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A Revelation of John

Chapter 1

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1:1a A revelation of Jesus Christ which God gave Him to show to His holy ones (א*) the things which must become/’come about’ in/with quickness.

Word for word (17 words in the Greek text): (A)-revelation (of)-Jesus (of)-Christ which gave (to)-him the god (to)-show the holy-(ones) his which/the-(things)-(which) must become in quickness.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The Lord said to Mose:) “Descend from here (with) quickness, for your people, whom you led out, out of the earth/land of Egypt, have acted contrary to law. They have quickly stepped by the side of, out of the way.” (Ex 32:7b-8a, Greek OT)

Moses spoke towards Aaron: "This is what the Lord spoke saying: 'In the ones drawing near Me I will be made holy, and in every synagogue I will be glorified.'" (Lev 10:3, Greek OT)

(Moses said to Israel:) “If you – according to the circumstances – may not listen to the voice of the Lord your God to watch and make/do all His commandments … the Lord will dispatch out to you the lack and the greedy hunger … till He – according to the circumstances – may perish you in/with quickness.” (Deut 28:15a,20a, Greek OT)

A judgment of God has been given back to (Haman) through quickness. (Esther 8:12rb/E18b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) "I will bring up a message about new things, and before 'the thing to stick'/'it sticks' up, it was manifested to you." (Is 42:9b, Greek OT)

(Daniel said to the king:) “It/there is a God in heaven uncovering mysteries, (a God) who has manifested to king Nebuchadnezzar the things which must become/’come about’ upon the last days.” (Dan 2:28a, Greek OT)

(The prophet said to the king:) ”The great God has given the king knowledge of the things which must become/’come about’ after these things, and the dream (is) true, and its ‘judgment together’/interpretation (is) faithful.” (Dan 2:45b, Greek OT, Theod)

Holy ones of a highest one will take the kingdom to the side (them) and ‘keep ... down’/possess the kingdom till/’as long as’ the age and till/’as long as’ the age of the ages. (Dan 7:18, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Tyre and Sidon and every/’the whole’ Galilee of other tribes:) “Quickly I will give back ... into/’purposed for’ your heads.” (Joel 3:4b, Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) “Near (is) the great day of the Lord, near and extremely quick … A day of wrath (is) that day.” (Zeph 1:14a,15a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) “Behold, I dispatch out My messenger and he will 'see against'/regard a way before My face, and the Lord whom you seek will suddenly arrive into His temple.” (Mal 3:1a, Greek OT)

(Solomon said to the kings:) “Dreadfully and quickly (the Lord) will stand on/near you, because judgment becomes severe in/among the ones ‘having over’/’being above’.” (Wisdom of Solomon 6:5)

(Solomon said: “… Wisdom) showed (a righteous one) a kingdom of God and gave him knowledge of holy things.” (Wisdom of Solomon 10:10a)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “In first things (the wisdom) will go in company with (the one believing in her) in a ‘turning asunder’/distorted way. She will lead fear and cowardice against him and torment him in her education, till he may not believe in his soul, and she will try him in her fundamental laws. And/but she again will 'according to straight'/'straight off' ‘lead up against’/return towards him, and she will cheer him and reveal to him her hidden things. (Sir 4:17-18)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “In/at a consummation of a man (there is) a revelation of his works.” (Sir 11:27b)

(Baruch said to Israel:) “I hoped on/in your agelong saving, and joy has come to me from the side of the Holy One upon/’with regard to’ the alm/mercy which will arrive (in) you in/with quickness from the side of your agelong Saviour. (Baruch 4:22)


The Latter Revelation:

From then/’that time’ Jesus Christ (א*,B*) began to show His disciples, that He must go away into (a disgraced) Jerosolyma/Jerusalem. (Matt 16:21a)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “They had not knowledge till the inundation came and lifted/’took away’ all of them, in this way the ‘being by the side of’/presence of the Son of the Man will be. … The Son of the Man comes at an hour which you do not think.” (Matt 24:39,44b)

(Jesus said to one of His disciples:) “How may so the writings be completed, because it must become in this way?” (Matt 26:54)

The memorial tombs were opened, and many bodies of the holy ones, having been (and being) fallen asleep, were raised. (Matt 27:52)

(Luke said:) “It seemed (good) and/also to me having followed (and following) ‘by the side of’/close all things exactly from above the one after the other ... ” (Luke 1:3a)

(Simeon said: "My eyes have beheld) a light into a revelation of nations and a glory of Your people Israel." (Luke 2:32)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “I say to you, that (God) will make the procuration of justice of (His chosen ones) in/with quickness.” (Luke 18:8a)

(Peter and John said to God:) “You anointed both Herod and Pontius Pilate together with nations and peoples of Israel to make/do as many things as Your hand and Your counsel beforehand has marked out by bounderies to become/’come about’. (Acts 4:27b-28)

(Peter came) towards the holy ones dwelling (in) Lydda. (Acts 9:32b)

A vision was beheld to Paul through/during the night. (Acts 16:9a)

(Paul said to the elders in Ephesos:) ”I did not ‘dispatch under to not’/’omit to’ bring up a message to you (about) every counsel of God.” (Acts 20:27)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

All things became through (the Saying), and separate from It nothing (P66, א*) became that has become (and becomes). (John 1:3)

(Simon Peter said to Jesus:) "We have believed (and believe) and have had (and have) knowledge that You are the holy One of God." (John 6:69)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) " I have still many things to say to you. However you are not able to bear (them) just now. But when – according to the circumstances – that One, the Spirit of the truth, may come, It will show you the way in * (א*) the truth. For It will not talk from Itself, however/but as many things as It * (א,*א) hears, It will talk, and It will bring up a message to you (about) the coming things.” (John 16:12-13)

(Jesus said to His Father:) "I have given (and give) the words which You have given (and give) (א,* א) to Me to (the men whom You gave Me out of the adornment/’adorned world’).” (John 17:8a)

(Jesus said to His Father:) “Make (My disciples) holy in the truth. Your saying is truth. Entirely as You have dispatched Me away into the adornment/’adorned world’, and/also I have dispatched them away into the adornment/’adorned world’. And I make Myself holy in favour of them, in order that they may be and/also they themselves being (and having been) made holy in truth.” (Joh 17:17-19)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 - about 1500

The Greek word “hagios” ... has far-reaching associations. It is sometimes translated “holy”. But the root meaning of it is “different”. Basically the Christian is a man who is “different” from those who are merely people of the world. ... “Hagios” was specially used of the people Israel. They are specifically a holy people, a different people. Their difference lay in the fact that of all nations God had chosen them to do his work. ... The difference (of the Christians lay) in the fact that they were chosen for the special purposes of God ... (They were) saved to serve. (William Barclay “The Acts of the Apostles” p 78 commenting Acts 9:32-43)

"Believe good of God", do not be impatent, do not search out your fate, for this You cannot govern, and it will come off well for You! What happens must happen, and here something new happens just now. (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev XIII sept 1898-dec 1900" s 238; letter 1899-12-21 to August Lindberg; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


about 1500 and time before

I am ashamed to be teaching Christians concerning the Resurrection: for he that needeth to learn that there is a Resurrection, and who hath not firmly persuaded himself that the affairs of this world go not on by fate, and without design, and as chance will have them, can be no Christian. (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers XIV:163)

Every believer is a saint in that he is a believer. Though he be a person living in the world, he is a saint. ... Let us not be zealous for those only who dwell in the mountains; they are indeed saints both in manner of life and in faith; these others however are saints by their faith, and many of them also in manner of life. Let us not, if we see a monk (cast) into prison, in that case go in; but if it be a secular person, refuse to go in. He also is a saint and a brother. (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers XIV:416)

Rabbi Gamaliel, the teacher of St. Paul, said: ‘Whoever does not explain three things in the Passover has not fulfilled the duty incumbent on him. These three things are: the Passover lamb, the unleavened bread, and the bitter herbs. The Passover lamb means that God passed over the blood-sprinkled place on the houses of our fathers in Egypt; the unleavened bread means that our fathers were delivered out of Egypt (in haste); and the bitter herbs mean that the Egyptians made bitter the lives of our fathers in Egypt.’ (Alfred Edersheim “The Temple” p 237)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Gottfried Arnold, Gunnar Aspelin, Augustinus, Sven-Erik Brodd, Donald A. Carson, Sven Danell, Ylva Eggehorn, Donald English, Bo Frid, Bo Giertz, Paulos Mar Gregorios, Michael C. Griffiths, Peter Halldorf, Dag Hammarskjöld, Dick Harrison, David Hedegård, Pär Lagerkvist, Harry Lenhammar, Magnus Lidbeck, Henrik Ljungman, Martin Luther, N.P. Madsen, Vilhelm Moberg, Wilhelm Möller, Fredrik Nielsen, Gunnar Olén, Efraim Palmqvist, Harald Rasmussen, Carl Olof Rosenius, Viktor Rydberg, E. Räf, Gösta Sandberg, Erik Sollerman, Milton Steinberg, Sven Stolpe, Jesper Svartvik, Knut Svensson, Einar Thomassen, Anton Tjechov, Cecilia Wassén.


(Paul said to the believers in Corinth:) “Paul … and Timothy … to the (assembly) of called out of God, the one being in Corinth together with all the holy ones, the ones being in the whole of Achaia.” (2 Cor 1:1)

(Paul said to the believers in Galatia: “I took the good little message ) through a revelation of Jesus Christ.” (Gal 1:12b)

(Paul said to the believers in Ephesos:) “May (God of our Lord Jesus Christ) give to you a spirit of wisdom and a revelation in His additional knowledge. …It was given me knowledge of the mystery according to a revelation.” (Eph 1:17b; 3:3a)

(Paul said to the believers in Colossae:) “The mystery, being (and having been) hidden away from the ages and from the generations … has now been made visible to (God's) holy ones.” (Col 1:26)

Paul said to the believers in Thessalonica: "This is a will of God, your holiness." (1 Thess 4:3a)


Greek words:

apokalypsis (revelation) Sir 11:27; Luke 2:32; Gal 1:12; Eph 1:17; 3:3; Rev 1:1 – 1 Sam 20:30; Sir 22:22; Rom 2:5; 8:19; 16:25; 1 Cor 1:7; 14:6,26; 2 Cor 12:1,7; Gal 2:2; 2 Thess 1:7; 1 Pet 1:7,13; 4:13.

tachos (quickness) (in the NT + examples in the OT) Ex 32:7; Deut 28:20; Esther 8:12r(E18); Luke 18:8; Rev 1:1 – Acts 12:7; 22:18; 25:4; Rom 16:20; Rev 22:6.


Additional studies:

Deut 11:17; 32:35; Is 29:5; 47:9; 60:22; Jer 46:6; Dan 2:29,47; 7:13,21; Amos 2:14; Tobit 8:15; Matt 10:26; 11:25-27; 24:6,42-43,48-51; 25:13; Mark 4:22; 13:7,32-37; Luke 8:17; 10:21-22; 12:2,39-40,45-46; 17:26-30; 21:9; John 5:19; 8:38; 12:49; Acts 9:13; Rom 1:7; 8:27; 12:13; 15:25; 1 Cor 1:2; 6:1-2; 14:30; Eph 2:19; 3:8; 4:22; Col 1:4; 1 Tim 5:10; Heb 6:10; Rev 1:19; 2:16; 3:11; 4:1; 5:7; 17:1; 21:9; 22:6,12,20-21.


David E. Aune "The Social Matrix of the Apocalypse of John"; Biblical Research 26 (1981): 16-32.

Richard J. Bauckham "God in the Book of Revelation"; Proceedings of the Irish Biblical Association 18 (1995): 40-53.

G.K. Beale "The influence of Daniel upon the structure och theology of John's Apocalypse"; Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 27.4 (Dec. 1984): 413-423.

F.F. Bruce "The Earliest Latin Commentary on the Apocalypse"; The Evangelical Quarterly 10.4 (Oct. 1938): 352-366.

Jose Adriano Filho "The Apocalypse of John as an Account of a Visionary Experience: Notes on the Book's Structure"; Journal for the Study of the New Testament 25.2 (2002): 213-234.

Anton Fridrichsen "Nyare litteratur till Uppenbarelseboken"; Svensk Exegetisk Årsbok 3 (1938): 44-46.

J.K. Grönbaek "Zur Frage der Eschatologie in der Verkündigung der Gerichtspropheten"; Svensk Exegetisk Årsbok 24 (1959): 5-21.

Lars Hartman "Att tolka eskatologiska texter"; Svensk Exegetisk Årsbok 60 (1995): 23-38.

Bruce W. Jones "More About the Apocalypse as Apocalypse"; Journal of Biblical Literature 87 (1968): 325-327.

James Kallas "The Apocalypse: An Apocalyptic Book"; Journal of Biblical Literature 86 (1967): 69-80.

George E. Ladd "The Revelation and Jewish Apocalyptic"; The Evangelical Quarterly 29.2 (1957): 94-100.

D. Mathewson "Assessing Old Testament Allusions in the Book of Revelation"; The Evangelical Quarterly 75.4 (Oct.-Dec. 2003): 311-325.

D. Mathewson "Revelation In Recent Genre Criticism: Some Implications For Interpretation."; Trinity Journal 13.2 (1992): 193-213.

Thomas Edward McComiskey "Alteration of OT Imagery in the Book of Revelation: Its Hermeneutical and Theological Significance"; Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 36.3 (1993): 307-316.

Hamilton Moore "The Book of Revelation"; Irish Biblical Studies 9.4 (1987): 158-174.

A.Q. Morton "Revelation"; Irish Biblical Studies 19.2 (1997): 81-91.

Robert H. Mounce "Pauline Eschatology and the Apocalypse"; The Evangelical Quarterly 46.3 (July-Sept. 1974): 164-166.

Steve Moyise "Authorial intention and the book of Revelation"; Andrews University Seminary 39.1 (Spring 2001): 35-40.

C.G. Ozanne "The Language of the Apocalypse"; Tyndale Bulletin 16 (1965): 3-9.

Dale Patric "The Rhetoric of Revelation"; Horizons in Biblical Theology 16.1 (1994): 20-40.

Jon Paulien "Recent Developments in the Study of the Book of Revelation"; Andrews University Seminary Studies 26 (1988): 159-170.

Vem Polythress "Counterfeiting In The Book Of Revelation As A Perspective On Non-Christian Culture"; Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 40.3 (1997): 411-418.

Vem Polythress "Johannine Authorship and the Use of Intersentence Conjunctions in the Book of Revelation"; Westminster Theological Journal 47.2 (1985): 329-336.

J.A. du Rand "A 'basso ostinato' in the Structuring of the Apocalypse of John." Neotestamentica 27.2 (1993): 299-312.

J.A. du Rand "The transcendent God-view. Depicting structure in the theological message of the Apocalypse of John."; Neotestamentica 28.2 (1994): 557-574.

Kenneth A. Strand "Book of Revelation: a review article on some recent literature"; Andrews University Seminary Studies 11.2 (July 1973): 181-193.

Felise Tavo "The Structure of the Apocalypse. Re-examining a Perennial Problem"; (tidskriften) Novum Testamentum 47.1 (2005): 47-68.

Robert L. Thomas "The Structure of the Apocalypse: Recapitulation or Progression?" The Master's Seminary Journal 4.1 (Spring 1993): 45-66.

Paul Treblico "What Shall We Call Each Other? Part Two: The Issue of Selfdesignation in the Johannine Letters and Revelation"; Tyndale Bulletin 54.1 (2003): 51-75.

Paul Trudinger "Some Observations Concerning the Text of the Old Testament in the Book of Revelation"; Journal of Theological Studies 17 (1966): 82-88.

W.S. Vorster "'Genre' and the Revelation of John: A Study in text, context and intertext"; Neotestamentica 22.1 (1988): 103-124.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-10; 2012-05-31; 2014-12-22)

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1:1b And He gave a sign having dispatched away (the revelation) through His messenger to His slave John ...

Word for word (11 words in the Greek text): and (he)-gave-a-sign having-dispatched-away-(it/'the-revelation') through the messenger his the slave his John


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The Lord said to the people of Israel:) "Behold, I dispatch away My messenger before your face." (Ex 23:20a, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said: “The Lord) dispatched out Moses, His slave, (and) Aaron, whom He had chosen.” (Ps 105:26, Greek OT)

(The prophet said to the king:) “The great God has given a sign to the king (about) the things which will be upon/’with regard to’ the last days, and the vision (is) exact, and the judgment of this one (is) faithful.” (Dan 2:45b, Greek OT)

(Daniel said: “The messenger Gabriel) came to (me) and talked in company with me and spoke: ‘Daniel, I have just now come out to show you underneath/secretly a mind/thought.’” (Dan 9:22, Greek OT)

The Lord God may not/certainly not make/do a concern/thing, if – according to the circumstances – He may not reveal His education towards His slaves the prophets. (Amos 3:7, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) “Behold, I dispatch out My messenger and he will 'see against'/regard a way before My face, and the Lord whom you seek will suddenly arrive into His temple.” (Mal 3:1a, Greek OT)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) ”Divinations and forebodes and dreams are vain. ... If – according to the circumstances – (the beholding) may not be dispatched away in a visitation from the side of a highest one, you may not give your heart into them.” (Sir 34:5a,6)


The Latter Revelation:

A messenger of the Lord brings/gives ‘according to’/’because of’ a dream light to Joseph in Egypt. (Matt 2:19b)

(Jesus dispatched away the twelve and said to them:) "A disciple is not over/’more than’ his (א,* א) teacher, nor a slave over/’more than’ his lord." (Matt 10:24)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "The Son of the Man will dispatch away His messengers." (Matt 13:41)

A beginning of the good little message of Jesus Christ * (א*) entirely as it has been (and is) written in the prophet Isaiah : “Behold, I dispatch away My messenger before your face, who entirely will prepare your way.” ... John, the one baptizing ... , became. (Mark 1:1-2,4a)

… The messenger Gabriel was dispatched away from God … (to) the virgin Mariam. (Luke 1:26-27)

(The messenger said to the shepherds): “This (will be) the sign for you.” (Luke 2:12a)

(Peter said: “In the last days) your youths/’young men’ will behold beholdings, and your elders will dream dreams, and in those days I will at any rate pour out from My Spirit against My slaves and against My female slaves, and they will prophesy.” (Acts 2:17b-18)

(Stephen said to the Israelites: “Moses) is the one having become/appeared in the (assembly) of called out in the desolate (district) in company with the messenger talking (with) him in/on the mountain Sinai and (in company with) our fathers, (the one) who received living little sayings to give to you (P74, א,* א, B.” (Acts 7:38)

(A prophet from a disgraced Jerosolyma/Jerusalem) gave a sign through the Spirit, that (there was) about to will be a great famine against the whole (inhabited) world, whichever/which became upon/’in the time of’ Claudius. (Acts 11:28b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Jesus said to the people:) “And, if – according to the circumstances – I may be heightened out of the earth, I will draw all (nations) (P66,א*) towards Myself. But/and He (continually) said this giving (so) a sign (with) what kind of death He (continually) was about to die. (John 12:32-33)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "(The Spirit of truth) will not talk from Itself, however/but as many things as It * (א,*א) hears, It will talk, and It will bring up a message to you (about) the coming things.” (John 16:13b)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: Ingmar Brohed, Leif Carlsson, Bo Frid, Bengt Hägglund, Fredrik Nielsen, Ingemar Strand, Jesper Svartvik, Cecilia Wassén.


My own comments and speculations:

In a corresponding way as God's slave Moses received the law by God's messengers, so Jesus' slave John receives the prophecy by Jesus' messengers. Cf. Acts 7:38,53; Rev 1:1-3.


(Paul wrote to the believers in Rome:) “Paul, a slave of Jesus Christ (P26,א,*א, A).” (Rom 1:1a)


Additional studies: Num 21:9; Is 11:10; Dan 8:16; 9:21; Zech 1:6,9; 6:4-5; John 12:33; 18:31-32; 21:19; Acts 12:11; Rev 1:4,9; 5:2; 10:1,7; 17:1; 19:9-10; 21:9; 22:6,8,16.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-10; 2012-05-31; 2014-12-23)

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1:2 ... who was a witness to the saying of God and the evidence of Jesus Christ, as many things as he beheld.

Word for word (13 words in the Greek text): who was-a-witness (to)-the saying (of)-the (of)-god and the evidence (of)-Jesus (of)-Christ as-many-(things)-as (he)-beheld.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

In a beginning ... God spoke. (Gen 1:1a,3a, Greek OT).

After these words a word of the Lord became/came towards Abram in a vision, saying: “Do not fear, Abram!” (Gen 15:1a, Greek OT)

At the time when (the Lord) entirely had ceased talking (with Moses) in/on the mountain Sinai, He gave (him) the two tablets of the testimony, tablets of stone, having been (and being) written (with) the finger of God. (Ex 31:18, Greek OT)

These (are) the evidences and the fundamental laws and the judicial verdicts, as many as Moses talked (with) the sons of Israel in the desolate (district) on their having come out of the earth/land of Egypt. (Deut 4:45, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said:) “The witness in heaven (is) faithful. ...” (Ps 89:37b or Ps 89:38b, Greek OT)

A saying of the Lord (continually) became/came towards Ezekiel. (Ezek 1:3a, Greek OT)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “This good little message of the kingdom will be proclaimed in the whole (inhabited) world into/’for a purpose of’ a testimony to all the nations, and then the end will arrive.” (Matt 24:14)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “The sign of the Son of the Man will ‘be brought’/come to light in heaven.” (Matt 24:30a)

A word of God became/came against/to John … (Luke 3:2b)

It became/’came about’ in the crowd ‘to lie’/’that they pressed’ on (Jesus) and/to hear the saying of God. (Luke 5:1a)

(Jesus said:) "My mother and My brothers, these are the ones hearing the saying of God and making/doing (it)." (Luke 8:21b)

(Jesus said to His disciples: “The persecution) will for you ‘step off’/lead into a testimony. … They will put (some) out of you to death.” (Luke 21:13,16b)

... The first saying I indeed made on account of all things, which Jesus began both to make/do and teach. (Acts 1:1)

(The Lord said to Paul:) “As you throughout was a witness to the things on account of Me into/in Jerusalem, in this way you must be a witness and/also into/in Rome.” (Acts 23:11b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

In a beginning the Saying (continually) was, and the Saying (continually) was towards God, and the Saying (continually) was God. (John 1:1)

It became a man having been (and being) dispatched away from the side of God. A name to him (continually) was (א*) John. This one came into/’for the purpose of’ an evidence, in order that he might be a witness on account of the light, in order that all might believe through him. (John 1:6-7)

(Jesus said to Nicodemus:) “We are witnesses to what we have beheld (and behold). …” (John 3:11b)

(Jesus said to the Pharisees:) “And if I – according to the circumstances – am a witness on account of Myself, My evidence is truthful.” (John 8:14a)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) " I have still many things to say to you. However you are not able to bear (them) just now. But when – according to the circumstances – that One, the Spirit of the truth, may come, It will show you the way in * (א*) the truth. For It will not talk from Itself, however/but as many things as It * (א,*א) hears, It will talk, and It will bring up a message to you (about) the coming things.” (John 16:12-13)

Jesus so indeed and/also made many other signs in the very eyes of His disciples, (signs) which it is not being (and not having been) written in this scroll. (John 20:30)

This is the disciple being a witness on account of these things and having written these things. And we know that his evidence is truthful. * (א*). (John 21:24)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: Olaf Moe.


My own comments and speculations:

The Greek word for ”was a witness to” is written in aorist indicative, which means a definite act in past time. This act could be the writing of the Gospel of John. Cf. My own comments and speculations to John 19:33-37.

Concerning “was a witness ... evidence”, see also John 1:6-8. Concerning “evidence of Jesus” (martyria Iêsou), see also Rev 1:9; 12:17; 19:10; 20:4.


(These things we write) on account of the Saying of the life, what (continually) was from a beginning, what we have heard (and hear), what our eyes have beheld (and behold), what we viewed and (what) our hands felt (on). And the life was made visible, and we have beheld (and behold) and we are witnesses and bring away a message to you (about) the agelong life, whichever/which (continually) was towards the Father and was made visible to you. What we have beheld (and behold) and have heard (and hear) we bring away a message and/also to you, in order that and/also you may have communion in company with us. And but/further (we have) our communion in company with the Father and in company with His Son, Jesus Christ. (1 John 1:1-3)


Additional studies: John 1:14,32,34; 3:11,32; 15:27; 19:35; 1 Cor 1:6; 1 John 5:9-11; Rev 1:5,9; 6:9; 10:4; 12:17; 14:12; 19:10; 20:4; 22:20.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-10; 2012-06-01; 2014-12-24)

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1:3 Happy the one reading and the ones hearing the saying (א,*א) of the prophecy and keeping the things having been (and being) written in it, for the seasonable time (is) near.

Word for word (20 words in the Greek text): Happy the-(one) reading and the-(ones) hearing the saying (of)-the (of)-prophecy and keeping the-(things) in it having-been-(and-are)-written, the for seasonable-time near.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

Having taken the scroll of the covenant (Moses) read it into the ears of the people. And they spoke: “All things, as many as the Lord have talked we will make/do, and we will hear.” (Ex 24:7, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Israel:) "You shall watch/keep all My commands and My judicial verdicts and make/do them, which, having made/done them, a man will live in them." (Lev 18:5a, Greek OT)

(Asa heard) these sayings and the prophecy. (2 Chron 15:8a, Greek OT)

(Eliphaz said: “The man whom God convicts) may come in the grave just as bread-stuff being harvested in a seasonable hour ‘according to’/during a seasonable time. (Job 5:26, Greek OT)

(Solomon said:) “Pronounced happy (is) the one watching/keeping the law.” (Prov 29:18b, Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) “Near (is) the great day of the Lord, near and extremely quick … A day of wrath (is) that day.” (Zeph 1:14a,15a, Greek OT)

(The Romans wrote to Simon and the letters were) read in the very eyes of the (assembly) of called out in Jerusalem. (1 Macc 14:19, Greek OT)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “Do not ‘make wise’/teach (in a) non-seasonable time.” (Sir 32:4b)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “Put/lay your neck under, underneath a yoke (of wisdom), and let your soul receive education/teaching in addition. It is near to find her.” (Sir 51:26)

Baruch read the sayings of this scroll ... in ears of ‘every the’/’the whole’ people. (Baruch 1:3a)

(The Jews in Babylon wrote to Jerusalem:) “You shall read this scroll, which we have dispatched away towards you to ‘speak out’/proclaim in a house of the Lord in a day of a feast and in days of a seasonable time.” (Baruch 1:14)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples: "With the people) the prophecy of Isaiah is ‘completed upwards’/upcompleted.” (Matt 13:14a)

Jesus says to (the priest leaders and the elders): “Did you nor at any time read in the writings?” (Matt 21:42a)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Who is consequently the faithful and sensible slave, whom the lord has ‘caused to stand down’/set upon his habitation (א,* א) to give them the nourishment in a seasonable time? Happy (is) that slave.” (Matt 24:45-46a)

(Jesus) spoke (to His disciples): “Withdraw into the city towards a so-and-so and speak to him: The Teacher says: ‘My seasonable time is near.’” (Matt 26:18a)

(Jesus came) into the synagogue, and He stood up to read. (Luke 4:16b)

It became/’came about’ in the crowd ‘to lie’/’that they pressed’ on (Jesus) and/to hear the saying of God. (Luke 5:1a)

(Jesus said to a woman:) "Happy the ones hearing the saying of God and watching/keeping (it)." (Luke 11:28b)

(Peter said: “In the last days) your youths/’young men’ will behold beholdings, and your elders will dream dreams, and in those days I will at any rate pour out from My Spirit against My slaves and against My female slaves, and they will prophesy.” (Acts 2:17b-18)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "Amen, amen, I say to you, a slave is not greater (than) his lord. Nor (is) an apostle greater than the one having sent him. If you know these things, happy are you, if you – according to the circumstances – may make/do them." (John 13:16-17)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

This (”happy”) is the first of Rev's seven “macarisms” that function as promises and comfort for the faithful Christians; cf. 14:13; 16:15; 19:9; 20:6; 22:7,14. (Håkan Ulfgard "Feast and Future" p 41)

If we understand what it is that is read, we shall hear it with much readiness. I am always saying this, and will not cease to say it. Is it not strange that those who sit by the market can tell the names, and families, and cities of charioteers, and dancers, and the kinds of power possessed by each, and can give exact account of the good and bad qualities of the very horses, but that those who come hither (to divine service) should know nothing of what is done here, but should be ignorant of the number even of the sacred Books? If thou pursuest those worldly things for pleasure, I will show thee that here is greater pleasure. Which is sweeter, tell me, which more marvelous, to see a man wrestling with a man, or a man buffeting with a devil, a body closing with an incorporeal power, and him who is of thy race victorious? (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers XIV:144)

These ‘little ones’ (concerning Matt 10:42) were ‘the children,’ who were still learning the elements of knowledge, and who would by-and-by grow into ‘disciples.’ For, as the Midrash (Ber. R. on Gen. xiv. 1) has it: ‘Where there are no little ones, there are no disciples; and where no disciples, no sages: where no sages, there no elders; where no elders, there no prophets; and where no prophets, there does God not cause His Shekhinah (Presence) to rest.’ (Alfred Edersheim "The Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah Part I" p 652)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Ingmar Bergman, Erik Bernspång, Oloph Bexell, Rudolf Björkman, Leif Carlsson, Iwar Claesson, Bo Giertz, Astrid Gustafsson, Alf Henrikson, Hjalmar Holmquist, Efraim Palmqvist, Viktor Rydberg, Vikram Seth, Paul Wern, Carl David af Wirsén.


My own comments and speculations:

The seasonable time to give “education of wisdom (Sir 51:26)/nourishment of a slave (Matt 24:45-46)/the saying of the prophecy (Rev 1:3)” is near. Cf. Rev 22:10.

The saying of the prophecy/the sayings of the prophecy of this scroll/the sayings of this scroll /these sayings of the scroll of this prophecy: See also Rev 22:7,9,10,18,19.

The seasonable time is near: See also Rev 22:10.


Paul said to the believers in Rome: “Now our saving is nearer than when we (first) believed. The night has advanced, but/and the day has drawn (and is) near.” (Rom 13:11b-12a)

The one having not become a forgetful hearer however/but a maker/doer of a work, this one will be happy in his making/doing. (Jas 1:25b)


Greek words:

(profêteia) prophecy (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Matt 13:14; Rev 1:3 – Sir Prologue; 24:33; 36:14(17); 39:1; 44:3; 46:1,20; Rom 12:6; 1 Cor 12:10; 13:2,8; 14:6,22; 1 Thess 5:20; 1 Tim 1:18; 4:14; 2 Pet 1:20-21; Rev 11:6; 19:10; 22:7,10,18-19.


Additional studies: Ps 90:4; Wisdom of Solomon 2:5; 8:8; Sir 39:16; Matt 24:15; Mark 13:14; Luke 1:45; 21:8; John 20:29,31; Acts 11:27-30; 13:1; 21:7-9; Jas 5:8; 1 Pet 4:7; 2 Pet 3:8; Rev 14:13; 16:15; 19:9; 20:6; 22:14.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-10; 2012-06-01; 2014-12-25)

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1:4a John to the seven (assemblies) of called out, the ones in Asia.

Word for word (8 words in the Greek text): John (to)-the seven (assemblies)-of-called-out, the-(ones) in the Asia.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Moses said to Israel:) “... You stood opposite the Lord your God in/at Horeb (in) the day of the (assembly) of called out.” (Deut 4:10a, Greek OT)

Moses talked into the ears of every/'the whole' (assembly) of called out of Israel. (Deut 31:30a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) “ ... I take every/all house of Israel out of a middle of the nations.” (Ezek 37:21a, Greek OT)

Having gone into a war against (the Romans) the great king of Asia ... was crushed by them. (1 Macc 8:6)

(The Romans wrote to Simon and the letters were) read in the very eyes of the (assembly) of called out in Jerusalem. (1 Macc 14:19, Greek OT)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Happy the ones grieving, because they will be called to the side of.” (Matt 5:4)

If (the brother missing the mark of God) – according to the circumstances – may ‘hear ... from the side of’/ignore them, speak to the (assembly) of called out. (Matt 18:17a)

... (Jesus) went away into the frontiers of Tyre and Sidon (א,* א, A, B). ... (A Greek woman) fell towards, towards His feet. (Mark 7:24a,25b)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “When and/also (א,*א) the seven breads/’pieces of bread’ (P45, א,*א) (were given) into the four hundred, how many baskets complements of fragments did you lift?” And they says: “Seven.” (Mark 8:20)

(Stephen said to the Israelites: “Moses) is the one having become/appeared in the (assembly) of called out in the desolate (district) in company with the messenger talking (with) him in/on the mountain Sinai and (in company with) our fathers, (the one) who received living little sayings to give to you (P74, א,* א, B).” (Acts 7:38)

(Paul said to the Jews:) “Having taken seven nations in an earth of Canaan entirely for Himself, (God) inherited their earth entirely (for) as/about 450 years.” (Acts 13:19 or 13:19-20a)

All the ones dwelling (in) Asia (heard) the saying of the Lord, both Jews and Greeks. (Acts 19:10b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

The Jews so spoke towards/among themselves: “Where is this One about to go, because we will not find Him? He is not about to go into the asunderspread sowing of/among the Greeks and teach the Greeks, (is He)?” (John 7:35)

(There) (continually) were some Greeks out of the ones ascending in order that they might prostrate themselves in/at the feast. (John 12:20)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

The number (seven) is chosen intentionally because it designates completeness, perfection, totality. (J. Massyngberde Ford "Revelation" p 376)

In the Hebrew sense (ekklêsia) means God's people called together by God, in order to listen to or to act for God. ... God have called them to himself; not so much assembling to share their own thoughts and opinions, but assembling to listen to the voice of God. ... (Ekklêsia) always describes a body of men and women who have given their hearts to God. (William Barclay ”New Testament Words” p 69-70,72)

The Greek word ”Ecclesia” means an assembly. ... The word assembly ... refers to a select and gathered-out company, having certain qualifications, and being committed to certain work. The men who constituted the town assembly in a Greek city were all free men. To them was committed the welfare of others. They constituted a governing body, consisting of free men. That was the Greek use of the word. The Hebrew use of the word had reference to the Hebrew nation as the peculiar people of God. (G. Campbell Morgan "The Acts of the Apostles" p 26)

The assembly ia (in the Bible) always described, both of Christ and the apostles, as one from the world chosen, taken out and separated crowd. This also lies in the name, Christ and the apostles give her - in Greek ecklesia, literally the calling out or the called out crowd. (Karl Palmberg "Ur livskällan. Tredje årgången." p 104; Karl Palmberg /1842-1920/ was from 1883 a Lutheran clergyman in Månsarp in the diocese of Växjö and president in Jönköpings Missionsförening (Missionary Society) 1886-1911; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

John once was in wandering and came to a wood. In an old tree he found a bird's nest with seven eggs resembling the ones of the swift. But this bird only lays three eggs, so it was not the nest of this one. Because John was a great connoisseur in eggs, he soon understood that these were the eggs of the hoopoe, and he said to himself: the hoopoe must be near here, although the books say that it is not to be found here in the district. After a while he quite right heard the famous opp, opp, opp of the hoopoe, and then he knew that it was there. He hid himself behind a stone and soon he saw the speckled bird with its yellow crest. When three days laten he came home, he told his teacher that he had seen the hoopoe on Siarö (Seer Island). The teacher did not believed it but exacted proof. "Proof? Do you mean witnesses?" Yes!" "Well, I have twice two witnesses and they are in accord: my two ears heard him, and my two eyes saw him." "Maybe, but I did not see him", the teacher answered. John got the name The arrant liar, because he could not prove that the hoopoe had been there, although it was an unusual case there in the district. (August Strindberg "En blå bok I" p 9; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

(The boy) did not rightly know where in the world he was, if it was in Skåne, in Småland or in Bleking. But just before he had come down to the peat-moss, he had caught a glimpse of a big village, and to this he now directed his steps. . . . He came to the church, and he thought that the men had erected it, in order that they there would hear spoken of a world besides this, which they lived in, about God and revelation and an eternal life. And the longer he walked there, the more he liked the men. (Selma Lagerlöf "Nils Holgerssons underbara resa genom Sverige" p 97-98; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

(1898) October 1. The council in Stockholm is going on. Bishop Rundgren and the Dean Personne now are rationalists, as the consequence becomes of Protestantism. With this the Lutheran Church, which no church is, is burst. (August Strindberg "Ockulta dagboken" p 78; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

1870 I stood before an important deciding: Would I let ordain me (as priest) or not? . . . Had there already been an association with the principles of Svenska Missionsförbundet, I had at once joined there. For the assembly of the believers I love more than anything else. (Karl Palmberg "Karl Palmberg - Strödda minnen från hans levnad" s 105; Palmberg's own notes)

(Viktor Rydberg's) series of articles "Om kyrka och prästerskap" ("About church and priesthood"), published in 1868, . . . should be mentioned. . . . Rydberg tries to show, that the church, as it has been formed in both Catholic and Protestant countries, had not support in the New Testament. Against the priestchurch having caused that the religious society had fallen to pieces in "two by disparate rights and duties from each other separate classes of members: the governors and the governed ones, guardians and wards, priests and laymen", he set the free assembly, as it had been developed during the first time of Christianity. (Harald Elovson "Rydberg och hans inflytande på tänkesättet" p 111-112; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

At the suggestion of schoolmaster Lars a new assembly, called the palace assembly, consisting of the royal men in the town and their families, had for the present become formed (in Jönköping). Lars had taken upon himself to without compensation be its spiritual caretaker. And the monastery chapel, which now got the name the palace chapel, was placed at its disposal. (Viktor Rydberg "Vapensmeden" p 129-130; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Göran Alm, William Barclay, Karl Barth, Ingmar Bergman, Oloph Bexell, William Bredberg, Ingmar Brohed, Kirsten Busch, Ylva Eggehorn, Håkan Eilert, Harald Elovson, Olle Engström, Linné Eriksson, Hilding Fagerberg, Bo Giertz, Paulos Mar Gregorios, Berndt Gustafsson, Gösta Hedberg, David Hedegård, Tore Heldtander, Bengt Hägglund, Ulrik Josefsson, Birgit Karlsson, Oscar Krook, David Lagergren, Mattias Lekardal, Lars Lindberg, Thomas Lindkvist, J.E. Lundahl, Martin Luther, John Magnusson, Frank Mangs, Vilhelm Moberg, Gösta Nicklasson, Fredrik Nielsen, Sven Nilsson, Moses Nkosi, Anders Nohrborg, J.P. Norberg, Bo Nylund, J. Nyrén, Olle Nystedt, Sigurd Ohlsson, John Ongman, Thede Palm, Efraim Palmqvist, Lewi Pethrus, Niklas Piensoho, Harald Rasmussen, Einar Rimmerfors, E. Aug. Skogsbergh, Howard A. Snyder, Milton Steinberg, Arvid Stenström, John Stott, Erland Sundström, Knut Svensson, Esaias Tegnér, Lena Tellebo, Alf Tergel, Einar Thomassen, P. Waldenström, Julius Wellhausen, Paul Wern, Morris West, Gunnar Westin, Carl Fr. Wislöff, Yngve Ydreborg, Bertil Zachrisson, Göran Åberg.


My own comments and speculations:

Paul wrote letters to among others the (assembly) of called out in Ephesos, the capital of Asia.

In a restoration perspective we can see how the seven nations, which God had taken entirely for Himself in the earth of Canaan, now have stood up in Asia as (assemblies) of called out. Cf. Acts 13:19.


Paul said to the believers in Corinth: “They greet you, the (assemblies) of called out of Asia.” (1 Cor 16:19a)


Greek words:

Asia (Asia) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) 1 Macc 8:6; Acts 19:10; 1 Cor 16:19; Rev 1:4 – 1 Macc 11:13; 12:39; 13:32; 2 Macc 3:3; 10:24; Acts 2:9; 6:9; 16:6; 19:22, 26-27; 20:16,18; 21:27; 24:19; 27:2; Rom 16:5; 2 Cor 1:8; 2 Tim 1:15.

ekklêsia /(assembly) of called out/ (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) 1 Macc 14:19; Matt 18:17; Acts 7:38; 1 Cor 16:19, Rev 1:4 – Judith 6:16,21; 7:29; 14:6; 1 Macc 2:56; 4:59; 5:16; Sir 23:24; 24:2; 31:11; 33:19; 38:33; 39:10; 44:15; 46:7; 50:13,20. Matt 16:18; Acts 5:11; 8:1,3; 9:31; 11:22,26; 12:1,5; 13:1; 14:23,27; 15:3-4,22,41; 16:5; 18:22; 19:32,39-40; 20:17,28. Rom 16:1,4-5,16,23; 1 Cor 1:2; 4:17; 6:4; 7:17; 10:32; 11:16,18,22; 12:28; 14:4-5,12,19,23,28,33-35; 15:9; 16:1; 2 Cor 1:1; 8:1,18-19; 23-24; 11:8,28; 12:13; Gal 1:2,13,22; Eph 1:22; 3:10,21; 5:23-25,27,29,32; Phil 3:6; 4:15; Col 1:18,24; 4:15-16; 1 Thess 1:1; 2:14; 2 Thess 1:1,4; 1 Tim 3:5,15; 5:16; Philemon v 2. Heb 2:12; 12:23; Jas 5:14; I Pet 5:13(א,*א); III John v 6,8(א*,A),9-10; Rev 1:11,20; 2:1,7-8,11-12,17-18,23,29; 3:1,6-7,13-14,22; 22:16.

(h)epta (seven) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Mark 8:20; Acts 13:19; Rev 1:4 – Esther 1:10; 2:18; Tobit 3:8,15; 6:14; 7:11; 11:19(BA); 12:15; Judith 16:24; 1 Macc 13:28; 2 Macc 7:1,20; Sir 22:12; 37:14; Epistle of Jeremiah v 2; Bel and the Dragon v 32; Matt 12:45; 15:34,36-37; 16:10; 18:22; 22:25-26,28; Mark 8:5-6,8; 12:20,22-23; Luke 2:36; 8:2; 11:26; 20:29,31,33; Acts 6:3; 19:14; 20:6; 21:4,8,27; 28:14; Heb 11:30; Rev 1:11-12,16,20; 2:1; 3:1; 4:5; 5:1,5-6; 6:1; 8:2,6; 10:3-4; 11:13; 12:3; 13:1; 15:1,6-8; 16:1; 17:1,3,7,9,11; 21:9.


Additional studies:

Rev 1:1,9; 22:8.


David E. Aune "St John's Portrait of the Church in the Apocalypse"; The Evangelical Quarterly 38.3 (July-Sept. 1966): 131-149.

J.H. Roberts "Ekklesia in Acts - Linguistic and Theology: A Venture in Methodology"; Neotestamentica 7.1 (1973): 73-94.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-10; 2012-06-01; 2014-12-26)

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1:4b Joybringing (grace) (with) you and peace from the One who is and the One who (continually) was and the One who comes and from the seven spirits * (א,* א, A) ‘in the very eyes of’/before His throne.

Word for word (23 words in the Greek text): joybringing-(grace) (to/with)-you and peace from the-(one) being/'who is' and the-(one) (who)-(continually)-was and the-(one) coming/'who comes' and from the seven spirits the-(ones) in-the-very-eyes-of the throne his.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

God spoke towards Moses: "I am the One who is." And He spoke: "In this way you shall speak to the sons of Israel: 'The One who is has dispatched (and dispatches) me away towards you.'" (Ex 3:14, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Israel:) "... I will give peace in your earth/land." (Lev 26:6a, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said: “Lord, You) make spirits (Your) messengers.” (Ps 104:4a, Greek OT)

A spirit of God will ‘be brought’/come to rest against (a rod out of the root of Jesse); a spirit of wisdom and understanding, a spirit of counsel and stability, a spirit of knowledge and reverence. (Is 11:2, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) “I, God, (am) first, and into the things coming on I am.” (Is 41:4a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said about His people:) “I have let (and I let) My peace stand aloof from this people.” (Jer 16:5b, Greek OT)

(Daniel said:) “I (continually) looked at ... when thrones were put/’set up’ and an Old of days (continually) was seated, having a wrapper as if (it was) white (Theod) snow and the growth of hair of His head as if (it was) white clean wool. The throne (was) as if (it was) a flame of fire. (Dan 7:9, Greek OT)

"In this (new temple) I shall give peace," says the Lord All-powerful, "and/namely a peace of soul." (Haggai 2:9b or 2:10b, Greek OT)

(Zerubbabel) will carry ‘out of’/out the stone of the inheritance of/with an equality of joybringing (grace) of its joybringing (graces). (Zech 4:7b, Greek OT)

(Raguel said to Tobias: “May) the Lord of the heaven this night make mercy and peace against (you and your woman).” (Tobit 7:12b, S)

(With) the brothers, the Jews ‘according to’/downwards Egypt, the brothers, the Jews in (a disgraced) Jerosolyma/Jerusalem and the ones in the district of Judea rejoice (by wishing) good peace. (2 Macc 1:1)

(Solomon said:) ”Joybringing (grace) and mercy to the chosen ones of (the Lord).” (Wisdom of Solomon 3:9b)

(Solomon says: “I have knowledge of) beginning and end and middle of times.” (Wisdom of Solomon 7:18a)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “Joybringing (grace) (is) as a ‘place by the side of apprehension’/Paradise in/with blessings.” (Sir 40:17a)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said: “The Lord) ... is before the age and into the (coming) age.” (Sir 42:21a)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples: “The heaven) is a throne of God.” (Matt 5:34b)

(Jesus said to the twelve:) ”Coming into, into the habitation greet it, saying: “Peace to this house (א*).” (Matt 10:12)

(The unclean spirit) goes and takes in company with itself by its side seven other spirits more evil than itself. (Matt 12:45a)

(Jesus said to Peter:) “I will give you the keys of the kingdom of the heavens. And which/what you – if according to the circumstances – may bind upon the earth, it will be, having been (and being) bound in the heavens, and which/what you – if according to the circumstances - may loosen upon the earth, it will be, having been (and being) loosened in the heavens.” (Matt 16:19)

(Jesus said:) “Many will come on/’for the sake of’ My name, saying that/: ‘I am’ and will lead many astray.” (Mark 13:6)

(A messenger together with a multitude of the heavenly host said:) “Glory to God in highest things/heavens and upon earth peace 'in men of satisfication'/'among men taking pleasure in good things'.” (Luke 2:14)

All (in the synagogue continually) were witnesses to (Jesus) and (continually) wondered on/at the sayings of joybringing (grace), (sayings) going out, out of His mouth. (Luke 4:22a)

(Jesus) Himself stood in a middle (of the eleven and the other disciples) and says to them: "Peace to you." (Luke 24:36b)

(The twelve said to the multitude of the disciples:) “‘Inspect out of you seven males ... filled of spirit and wisdom.” (Acts 6:3a)

(The prophet says:) “The heaven (is) a throne (of the highest One).” (Acts 7:49a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

In a beginning the Saying (continually) was. (John 1:1a)

We have all taken out of (Jesus') complement and joybringing (grace) instead of joybringing (grace). (John 1:16)

(Jesus said to the Jews:) “My Father works till just now, and I work.” (John 5:17b)

(Jesus said to the Jews): “If – according to the circumstances – you may not believe Me (א,*א), that I am, you will die in your misses (of the mark of God).” (John 8:24b)

Jesus spoke to (the Jews): "Amen, amen, I say to you, before Abraham become/became, I am." (John 8:58)

Jesus says to (Thomas): “I am the way and the truth and the life. No one comes towards the Father if not through Me.” (John 14:6)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "I come towards to you." (John 14:18b)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "Peace I ‘let ... be’/leave to you. My peace I give to you." (John 14:27a)

(Jesus) so spoke to (the ten disciples) again: “Peace to you. Entirely as the Father has dispatched (and dispatches) Me away, and/also I will (א*) send you.” And having spoken this He puffed in/on (them), and He says to them: “Take holy spirit.” (John 20:21-22)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

Ex 3:14 and Rev 1:4 are cited in Feuillet's list of Exodus “types” in Rev. (cf. Håkan Ulfgard "Feast and Future" p 37)

The number 7 … is in the Bible associated with completion, fulfilment and perfection (cf. Gen 2:2; Ex 20:10; Lev 14:7; Acts 6:3). In the Revelation there are 7 churches and 7 spirits (1:4), 7 lampstands (1:12), 7 stars (1:16), 7 seals on the scroll (5:1), 7 horns and 7 eyes of the Lamb (5:6), 7 messengers and 7 trumpets (8:2), 7 thunders (10:3), 7 heads of the dragon (12:3), 7 heads of the beast (13:1), 7 golden bowls (15:7) and 7 kings (17:10). (C.C. Ryrie "The Ryrie Study Bible" p 1895)

The disciple went on: The lords of evolution say that Christianity is out of fashion and is behind us. No, Christianity is over all, behind us - by the side of - in front of us. Gentiles of all kinds really created heir gods themselves after their image, but with Christianity the transcendent god came and revealed himself for the men, the ones of good will being able to grasp him. Therefore Christianity is the beginning, the middle and the end of the world history, the one "from and to whom all stream" as Hegel says. (August Strindberg "En blå bok I" p 108; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

According to the Rabbis 'the seal of God was Truth (AeMeTH)', the three letters of which this word is composed in Hebrew . . . respectively the first, the middle, and the last letters of the alphabet (Jer. Sanh. 18a; Ber. R. 81). (Alfred Edersheim "The Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah Part II" p 29)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Carl Jonas Love Almqvist, H.C. Andersen, G. A:son Annby, D.O. Belfrage, Benkt-Erik Benktson, Per Beskow, Bo Brander, Elizabeth Charles, Ulf Ekman, Henrik Elmgren, Albert Engström, Elisabeth Fält, Carl Grimberg, Torsten Gårdlund, Krister Hanell, Verner von Heidenstam, Jan Arvid Hellström, Alf Henrikson, C.G. Hjelm, Homeros, Johannes V. Jensen, Eyvind Johnson, John Landquist, Severin Larsen, Karl Larsson, Martin Luther, Erik Lönnroth, Vilhelm Moberg, Wilhelm Möller, Fredrik Nielsen, Nils Henrik Nilsson, Anders Nohrborg, Efraim Palmqvist, Sven-Erik Pernler, Olaus Petri, Niklas Piensoho, Martin P-n Nilsson, Jim Punton, Johan Ludvig Runeberg, Viktor Rydberg, Josef Rydén, Ragnar Samuelson, Marlene Sandberg, Anton Tjechov, Leo Tolstoj, Gustaf Wikner.


My own comments and speculations:

The joybringing grace and the peace can be compared with what belongs to the joybringing grace of the Paradise (Sir 40:17) and the tree of knowledge standing in the Paradise and now bringing about peace (John 20:17-19), what belongs to the joybringing grace and the truth (with peace) having come through Jesus Christ (John 1:17) and what belongs to the joybringing grace with forgiveness of sins bringing about through the baptism in water and the peace the One baptizing in holy spirit gives through His baptism (John 3:5; 14:27).

Jesus is described with the expression "the One who is and the One who (continually) was and the One who comes", an expression in three parts. In the Jewish number symbolism the number three represents God himself.


Paul said to the believers in Rome: "Joybringing (grace) (with) you and peace from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ." (Rom 1:7b)

Paul said to the believers in Philippi: "The peace of God having/'holding fast' over every/all understanding will guard your hearts and your notions in Christ Jesus." (Phil 4:7)

"Let the peace of Christ award a prize of victory in your hearts." (Col 3:15a)

"May the Lord of the peace Himself give you the peace through every/everything in every place." (2 Thess 3:16a)

Jesus Christ (is) the same yesterday and today and into the (coming) ages. (Heb 13:8)


Greek words:

thronos (throne) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Matt 5:34; Acts 7:49; Rev 1:4 - Esther 5:1c(D6),1e(D8); 8:12l(E11); Judith 1:12; 9:3; 1 Macc 2:57; 7:4; 10:52; 11:52; Wisdom of Solomon 5:23; 6:21; 7:8; 9:4,10,12; Sir 1:8; 10:14; 24:4; 40:3; 47:11; Matt 19:28; 23:22; 25:31, Luke 1:32,52; 22:30; Acts 2:30; Col 1:16; Heb 1:8; 4:16; 8:1; 12:2; Rev 2:13; 3:21; 4:2-6,9-10; 5:1,6-7,11,13; 6:16; 7:9-11,15,17; 8:3; 11:16; 12:5; 13:2; 14:3; 16:10; 19:4-5; 20:4,11-12; 21:3,5; 22:1,3.


Additional studies:

Judges 6:23-24; 1 Sam 25:5-6; Ps 47:8(9); Is 40:10; 43:10; 66:1; Zech 3:9; 4:10; Matt 28:19; John 1:17; 16:33; 1 Cor 1:3; 2 Cor 1:2; 13:13; Tit 2:13; Rev 1:1,8,17; 3:1; 4:5,8; 5:6; 8:2; 11:17; 16:5.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-10; 2012-06-01; 2014-12-27)

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1:5a ... and from Jesus Christ, the faithful witness, the first-born of the dead (bodies) and the leader of the kings of the earth ...

Word for word (19 words in the Greek text): and from Jesus Christ, the witness, the faithful, the first-born (of)-the (of)-dead and the leader (of)-the (of)-kings) (of)-the (of)-earth.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Moses said to Israel:) " ... The Lord your God, this God (is) a faithful God." (Deut 7:9a, Greek OT)

(King Solomon said to God:) "All the kings will prostrate before (Your king in honour of him)." (Ps 72:11a, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said:) "I will put/make (David, My slave), a first-born, high 'by the side of'/'in comparison with' the kings of the earth." (Ps 89:27 or 89:28, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said:) "The witness in heaven (is) faithful. ..." (Ps 89:37b or Ps 89:38b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) "I will cause (My boy Eliakim) to stand (as) a leader in a faithful/firm place, and he will be into/to a throne of glory of the house of his father." (Is 22:23, Greek OT)

(The people of Judas) spoke to Jeremiah: "Let the Lord be in us into/'with the purpose of' a righteous and faithful witness, if we will not make/act in this way according to every saying, which the Lord - according to the circumstances - may dispatch you away towards us." (Jer 42:5, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) "My slave David (is) a leader in a middle of (My people), and one shepherd will be (a shepherd) of all." (Ezek 37:24a, Greek OT)

(Daniel said to the king of Babylon:) "You, king, a king of kings." (Dan 2:37a, Greek OT)

(The king of Babylon said to Daniel:) "Your God (is) God of the gods and Lord of the kings. ... " (Dan 2:47b, Greek OT)

Many of the ones sleeping entirely/soundly in/on the breadth of the earth will stand up. (Dan 12:2a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Bethlehem:) "The One will come out, out of you for Me to be into/to a leader in Israel, and His 'ways out'/departures (are) from a beginning, out of days of an age." (Micah 5:2b, Greek OT)

(Solomon said: "The Egyptians) did not believe ... but on/at the destruction of the first-born they confessed a people (being) a son of God." (Wisdom of Solomon 18:13)


The Latter Revelation:

(The slanderer showed Jesus) all the kingdoms of the adornment/'adorned world' and their glory. And he spoke to Him: "All these things I will give You, if - according to the circumstances - on having fallen/'sunk down' You may prostrate Yourself before me (in honour of me)." Then Jesus says to him: "Withdraw, adversary, for it has been (and is) written: 'You shall prostrate yourself (towards) the Lord your God (in adoration of Him) and Him alone you shall serve.'" (Matt 4:8b-10)

(Jesus said:) "What does it seem to you, Simon? From whom do the kings of the earth take ends/toll or tax, from their sons or from the aliens?" (Matt 17:25b)

The lord uttered to (his servant): "Well (done), good and faithful slave." (Matt 25:21a and 25:23a)

(The messenger said to the women:) "(Jesus) is not here, for He has been raised." (Matt 28:6a)

Having come to/forward Jesus talked (with the eleven disciples) saying: "Every/all (judicial) authority in heaven and upon earth has been given to Me." (Matt 28:18)

Many (continually) were false witnesses 'down from'/against (Jesus), and the evidences (continually) were not equal. (Mark 14:56)

(Mary) brought forth her first-born son. (Luke 2:7a)

(Jesus said to the apostles:) "Let the one being in command (become) as the one rendering service. Who is greater, the one lying up/'down to table' or the one rendering service? Definitely not the one lying up/'down to table'? But I am in your middle as the One rendering service." (Luke 22:26b-27)

(Some men from the synagogue) 'caused ... to stand'/'set up' false witnesses. (Acts 6:13a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

The one having taken (Jesus') evidence has sealed, that God is truthful. (John 3:33)

Jesus said to (the Pharisees): "And if I - according to the circumstances - am a witness on account of Myself, My evidence is truthful." (John 8:14a)

Having so taken a pound of a much honoured ointment oil of nard, connected with faith, Mary (P66,א,*א) smeared the feet of Jesus and wiped off His feet (with) her hairs/hair. But/and the habitation was completed out of the scent of the ointment oil. (John 12:3)

Jesus (said to Pilate): "You say, that I am a king. Into/'for the purpose of' this I am (and have been) begotten, and into/'for the purpose of' this I have come (and comes) into the adornment/'adorned world', in order that I may be a witness to the truth. 'Every the'/everyone being out of the truth hears My voice." (John 18:37b)


Exegetes, evangelists and others: Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: Irenaeus, Karl Larsson, Vilhelm Moberg, Kerry Usher.


Paul said to the believers in Rome: "(The Son of God might) be a first-born in/among many brothers." (Rom 8:29b)

Paul said to the believers in Corinth: "Now, now Christ has been (and is) raised out of dead (bodies), from a beginning of the ones having been (and being) fallen asleep." (1 Cor 15:20)

Paul said to the believers in Colossae: "(Christ) ... is a beginning, a first-born of (P46,?*) the dead (bodies)." (Col 1:18a)

Paul said to Timothy: "Christ Jesus (was) a witness to ... the fine confession." (1 Tim 6:13b)


Greek words:

martys (witness) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Acts 6:13; Rev 1:5 - Wisdom of Solomon 1:6; 4:6; Matt 18:16; 26:65; Mark 14:63; Luke 11:48; 24:48; Acts 1:8,22; 2:32; 3:15; 5:32; 7:58; 10:39,41; 13:31; 22:15,20; 26:16; Rom 1:9; 2 Cor 1:23; 13:1; Phil 1:8; 1 Thess 2:5,10; 1 Tim 5:19; 6:12; 2 Tim 2:2; Heb 10:28; 12:1; 1 Pet 5:1; Rev 2:13; 3:14; 11:3; 17:6.

prôtotokos (first-born) (in the NT + one example in the Apocrypha) Wisdom of Solomon 18:13; Luke 2:7; Rom 8:29; Col 1:18; Rev 1:5 - Col 1:15; Heb 1:6; 11:28; 12:23.


Additional studies: Gen 48:18; Ex 22:29; Num 18:15; Deut 32:4; Ps 2:6; 22:27(28); 86:9; 110:2; Is 49:7; 55:4; Jer 27:5-7; Matt 26:60; Mark 16:6; Luke 4:5-8; 16:11-12; 19:17; 24:6; 1 Cor 15:23; 1 Tim 6:15; Heb 2:17; Rev 17:14; 19:11,15-16.


Beate Kowalski "Martyrdom and Resurrection in the Revelation to John"; Andrews University Seminary Studies 10.1 (Jan. 1972): 55-64.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-10; 2012-06-01; 2014-12-28)

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1:5b ... * (א*) welcoming us and having loosened * (א*) out of our misses (of the mark of God) in/with His blood.

Word for word (12 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus prima manus): welcoming us and having-loosened out-of the misses-(of-the-mark-of-God) our in the blood his.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The Lord said to Moses and Aaron:) "The blood shall be to you in a sign upon the habitations, in which you are there, and I shall behold the blood, and I shall shelter you." (Ex 12:13a, Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) "The miss (of the mark of God) may be 'let be'/left (alone) to (the inhabitants of Jerusalem)." (Is 33:24b, Greek OT)

(The people in Jerusalem said to the Lord:) "We have missed (Your mark), we have been wicked, and You have not been propitiated." (Lam 3:42, Greek OT)

(Judas) made/performed on account of the ones being (and having been) deceased the 'propitiation out'/propitiation to loosen from the misses (of the mark of God). (2 Macc 12:45b)


The Latter Revelation:

(A messenger of the Lord said to Joseph: "Mary) will bring forth a Son. And you will/shall call His name Jesus, for He will save His people from their misses (of the mark of God)." (Matt 1:21)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) " Amen, I say to you: 'As many thing as you - if according to the circumstances - may bind upon the earth, they will be being (and having been) bound in the heavens (א,* א), and as many things as you - if according to the circumstances - may loosen upon the earth, they will be being (and having been) loosened in heaven.'" (Matt 18:18)

And having taken a cup and having 'been thankful'/'given thanks', (Jesus) gave to (His disciples) saying: "Drink out of it, all (of you). For this is My blood of the covenant, which is poured out on account of many into/'for the purpose of' a 'letting be'/'leaving alone' of misses (of the mark of God)." (Matt 26:27-28)

(Paul said to the elders of Ephesos:) "The Holy Spirit has put/made you inspectors to be shepherds (over) the (assembly) of called out of God, which He 'made about Himself'/acquired through the own blood." (Acts 20:28b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Jesus said to the Jews:) "The one chewing My flesh and drinking My blood has agelong life, and I will cause him to stand up the last day." (John 6:54)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "The one welcoming Me will be welcomed by My Father. And I will welcome him and make Myself conspicuous to him." (John 14:21)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 - about 1500

I gladly promise to subscribe to Teosofisk tidskrift. This I shall do today. Of course you are right that the greatest sacrifice for Christ consisted in his letting himself be born. That thing, that he would have atoned for our sins I have never understood. But it is delicate things to embark upon, because it really is given men, whose all safety and certainty depend on this faith. It is such a corner-stone for them, that one really feels anxious to shake it. Certainly I would wish, that they instead had the reincarnation to secure themselves. (Selma Lagerlöf "Brev 2 - 1903-1940" p 213; letter 1925-01-01 to Stella Rydholm; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

"How cruel men are!" (bird Redbreast) said. . . . "It is not enough for them to fasten these poor beings with nails on the cross, but on the head of one of them they also have fixed a crown of sticking thorns. I see, that the thorns have lacerated his forehead, so that blood sheds", he went on. . . . The little bird began feel a gradually stronger compassion with the one crowned with thorns. . . . He saw how blood dropped down on the forehead of the crucified and could not longer hold himself still in his nest. . . . And he left his nest flowing out in the air, beating wide circles around the crucified. . . . Little by little he plucked up courage, flew up to him and with his bill he drew out a thorn having penetrated the forehead of the crucified. But while he did this, a drop of the blood of the crucified, fell down upon the breast of the bird. It quickly widened and flew out and coloured all the little tender (gray) feathers of the breast. But the crucified opened his lips whispering to the bird: "For the sake of your mercy you now have won what your genus has striven to attain since the creation of the world." . . . (And) however the little bird bathed, the red colour did not more disappear from his breast, and when his little young birds were full-grown, the blood-red colour glowed also on their breastfeathers, as it glows on the throat and breast of every bird Redbreast up to this day. (Selma Lagerlöf "Fågel Rödbröst" p 117-118; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


about 1500 and time before

Not from visible wars, neither from barbarians, but what was far greater than these, from sins, (the angel) declares the glad tidings of deliverance. (Chrysostom commenting Matt 1:21, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers X:26)

Let us look stedfastly to the blood of Christ, and see how precious that blood is to God, which, having been shed for our salvation, has set the grace of repentance before the whole world. (Clement of Rome to the Corinthians, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol I, p 7)

There is in Rabbinic writings frequent reference to the sufferings, and even the death of the Messiah, and these are brought into connection with our sins ... and in one most remarkable comment (Yalkut on Is. ix.1) the Messiah is represented as willingly taking upon Himself all these sufferings, on condition that all Israel - the living, the dead, and those yet unborn - should be saved, and that, in consequence of His work, God and Israel should be reconciled, and Satan cast into hell. (Alfred Edersheim "The Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah Part I" p 165)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Hjalmar Alving, Oloph Bexell, Rachid Boudjedra, John Bunyan, Rune W Dahlén, Sven Danell, Berndt Gustasfsson, Peter Hallberg, Gudmar Hasselberg, Erik Herneby, Bengt Holmberg, Bengt Hägglund, Swening Johansson, Harry Lenhammar, Sven Lidman, Martin Luther, Emil Malm, Vilhelm Moberg, D.L. Moody, Anders Nohrborg, T.H. Odencrants, John Ongman, Efraim Palmqvist, Lewi Pethrus, Niklas Piensoho, Edvard Rohde, Sven Edvin Salje, Inger Selander, Harry Sjöman, A.M. Strinnholm, Knur Svensson, Hjalmar Söderberg, Rune Söderlund, P. Waldenström, Stig Wikström.


But if we - according to the circumstances - may walk about in the light, as He is in the light, we have communion in company with one another, and the blood of Jesus, His Son, makes us clean from every miss (of the mark of God). (1 John 1:7)

If we - according to the circumstances - may confess our misses (of the mark of God), He is faithful and righteous, in order that He may let our (א,* א) misses (of His mark) be to us and make us clean from every unrighteousness. (1 John 1:9)

(Jesus Christ) is a propitiation on account of our misses (of the mark of God), but not on account of ours only, however/but and/also on account of the whole adornment/'adorned world'. (1 John 2:2)

I write to you, little children, because the misses (of the mark of God) have been (and are) left (alone) to you because of His name. (1 John 2:12)

We (א,*א) know, that that One was made visible, in order that He might lift/'take away' our (א,*א) misses (of the mark of God), and it/there is not (any) miss (of the mark of God) in Him. (1 John 3:5)

In this is the welcome of God (א,*א) , not that we welcomed (א,*א) God, however/but that He Himself welcomed us and has dispatched (and dispatches) (א,*א) away His Son (to be) a propitiation on account of our misses (of His mark). (1 John 4:10)

This is the One having come through water and blood and spirit (א,* א, A), Jesus Christ, not in the water only, however/but in the water and in * (א,* א) blood and the Spirit is the One being a witness, because the Spirit is the truth. (1 John 5:6)


Additional studies: Lev 17:4; 25:25-26,47-55; Ps 130:8; Is 2:9; 40:2; Matt 20:28; 27:25; Mark 14:23-24; Luke 22:20; John 13:1; 19:34; Rom 8:37; 1 Cor 11:25; Gal 2:20; Heb 9:12-14; 1 Pet 1:18-19; Rev 3:4,18; 5:9; 7:14.


K.C. Hason "Blood and Purity in Leviticus and Revelation"; Listening: Journal of Religion and Culture 28 (1993): 215-230.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-10; 2012-06-01; 2014-12-29)

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1:6a And He has made us a kingdom, priests to His God and Father.

Word for word (10 words in the Greek text): and (he)-made us (a)-kingdom, priests (to)-the god and father his.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The Lord said to Moses/Israel:) "You will be to Me a royal priesthood and a holy nation." (Ex 19:6a, Greek OT)

(Moses said to the Lord about Levi:) "The one saying to the father and the mother: 'I do not behold (and I have not beheld) you' and (who) did not gain additional knowledge of his brothers and (who) 'gained knowledge from'/'gave up' his sons, he has watched/secured your sayings, and he has kept Your covenant throughout." (Deut 33:9, Greek OT)

(The priest Jojada said to the assembly:) "Let 'not one'/'no one' come into a house of the Lord, 'if not'/except - according to the circumstances - the priests and the Levites, and/namely the Levites performing public duties. These will come into/in, because they are holy." (2 Chron 23:6a, Greek OT)

(David said: "God authorizes) the heavenly thing (to be) kings upon (the earth)." (Ps 68:14a or 68:15a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to His people: "My slave David) will 'call against'/invoke Me: 'You are my Father, my God.'" (Ps 89:26 or 89:27, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to David's Lord:) "You are a priest into the (coming) age according to the arrangement of Mechizedek." (Ps 110:4b, Greek OT)

(The prophet said to the people in Jerusalem:) "You will be called priests of the Lord." (Is 61:6a, Greek OT)

Holy ones of a highest one will take the kingdom to the side (them) and 'keep ... down'/possess the kingdom till/'as long as' the age and till/'as long as' the age of the ages. (Dan 7:18, Greek OT)

God (had) saved every/all His people and given back 'every the'/'the whole' inheritance and the royal palace and the priesthood and the holiness. (2 Macc 2:17)

(Solomon said:) "The reflection of (righteous ones is) by the side of a highest one. Because of this they will take the royal palace of the comely appearance and the fine diadem out of a hand of the Lord. (Wisdom of Solomon 5:15b-16a)

(Baruch said:) "Stand up, Jerusalem, and stand upon the high and see round about towards upsticking/east and behold your children being (and having been) led together from settings of sun till (its) upstickings with the holy word rejoicing at the mention/renown of God. ... God leads them towards, into you being lifted in company with glory as a throne of a king." (Baruch 5:5,6b)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "Happy the beggarly ones (in) the spirit, because theirs is the kingdom of the heavens." (Matt 5:3)

(The Pharisees said to Jesus:) "Your disciples make/do what is not permitted to make/do in/on a sabbath." ... (Jesus said to them:) "Have you not read in the law, that (in/on) the sabbaths the priests in the sanctuary profane the sabbath and are guiltless?" (Matt 12:2b,5)

(Jesus said:) "... The seasonable time has been (and is) completed, and the kingdom of God has drawn (and draws) near." (Mark 1:15a)

In the days of Herod, king of Judea, 'it became'/'there was' a certain priest (with) name Zacharias. (Luke 1:5a)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "Do not fear, small/little. little flock, because your Father has been pleased with giving you the kingdom." (Luke 12:32)

Having throughout/solemnly 'been a'/born witness Paul (continually/repeatedly) 'put out'/explained the kingdom of God (to the leading men of the Jews) persuading both/- them on account of Jesus, from both the law of Moses and the prophets, from early in the day till evening. (Acts 28:23b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

Because of this* (א,* א) rather/'all the more' the Jews (continually) sought to kill (Jesus), because He not only (continually) loosened the sabbath, 'however and'/'but also' (continually) said/called God an own Father, making Himself equal (with) God. (John 5:18)

Jesus (said to Pilate): "My kingdom is not out of this adornment/'adorned world'. If My kingdom (continually) was out of this adornment/'adorned world', My rowers/servants (continually) had - according to the circumstances - fought, in order that I might not had been given 'to the side of'/'over to' the Jews. But now My kingdom is not from here." (John 18:36)

Simon Peter so ascended and drew the net 'into the earth'/'upon the land', filled up (with) great fishes/fish, a hundred and fifty-three. (John 21:11a; cf. My comments and speculations to John 21:12-14)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 - about 1500

The heavenly journey text (in the Book of the Watchers - 1 Enoch 14:8-16:3) ... was a prophetic message from God directed to the fallen priests in Jerusalem. (Leif Carlsson "Round trips to heaven" p 48)

I went in eating breakfast and read more newspapers. Terrible stories about priests abounded in the court division, and of the most disagreeable kind. I had later some times possibility to see with what disrespect people treated the priests. In a railway compartment a priest had sought a good corner, where he was lost in quiet contemplation. Then the door was opened and a young man brings in his wife. He asks very abrupt and resolute the priest to be kind and move, although the latter was not at all in their way. I almost felt sorry for that pitiful man. He obeyed as a schoolboy. It looked as if the young man didn't want that his wife would sit beside the priest. Another time I came down into the assembly-hall of the hotel. At my entrance a little redbrown Capuchin sat joking with the hotel-keeper. When he saw me he rose and . . . came bowing to me asking how I felt. Then he asked how my wife felt and how my children felt. Then he handed me a little blackguard to money-box with a Madonna on it. After I had let down a coin praising a praise, he did the "sign" over me slinking away, while the hotel-keeper chaffed him asking me be afraid of that rogue. (August Strindberg "Från det vaknande Italien" p 95-96; Pegli-Genova March 1884; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


about 1500 and time before

All the righteous possess the sacerdotal rank. (Irenaeus, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol I, p 471)

It would take too long to enumerate all the benefits supposed to be derived from descent from Abraham. Suffice here the most fundamental principle: 'All Israel are the children of Kings,' and its application even to common life, that as 'the children of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, not even Solomon's feast could be too good for them.' (Baba Mets. vii.1) (Alfred Edersheim "The Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah Part II" p 172)

It need scarcely be said, that everything connected with the priesthood (in the Temple) was intended to be symbolical and typical - the office itself, its functions, even its dress and outward support. The fundamental design of Israel itself was to be ... 'a kingdom of priests and an holy nation.' (Ex. xix. 5,6) This, however, could only be realised in 'the fulness of time.' (Alfred Edersheim "The Temple" p 84)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Roger Andersson, James Atkinson, Robert Banks, Håkan Bengtsson, Oloph Bexell, William Bredberg, Sven-Erik Brodd, George Carey, Sten Carlsson, Donald Coggan, Tim Dowley, Robert G. England, Ronald Finucane, Gunnar Fjellestad, Otto Funcke, Olle Gellerman, Bo Giertz, Berndt Gustafsson, Peter Halldorf, Fredrik Hammarsten, John Hedlund, Ulrik Josefsson, Harry Lenhammar, Sven Lidman, Martin Luther, Carl Henrik Martling, Ingun Montgomery, Fredrik Nielsen, N. Odenvik, Birger Olsson, Efraim Palmqvist, Lage Pernveden, Carl Fr. Peterson, Niklas Piensoho, Harold H. Rowdon, Viktor Rydberg, Sven Edvin Salje, Gösta Sandberg, Björn Skogar, A.M. Strinnholm, Olof Sundby, Esaias Tegnér, F. Voltaire, P. Waldenström, Kallistos Ware, Stig Wikström, Emile Zola, Göran Åberg.


My own comments and speculations: Concerning the believers as priests, compare with My own comments and speculations to Rev 11:2a.


Peter said to the believers: "You (are) a chosen descent, a royal/kingly priesthood, a holy nation." (1 Pet 2:9a)


Additonal studies: John 17:17-19; Acts 1:3; 8:12; 14:22; 19:8; 20:25; 28:31; Rom 15:6; 1 Cor 15:24; 2 Cor 1:3; 11:31; Eph 1:3; Col 1:3; 1 Pet 1:3; 2:5; Rev 4:4,10; 5:10; 16:12; 20:6; 22:5.


H. von Campenhausen "Prästbegreppets uppkomst i den gamla kyrkan"; Svensk Exegetisk Årsbok 4 (1939): 86-101.

L. Floor "The General Priesthood of Believers in the Epistle to the Hebrews"; Neotestamentica 5.1 (1971): 72-82.

A. Gelston "The Royal Priesthood"; The Evangelical Quarterly 31.3 (1959): 152-163.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-10; 2012-06-01; 2014-12-30)

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1:6b To Him (is) the glory and the power into the (coming) ages of the (coming) ages. Amen.

Word for word (12 words in the Greek text): (to)-him the glory and the power into the ages (of)-the (of)-ages. amen.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

All the people shall answer and say: "Amen." (every verse in Deut 27:15b-26b, Hebrew OT, "New American Standard")

Every/all the people shall speak: "Oh, that it may become." (every verse in Deut 27:15b-26b, Greek OT)

'Every the'/'the whole' (assembly) of called out spoke: "Amen." ... (Neh 5:13b, Greek OT)

(Job said:) "By the side of (the Lord) are power and stability." (Job 12:16a, Greek OT)

(David said:) "Once God has spoken, two/twice I heard these things, that the power (is) of God and (with) You, Lord, the mercy." (Ps 62:11-12a or Ps 62:12, Greek OT)

(Moses said to the Lord:) "Who has knowledge of the power of Your wrath?" (Ps 90:11a, Greek OT)

Carrying out His adornment/'adorned world' 'according to'/after number (the Lord) will call every/all on/'for the sake of' name. From/'owing to' much glory and in/with a power of stability not anyone is in obscurity for You. (Is 40:26b, Greek OT)

To (one as a son of man) was given the beginning and the honour and the kingdom, and all the peoples, tribes, tongues will be slaves to Him. His (judicial) authority (is) an agelong (judicial) authority, and His kingdom will not be ruined throughout. (Dan 7:14, Greek OT, Theod)

Holy ones of a highest one will take the kingdom to the side (them) and 'keep ... down'/possess the kingdom till/'as long as' the age and till/'as long as' the age of the ages. (Dan 7:18, Greek OT)

(Tobias) blessed the Lord God into the (coming) ages of the (coming) ages. (Tobit 14:15b, S)

(The Jew said to the foreign king:) "Be patient and look at the great power of (the Lord). (2 Macc 7:17a)

(Solomon said to God:) "To have insight in You (is) entire righteousness and to know Your power (is) a root of undeadliness/immortality." (Wisdom of Solomon 15:3)

(Manasseh said: "Lord) the glory is Yours into the (coming) ages. Amen." (The Prayer of Manasseh v 15b)


The Latter Revelation:

Jesus spoke to (His disciples): "Amen I say to you that/: 'You, the ones having followed Me in the regeneration, when the Son of the Man may - according to the circumstances - sit down upon His throne of glory, and/also you yourselves (א,*א) will be seated against twelve thrones, judging the twelve tribes of Israel.'" (Matt 19:28)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "When the Son of the Man - according to the circumstances - may come in His glory, and all the messengers in company with Him, then He will sit down upon His throne of glory. (Matt 25:31)

(Jesus said to His disciples: "The cursed ones who have not done anything to the least of My brothers) will go away into an agelong chastisement, but the righteous ones (who have done something to the least of My brothers) into an agelong life." (Matt 25:46)

(The messenger said to Mary: "Jesus) will be king against/'extending over' the house of Jacob into the (coming) ages." (Luke 1:33a)

(Mary said: "The Lord) has made/shown power in/with His arm." (Luke 1:51a)

(Jesus said to two disciples:) "Must by no means the christ/'anointed one' suffer these things and come into, into His glory?" (Luke 24:26)

In this way, according to a power of the Lord, the saying increased and was stable. (Acts 19:20)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Jesus) says to (Nathanael): "Amen, amen I say to you." (John 1:51a)

(Jesus said:) "Father, what You have given (and give) Me, I want (give) in order that whereat/where I am, and/also those may be in company with Me, in order that they may look at My glory, which You have given (and give) Me, because You welcomed Me before (the) foundation of an adornment/'adorned world'." (John 17:24)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

The chimney-sweep . . . can talk so well with women, also with little girls as Madicken. . . . Madicken wants that (the chimney-sweep and Alva) will dance in eternity of eternities. . . . "Dear me, what I am in love with that chimney-sweep", Alva says. At once Madicken is worried. "No, you must not. He is, as we know, married and has five children." "I know", Alva says. "Therefore I only are going to be in love with him about to Thursday. Or perhaps Friday." (Astrid Lindgren "Madicken och Junibackens Pims" p 187-191; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

In secular Greek "kratos" is used especially of political power. (J. Massyngberde Ford "Revelation" p 379)

I am no Nebuchadnezzar, for I have passed Inferno, and know in whom I believe, and know my lowliness. But I have a feeling of the greatness of my commission and sometimes I tremble. They have exhibit me, but I have not seen it; they want to celebrate me, but I don't go there! (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev XX juni 1911-maj 1912" p 115; letter 1911-09-13 to Julius Per Abraham Muhr; Muhr had in letter 1911-09-13 written to Strindberg: "I wonder if a great Titan, such as 'August Strindberg' really can give God the glory for the huge work he carries out. . . . (But) he expressed before all the asembled friends at the banquet, that he had God to thank for all what he had been allowed to carry out and enjoy."; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

I wonder if not the time has come that I worked a miracle, for the sake of the people. Say a photo in colour. Or iodine-synthesis! . . . . . . Yes, the time has come to work a miracle - for the people. . . . To make silk by a liquid, without silk-worms. To transform linen-thread into silk. To transform cotton- and linenfabrics into silk (For Alingsås!). To at an aniline factory get iodine as a by-product. The same thing direct at gas-works. To fix aniline colours. . . . . . . Now I want to work the wonder, that people may believe in - me - And then I cannot work the wonder! But You will work it, for You have the hand! And if You then say: this Strindberg has taught me. Then I shall answer: Glory to God who has taught me! (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev XI maj 1895-nov 1896" p 140,151-153,156-157; letters 1896-03-16, 1896-03-28 and 1896-04-10, all to Torsten Hedlund; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

I have a tendency to epilepsy and lie one fine day, I suppose, so much the better, and I think that the travel (to Paris) will expedite the catastrophe. Before this I shall in Paris try to get my author's glory retrieved, the only thing remaining me, when everything else has come to an end. (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev VII febr 1888-dec 1889" p 118; letter 1888-09-19 to Siri von Essen; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

The worst thing is that work, life, activity lose their interest, when I have not the family to strive for, and isolated I die! But I want to die! . . . And glory and such things do not attract me more, when my own interest has ceased to exist. (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev VII febr 1888-dec 1889" p 49-50; letter 1888-03-23 to Rudolf Wall; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

I have a pride which does not allow me to be anything else than a man of glory! (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev I 1858-1876" p 215; letter 1875-08-03 to Siri von Essen and his husband Carl Gustaf Wrangel; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Martin Allwood, H.C. Andersen, Nils Beltzén, Barthold Carlson, Sven Danell, Gao Xingjian, Carl Grimberg, Alf Henrikson, Bengt Hägglund, Eskil Källquist, Pär Lagerkvist, Karl Modin, Ragnar Ohlsson, Oskar II, Olof Pettersson, Anton Tjechov, Zacharias Topelius, Karl-Erik Tysk, P. Waldenström, Bernt Werneskog, Karl Zeitz.


My own comments and speculations:

The Synoptics use the single "Amen" except in Matt 6:2. See Matt 5:18,26; 6:2,5,16; 8:10; 10:15,23,42; 11:11; 13:17; 16:28; 17:20; 18:3,13,18; 19:23,28; 21:21,31; 23:36; 24:2,34,47; 25:12,40,45; 26:13,21,34; Mark 3:28; 8:12; 9:1,41; 10:15,29; 11:23; 12:43; 13:30; 14:9,18,25,30; Luke 4:24; 7:28(?*,?);12:37; 18:17,29; 21:32; 23:43.

The Gospel of John uses the double "Amen, amen". See John 1:51; 3:3,5,11; 5:19,24-25; 6:26,32,47,53; 8:34,51,58; 10:1,7; 12:24; 13:16,20-21,38; 14:12; 16:20,23; 21:18. Concerning "amen" see "My own comments and speculations" to John 1:51a.

The expression "the ages of the ages" we also have in Rev 1:18; 4:9-10; 5:13; 7:10(?*),12; 10:6; 11:15; 15:7; 19:3; 20:10; 22:5. We also have it in Rom 16:27(P61,?*,?,A); Gal 1:5; Phil 4:20; 1 Tim 1:17; 2 Tim 4:18; Heb 13:21; 1 Pet 4:11; 5:11(?*,?,A). Observe "the two ages" (the age and the age of the ages) in Dan 7:18 and compare with "into the (coming) age" in the Gospel of John (12 times; John 4:14; 6:51,58; 8:35,51,52; 10:28; 11:26; 12:34; 13:8; 14:16) and the final "into the (coming) ages of the (coming) ages" (13 times) in the Revelation. Together the two expressions "into the (coming) age" and "into the (coming) ages of the (coming) ages" occur 25 times, the number for the Lord + the twelve tribes + the twelve apostles. Cf. with My own comments and speculations to John 6:16-21.


Paul said to the believers in Rome: "To (God is) the glory into the (coming) ages. Amen." (Rom 11:36b)

Paul said to Timothy: "To (Jesus Christ is) honour and agelong power! Amen." (1 Tim 6:16b)

Peter said: "God may be glorified in all things through Jesus Christ, to whom the glory is and the power into the (coming) ages of the (coming) ages. Amen." (1 Pet 4:11b)

Peter said: "To (Christ is) the glory and (א,* א) the power into the (coming) ages of (the coming) ages (א,* א, A) . Amen." (1 Pet 5:11)

(Jude said:) "To an alone/only God, our Saviour through Jesus Christ our Lord, (be) glory, greatness, power and (judicial) authority, before every age and now and into/for * (א,* א) the ages. Amen." (Jude v 25)


Greek words:

kratos (power) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) 2 Macc 7:17; Luke 1:51; Acts 19:20; 1 Tim 6:16; 1 Pet 4:11; 5:11; Jude v 25; Rev 1:6 - Judith 2:12; 5:3,23; 6:2-3; 9:8,11,14; 11:7; 13:11; 2 Macc 3:34; 9:17; 11:4; Wisdom of Solomon 11:21; 15:2; Sir 18:5; 29:13; 47:5; Eph 1:19; 6:10; Col 1:11; Heb 2:14; Rev 5:13.


Additional studies: Rom 16:27; 1 Cor 14:16; Gal 1:5; Eph 3:21; Phil 4:20; 1 Tim 1:17; Heb 13:21; 2 Pet 3:18; Rev 1:7; 19:4; 22:20-21.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-10; 2012-06-02; 2014-12-31)

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1:7a Behold, He comes in company with the clouds, and they (א,*א) will behold Him, every eye, and/also whoever 'stabbed out'/pierced * (א*).

Word for word (13 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus prima manus) Behold, (he)-comes in-company-with the clouds and (they)-will-behold him every eye and whoever stabbed-out.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The Lord said to the people of Israel: "Behold, I dispatch away My messenger before your face." (Ex 23:20a, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said:) "A cloud and a dusk (are in a) circle of/around (the Lord)." (Ps 97:2a, Greek OT)

(Daniel said:) "I (continually) looked at in a vision of the night. And behold, (One) as a son of a man (continually) came upon the clouds of the heaven. And He (continually) was by the side of (One) as an Old of Days and the ones standing by the side of (Him) (continually) were by the side of Him." (Dan 7:13, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) "I will pour out against the house of David and against the inhabitants of Jerusalem, a spirit of joybringing (grace) and pity, and they will see against, towards Me ... and they will cut/mourn against him a mourning as against a welcomed, and they will 'be caused'/feel pain, a pain as on (one) giving birth for the first time." (Zech 12:10, Greek OT)

(Judith said to the elders of the city:) "It has not stood up in our generations, nor it is/occur 'in the day to-day'/nowadays and (there is) not a tribe and not a lineage and not a popular assembly and not a city out of us, which prostrating before gods made by hands (in honour of them), entirely just as it became in the former days, (when) our fathers 'in favour'/'for the sake' of (this) were given into large sword and into 'raping through'/plundering, and they fell a great fall in the eyes of our enemies." (Judith 8:18-19)

The glory of the Lord was beheld and the cloud, as it was manifested on/'for the sake of' Moses, as it and/also was thought worthy to Solomon, in order that the place/sanctuary might greatly be entirely made holy. (2 Macc 2:8b)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) "All the ones upon the earth will gain knowledge, that the Lord is the God of the ages." (Sir 36:17 or 36:19b)

(Baruch said to the Lord:) "'Every the'/'the whole' earth may gain knowledge that You (are) the Lord, our God." (Baruch 2:15a)


The Latter Revelation:

Jesus spoke (to the priest leader): "I am. And you will behold the Son of the Man being seated out of the right (pats) of the Ability and coming in company with the clouds of the heaven." (Mark 14:62)

(Jesus said to the seventy:) "Behold, I have given (and give) you the (judicial) authority to tread above serpents and scorpions and against every ability of the enemy, and nothing will (א,* א, A) * (א*) act unrighteously (against) you." (Luke 10:19)

(On the disciples') seeing (Jesus) He was lifted against/up and a cloud took Him from below, from their eyes. ... (And two males in white clothings said:) "This Jesus, having been taken up from you into the heaven, will come in this way (in) which/'the same' turn/manner you viewed Him going into the heaven." (Acts 1:9b,11b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Jesus') disciples say to Him (P5,א*,A): "Behold, now You talk in plain language, and You say nothing (in) a proverb!" (John 16:29)

The other writing again/furthermore says: "They will behold into Him whom they 'stabbed out'/pierced." (John 19:37)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

(1907 April 18th) Shall I be crucified again? as I have crucified Christ? I go in thoughts of death and wait a catastrophe! (August Strindberg "Ockulta dagboken" p 256; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Elisabeth Beskow, Carl Grimberg, David Hedegård, Eric Hertz, Lars Levi Laestadius, Pär Lagerkvist, Martin Luther, Ingrid Nettervik, John Ongman, Viktor Rydberg, Esaias Tegnér.


Greek words:

nefelê (cloud) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) 2 Macc 2:8; Mark 14:62; Acts 1:9; Rev 1:7 - Wisdom of Solomon 2:4; Sir 13:23; 35:16-17(20-21),24(26); 43:14-15; 50:6-7,10; Baruch 3:29; Epistle of Jeremiah v 61; The Song of Praise of the Three Men v 50; Matt 17:5; 24:30; 26:64; Mark 9:7; 13:26; Luke 9:34-35; 12:54; 21:27; 1 Cor 10:1-2; 1 Thess 4:17; Jude v 12; Rev 10:1; 11:12; 14:14-16.


Additional studies:

Ps 104:3; Is 3:13-14; 19:1; Judith 1:15; Wisdom of Solomon 11:14; 12:27; Matt 16:27-28; 24:27; John 1:50; 21:22; 1 Thess 1:10; 1 John 2:28.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-11; 2012-06-02; 2015-01-01)

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1:7b And all the tribes of the earth will 'cut themselves (over)'/mourn * (א*) Him. Yes. Amen.

Word for word (10 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus prima manus) and (they)-will-cut-themselves (over)-him all the tribes (of)-the (of)-earth. yes. amen.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The Lord said to Abram:) "In you all the tribes of the earth will be blessed in." (Gen 12:3b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Jacob:) "In you and in your seed all the tribes of the earth will be blessed in." (Gen 28:14b, Greek OT)

All the people shall answer and say: "Amen." (every verse in Deut 27:15b-26b, Hebrew OT, "New American Standard")

Every/all the people shall speak: "Oh, that it may become." (every verse in Deut 27:15b-26b, Greek OT)

Samuel died, and every/all Israel was assembled together and they 'cut themselves (over)'/mourned him. (1 Sam 25:1a, Greek OT)

'Every the'/'the whole' (assembly) of called out spoke: "Amen." ... (Neh 5:13b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) "I will pour out against the house of David and against the inhabitants of Jerusalem, a spirit of joybringing (grace) and pity, and they will see against, towards Me ... and they will cut/mourn against him a mourning as against a welcomed, and they will 'be caused'/feel pain, a pain as on (one) giving birth for the first time. ... And the earth will 'cut itself'/mourn 'according to tribes tribes'/'by tribes'." (Zech 12:10,12a, Greek OT)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "All the tribes of the earth will * (א*) 'cut themselves'/mourn, and they will behold the Son of the Man coming upon the clouds of the heaven in company with ability and much glory." (Matt 24:30b)

(Jesus said to the crowds concerning John the Baptist:) "What did you come out to behold? A prophet? Yes, I say you, and more than over and above a prophet. ... Amen (א,*א), I say you, no one in/among (the ones being) begotten/born of women is greater." (Luke 7:26,28a)

All (continually) wept and (continually)'cut themselves'/mourned (the girl). (Luke 8:52a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Jesus) said to (Nathanael): "Amen, amen I say to you." (John 1:51a)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "Amen, amen, I say to you that/: 'You will weep and wail, but the adornment/'adorned world' will rejoice. You will be sorrowful, however/but your sorrow will become into/'for the purpose of' joy.'" (John 16:20)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

In typical apocalyptic fashion, often more than one reference can be discerned behind a passage in Rev, and sometimes the same details referring to the Old Testament are found in several places. The question is how to analyze and evaluate these Scriptural reflections or allusions. ... Some are more like (composite) quotations, e.g. 1:7 (cf. Dan 7:13; Zech 12:10; Gen 12:3). (Håkan Ulfgard "Feast and Future" p 93)

(Justin Martyr wrote to Trypho, a Jew:) "There would be two advents of (Christ) - one in which He was pierced by you; a second, when you shall know Him whom you have pierced, and your tribes shall mourn, each tribe by itself, the women apart, and the men apart." (Justin Martyr, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol I, p 210)


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning "amen", see My own comments and speculations to Rev 1:6b.


Paul said to the believers in Corinth: "As many as the promises of God (are) the Yes in Him, therefore (is) and/also through Him the Amen to God towards/to glory through us." (2 Cor 1:20)


Greek words:

koptô (cut) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Matt 24:30; Luke 23:27; Rev 1:7 - Esther 5:14; Judith 15:5; 1 Macc 4:39; 12:44; 2 Macc 10:35; Matt 11:17; 21:8; Mark 11:8; Luke 8:52; Rev 18:9.

fylê (tribe) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Matt 24:30; Rev 1:7 - Esther 1:1a(A1); 2:5; 4:17m(C16); Tobit 1:1,4,5(BA); 4:12(BA); 5:9,11-12; Judith 3:8; 8:2,18; 9:14; 2 Macc 3:4; Sir 16:4; 44:23; 45:6,11,25; 48:10; Matt 19:28; Luke 2:36; 22:30; Acts 13:21; Rom 11:1; Phil 3:5; Heb 7:13-14; Jas 1:1; Rev 5:5,9; 7:4-9; 11:9; 13:7; 14:6; 21:12.


Additional studies: Gen 23:2; Rev 1:6; 5:14; 7:12; 19:4; 22:20.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-11; 2012-06-02; 2015-01-01)

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1:8a "I am the Alpha and the Ô/Omega, a beginning and an end (א*)," says the Lord God.

Word for word (14 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus prima manus): i/I (i/I)-am the alpha and the o, (a)-beginning and (an)-end, says 'lord the god'/'the Lord God'.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

God spoke towards Moses: "I am the One who is." And He spoke: "In this way you shall speak to the sons of Israel: 'The One who is has dispatched (and dispatches) me away towards you.'" (Ex 3:14, Greek OT)

(Wisdom said:) "The Lord created me, a beginning of His ways, into/'for the purpose of' His works. Before the age He based Me in a beginning." (Prov 8:22-23, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) "I, God, (am) first, and into the things coming on I am." (Is 41:4b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) "I (am) first, and I (am) after these things. And it/there is not a god more than Me." (Is 44:6b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) "I am the first and I am the last. And there is no God besides Me." (Is 44:6b, Hebrew OT, New American Standard)

(The prophet said to the people of Jerusalem:) "The Lord will go former/earlier (than) you, and the One leading together against/'in quest of' you (is) the Lord, the God of Israel." (Is 52:12b, Greek OT)

(The prophet said to the people of Jerusalem:) "The Lord will go before you. And the God of Israel will be your rear guard." (Is 52:12b, Hebrew OT, New American Standard)

A saying of the Lord became/came towards (the prophet) saying: "Son of man, prophesy and speak: 'This is what the Lord says: Oh/omega, oh, the/'what a' day, because the day of the Lord (is) near. It will be a day of goal/end of nations." (Ezek 30:1-3, Greek OT)

(Solomon says: "I have knowledge of) beginning and end and middle of times." (Wisdom of Solomon 7:18a)

(Solomon said to the Lord:) "You have arranged every thing throughout (with) measure and number and standing-place/balance." (Wisdom of Solomon 11:20b)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said: "The Lord) ... is before the age and into the (coming) age." (Sir 42:21a)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "Amen I say to you: 'Till - according to the circumstances - the heaven and the earth may come by the side of, not one "iota" (the smallest letter) or one tittle, may not/certainly not come by the side of from the law, till - according to the circumstances - all things may become/'come about'.'" (Matt 5:18)

(Jesus said:) "O generation, faithless and having been (and being) turned aside, till when shall I be in company with you, till when shall I hold up/'out with' you?" (Matt 17:17a)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "This good little message of the kingdom will be proclaimed in the whole (inhabited) world into/'for a purpose of' a testimony to all the nations, and then the end will arrive." (Matt 24:14)

(Jesus said:) "Many will come on/'for the sake of' My name, saying that/: 'I am' and will lead many astray." (Mark 13:6)

(The messenger said to Mary:) "A lord God will give (Jesus) the throne of His father David." (Luke 1:32b)

(Luke said:) The first saying I indeed made, o Theophilus, on account of all things which Jesus began both to make/do and teach. (Acts 1:1)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven: In a beginning the Saying (continually) was. (John 1:1a)

(Jesus said to the Jews:) "If you do not believe (Moses') letters (of the alphabet), how will you believe My words?" (John 5:47)

But already being in the middle of the feast Jesus ascended into the sanctuary and taught. The Jews so (continually) wondered saying: "How does this One, having not learnt (and not learning), know letters (of the alphabet)?" (John 7:14-15)

(Jesus said to the Jews): "If - according to the circumstances - you may not believe Me (א,*א), that I am, you will die in your misses (of the mark of God)." They * (א,* א) (continually) said to Him: "Who are You?" Jesus spoke to them: "(One towards) the beginning, (of) which I and/also talk (with) you." (John 8:24b-25)

Jesus said to (the Jews): "Amen, amen, I say to you, before Abraham become/became, I am." (John 8:58)

I and the Father are one. (John 10:30)

But (א,* א) having (א,* א, A) come out, Jesus - knowing all the things coming against Him - spoke (א,* א, A) to them: "Whom do you seek?" They answered Him: "Jesus, the Nazoraean." Jesus (א,*א,A) says to them: "I am." (John 18:4-5a; cf. My own comments and speculations to this passage)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 - about 1500

Paul insists that the coming of Jesus is the consummation of history. He outlines the national history of the Jews to show that it culminates in Christ. (William Barclay "The Acts of the Apostles" p 104 commenting Acts 13:16-41)

During (Pehr) Staaff's visit to Kymmendö 1883-06-17 he and August Strindberg had discussed the mutual preferences of the different types of poetry. In letter 1883-06-26 Staaff writes to Strindberg: " . . . The ideas must be spread, this is surely least as important as that psychological questions are treated exhaustively - - - . Thus: Plays, it is A and O, the beginning and the end and in this sign we will win." (In letter 1883-07-03 August Strindberg writes to Staaff:) "Write play, you! It is in your line, and benefits at present, but the theatre is not A or O! For me it is Ö. And if you have got theatre syphilis it doesn't matter! But you know how lying one must be before open curtain and how little one is allowed to say! The theatre is a coterie thing for inhabitants in Stockholm, and the text is not read unless one writes as Ibsen and this we cannot! However, go on, you! Under present conditions theatre is a good weapon! A newspaper would be most useful in this respect that the public accustomed themselves to daily se all questions in a new light in the course of a longer time! But who the devil wants to sacrifice himself?" (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev III 1882-1883" p 258; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Is home ill today - it is as my head has vanished into thin air - Perhaps I read too many monastery writings and legends this night: all in and for M. O. (Master Olof) which now has become my A and O and for which I probably shall do myself unhappy. (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev I 1858-1876" p 184; letter in June 1875 to Carl Gustaf Wrangel; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


about 1500 and time before

God begat in the beginning, before all creatures (or: God begat before all creatures a Beginning who was) a certain rational power (proceeding) from Himself, who is called by the Holy Spirit, now the glory of the Lord, now the Son, again Wisdom, again an angel, then God, and then Lord and Logos. (Justin Martyr, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol I, p 227)

The Lord made Himself the beginning of those that live, as Adam became the beginning of those who die. (Irenaeus, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol I, p 455)

Inasmuch as all natural precepts are common to us and to them (the Jews), they had in them indeed the beginning and origin; but in us they have received growth and completion. ... This is our Lord, the Word of God, who in the first instance certainly drew slaves to God, but afterwards He set free who were subject to Him. ... Our Lord Jesus Christ in the last times was made a man among men, that He might join the end to the beginning, that is, man to God. (Irenaeus, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol I, p 478,488)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Alf Ahlberg, Werner Aspenström, Margit Assarsson, Henri Blocher, August Bondeson, Tage Danielsson, Gunnar Ekelöf, Ulf Ekman, Tore Fasth, Bo Frid, Peter Halldorf, Alf Henrikson, Aleksis Kivi, Hans Larsson, Sven Lidman, Fredrik Nielsen, Abraham Rundbäck, Göran Sahlberg, Erik Sollerman, Jesper Svartvik, Knut Svensson, Nathan Söderblom, Ragnar Thoursie, Anton Tjechov, P. Waldenström, Kallistos Ware, Göran Åberg.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning the name of God, compare the seven "I am-names" for Jesus. "I am the bread of life" (John 6:35), "I am the light of the adornment/'adorned world'" (John 8:12), "I am the door" (John 10:9), "I am the fine shepherd" (John 10:11), "I am the resurrection and the life" (John 11:25), "I am the way and the truth and the life" (John 14:6) and "I am the true vine" (John 15:1). The number seven expresses completion and perfection (cf. Matt 5:17). Here in Rev 1:8 we have the eighth "I am-name" for Jesus. The number eight tells about the beginning of a new period different from the preceding period.

Observe the step by step higher confession in Sinaiticus prima manus from "the Alpha and the Omega, a beginning and an end" in Rev 1:8 via "the Alpha and the Omega, the Beginning and the End" in Rev 21:6a to the highest point in Rev 22:13 "the Alpha and the Omega, the First One and the Last One, the Beginning and the End". Compare also the One being in a beginning (John 1:1) with the One who now is a beginning and who will show Oneself be the Beginning Oneself, indeed, both the Beginning and the End.

I am the Alpha and the Ô/Omega, a beginning and an end: See also Rev 21:6a; 22:13 and My own comments and speculations to John 8:25-27.


Greek words:

alfa (alpha) Rev 1:8 - Rev 21:6; 22:13. Cf. also the titles to 1 Sam, 1 Chron and 1 Macc (in stead of "1" we have the letter A).

ô (o) (in the NT) Matt 17:17; Acts 1:1; Rev 1:8 - Matt 15:28; Mark 9:19; Luke 9:41; 24:25; Acts 13:10; 18:14; 27:21; Rom 2:1,3; 9:20; 11:33; Gal 3:1; 1 Tim 6:11,20; Jas 2:20; Rev 21:6; 22:13.


Additional studies: Is 48:12; John 4:26; 6:35,48; 8:12; 10:9,11; 11:25; 14:6; 15:1; Heb 3:14; 7:3; Rev 1:17; 2:8; 15:3.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-11; 2012-06-02; 2015-01-02)

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1:8b ... the One who is and the One who (continually) was and the One who comes, the All-powerful.

Word for word (10 words in the Greek text): the-(one) being/'who is' and the-(one) (who)-(continually)-was and the-(one) coming/'who comes', the all-powerful.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Eliphas said to Job:) "Do not disown the commitment/bringing to mind of an all-powerful." (Job 5:17b, Greek OT)

(Job said to the Lord:) "I know that be/'You are' able (to do) all things, but/and nothing is unable for You." (Job 42:2, Greek OT)

(Solomon said:) "'Which the'/what was (and had been) become (is) the same (as) the thing (which) will become and 'which the'/what was (and had been) made (is) the same (as) the thing (which) will be made. And every/all is not fresh/new underneath the sun. The one who will talk and speak: 'Behold, this is new', it already has become (and becomes) in the ages, the ones having become 'from in front of'/before us." (Eccles 1:9-10, Greek OT)

"Hear and be witnesses on/'for the sake of' the house of Jacob," says the Lord God, the All-powerful. (Amos 3:13, Greek OT)

The Lord God, the All-powerful, (is) a name to Him. (Amos 4:13b, Greek OT)

(Maccabaeus said: "Our enemies) 'are (and have been) persuaded'/'trust (and have trusted)' on/to weapons together and/with bold things, but we (Jews) 'are (and have been) persuaded'/'trust (and have trusted)' on/to God, the All-powerful , being (with) a nod able to throw down and/both the ones coming against us and the whole adornment/'adorned world'." (2 Macc 8:18b)

(Solomon says: "I have knowledge of) beginning and end and middle of times." (Wisdom of Solomon 7:18a)

(Solomon said:) "The Master of all things welcomed (wisdom)." (Wisdom of Solomon 8:3b)

(Solomon said to the Lord:) "You have arranged every thing throughout (with) measure and number and standing-place/balance." (Wisdom of Solomon 11:20b)


The Latter Revelation:

(The disciples) led the ass and the foal and put/laid the garments upon, upon them, and (Jesus) sat down upon, above them. (Matt 21:7)

Having come to/forward Jesus talked (with the eleven disciples) saying: "Every/all (judicial) authority in heaven and upon earth has been given to Me." (Matt 28:18)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "Children, how troublesome it is to come into, into the kingdom of God! ... By the side of men (it is) unable, however/but not by the side of God. For all things are able by the side of God." (Mark 10:24b,27b)

(Jesus said:) "Many will come on/'for the sake of' My name, saying that/: 'I am' and will lead many astray." (Mark 13:6)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

In a beginning the Saying (continually) was. (John 1:1a)

(John) has shouted (and shouts), saying: "This (continually) was * (א*) the One coming behind me, the One who (א*) has become (and becomes) in front of me, because He (continually) was my first (one)." (John 1:15)

The One coming from above is above all. (John 3:31a)

(Jesus said to the Jews): "If - according to the circumstances - you may not believe Me (א,*א), that I am, you will die in your misses (of the mark of God)." (John 8:24b)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "I come towards you." (John 14:18b)

John to the seven (assemblies) of called out, the ones in Asia. Joybringing (grace) (with) you and peace from the One who is and the One who (continually) was and the One who comes. (Rev 1:4a)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

If one now wants to give a definition of God, so one first says that he is almighty; of this follows as corollary, that he can annul the laws he institutes; but because we do not know all his laws, we do not know, when he applies one for us unknown law or annuls one for us known. Thus what we call miracles can come about after strict laws, which we do not know, and we may therefore before unusual and inexplicable events be careful not to draw wrong conclusions causing us ridicule and contempt from fellow-beings having easy to understand. (August Strindberg "En blå bok I" p 7; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

That you may understand that the omnipotence of Father and Son is one and the same, as God and the Lord are one and the same with the Father, listen to the manner in which John speaks in the Apocalypse: "Thus saith the Lord God, which is, and which was, and which is to come, the Almighty." For who else was "He which is to come" than Christ?" (Origen, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol IV p 250)

According to the Rabbis, 'the seal of God was Truth (AeMeTH),' the three letters of which this word is composed in Hebrew being ... respectively the first, the middle, and the last letters of the alphabet (Jer. Sanh. 18a; Ber. R. 81). (Alfred Edersheim "The Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah Part II" p 29)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Alf Ahlberg, Svetlana Aleksijevitj. Werner Aspenström, Elisabeth Beskow, Lars-Ola Borglid, Donald A. Carson, Miguel de Cervantes, Sven Danell, Charles Dickens, Richard Dybeck, Galileo Galilei, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Carl Grimberg, Dick Harrison, John Hedlund, Alf Henrikson, Irenaeus, Majken Johansson, Pär Lagerkvist, Hans Larsson, Claes Lindskog, Väinö Linna, Carl Johan Lohman, Carl Henrik Martling, Vilhelm Moberg, Kaj Munk, Fredrik Nielsen, Torsten Nilsson, John Ongman, Bengt Pleijel, Harald Rasmussen, Carl Olof Rosenius, Viktor Rydberg, Alf Sagnér, K.G. Sjölin, Harry Sjöman, John Stott, Mikael Tellbe, Einar Thomassen, Sergej Vasiljevitj Sobolev, P. Waldenström, Anders Wejryd, Paul Wern, Fredrik Wislöff, Lars Wivallius.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning "the One who is and the One who (continually) was and the One who comes", see Rev 1:4b.

He who is above all is the All-powerful (cf. Matt 21:7; John 3:31).


Jesus Christ (is) the same yesterday and today and into the (coming) ages. (Heb 13:8)


Greek words:

pantokratôr (all-powerful) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) 2 Macc 8:18; Rev 1:8 - Judith 4:13; 8:13; 15:10; 16:5,17; 2 Macc 1:25; 3:30; 5:20; 6:26; 7:35,38; 8:11,24; 15:8,32; Wisdom of Solomon 7:25; Sir 42:17; 50:14,17; Baruch 3:1,4; The Prayer of Manasseh v 1; 2 Cor 6:18; Rev 4:8; 11:17; 15:3; 16:7,14; 19:6,15; 21:22.


Additional studies: Ps 115:3; Jer 3:19 (Greek OT); Hos 12:6 (Greek OT); Amos 5:14 (Greek OT); Zeph 2:10 (Greek OT); Luke 1:37; Rev 1:4.


A. Ekenberg "'Allmäktig' eller 'Allhärskare'?" Se Svensk Exegetisk Årsbok 60 (1995): 165-172.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-11; 2012-06-02; 2015-01-02)

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1:9aa I, John. your brother and a companion together with (you) in the oppression ...

Word for word (10 words in the Greek text): i/I John the brother your and (a)-companion-together-with-(you) in the oppression ...


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Jacob said:) "... I will make a sacrificial altar (in Bethel) to God, the One having 'heard on'/'listened to' me in a day of oppression, (the One) who (continually) was in company with me. " (Gen 35:3a, Greek OT)

(David said: "The ones who hated me) came beforehand before me in a day of my oppression, and/but the Lord became my 'support against'/'point of support'." (2 Sam 22:19, Greek OT)

(David said to the Lord:) "I will describe Your name to my brothers." (Ps 22:22a or 22:23a, Greek OT)

(David said:) "Many (are) the oppressions of the righteous, and out of them all (the Lord) will deliver them." (Ps 34:19 or 34:20, Greek OT)

... I, Daniel, beheld a beholding. (Dan 8:1a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) "Being led together Jacob will be led together, together with all (peoples). Being received out of (the peoples) I will receive out of (the peoples) the entirely/whole rest of Israel. . . . I will take out for Myself, out of men, as sheep in oppression, as a little flock in a middle of their sleeping-place." (Micah 2:12, Greek OT)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) "A friend is a companion of tables, and/but he may not/certainly not stay by the side of (you) in your day of oppression." (Sir 6:10)


The Latter Revelation: (Jesus said to His disciples:) Happy the beggarly ones (in) the spirit, because theirs is the kingdom of the heavens. Happy the ones grieving, because they will be called to the side of. (Matt 5:3-4)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "The one having been sown against the rocky (ground), this is the one hearing the saying and straight off taking it in company with joy, but has not a root in himself, however/but is transitory. But/and having become oppression or pursuit because of the saying, he straight off is caused to stumble." (Matt 13:20-21)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "My cup you will indeed drink." (Matt 20:23a)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "All these things (are) a beginning of pains of child-birth. Then they will give you 'to the side of'/over into oppression." (Matt 24:8-9a)

(Jesus said:) "(The one) who - according to the circumstances - may make/do the will of God, this one is my brother and sister and mother." (Mark 3:35)

James and John, sons of Zebedee, ... (continually) were companions (with) Simon. (Luke 5:10a)

... Peter (stood) up in a middle of the brothers. (Acts 1:15a)

(Stephen said: "God) took out (Joseph) for Himself, out of all his oppressions." (Acts 7:10a)

(Paul and Barnabas said to the disciples:) "Through many oppressions we must come into, into the kingdom of God." (Acts 14:22b)

(Paul said to the elders in Ephesos:) "The Holy Spirit is a witness throughout to me in (every) city, saying that bands and oppressions stay/await me." (Acts 20:23)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven: Jesus (said to Simon Peter): "If - according to the circumstances - I may not wash you, you have not part in company with Me." (John 13:8b)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "When - according to the circumstances - the woman may bring forth, she has sorrow, because her hour has come. But when - according to the circumstances - she may beget/bear the young boy or girl, she no longer recollect the oppression, because of the joy that a man has been begotten/born into the adornment/'adorned world'." (John 16:21)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "These things I have talked (and talk) (with) you, in order that you may have peace in Me. In the adornment/'adorned world' you have oppression. However, be confident. I have conquered (and conquer) the adornment/'adorned world'." (John 16:33)

(Jesus said to Mariam:) "Go towards * the (א*) brothers and speak to them: "I ascend towards 'the Father My'/'My Father' and your Father and My God and your God." (John 20:17b)

(Jesus) gave a sign having dispatched away (the revelation) through His messenger to His slave John. (Rev 1:1b)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

John, the most confidential disciple (of Christ), . . . almost does not know to speak about any other sign of the birth of God than this only: to love the brothers . . . But have you always had that mind? Or when did you begin to think so? . . . You are born with this mind in the second great birth, the birth of God. . . . It is therefore not any superficial thing, anything which comes and disappears but something which remains, in darkness as in light, in distress as in joy. . . . John says about himself in the beginning of the Revelation: I, John, your brother and participant with you in the distress and in the kingdom and in the patience in Jesus Christ. (Karl Palmberg "Pilgrims tillfälliga betraktelser" p 92-93; Karl Palmberg /1842-1920/ was from 1883 a Lutheran clergyman in Månsarp in the diocese of Växjö and president in Jönköpings Missionsförening (Missionary Society) 1886-1911; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Efraim Palmqvist.


My own comments and speculations: The expression "I, Daniel" occurs several times in the book of Daniel (7:15,28; 8:15,27; 9:2; 10:2,7; 12:5). The expression "I, John" we also have in Rev 22:8.


Paul said to the believers in Philippi: "You made finely having a thing in common together with my oppression." (Phil 4:14)


Greek words:

syngkoinônos (companion together with) Rev 1:9 - Rom 11:17; 1 Cor 9:23; Phil 1:7. Cf. koinônos (companion) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Sir 6:10; Luke 5:10 - Esther 8:12n(E13); Sir 41:18(19); 42:3; Matt 23:30; 1 Cor 10:18,20; 2 Cor 1:7; 8:23; Philemon v 17; Heb 10:33; 1 Pet 5:1; 2 Pet 1:4.


Additional studies: Dan 12:1; 1 Macc 9:27; Matt 24:21,29; Mark 4:17; 10:39; 13:19,24; Rom 5:3; 8:17; 2 Tim 1:8; Rev 2:9,22; 6:9; 7:14.


François Bovon "John's Self-Presentation in Revelation 1:9-10"; Catholic Biblical Quarterly 62.3 (2000): 693-700.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-11; 2012-06-02; 2015-01-03)

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1:9ab ... and a kingdom and an endurance in Jesus ...

Word for word (6 words in the Greek text): and (a)-kingdom and (an)-endurance in Jesus


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(David said:) "From the side of (God is) my endurance." (Ps 62:5b or 62:6b, Greek OT)

(Daniel said to the king:) "The God of the heaven will cause a kingdom to stand up, whichever/which will not be ruined throughout into the (coming) ages ... and it will stand up into the (coming) ages." (Dan 2:44b, Greek OT, Theod)


The Latter Revelation: (Jesus said to His disciples:) "You will be being hated by all ones because of My name, but the one having 'stayed behind'/endured into an end, this one will be saved." (Matt 10:22)

(Jesus said to His disciples: "The sowing) in the fine earth these are whoever having heard the saying, 'keep it down'/'keep it' in a fine and good heart, and carry fruit in endurance." (Luke 8:15)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "Do not fear, small/little, little flock, because your Father has been pleased with giving you the kingdom." (Luke 12:32)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "Acquire/gain your souls in your endurance." (Luke 21:19)

(Paul and Barnabas said to the disciples:) "Through many oppressions we must come into, into the kingdom of God." (Acts 14:22b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven: Jesus answered (Nicodemus): "Amen, amen, I say to you: If not - according to the circumstances - a certain (person) may be begotten out of water and spirit, he is not able to behold (א*) the kingdom of the heavens (א*) ." (John 3:5)

He has made us a kingdom, priests to His God and Father. (Rev 1:6a)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

Christian existence is summarized in 1:9 as a sharing "in Christ" of "oppression", "royal dignity" and "patient endurance". Next to the statement on what Christ has done in salvation (1:5f), this is the decisive clue to the understanding of Christian existence, thereby indicating the temporal aspect of Rev. John and his fellow Christians experience the tension between the present affliction and the promise of future glory. (Håkan Ulfgard "Feast and future" p 105)

Chrysostom calls "(h)ypomonê " (endurance) 'a root of all the goods, mother of piety, fruit that never withers, a fortress that is never taken, a harbour that knows no storms'. He calls it 'the queen af virtues, the foundation of right actions, peace in war, calm in tempest, security in plots'. It is the quality which keeps a man on his feet with his face to the wind. It is the virtue which can transmute the hardest trial into glory because beyond the pain it sees the goal. (William Barclay "New Testament Words" p 145)

"What, Gösta", he said to himself, "can you no longer endure and bear? You having been hardened in poverty all your life, you having heard every tree in the wood, every tuft in the meadow preaching privation and patience, you having been brought up in a country, where winter is cold and summer scanty, have you forgotten how to endure? . . . Are you worse than Löwenborg, who sits at his keyboard instrument of wood, than all the other cavaliers, the courageous, the happy-go-lucky, the eternally young? No doubt you know, that no one of them has escaped the suffering." (Selma Lagerlöf "Gösta Berlings saga" p 265; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Nothing makes men so despicable, as insolent and injurious behaviour; nothing makes men so respectable, as endurance under insolence and injury. For the one is a ruffian, the other a philosopher; the one is less than man, the other is equal to angels. (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers XI:92)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Bo Brander, Lage Eklöv, Ulf Ekman, C.M. Johanson, Axel Liffner, Ebba Lindqvist, John Stott, Thecla Wrangel.


Paul said to the believers in Rome: "The oppression 'works entirely'/accomplishes endurance." (Rom 5:3b)

Paul said to Timothy: "If we 'stay behind'/endure, we will and/also be kings together with (Christ Jesus)." (2 Tim 2:12a)


Greek words: (h)ypomonê (endurance) (in the NT) Luke 8:15; 21:19; Rom 5:3; Rev 1:9 - Rom 2:7; 5:4; 8:25; 15:4-5; 2 Cor 1:6; 6:4; 12:12; Col 1:11; 1 Thess 1:3; 2 Thess 1:4; 3:5; 1 Tim 6:11; 2 Tim 3:10; Tit 2:2; Heb 10:36; 12:1; Jas 1:3-4; 5:11; 2 Pet 1:6; Rev 2:2,19; 3:10; 13:10; 14:12.


Additional studies: Ps 9:9(10); Matt 24:13; Mark 13:13; Phil 4:14; Rev 13:10.


François Bovon "John's Self-Presentation in Revelation 1:9-10"; Catholic Biblical Quarterly 62.3 (2000): 693-700.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-11; 2012-06-02; 2015-01-03)

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1:9b ... I became/appeared in/on the island being called Patmos because of the saying of God and because of (א,*א) the evidence of Jesus.

Word for word (17 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus): (i/I)-became in the island the-(one) being-called Patmos because-of the saying (of)-the (of)-god and because-of the evidence (of)-Jesus.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

In a beginning ... God spoke. (Gen

1:1a,3a, Greek OT).

After these words a word of the Lord became/came towards Abram in a vision, saying: "Do not fear, Abram!" (Gen 15:1a, Greek OT)

At the time when (the Lord) entirely had ceased talking (with Moses) in/on the mountain Sinai, He gave (him) the two tablets of the testimony, tablets of stone, having been (and being) written (with) the finger of God. (Ex 31:18, Greek OT)

These (are) the evidences and the fundamental laws and the judicial verdicts, as many as Moses talked (with) the sons of Israel in the desolate (district) on their having come out of the earth/land of Egypt. (Deut 4:45, Greek OT)

'Every the'/the whole' people being seated in earth/'the land' Egypt in Pathros (the land to which Jeremiah had had to go because of the saying of God) saying/said (to him): "We will not hear your saying, which you (in) the name of the Lord have talked towards us." (Jer 44:15b-16, Greek OT)

A saying of the Lord (continually) became/came towards Ezekiel. (Ezek 1:3a, Greek OT)

(The son of the Greek king) dispatched away a letter from the islands of the sea to Simon, priest and leader of the nation of the Jews, and to 'every the'/'the whole' nation. (1 Macc 15:1)


The Latter Revelation: (Jesus said to His disciples:) "The one having been sown against the rocky (ground), this is the one hearing the saying and straight off taking it in company with joy, but has not a root in himself, however/but is transitory. But/and having become oppression or pursuit because of the saying, he straight off is caused to stumble." (Matt 13:20-21)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "This good little message of the kingdom will be proclaimed in the whole (inhabited) world into/'for a purpose of' a testimony to all the nations, and then the end will arrive." (Matt 24:14)

Jesus (became/appeared) in Bethany, in (the) habitation of Simon, the leprous. (Matt 26:6b)

(Jesus said to James and Jacob:) "The cup which I drink, you will drink. And the baptism which I am baptized (with), you will be baptized (with)." (Mark 10:39b)

A word of God became/came against/to John ... (Luke 3:2b)

It became/'came about' in the crowd 'to lie'/'that they pressed' on (Jesus) and/to hear the saying of God. (Luke 5:1a)

(Jesus said to His disciples: "The persecution) will for you 'step off'/lead into a testimony. ... They will put (some) out of you to death." (Luke 21:13,16b)

(Stephen said to the Israelites: "Moses) is the one having become/appeared in the (assembly) of called out in the desolate (district) in company with the messenger talking (with) him in/on the mountain Sinai and (in company with) our fathers, (the one) who received living little sayings to give to you (P74, א,* א, B)." (Acts 7:38)

Having come through the whole island (Barnabas, Saul and John came) until/till Paphos. (Acts 13:6a)

(The Lord said to Paul:) "As you throughout was a witness to the things on account of Me into/in Jerusalem, in this way you must be a witness and/also into/in Rome." (Acts 23:11b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven: In a beginning the Saying (continually) was ... All things became through It. (John 1:1a,3a)

It became a man having been (and being) dispatched away from the side of God. A name to him (continually) was (א*) John. This one came into/'for the purpose of' an evidence, in order that he might be a witness on account of the light, in order that all might believe through him. (John 1:6-7)

(Jesus said to Nicodemus:) "We are witnesses to what we have beheld (and behold). ..." (John 3:11b)

(Jesus said to the Pharisees:) "And if I - according to the circumstances - am a witness on account of Myself, My evidence is truthful." (John 8:14a)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "When - according to the circumstances - the One being called to the side of (you) may come, which I will send to you from the side of the Father, the Spirit of the truth, which goes out from the side of the Father, that One will be a witness on account of Me." (John 15:26)

This is the disciple being a witness on account of these things and having written these things. And we know that his evidence is truthful. * (א*). (John 21:24)

(John) was a witness to the saying of God and the evidence of Jesus Christ, as many things as he beheld. (Rev 1:2)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

According to Tacitus ... and Pliny ... (Patmos) was a place of banishment for political offenders. (J. Massyngberde Ford "Revelation" p 384)

John once was in wandering and came to a wood. In an old tree he found a bird's nest with seven eggs resembling the ones of the swift. But this bird only lays three eggs, so it was not the nest of this one. Because John was a great connoisseur in eggs, he soon understood that these were the eggs of the hoopoe, and he said to himself: the hoopoe must be near here, although the books say that it is not to be found here in the district. After a while he quite right heard the famous opp, opp, opp of the hoopoe, and then he knew that it was there. He hid himself behind a stone and soon he saw the speckled bird with its yellow crest. When three days laten he came home, he told his teacher that he had seen the hoopoe on Siarö (Seer Island). The teacher did not believed it but exacted proof. "Proof? Do you mean witnesses?" Yes!" "Well, I have twice two witnesses and they are in accord: my two ears heard him, and my two eyes saw him." "Maybe, but I did not see him", the teacher answered. John got the name The arrant liar, because he could not prove that the hoopoe had been there, although it was an unusual case there in the district. (August Strindberg "En blå bok I" p 9; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

David ... suffered persecution from Saul for righteousness' sake, and fled from King Saul, and would not avenge himself of his enemy. (Irenaeus, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol I, p 498)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Tage Aurell, Aug. E. Lernberg, Fredrik Nielsen, Håkan Ulfgard, P. Waldenström.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning "evidence of Jesus", see also Rev 1:2.


Paul said to the believers in Corinth: " The testimony of Christ was confirmed in/among you." (1 Cor 1:6b)


Greek words:

nêsos (island) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) 1 Macc 15:1; Acts 13:6; Rev 1:9 - 1 Macc 6:29; 8:11; 11:38; 14:5; Sir 43:23; 47:16; Acts 27:26; 28:1,7,9,11; Rev 16:20.

Patmos (Patmos) Rev 1:9. This word does not occur in the rest of the Bible. Perhaps we here have an allusion to the situation of the prophet Jeremiah, when he had to go to Pathros in Egypt because of the saying of God. We can also get an association to the island city Paphos (Acts 13:6,13).


Additional studies: Gen 10:14; 1 Chron 1:12; Is 11:11; Jer 44:1; Ezek 29:14; 30:14; Matt 20:23; John 3:32; 15:27; 19:35; Rev 6:9; 12:17.


François Bovon "John's Self-Presentation in Revelation 1:9-10"; Catholic Biblical Quarterly 62.3 (2000): 693-700.

J.N. Sanders "St. John on Patmos"; New Testament Studies 9 (1962-1963): 75-85.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-11; 2012-06-02; 2015-01-03)

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1:10a I became in spirit in/on the day belonging to the Lord.

Word for word (7 words in the Greek text): (i/I)-became in spirit in the belonging-to-the-Lord day.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The prophet said:) "A spirit took me up." (Ezek 3:12a, Greek OT)

A saying of the Lord became/came towards (the prophet) saying: "Son of man, prophesy and speak: 'This is what the Lord says: Oh/omega, oh, the/'what a' day, because the day of the Lord (is) near. It will be a day of goal/end of nations." (Ezek 30:1-3, Greek OT)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus) says to (the Pharisees): "How does David so in spirit call (Christ) 'Lord'?" (Matt 22:43a)

The sun will be turned about into darkness and the moon into blood, before the great * (א,*א) day of the Lord come/comes. (Acts 2:20)

(The) Spirit of the Lord raped/snatched (Philip) ... into Azotus. (Acts 8:39b-40a)

(Peter said to the ones who were circumcised:) "I (continually) was in a city Joppa praying, and in a standing out of myself I beheld a vision." (Acts 11:5a)

... Paul put/deliberated in/with the Spirit ... to go into Jerusalem. (Acts 19:21a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Jesus said to the woman:) " However, an hour comes, and it is now, when the true 'prostrators' will prostrate themselves before the Father (in honour of Him) in spirit and truth. For the Father seeks (certainly) and/also of such kind the ones prostrating (towards) Him (in adoration of Him). God (is) spirit, and the ones prostrating themselves * (א*) must prostrate themselves in a spirit of (א*) truth." (John 4:23-24)

(Jesus said to the Jews:) "Your father Abraham exulted, in order that he might/would know (א,* א, A, B*) My day, and He beheld and rejoiced. " (John 8:56)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

The Jews never lost the conviction that they were God's chosen people. They interpreted that status to mean that they were chosen for special privilege among the nations. They were always a small nation. History had been for them one long disaster. It was clear to them that by human means they would never reach the status they deserved as the chosen people. So, bit by bit, they reached the conclusion that what man could not do God must do; and began to look forward to a day when God would intervene directly in history and exalt them to the honour they dreamed of. The day of that intervention was The Day of the Lord. They divided all time into two ages. There was The Present Age which was utterly evil and doomed to destruction; there was The Age to Come which would be the golden age of God. Between the two there was to be The Day of the Lord which was to be the terrible birth pangs of the new age. It would come suddenly like a thief in the night; it would be a day when the world would be shaken to its very foundations; it would be a day of judgment and of terror. (William Barclay "The Acts of the Apostles" p 25)

In as many days as this world was made, in so many thousand years shall it be concluded. ... For the day of the Lord is as a thousand years. (Irenaeus, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol I, p 557)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Alf Henrikson, Viktor Johansson, Sven Lidman, Tryggve Mettinger, Efraim Palmqvist, Viktor Rydberg.


Greek words:

kyriakos (belonging to the Lord) Rev 1:10 - 1 Cor 11:20.


Additional studies: 2 Sam 23:2; Is 13:6-9; Jer 46:10; Ezek 7:19; Joel 1:15; 2:1,11,31; Amos 5:18-20; Ob v 15; Zeph 1:7-8; 14-18; 2:1-3; Zech 14:1; Mal 4:5; Mark 12:36; Acts 10:10; 22:17; 1 Cor 1:8; 5:5; 14:2,14,32; 2 Cor 1:14; 12:1-4; 1 Thess 5:2; 2 Thess 2:2; 2 Pet 3:10; Rev 4:2; 17:3.


Richard J. Bauckham "The Role of the Spirit in the Apocalypse"; The Evangelical Quarterly 52.2 (1980): 66-83.

François Bovon "John's Self-Presentation in Revelation 1:9-10"; Catholic Biblical Quarterly 62.3 (2000): 693-700.

J. Gray "The Day of Yahweh in Cultic Experience and Eschatological Prospect"; Svensk Exegetisk Årsbok 39 (1974): 5-37.

J.C. de Smith "The Holy Spirit in the Book of Revelation - Nomenclature"; Neotestamentica 28.1 (1994): 229-244.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-11; 2012-06-02; 2015-01-04)

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1:10b And I heard behind me a great/loud voice as a trumpet.

Word for word (8 words in the Greek text): and (i/I)-heard behind me (a)-voice great as (a)-trumpet.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The Lord said to Moses:) "When - according to the circumstances - the voices and the trumpets and the cloud may go away from the mountain, those will ascend against the mountain." (Ex 19:13b, Greek OT)

(On the third day by the mountain Sinai) a voice of the trumpet sounds greatly/loudly. ... (Ex 19:16b, Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) "A spirit took me up, and I heard entirely from behind me a voice/sound of a great shaking." (Ezek 3:12a, Greek OT)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples: "The Son of the Man) will dispatch away His messengers 'in company'/together with a great trumpet. And they will lead together against/'in quest of' His chosen ones." (Matt 24:31a)

Around the ninth hour Jesus cried upwards (with) a great/loud voice, saying: "Eloi, Eloi, (א,*א,B) lema sabachthani?" this is/means,"My God, My God, 'in order that what'/why have You entirely left Me in (a place)?" (Matt 27:46)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Jesus) screamed (with) a great/loud voice: "Lazarus, come here outside." (John 11:43b)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: Bo Giertz.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning "a great/loud voice": See also John 11:43-44.


Greek words:

salpingx (trumpet) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Matt 24:31; Rev 1:10 - 1 Macc 3:54; 5:31; 6:33; 9:12; 16:8; 2 Macc 15:25; 1 Cor 14:8; 15:52; 1 Thess 4:16; Heb 12:19; Rev 4:1; 8:2,6,13; 9:14; 22:16.


Additional studies: Ex 19:19; 20:18; Lev 23:24; 25:9; Joshua 6:1-20; Judges 3:27; Is 27:13; Joel 2:1; Zech 9:14.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-11; 2012-06-02; 2015-01-04)

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1:11a ... saying: "Write into a scroll what you see ... "

Word for word (6 words in the Greek text): saying: 'which-(thing)'/what (you)-see write into (a)-scroll,


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

Moses wrote all the words of the Lord. (Ex 24:4a, Greek OT)

Mordecai wrote these sayings into a scroll and dispatched (it) out to the Jews. (Esther 9:20a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to the prophet:) "... write these things ... into a scroll." (Is 30:8a, Greek OT)

A scroll of beholding of Naoum, the Elkoshite. (Nahum 1:1b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to the prophet:) "Write a beholding ..." (Hab 2:2b, Greek OT)

(The messenger said to Tobit and Tobias:) "Behold, I ascend towards the One having dispatched me away. Write all these things having 'stepped together with'/happened to you." And he ascended. (Tobit 12:20b, S; Tobit 12:20b, BA: write all the things having been brought to a consummation into a scroll)


The Latter Revelation:

(Luke said: "I have written) to you, most powerful Theofilos (what eyewitnesses and rowers/servants of the saying have given by the side of us), in order that you may have additional knowledge on account of the security of which/the sayings you have 'been resounded'/heard." (Luke 1:3b-4)

A scroll of the prophet Isaiah was 'given on'/'handed to' (Jesus). (Luke 4:17a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

Jesus so indeed and/also made many other signs in the very eyes of His disciples, (signs) which it is not being (and not having been) written in this scroll. (John 20:30)

This is the disciple being a witness on account of these things and having written these things. And we know that his evidence is truthful. * (א*). (John 21:24)

John to the seven (assemblies) of called out, the ones in Asia. (Rev 1:4a)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: Werner Aspenström.


Additional studies: Joshua 8:34; 2 Kings 23:3,24; 2 Chron 34:31; Jer 30:2; 36:1-6,28; Dan 12:1; Rev 1:2,19; 19:9.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-11; 2012-06-02; 2015-01-04)

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1:11b ... and send (it) to the seven (assemblies) of called out, into Ephesos and into Smyrna and into Pergamos and into Thyatira * (?*) and into Philadelphia and into Laodicea."

Word for word (22 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus prima manus): and send (to)-the seven (assemblies)-of-called-out, into Ephesos and into Smyrna and into Pergamos and into Thyatira and into Philadelphia and into Laodicea.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Moses said to Israel:) "... You stood opposite the Lord your God in/at Horeb (in) the day of the (assembly) of called out." (Deut 4:10a, Greek OT)

Moses talked into the ears of every/'the whole' (assembly) of called out of Israel the words of this lay till into/'up to' (the) end. (Deut 31:30, Greek OT)

(When Jesse and his sons came, Samuel) beheld Eliab and spoke: "However/certainly the Lord's anointed (is) and/namely in the very eyes of (Him)." And/but the Lord spoke towards Samuel: "Do not see against, against his sight but/and not into the condition of his great size, because I have treated (and treat) him despicably. ... And Jesse called Abinadab and he came by the side of 'according to'/opposite the face of Samuel. And he spoke: "Nor this one has the Lord chosen." And Jesse led Shammah by the side of (Samuel). And he spoke: "And in/through this one the Lord has not chosen." And Jesse led his seven sons by the side of in the very eyes of Samuel. And Samuel spoke: "The Lord has not chosen in/through these." And Samuel spoke towards Jesse: "Are (and have ... been) the very little boys left out?" And he spoke: "(It/there is) still the small one." (1 Sam 16:6b-11a, Greek OT)

Jesse begot his first-born Eliab, Abinadab the second, Shimea the third, Nethanel the fourth, Raddai the fifth, Azom/Ozem the sixth, David the seventh. (1 Chron 2:13-15, Greek OT)

(David said to God:) "Pour out Your wrath against (my adversaries), and let the passion of Your wrath take them down. Let their homestead become being desolate. Let not the dwelling one be in their dwelling-tents. ... Let them be wiped out, out of a book of living ones and let them not be written in company with righteous ones." (Ps 69:24-25,28 or 69:25-26,29, Greek OT; cf. Acts 1:17-20)

(David said to the Lord:) "Let the days (of my enemy) become few. Oh that the other one may take his visitation/inspection. ... Let (his children) be thrown out of their house properties." (Ps 109:8,10b, Greek OT; cf. Acts 1:17-20)

(Solomon said to the Lord:) "You have arranged every thing throughout (with) measure and number and standing-place/balance." (Wisdom of Solomon 11:20b)


The Latter Revelation:

All ate and were fed. And they lifted seven baskets, filled with 'the thing being'/'what was' over and above of the fragments. (Matt 15:37)

If (the brother missing the mark of God) - according to the circumstances - may 'hear ... from the side of'/ignore them, speak to the (assembly) of called out. (Matt 18:17a)

(Jesus chose from His disciples) twelve, whom He and/also named apostles. (Luke

6:13b)

(Peter said:) "It has been (and is) written (about Judas) in a book of psalms: 'Let his dwelling become desolate and let not the dwelling one be in it.', and 'Let the other one take His visitation/inspection.'" (Acts 1:20)

It became grumbling of/from the Greek-speaking towards the Hebrews ... (And the brothers inspected) ... seven males 'having been witnesses'/'obtaining a good witness' filled with spirit and wisdom. ... And they chose (them) ... and (the seven males) stood in the very eyes of the apostles. (Acts 6:1b-6a)

(Stephen said to the Israelites: "Moses) is the one having become/appeared in the (assembly) of called out in the desolate (district) in company with the messenger talking (with) him in/on the mountain Sinai and (in company with) our fathers, (the one) who received living little sayings to give to you (P74, א,* א, B)." (Acts 7:38)

A certain woman (with the) name Lydia ... (was from) a city of Thyatira. (Acts 16:14a)

Having sent (messengers) into Ephesos, (Paul) called (together) the company of the elders of the (assembly) of called out. (Acts 20:17b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

Thomas, one of the twelve, called Twofold, (continually) was not in company with (the disciples) when Jesus came. ... After eight days (Jesus') disciples (continually) again were inside, and Thomas was in company with them. (John 20:24,26a)

John to the seven (assemblies) of called out, the ones in Asia. (Rev 1:4)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

In A.D. 17 (Sardis) was destroyed by an earthquake but was rebuilt through the generosity of Tiberius. ... Sardis built a temple in honour of Tiberius and (the Empress) Livia. Sardis worshiped also the Lydian Zeus but was better known for the orgiastic cult of Cybele, the great nature goddess of Anatolia. (J. Massyngberede Ford "Revelation" p 410)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Ann-Charlotte Alverfors, Runar Eldebo, Björne Erixon, Birger Gerhardsson, Stina Hansson, Carl-Henrik Martling, Karl Palmberg, Efraim Palmqvist.


My own comments and speculations: In the second OT-list in 1 Chron 2:13-15 the third name from the beginning, Shammah, is not found. In contrast to this we see how in the first NT-list here in Rev 1:11 the third name from the end, Sardis, is not found. The name Shammah can mean "devastation" (cf. Judas, one of the twelve, whose house became desolate according to Acts 1:20). The (assembly) of called out in Sardis has the name of being alive, but because of its imperfect works it is dead (Rev 3:1-2). Compare also that Matthew in Matt 1:1-17 speaks about fourteen generations from Babylon to Christ but only names thirteen. However, Jesus here can represent two generations, Jesus and Christ. See also My own comments and speculations to Rev 16:3.


Greek words: Efesos (Ephesos) Acts 20:17; Rev 1:11 - Acts 18:19,21,24; 19:1,17,26; 20:16; 1 Cor 15:32; 16:8; 1 Tim 1:3; 2 Tim 1:18; 4:12; Rev 2:1.


Thyateira (Thyatira) Acts 16:14; Rev 1:11 - Rev 2:18,24.


Laodikeia (Laodicea) Rev 1:11 - Col 2:1; 4:13,15-16; Rev 3:14.


Pergamos (Pergamos) Rev 1:11 - Rev 2:12.


Philadelpheia (Filadelfia) Rev 1:11 - Rev 3:7.


Additional studies: Ex 24:7; Matt 10:2-4; Mark 3:16-19; Luke 6:13-16; Acts 1:13-14; Rev 1:20; 2:8,18; 3:1,4-5,14; 7:4-8; 17:11.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-11; 2012-06-03; 2015-01-05)

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1:12 And I turned myself next to, to see the voice, whichever/which (continually) talked in company with me, and having turned myself next to I beheld seven golden lampstands.

Word for word (15 words in the Greek text): And (i/I)-turned-myself-next-to (to)-see the voice whichever (continually)-talked in-company-with me, and having-turned-myself-next-to (i/I)-beheld seven lampstands golden.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The Lord said to Moses:) "You shall make a lampstand out of clean/pure goldmetal. ... And you shall make its seven lamps." (Ex 25:31a,37a, Greek OT)

(Solomon made) the lampstands, five out of (the) right (parts) and five out of (the) left (parts), ... 'shut together'/enclosed golden/'of gold', and ... the lamps ... golden/'of gold'. (1 Kings 7:49, Greek OT)

The lampstands (were taken to Babylon). (Jer 52:19b, Greek OT)

(A messenger) spoke towards (the prophet): "What do you see?" And he spoke: "I behold (and have beheld), and behold, a lampstand, 'wholly golden'/'all of gold', . . . and seven lamps above it." (Zech 4:2a, Greek OT)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) "A lamp shining out/forth upon a holy lampstand (is as) a beauty of a face on a standing 'bodily growth'/stature." (Sir 26:17)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples: "Men put a lamp) against the lampstand, and it shines to all the ones in the habitation. In this way let your light shine in front of the men in that way (that) they may behold your fine works and glorify your Father in the heavens." (Matt 5:15b-16)

All ate and were fed. And they lifted seven baskets, filled with 'the thing being'/'what was' over and above of the fragments. (Matt 15:37)

(The disciples) were troubled. But straight/'straight off' (Jesus) talked in company with them, and He says to them: "Be confident! I am, do not fear!" (Mark 6:50b)

(John the Baptist) will turn many of the sons of Israel next to, against/to the Lord their God. (Luke 1:16)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(John the Baptist) (continually) was the lamp having been burning and 'bringing to'/giving light, but/and you wanted towards/'in regard to' an hour exult in its light. (John 5:35)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "I will no longer talk many things in company with you, for the leader of the adornment/'adorned world' comes, and in Me he has not nothing/anything." (John 14:30)

(Mariam) turned herself into the things behind, and she looks at Jesus standing (there), and she did not know, that it is Jesus. ... Jesus says to her: "Mariam!" But (א,*א) having turned that one says to Him in Hebrew: "Rabboni!" - which is said/understood Teacher. (John 20:14,16)

Joybringing (grace) (with) you and peace from the One who is and the One who (continually) was and the One who comes and from the seven spirits * (א,* א, A) 'in the very eyes of'/before His throne. (Rev 1:4b)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

Light plays an important role in Jewish tradition, hence the great variety of candelabrums used during synagogue and home ceremonies. A seven-branched candelabrum (menorah) is the symbol of Judaism, as it was one of the most important sacred objects in the sanctuary in Jerusalem. In 70 AD it was stolen by Legionaires of Emperor Titus and its image carved on the arch of triumph in Rome as one of the most valuable trophies. Candelabrums modelled after it became popular in the 19th C. following the development of the Jewish national movement. They are generally used at home. In synagogue worship they do not have a major significance, as Jewish traditionalists avoid too obvious associations of the synagogue with the Temple. The image of the seven-branched candelabrum is today a motif of the emblem of the State of Israel. Nine-branched Hanukkah candelabrums have the most important role in synagogues. They have eight branches in a row, and an additional ninth branch in front. This additional branch is supplementary, as other candles are lit from the one placed in it. For this reason it is called the helper (shammash). (Eugeniusz Duda "The Old Synagogue at Cracow's Kazimierz" p 11)

In the Holy Place (of the temple) were, to the south, the golden candlestick; to the north, the table of shewbread; and beyond them the altar of incense, near the entrance to the Most Holy. (Alfred Edersheim "The Temple" p 58)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Lars Ahlberg, Dick Harrison, William Haslam, Sigurd Lindgren.


Greek words:

lychnia (lampstand) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Sir 26:17; Matt 5:15; Rev 1:12 - 1 Macc 1:21; 4:49; Mark 4:21; Luke 8:16; 11:33; Heb 9:2; Rev 1:13,20; 2:1,5; 11:4.

chrysous (golden) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Rev 1:12 - Esther 1:6-7; 4:11; 5:1c(D6); 2(D12); 8:4,15; 1 Macc 1:21-22; 4:57; 6:2,12; 10:20,89; 11:58; 13:37; 14:24,44; 15:18; 2 Macc 2:2; 3:25; 5:3; 11:8; 14:4; 15:15; Sir 6:30; 21:21; 26:18; 45:12; Epistle of Jeremiah v 3,10,29; 2 Tim 2:20; Heb 9:4; Rev 1:13,20; 2:1; 4:4; 5:8; 8:3; 9:13,20; 14:14; 15:6-7; 17:4; 21:15.


Additional studies: Ex 37:17-24; Lev 24:1-4; Num 8:2; Rev 10:8; 17:1; 21:18,21.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-11; 2012-06-03; 2015-01-05)

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1:13a ... and (against) (?*, ?) a middle of the seven (?*,?) lampstands (one) like a son of a man.

Word for word (8 words in the Greek text): and middle/'(against)-a-middle' (of)-the seven (of)-lampstands like (a)-son (of)-man.


The Gospel of John and the Book of Revelation: The one who in the Gospel of John stood in a middle of inquiring Jews (John 1:26) stands in the Revelation in a middle of assemblies with believing members from many nations (Rev 1:13,20). Jesus is the one who "must increase" (John 3:30).


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

Samuel took the horn of olive-oil and anointed (David) in a middle of his (seven, older) brothers, and a spirit of the Lord sprang against, against David from that day and above. (1 Sam 16:13a, Greek OT)

Upon the likeness of the throne (there was) from above a likeness as a form of a man. (Ezek 1:26b, Greek OT)

(Daniel said:) "I (continually) looked at in a vision of the night. And behold, (One) as a son of a man (continually) came upon the clouds of the heaven. And He (continually) was by the side of (One) as an Old of Days and the ones standing by the side of (Him) (continually) were by the side of Him." (Dan 7:13, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to His people:) "You will gain additional knowledge that I am in a middle of Israel and I (am) the Lord your God ... and I will pour out from My spirit against every/all flesh." (Joel 2:27a,28a, Greek OT)

"Amuse yourself and be cheerful, daughter of Zion; for the reason, behold, that I come and will pitch a tent in your middle", says the Lord. (Zech 2:10, Greek OT)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) "In middle of a people (the Wisdom) will boast." (Sir 24:1b)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "Where two or three having been (and being) led together into My name, there I am in their middle." (Matt 18:20)

(Jesus was a son) of Adam (= man), of God. (Luke 3:38b)

All in the synagogue were fulfilled (with) passion ... But having come through, through their middle, (Jesus) '(continually) went'/'went His way'. (Luke 4:28a,30)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

John (said to the Pharisees): "I baptize in water. (In) your middle stood (and had stood) (P75, א,* א) One whom you do not know, * (א*, B) coming behind me, whose thong of His sandal I am not worthy 'in order that'/that I may loosen." (John 1:26-27)

(The Father) has given /the Son) (judicial) authority to make/execute judgment, because He is a son of man. (John 5:27)

Jesus came and stood into the middle (of the disciples) and He says to them: "Peace to you." (John 20:19b)

Having already become early Jesus stood against/on (א,* א, A) the beach. 'Nevertheless the disciples had not knowledge (P66,א,*א), that it is Jesus. (John 21:4)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: Ulf Ekman, Sven Lidman, Fredrik Nielsen.


My own comments and speculations:

In 1 Sam 16:13 David is the eighth in a middle of seven brothers. Here Jesus is the eighth in a middle of seven lampstands. Compare also Jesus as the eighth One together with the seven disciples at the sea of Tiberias (John 21:1-4).

Concerning "The Son of the Man" we find this name of Jesus in both the Synoptics/the Acts and in the Gospel of John. (for example Matt 8:20; 9:6; 12:8,32,40; 13:37,41; 16:13,27-28; 17:9; 19:28; 24:30; 26:64; Mark 8:38; 13:26; 14:62; Luke 12:8; 18:8; 21:36; John 1:51; 3:13-14; 5:27; 6:27,53,62; 8:28; 9:35; 12:23,34; 13:31; Acts 7:56)


Additional studies: Ex 29:45; Lev 26:12; Num 5:3; Hes 9:2,11; Dan 10:16; John 20:26; Rev 2:1; 14:14.


Christopher Rowland "The Vision of the Risen Christ in Rev I:13ff: The Dept of an Early Christology to an Aspect of Jewish Angelology"; Journal of Theological Studies 31 (1980): 1-11.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-12; 2012-06-03; 2015-01-05)

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1:13b ... being (and having been) set/clothed (in) a robe reaching to the feet and being (and having been) girded around at the nipples (with) a golden girdle.

Word for word (9 words in the Greek text): being-(and-having-been)-set-(in) (a)-robe-reaching-to-the-feet and being-(and-having-been)-girded-around at the nipples (a)-girdle golden.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(God) blessed (Joseph) with . . . respect to blessings of nipples and womb. (Gen 49:25b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Moses:) "These (are) the dresses which (Aaron and his sons) shall make: ... the robe reaching to the feet ... and a girdle." (Ex 28:4a, Greek OT)

(The messengers said towards the king: "A male had) ... a girdle being (and having been) girded around his hip." (2 Kings 1:8a, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said:) "The Lord has been/'begun to be' king. He has set/clothed Himself in a comely appearance. The Lord has set/clothed Himself (with) ability and has girded Himself around." (Ps 93:1a, Greek OT)

In a middle of (the six males there was) a male being (and having been) set/clothed in a robe reaching to the feet and a girdle ... and (God) called the male being (and having been) set/clothed in the robe reaching to the feet (and) who (continually) had the girdle upon his hip. (Ezek 9:2b,3b, Greek OT)

(The Lord) spoke towards (the man set/clothed in linen): "Come ... through a middle (of) Jerusalem and give the sign against the foreheads of the males sighing over ... all the lawlessnesses becoming/'coming about' in a middle of it." And to (the six other men) He spoke: "... You may not draw near all against whom the sign is." (Ezek 9:4-5a,6a, Greek OT)

(Daniel said:) "I lifted my eyes, and I beheld, and behold, a (certain) man, one being (and having been) set/clothed in (clothes) of fine linen and the hip/hips being (and having been) girded around in goldmetal (of) Uphaz (Theod.)." (Dan 10:5a, Greek OT)

(Solomon said to God:) "Against the robe reaching to the feet (of the blameless male) (continually) the whole adornment/'adorned world' was and glories of fathers upon four rows of carved stones. And Your greatness (was) upon the diadem of his head." (Wisdom of Solomon 18:24)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) "If you - according to the circumstances - may pursue/hunt the righteous thing, you may take (it) down/up and set/clothe yourself in it as (in) a robe of glory reaching to the feet." (Sir 27:8)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said: "God) girded (Aaron) around (with) a dress of glory round about. He set/clothed him in ... a robe reaching to the feet." (Sir 45:7b-8a)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His diciples:) "Let your hips be being (and having been) girded around. ... Happy (are) those slaves whom, on (their) lord's having come, he will find being awake. Amen I say to you, that he will gird himself around and cause them to 'lean back'/'lay down (at table)'. * (א*)." (Luke 12:35a,37)

The father spoke towards his slaves: ".... 'Set in'/clothe (my younger son)." (Luke 15:22a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

Jesus (א,* א, A) says to her: "Withdraw, 'raise your voice'/call your male and come hitherward." The woman answered and spoke * (א*, A): "I have not a male." Jesus says to her: "Finely you spoke, that you (א,*א) have not a male, for five males you had, and the one whom you now have is not your male. This you have truly (א,* א) spoken (and speak)." (John 4:16-18)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

When in Rev. i. 13, the Saviour is seen 'in in the midst of the candlesticks,' 'girt about the paps with a golden girdle,' we are to understand by it that our heavenly High-Priest is there engaged in actual ministry for us. ... The expression 'golden girdle' may bear reference to the circumstance that the dress peculiar of the high-priest was called his 'golden vestments,' in contradistinction to the 'linen vestments,' which he wore on the day of Atonement. (Alfred Edersheim "The Temple" p 98)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Henrik Berg, Berndt Gustafsson, David Harley, Homeros, Patrik Reuterswärd, P. Waldenström.


My own comments and speculations:

In Ezekiel the male with a robe reaching to the feet is one of seven. As "the Lord" He is also the eighth One. In Revelation we can say the same thing about one like a son of a man with a robe reaching to the feet (cf. My comments and speculations to John 4:16-18 och Rev 1:13a).


Greek words:

enduô (set in) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Sir 45:8; Luke 15:22; Rev 1:13 - Esther 4:1,17k(C13); 5:1c(D6); Judith 9:1; 10:3; 1 Macc 1:28; 3:3; 10:21,62; 14:9; Wisdom of Solomon 5:18; Sir 6:31; 17:3; 27:8; 43:20; 45:8,13; 50:11; Baruch 4:20; 5:1; Matt 6:25; 22:11; 27:31: Mark 1:6; 6:9; 15:20; Luke 8:27; 12:22; 24:49; Acts 12:21; Rom 13:12,14; 2 Cor 5:3(P46,?*,?,B); Gal 3:27; Eph 4:24; 6:11,14; Col 3:10,12; 1 Thess 5:8; Rev 15:6; 19:14.

zônê (girdle) (in the NT) Rev 1:13 - Matt 3:4; 10:9; Mark 1:6; 6:8; Acts 21:11; Rev 15:6.

mastos (nipple) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Rev 1:13 - 2 Macc 3:19; 6:10; Luke 11:27; 23:29.

perizônnymi (gird around) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Sir 45:7; Luke 12:35,37; Rev 1:13 - 1 Macc 3:58; Luke 17:8; Eph 6:14; Rev 15:6.

podêrês (robe reaching to the feet) (in the NT + examples in the OT) Ex 28:4; Ezek 9:2-3; Wisdom of Solomon 18:24; Sir 27:8; 45:8; Rev 1:13 - Ex 25:7; 29:5.


Additional studies: Rev 6:11; 7:9.


Christopher Rowland "The Vision of the Risen Christ in Rev I:13ff: The Dept of an Early Christology to an Aspect of Jewish Angelology"; Journal of Theological Studies 31 (1980): 1-11.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-12; 2012-06-03; 2015-01-06)

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1:14a But/and His head and His hairs/hair (were) white as white wool, as snow.

Word for word (13 words in the Greek text): the but head his and the hairs/'hair-(his)' white as wool white as snow.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The psalmist said: "The Lord gives) snow as if (it was) wool." (Ps 147:16a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to His people:) "Come here and we may 'count throughout'/consider ... if - according to the circumstances - your misses (of My mark) may be as crimson, I shall whiten (them) as snow, but/and if - according to the circumstances - they may be as scarlet, I shall whiten (them) as wool." (Is 1:18, Greek OT)

(Daniel said:) "I (continually) looked at ... when thrones were put/'set up' and an Old of days (continually) was seated, having a wrapper as if (it was) white (Theod) snow and the growth of hair of His head as if (it was) white clean wool. The throne (was) as if (it was) a flame of fire. (Dan 7:9, Greek OT)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples: "You are not able) to make one hair white or black." (Matt 5:36b)

(The clothes of the messenger of the Lord was) white as snow. (Matt 28:3b)


My own comments and speculations:

John sees (cf. Matt 17:2) that not only the hair (cf. Dan 7:9) but also the head is as wool.


Greek words:

erion (wool) (the NT + examples from the OT) Is 1:18; Dan 7:9; Rev 1:14 - Heb 9:19.

chiôn (snow) (the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Matt 28:3; Rev 1:14 - 1 Macc 13:22; Wisdom of Solomon 16:22; Sir 43:13,18; The Song of Praise of the Three Men v 45.


Additional studies: Job 9:30; Ps 51:7(9); 2 Macc 15:13; Mark 9:3; Luke 9:29; John 1:14; Acts 1:10.


Christopher Rowland "The Vision of the Risen Christ in Rev I:13ff: The Dept of an Early Christology to an Aspect of Jewish Angelology"; Journal of Theological Studies 31 (1980): 1-11.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-12; 2012-06-03; 2015-01-06)

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1:14b And His eyes (were) as a flame of fire.

Word for word (7 words in the Greek text): and the eyes his as (a)-flame (of)-fire.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

A messenger of the Lord was beheld (to/by Moses) in a flame of fire out of the thorn-bush. (Ex 3:2a, Greek OT)

(The Lord gives) back ... in a flame of fire. (Is 66:15b, Greek OT)

... The eyes (of the man set/clothed in linen) were as if (they were) torches of fire. (Dan 10:6a, Greek OT)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said: "The) eyes of the Lord (are) ten thousandfold brighter (than) sun. ... " (Sir 23:19b)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said: "The Lord entirely used up Dathan and Abiram, Korah and his people) in his flame of fire." (Sir 45:19b)


The Latter Revelation:

(John the Baptist said: "The One coming behind me) will baptize you in holy spirit and fire." (Matt 3:11b)

Having raised his voice (the rich man in Hades) spoke: "Father Abraham, have mercy on me, and send Lazarus, in order that he may dip the border/tip of his finger (in) water and cool my tongue, because I 'am caused'/feel pain in this flame." (Luke 16:24)

A messenger was beheld (to/by Moses) in a flame of fire of a thorn-bush. (Acts 7:30b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) " If - according to the circumstances - a certain (person) may not have stayed in Me, he has been thrown outside as the twig and been dried. And they lead it (א,*א) together (with other twigs) and throw (them) into the fire, and it is burnt." (John 15:6)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

An evening just before the darkening Gertrud walked inside in the streets in Jerusalem. Then she observed a high, slender man in a black dress reaching to his feet. . . . "He quite was like Christ", (Gertrud said for herself), "as I have seen him painted . . . except the thing that he now was still more beautiful and glorious. It was light out of his eyes and great might and around them there was much darkness and also many wrinkles. Yes, around his eyes all things were assembled, both wisdom and love and sorrow and commiseration and still something more, as if those eyes sometimes would have such an intense vision that they could see right away through the heavens to God and his angles. (Selma Lagerlöf "Jerusalem II" p 383-384; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: G.K. Chesterton, Bob Dylan, Bo Frid, Carl Grimberg, H. Kamphausen, Pansy, Lina Sandell, Jesper Svartvik, Jules Verne.


Greek words:

flox (flame) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Sir 45:19; Luke 16:24; Acts 7:30; Rev 1:14 - 1 Macc 2:59; Wisdom of Solomon 10:17; 16:18; 17:5; 19:21; Sir 8:10; 21:9; 28:22; The Prayer of Azariah v 24,26; The Song of Praise of the Three Men v 65; 2 Thess 1:7(8); Heb 1:7; Rev 2:18; 19:12.


Additional studies: Gen 15:17-18; Dan 7:9; Luke 3:16; John 1:14; 1 Cor 3:13; Heb 12:29.


Christopher Rowland "The Vision of the Risen Christ in Rev I:13ff: The Dept of an Early Christology to an Aspect of Jewish Angelology"; Journal of Theological Studies 31 (1980): 1-11.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-12; 2012-06-03; 2015-01-06)

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1:15a And His feet (were) like copper from Lebanon (or: like copper similar olibanum/frankincense), as in a furnace glowing (and having glowed).

Word for word (10 words in the Greek text): and the feet his like copper-from-Lebanon (alt. copper-similar-olibanum) as in (a)-furnace 'being-(and-having-been)-caused-to-glow'/'glowing-(and-having-glowed)'.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Solomon said to his bride:) "A scent of your garments (is) as a scent of Lebanon." (Song of Solomon 4:11b, Greek OT)

(The woman said:) "The form of (my friend is) as Lebanon, chosen as cedar-trees." (Song of Solomon 5:15b, Greek OT)

All 'out of'/from Sheba will arrive carrying goldmetal, and they will carry olibanum/frankincense and bring a good little message, the means of saving of the Lord. ... And the glory of Lebanon will arrive towards (Israel). (Is 60:6b,13a, Greek OT)

The feet (of the four figures likening living beings 'flashed) out'/gleamed as ... copper. ... (Ezek 1:7b, Greek OT)

The beholding (of the male) (continually) was as if (it was) a beholding of glittering copper. ... (Ezek 40:3b, Greek OT)

(The herald of the king said:) "Every/everyone who - according to the circumstances - may not, having fallen/'fallen down', prostate himself (before the golden image), him they shall throw in, into the furnace of the burning fire." ... (The king said:) "I behold four males being (and having been) loosened/released wandering about in the fire and no ruin/harm became in them, and the beholding of the fourth (has) a likeness of a messenger of God (Theod: ... with a son of God)." (Dan 3:6,25b, Greek OT)

The feet (of the man set/clothed in linen were) as if (they were) 'flashing out'/gleaming copper. ... (Dan 10:6b, Greek OT)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) "Listen to me, pious sons ... and give fragrance, a scent as olibanum." (Sir 39:13a,14a)


The Latter Revelation:

(The soothsayers) carried gifts to (Jesus); gold and olibanum/frankincense and myrrh. (Matt 2:11b)

(Jesus said:) "Woe to you, Chorazin! Woe to you, Bethsaida! If the (works of) ability having become/'come about' in you had become/'come about' in Tyre and Sidon, they had - according to the circumstances - changed their minds long ago being seated (א,*א) in sack and ashes. I say to you: 'It will be more upheld/bearable for Tyre and Sidon in a day of judgment or/than for you." (Matt 11:21-22)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "In this way it will be in the consummation of the age; the messengers will come out and divide by a boundary-line the evil out of a middle of the righteous ones, and they throw (א*) them into the furnace of the fire." (Matt 13:49-50a)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: Märta Ahlbom, Svetlana Aleksijevitj, Hjalmar Bjurulf, Rune Bunte, Sten Carlsson, Charles Dickens, Sven Gabriel Fovelin, Carl Grimberg, Lennart Gustavsson, Torsten Gårdlund, Eli F.Heckscher, Gerhard Johansson, Lennart Jörberg, Mac Key, Lars-Olof Larsson, Carl Henrik Martling, H.M. Melin, Vilhelm Moberg, Bertil Nilsson, Roland Oscarsson, Nadezjda Petrovna Bygovskaja, Viktor Rydberg, Göran Åberg.


Greek words:

kaminos (furnace) (in the NT + exaqmples in the Apocrypha) Matt 13:50; Rev 1:15 - Sir 2:5; 22:24; 27:5; 31:26; 38:28,30; 43:4; The Prayer of Azariah v 23-27; The Song of Praise of the Three Men v 28; Matt 13:42; Rev 9:2.

pyroô (cause to glow) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Rev 1:15 - Judith 8:27; 2 Macc 4:38; 10:3,35; 14:45; 1 Cor 7:9; 2 Cor 11:29; Eph 6:16; 2 Pet 3:12; Rev 3:18.

chalkolibanon (copper from Lebanon/copper similar olibanum) Rev 1:15 - Rev 2:18. This word is unique for the Revelation, a word belonging to new heavenly "white" situation (cf. My own comments and speculations to Rev 1:11b). John beholds "what an eye has not beheld ... what God has ade ready to the ones who welcome Him." (1 Cor 2:9). Cf. Libanon (Lebanon) with the meaning of "the white". Examples: Song of Solomon 4:11; 5:15; Is 60:13; Hosea 14:6(7); Judith 1:7; Sir 24:13; 50,8,12. Cf. also libanos-libanon (olibanum) in Matt 2:11; Is 60:6; Sir 39:14. Olibanum is a white resinous gum. In Is 60 we have the two meanings in one chapter. Concerning the word "chalkos", see Rev 18:12b.


Additional studies: Is 14:8; Ezek 22:20-22; 27:5; Dan 3:11.


Christopher Rowland "The Vision of the Risen Christ in Rev I:13ff: The Dept of an Early Christology to an Aspect of Jewish Angelology"; Journal of Theological Studies 31 (1980): 1-11.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-12; 2012-06-03; 2015-01-07)

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1:15b And His voice (was) as a voice/sound of many waters.

Word for word (8 words in the Greek text): and the voice his as (a)-voice (of)-waters (of)-many.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The prophet said:) "I (continually) heard the voice/sound of the wings (of the living beings) in 'the thing to go them'/'their going' as a voice/sound of much water." (Ezek 1:24a, Greek OT)


The Latter Revelation:

(The man said to Jesus:) "Many times (the boy falls) into the water." (Matt 17:15b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

John (continually) was baptizing in Aenon near Salim, because many waters (continually/-) were there. (John 3:23a)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

In a variety of ways (God) adjusted the human race to an agreement with salvation. On this account also does John declare in the Apocalypse: "And His voice as the sound of many waters." For the Spirit (of God) is truly (like) many waters, since the Father is both rich and great. And the Word, passing through all those (men), did liberally confer benefits upon His subjects, by drawing up in writing a law adapted and applicable to every class (among them)." (Irenaeus, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol I, p 479)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Gustaf Fröding, Bo Giertz.


Additional studies: Ps 93:4; Ezek 43:2; John 11:43; Rev 14:2; 17:1; 19:6.


Christopher Rowland "The Vision of the Risen Christ in Rev I:13ff: The Dept of an Early Christology to an Aspect of Jewish Angelology"; Journal of Theological Studies 31 (1980): 1-11.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-12; 2012-06-03; 2015-01-07)

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1:16aa And in His right hand He (continually) had (?*) seven stars.

Word for word (9 words in the Greek text): and (he)-(continually)-had in the right hand his stars seven.


The Former Revelation:

(God made) the stars. (Gen 1:16b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Job:) "Did you let/bring together a band of Pleiades (seven stars)?" (Job 38:31a, Greek OT)

(David said to the Lord: "You save) the ones hoping against/in You 'out of'/from the ones standing (and having stood) against (with) Your right (hand)." (Ps 17:7b, Greek OT)

(David said to God:) "Your right (hand) hand took 'in stead'/'part with' me." (Ps 63:8b or 63:9b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Israel:) "My right (hand) made the heaven firm. ..." (Is 48:13b, Greek OT)

Sun and moon and stars being shining and dispatching away against needs 'are well-hearing'/'obey willingly'. (Epistle of Jeremiah v 59a)


The Latter Revelation:

(The Pharisees) carried a denarius to (Jesus). And he says to them: "Whose is this image and the inscription?" They say * (א,* א,B): "Caesar's." (Matt 22:19b-21a; cf. Exegetes, evangelists and others below)

Having plaited a crown out of thorns (the soldiers) put (it) upon, upon the head of (Jesus) and a reed in His right hand, and having fallen down in front of Him on their knees they 'jested with'/mocked Him saying: "Rejoice, the (א,* א, A) King of the Jews!" (Matt 27:29)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "Signs will be in sun and moon and constellations." (Luke 21:25a)

A hand of a lord (continually) was in company with (the ones bringing the good little message of the Lord Jesus). (Acts 11:21a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

The Father welcomes the Son and has given (and gives) all things in His hand. (John 3:35)

(Jesus said to the Jews:) "I give them agelong life, and they may not/certainly not perish into the (coming) age, and anyone may not/certainly (א,*א) not rape them out of My hand." (John 10:28)

(Jesus said to the seven disciples): "Throw the net into/towards the right part of the boat, and you will find." (John 21:6a)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

In 1:16 Christ holds seven stars in his hand. It can be a conscious contrast to the picture which was found on the coins which Caesar Domitianus let coin, where he was pictured as a child with seven stars in his hand. (Mikarl Tellbe "Lammet och odjuret" p 34; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

The cart wheeled up and the monotonous rattling put the young traveller to sleep. And so (Lundstedt) dreamt, that he sat on the seven stars and went up to the vault of heaven, where he heard a violin play, having strings so long as the road, with sound pegs high as mast-trees and the stables were of white porcelain, and the north wind was the bow, resinned with coatings of ice; and the violin gave new melodies in new keys with tones of three quarters in stead of semitones, and there were both E sharp and "hiss", which he always had wondered over where they had gone, when God let man create the keyboard instrument. (August Strindberg "Skärkarlsliv" p 25-26; the seven stars = the Pleiades; the fifties of the nineteenth century; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: David Bellingham, Ivan Bunin, Miguel de Cervantes, Stig Dominique, Ulla Fredriksson, Anis Freiha, Carsten Hauch, Alf Henrikson, Homeros, Kerstin Hyltmark, Gabriel Jönsson, Bernhard Karlgren, Aleksis Kivi, Jonas Lie, Sigurd Lindgren, Amy Lowell, Mikael Lybeck, Vilhelm Moberg, Fredrik Nielsen, Efraim Palmqvist, G.H. Pember, Lewi Pethrus, Olaus Petri, Luigi Pirandello, Karin Schultz, Nils Lorents Sjöberg, Martin Sjöstrand, Leo Tolstoj.


My own comments and speculations: In the Synoptics (and the Acts) the Greek word for star is used seven times.


Greek words:

astêr (star) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Epistle of Jeremiah v 59; Rev 1:16 - 2 Macc 9:10; Wisdom of Solomon 7:19,29; 10:17; 13:2; 17:5; Sir 43:9; 44:21; Baruch 3:34; The Prayer of Azariah v 13; The Song of Praise of the Three Men v 40. Matt 2:2,7,9-10; 24:29; Mark 13:25; 1 Cor 15:41; Jude v 13; Rev 1:20; 2:1,28; 3:1; 6:13; 8:10-12; 9:1; 12:1,4; 22:16.


Additional studies: Job 9:9; Ps 16:11; 44:4; 63:8(9); 138:7; 139:10; Is 41:10; 51:16; Amos 5:8; John 13:3.


Christopher Rowland "The Vision of the Risen Christ in Rev I:13ff: The Dept of an Early Christology to an Aspect of Jewish Angelology"; Journal of Theological Studies 31 (1980): 1-11.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-12; 2012-06-03; 2015-01-07)

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1:16ab And out of His mouth a two-mouthed sharp large sword going/went out.

Word for word (9 words in the Greek text): and out-of the mouth his (a)-large-sword two-mouthed sharp going-out.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The Lord God) threw out Adam ... and arranged the cherubim and the flaming large sword, turning itself to watch the way of/to the wood of the life. (Gen 3:24, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said: "Let) two-mouthed large swords (be) in the hands (of the pious ones)." (Ps 149:6, Greek OT)

(The slave Israel said: "The Lord) has put/made My mouth as if (it was) a sharp dagger." (Is 49:2a, Greek OT)

(Solomon said:) "I will be found sharp in a judgment." (Wisdom of Solomon 8:11a)

(Solomon said to the Lord:) "Into/to a reminding of Your sayings (Your sons) (continually) were ingrafted (by the serpents) and in a sharp/quick way they (continually) were saved throughout." (Wisdom of Solomon 16:11a)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) "As a two-mouthed large sword (is) every lawlessness. Its blow is not a healing." (Sir 21:3b)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) "Many have fallen in a mouth of a dagger." (Sir 28:18a)


The Latter Revelation:

(Simeon said to Mariam:) "A large sword will come and/also through your own soul, in what way - according to the circumstances - 'countings altogether'/considerations out of many hearts may be revealed." (Luke 2:35)

All (in the synagogue continually) were witnesses to (Jesus) and (continually) wondered on/at the sayings of joybringing (grace), (sayings) going out, out of His mouth. (Luke 4:22a)

(Jesus said to His disciples: "This people) will fall (in) a mouth of a dagger." (Luke 21:24a)

(God said to Israel:) "You took up ... the constellation of your God Romphan (א*) ." (Acts 7:43a; observe the likeness between Romphan and romfaia/'large sword')


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Jesus said to the Jews: "The Father) has given (the Son) (judicial) authority to make/execute judgment, because He is a son of man." (John 5:27)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

I am born under the sign the Ram. Its sign represents the Sacrifice. . . . But it also means: Spring, something new. . . . The ram is the planet Mars with Martial destruction. . . . "Out of his mouth a two-edged sword went out . . . " . . . Have You seen any man so baited as I? The ram the scapegoat! (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev XI maj 1895-nov 1896" p 281-282; letter 1896-07-20 to Torsten Hedlund; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Elisabeth Beskow, Ragnar Blomqvist, Hilding Fagerberg, Lars Levi Laestadius, J.R.R. Tolkien, P. Waldenström.


My own comments and speculations:

A Greek word for a sword of normal size is "xifos", which does not occur in the NT but in the OT, for example in Wisdom of Solomon 18:15.


The saying of God (is) ... more cutting over/'more than' every two-mouthed dagger. (Heb 4:12a)


Greek words:

distomos (two-mouthed) Ps 149:6; Sir 21:3; Rev 1:16; Heb 4:12 - Judges 3:16; Prov 5:4; Rev 2:12. The sword of God is a speaking sword (Ps 149:6; Heb 4:12; Rev 19:13-15; cf. Eph 6:17 "the dagger of the Spirit"). The two mouthes can perhaps best be associated to the former and the latter revelation (cf. Sir 33:15; Matt 13:52; Heb 1:1-2). Cf. Rev 19:15 where nothing is said about a sword with two mouthes. Here the work of the sword of God is final without any following action in the salvation history. God says: "I make all (things) new." (Rev 21:5).

oxys (sharp) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Wisdom of Solomon 7:22; 18:16; Rev 1:16 - Wisdom of Solomon 8:11; 16:11; Rom 3:15; Rev 2:12; 14:14,17-18; 19:15.

romfaia (large sword) (in the NT + examples in the OT) Gen 3:24; Ps 149:6; Sir 21:3; Luke 2:35 - Joshua 6:21; 1 Sam 17:45; Ps 22:20(21); 149:6; Jer 43:11; Ezek 5:1,17; 14:17,21; 21:14,28; Dan 11:33; Zech 13:7; Judith 1:12; 7:14; 8:19; 9:2; 11:10; 1 Macc 2:9; 3:3; 4:33; 7:38,46; 9:73; 2 Macc 15:15-16; Wisdom of Solomon 5:20; Sir 22:21; 26:28; 39:30; 40:9; 46:2; Baruch 2:25; Susanna v 59; Rev 2:12,16; 6:8; 19:15,21.


Additional studies: Ps 57:5; Prov 5:4; 18:21; Is 11:4; Amos 9:4; Wisdom of Solomon 18:14-16; Eph 6:17; 2 Thess 2:8.


Christopher Rowland "The Vision of the Risen Christ in Rev I:13ff: The Dept of an Early Christology to an Aspect of Jewish Angelology"; Journal of Theological Studies 31 (1980): 1-11.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-12; 2012-06-03; 2015-01-08)

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1:16b And His sight/countenance 'brings to'/gives light as the sun (?*,?) in its ability.

Word for word (12 words in the Greek text; the sequence of the words according to Sinaiticus): and the sight his brings-to-light as the sun in the ability its.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Deborah and Barak said: "May) the ones welcoming (the Lord be) as a way out of a sun in its ability." (Judges 5:31a, Greek OT, B)

(The prophet said to the people of God: "In the day of the great slaughter) ... the light of the sun will be sevenfold in the day, when - according to the circumstances - the Lord may heal the crush of His people, and He will heal the pain of your blow." (Is 30:26, Greek OT)


The Latter Revelation:

Jesus was transformed in front of (James, John and Peter) and His face shone as the sun. (Matt 17:2a)

(Paul, the apostle of the nations, said:) "I beheld 'according to'/downwards the way a light from heaven, over/'more than' the lustre of the sun, having shone round about me and the ones going together with me." (Acts 26:13b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

And we viewed His glory, a glory as of an only descendant from the side of a father, filled with joybringing (grace) and truth. (John 1:14b)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

One has found spots in the sun but no spot in Jesus. . . . Others can be little stars, but he was the big, beautiful sun. Therefore the world has only one saviour, as she only has one sun. . . . . . . Jesus received publicans and sinners and "ate" with them. Jesus was like the sun drawing all living to himself, yes, drawing life out of the dark, cold earth. . . . It was, as when you have a flower in your window and you urgently turn her from the sun, but she at last nevertheless stands turned against her. In this way Jesus drew all honest souls to himself. (Karl Palmberg "Ur livskällan. Första årgången." p 81 and "Ur livskällan. Tredje årgången" p 283; Karl Palmberg /1842-1920/ was from 1883 a Lutheran clergyman in Månsarp in the diocese of Växjö and president in Jönköpings Missionsförening (Missionary Society) 1886-1911; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Martin Allwood, Johann Arndt, E.J. Ekman, Hillis Grane, Carl Grimberg, C.S. Lewis, Kerstin Midnäs, Vilhelm Moberg, Fredrik Nielsen, August Strindberg.


Greek words:

dynamis (ability) (in the Synoptics, John, the Acts, 1-3 John, Rev + examples in the Apocrypha) Matt 24:29; Rev 1:16 - Esther 2:18; Judith 1:4,13,16; 2:4,14,19,22; 4:15; 5:1,3,23; 6:1; 7:2,9,12,26; 9:7-8; 10:13; 11:18; 13:4,15; 14:3; 16:3. 1 Macc 1:4; 2:31,66; 3:10,13,19,28,34-35,37,40-42; 4:3-4,9,16,18,31,61; 5:11,18,32,38,40,50,58; 6:6,33,47,56; 7:2,10-11,14,20,27,39; 8:6; 9:1,6,11,43,52,60,66; 10:2,6,8,21,36,48,69,71,82; 11:3,38,40,43,55,60,63,70; 12:24,42-43,45-46,49; 13:1,11-12,53; 14:1; 15:3,10,12,38,41; 16:5,18. 2 Macc 1:13; 3:24,38; 9:8; 13:2; Wisdom of Solomon 1:3; 5:23; 7:20,25; 11:20; 12:15,17; 13:4; 14:31; 16:19,23; 19:20; Sir 6:26; 7:30; 17:32; 24:2; 29:20; 44:3; Baruch 2:11; Epistle of Jeremiah v 62; The Prayer of Azariah v 21(Theod); The Song of Praise of the Three Men v 38; The Prayer of Manasseh v 4,15. Matt 7:22; 11:20-21,23; 13:54,58; 14:2; 22:29; 24:30; 25:15; 26:64; Mark 5:30; 6:2,5,14; 9:1,39; 12:24; 13:25-26; 14:62; Luke 1:17,35; 4:14,36; 5:17; 6:19; 8:46; 9:1; 10:13,19; 19:37; 21:26-27; 22:69; 24:49. Acts 1:8; 2:22; 3:12; 4:7,33; 6:8; 8:10,13; 10:38; 19:11; Rev 3:8; 4:11; 5:12; 7:12; 11:17; 12:10; 13:2; 15:8; 17:13; 18:3; 19:1.

(h)êlios (sun) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Matt 17:2; Acts 26:13; Rev 1:16 - Esther 1:1k(A10); 10:3c(F3); Tobit 2:4,7; 10:7; Judith 14:2; 1 Macc 6:39; 12:27; Wisdom of Solomon 2:4; 5:6; 7:29; 16:28; 18:3; Sir 17:19,31; 26:16; 33:7; 42:16; 43:2,4; 46:4; 48:23; 50:7; Epistle of Jeremiah v 59,66; The Song of Praise of the Three Men v 39. Matt 5:45; 13:6,43; 24:29; Mark 1:32; 4:6; 13:24; 16:2; Luke 4:40: 21:25; 23:45. Acts 2:20; 13:11; 27:20; 1 Cor 15:41; Eph 4:26; Jas 1:11; Rev 6:12; 7:2,16; 8:12; 9:2; 10:1; 12:1; 16:8,12; 19:17; 21:23; 22:5.


Additional studies: Mal 4:2; Luke 9:29; 1 Pet 4:17; Rev 10:1.


Christopher Rowland "The Vision of the Risen Christ in Rev I:13ff: The Dept of an Early Christology to an Aspect of Jewish Angelology"; Journal of Theological Studies 31 (1980): 1-11.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-12; 2012-06-03; 2015-01-08)

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1:17a And when I beheld Him, I fell/'sank down' into/'up to' (א,* א) His feet as a dead (body), and He put/laid His right (hand) against (א,* א)against, against me ...

Word for word (18 words in the Greek text): And when (i/I)-beheld him, (i/I)-fell into the feet his as (a)-dead, and (he)-put-against the right-(hand) his against me.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Israel) threw/laid his right (hand) against, against Ephraim's head. ... But Joseph spoke to his father: "Not in this way, father, for this one (Manasseh) (is) the first-born. Put/lay your right (hand) against, against his head. And/but he did not want however/but spoke: "I know, child, I know. And this one will be into a people and this one will be heightened. However, his brother, the younger one, will be greater than he, and his seed will be into a multitude of nations. ... And he put Ephraim in front of Manasseh. (Gen 48:17a,18-19,20b, Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) "The glory of the Lord stood (on the plain) ... and I fell/'fell down' against/on my face." (Ezek 3:23b, Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) "... I fell/'fell down' against/on my face (before the messenger)." (Dan 8:17a, Greek OT)


The Latter Revelation:

(The disciples) fell/'fell down' against/on their face/faces and feared extremely. And/but Jesus came forward and having touched them He spoke: "Rise and do not fear!" (Matt 17:6b-7a)

The ones keeping (watch) were shaken from/for the fear of (the messenger of the Lord) and became as dead (bodies). (Matt 28:4)

Paul said: "I fell into/to the ground and heard a voice saying to me: "Saul, Saul, why do you pursue Me?" (Acts 22:7)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

So Mary (P45,P66,א,*א), as she came whereat/where Jesus (continually) was, having beheld Him she fell/'sank down' towards His feet. (John 11:32a)

There (continually) was one out of His disciples, whom Jesus (continually) welcomed, lying up/'down to table' in the bosom of Jesus. (John 13:23)

(Jesus) said to (the seven disciples): "Throw the net into/towards the right part of the boat, and you will find." (John 21:6a)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: Bo Giertz.


My own comments and speculations:

That someone lays his right hand against another person in the Bible I only can find here and in Gen 48. In the light of the OT-text John is compared with Ephraim, the younger son of Josef, who was put in front of his elder brother Manasseh. This comparison has its greatest probability in the Sinaiticus version of Rev 1:17, where we have the words "epitithemi ... epi" (put/lay against, against) just as in Gen 48:18. Cf. also the priority of John in front of Peter in the Gospel of John.

To lay the right hand against somebody is a way to in work say: "I welcome you." So also in the Revelation John is the disciple whom Jesus (continually) welcomed.


Additional studies: Gen 17:3; Judges 13:20; Ps 60:5(7); Ezek 1:28; Dan 8:18; 10:8-10,15; Mark 5:36; 6:50; 9:26.


Christopher Rowland "The Vision of the Risen Christ in Rev I:13ff: The Dept of an Early Christology to an Aspect of Jewish Angelology"; Journal of Theological Studies 31 (1980): 1-11.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-12; 2012-06-04; 2015-01-08)

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1:17b ... saying: " * (?*) I am the First (One) and the Last (One) ... "

Word for word (7 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus prima manus): i/I (i/I)-am the first and the last.


The Gospel of John and the Book of Revelation:

The one who John the Baptizer describes as "my first (one)" (John 1:15,30) is in the Revelation named "the First (One) (and the Last One)". (Rev 1:17b; 22:13). Jesus is the one who "must increase" (John 3:30).

The one who in the Gospel of John is described as the one of the brothers who comes last up to the feast (John 7:2-10) is in the Book of Revelation named "(the First One and) the Last (One)" (Rev 1:17b; 22:13). Jesus is the one who "must increase" (John 3:30).

The one who in the Gospel of John is the one of the Jews who comes last to Mary (John 11:30-31) is in the Revelation named "(The First One and) the Last (One)" (Rev 1:17b; 22:13). Jesus is the one who "must increase" (John 3:30).


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

God spoke towards Moses: "I am the One who is." And He spoke: "In this way you shall speak to the sons of Israel: 'The One who is has dispatched (and dispatches) me away towards you.'" (Ex 3:14, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) "I (am) first, and I (am) after these things. And it/there is not a god more than Me." (Is 44:6b, Greek OT)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) "Before 'or be'/'they were' created, it was (and had been) to (the Lord) knowledge of all the things, in this way and/also after the thing 'to be'/'that they had been' brought to a consummation." (Sir 23:20)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "Many first ones will be last ones and last ones (will be) first ones." (Matt 19:30)

(Jesus said:) "Many will come on/'for the sake of' My name, saying that/: 'I am' and will lead many astray." (Mark 13:6)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

In a beginning the Saying (continually) was. (John 1:1a)

John is a witness on account of (Jesus). And he has shouted (and shouts), saying: "This (continually) was * (א*) the One coming behind me, the One who (א*) has become (and becomes) in front of me, because He (continually) was my first (one)." (John 1:15)

(John the Baptist said: "Jesus) is (the One) in favour of whom I spoke: 'Behind me comes a male who has become (and becomes) in front of me, because He (continually) was my first (one).'" (John 1:30)

I and the Father are one. (John 10:30)

"I, the Alpha and the Ô/Omega, a beginning and an end (א*)," says the Lord God. (Rev 1:8a)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

I experienced . . . a month in Klampenborg in full misère. . . . Fortunately Copenhagen is an atistic place where people estimate the talent even with bad economy. Therefore I also stay here, and am rather the first one in the finely cultivated Denmark than the last one in the rowdy Sweden. (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev VI aug 1886-jan 1888" p 345; letter 1887-12-26 to Axel Strindberg; translation from the Swdish text: BG Ask)

I have for three years in foreign countries kept company with and observed about a hundred women of all nations and I have not understood anything else of their presumptuous behaviour, full of hatred, than it is a question to come over, not by the side. Only read their books and plays; what a shamelessness in the dealing with the man! And observe how I, who only has said the same thing about them, as they about us, and with greater reason and right, how I have been treated. But I shall fight till my last nerve stump stands, and if they gnaw me to death, you then can write a play about "the last man". (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev VI aug 1886-jan 1888" p 148; letter 1887-01-22 to Edvard Brandes; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Elisabeth Beskow, Henrik Ibsen, Margareta von Konow, Folke Thorell, Ewert Wrangel.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning "I am", see My own comments and speculations to Rev 1:8a.

The first One and the last One: See also Rev 2:8; 22:13.


Additional studies: Is 41:4; 43:10; 48:12; Matt 20:16; Mark 9:35; 10:31; Luke 13:30; Rev 1:4,8.


Christopher Rowland "The Vision of the Risen Christ in Rev I:13ff: The Dept of an Early Christology to an Aspect of Jewish Angelology"; Journal of Theological Studies 31 (1980): 1-11.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-12; 2012-06-04; 2015-01-09)

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1:18a ... and the One living, and I became a dead (body), and behold, I am a living one into the (coming) ages of the (coming) ages.

Word for word (15 words in the Greek text): and the-(one) living, and (i/I)-became (a)-dead and behold (a)-living-(one) (i/I)-am into the ages (of)-the (of)-ages.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The Lord says:) "I live into the (coming) age." (Deut 32:40b, Greek OT)

(Job said:) "I know, that the One being about to upon earth loosen me out (is) inexhaustible." (Job 19:25; Greek OT)

Holy ones of a highest one will take the kingdom to the side (them) and 'keep ... down'/possess the kingdom till/'as long as' the age and till/'as long as' the age of the ages. (Dan 7:18, Greek OT)

(Tobit said:) "Heighten (God) in the very eyes of every living (one) ... He (is) our Father ... and God into/for all the ages." (Tobit 13:4b, S)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) "Into the (coming) age the One living created 'all the things in common'/'the whole as communities'." (Sir 18:1)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples: "The cursed ones who have not done anything to the least of My brothers) will go away into an agelong chastisement, but the righteous ones (who have done something to the least of My brothers) into an agelong life." (Matt 25:46)

(Jesus said to the Sadducees: "God) is not the (א,* א, A) God of 'dead (bodies)'/dead, however/but of living ones. (Mark 12:27a)

On (the women's) leaning the faces into/to the earth (the two men) spoke towards (them): "What/why do you seek the living One in company with the dead (bodies)?" (Luke 24:5b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Jesus said to the Jews:) "I am the living bread, the one having descended out of the heaven. If - according to the circumstances - anyone may eat out of My (א,*א) bread, He will live into the (coming) age." (John 6:51a)

Jesus said to (Martha): "I am the resurrection and the life. The one believing into Me, and/also if he - according to the circumstances - may die, he will live. And 'every the'/everyone living and believing into Me may not/certainly not die into the (coming) age." (John 11:25-26a)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: Stig Abrahamsson, Sven Danell.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning the expression "the ages of the ages", see My own comments and speculations to Rev 1:6b.


Additional studies: Bel and the Dragon v 5-6; John 1:3; 5.26; 14:6; Rom 6:9; Rev 2:8; 4:9-10; 10:6; 15:7.


Beate Kowalski "Martyrdom and Resurrection in the Revelation to John"; Andrews University Seminary Studies 10.1 (Jan. 1972): 55-64.

Christopher Rowland "The Vision of the Risen Christ in Rev I:13ff: The Dept of an Early Christology to an Aspect of Jewish Angelology"; Journal of Theological Studies 31 (1980): 1-11.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-12; 2012-06-04; 2015-01-09)

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1:18b And I have the keys of (the) death and (the) Hades.

Word for word (9 words in the Greek text): and (i/I)-have the keys (of)-the (of)-death and (of)-the (of)-Hades.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The boys/servants) took the key and opened. And behold, their lord being (and having been) fallen against the earth (and) being (and having been) deceased. (Judges 3:25b, Greek OT)

The Lord puts to death and produces living beings. He leads down into Hades and leads up. (1 Sam 2:6, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Job:) "Are the gates of death opened to you (with) fear, but/and on beholding you 'were . . . frightened'/'did . . . set yourself in fear' the door-keepers of Hades?" (Job 38:17a, Greek OT)

(David said to the Lord:) "You will not entirely leave my soul in (a place), into Hades." (Ps 16:10a, Greek OT)

(David said:) "The passages of the death (are) of the Lord, the Lord." (Ps 68:20b or 68:21b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) "I will give the key of the house of David on (Eliakim's) shoulder, and he will open, and it/there is not (anyone) shutting up, and he will shut up, and it/there is not (anyone) opening." (Is 22:22, Greek OT א*)

(The Lord said:) "I will deliver (Israel) out of a hand of Hades. I will redeem them out of death. Death, where (is) your justice? Hades, where (is) your sting?" (Hos 13:14a, Greek OT)

(Solomon said to the Lord:) "You have a (judicial) authority of life and death, and You lead down into gates of Hades and You lead up." (Wisdom of Solomon 16:13)


The Latter Revelation:

The people being seated in darkness beheld a great light. And to the ones being seated in a district and a shadow of death, to them a light stuck up." (Matt 4:16)

(Jesus said to Simon Peter:) "The gates of Hades shall not be entirely stable (with regard to My assembly of called out). I will give you the keys of the kingdom of the heavens." (Matt 16:18b-19a)

(Peter said to the males of Israel: "David said of Jesus: 'The Lord) will not entirely leave My soul in (a place) into Hades.'" (Acts 2:27a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Jesus) spoke: "This weakness is not towards/'in regard to' death, however/but in favour of the glory of God, in order that the Son of God may be glorified through it." (John 11:4b)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

In meaning, and probably in derivation, the word (Hades) means 'the unseen world'. (E.M. Blaiklock "The Acts of the Apostles" p 66)

Hades, the place of the disembodied spirits before the final Judgment. It consists of two divisions: the one of consolation, with all the faithful gathered unto Abraham as their father; the other of fiery torment. (Alfred Edersheim "The Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah Part II" p 280)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Samuel Josef Agnon, Alf Ahlberg, Klas Pontus Arnoldson, Malte Blaxhult, Leif Carlsson, P. Fjellstedt, Carl Grimberg, Krister Hanell, Dick Harrison, Alf Henrikson, Homeros, Eyvind Johnson, Mo Yan, Martin P:n Nilsson, Leo Tolstoj, Mark Twain, Paul Wern, Birgitta Yavari.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning "(the) death and (the) Hades", see also Rev 6:8a; 20:13b,14a.


Greek words:

(h)adês (Hades) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Wisdom of Solomon 16:13; Matt 16:18; Acts 2:27; Rev 1:18 - Esther 3:13g(B7); Tobit 13:2; 2 Macc 6:23; Wisdom of Solomon 1:14; 2:1, Sir 9:12; 14:12,16; 17:27; 21:10; 28:21; 48:5; 51:5-6; Baruch 2:17; 3:11,19; The Song of Praise of the Three Men v 65; Matt 11:23; Luke 10:15; 16:23; Acts 2:31; Rev 6:8; 20:13-14.

kleis (key/nyckel) (in the NT + examples in the OT) Judges 3:25; Is 22:22 (א*); Matt 16:19 - Luke 11:52; Rev 3:7; 9:1; 20:1


Additional studies: Job 12:14; Ps 18:5(6); Is 14:11,15; 38:10; Acts 2:24; Rom 6:9; Eph 4:9; 1 Pet 3:19; Rev 19:1.


Christopher Rowland "The Vision of the Risen Christ in Rev I:13ff: The Dept of an Early Christology to an Aspect of Jewish Angelology"; Journal of Theological Studies 31 (1980): 1-11.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-13; 2012-06-04; 2015-01-09)

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1:19 Write so the things which you have beheld, and the things which are and the things which must (א*) be about to become after these things.

Word for word (14 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus prima manus): write so (the-things)-which (you)-beheld and (the-things)-which are and (the-things)-which must be-about-to become after these things.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Moses said to Pharao:) "After these things I will come/go out." ... (Ex 11:8b, Greek OT)

Moses wrote the words of this law into a scroll. (Deut 31:9a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Israel:) "From the now I have made the new things audible to you, (things) which it is about to become. ..." (Is 48:6b, Greek OT)

(Daniel said to the king:) "It/there is a God in heaven uncovering mysteries, (a God) who has manifested to king Nebuchadnezzar the things which must become/'come about' upon the last days." (Dan 2:28a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to the prophet:) "Write a beholding ..." (Hab 2:2b, Greek OT)

(Solomon says: "I have knowledge of) beginning and end and middle of times." (Wisdom of Solomon 7:18a)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said: "The Highest One brings away a message about) the things having been (and being) taken to the side of and the things which will be, and revealing/'He reveals' hidden away footsteps." (Sir 42:19)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said: "With) great spirit (Isaiah) beheld the last things, and he called the grieving ones in Zion to the side of. He showed underneath/secretly the things which will be till the age and the hidden away things, 'before or become by the side of them'/'they have happened'." (Sir 48:24-25)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to one of His disciples:) "How may so the writings be completed, because it must become in this way?" (Matt 26:54)

(Luke said: "I have written) to you, most powerful Theofilos (what eyewitnesses and rowers/servants of the saying have given by the side of us), in order that you may have additional knowledge on account of the security of which/the sayings you have 'been resounded'/heard." (Luke 1:3b-4)

After these things (Jesus) came out and viewed a toll collector (with) name Levi, being seated against the toll-house. And He says (א,* א) to him: "Follow Me!" (Luke 5:27)

(Paul said to the elders in Ephesos:) "I did not 'dispatch under to not'/'omit to' bring up a message to you (about) every counsel of God." (Acts 20:27)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) " I have still many things to say to you. However you are not able to bear (them) just now. But when - according to the circumstances - that One, the Spirit of the truth, may come, It will show you the way in * (א*) the truth. For It will not talk from Itself, however/but as many things as It * (א,*א) hears, It will talk, and It will bring up a message to you (about) the coming things." (John 16:12-13)

This is the disciple being a witness on account of these things and having written these things. (John 21:24a)

A revelation of Jesus Christ which God gave Him to show to His holy ones (א*) the things which must become/'come about' in/with quickness. (Rev 1:1a)

Joybringing (grace) (with) you and peace from the One who is and the One who (continually) was and the One who comes ... (Rev 1:4b)

(The voice) said (to John): "Write into a scroll what you see." (Rev 1:11a)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

With what reason should the prophet be called a prophet, unless he in spirit foresaw the future? ... One who sets forth in detail things yet to be, was rightly judged a prophet. Wherefore prophets were with good reason called from the first "seers". (Hippolytus, The Ante-Nicene Fathers V:205)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Albert Einstein, Sven Lidman, Lars Lindberg, Vilhelm Moberg, Harald Rasmussen, Einar Thomassen.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning "after these things", see also John 3:22-24.


And these things we write, in order that our joy may be being (and having been) completed. (1 John 1:4)


Additional studies: Rev 1:8; 4:1; 10:4; 19:9.


Christopher Rowland "The Vision of the Risen Christ in Rev I:13ff: The Dept of an Early Christology to an Aspect of Jewish Angelology"; Journal of Theological Studies 31 (1980): 1-11.

Christopher R. Smith "Revelation 1:19: an eschatologically escalated prophetic convention"; Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 33.4 (1990): 461-466.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-13; 2012-06-04; 2015-01-10)


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1:20 (As for) the mystery of the seven stars which you beheld upon My right (hand) and the seven golden lampstands: the seven stars are messengers of the seven (assemblies) of called out, and * (א*) seven lampstands are seven (assemblies) of called out.

Word for word (31 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus prima manus): the mystery (of)-the seven (of)-stars which (you)-beheld upon the right-(hand) my and the seven lampstands the golden. the seven stars messengers (of)-the seven (assemblies)-of-called-out are and seven lampstands seven (assemblies)-of-called-out are.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The Lord said to Moses:) "You shall make a lampstand out of clean/pure goldmetal. ... And you shall make its seven lamps." (Ex 25:31a,37a, Greek OT)

(Moses said:) "When the Highest One divided asunder nations, as He sowed asunder sons of Adam, He 'caused ... to stand'/set frontiers of nations according to a number of messengers of God." (Deut 32:8, Greek OT)

(Moses said to Israel about the Lord:) "... All the ones having been (and being) made holy are underneath (His) hands. (Deut 33:3a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Job: "Where were you,) when the constellations became (and) all My messengers praised Me (with) a great/loud voice?" (Job 38:7, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Job:) "Did you let/bring together a band of Pleiades (seven stars)?" (Job 38:31a, Greek OT)

In ... the night the mystery of the king was brought out to light (by God) to Daniel in a vision of/with good/manifest sign. (Dan 2:19a, Greek OT)

(Daniel said to the king:) "It/there is a God in heaven uncovering mysteries, (a God) who has manifested to king Nebuchadnezzar the things which must become/'come about' upon the last days." (Dan 2:28a, Greek OT)

(A messenger) spoke towards (the prophet): "What do you see?" And he spoke: "I behold (and have beheld), and behold, a lampstand, 'wholly golden'/'all of gold', . . . and seven lamps above it." (Zech 4:2a, Greek OT)

Lips of a priest shall watch/keep knowledge and they shall seek out law out of his mouth, for the reason that he is a messenger of the Lord, an all-powerful. (Mal 2:7, Greek OT)

A mystery of a king (it is) fine to hide, but the works of God (it is fine) to unveil gloriously. (Tobit 12:7a, BA)

(Raphael said:) "I am Raphael, one of the seven messengers who stand by the side of (God) and go into (His dwelling-place) 'in the very eyes of'/before the glory of the Lord." (Tobit 12:15, S)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples: "Men put a lamp) against the lampstand, and it shines to all the ones in the habitation. In this way let your light shine in front of the men in that way (that) they may behold your fine works and glorify your Father in the heavens." (Matt 5:15b-16)

(Jesus said to His disciples): "To you it has been (and is) given to gain knowledge of the mysteries of the kingdom of the heavens, but to those/'the others' it has (and is) not been given." (Matt 13:11b)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "Behold/'take heed' (that) you may not 'consider down'/downgrade one of these small/little ones (who believe into Me), for I say to you, that their messengers in heavens 'through every thing'/always see the face of My Father, the One (being) in heavens." (Matt 18:10)

(Jesus said to some Pharisees:) "In the resurrection ... (the seven brothers) are as the messengers of God (א,* א) in the heaven. (Matt 22:30)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Jesus') disciples say to Him (P5,א*,A): "Behold, now You talk in plain language, and You say nothing (in) a proverb! Now we know, that You know all things and have not need 'in order that'/that anyone may ask you. In/'by means of' this we believe, that You have come out from God." (John 16:29-30)

After these things Jesus again made Himself visible to the (seven) disciples upon the Sea of Tiberias. (John 21:1a)

(The voice said to John:) "Send (the scroll) to the seven (assemblies) of called out, into Ephesos and into Smyrna and into Pergamos and into Thyatira * (א*) and into Philadelphia and into Laodicea." (Rev 1:11b)

Having turned myself next to I beheld seven golden lampstands. (Rev 1:12b)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: Leif Carlsson, Bo Frid, Bo Giertz, Lars Hartman, Alf Henrikson, Sven Lidman, Lars Lindberg, Martin Luther, H.M. Melin, Olaf Moe, Jesper Svartvik, Paul Wern.


My own comments and speculations:

Observe the near connection between this verse and the above verses in the Gospel of Matthew, especially Matt 22:30.

We can read this verse in a restoration perspective in the light of Deut 33:3, where the holy ones are underneath the hands of the Lord. Here the assemblies of called out are upon the right hand of the Lord.


Greek words:

mystêrion (mystery) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Tobit 12:7; Matt 13:11; Rev 1:20 - Tobit 12:11; Judith 2:2; 2 Macc 13:21; Wisdom of Solomon 2:22; 6:22; 14:15,23; Sir 22:22; 27:16-17,21; Mark 4:11; Luke 8:10; Rom 11:25; 16:25; 1 Cor 2:1,7; 4:1; 13:2; 14:2; 15:51; Eph 1:9; 3:3-4,9; 5:32; 6:19; Col 1:26-27; 2:2; 4:3; 2 Thess 2:7; 1 Tim 3:9,16; Rev 10:7; 17:5,7.


Additional studies: Ex 37:17-24; Dan 2:29-30,47; 10:13,20-21; 12:1; Hagg 1:13; Luke 7:24; 9:52; John 3:35; 10:28; 13:3; Rom 16:25-26; Eph 1:9-10; 3:2-9; 5:8-9; Phil 2:15; Rev 1:4,12,16; 2:1; 3:1.


Christopher Rowland "The Vision of the Risen Christ in Rev I:13ff: The Dept of an Early Christology to an Aspect of Jewish Angelology"; Journal of Theological Studies 31 (1980): 1-11.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-13; 2012-06-04; 2015-01-10)


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