a, “Pergamos”)

(Jezebel) teaches and leads My slaves astray to fornicate and eat (things) sacrificed to idols. (Rev 2:20b)


Additional studies: Is 55:6-7; Hos 10:12; Rom 2:4; 2 Pet 2:9; Rev 2:14; 9:20-21; 10:6; 16:9,11.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-16; 2012-06-07; 2015-01-19)

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2:22-23a Behold, I call (א*) her into a bed and the ones committing adultery in company with her into a great oppression, if – according to the circumstances – they will (א,* א, A) not change their minds ‘out of’/’away from’ her works, and her children I will kill in/with death/pestilence.

Word for word: 2:22 (20 words in the Greek text) behold (i/I)-call her into (a)-bed and the-(ones) committing-adultery in-company-with her into (an)-oppression great, if-according-to-the-circumstances not (they)-will-change-their-minds out-of the works her. 2:23a (7 words in the Greek text) and the children her (i/I)-will-kill in death.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(God said to the man:) "From the wood of the thing to have knowledge of fine and evil, from it you shall not eat. But/and (in) which day you – according to the circumstances – may eat from it, you will die (in) death." (Gen 2:17, Greek OT)

(God said to His people:) "I am the Lord your God, a zealous God, giving back misses (of My mark) of fathers against the children till third and fourth generation to the ones hating Me." (Ex 20:5b, Greek OT)

(God said to His people:) “You shall not commit adultery.” (Ex 20:14, Greek OT)

The Lord has spoken (about the sons of Israel who were numbered): “They shall die (in) death/pestilence in the desolate (district).” (Num 26:65a, Greek OT)

(Nathan said to David:) “Because provoking you have provoked the enemies of the Lord in/with this word, and your son having been brought forth to you shall at any rate die (in) death/pestilence. (2 Sam 12:14, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Jerusalem:) “I shall dispatch out against you famine and evil little wild animals, and I shall punish you, and death/pestilence and blood will also come through against you, and I shall lead against, against you a large sword.” (Ezek 5:17a, Greek OT)

The sons of (the) Babylonians came towards (Israel) into a sleeping-place loosening down/up and they (continually) stained her in her fornication, and she was stained in them. (Ezek 23:17, Greek OT)

(The women Israel and Judas-Jerusalem) (continually) were seduced into adultery ... (and) they (continually) 'led through'/spent their children ...(The adulteress) dispatched out messengers to the males coming from afar ... and (she) was (continually) seated spread/stretched out upon a bed. ... (And the males) (continually) went into/in towards her (as) 'a turn'/'in a way' they go into/in towards a woman (being) a harlot. ... (The Lord said:) "Lead up a crowd against (the women), and give/dispatch in them trouble and raping throughout. And crowds will throw stones against them (with) stones ... and kill their sons and their daughters. (Ezek 23:37a,39a,40a,41a,44a,46b-47a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) “The ones (being) ... in the caves I shall kill (with) death/pestilence.” (Ezek 33:27b, Greek OT)

That day (will be a day) of oppression, such as not has become from the (time when the people) became till that day. ... (Dan 12:1a, Greek OT)

(The king) fell against the sleeping-place, and he gained knowledge that he dies. (1 Macc 1:5b)

It became/’came about’ as the king heard these sayings, (that) he was amazed and ‘moved to and fro’/tottered extremely, and he fell against the sleeping-place and he fell in, into a non-force/feebleness ... (and) a great sorrow. (1 Macc 6:8a,9a)

(After Judas' death) it became a great oppression in Israel, whichever/which has not become, not from which/the day a prophet was beheld (among) them. (1 Macc 9:27)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “Attend before non-force/illhealth. Arrange out/for yourself before judgment, and in an hour of visitation/inspection you will find ‘propitiation out’/propitiation. Humble yourself before 'be you'/'you are' not forceful.” (Sir 18:19b-21a)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) ”A man stepping by the side of from his bed ... his fear (is) eyes of men .... (Against) this one justice is procured in the streets of a city, and where it was not conjectured, he will be seized. In this way (it is) and/also (with) a woman having entirely left the male and causing an heir to stand by the side of ‘out of’/’in consequence of’ an alien ... She has committed adultery and caused children to stand by the side of ‘out of’/’in consequence of’ an alien male. This one will be led out into (an assembly) of called out and against her children it will be ‘a visitation’/’an inspection’. Her children will not be given asunde/over into a root, and her branches will not carry/produce fruit ... and her outrage/blame will not be wiped out.” (Sir 23:18a,19a,21-26)


The Latter Revelation:

(God said:) “The one saying/speaking badly/ill to father or mother, let him come to an end (with) death/pestilence.” (Matt 15:4b)

(Jesus said to a rich man:) "Keep the commandments." "Of what kind?" he utters (א,* א). But/and Jesus spoke: "... You shall not commit adultery." (Matt 19:17b-18a)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Then it will be a great oppression, such as it has not become (א,* א) from a beginning of an adornment/’adorned world’ till the now, nor not/certainly not, may become.” (Matt 24:21)

(Jesus) '(continually) said'/'went on to tell' this parable: "A certain one (continually) had a fig tree being (and having been) planted in his vineyard. And he came seeking fruit in it and he did not find. But/and he spoke towards the vinedresser: 'Behold, three years from/after which (time) I come/”have come” seeking fruit in this fig tree, and I ‘do not find/’have not found’. Cut it out, ‘in order that what’/why does it and/also make the earth inactive/barren?' But/and 'having answered'/answering he says to him: ‘Lord, let (the fig tree) be and/also this year, till (the time) whichever/’in which’ I may dig around it and throw/put (on) dung. And if – according to the circumstances - it indeed may make/bear fruit into the ‘(year) being about’/’future (year)’, (fine); but if not, you will/may cut it out/down at any rate.’” (Luke 13:6-9)

(Stephen said:) “A famine came against the whole Egypt and Canaan and a great oppression, and our fathers (continually) did not find fodders/food.” (Acts 7:11)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

Stay in Me, and I (stay) in you. Entirely as the twig is not able to carry/produce fruit from itself, if – according to the circumstances – it may not stay in the vine, in this way nor you (are able), if – according to the circumstances – you may not stay in Me. I am the vine, you (are) the twigs. The one staying in Me - and I in him - this one carries/produces much fruit, because separate from Me you are not able to make/do nothing/anything. If – according to the circumstances – a certain (person) may not have stayed in Me, he has been thrown outside as the twig and been dried. And they lead it (א,*א) together (with other twigs) and throw (them) into the fire, and it is burnt. (John 15:4-6)

Change your mind * (א,*א). But if not, I come to you quickly, and I will wage war ‘in company with’/with them in/with the large sword of My mouth. (Rev 2:16, “Pergamos”)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

The great oppression of 2:22 (does not) seem intended to give the ungodly a last chance to repent. On the contrary, the calamities only serve to harden their hearts against God – following the Exodus pattern (cf. 22:11 and … 4:3)! A similar thought is found in Dan 12:1,10, which speaks about a “time of trouble” that will bring deliverance and sanctification to the chosen people of God, but that will be unintelligible for the ungodly. Dan's message is a double one, just like that of Rev: oppression will come, but God's chosen people, those who are “written in the book” will be saved. (Håkan Ulfgard "Feast and future" p 42)

Having always regarded the marriage as such an intimate matter that no one can advise, no one is allowed to intervene, I have only to wish you happiness, and see how I can assist you in the beginning. (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev XVIII maj 1909-maj 1910" p 350; letter 1910-05-23 to the son Hans Strindberg; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

If the inexperienced one knew what suffering a divorce between husband and wife involves, he would think it over before he went his way. The two souls are so grown together, that the releasing of the personality becomes the most painful operation which exists. It is a kind of death. . . . The memories being common will be divided, but cannot be shared. The crushed illusions from the first spring days of love create the faith in all; it goes a cry of woes through the worlds, as if a crime is committed, a hopeless one as the sin against the Holy Spirit; the love, the creative force of God, the heat of the sun of the sky, the origin of life have ceased to exist, chaos and the darkness begin again; it is a spiritual death, without consolation, without hope. (August Strindberg "En blå bok II" p 748; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

For (Swedenborg) the marriage is a sacrament, a holy act, ennobling the low, comes one to forget the thing making itself felt, and of which purpose the child is. (August Strindberg "En blå bok I" p 101; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Why I cannot bear a marriage? I cannot yield to the shitwhims of a woman. For the rest - love has to be enjoyed as an intoxication - quickly, passing, and new! To go rottening side by side, it is silly and ugly! There were glorious moments in this like in the first marriage, grand, and the memories remain! (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev XI maj 1895-nov 1896" p 184-185; letter 1896-05-03 to Anders Eliasson; translation from the Swedish text;: BG Ask)

(Mrs Victoria Benedictson) died with an insult to her honest husband having never had other fault than loving her faithful and forgive her, although she had robbed his honour. (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev VII febr 1888-dec 1889" p 134; letter 1888-10-09 to Joseph Seligmann)

The unfaithfulness of the wife . . . can have such consequences that the life of the other part one day is discovered being built on the sand. . . . When she last time went from man and children, then I was honest, and when the liking showed itself indomitable, I enjoined her to say all to the man, and this before we still had exchanged kisses; and before the divorce was arranged she was not allowed to be my mistress, although she wanted. . . . And now I would go my way leaving my children to another man or woman? No! It is too much to ask! They say that I have retaliated? Is there in any of my writings an intimation of divorce or vice against nature? No! . . . . . . Sometimes it seems to me, when I am free to reflect upon my life, as if I have built and built on sand, and so all things of it fall down, when it is too late to help! (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev VII febr 1888-dec 1889" p 65,68; letter 1888-04-10 to Rudolf Walland and letter 1888-04-11 to Johan Oscar Strindberg; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

When the chemist shows the retort containing sodium chloride, he explains to his audience the phenomenon of the chemical compound: "We see, gentlemen, two poisonous bodies, chlorine and sodium, the most contrary being found; they seek each other as two loving, they repel each other in order to after that be united into one single existence; then they lose their poisonous qualities, and in the thing that they for the future lay aside their injurious egoism, they form one single being, known and in great demand by all because of their beneficial qualities, and thus we get the salt, thereby the hydrogen chloride has lost its hydrogen and sodium hydroxide has laid aside its oxygen. To say that the chemical compound does not resemble the matrimonial connection would be to do nature an injustice. (August Strindberg "Naturligt urval eller den fria kärleken" p 204; Politiken 1885-08-20)

(The baron and the baroness were divorced.) People treated (the baron) as a criminal! And he had nevertheless not committed any crime! He had kept all the demands of the law and had not committed adultery. He had left the kingdom according to the direction of the law, the banns had been published, he had got the application for divorce granted by the royal court; the priesthood, the holy church had on stamped paper released him from his former promise of marriage; consequently he had not broken it! . . . How could then society be judging over its own law? Society thus was in opposition to itself! He was treated as a criminal, yes! . . . Oh well! The baroness had experienced still worse. One of her friends in Paris had shut the door for her and several had turned away, when she walked towards them in the street. (August Strindberg "Giftas I" p 105; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

A dissolved marriage always is regarded and called a divorce. Married persons regard themselves "own" one another, own as a property. . . . Of course this is a vulgar apprehension. . . . The marriage is a free agreement - or should be it! (August Strindberg "Kvarstadsresan" p 167; Stockholm, November 1884; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

I never think women allow any tyrants to be, for there is something to which the man at once yields: it is the domestic peace. (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev IV 1884" 240-241; letter 1884-06-29 to Karl Otto Bonnier; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Why would two sexes exist if not for the survival of the genus? The marriage is the bed! Not the bedroom. . . . There's nothing to stop that the marrigae also can be a companionship, but it is not exclusive this, and only in the second place. . . . . . . In the future, when the state, society or the association take charge of the children, and persons are married more free, then the woman, like the man, will be emancipated. (August Strindberg "Kvarstadsresan" p 130,134: Chexbres, July and August 1884; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

"I think, after what I have experienced", (Berg wrote in his letter), "that our generation will abolish the Asiatic, which still is in the marriage. Both parts conclude a free treaty, no one gives up one's independence, the one does not try to educate the other, they learn to respect the weaknesses of one another and they have a companionship for the life, which does not tire by the insisting on tenderness of the one part." (August Strindberg "Röda rummet" p 315; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Both by the manner of the creation and by the manner of lawgiving, (Christ) showed that one man must dwell with one woman continually, and never break off from her. (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers X:382)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Line Abrahamian, David Aikman, Sven Alverlin, Åke Andrén, Eric Anthoni, David Atkinson, Gertrud Aulén, Jane Austen, Uno Axelsson, Jerram Barrs, David Beckham, Lars Bergquist, Elisabeth Beskow, Elsa Beskow, Oloph Bexell, Manfred Björkquist, Harry Blomberg, Carl Boberg, Monica Bofeldt Rasmusson, Torsten Bohlin, Michael Bond, Lars-Ola Borglid, Alfr. Bredin, Yngve Brilioth, Ingmar Brohed, Anna-Stina Brosché, Fredrik Brosché, Cecilia Bååth-Holmberg, Fredrik Böök, Albert Camus, George Carey, Elizabeth Charles, Charlotte Christensen-Nugues, Alexander Daumont, Simon Diankoumi, Charles Dickens, Fjodor Dostojevskij, Kate Douglas, Peter Dükler, Ylva Eggehorn, Runar Eldebo, Hjalmar Fernström, Emilia Fogelklou, Otto Funcke, Bo Giertz, Gunnar Granberg, Carl Grimberg, Gunnar Gustavsson, Sture Hallbjörner, Sive Hallgren, Dick Harrison, Verner von Heidenstam, Roland Hellsten, Jarl Hemberg, Alf Henrikson, Malte Hollertz, Bob Holmes, Ragnar Holte, Folke Hyltén-Cavallius, Elis Håstad, Anders Jarlert, Barbro Jern, Sven Johansson, Bengt Karlsson, Birgit Karlsson, Hasib Kayali, Imre Kertész, Christofer Klasson, Lars-Olof Karlsson, Cristofer Klasson, Kurt Kleiner, Lars-Olof Larsson, Harry Lenhammar, Sven Lidman, Jonas Lie, Jonas Liliequist, Sigurd Lindgren, Hans Lindholm, Ingeborg Lindqvist, Claes Lindskog, Lars-Martin Lund, Ulf Lundell, Karl-Erik Lundin, Sune Lyxell, Karl Magnusson, Carl Henrik Martling, W. Somerset Maugham, Vilhelm Moberg, Kjell Åke Modéer, Thomas More, Kaj Munk, Fredrik Nielsen, Fritiof Nilsson Piraten, Bertil Nilsson, Rolf Nordblom, J. Nyrén, Helen O'Neill, Christopher O'Regan, Gottfried Osei-Mensah, Martin P:n Nilsson, James Innel Packer, Lewi Pethrus, Olaus Petri, Angela Pulvirenti, Göran Rask, Ulla-Stina Rask, Arne Rasmusson, Einar Rudberg, Abraham Rundbäck, Viktor Rydberg, Hilding Sallnäs, Anders Sjöberg, Tomas Sjödin, Lewis Smedes, Erik Sollerman, Kekke Stadin, Elisabet Stavenow-Hidemark, Sven Stolpe, Alf B. Svensson, Gun-Britt Sundström, Hjalmar Söderberg, G.E. Söderholm, Mahmoud Teymour, Sven Thunander, Anton Tjechov, Leo Tolstoj, Lars Vitus, Bertil Waldén, P. Waldenström, Camilla Wallström, Christer Wallström, Gottlieb Weitbrecht, Paul Wern, Hernfrid Wilhelmson, Carl Fr. Wislöff, Virginia Woolf, Yngve Ydreborg, Torsten Åhman, Eva Österberg.


My own comments and speculations:

We can read Rev 2:22-23 in a restoration perspective. In Sir 23:18-26 a male steps by the side of from his bed, while a woman commits adultery. Here in Rev 2:22-23 a woman is called to a bed and others, that is to say males, commit adultery in company with her.

The one for the Christendom fundamentally important view of the marriage as "necessary" and lifelong can here be compared with the muslin view of the marriage as "not necessary" and with right for the male part to separate without giving special reasons.

The wedding banquet (will be considered) valuable in all things, and the sleeping-place undefiled, for God will judge fornicators and adulterers. (Heb 13:4)


Greek words:

klinê (bed) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Sir 23:18; Rev 2:22 – Esther 1:6; 7:8; Tobit 8:4; 14:11; Judith 8:3; 10:21; 13:2,4,7; 15:11; Sir 48:6; Matt 9:2,6, Mark 4:21; 7:30; Luke 5:18; 8:16; 17:34.

moicheuô (commit adultery) (in the NT + one example in the Apocrypha) Sir 23:23; Matt 19:18; Rev 2:22 – Matt 5:27-28,32; Luke 16:18; 18:20; (John 8:4); Rom 2:22; 13:9; Jas 2:11.


Additional studies: Ex 34:7; Num 14:18; Deut 5:9,17; Jer 14:12; Dan 12:10; 2 Macc 1:7; Mark 7:10; Rev 1:9; 2:3,5,9; 3:3,19; 6:8; 7:14; 17:2; 18:9.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-16; 2012-06-07; 2015-01-20)

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2:23ba ... and all the (assemblies) of called out will gain knowledge that I am the One investigating kidneys and hearts.

Word for word (13 words in the Greek text): and will-gain-knowledge-of all the (assemblies)-of-called-out that i/I (i/I)-am the-(one) investigating kidneys and hearts.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

God spoke towards Moses: "I am the One who is." And He spoke: "In this way you shall speak to the sons of Israel: 'The One who is has dispatched (and dispatches) me away towards you.'" (Ex 3:14, Greek OT)

(David said to Solomon:) " ... The Lord lets all hearts undergo a test and has knowledge of every device." (1 Chron 28:9a, Greek OT)

(God lets) hearts and kidneys undergo a test. (Ps 7:9b or 7:10b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) “I, God, (am) first, and into the things coming on I am.” (Is 41:4b, Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) “The Lord judging righteously, proving kidneys and hearts.” (Jer 11:20a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) “I, the Lord, (is the One letting) hearts (undergo tests) and proving kidneys (on the basis of) the thing to give to everyone according to his ways and according to the fruits of his pursuits.” (Jer 17:10, Greek OT)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said:) “Many will come on/’for the sake of’ My name, saying that/: ‘I am’ and will lead many astray.” (Mark 13:6)

(Jesus) spoke to (the Pharisees): "You are the ones justifying yourselves in the very eyes of the men, but God has knowledge of your hearts." (Luke 16:15a)

(After the death of the liars) it became a great fear against/over the whole (assembly) of called out and against/over all the ones hearing these things. (Acts 5:11)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Jesus) Himself had (continually) knowledge of what (continually) was in the man. (John 2:25b)

(Jesus said to the Jews:) “Investigate the writings, because you think, (that) you in them have agelong life. And those are the ones which are witnesses on account of Me.” (John 5:39)

(Jesus said to the Jews): “If – according to the circumstances – you may not believe Me (א,*א), that I am, you will die in your misses (of the mark of God).” (John 8:24b)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

Kidneys … were regarded as the seat of the emotions, just as the heart was the seat of the intelligence or the will. (J. Massyngberde Ford "Revelation" p 403)

(Kidneys and heart) are the only things left in the body cavity by the Eg(yptian) embalmers. (Walter Bauer "A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature" p 537)

In Jewish literature knowledge of what is in man belongs to God (Mekhilta Exod. 16.32 ...: 'There is no man who knows what is in his neighbour's heart.') (C.K. Barrett "The Gospel of St John" p 202)

Think of the following comparison. If you sat in a church or else in a crowd of people knowing that all around you could know all what you have done, all what you have said and all what you have thought every second of your life; how long would you then remain, I wonder? Would you not have a tormenting agony in your heart and like fire under your feet, before you came out from there? But now the one who "searches hearts and tries kidneys" knows all this. (Karl Palmberg "Pilgrims tillfälliga betraktelser" p 38-39; Karl Palmberg /1842-1920/ was from 1883 a Lutheran clergyman in Månsarp in the diocese of Växjö and president in Jönköpings Missionsförening (Missionary Society) 1886-1911; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

(The Dominician confessor in the convent "The Good Help"): In order to search the kidneys I used the secret Apostolic might which is us granted. . . . For when a secret crime is committed the curse of Deuteronomy over the suspected is read; is he unguilty, he walks unhurt from the place, but if he is hit, then it happens as Paul says, that his body is left to be pained by Satan, in order that his soul might improve itself and become saved. (August Strindberg "Till Damaskus II" p 169; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Coming out in the loneliness and the self-examination I feel myself as usually in a certain state of accusation and because You are the only now living one I feel indebted to, I experience a need to search my kidneys for you, when perhaps things soon are going badly for me, and I impossibly can find the fault with me. . . . Am I as a dramatic author so undeserved to become played at a Swedish Scene? (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev IX 1892-jan 1894" p 29; letter 1892-05-02 to Fredrik Vult von Steijern; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

What . . . has happened to You who looked so gigantic, that you now is in the Hospital! Probably it is the damned travels to Malmö which search the kidneys! (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev VIII jan 1890-dec 1891" p 118; letter 1890-11-02 to Birger Mörner; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Now I feel a great need to confess myself for you, severe Björnson, who searches the kidneys, and if you become implacable, then ask Jonas Lie to pray for me! (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev IV 1884" p 144; letter 1884-05-04 to Björnstjerne Björnson; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

(For the thoughtful youth Ibsen's Brand) had the effect of a severe searching of our kidneys and we were before a new religion appearing with demands. What the laid aside Christianity demanded was faith, Brand demanded sacrifices, and the concept duty, also with risk of suffering, was living before us. It was a voice of Savonarola in the middle of an age worshipping the arts, but he had the fault that he did not show any way and one stood there in despair, discontented waiting for new answers. (August Strindberg "Den litterära reaktionen i Sverige" p 63; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Late an autumn evening after supper . . . the father rose asking to be allowed to speak. . . . He proclaimed his intention to give his little children a new mother. . . . It was the housekeeper. . . . Two of (the three young men) had not so fine consciences, for they had . . . worshipped her, the third, Johan, had lived in disagreement with her lately. Who was most generated, it can be wondered. It arose a long pause, during which the young men searched their kidneys, settled their accounts and thought of the results of this unexpected event. . (August Strindberg "Tjänstekvinnans son" p 102-104; the sixties of the nineteenth century; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Svetlana Aleksijevitj, Viktor Aman, Marguerite Baude, Elisabeth Bergstrand-Poulsen, Elisabeth Beskow, Yngve Brilioth, Honoré de Balzac, Hedvig Brander Jonsson, Ingmar Brohed, Barthold Carlson, Myra Chave-Jones, Annica Dahlström, John Drane, Carl Dymling, Runar Eldebo, Albert Engström, Linné Eriksson, Gunnar Fjellestad, Axel Forsström, Allen Ginsberg, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Carl Grimberg, Gustav Gustavsson, Norman Hampson, Verner von Heidenstam, C.G. Hjelm, Henrik Ibsen, Anders Jarlert, Eyvind Johnson, Jarl Jørstad, Arthur Koestler, Olof Lagercrantz, Hans Larsson, Karl Larsson, Halldor K. Laxness, Sven Lidman, Jonas Lie, Elie Ngandjoko, Algot Nicklasson, Fredrik Nielsen, Karl Palmberg, Lewi Pethrus, Niklas Piensoho, Hilding Pleijel, Jean Jaques Rousseau, Viktor Rydberg, Inger Selander, August Strindberg, Leo Tolstoj, Fredrik Vetterlund, P. Waldenström, Camilla Wallström, Christer Wallström, Nils Peter Wetterlund, Owe Wikström, Basil Willey, Carl Fr. Wislöff, Elin Wägner, Tore Zetterholm, Karen Zimsen.


My own comments and speculations:

It is the exclusive right of God to investigate kidneys and hearts, the innermost of a man. And it is the responsibility of man to investigate the holy writings, the revelation of the innermost of God.


Paul said to the believers in Rome: “The one investigating the hearts knows what (is) the way of thinking of the Spirit.” (Rom 8:27a)

Paul said to the believers in Rome: “If you – according to the circumstances – may confess in/with your mouth Lord Jesus and may believe in your heart that God has raised Him out of dead (bodies), you may be saved. For (in) a heart it is believed into righteousness, but (with) a mouth it is confessed into saving.” (Rom 10:9-10)


Greek words:

nefros (kidney) (in the NT + some examples in the OT) Ps 7:9(10); Jer 11:20; 17:10; Rev 2:23 – Ex 29:13; Jer 20:12.


Additional studies: 1 Sam 16:7; 1 Kings 8:39; Job 16:13; Ps 26:2; 64:6-8; 139:1; Lam 3:13; Judith 8:27; Sir 42:18; Matt 9:4; Mark 2:8; Luke 5:22; 11:17; John 1:48; Acts 1:24; Rev 2:23.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-18; 2012-06-18; 2015-01-20)

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2:23bb ... and I will give you, everyone, according to * (א*) the works.

Word for word (7 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus prima manus): and (i/I)-will-give you everyone according-to the works.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(God) will give back to a man according as everyone of them makes/does. (Job 34:11a, Greek OT)

(David said to the Lord:) “You will give back to everyone according to his works.” (Ps 62:12b or 62:13b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) “I, the Lord, (is the One letting) hearts (undergo tests) and proving kidneys (on the basis) of the thing to give to everyone according to his ways and according to the fruits of his pursuits.” (Jer 17:10, Greek OT)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said: “The Lord) will judge a male according to his works.” (Sir 16:12b)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “The Son of the Man is about to come in the glory of His Father in company with His messengers and will then give back to everyone according to his works (א*). (Matt 16:27)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Jesus said to the Jews:) "It comes an hour, in which all the ones in the memorial tombs may (P66, א,* א) hear His voice. And they shall go out, the ones having made/done the good things into a resurrection of life, but the ones having practised the worthless things into a resurrection of judgment." (John 5:28b-29)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

In front of the king an innumerable crowd of "tomtebissar" stood from all farmyards and cottages situated several Swedish miles round about and told all what the men, in whose houses they were to be found, had thought and done in the course of the year. And for every good thought and every good deed they told "bergtussarna" put golden weights in the one scale, and for every evil thought and evil deed, which was told, they put a viper or a toad in the other. (Viktor Rydberg "Lille Viggs äventyr på julafton" p 130; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Whereas the Olympic judge proclaims and crowns the victor, and the master rewards the servant, and the king the soldier, and each in general him that hath done him service, with what good things he can: shall God alone, after those so great toils and labors, repay them with no good thing great or small? shall those just and pious men, who have walked in every virtue, lie in the same state with adulterers, and parricides, and manslayers, and violators of tombs? And in what way can this be reasonable? (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers X:85)

(Christ did not) say, “then shall He punish them that sinned,” but, “He shall reward every man according to his doings.” And this He said, reminding not only the sinners of punishment, but also them that have done well of prizes and crowns. (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers X:342)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Alf Ahlberg, Barthold Carlson, Stefan Einhorn, Carl Grimberg, Alf Henrikson, Petrus M. Nicander, James Innel Packer.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “according to … works”, see also Rev 18:6a; 20:12b,13.


Paul said to the believers in Rome: "(God) will give back to everyone according to his works.” (Rom 2:6)


Additional studies: Lev 26:14-43; Deut 26:18-19; 28:1,13,15; Joshua 23:15-16; Job 4:8; Ps 28:4; Prov 1:31; 12:14; 22:8; 24:12; Is 3:10-11; 26:21; 59:18; 65:6-7; Jer 21:14; 32:19; Dan 9:11; Hos 4:9; 8:13; 9:9; 10:13; Rom 14:12; 1 Cor 3:8,14-15; 4:5; 9:17; 2 Cor 5:10; 9:6; Gal 6:5,7; Eph 6:8; Col 3:25; 2 Tim 4:14; Rev 18:6; 20:12; 22:12.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-18; 2012-06-08; 2015-01-20)

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2:24 But I say to you, the rest in Thyatira, as many as do not have this teaching, whoever/who have not gained knowledge of the depths (א,*א) of the adversary, as they say – I will (א,*א) not throw/place another weight against you.

Word for word (29 words in the Greek text): (to)-you but (i/I)-say (to)-the rest (the)-ones in Thyatira, as-many-as not have the teaching this, whoever not have-gained-knowledge-of the depths (of)-the (of)-adversary as (they)-say: not (i/I)-will-throw against you another weight.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

The rest of the Jews in the kingdom were led together and they (continually) succoured themselves and ‘were brought’/came to rest from the enemies. (Esther 9:16a, Greek OT)

(Zophar said to Job: “The Lord reaches) deeper than the things in Hades. ...” (Job 11:8b, Greek OT)

(Judith said to the elders of the city:) “You shall not find/’find out’ a depth of a heart of a man, and you shall not ‘take asunder’/distinguish sayings of his mind, and how (then concerning) God, who has made all these things?” (Judith 8:14a)

(Wisdom said:) “I have walked about in a depth of abysses.” (Sir 24:5b)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said to the Lord: “You redeemed me) out of a depth of a belly of Hades.“ (Sir 51:5a)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus asked His disciples to beware of) the teaching of the Pharisees and the Sadducees.” (Matt 16:12b)

(The ones who had been first hired with wages said: ) “These last ones have made/done one hour, and you have made them equal (with) us, the ones having borne the weight of the day and the heat.” (Matt 20:12)

(Jesus) spoke this parable towards some being (and having been) persuaded that they are righteous on/in themselves and despising the rest. (Luke 18:9)

(The brothers, both the apostles and the elders, wrote to the brothers in Antioch and Syria and Cilicia:) “It seemed (good) to the Holy Spirit and to us to put/lay on you nothing/no more weight more than these ‘of necessarily’/’necessary things’: to hold off from (things) sacrificed to idols and (from) blood and (from things/animals) strangled and (from) fornication.” (Acts 15:28-29a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

Nicodemus answered (Jesus) and spoke to Him: "How are these things able to become/’come about’?" Jesus answered and spoke to him: “Are you the teacher of Israel and have not knowledge of these things?” (John 3:9-10)

(I know) the blasphemy, the one (א,* א) out of the ones saying themselves be Jews and they are not however/but a synagogue of the adversary. (Rev 2:9b, “Smyrna”)

However I have few/’a few’ things ‘down from’/against you, because you have (some) there ‘getting power over’/embracing the teaching of Balaam. (Rev 2:14a, “Pergamos”)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

Probably (the deep things of Satan/the adversary) suggests the doctrines or practices of the Nikolaitans. … 1 Cor 2:10 mentions the “deep things of God” revealed by the Spirit. Just the opposite obtains here; the depths of Satan are revealed through illicit practices. (J. Massyngberde Ford "Revelation" p 403)

The rabbis, basing their opinions on Gen 2:16, declared that the following six commandments were imposed upon Adam: (1) not to worship idols; (2) not to blaspheme against the name of God; (3) to establish courts of justice; (4) not to kill; (5) not to commit adultery; (6) not to steal. A seventh commandment was apparently added after the deluge, namely, not to eat flesh that had been cut from a living animal. These, know as the Noachic commandments, were regarded as obligatory upon all mankind in distinction from those that were binding upon Israelites only. Most Christians believed Gentiles did not have to follow the whole Torah, especially the law of circumcision, in order to be admitted to the kingdom of God that Jesus heralded, but Jews were privileged with the responsibility of following the Torah so they could serve the world as a nation of priests. The whole Torah would have seemed a “further burden” to the Gentile Christians, so here it is affirmed that this burden is removed. (J. Massyngberde Ford "Revelation" p 404)

Probably (the thesophist Madame Blawatsky) was a great self-impostor, who with the suggestive influence of her sex upon the other sex managed to bring about the illusion that she was a spirit of a more unsual depth. (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev VIII jan 1890-dec 1891" p 319 ; letter 1891-07-29 to Torsten Hedlund; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

You regard You have seen deeper than I have! One must be a spoilt woman to come with such a conceit. I have nothing to learn from You, but You can with benefit continue to study my writings. Yours faithfully August Strindberg. (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev VI aug 1886-jan 1888" p 98; letter 1886-11-14 to the authoress Anna Wahlenberg; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Now you dare to publish (the manuscript Societeten/The Society) in Politiken? . . . You can . . . delete things concerning the person of the king which are to difficult! It is not as superficial as the other Societies, but not particularly deep. . . . . . . I have been spiritually bankrupt since spring last year (1885), when I became an atheist and after that I have had to revise my view of life piece by piece! . . . (Albert Bonnier) wants to pain and starve me to write a novel being against my new nature and touching me to death. Therefore I have asked You: help me out of Satan's clutches! He intrigued till my French publisher in Switzerland to drive me out of need back in his gracious arms. (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev V 1885-juli 1886" p 232,248; letter 1885-12-29 to Edvard Brandes and letter 1886-01-11 to Gustaf af Geijerstam; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Last Christmas (the mother) had got involved in a dispute with her brother concerning pietist priests. At the Christmas table her brother had called attention to the depth of (the book) "Fredmans epistlar" and even esteemed its thoughts far superior to the sernons of the pietist priests. It took fire in the mother and she went into hysterics. (August Strindberg "Tjänstekvinnans son" p 87-88; the sixties of the nineteenth century; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Say, those who are blind from their infancy, why are they so? I will not tell you, until you promise me to receive baptism, and being baptized, to live aright. It is not right to give you the solution of these questions. The preaching is not meant just for amusement. For even if I solve this, on the back of this follows another question: of such questions there is a bottomless deep. Therefore do not get into a habit of looking to have them solved for you: else we shall never stop questioning. For look, if I solve this, I do but lead the way to question upon question, numberless as the snowflakes. So that this is what we learn, rather to raise questions, not to solve the questions that are raised. For even if we solve them, we have not solved them altogether, but (only) as far as man's reasoning goes. The proper solution of such questions is faith: the knowing that God does all things justly and mercifully and for the best: that to comprehend the reason of them is impossible. This is the one solution, and another better than this exists no. For say, what is the use of having a question solved? (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers XI:154)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Yngve Bredin, Hilding Fagerberg, Ola Hansson, Sven Gunnar Lidén, Martin Luther, Efraim Palmqvist, Blaise Pascal, Viktor Rydberg, Arvid Svärd, Nathan Söderblom, Rabindranath Tagore, Paul Tillich.


My own comments and speculations:

The Noachic commandments we have in Genesis Rabbah to Gen 2:10 (cf. “Exegetes, evangelists and others” above).

Observe the resemblance between the two Greek words “bathos” (depth) and “baros” (weight).


Paul said to the believers in Corinth: “The Spirit investigates all things, and/also the depths of God.” (1 Cor 2:10b)


Greek words:

bathos (depth) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Judith 8:14; Sir 24:5; 51:5; 1 Cor 2:10; Rev 2:24 – Wisdom of Solomon 10:19; Matt 13:5; Mark 4:5; Luke 5:4; Rom 8:39; 11:33; 2 Cor 8:2; Eph 3:18.

baros (weight) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Matt 20:12; Acts 15:28; Rev 2:24 – Judith 7:4; Sir 13:2; 2 Cor 4:17; Gal 6:2; 1 Thess 2:7.

hoi loipoi (the rest) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Esther 9:16; Luke 18:9; Rev 2:24 - Esther 1:3; Tobit 8:21(BA) (loipa); Judith 7:18 (loipê); 11:3 (loipon); 15:6-7; 1 Macc 3:24; 5:36 (loipas); 12:45 (loipa); 16:23 (loipa); 2 Macc 8:31 (loipa); 10:36 (loipên); 11:19 (loipon); 12:31 (loipa); 14:11; Matt 22:6; 25:11; 26:45 (loipon); 27:49; Mark 4:19; 14:41 (loipon); Luke 8:10; 12:26; 18:11; 24:9-10; Acts 2:37; 5:13; 17:9; 27:20 (loipon),44; 28:9. Rom 1:13; 11:7; 1 Cor 1:16 (loipon); 4:2 (loipon); 7:12,29 (loipon); 9:5; 11:34; 15:37; 2 Cor 12:13; 13:2,11 (loipon); Gal 2:13; 6:17 (loipou); Eph 2:3; 6:10 (loipou); Phil 1:13; 3:1 (loipon); 4:3,8 (loipon); 1 Thess 4:1 (loipon),13; 5:6; 2 Thess 3:1 (loipon); 1 Tim 5:20; Heb 10:13 (loipon); 2 Pet 3:16; Rev 3:2; 8:13; 9:20; 11:13; 12:17; 19:21.


Additional studies: Gen 3:5; Prov 18:3; Jer 31:34; Ezek 26:20; 31:14,18; 32:18-24; Amos 9:2-3; Micah 7:19; John 7:16-17; Rom 16:17; 1 Cor 6:13-20; Heb 13:9; 2 John v 9-10; Rev 2:18,20; 12:17.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-18; 2012-06-08; 2015-01-21)

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2:25 ‘More than’/however ‘Get power over’/keep what you have until the (time in which) I – according to the circumstances – will arrive.

Word for word (8 words in the Greek text): moreover 'which-(the)'/what (you)-have 'get-power-over'/keep until where/'the-(time-in-which)' according-to-the-circumstances (i/I)-will-arrive.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The psalmist said to the Lord:) “A seasonable time has arrived.” (Ps 102:13b or 102:14b; Greek OT)

(The woman said:) “... I found him whom my soul welcomed. I ‘got power (over)’/seized him, and I will not let him be.” (Song of Solomon 3:4a, Greek OT)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “If – according to the circumstances - the * (א*) bad slave may speak in his heart: ‘My lord “spends time”/tarries’ … the lord of that slave will arrive in/on a day, which he does not wait for, and in an hour, which he has not knowledge of.” (Matt 24:48,50)

(Jesus said to the Pharisees and the scribes:) “Having let the commandment of God be, you ‘get power over’/embrace the tradition of the men.” (Mark 7:8)

(The disciples) ‘got power over’/embraced the saying (of Jesus). (Mark 9:10a)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Welcome your enemies more than (the ones welcoming you).” (Luke 6:35a)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Entirely as it became in the days of Noah, in this way it will be and/also in the days of the Son of the Man. They (continually) ate, they (continually) drank, they (continually) took to wife, they (continually) were wed until which/that day Noah came into the chest/ark, and the inundation came and perished all of them(א,*א,A).” (Luke 17:26-27)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “I say to you, that (God) will make the procuration of justice of (His chosen ones) in/with quickness. Having come will the Son of the Man ‘more than’/however consequently find the faith upon the earth?" (Luke 18:8)

(Jesus said to His disciples: “This people) will fall (in) a mouth of a dagger and will be captured into all the nations. And Jerusalem will be, be trodden by nations until the (time in which the) seasonable times of nations may be completed.” (Luke 21:24)

(The brothers, both the apostles and the elders, wrote to the brothers in Antioch and Syria and Cilicia:) “It seemed (good) to the Holy Spirit and to us to put/lay on you nothing/no more weight more than these ‘of necessarily’/’necessary things’: to hold off from (things) sacrificed to idols and (from) blood and (from things/animals) strangled and (from) fornication.” (Acts 15:28-29a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Stay in Me, and I (stay) in you. Entirely as the twig is not able to carry/produce fruit from itself, if – according to the circumstances – it may not stay in the vine, in this way nor you (are able), if – according to the circumstances – you may not stay in Me.” (John 15:4)

Jesus says to (Peter): “If – according to the circumstances – I may want (John) to stay till I come, what (is that) towards/’in regard to’ you? You follow Me!” This saying so came out into/among the brothers that/: “That disciple does not die.” But Jesus did not speak to him that/: “He does not die”, however/but “If – according to the circumstances – I may want him to stay till I come * (א*).” (John 21:22-23)

Become faithful until death, and I will give you the crown of the life. (Rev 2:10b, “Smyrna”)

You get/have power over your (א*) name and did not deny My faith. ... (Rev 2:13b, “Pergamos”)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: Björne Erixon, Helmer V. Nyberg.


Greek words:

plên (more than) (in the NT) Luke 6:35; 18:8; Acts 15:28; Rev 2:25 – Matt 11:22,24; 17:12; 18:7; 26:39,64; Mark 12:32; Luke 6:24; 10:11,14,20; 11:41; 12:31; 13:33; 17:1; 19:27; 22:21-22,42; 23:28; Acts 8:1; 20:23; 27:22; 1 Cor 11:11; Eph 5:33; Phil 1:18; 3:16; 4:14.


Additional studies:

Matt 24:37-39; Acts 3:21; 1 Cor 11:26; Col 2:19; 2 Thess 2:15; Rev 3:3,11,20.


Bo Frid "A brief note on (plên) in Roman times"; Svensk Exegetisk Årsbok 51 (1986): 65-71.

Robert L. Thomas "The 'Comings' of Christ in Revelation 2-3"; The Master's Seminary Journal 7.2 (Fall 1996): 153-181.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-18; 2012-06-08; 2015-01-21)

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2:26 And the one conquering and the one keeping My works until (the) end, to him I will give (judicial) authority upon/’with regard to’ the nations.

Word for word (17 words in the Greek text): And the-(one) conquering and the-(one) keeping until '(an)-end'/'(the)-end' the works my, (i/I)-will-give him (judicial)-authority upon the nations.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Moses said to Israel:) "It will be at the time when you – according to the circumstances – may hear all these fundamental laws and watch/keep and make/do them, (that the Lord your God) ... will welcome you." (Deut 7:12a,13a, Greek OT)

(Moses said to Israel:) “The Lord has to-day taken you for Himself ‘to become you’/’that you shall become’ a people being around Him … to watch/keep all His commandments and ‘be you’/’in order that He will set’ you ‘over high’/’high above’ all the nations, as (a people) He has made ‘to be named’/renowned, and/both an object of boasting and glorious.” (Deut 26:18-19a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to His Son:) “Demand from the side of Me, and I shall give You nations to Your inheritance.” (Ps 2:8a, Greek OT)

(Solomon said:) “Pronounced happy (is) the one watching/keeping the law.” (Prov 29:18b, Greek OT)

The king (gave) Shadrach, Meshach and Abednego (judicial) authority upon the whole district. (Dan 3:30a, Greek OT)

The kingdom and the (judicial) authority and their magnificense and the beginning of all the kingdoms underneath the heaven (the judgment) gave to a holy people of a Highest One to be kings (over) an agelong kingdom, and all (judicial) authorities will arrange themselves to Him and obey Him. (Dan 7:27, Greek OT)

(Solomon said: “Righteous ones) will judge nations and get power (over) peoples.” (Wisdom of Solomon 3:8a)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “The Lord welcomes the ones welcoming (wisdom), the one hearkening it, will judge nations.” (Sir 4:14b-15a)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to a rich man:) “If you want to come into, into the life, keep the commandments.” (Matt 19:17b)

Jesus spoke to (His disciples): ”Amen I say to you that/: ‘You, the ones having followed Me in the regeneration, when the Son of the Man may – according to the circumstances – sit down upon His throne of glory, and/also you yourselves (א,*א) will be seated against twelve thrones, judging the twelve tribes of Israel.’” (Matt 19:28)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Because of the lawlessness be/is made full, the welcome of the many will ‘be breathed’/cease.” But the one having stayed behind 'into an'/’up to the’ end, this one will be saved.” (Matt 24:12-13)

Having come to/forward Jesus talked (with the eleven disciples) saying: "Every/all (judicial) authority in heaven and upon earth has been given to Me. Having gone * (א,* א, A) be/make disciples (of) all the nations." (Matt 28:18-19a; BG Ask-comment: Walter Bauer says in his Greek-English lexicon - p 485 - that the Greek word for "be or become a disciple" - as a transitive verb has the meaning of "make a disciple". Perhaps no translator has another meaning. But I am not sure that this is the johannine view. To be disciples in a company of all nations can cause the crowd of disciples to increase. Cf. John 17:21-23.)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "The one having stayed behind 'into an'/’up to the’ end, this one will be saved." (Mark 13:13b)

(Jesus said to the seventy:) “Behold, I have given (and give) you the (judicial) authority to tread above serpents and scorpions and against every ability of the enemy, and nothing will (א,* א, A) * (א*) act unrighteously (against) you.” (Luke 10:19)

(The lord said to his slave:) ”’Be having’/have (judicial) authority above/over ten cities.” (Luke 19:17b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

As many as took him, to them He gave (judicial) authority to become children of God. (John 1:12a)

(The crowd said to Jesus:) “What may we make/do in order that we may work (for) the works of God?” Jesus answered and spoke to them: “This, it is the work of God, in order that you may believe into the One whom that One has dispatched away.” (John 6:29)

Before the Feast of the ‘paschal lamb’/Passover knowing that His hour had come in order that He might step over out of this adornment/’adorned world’ towards the Father, having welcomed the own, the ones in the adornment/’adorned world’, Jesus welcomed them into/’up to’ (the) end. (John 13:1)

Jesus spoke to (Judas - not Iscariot): “If – according to the circumstances – anyone may welcome Me, he will keep My saying, and My Father will welcome him, and We will come towards him and make an abode by the side of him. The one not welcoming Me does not keep My sayings.” (John 14:23-24a)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "Entirely as the Father has welcomed Me, and/also I have welcomed you. Stay in the welcome, (in) My (welcome). If – according to the circumstances – you may keep My commandments, stay in My welcome, entirely as and/also (א,*א) I have kept (and keep) My Father's, My (א*) commandments, and stay in His welcome." (John 15:9-10)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) ”These things I have talked (and talk) (with) you, in order that you may have peace in Me. In the adornment/’adorned world’ you have oppression. However, be confident. I have conquered (and conquer) the adornment/’adorned world’.” (John 16:33)

Happy the one reading and the ones hearing the saying (א,*א) of the prophecy and keeping the things having been (and being) written in it, for the seasonable time (is) near. (Rev 1:3)

I know your works. (Rev 2:2a, “Ephesos”)

To the one conquering * (א,* א) I will give to eat out of the wood of the life, which is in the ‘place by the side of apprehension’/Paradise of God. (Rev 2:7b, “Ephesos”)

I know your works (א,*א). (Rev 2:9a, “Smyrna”)

The one conquering may not/certainly not be treated unrighteously ‘out of’/’in consequence of’ the second death. (Rev 2:11b, “Smyrna”)

... To the one conquering * (א,* א) I will give out of (א,* א) the manna having been (and being) hidden.. (Rev 2:17a, “Pergamos”)

I know your works. (Rev 2:19a, “Thyatira”)

I will give you, everyone, according to * (א*) the works. (Rev 2:23b, “Thyatira”)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: H.M. Melin.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “the one conquering”, see Rev 2:7b.


The one who – according to the circumstances – may keep (Jesus') saying, in this one the welcome of God truly has been (and is) made perfect. In/by this we have knowledge, that we are in Him. (1 John 2:5)

I have written to you, youths, because you are stable and the saying of God stays in you, and you have conquered (and conquer) the evil one. (1 John 2:14b)

Every the/child being (and having been) begotten out of God conquers the adornment/’adorned world’. And this is the conquest, the one having conquered the adornment/’adorned world’, our faith. (1 John 5:4)


Additional studies:

Dan 4:14(17); John 3:21; 14:21; Heb 6:11; Rev 2:22; 3:21; 20:4.


Matthijs den Dulk "The Promises to the Conquerors in the Book of Revelation"; Biblica 87 (2006): 516-522.

Stephen L. Homcy "'To Him Who Overcomes': A Fresh Look at What 'Victory' Means for the Believer According to the Book of Revelation"; Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 38.2 (June 1995): 193-201.

James E. Rosscup "The 'overcomer' of the Apocalypse"; Grace Theological Journal 3.2 (Fall 1982): 261-286.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-18; 2012-06-08; 2015-01-21)

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2:27 (2:27-28a) And He will be a shepherd to them in/with a rod of iron, as it is crushed vessels of a potter, as and/also I have taken (and take) (judicial authority) from the side of My Father.

Word for word: 2:27 (12 words in the Greek text) and (he)-will-be-a-shepherd (to)-them in/with (a)-rod (of)-iron as the vessels the-(ones) of-a-potter (it)-is-crushed 2:28a (7 words in the Greek text) as and-i/I have-taken-(and-take) from-the-side-of the father my.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The Lord said to Israel:) “I will crush the insolence of your overweening (pride), and I will put/make your heaven of iron.” (Lev 26:19a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to His Son.) “You will be a shepherd to (the kings of the earth) in/with a rod of iron (and) crush them as a vessel of a potter.” (Ps 2:9, Greek OT)

(David said:) “The Lord spoke to my Lord: ‘Be seated ‘out of’/at My right (parts), till I – according to the circumstances – may put Your enemies a footstool of Your feet.’” (Ps 110:1, Greek OT)

(Solomon said:) “From the side of the Lord (is) the help.” (Prov 21:31b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) “My people will have knowledge of My name in that day, that I am the One talking: ’I am by the side of.’” (Is 52:6, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to the prophet: “You shall) speak (to the people of Judas): ‘This is what the Lord says: “In this way I will crush this people and this city (Jerusalem) entirely as an urn is crushed (to) a potsherd, which will not be healed/mended any longer.”’”(Jer 19:11a, Greek OT)

(Daniel said to the king: “There shall be) a fourth kingdom, stable just as the iron, taming all things and cutting down every tree, and it will shake 'every the'/’the whole’ earth. And as you have beheld (and behold) the feet (of the idol), (one) part indeed a certain potsherd of the potter, but (one) part something of iron, another kingdom, divided asunder, will be in it, entirely just as you beheld the iron being (and having been) mixed up together, together (with) the potsherd of clay.” (Dan 2:40-41, Greek OT)

To (one as a son of man) was given the beginning and the honour and the kingdom, and all the peoples, tribes, tongues will be slaves to Him. His (judicial) authority (is) an agelong (judicial) authority, and His kingdom will not be ruined throughout. (Dan 7:14, Greek OT, Theod)

(Solomon said: “Wisdom) descended together with (the righteous one) into a den and let him not be in bands till she had carried a sceptre of a kingdom to him and (judicial) authority of/over (the) ones being his absolute monarchs, both showed/’pointed out’ the ones reviled him (as) false ones and gave to him an agelong glory.” (Wisdom of Solomon 10:14)

(The prophet said:) “Just as a vessel of a man becomes useless (when it is) crushed, of such kind their gods ‘begin under’/are.” (Epistle of Jeremiah v 15-16a)


The Latter Revelation:

(The Lord said:) “Out of (Bethlehem) a commander will come out, whoever/who will be a shepherd to My people Israel.” (Matt 2:6b)

Having beheld (that Jesus had healed the paralytic) the crowds feared and glorified God, the One having given (judicial) authority of such kind to the men. (Matt 9:8)

(The Lord said:) “A reed having been (and being) crushed (My boy) will not break down/off, and a smouldering linen/wick He will not quench, till He – according to the circumstances – may throw/bring out the judgment into conquesting/conquest.” (Matt 12:20)

(Jesus said to the Pharisees:) “How is anyone able to come into the habitation of the stable one and rape his vessels throughout (א,* א), if – according to the circumstances – he may not first bind the stable one? And then he may (א,* א) rape his habitation throughout.” (Matt 12:29)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “If – according to the circumstances - two out of you together will (א,* א) raise your voices upon the earth on account of ‘every concern’/anything, which – if according to the circumstances – they may demand, it will become/’come about’ for them from the side of My Father, the One (being) in heavens.” (Matt 18:19b)

Jesus says to (the priest leaders and the elders): “Did you nor at any time read in the writings: ‘A stone which the ones building rejected, this has become into a head/beginning of a corner, from the side of the Lord this became, and it is wondrous in our eyes?’” (Matt 21:42)

Having come to/forward Jesus talked (with the eleven disciples) saying: “Every/all (judicial) authority in heaven and upon earth has been given to Me.” (Matt 28:18)

(Jesus) brought a message (to the twelve) by the side of, in order that they might not lift/bring anything into/to a way/journey, ‘if not’/except only a rod. (Mark 6:8a)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "Children, how troublesome it is to come into, into the kingdom of God! … By the side of men (it is) unable, however/but not by the side of God. For all things are able by the side of God." (Mark 10:24b,27b)

On His/Jesus' being in Bethany in the habitation of Simon the leper, on His lying down (at the table), a woman came having an alabaster of fragrance oil of expensive nard, connected with faith. Having crushed the alabaster, she poured (the oil) down (upon) His head. (Mark 14:3)

(Peter said to the Jews:) "Having so been heightened (at) the right (hand) of God both/and having taken from the side of the Father the promise of the Holy Spirit, (Jesus) poured out this which you see and hear." (Acts 2:33)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(The man who had been blind said to the Jews about Jesus:) “If not this One (continually) was from the side of God, He (continually) was not able to make/do nothing/anything.” (John 9:33)

(Jesus said to the Pharisees:) "I have (judicial) authority to put/lay (My soul), and I have (judicial) authority to take it again. This commandment I have taken from the side of My Father." (John 10:18b)

(Jesus) said: "Father, the hour has come (and comes). Glorify Your Son, in order that the Son may glorify You, entirely as You have given Him (judicial) authority of every/all flesh, in order that every (nation?) which You have given (and give) Him, I may to it (א*) give agelong life." (John 17:1b-2)

(Jesus said to His Father:) "I glorified You upon the earth, having made perfect the work, which You have given (and give) Me, in order that I may make. And now glorify You Me, Father, by the side of Yourself (with) the glory, which I (continually) had by the side of You before the adornment/’adorned world’ was by the side of You." (John 17:4-5)

(Jesus) says to (Simon Peter) : "Be a shepherd to My sheep." (John 21:16b)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: Ingvar Andersson, Hjalmar Bjurulf, Charles Dickens, Carl Grimberg, Hakon Hedemann-Gade, Jens Heimdahl, Lars Levi Laestadius, Fredrik Nielsen, Claes Pettersson, Viktor Rydberg, Gunnar Skogsmark, A.M. Strinnholm, Erik Wettergren.


My own comments and speculations:

In a restoration perspective we see how the people of God, which was broken as a potter's vessel, now is replaced by the nations, which are crushed as vessels of a potter.

Cf. Psalms of Solomon 9:2b: “You (God is) a righteous judge against/over all the people of the earth.”


Greek words:

keramikos (of a potter) Dan 2:41; Rev 2:27.

rabdos (rod) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Mark 6:8; Rev 2:27 – Esther 4:11; 5:2(D12); 8:4; Tobit 5:18; Sir 33:25; Bel and the Dragon v 25(26); Matt 10:10; Luke 9:3; 1 Cor 4:21; Heb 1:8; 9:4; 11:21; Rev 11:1; 12:5; 19:15.

sidêrous (of iron) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Rev 2:27 – 2 Macc 11:9; Sir 28:20; Acts 12:10; Rev 9:9; 12:5; 19:15.


Additional studies:

Is 30:14; Dan 2:42; Sir 13:2; John 14:10-11; 2 John v 4; Rev 2:26.


Matthijs den Dulk "The Promises to the Conquerors in the Book of Revelation"; Biblica 87 (2006): 516-522.

Stephen L. Homcy "'To Him Who Overcomes': A Fresh Look at What 'Victory' Means for the Believer According to the Book of Revelation"; Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 38.2 (June 1995): 193-201.

James E. Rosscup "The 'overcomer' of the Apocalypse"; Grace Theological Journal 3.2 (Fall 1982): 261-286.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-18; 2012-06-08; 2015-01-22)

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2:28-29(28b-29) And I will give him the morning star. The one having an ear, let him hear what the Spirit says to the (assemblies) of called out.

Word for word: 2:28b (7 words in the Greek text) and (i/I)-will-give him the star the morning-. 2:29 (10 words in the Greek text) Word for word (10 words in the Greek text): The-(one) having (an)-ear let-him-hear what the spirit says (to)-the (assemblies)-of-called-out.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Balaam said:) "I shall show him and/but by no means now. I call him happy, and/but he does not draw near. A constellation shall stick up out of Jacob, and a man shall stand up out of Israel." (Num 24:17a, Greek OT)

(Israel) will take/'take up' this wailing against the king of Babylon and speak in that day: "... How fell/'(did not) ... fall' the Morningstar, the one sticking up early in the day, fall out of, out of the heaven! The one dispatching away (men) towards all the nations may be crushed into/against the earth!" (Is 14:4a,12, Greek OT)

(The man set/clothed in linen said to the prophet:) “The ones perceiving/understanding will ‘bring to’/give light as luminaries of the heaven, and the ones being entirely stable (concerning) My sayings (will be) as if (they were) the stars of the heaven into the (coming) age of the (coming) age.” (Dan 12:3, Greek OT)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said: “The great priest Simon was) as a star early in the morning in a middle of clouds.” (Sir 50:6a)


The Latter Revelation:

(Soothsayers from upstickings/east said:) “Where is the One having been brought forth, a King of the Jews? For we have beheld His star.” (Matt 2:2a)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Then the righteous ones will shine out/forth as the sun in the kingdom of their Father. Let the one having ears hear.” (Matt 13:43)

(Zacharias said:) “'An upsticking'/'a sunrise' will inspect us out of a height to bring to light on the ones being seated in darkness and shadow of death, to entirely straighten our feet into a way of peace.” (Luke 1:78b-79)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

To the messenger of the (assembly) of called out in Ephesos write: “This is what the One ‘getting power (over)’/seizing stars in His right hand (א*) says, the One walking about in a middle of the seven golden lampstands.” (Rev 2:1)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

On Christmas day we went to the early service. . . . Then the stars were shining. Therefore I like the stars best, although the sun and the moon also are fine. . . . Candles were shining almost in all houses, it looked beautiful and strange also. Far, far away, quite over the roof of the town hall, there was a star, it was the biggest star I ever have seen. "Perhaps it is the star of Bethlehem", Lotta said. (Astrid Lindgren "Barnen på Bråkmakargatan" p 107-108; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

The wise one lives in all times. . . . (He) imagines into the life of others, is glad together with the glad ones, grieves with the grieved ones, feels on behalf of mankind, has no age, no nation, the thing about which one now struggles, he sees be put aside, often without further consequence, tomorrow the knowledge of the day is only strew, in which something else grows, even delusions are suitable for fertilizers. . . . The mayfly is exalted before trifles and thinks that new truths can be sought at the telegram part in the breakfast paper; and when a new star is discovered, he thinks that the others will die down, but the new ones have up to now all died down. . . . Sometimes withdraw in your tent, out in the desert, so you will see the stars in daylight. (August Strindberg "En blå bok I" s 71; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

(The shepherds) tried to go up along a small, winding path, and the old sibyl followed them. All at once it became light there upon the mountain. A big, clear star lit exactly above it, and the town on its top shimmered as silver in the light of the star. All the wandering crowds of angels hurried in that direction with shouts of joy, and the shepherds quickened their steps, so that they almost ran. Having reached the town, they found that the angels had gathered over a low stable in the nearness of the gate of the town. It was a wretched building with a roof of straw and the naked rock to back way. Over the building the star was. (Selma Lagerlöf "Antikrists mirakler" p 11; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Lucifer - it is the Light Bringer or the Morning Star - was the name of the most distinguished of all angels, the prince of the seraphs, the favourite of the creator, in cleanness, power and majesty, inferior only to the holy divinity itself. Pride and envy took possession, one does not know how, of this high spirit. He wanted to precipitate God and set himself on the chair of omnipotence. Angels of all orders let themselves be won for his plan. At a nod from the excellent one innumerable (angels) from the lower heavens and the earth rushed up towards (the highest heaven) in order to unite themselves with seraphs, cherubs and thrones having placed themselves under the banner of the rebellion. In heaven there was a great struggle. Over its vicissitudes there is a veil. However the holy John, in his book of revelation, lifts a flap letting us see Michael leading the way for Gods legions struggling against Lucifer. The result was the defeat of this one and his following. The beautiful Morning Star fell from heaven. . . . The world is not more an unbroken harmony, a moral unity. It is for ever divided into two fighting kingdoms: the good one and the evil one. God's decision that it would be so and his foresight of the consequences were announced by a remoulding within the world construction. In the bowels of the before peaceful earth suddenly a hell opened its jaws and was filled with a fire, which burns all, but consumes nothing. The field of battle is the whole creation except (the highest heaven), in which clean world nothing evil can penetrate. Lucifer, maintaining his claim to its ruler chair, has in all tried to settle down as God himself, in all imitating this One. (Viktor Rydberg "Medeltidens magi" p 10-11; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Svetlana Aleksejevitj, Elisabeth Beskow, Ragnar Blomqvist, Carl Boberg, Alfr. Bredin, Atle Burman, Tage Danielsson, E.W. Djurström, Anton Fridrichsen, Erik Gustaf Geijer, Hillis Grane, Carl Grimberg, Verner von Heidenstam, Alf Henrikson, Gunnar Hillerdal, Homeros, Anders Jarlert, Aleksandr Kudrjagin, Lars Levi Laestadius, Pär Lagerkvist, U. Leander, Sven Lidman, Ingemar Liman, Sigurd Lindgren, Mian Lodalen, Per Lundberg, Vilhelm Moberg, Efraim Palmqvist, Donald Culross Peattie, Iris Persson, Anna Maria Roos, Giorgos Seferis, Bo Setterlind, Birger Sjöberg, Olle Svensson, Hjalmar Söderberg, J.R.R. Tolkien, Zacharias Topelius, Stig Tornehed, P. Waldenström, Fredrik Vetterlund, Alf Åberg, Göran Åberg, Klas Östergren.


My own comments and speculations:

In a restoration perspective we see how Babylon – the enemy of God - will fall, and how the people of God will rise.

Concerning “the morning star”, see also Rev 22:16.

Concerning “The one having an ear … the (assemblies) of called out”, see Rev 2:7a.


Peter said: "You make/do finely/well giving heed to (the profetic saying) as to a lamp ‘bringing to’/giving light in a parched place, till (the time in) which the (א,* א) day may ray through and a lightcarrying may stick up in your hearts." (2 Pet 1:19b)


Greek words:

prôïnos (morning-) (in the NT + one example in the OT) Rev 2:28 – Gen 49:27; Rev 22:16.


Additional studies:

Matt 5:14; John 8:12; Rev 2:7,11,17; 3:6,13,22; 13:9; 22:16.


Matthijs den Dulk "The Promises to the Conquerors in the Book of Revelation"; Biblica 87 (2006): 516-522.

Stephen L. Homcy "'To Him Who Overcomes': A Fresh Look at What 'Victory' Means for the Believer According to the Book of Revelation"; Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 38.2 (June 1995): 193-201.

James E. Rosscup "The 'overcomer' of the Apocalypse"; Grace Theological Journal 3.2 (Fall 1982): 261-286.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-18; 2012-06-08; 2015-01-22)

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