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Chapter 20
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20:1-2 But (on) the one/first (day) of the sabbaths Mariam (א,* א, A) from Magdala early in the day, still being gloom, comes into the memorial tomb, and she sees the stone being (and having been) lifted from the door/entrance (א,*א) out of the memorial tomb. She so runs and comes towards Simon Peter and towards the another/other disciple, with whom Jesus (continually) was friends, and she says to them: “They have lifted the Lord out of the memorial tomb, and we do not know, where they have put/laid Him.”

Word for word: 20:1 (27 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus) (On)-the-(one) but (of)-the (of)-sabbaths Mariam the-(one) from-Magdala comes early-in-the-day being gloom still being into the memorial-tomb and (she)-sees the stone being-(and-having-been)-lifted from the door out-of the memorial-tomb. 20:2 (31 words in the Greek text) (she)-runs so and comes towards Simon Peter and towards the-(one) another disciple, whom (continually)-was-friends-with the Jesus and (she)-says (to)-them: (they)-lifted the lord out-of the memorial-tomb and not (we)-'know-(and-have-known)/know where (they)-put him.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

Israel (continually) welcomed Joseph ‘to the side of’/’in comparison with’ all his sons. (Gen 37:3a, Greek OT)

To Amram (Jochebed) brought forth Aaron and Moses and their sister Mariam. (Num 26:59b, Greek OT)

(The Lord) buried (Moses) in Gai in 'an earth'/'a land' of Moab near a house of Phogor. And no one knows 'not nothing'/anything of his burial place till this day. (Deut 34:6, Greek OT)

It became/’came about’ towards settings of sun, (that) Jesus/Joshua enjoined and they took entirely ‘for themselves’/down (the five foreign kings) from the woods/’pieces of wood’ and tossed them into the cave ... and rolled stones against, against the cave till ‘the day to-day’/’this very day’. (Joshua 10:27a, Greek OT)

(Solomon said:) “Out of a stable greatness (is) the name of the Lord. But/and having run to it righteous ones are heightened.” (Prov 18:10, Greek OT)

They carried a stone and put/laid it against, against the mouth of the den (into which Daniel had been thrown), and the king sealed (it). (Dan 6:17a, Greek OT, Theod)

(The Lord said to His people:) “I dispatched out Moses and Aaron and Mariam before ‘your face’/you.” (Mikah 6:4b, Greek OT)

(When the foreign king) sought (the dead bodies of the Israelites), he did not find them. (Tobit 1:18b, S)

(Solomon said about wisdom:) “I was friends with this one.” (Wisdom of Solomon 8:2a)


The Latter Revelation:

But late/after (one) of (the) sabbaths, (at the hour) of the dawn into one/’the first’ (day) of (the) sabbaths, Mariam (א,*א) from Magdala and the another/other Mary came to look at the grave. (Matt 28:1)

(Mariam (א,*א) from Magdala and the another/other Mary) ran to bring away a message to (Jesus') disciples. (Matt 28:8b)

Early in the day, ‘in exceedingly’/’while it was very much’ night, … (Simon and the ones being in company with him) say to (Jesus) that/: “All seek You.” (Mark 1:35a,37b)

Exceedingly early in the day, (on) the one/first (day) of the sabbaths, (the women) come against/'up to' the tomb (א*). … The stone had been (and was) rolled upwards (א,* א, B), for it (continually) was extremely great. And ‘having come’/'they came' into, into the memorial tomb. (Mark 16:2a,4b-5a)

Some women (were together with Jesus, women) who (continually) were (‘and had been’/permanently) attended from/for unclean (א,* א) spirits and weaknesses. (Among these women was) Mary, being called “from Magdala”, from whom seven little demons had come (‘and come’/permanently) out. (Luke 8:2)

(On) the one/first (day) of the sabbaths … (the women) found the stone being (and having been) rolled off from the memorial tomb. (Luke 24:1a,2)

Barnabas ... described to (the apostles) how (Saul) in/on the way had beheld the Lord, and that He had talked (with) him. (Acts 9:27a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "You raise your voices to Me the Teacher, and the Lord, and you say 'Finely', for I am." (John 13:13)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “You are My friends, if – according to the circumstances – you may make/do the things I enjoin you. No longer I say ‘slaves’ to you, because the slave does not know what his lord makes/does. But I have spoken/said (and speak/say) ‘friends’ to you, because all things which I have heard from the side of My Father I have given you knowledge of.” (John 15:14-15)

Simon Peter (continually) followed Jesus, and (so did) another disciple. (John 18:15a)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

We are probably to think of a horizontal cave tomb rather than a vertical shaft tomb. (Raymond E. Brown "The Gospel according to John" p 982)

The command of circumcision, bidding always circumcise the children on the eighth day, was a type of the true circumcision, by which we are circumcised from deceit and iniquity through Him who rose from the dead on the first day after the Sabbath, our Lord Jesus Christ. For the first day after the Sabbath, remaining the first of all the days, is called, however, the eighth, according to the number of all days of the cycle, and remains the first. (Justin Martyr, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol I, p 265)

(The Lord speaks:) “I shall make a beginning of the eighth day, that is, a beginning of another world.” Wherefore, also, we keep the eighth day with joyfulness, the day also on which Jesus rose again from the dead. (Barnabas, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol I, p 147)

The term ‘Sabbath’ is also applied to ‘a week,’ as in Lev. xxiii. 15; xxv. 8; and for example in Matt. xxviii. 1; Mark xvi. 2; Luke xxiv. 1; John xx. 1.This seems to indicate that the Sabbath was not to be regarded as separate from, but as giving its character to the rest of the week, and to its secular engagements. So to speak, the week closes and is completed in the Sabbath. (Alfred Edersheim “The Temple” p 176)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Oloph Bexell, Gunnar Hillerdal, Torsten Kälvemark, J.M.G. Le Clézio, Bo Setterlind.


My own comments and speculations:

The first day of a week can also be seen as “the eighth day” in relation to the past week. Cf. “Exegetes, evangelists and others” above and My own comments and speculations to John 7:37-38.

It is not especially difficult here to discern Moses, Aaron and Mariam as OT-types of “the other disciple”, Peter and Mariam from Magdala (cf. Micah 6:4). Compare My own comments and speculations to John 21:16.


Greek words:

trechô (run) (in the NT + one example in the Apocrypha) Matt 28:8; John 20:2 – Susanna v 38 (Theod); Matt 27:48; Mark 5:6; 15:36; Luke 15:20; 24:12; John 20:4; Rom 9:16; 1 Cor 9:24,26; Gal 2:2; 5:7; Phil 2:16; 2 Thess 3:1; Heb 12:1; Rev 9:9.


Additional studies:

Matt 27:60-61,66; 28:2,13; Mark 15:46-47; 16:1-4,7; John 11:38; 13:13,23; 19:25-26; 20:13,18.


Barnabas Lindars "The Composition of John XX"; New Testament Studies 7 (1961): 142-147.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-05-31; 2012-04-16; 2014-12-01)

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20:3-4 Peter and the another/other disciple came/went so out * (א*), the two together. * (א*) He/'the other disciple' ran before, more quickly than Peter, and came first into/’up to’ the memorial tomb.

Word for word: 20:3 (8 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus prima manus) came-out so the Peter and the another disciple. 20:4 (13 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus prima manus) the two together (he)-ran-before more-quickly (than)-the Peter and came first into the memorial-tomb.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Jacob said about Joseph:) "Inexhaustible blessings will be against head of Joseph and upon top/’crown of the head’ of ones who ‘was in command of’/’went before’ brothers." (Gen 49:26b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Moses:) "You shall to (Aaron) be the things (being) towards God." (Ex 4:16b, Greek OT)

A hand of the Lord (was) against/over Elijah, and he … ran in front of Ahab till Jezreel. (1 Kings 18:46, Greek OT; Jisreel means ”God sows”)

(Solomon said:) “Out of a stable greatness (is) the name of the Lord. But/and having run to it righteous ones are heightened.” (Prov 18:10, Greek OT)

(The woman said about Solomon: "Young women) drew you. Let us run behind you into your scent of ointment oils.” (Song of Solomon 1:4a, Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) “We (really) shall gain knowledge of (the Lord), we shall pursue the thing to gain knowledge of the Lord.” (Hos 6:3, Greek OT)

Having run before into Gezer a certain one brought away a message to John, that (John's) father was perished/dead and his brothers, and that (the king) and/also had dispatched (and dispatched) away (men) to kill and/also (John). (1 Macc 16:21; Gezer means “cut off place’)


The Latter Revelation:

Having run forward into the/what (being) in front of (him Zaccheus) ascended against/into a fig-mulberry, in order that he might behold (Jesus). (Luke 19:4a)

Having stood up Peter ran against/’up to’ the memorial tomb. (Luke 24:12a)

Peter and John '(continually) ascended'/'were ascending' into the sanctuary. (Acts 3:1a)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

The evangelist emphasizes the start of the beloved disciple by repeating the same thing: “ran faster” and “came first”. The reader is in this way prepared for the understanding of this disciple in v 8. … When now it is told that the other disciple runs faster than Peter it is a sign of his greater understanding. (René Kieffer "Johannesevangeliet" p 464,480; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

(One) direction of the Talmud was to leave the synagogue with slow steps, but to hasten to it as rapidly as possible, since it was written (Hos. vi. 3, as the Rabbis arranged the verse), “Let us pursue to know the Lord.” Rabbi Seira tells us how, at one time, he had been scandalised by seeing the Rabbis running on the Sabbath – when bodily rest was enjoined – to attend a sermon; but that, when he understood how Hos. xi. 10 applied to the teaching of the Halachah, he himself joined in their race. (Alfred Edersheim “Jewish Social Life” p 259)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Ann-Charlotte Alverfors, Karl Andersson, Margit Assarsson, Margaretha Byrmo, Roland Carlzon, Michael Hall, Yngve Hamrin, Alf Henrikson, Claes-Göran Holmberg, K.W. Johansson, Amy Le Feuvre, Nils Kullgren, Carl Henrik Martling, Vilhelm Moberg, David Molombopela, Lewi Pethrus, Dag Sandahl, Inger Selander, August Strindberg, Alice Tegnér, Thomas a Kempis, P. Waldenström, Magnus Widell.


My own comments and speculations:

John ran before, more quickly than Peter and came up to and into the memorial tomb first. And he sees and believes (John 20:8). Concerning John's precedence over Peter in the Gospel of John, see for instance My own comments and speculations to John 18:15-16; 20:5-10 and John 21:16.


Greek words:

protrechô (run before) 1 Macc 16:21; Luke 19:4; John 20:4 – 1 Sam 8:11; Tobit 11:3.


Additional studies:

Acts 3:3-4,11; 4:13,19; 8:14,30.


K. Peter G. Curtis "Luke XXIV. 12 and John XX. 3.10"; Journal of Theological Studies 22 (1971): 512-515.

Rick Strelan "The Running Prophet (Acts 8:30)"; (The Journal) Novum Testamentum 43.1 (2001): 31-38.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-01; 2012-04-17; 2014-12-02)

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20:5a(5b-6),7-10 And having bent ‘to the side of’/forward, he/Peter sees the little linen garments lying * (א*) and the kerchief, which (continually) was/’had been’ upon His head, not lying ‘in company’/together with the little linen garments, however/but being (and having been) ‘shrouded in’/’folded up’ into/on one place separated from (them). Then so and/also the another/other disciple, the one having come first into/’up to’ the memorial tomb, came into/in. And he beheld and believed. For nor yet they knew the writing, that He must stand up out of dead (bodies). The disciples so again went away towards themselves/theirs.

Word for word: (6 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus prima manus) and having-bent-to-the-side-of (he/Peter)-sees the little-linen-garments lying 20:6 (0 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus prima manus) 20:7 (20 words in the Greek text) and the kerchief, which (continually)-was upon the head his, not in-company-with the little-linen-garments lying, however separated-from being-(and-having-been)-shrouded-in into one place. 20:8 (17 words in the Greek text) the so came-into and the another disciple (the)-one having-come first into the memorial-tomb and (he)-beheld and believed. 20:9 (11 words in the Greek text) nor-yet for (they)-'knew-(and-had-known)'/knew that 'must him'/'he must' out-of dead-(bodies). 20:10 (7 words in the Greek text) went-away so again towards themselves the disciples.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

And the two (continually) were naked, both Adam and his woman. (Gen 2:25a, Greek OT)

To Laban (were) two daughters (given). Name to the greater (was) Leah, and name to the younger (was) Rachel. But Leah's eyes (were) weak, but/and to Rachel (was given) a fine form and ‘seasonable hour’/glance in the sight. But/and Jacob welcomed Rachel. (Gen 29:16-18a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Moses:) "You shall to (Aaron) be the things (being) towards God." (Ex 4:16b, Greek OT)

Having been (and being) made holy (Aaron) shall be set/clothed in a linen tunic and it shall be linen around the legs upon his skin, and he shall be girded with a linen girdle and a linen (turban) shall be put round about (his head). It is holy garments. (Lev 16:4a, Greek OT)

Having stood up (and) having turned away/back Balaam went away into his place, and Balak went away towards ‘himself’/his. (Num 24:25, Greek OT)

(The Lord) buried (Moses) in Gai in 'an earth'/'a land' of Moab near a house of Phogor. And no one knows 'not nothing'/anything of his burial place till this day. (Deut 34:6, Greek OT)

(Job said:) “I (myself) came out naked out of a belly of my mother. Naked I and/also will go away there. The Lord gave, the Lord took off/away for Himself.” (Job 1:21a, Greek OT)

(David said to the Lord:) “You will not entirely leave my soul in (a place), into Hades, nor You will give/permit your pious one to behold ruin throughout.” (Ps 16:10, Greek OT)

(The Lord said about Israel:) “I will ‘take off for myself’/’take away’ My garments and My little linen garments 'of the thing to'/'so that she' (can) not veil her indecency.” (Hos 2:9b, Greek OT)

(Solomon said: “Wisdom) descended together with (the righteous one) into a den and let him not be in bands till she had carried a sceptre of a kingdom to him and (judicial) authority of/over (the) ones being his absolute monarchs, both showed/’pointed out’ the ones having reviled him (as) false ones and gave to him an agelong glory.” (Wisdom of Solomon 10:14)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “The foot of a foolish (is) quick into a habitation, but a much experienced man will ‘put a shame to from a face’/’prove to be considerate’.” (Sir 21:22)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “A thoughtless one bends from a door ‘to the side of’/forward (to see) into a habitation, but a male being (and having been) educated/taught will stand outside.” (Sir 21:23)


The Latter Revelation:

Around the ninth hour Jesus cried upwards (with) a great/loud voice, saying: “Eloi, Eloi, (א,*א,B) lema sabachthani?” this is/means,”My God, My God, ‘in order that what’/why have You entirely left Me in (a place)?” (Matt 27:46)

Having taken the body (of Jesus) Joseph shrouded it in (with) (א,* א, A) a clean linen shirt. (Matt 27:59)

But late/after (one) of (the) sabbaths, (at the hour) of the dawn into one/’the first’ (day) of (the) sabbaths, Mariam (א,*א) from Magdala and the another/other Mary came to look at the grave. (Matt 28:1)

(Mary) brought forth her first-born son, and she swaddled Him and caused Him to lean up/back in a manger, for the reason that there was (continually) not a place for them in the inn. (Luke 2:7)

(Abraham said to the rich man:) "If (your five brothers) do not hear Moses and the prophets, nor they will be persuaded, if - according to the circumstances - someone may stand up out of dead (bodies)." (Luke 16:31)

Having stood up Peter ran against/’up to’ the memorial tomb and having bent ’to the side of’/forward, he sees the little linen garments * (א*,A), and he went away ‘towards of himself’/home wondering (at) the thing having become/’come about’ (and becoming/’coming about’). (Luke 24:12)

(The Emmaus disciples said to Jesus:) "Some of the ones (being) being together with us went away against the memorial tomb and found (it) entirely in this way as the women and/also had spoken. But they did not behold (Jesus)." And He spoke towards them: "O foolish (men) and slow (in) the heart to believe on/in all things which the prophets have talked! Must by no means the christ/'anointed one' suffer these things and come into, into His glory?" And having begun from Moses and from all the prophets He and/also (went on) to throughout/carefully interpret (א*) for them what (continually) was(א,* א) in * (א,* א) the writings, the things on account of Himself.” (Luke 24:24-27)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “In this way it is (and has been) written, that the christ/'anointed one' (would) suffer and stand up out of dead (bodies) the third day.” (Luke 24:46b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

No one has ever beheld (and beholds) God. An only descendant, a God, the One being into/in the bosom of the Father, that One has ‘been in command out’/explained Him. (John 1:18)

When (Jesus) so was raised out of dead (bodies), His disciples remembered that He (continually/repeatedly) had said this; and they believed (in) the writing and (in) the saying which Jesus had spoken. (John 2:22)

The one being (and having been) deceased came out, being (and having been) bound to the feet and the hands (with) bandages and his sight/face being (and having been) bound around (with) a kerchief. Jesus says to them: “Loosen him and let (him) (א,* א, A) be to withdraw.” (John 11:44)

His disciples had (at) the first not knowledge of these things. However when Jesus was glorified, then they remembered that these things (continually/repeatedly) were (and had been) written on/’for the sake of’ Him, and (that) they made/did these things (with) Him. (John 12:16)

(Joseph and Nicodemus) took so the body of Jesus and bound it (with) little linen garments. (John 19:40a)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 - about 1500

The author (of Genesis) concludes (chapter 2) by saying that (Adam and Eve) are ”naked but not ashamed.” By saying this, the author clearly distinguishes this wonderful garden from the place where we live. (Michael E. Williams “Genesis” p 33)

What kind of clothing did God make for Adam and Eve? ... Some rabbis suggested goat skin or rabbit skin. ... Others suggested that it was fine linen from Bethshean. (Michael E. Williams “Genesis” p 41; Genesis Rabbah 20.12)

The reader is (in Gen 29:16) reminded of the younger-older dilemma. ... The problem is compounded by the description of the two women: “The eyes of Leah were weak, but Rachel was beautiful and graceful” (29:17). Precisely what is meant by the phrase “weak eyes” is difficult to determine. The name “Leah” arises from an Akkadian word meaning “cow”; a related meaning is “strong”. Thus her name, “Strong,” is belied by her eyes which are “weak.” The stark contrast between the two women is what is important whether or not we can fully grasp the exact nature of the contrast. (Michael E. Williams “Genesis” p 146)

This meadow of cowslips, is it not still more beautiful this year than they can remember it? Have there ever been found so many cowslips and have the birches ever been so sweetly green, mother does not think so. And father says: "It is probably a piece of the garden of Eden having happened to fall down on the slope just below Petrus Karlsson's enclosed pasture-land with its cows." This Madicken thinks is an interesting thought - that their meadow has fallen from the garden of Eden, and she agrees with Lisabet that they are going to play Adam and Eve in Paradise as soon as they have bathed. For then of course we are all the same naked", she makes clear for Lisabet. (Astrid Lindgren "Madicken och Junibackens Pims" p 71-72; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

v 5, the word (parakypto/stoop) is often used of one looking down from a height (e.g. Judges 5:28 …), and might therefore be thought to imply a grave dug or hewn in the ground; but it does not necessarily have this meaning. (C.K. Barrett "The Gospel according to St John" p 563)

The disciple's faith was grounded simply upon what he had seen at the tomb. By the time when John wrote the church's faith in the resurrection was supported by the conviction that it had been foretold in the Old Testament. (C.K. Barrett "The Gospel according to St John" p 564)

The wanderer: "The clothes are only a consequence of the Fall of man." (August Strindberg "Stora landsvägen" p 254; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

In Svartsjö church there are no adornments, no pictures, no coats-of-arms. Over the altar there is only a cross of wood with a white cloth of linen. (Selma Lagerlöf "Gösta Berlings saga" p 279; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

"Adam and Eve went in Paradise naked", (schoolmaster Drysius said). "Why? Because the nakedness then was a mark of the innocence, the noble coat-of-arms of the innocence." (Viktor Rydberg "Vapensmeden" p 178; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


about 1500 and time before

Adam had no need either of a garment or a shelter, or any provision of this sort. (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers XII:99)

The Scriptures were written by the Spirit of God, and have a meaning, not such only as is apparent at first sight, but also another, which escapes the notice of most ... the spiritual meaning which the law conveys is not known to all, but to those only on whom the grace of the Holy Spirit is bestowed in the word of wisdom and knowledge. (Origen, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol IV, p 241)

When the apostles came to the sepulchre on the third day, they did not find the body of Jesus; just as the children of Israel went up the mount to seek the tomb of Moses, and did not find it. (Hippolytus, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol V, p 171)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Sven Danell, Bo Frid, Bo Giertz, Carl Grimberg, Stefan Gustavsson, Alf Henrikson, Irenaeus, George E. Ladd, Joachim G. Leithäuser, Astrid Lindgren, H.M. Melin, Mo Yan, Harald Rasmussen, Isaac Bashevis Singer, John Stott, Jesper Svartvik, Einar Thomassen.


My own comments and speculations:

Jesus is undressed and naked while waiting for being clothed in a robe reaching to the feet and being girded around with a golden girdle. Cf. John 2:17 and Rev 1:13. Cf. also with the discarded tunic in John 19:23-24.

The allusion to Sir 21:23 sees Peter as the thoughtless one and John as the taught one.

On Joseph as a type of John, see My own comments and speculations to John 13:23-25.


Paul said: "(Christ) has been (and is) raised (on) the third day according to the writings." (1 Cor 15:4b)


Greek words:

entylissô (shroud in) Matt 27:59; John 20:7 – Luke 23:53.

parakyptô (bend by the side of) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Sir 21:23; Luke 24:12; John 20:5 – John 20:11; Jas 1:25; 1 Pet 1:12.


Additional studies:

Judges 5:28; Hos 6:2; Matt 22:29; Luke 9:45; 19:20; 24:46; John 20:11; 21:7; Acts 2:24-32; 13:32-37.


Brendan Byrne "The Faith of the Beloved Disciple and the Community in John 20"; Journal for the Study of the New Testament 23 (1985): 83-97.

K. Peter G. Curtis "Luke XXIV. 12 and John XX. 3.10"; Journal of Theological Studies 22 (1971): 512-515.

Frans N. Neirynck "John and the Synoptics: The Empty Tomb Stories"; New Testament Studies 30 (1984): 161-187.

Basil Osborne "A Folded Napkin in an Empty Tomb: John 11:44 and 20:7 Again"; Heythrop Journal 14 (1973): 437-440.

William E. Reiser "The case of the Tidy Tomb: The Place of the Napkins in John 11:44 and 20:7"; Heythrop Journal 14 (1973): 47-57.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-01; 2012-04-18; 2014-12-03; 2014-12-19)

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20:11-13 But Mariam (P66,א,*א) stood weeping * (א*) in/at (א,*א) the memorial tomb. As she so wept, she bent ‘to the side of’/forward into the memorial tomb. And she looks at *(א*) messengers in white garments, sitting down whereat the body of Jesus (continually) had lain, one at/'in the direction of and from' the head and one at/'in the direction of and from' the feet. * (א,*א) Those say to her: “Woman, what/why do you weep?” She says to them that/: “They have lifted/’taken away’ 'the Lord my'/'my Lord', and I do not know, where they have put/laid Him.”

Word for word: 20:11 (14 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus prima manus) Mariam but 'stood-(and-had-stood)'/stood in/at the memorial-tomb weeping. as so (she)-wept, (she)-bent-to-the-side-of into the memorial-tomb. 20:12 (21 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus prima manus) and (she)-looks-at messengers in white-(things/garments) sitting-down, one at the head and one at the feet, whereat (continually)-lay/'had-lain' the body (of)-the (of)-Jesus. 20:13 (19 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus) say (to-)her those: woman, what/why weep-(you)? (she)-says (to)-them that (they)-lifted the lord my, and not (i/I)-'know-(and-have-known)'/know where (they)-put him.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

Reuben turned back against the den, and he does not behold Joseph in the den. (Gen 37:29a, Greek OT)

(Jacob) dreamt, and behold, a ladder being set fast in/on the earth, of which head/top overcame/reached into the heaven, and the messengers of God (continually) ascended and (continually) descended upon it! (Gen 28:12, Greek OT)

(Balaam said:) "I shall show him and/but by no means now. I call him happy, and/but he does not draw near. A constellation shall stick up out of Jacob, and a man shall stand up out of Israel." (Num 24:17a, Greek OT)

To Amram (Jochebed) brought forth Aaron and Moses and their sister Mariam. (Num 26:59b, Greek OT)

(Daniel said to the king:) “My God dispatched away His messenger and stopped in/up the lions' mouths.” … (And) Daniel was carried up out of the den, and every/any ruin throughout was not found in him, because he believed in his God. (Dan 6:22a,23b, Greek OT, Theod)


The Latter Revelation:

(The messenger said to the women: “Jesus) is not here, for He has been raised, entirely as He spoke. Come here, behold the place whereat He (continually) lay.” (Matt 28:6)

(Simeon said to Mary:) “Behold, (Jesus) lies/’lies still’ into/’for the purpose of’ a fall and a resurrection of many in Israel, and into/’for the purpose of’ a sign being gainsaid.” (Luke 2:34b)

(Jesus said to the lawyers and Pharisees:) ”Who of you, (if) an ass (א,*א) or a cattle/’cow or an ox’ will fall into a well, will he not straightaway pull him up in/on a sabbath day?” (Luke 14:5b)

(Elizabeth said:) “From where (is) this to me, in order that the mother of my Lord may come towards me?” (Luke 1:43)

(Joseph) put/laid (the body) in a tomb, hewn in stone, where ‘no one (continually) was not nor yet (א,* א) lying’/’anyone nor yet (א,* א) lay’. (Luke 23:53b)

Having come into (the memorial tomb) (the women) did not find the body of the Lord Jesus. And it became/’came about’ to them in the be/being in a puzzle on account of this, and behold, two males stood on/near them in a flashing clothing. (Luke 24:3-4)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Jesus said to Nathanael): "You will behold the heaven opened, and the messengers of God ascending and descending against the Son of the Man." (John 1:51b)

Having beheld Mary (P66,א,*א,A), that she quickly had stood up and come out, (the Jews) followed her, having thought that/: “She withdraws into/to the memorial tomb, in order that she may weep there.” (John 11:31b)

(Mariam from Magdala said to Simon Peter and the other disciple:) “They have lifted the Lord out of the memorial tomb, and we do not know, where they have put/laid Him.” (John 20:2b)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

The note that the angels sat one where the head and the other where the feet of the body of Jesus had been may be simply an elaboration of a source, not independent tradition. (C.K. Barrett "The Gospel according to St John" p 564)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Mohamed Choukri, Pär Lagerkvist, Birgit Th Sparre, Eva Spångberg.


My own comments and speculations:

In a dream Jacob saw how a ladder was set on the earth with its top reaching to heaven and the messengers of God ascending and descending on it. But there were scribes who interpreted the text in such a way that they meant that the messengers ascended and descended on the body of Jacob (Israel) (See the Midrashim Genesis Rabbah LXIX:III).

Jesus said that His disciples would behold the messengers of God ascending and descending against the Son of the Man. And Mariam looked at messengers sitting down, one at the head and one at the feet, whereat the body of Jesus had been laid down. The Greek preposition "pros" is in the Gospel of John followed by accusative with the meaning "towards" or "in the direction of". Here "pros" is followed by dative which usually means "at" but which in its johanneic context could mean "in the direction of and from". Jesus can also be seen as the ladder between heaven and earth with its top (in Greek “head”) reaching into heaven.

If an ass or a cattle/’cow or an ox’ straightaway is taken up out of a well on a sabbath day, how much more will not an father take up his son (compare the usual translation of Luke 14:5 according to P45, P75 and B) on such a day. And will not still much more the heavenly Father, who is good, take up His only Son on the day after the sabbath, when the Son has been three days in a memorial tomb?


Additional studies:

2 Macc 3:26-34; Matt 4:11; 28:2-3; Mark 1:13; 16:5-6; Luke 2:9; 22:43; John 20:5; Acts 1:10; Rev 3:4-5; 4:4; 7:1-2; 8:2.


Dorothy A. Lee "Partnership in Easter Faith: The Role of Mary Magdalene and Thomas in John 20"; Journal for the Study of the New Testament 58 (1995): 37-49.

Frans N. Neirynck "John and the Synoptics: The Empty Tomb Stories"; New Testament Studies 30 (1984): 161-187.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-02; 2012-04-19; 2014-12-04)

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20:14-15 Having spoken these things she turned herself into the things behind, and she looks at Jesus standing (there), and she did not know, that it is Jesus. Jesus says to her: “Woman, what/why do you weep? Who do you seek?” That one, thinking that it is the garden-guardian, says to Him: “Lord, if you have borne Him, speak to me, where you have put/laid Him, and I will ‘lift Him’/’take Him away’.”

Word for word: 20:14 (17 words in the Greek text) these-(things) having-spoken (she)-turned-herself into the-(things) behind and (she)-looks-at the Jesus 'standing-(and-having-stood)'/standing and not (she)-'knew-(and-had-known)'/knew that Jesus (it)-is. 20:15 (29 words in the Greek text) says (to)-her Jesus: woman, what/why weep-(you)? who seek-(you)? that-(one) thinking that the garden-guardian (it)-is says (to)-him: lord, if you bore him, speak (to)-me where (you)-put him, and-i/I him will-lift.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

The Lord God planted a ‘place by the side of apprehension’/Paradise in Eden ‘according to’/’opposite’ upstickings/east. ... (The Lord) put (the man) in the ‘place by the side of apprehension’/Paradise to work it and to watch (it). ... And (Adam and Eve) heard the voice of the Lord God walking about in the ‘place by the side of apprehension’/Paradise in the afternoon, and both Adam and his woman hid themselves from the face of the Lord God in a middle of the wood/trees of the ‘place by the side of apprehension’/Paradise. (Gen 2:8a,15b; 3:8, Greek OT)

(The Lord God) threw out Adam ... and arranged the cherubim and the flaming large sword, turning itself to watch the way of/to the wood of the life. (Gen 3:24, Greek OT)

It became/’came about’ at the time when (the messengers) led (Lot and his woman and his two daughters) out outside (the city). And they spoke: “Saving save your soul. You may not see round about into the things behind‘but not’/nor you may stand/stop in every/any district round about. …” (Gen 19:17a, Greek OT)

A wrath of passion of the Lord (was) on (Aaron and Mariam), and He went away. ... And Aaron saw against, against Mariam, and behold, she was leprous. ... And Mariam was divided by a boundary-line (to a place) outside the (walled) camp (for) seven days. (Num 12:9,10b,15a, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said:) “God, nations have come into Your inheritance. They have stained Your holy temple. They have put/made Jerusalem into a hut of a fruitkeeper.” (Ps 79:1, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said:) “God, nations have come into Your inheritance. They have stained Your holy temple. They have put/made Jerusalem into a hut of a fruitkeeper.” (Ps 79:1, Greek OT)

(Tobit) came out and found the messenger Raphael standing ‘over against’/opposite him, and he did not know, that it is a messenger of God. (Tobit 5:4b, S)

(Solomon said: “The wisdom) is easy to be ‘looked at’/perceived by the ones welcoming her and (easy) to be find by the ones seeking her.” (Wisdom of Solomon 6:12b)


The Latter Revelation:

(The priest leaders and the Pharisees said to Pilate:) “Exhort so the grave to be secured till the third day, (so that) on the disciples’ having come they do not at any time may steal (that One leading astray) and (so that) they may (not) speak to the people: ‘He has risen from the dead (bodies)’, and the last going astray will be worse than the first.” But/and (א,*א,A) Pilate (continually/-) uttered to them: “You have a custodia/guard. Withdraw (to) (א,*א) secure (the grave) as you know/’are skilled’.” And the ones having gone secured the grave having sealed the stone in company/co-operation with the custodia/guard. (Matt 27:64-66)

The messenger spoke to the women: “Do not fear, you, for I know that you seek Jesus, the One being (and having been) crucified.” (Matt 28:5b)

Behold, Jesus ‘went to meet’/met (Mariam (א*) from Magdala and the another/other Mary) saying: "Rejoice!" (Matt 28:9a)

Some of the custodia/guard brought up (א,* א) a message to the priest leaders (about) all things of it that had become/’come about’. (Matt 28:11b)

Early in the day, ‘in exceedingly’/’while it was very much’ night, … (Simon and the ones being in company with him) say to (Jesus) that/: “All seek You.” (Mark 1:35a,37b)

Having come into (the house) (Jesus) says to (the crowd): "What/why do you make a noise and weep? The little girl has not died, however/but she sleeps.” (Mark 5:39)

Some women (were together with Jesus, women) who (continually) were (‘and had been’/permanently) attended from/for unclean (א,* א) spirits and weaknesses. (Among these women was) Mary, being called “from Magdala”, from whom seven little demons had come (‘and come’/permanently) out. (Luke 8:2)

(A woman said to Jesus:) “Happy (is) the belly having borne You, and nipples that You sucked.” (Luke 11:27b)

(One of the ten men having been cleaned from leprosy) returned (to Jesus), glorifying God in company with a great/loud voice and fell against/on the face to the side of (Jesus') feet. (Luke 17:15b-16a)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “The day the Son of the Man is revealed … let not the one (being) in a field turn next to, into the things behind. Recollect the woman of Lot!” (Luke 17:30b,31b-32)

Having turned Himself Jesus spoke towards (the women): “Daughters of Jerusalem, do not weep against/over Me, ‘more than’/but weep against/over yourselves and against/over your children.” (Luke 23:28)

(Jesus) spoke to (the criminal): "Amen I say to you, today you will be in company with me in the ‘place by the side of apprehension’/Paradise." (Luke 23:43)

The eyes (of the two disciples) (continually) ‘did not get power of the to gain’/’were prevented from gaining’ additional knowledge of (Jesus). (Luke 24:16)

Having feared (א,* א) and becoming frightened (the eleven and the other disciples) (continually) thought ‘to look’/’that they looked’ at a spirit. (Luke 24:37)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Jesus said:) “The one coming into/in through the door is (the) shepherd of the sheep. To this one the doorkeeper opens, and the sheep hear his voice, and he raises his voice (towards) his own sheep ‘according to name’/’after their names’, and he leads them out.” (John 10:2-3)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "I am the true vine, and My Father is the farmer/vine-dresser." (John 15:1)

But in the place whereat He was crucified it/there (continually) was a garden, and in the garden a new memorial tomb. (John 19:41a)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

The Israelite Temple (as with its predecessor, the tabernacle) was designed to be a “paradise on earth,” a meeting point between earth and heaven. (Michael E. Williams “Exodus-Joshua” p 98)

Deep in the Christian time among Scandinavians the idea lived that their heathen fathers believed in the existence of an Eden, from which sorrow, pain, defects, old age, illness and death were shut out. This Eden was called . . . "Not field of dead ones . . . earth of living men". It was situated not in heaven, but down there, neither on the surface of the earth, nor in the nether world, but separated from the built-up countries of men in a way, which did it not impossible, but nevertheless extremely venturesome to come there. A fairy-tale from the fourteenth century, taken up in the Flatö-book, and with some corrections in "Fornald. Sag. III", tells: Erik, the son of a Norwegian king of a little country, one Christmas Eve gave the promise to visit Odains-aker, and this rumour became known over all Norway. In company with a Danish prince, who also was called Erik, he first went to Miklagård (Constantinople), which king took the young men in his service and had much use of their warlike competence. One day the king conversed in believed questions with the Norwegian Erik with the consequence that the king left the faith of his fathers letting baptize himself. He told his royal teacher the promise he has given to seek out Odains-aker . . . asking him, if he knew, where it was situated. The king thought, that Odains-aker was the same place which the Christians call Paradise, saying that it was situated to the east beyond the districts farthest out, but that nobody is likely to come there, because it is shut off with a wall of fire reaching up to the sky. However Erik was bound by his promise and went on the journey with his Danish namesake. . . . On the bridge of stone (over a river) a dragon lay with open jaws. . . . When Erik and his compatriot had been swallowed by the dragon, they thought themselves enveloped in smoke, but it was dispersed, and they were unhurt seeing in front of them the large plain sunlit and flower shrouded. Rivers of honey flew there, the air was still, but nearest the ground breathes were noticed, which brought around the sweet smell of the flowers. It never is dark in this country, and the objects do not throw any shadow. But the country seemed to be depopulated. However at a distance they saw a tower. In that direction they continued to go, and they found, when they had come nearer, that the tower stood free in the air without foundation or posts. A ladder brought up to it. In the tower there was a room, arrayed with velvet, and there was a beautiful table with delicious dishes on silver plates and wine in golden drinking-vessels. There also were excellently made beds. The two men now were convinced that they had come to Odains-aker and they thanked God that they had achieved their goal. They refreshed themselves and went to sleep. In the sleep a beautiful boy came to Erik. The boy mentioned him by name, said himself be one of the angels watching the gate-way of Paradise, and also Erik's guardian angel, who was at his side, when he gave the promise to seek out Odains-aker. . . . The angel informed him that Odains-aker . . . where he now stayed was not the same place as Paradise, for to this only spirits are allowed to come, and this is the kingdom of spirits, Paradise, so glorious, that Odains-aker, in comparison with it, is as a waste. Nevertheless these two different districts border next to each other, and the river, which Erik had seen, has in Paradise its spring. (Viktor Rydberg "Mythen om underjorden" p 235-237; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Lars Ahlberg, Arnulf av Löwen, Rabbin Hama av Sepphoris, Gerald Bray, Elisabeth Charles, Ernst Evers, Everett Ferguson, Nils Ferlin, Emilia Fogelklou, O.W. Genander, Gillis Gerleman, Carl Grimberg, Stefan Gustavsson, Peter Halldorf, Alf Henrikson, Bengt Hägglund, Irenaeus, Juan Ramon Jiménez, Amy Le Feuvre, Oscar Levertin, Sven Lidman, Sigurd Lindgren, Martin Luther, Carl Henrik Martling, Fredrik Nielsen, Anders Nohrborg, Agne Nordlander, Jeanna Oterdahl, Efraim Palmqvist, Martha Sandwall-Bergström, Bo Setterlind, Eva Spångberg, Milton Steinberg, A.M. Strinnholm, Helmut Thielicke, Paul Wern, N.P. Wetterlund, Allan Wickström, Carl Fr. Wislöff, Thecla Wrangel, Birgitta Yavari.


My own comments and speculations:

Lot's wife looked round about into the things behind towards Sodom/the old Jerusalem (cf. Rev 11:8) to die. Mariam turns into the things behind, looking to Jesus (and a new Jerusalem) to receive life.

The garden-guardian can allude to both the garden of Eden and the Roman guard at the grave (Matt 27:64-66).

Compare also My own comments and speculations to John 19:41-42.


Greek words:

kêpouros (garden-guardian) John 20:15.


Additional studies:

Matt 28:11-15; Mark 13:16; 16:6; Luke 9:62; 24:5: John 20:13; 21:4; Rev 1:12; 20:12.


Dorothy A. Lee "Partnership in Easter Faith: The Role of Mary Magdalene and Thomas in John 20"; Journal for the Study of the New Testament 58 (1995): 37-49.

Alan Shaw "The Breakfast by the Shore and the Mary Magdalene Encounter as Eucharistic Narratives"; Journal of Theological Studies 25 (1974): 12-26.

John Suggit "Jesus the gardener: the atonement in the Fourth Gospel as re-creation"; Neotestamentica 33.1 (1999): 161-168.

Nicolas Wyatt "'Supposing Him to be the Gardener' (John 20:15): A Study of the Paradise Motif in John"; Zeitschrift für die neutestamentliche Wissenschaft 81 (1990): 21-38.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-02; 2012-04-20; 2014-12-05)

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20:16-17a Jesus says to her: "Mariam!" But (א,*א) having turned that one says to Him in Hebrew: “Rabboni!” – which is said/understood Teacher. Jesus says to her: “Do not touch Me, for I have not yet ascended (and do not yet ascend) towards the Father.”

Word for word: 20:16 (15 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus) says (to)-her the Jesus: Mariam. having-turned-himself but that-(one) says (to)-him (in)-Hebrew: rabboni (which is-said teacher) 20:17a (13 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus) says (to)-her the Jesus: not me touch, not-yet for (i/I)-have-ascended-(and-ascend) towards the father.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(“You shall not eat) from fruit of the wood (of the thing to know/'have knowledge' of fine and evil), which is in a middle of the ‘place by the side of apprehension’/paradise,” God spoke (to the male and the woman). “Do not eat from it, ‘nor not’/nor touch it, in order that you may not die.” (Gen 3:3, Greek OT)

(Lot's) woman saw against (Sodom), into the things behind, and she became a pillar of salt. (Gen 19:26, Greek OT)

Having stood up Moses and Jesus/Joshua, the one standing by the side of him, ascended into the mountain of God. And he spoke to the elders: "Be quiet ... till we will turn back towards you. And behold, Aaron and Hur (are) in company with you." ... And Moses and Jesus/Joshua ascended into/to the mountain. (Ex 24:13-14a,15a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Moses:) “You shall make (the mixture of the sweet spices to) a holy olive-oil ointment, an ointment oil ... . And it will be a holy olive-oil ointment. And out of it you shall anoint the tent of the testimony and (other things; see Ex 30:25-28) and you shall make them holy and it will be a holy of the holies. 'Every the'/everyone touching them will be made holy.” (Ex 30:25-29, Greek OT)

A wrath of passion of the Lord (was) on (Aaron and Mariam), and He went away. ... And Aaron saw against, against Mariam, and behold, she was leprous. ... And Mariam was divided by a boundary-line (to a place) outside the (walled) camp (for) seven days. (Num 12:9,10b,15a, Greek OT)

Moses dispatched away (the twelve) to entirely contemplate the earth/land Canaan, and he spoke towards them: "... Behold the earth/land, what it is! ... What (is) the earth/land, if (it is) fat or ‘being by the side of’/lean? If it is trees in it or not? Having ‘been patient’/adhered to (it), take from the fruits of the earth/land.” And the days (were) days of spring, forerunners of a grape/'bunch of grapes'. (Num 13:17a,18a,20 or 13:18a,19a,21, Greek OT)

(Moses said to Israel:) “I ‘am ... be’/take throughout both the heaven and the earth (as) a witness (against) you today, (that) I have given (and give) the life and the death before your face, the blessing and the curse, to choose the life, in order that you may live, you and your seed, to welcome the Lord, your God, to listen to His voice and to be ‘had of’/’attached to’ Him.” (Deut 30:19b-20a, Greek OT)

The male was tossed in the grave of (the prophet) Elisha. And he went and touched the bones of Elisha, and he lived/’came to life’ and stood up against/on his feet. (2 Kings 13:21b, Greek OT)

(David said to the Lord:) “You ascended into a height having led a captivity in captivity. You took gifts in a man, for and/also the disobeying ones (will) pitch a tent.” (Ps 68:18a or 68:19a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to kings:) ”Do not touch My ‘anointed ones’/christs, and do not do evil in/among My prophets.” (Ps 105:15, Greek OT)

(Wisdom) is a wood of life to all the ones holding themselves next to her and to the ones propping themselves against, against her as (to prop themselves) against a secure lord. (Prov 3:18, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to the prophet:) “You shall speak towards this people: ‘This is what the Lord says: Behold, I have given (and give) before your face the way of the life and the way of the death.’” (Jer 21:8, Greek OT)

(The inhabitants in Jerusalem) were soiled in/with blood, 'in the thing to not be able to them they touched'/'that no one was able to touch' their (clothes). “Stand aloof of/from unclean ones!” Call them: “Stand aloof, stand aloof, do not touch!” (Lam 4:14b-15a, Greek OT)

(Solomon said to God:) “Who has gained knowledge of Your counsel, if not You have given wisdom and sent Your Holy Spirit from highest things?” (Wisdom of Solomon 9:17)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “Baptizing/dipping oneself from/’owing to’ a dead (body) and touching it again, what/how will one be helped in/with one's bath.” (Sir 34:25 or 34:30)


The Latter Revelation:

(The woman) (continually/repeatedly) said in herself: “If – according to the circumstances – I * (א*) may touch the garment (of Jesus), I will be saved. But having turned and beheld her, He (א*) spoke: “Be confident! Your faith has saved (and saves) you. And the woman was saved from that hour.” (Matt 9:21-22)

(Jesus said to the disciples of John:) "Having gone bring a message to John from (you) (about) the things you hear and see: … leapers are made entirely clean.” (Matt 11:4b-5a)

Having come to (Jesus) (Mariam (א*) from Magdala and the another/other Mary) ‘got power over’/seized His feet and prostrated themselves before Him (in honour of Him). (Matt 28:9b)

(Jesus) ascended towards (His disciples) into the boat. (Mark 6:51a)

(Men asked, that Jesus would let the weak) touch His garment. And as many as * (א,* א) touched Him were (continually) saved. (Mark 6:56b)

The blind man spoke to (Jesus): "Rabboni, (do) ‘in order’/so that I may ‘see up’/see!" (Mark 10:51b)

Some women (were together with Jesus, women) who (continually) were (‘and had been’/permanently) attended from/for unclean (א,* א) spirits and weaknesses. (Among these women was) Mary, being called “from Magdala”, from whom seven little demons had come (‘and come’/permanently) out. (Luke 8:2)

Having come to (Jesus) from behind, (a woman having a stream of blood) touched the tassel of His garment, and immediately her stream of blood stood/ceased. … Jesus spoke: "Someone touched Me, for I have gained knowledge of ‘an ability’/’a power’ having come (and coming) out from Me." (Luke 8:44,46)

(One of the ten men having been cleaned from leprosy) returned (to Jesus), glorifying God in company with a great/loud voice and fell against/on the face to the side of (Jesus') feet. (Luke 17:15b-16a)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “The day the Son of the Man is revealed … let not the one (being) in a field turn next to, into the things behind. Recollect the woman of Lot!” (Luke 17:30b,31b-32)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "Behold My hands and My feet, that I am He Himself. Feel (on) Me and behold, that a spirit has not fleshes/’pieces of flesh’ (P75, א*) and bones entirely as you look at ‘Me having’/’that I have’." (Luke 24:39)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "I dispatch away the promise of My Father against you. But you, sit down in the city till (the time in) which you may be set/clothed in ability out of (the) height." (Luke 24:49)

(Paul said to the king:) ”I have brought away a message to the nations (that they should) change their minds and turn themselves next to, against God, practising works worthy the change of mind.” (Acts 26:20b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

No one has ascended (and ascends) into the heaven ‘if not’/except the One having descended out of the heaven, the Son of the Man. (John 3:13)

After these things it/there (continually/-) was the (א,*א) feast of the Jews, and Jesus ascended into (a disgraced) Jerosolyma/Jerusalem. (Joh 5:1)

(Jesus said to His disciples: “What about) if – according to the circumstances – you so may look at the Son of the Man ascending whereat/where He (continually) was formerly?” (Joh 6:62)

(Jesus said to the Pharisees: "The fine shepherd) raises his voice (towards) his own sheep ‘according to name’/’after their names’, and he leads them out.” (John 10:3b)

Having so taken a pound of a much honoured ointment oil of nard, connected with faith, Mary (P66,א,*א) smeared the feet of Jesus and wiped off His feet (with) her hairs/hair. (John 12:3a)

They took so the body of Jesus and bound it (with) little linen garments in company with the spices, entirely as it (in/among) the Jews is a custom to embalm/’lay in a grave’. (John 19:40)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 - about 1500

At the end of times ... all flesh from Adam up to that great day shall be raised, such as shall be the holy people; then to them shall be given every joy of Paradise and God shall be in their midst. ... All that Adam once lost in paradise shall be given back on the day of resurrection. (Leif Carlsson ”Round trips to heaven” p 231; the Greek Version of Adam's Heavenly Journey in the Life of Adam and Eve)

The rabbis tell that Pharaoh's daughter suffered from leprosy, which is the reason she had come to the river to bathe. But as soon as she touched the basket in which tiny Moses lay she was healed. So she took pity on the baby and took him into her father's household. (Michel E. Williams ”Exodus-Joshua” p 33; Exodus Rabbah 1.23)

Boundaries of holiness are delineated (in Ex 19:1-19). As with the ark of the covenant, the slightest contact with even the edge of the numinous zone is fatal. Trumpets blow. Is it not easy to transfer the whole scene to the Temple of Solomon in all its splendor? Gradations of holiness marked the holy place on Zion. Only the priests, the plenipotentiaries of Moses, could trespass the inner sanctum. (Michael E. Williams “Exodus-Joshua” p 82)

The Talmud notes that many believe Moses never died at all. Aboth de Rabbi Nathan says that Moses was translated directly to heaven, welcomed tumultuously, clothed in light, beginning an eternity of studying Torah and interceding for Israel. (Michael E. Williams “Exodus-Joshua” p 165)

Rabbouni! An Aramaic word of address which means my Lord. By its length it gets a somewhat stronger relief than the simple “rabbi”, which the evangelist makes use of on all other passages. (René Kieffer "Johannesevangeliet" p 466; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

(Madicken) agrees with Lisabet that they are going to play Adam and Eve in Paradise as soon as they have bathed. . . . Madicken herself is to be both Adam and the serpent. One of the birches can become the tree of knowledge, and there she will wriggle and tempt Eve with a bun, for there is no apple at this time of the year. (Astrid Lindgren "Madicken och Junibackens Pims" p 72; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

The lady: "Came sin into the world with the mother (Eve), so atonement came with another mother! Came the curse with the first, so the blessing came with the second!" . . . The unknown man: "You have eaten of the tree of knowledge!" (August Strindberg "Till Damaskus I" p 101; the spectacle written ready 1898-03-08; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

January 10th (1898) Dreamt the night 9-10 that I was threatened by Adolf Paul with assault. He was multiplied. But I said: Do not touch me, for then you dies. At last he became a whole multitude falling backwards. (August Strindberg "Ockulta dagboken" p 52; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Thus Prometheus released, and I go now, as the giant Antheus, to draw strength from the touching of the mother Lutetia. (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev X febr 1894-april 1895" p 59; letter 1894-06-23 to Birger Mörner; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


about 1500 and time before

”A new and living way,” (Paul) says, for the first was a way of death, leading to Hades, but this of life. (Chrysostom commenting Heb 10:20, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers XIV:454)

As he who was made a living soul forfeited life when he turned aside to what was evil, so, on the other hand, the same individual, when he reverts to what is good, and receives the quickening Spirit, shall find life. (Irenaeus, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol I, p 538)

By (Jesus Christ) are the eyes of our hearts opened. By Him our foolish and darkened understanding blossoms up anew towards His marvellous light. By Him the Lord has willed that we should taste of immortal knowledge. (Clement of Rome to the Corinthians, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol I, p 14-15)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Lars Ahlberg, Ingegerd Ahlin, Carl Jonas Love Almqvist, Elin V. Anderson, Aron Andersson, Lena Bergström, Elisabeth Beskow, Torsten Bohlin, Gordon Bridger, Yngve Brilioth, Elizabeth Charles, Annica Dahlström, Sven Danell, Charles Dickens, Ylva Eggehorn, Bengt Ek, Abd el-Malik Nouri, Hilding Fagerberg, P. Fjellstedt, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Patrick Goodland, Berndt Gustafsson, Stefan Gustavsson, Peter Halldorf, Anders Hultman, Bengt Hägglund, Liselotte J Andersson, Viktor Johansson, Ingemar Karlsson, Helle Klein, G. Kurze, Torsten Kälvemark, Hans Larsson, Joakim G. Leithäuser, C.S. Lewis, Sven Lidman, Lars Lindberg, Mereth Lindgren, Sven Lindhagen, Arnold Lindman, Martin Luther, Carl Henrik Martling, Niels Meyn, Vilhelm Moberg, Eugene O'Neill, Watchman Nee, Bruce Nicholls, Sven Nilsson, Anders Nohrborg, Ingvar Parmestål, Lage Pernveden, Niklas Piensoho, Erik Pontoppidan, Anna Maria Roos, Carl Olof Rosenius, Gösta Sandberg, Bo Setterlind, Harry Sjöman, Ingemar Strand, Knut Svensson, Mahmoud Teymour, Thomas a Kempis, Sven Thunander, Tomas Tranströmer, Nils Tägt, Josef Wahlgren, P. Waldenström, Gunnar Weman, Paul Wern, N.P. Wetterlund, Torgny Wirén, David F. Wright, Birgitta Yavari.


My own comments and speculations:

Jesus is the wine, the tree of knowledge (Greek OT: wood of the thing to know/'have knowledge of'). In a restoration perspective we see how the old deadly tree now is changed to a tree giving life. Mariam, whose type in the OT is the leprous Miriam (see also My own comments and speculations to John 20:17b-18), must wait touching Jesus until He has poured out the Spirit from above. Neither it is the crucified, nor the risen One, who gives Holy Spirit and eternal life, but the glorified One, Jesus Christ, the Son of God.

When Jesus comes to the disciples (John 20:19,26) it is said that He "stood into the middle". Compare with the tree of knowledge, which stood in a middle of the Paradise (Gen 3:3). The first time the word “haptomai” (touch) is used in the OT is in Gen 3:3. The first (and the only time) the word is used in the Gospel of John is here in John 20:16. Neither it occurs in the Revelation. That the expression here has the present imperative tense (mê "haptou", which also could be translated "do not have a continual touch"; cf. the same tense and corresponding possible meaning in John 10:37, where we hardly can imagine the meaning "stop believing"; cf. Leon Morris "The Gospel according to John" p 470) can be seen in the light of for example Matt 28:9, where Mariam 'got power over'/seized the feet of Jesus.

Also Lot's wife is a type of Mariam. Lot's wife first turned away from the the living Sodom but then looked back at the dead Sodom. In a restoration perspective we see how Mariam first turns back from her Lord's memorial tomb but then again turns back to her living Lord.

In the Synoptics Jesus once is called Rabboni - a heightened form of Rabbi - and at this occasion by a blind man who saw up. In the Gospel of John Jesus seven times is called Rabbi and then by males. Once - the eighth time after the seven times with Rabbi - He is called Rabboni and now by a woman, Mariam. Observe that Mariam is like the blind man in the Synoptics (Mark 10:51). First she didn't recognized Jesus. She supposed Him to be the garden-guardian. But soon Mariam can say that she had seen the Lord (John 20:18).

The eighth time points to the beginning of a new age according to the number symbolism of that time. In this new age men will come to Jesus and receive agelong life. But this time is not completely present before the giving of the Holy Spirit, who the disciples will receive this evening, on the first day of the week, the day after the seventh, the first day of a new age, the age of the Spirit. When Mariam says Rabboni, it is as if she says, that the Spirit already is given. But she must wait a very little hour, until Jesus has ascended to His Father.

Probably also Mariam's turning to Jesus is a sign of a new time. Until this time it is typically that Jesus turns to men (Matt 7:6; 9:22; 16:23; Mark 5:30; 8:33; Luke 7:9; 9:55; 14:25; 22:61, 23:28; John 1:38). In Him God has turned to man by bringing him back to His garden. Now it is time to man to turn to Jesus, the new tree of knowledge, to receive agelong life and become holy (Ex 30:25-29). Compare Paul: “God reconciled us to Himself … be reconciled to God.” (2 Cor 5:18-20)

The verb “anabainô” (ascend) often is used about ascending to Jerusalem (cf. Matt 20:17-18; Mark 10:32-33; Luke 18:31; 19:28; John 2:13; 5:1; 11:55; Acts 11:2; 15:2; 21:12,15; 25:1,9). Jesus will ascend to His Father and to a new Jerusalem (cf. Rev 3.12; 20:2).


Paul said to the believers in Corinth: ”The last Adam (became) into/to a spirit making alive.” (1 Cor 15:45b)

James said to the believers: "Draw near to God and He will draw near to you." (Jas 4:8a)


Greek words:

(h)aptomai (touch) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Sir 34:25(30); Matt 9:21; Mark 6:56; Luke 8:44,46; John 20:17 – 2 Macc 9:10; Wisdom of Solomon 3:1; 18:16,20; Sir 13:1; The Prayer of Azariah v 27; Matt 8:3,15; 9:20,29; 14:36; 17:7; 20:34; Mark 1:41; 3:10; 5:27-28,30-31; 7:33; 8:22; 10:13; Luke 5:13; 6:19; 7:14,39; 8:45; 18:15; 22:51; 1 Cor 7:1; 2 Cor 6:17; Col 2:21; 1 John 5:18.

rabbouni (rabboni) Mark 10:51; John 20:16.


Additional studies:

Num 4:15; 17:13; Deut 24:9; 1 Chron 16:22; Matt 8:2; 9:22; 10:8; 14:35; 16:23; 23:7-8; Mark 1:40-42; 5:25-34; 13:16; Luke 7:9,22; 9:55,62; 10:23; 14:25; 23:28; John 1:38,49; 3:2; 4:31; 5:2; 6:25; 7:33; 9:2; 11:8; 13:1; 14:28; 16:28; 20:27; Rev 1:12; 2:8; 9:11; 12:5.


Nicholas John Ansell "The call for Wisdom/The Voice of the Serpent: A Canonical Approach to the Tree of Knowledge"; Christian Scholars Review 31.1 (2001): 31-57.

Mary R. D'Angelo "A Critical Note. John 20:17 and Apocalypse of Moses."; Journal of Theological Studies 41 (1990): 529-536.

Andreas J. Köstenberger "Jesus as Rabbi in the Fourth Gospel"; Bulletin for Biblical Research 8 (1998): 97-128.

Dorothy A. Lee "Partnership in Easter Faith: The Role of Mary Magdalene and Thomas in John 20"; Journal for the Study of the New Testament 58 (1995): 37-49.

Michael McGehee "A Less Theological Reading of John 20:17"; Journal of Biblical Literature 105 (1986): 299-302.

Alan Shaw "The Breakfast by the Shore and the Mary Magdalene Encounter as Eucharistic Narratives"; Journal of Theological Studies 25 (1974): 12-26.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-02; 2012-04-21; 2014-12-06; 2014-12-19)

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20:17b-18 But go towards the (א*) brothers and speak to them: “I ascend towards 'the Father My'/'My Father' and your Father and My God and your God.” Mariam from Magdala comes bringing a message to the disciples that/: “I have beheld the Lord, and He spoke these things to her/me.”

Word for word: 20:17b (22 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus) go but towards the brothers and speak (to)-them: (i/I)-ascend towards the father my and father your and God my and God your. 20:18 (15 words in the Greek text) comes Mariam the-(one) from-Magdala bringing-a-message (to)-the disciples that (i/I)-have-beheld-(and-behold) the lord, and these-(things) (he)-spoke (to)-her.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

Mariam and Aaron talked ‘according to’/concerning Moses. ... And they spoke: "Not has the Lord talked (and talks) alone/only (with) Moses? Has He by no means and/also talked (with) us?" And the Lord heard (it) ... (and said): "I will talk (with) him mouth ‘according to’/to mouth, in/with form/’a beholding’ and not through riddles. And he has beheld the glory of the Lord." (Num 12:1a,2,8a, Greek OT)

(The Moabite woman Ruth spoke to her Jewish mother-in-law Naomi): “Your people (is) my people, and your God (is) my God.” (Ruth 1:16b, Greek OT)

(David said to the Lord:) "I will describe Your name to my brothers." (Ps 22:22a or 22:23a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to His people: “My slave David) will ‘call against’/invoke Me: ‘You are my Father, my God.’” (Ps 89:26a or 89:27a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to His people:) "You shall call Me ‘Father’ and shall not turn away from Me." (Jer 3:19b, Greek OT)

(The messenger said to Tobias: “Your woman/wife) has been (and is) ‘divided into portions’/attributed you before the age, and you will save her, and she will go in company with you, and I ‘take from below’/conceive, because little boys and girls will be to you out of her, and they will be to you as brothers. ... “ (Tobit 6:18b, S)

(The messenger said to Tobit and Tobias:) ”Behold, I ascend towards the One having dispatched me away. Write all these things having 'stepped together with'/happened to you.” And he ascended. (Tobit 12:20b, S)

(Judith prayed to the Lord: “The Assyrians) had not knowledge that You are the Lord crushing/undoing wars. The Lord (is) Your name.” (Judith 9:7b-8a)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Pray you so in this way: ‘Our Father, the One in the heavens. Let your name be made holy.’” (Matt 6:9)

(Jesus said to the crowds and to the disciples:) “You may not be called ‘Rabbi’, for one is your Conductor (א*), but/and you are all brothers. And you may not call (anyone) your father upon the earth, for One is your heavenly Father.” (Matt 23:8-9)

Around the ninth hour Jesus cried upwards (with) a great/loud voice, saying: “Eloi, Eloi, (א,*א,B) lema sabachthani?” this is/means,”My God, My God, ‘in order that what’/why have You entirely left Me in (a place)?” (Matt 27:46)

Having quickly gone away from the memorial tomb in company with fear and great joy, (Mariam (א,*א) from Magdala and the another/other Mary) ran to bring away a message to (Jesus') disciples. (Matt 28:8)

Jesus says to (Mariam (א*) from Magdala and the another/other Mary): "Do not fear! Withdraw and bring away a message to the (א*) brothers in order that they may go away into Galilee, and there they will behold Me." (Matt 28:10)

(Jesus said:) "(The one) who – according to the circumstances – may make/do the will of God, this one is my brother and sister and mother." (Mark 3:35)

(When Jesus' parents found Him in the sanctuary, He said to them:) "What (is it) that you seek (א*) Me? Did you not know, that I must be in the things of 'the Father My'/'My Father'?” (Luke 2:49)

All these were (continually) unanimously ‘being patient to’/patient (in) the prayer together with women and Mary (א,*א,A), the mother of Jesus, and His brothers. (Acts 1:14)

(Peter said:) “Males, Israelites ... Males, brothers.” (Acts 2:22a,29a)

Barnabas ... described to (the apostles) how (Saul) in/on the way had beheld the Lord, and that He had talked (with) him. (Acts 9:27a)

(Peter said to the young girl:) “Bring away a message (about) these things to Jacob and the brothers. And having come out he went into the other place.” (Acts 12:17b)

(Luke said: “In Puteoli we found) brothers.” (Acts 28:14a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(John the Baptist) (continually/-) uttered: "I (am) a voice crying in the desolate (district): 'Straighten the way of (a) lord', entirely as Isaiah the prophet spoke." (John 1:23)

This beginning of the signs, Jesus made/did in Cana of Galilee, (a) first one (א*), and made His glory visible, and His disciples believed into Him. After this He descended into Capharnaum, He and His mother and His brothers * (א,*א). And there they did not stay many days. (John 2:11-12)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "I go towards the Father, because My (א*) Father is greater than Me/I." (John 14:28b)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "I came out from the side of the Father and have come (and come) into the adornment/’adorned world’. Again I let the adornment/’adorned world’ be and go towards the Father." (John 16:28)

(Mariam) so runs and comes towards Simon Peter and towards the another/other disciple, with whom Jesus (continually) was friends, and she says to them: "They have lifted the Lord out of the memorial tomb, and we do not know, where they have put/laid Him." (John 20:2)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

The Pharisees were ... according to their own definition a “brotherhood”. Any Jew could join them as long as he was ready to accept their teaching and way of life, the most characteristic of which was strict observance of the law according to the traditions of the ancients and the exegesis of Pharisee scholars. (Rudolf Schnackenburg “The Moral Teaching of the New Testament” p 67)

To preach of peace and brotherhood Oh, what might be the cost! A man he did it long ago And they hung him on a cross Long ago, far away These things don't happen No more, nowadays. ... ... One man had much money One man had not enough to eat One man he lived just like a king The other man begged on the street Long ago, far away Things like that don't happen No more, nowadays ... ... And to talk of peace and brotherhood Oh, what might be the cost! A man he did it long ago And they hung him on a cross Long ago, far away Things like that don't happen No more, nowadays, do they? (Bob Dylan "Long Ago, Far Away"; 1962)

Now and always (the Franciskan monks) esteem themselves be the least of all brothers, the willing servant of the Jesuits and the Dominicans. (Viktor Rydberg "Karnevalen - Bonaventuras kloster - Äventyr på Korso" p 259; Rome 1874; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Among old trees the portal of the town church, where the festival crowds meet, with Svea's and Göta's arms stands high and cool. There I saw high and low beside one another wander in a procession of brothers and sisters; they probably were separated as to rank and pursuit, but still the same Sunday peace lay upon all foreheads. And out of the school a flock of boys advanced, row by row, bare-necked and rosy. (Viktor Rydberg "Träsnittet i psalmboken" p 19-20; depicted time: 1838-1845; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

(God invites) to brotherhood, the unknown, the contemptible, not meaning by these the monks only, and them that have occupied the mountains, but every believer; though he be a secular person. ... For baptism renders a man a brother, and the partaking of the divine mysteries. (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers X:475)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Eskil Albertsson, Arvid Almquist, Carl Jonas Love Almqvist, Ann-Charlotte Alverfors, H.C. Andersen, Stefan Andhé, Erika André, Werner Aspenström, Eskil Bergen, Hjalmar Bergman, Ingmar Bergman, Oloph Bexell, Marcus Birro, Rudolf Björkman, Harry Blomberg, Lars-Ola Borglid, Ingmar Brohed, Magnus Jacob Crusenstolpe, Thorild Dahlgren, Fjodor Dostojevskij, Maria Durling, Bob Dylan, Gunnar Edman, Elof Ehnmark, Harald Elovson, P. Fjellstedt, Bo Frid, Bo Giertz, Bengt Gierup, Carl Grimberg, Berndt Gustafsson, Krister Hanell, Hermann Hartfeld, John Hedlund, Verner von Heidenstam, Jan-Arvid Hellström, Alf Henrikson, Gunnar Hillerdal, C.G. Hjelm, Märta Hjälm-Johansson, Victor Hugo, Sven Hultman, Thomas Henry Huxley, Betty Janson, Sergej Jesenin, Ingrid Johansson, Viktor Johansson, Annty Landherr, Severin Larsen, Walle Lemke, Harry Lenhammar, Anna Maria Lenngren, Ulla Linder, Martin Luther, Carl Henrik Martling, Vilhelm Moberg, Ingun Montgomery, V.S. Naipul, B.M. Ncongwane, Fredrik Nielsen, Konrad Nilsson, Martin P:n Nilsson, Sven-Erik Pernler, Fritz Peterson, Olaus Petri, Carl-Erik Sahlberg, Erich Sauer, Adolf Schück, Olia Simeonsson, Harry Sjöman, Samuel Sollerman, Åke Sparring, John Stott, Bengt Sundkler, Jesper Svartvik, Knut Svensson, Richard A. Todd, P. Waldenström, Johan Olof Wallin, Christy Wilson, Richard Wurmbrand, Agne Ydrefelt.


My own comments and speculations:

That Mariam led the criticism against Moses we can see of the verb translated "spoke" in Num 12:1. In Greek this verb is singular and in Hebrew feminine singular.

In a restoration perspective we see how Mariam (the woman, cf. John 20:15), who in the wilderness was refused to speak openly with the Lord and see Him, now is allowed to do it. Compare also My own comments and speculations to John 20:16-17a.


Paul said to the believers in Rome: "(The Son of God might) be a first-born in/among many brothers." (Rom 8:29b)

Paul said to the believers in Corinth: "Have I not beheld (and behold) Jesus, our Lord? ..." (1 Cor 9:1b)

(Jesus) making holy and the ones being made holy (are) all out of one, because of which cause He is not ashamed of calling them brothers, saying: "I will bring away a message (about) Your Name to My brothers." (Heb 2:11-12a)

In this we have (and have had) knowledge of the welcome, because that One put/intered His soul in favour of us. And/also we are indebted to put/inter the souls in favour of the brothers. (1 John 3:16)

Brothers (א,* א), if – according to the circumstances – our heart may not have a downhearted knowledge (on account of) us (א,*א,A), we have ‘plain language’/courage towards God. (1 John 3:21)

Every spirit, which does not confess Jesus the Lord, having come (and coming) in flesh (א,* א), is not out of God. And this is the (spirit) of the antichrist because (א,* א) you have heard (and hear) that it comes, and now already is in the adornment/’adorned world’. (1 John 4:3)

This commandment we have from Him, in order that the one welcoming God and/also may welcome his brother. (1 John 4:21)


Additional studies:

Matt 12:48-50; 25:40; 28:8; Mark 12:26; Luke 8:21; 11:2; 24:9-10,23,34; John 3:13; 6:62; 7:33; 8:53; 13:1,3; 14:4,12,28; 16:5,10,17; 17:13; 20:1,25,28; 21:7,12,23; Acts 13:31; Rom 15:6; 2 Cor 1:3; Eph 1:17; 3 John v 2,6,11; Rev 1:9; 2:8; 3:7; 4:1; 12:5; 19:10; 21:3,7.


Mary R. D'Angelo "A Critical Note. John 20:17 and Apocalypse of Moses."; Journal of Theological Studies 41 (1990): 529-536.

H. Birkeland "Oppstandelsetroen i Det Gamle Testament"; Svensk Exegetisk Årsbok 13 (1948): 13-54.

Dorothy A. Lee "Partnership in Easter Faith: The Role of Mary Magdalene and Thomas in John 20"; Journal for the Study of the New Testament 58 (1995): 37-49.

John F. Maile "The Ascension in Luke-Acts"; Tyndale Bulletin 37 (1986): 29-59.

Michael McGehee "A Less Theological Reading of John 20:17"; Journal of Biblical Literature 105 (1986): 299-302.

Alan Shaw "The Breakfast by the Shore and the Mary Magdalene Encounter as Eucharistic Narratives"; Journal of Theological Studies 25 (1974): 12-26.

Aida Besançon Spencer "Father-Ruler: The Meaning of the Metaphor 'Father' for God in the Bible"; Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 39.3 (Sept. 1996): 433-442.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-03; 2012-04-24; 2014-12-07)

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20:19 Being so evening to that one/first day of sabbaths and the doors being (and having been) shut whereat the disciples (continually) were because of the fear of (or: for) the Jews, Jesus came and stood into the middle, and He says to them: “Peace to you.”

Word for word (34 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus prima manus) Being so evening the day (to)-that one (of)-sabbaths and (of)-the (of)-doors (of)-being-(and-having-been)-shut whereat (continually)-were the disciples because-of the fear (of)-the (of)-Jews, came the Jesus and stood in the middle and (he)-says (to)-them: peace (to)-you.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

The Lord God shut His chest/ark from outside. (Gen 7:16b, Greek OT)

No (Egyptian) yet stood by the side of (Joseph), at the time when he (continually/repeatedly) '(was read)'/‘gave knowledge upwards’/’made himself again known’ to his brothers. (Gen 45:1b, Greek OT)

(Moses said to the elders of Israel:) "Take a bundle of hyssop and having dipped (it) from the blood to the side of the door 'make (it) sit down'/'apply (it)' to the lintel and from the blood upon both of the standing-places/door-posts ... (When the Lord beholds the blood, He will) not let the destroyer be (alone) to come into, into your habitations to hit (you)." (Ex 12:22a,23b, Greek OT)

The (ten) men, the ones having ascended together in company with (Caleb to Canaan) spoke that/: “We do not ascend, because we - according to the circumstances - may not/certainly not be able to ascend towards the nation, because it is more stable ‘rather us’/’than we’.” (Num 13:31 or 13:32, Greek OT)

The Lord spoke to (Gideon): “Peace to you, do not fear (and) you may not die.” And Gideon built a sacrificial altar there to the Lord, and he called it ‘Peace of the Lord’. (Judges 6:23-24a, Greek OT, A)

(David said to the ten very little boys:) “Go away towards Nabal and ask him on/’for the sake of’ my name into/’for the purpose of’ peace.” ... And Nabal answered (them) and spoke: "Who (is) David?" (1 Sam 25:5b,10a, Greek OT)

It became as/when Solomon had brought ‘to build’/’the building of’ the house of the Lord to a consummation ... , (that) the Lord was beheld to Solomon a second time. (1 Kings 9:1-2a, Greek OT; cf. John 21:14)

Many of the nations (continually) were ‘cut round’/circumcised and (continually) lived in Jewish fashion because of the fear of the Jews. (Esther 8:17b, Greek OT)

(The prophet said to the people of God:) “Advance, my people! Come into, into your storehouses and shut up your doors. Hide yourself away for a small/little (while) ..., till the wrath of the Lord may – according to the circumstances - have come by the side of.” (Is 26:20, Greek OT)

(The messenger) spoke to (Tobit and Tobias:) “Do not fear. Peace to you.” (Tobit 12:17a, S)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “In middle of a people (the Wisdom) will boast.” (Sir 24:1b)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “From the side of (the Lord) peace is upon the face of the earth.” (Sir 38:8b)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “When you – according to the circumstances – may pray, come/go into, into your storehouse and having shut your door pray to your Father, 'the One'/who (is) in the hidden, and your Father, the One seeing in the hidden will give you back.” (Matt 6:6)

(Jesus said to the twelve:) ”Coming into, into the habitation greet it, saying: “Peace to this house (א*).” (Matt 10:12)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "Where two or three having been (and being) led together into My name, there I am in their middle." (Matt 18:20)

(The priest leaders and the Pharisees) feared the crowds, since they (continually) had/held (Jesus) into/for a prophet. (Matt 21:46b)

(Jesus said:) “Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites, because you shut the kingdom of the heavens in front of the men, for you do not come into (it yourselves), nor you let the ones coming/going into (it) be (alone) to come into (it).” (Matt 23:13)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “When you – according to the circumstances – may behold all these things, you have knowledge that (the Son of the Man) is near 'on doors'/'at the doors'.” (Matt 24:33b)

The ready ones came in, in company with (the bridegroom), into the wedding banquets, and the door was shut. (Matt 25:10b)

(Jesus said:) “Ephphatha!” which is “Be opened altogether!” (Mark 7:34b)

(The three women) fled from the memorial tomb, for trembling and ‘standing out of themselves’/dismay (continually) had come (over) them. And they spoke nothing to ‘no one’/anyone, for they (continually) feared. (Mark 16:8b)

(The Lord said to the seventy:) "Into what habitation you – according to the circumstances – may come into, first say: "Peace to this house. And if - according to the circumstances - a son of peace may be there, your peace will be brought to rest against, against him; but if not, it will at any rate crook up/back against you." (Luke 10:5-6)

(Cleopas and the other disciple said to Jesus:) ”Stay in company with us, because it is towards evening, and the day has already 'leaned (and leans)'/'drawn (and draws)' to an end.” … (Later the same day) the eyes (of the disciples) were opened throughout and they gained additional knowledge of Him, and/but He Himself became invisible from/to them … (and) stood Himself in a middle (of the eleven and the other disciples) and says to them: “Peace to you.” Having feared (א,* א) and becoming frightened they (continually) thought ‘to look’/’that they looked’ at a spirit. (Luke 24:29b,31,36b-37)

When (the disciples) came into, into the upper apartment, they ascended (to the place) where they (continually/often) were ’staying entirely’/sojourning. (Acts 1:13a)

Having opened the doors of the watch/custody (and) led out ... (the apostles) through/in (the) night, a messenger of the Lord spoke ... (The rowers/servants said:) ”We found the prison being (and having been) shut in/with every/all security and the watchers standing upon/by the doors, but having opened we found no one inside.” (Acts 5:19a,23)

All at once it became a great shaking, so that the bases of the prison moved to and fro. But/and immediately all the doors were opened and all the bands were loosened up(א*). (Acts 16:26)

Having been (and being) led together in/on the one/first (day) of the sabbaths to fragment/break ... to pieces’ bread Paul 'said throughout'/talked with (the ones being with him). (Acts 20:7b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

No one (continually) talked plain language on account of (Jesus) because of the fear of the Jews. (John 7:13)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "Peace I ‘let ... be’/leave to you. My peace I give to you. Not entirely as the adornment/’adorned world’ gives, I give to you. Let not your heart be troubled, but/and let it not be cowardly." (John 14:27)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: Samuel Josef Agnon, Eric S. Alexandersson, Jonas Love Almqvist, Erik H. Anderek, Elisabeth Beskow, Oloph Bexell, Björnstjerne Björnson, Henry Daniel-Rops, Mohammed Dib, Lars Magnar Enoksen, Anton Fridrichsen, Carl Grimberg, Homeros, Anders Jarlert, Eyvind Johnson, David Kerr, Per Lundberg, Martin Luther, Anders Nohrborg, J. Nyrén, T.H. Odencrants, Hilding Pleijel, John Sjögren, Tomas Tranströmer, Kerry Usher, P. Waldenström.


My own comments and speculations:

“fobon tôn Ioudaiôn” can be translated “the fear of the Jews” or “the fear for the Jews”. In the first case we have a background in for example in Matt 21:46; 23:13 and John 12:48-49. The Pharisees shut the kingdom of the heavens, because they fear Jesus. In the second case, and perhaps the most probable alternative, we have a background in for example Mark 16:8.

In a restoration perspective we can see, how the peace of David's ten very little boys, which was not received by Nabal, now returns to them, when Jesus greets His ten little children (cf. John 13:33). We can also see how the destroyer, who in Ex 12:22-23 entered the entrances of the habitations to kill those having not sprinkled them with blood, now is replaced by the One being sent from God to enter shut doors to give peace and life to those who confess themselves to Jesus and his bloody atonement death.


The perfect welcome throws the fear outside, because the fear has a chastisement, but the one fearing is not (and has not been) made perfect in the welcome. (1 John 4:18)


Greek words:

kleiô (shut) (in the NT + examples in the OT) Gen 7:16; Is 24:10; Matt 6:6; 23:13; 25:10; John 20:19; Acts 5:23 – 2 Chron 28:24; Is 22:22; 60:11; Sir 30:18; Susanna v 17(Theod),20(Theod); Bel and the Dragon v 14; The Prayer of Manasse v 3; Luke 4:25; 11:7; John 20:26; Acts 21:30; 1 John 3:17; Rev 3:7-8; 11:6; 20:3.


Additional studies:

Judges 19:20; Is 24:10; Dan 10:19; Haggai 2:9(10); Matt 10:11-14; Mark 12:12; Luke 1:79; 2:19; 22:2; 24:33; John 9:22; 14:18,23; 20:21; Acts 1:3,14; 1 Cor 15:5,44; 3 John v 14(15); Rev 3:20; 8:13; 21:25.


George C. Fuller "The Life of Jesus. After the Ascension (Luke 24:50-53; Acts 1:9-11)."; Westminster Theological Journal 56 (1994): 391-398.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-03; 2012-04-27; 2014-12-08)

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20:20 And having spoken He showed them the hands and the rib. So the disciples rejoiced hving beheld the Lord.

Word for word (17 words in the Greek text): and this having-spoken (he)-showed the hands and the rib them. rejoiced so the disciples having-beheld the lord.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(On the fourth day) God made the two great luminaries … and/also the stars … so that (they would) ‘bring to’/give light upon the earth. (Gen 1:16,17b, Greek OT)

The Lord God built the rib, which He had taken from Adam, into/to a woman. ... (And) she (is) a mother of all the living ones. (Gen 2:22a; 3:20b, Greek OT)

No (Egyptian) yet stood by the side of (Joseph), at the time when he (continually/repeatedly) '(was read)'/‘gave knowledge upwards’/’made himself again known’ to his brothers. … And Joseph spoke towards his brothers: “I am Joseph.” … (And) they were troubled (at his presence). (Gen 45:1b,3b, Greek OT)

It became a darkness, a dusky whirlwind, against every/’the whole’ earth/land of Egypt (for) three days. And no one ‘did not behold’/beheld his brother (for) three days, and no one ‘did not stand up out of’/rose out of his sleeping-place (for) three days. But (among) all the sons of Israel it (continually) was in/among all light, ‘(among) whom’/where they (continually) ‘wholly became’/dwelt. (Ex 10:22b-23, Greek OT)

Rejoice, the children of Zion, and be cheerful on/’under the rule of’ the Lord your God. … You will gain additional knowledge that I am in a middle of Israel and I (am) the Lord your God. (Joel 2:23a,27a, Greek OT)

Jonah (continually) was in the belly of the sea-monster three days and three nights. (Jonah 1:17b or 2:1b, Greek OT)

(Simon) made peace upon the earth, and Israel was cheerful (to) great cheerfulness. (1 Macc 14:11)

(Solomon said to the Lord:) “You have arranged every thing throughout (with) measure and number and standing-place/balance.” (Wisdom of Solomon 11:20b)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) "Oh that (the God of all) may give us cheerfulness of heart and become/’let it become’ peace in Israel in our days." (Sir 50:23a)

The flame (continually) had/reached throughout against/'up to' 49 cubits above the furnace. (The Prayer of Azariah v 24)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to the man who had been cleaned from his leprosy:) “You may ‘speak to no one’/’not speak to anyone’, however/but withdraw, show yourself to the priest and carry to (him) the gift which Moses commanded, into/’for the purpose of’ a testimony to them.” (Matt 8:4b)

‘Having answered’/’(Jesus) answered and’ spoke to (the scribes and Pharisees): "An evil generation and an adulteress seek against/after a sign, and/but a sign will not be given to it ‘if not’/except the sign of Jonah, the prophet. For just as Jonah (continually) was three days and three nights in the belly of the sea monster, in this way the Son of the Man will be three days and three nights in the heart of the earth." (Matt 12:39-40)

(Peter) began to accurse and swear that/: “I do not know the Man!” (Matt 26:74a)

From a sixth hour it became darkness * (א*) till a ninth hour. (Matt 27:45)

Having taken a lance-head/lance another pricked (Jesus') rib, and it/there came out water and blood. (Matt 27:49b, א,*א,B)

Behold, Jesus ‘went to meet’/met (Mariam (א*) from Magdala and the another/other Mary) saying: "Rejoice!" (Matt 28:9a)

(The Son of the Man) will stand up after three days. (Mark 9:31b)

(Jesus was dispatched away) to proclaim an agreeable period of time of the Lord. (Luke 4:19)

Having beheld Jesus (Herod) rejoiced exceedingly, for (continually) ‘out of fit/enough times’/’for a long time’ he was/’had been’ wanting to behold Him, because of ‘to hear’/’what He had heard’ on account of Him, and he (continually) hoped to behold a certain sign becoming/’coming about’ by Him. (Luke 23:8)

(Cleopas and the other disciple said to Jesus:) ”Stay in company with us, because it is towards evening, and the day has already 'leaned (and leans)'/'drawn (and draws)' to an end.” … (Later the same day) the eyes (of the disciples) were opened throughout and they gained additional knowledge of Him, and/but He Himself became invisible from/to them … (and) stood Himself in a middle (of the eleven and the other disciples) and says to them: “Peace to you.” (Luke 24:29b,31,36)

(Jesus) showed (the disciples) the hands and the feet. ... On their still not believing from/’owing to’ the joy ... . (Luke 24:40b-41a)

(David says into/’for the purpose of’ Jesus:) ”You have given me knowledge of ways of life. You will complete me (with) cheerfulness in company with Your face.” (Acts 2:28)

Barnabas ... described to (the apostles) how (Saul) in/on the way had beheld the Lord, and that He had talked (with) him. (Acts 9:27a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

In (the Saying) is (א,*א) life, and the life (continually) was the light of the men. (John 1:4)

(Jesus said:) "Loosen this temple, and in three days I will raise it." The Jews so spoke: "Forty-six years this temple has been built and You will raise it in three days?" But that (One) said (it) on account of the temple of His body. When He so was raised out of dead (bodies), His disciples remembered that He (continually/repeatedly) had said this; and they believed (in) the writing and (in) the saying which Jesus had spoken. (John 2:19-22)

The Jews so spoke towards (Jesus): “You have/'do ... reach' not yet fifty years, and Abraham has beheld (and beholds) You (P75,א*)? (John 8:57)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “You look at Me, because I live, and you will live ‘(middle voice)’/’with engagement’ (P66,א,*א,A). In that day you will gain knowledge, that I (am) in My Father and you in Me and I in you.” (John 14:19b-20)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “These things I have talked (and talk) (with) you, in order that the joy, My (joy), may stay (א,*א) in you, and (that) your joy may be completed.” (John 15:11)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "You will be sorrowful, however/but your sorrow will become into/’for the purpose of’ joy.” ... again I will behold you, and your heart will rejoice, and no one lifts/’takes away’ your joy from you." (John 16:20b,22b)

Jesus came so out outside, wearing the thorny crown and the purple garment. And He says to them: “Behold, the Man!” (John 19:5)

One of the soldiers pricked the rib (with) his lance-head, and straight off there came out blood and water. (John 19:34)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

The Jewish Whitsuntide celebration emphasizes the affinity between Easter and Whitsuntide in a very concrete way and lets really these two feasts fuse to one single long period of feast. ... The Jewish tradition mentions ... a name (of Whitsuntide), which gives justice to just this affinity between the deliverance out of Egypt and the revelation on Sinai: atsaret pesach “the conclusion feast of the Easter”. ... The most usual names of this feast – shavuot and Whitsuntide – aim at the period itself between Easter an Whitsuntide ... It is a time which wholly is characterized by a waiting for Whitsuntide. It is noticeable already in the evening the second day during Easter. Then a special ceremony is opened which is called sefirat ha-omer, the “omer-enumeration” ... to “count fifty days” to the next offering of the new harvest. ... The time after Easter ... the time of joy, which it presumably was from the beginning. ... The external deliverance of Easter from the slavery must be followed of an inner deliverance. ... The need of inner deliverance, which Whitsuntide deals with, constitutes such a deep band between Judaism and Christianity that both can speak about this feast as its birthday. (Göran Larsson "Tid för Gud, Judiska och kristna perspektiv på de judiska högtiderna" p 53,57,59,159,172; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

The word for side, pleura, used in the singular here, is more normal in the plural. Some, including Feuillet, "Le Nouveau", have suggested that John is recalling the use (singular) in Gen 2:21-22 where God takes a pleura from Adam and forms it into a woman. (Raymond E. Brown "The Gospel according to John" p 935)

Be good to all men and do not forget your evening prayers and morning prayers, so You get peace and joy. (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev XVIII maj 1909-maj 1910 p 303; letter 1910-03-12 to the daughter Anne-Marie Strindberg; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

It was Whit Sunday, of which I had not known. The squalid office, facing the dark and dirty street, gave me a pain in heart. Memories from my childhood were awoken: Whitsuntide, the festival of rapture, when the little church, adorned with greenery, with tulips and lilies and lilies of the valley, opened for the communion children, the girls dressed in white like angels . . . the organ . . . the bell-ringing . . . . . . Went so out to walk in the churchyard of Montparnasse, where a peace fell into my soul with mild thoughts and a remorse such as I never had experienced. O crux ave spes unica! With these words the memorial stones gave a prediction of my fate. The end with the love! The end with gain and marks of honour! The path of the cross, the only thing leading to Wisdom! (August Strindberg "Inferno" p 24; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

The lights of the world are said in Moses to have come into existence on the fourth day, and as they shed light on the things on the earth, they are not the true light. … I ask why the man who came, sent from God, whose name was John, why he came to bear witness especially of the light? Why did he not come to bear witness of the life, or of the Word, or about the beginning or about any other of the many aspects in which Christ appears? (Origenes, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol X p 311,345)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Eric S. Alexandersson, Augustinus, T.B. Barratt, F. Bettex, Emil Birkeli, Janette Bohi, Nils Bolander, Gustav Bühlund, Hjalmar Börjeson, Chas E. Cowman, Sven Danell, Charles Dickens, E.J. Ekman, Hilding Fagerberg, Berndt Gustafsson, Gustav Haag, Georg Hafström, Dick Harrison, Verner von Heidenstam, Alf Henrikson, Erik Herneby, C.G. Hjelm, Irenaeus, Kazuo Ishiguro, Ulrik Josefsson, Aleksis Kivi, Lars Levi Laestadius, Martin Luther, Sivan Magnusson, Carl Henrik Martling, Wilhelm Möller, Fredrik Nielsen, Sven Nilsson, Efraim Palmqvist, Olof Petersson, Lewi Pethrus, Harald Rasmussen, Bob Richards, Sigrid Rosell, Carl Olof Rosenius, Bo Setterlind, A. Skevington Wood, Enar Skillius, Michael A. Smith, Erik Sollerman, John Stott, Einar Thomassen, Leo Tolstoj, Lars Vitus, Kallistos Ware, Bernt Werneskog, Pontus Wikner, Fredrik Wislöff.


My own comments and speculations:

The Greek word, which usually is translated by "side", is the same as in the Greek OT is used about the rib in Gen 2:21-22. In Jesus we see the first Man, before the rib is taken out of Him. In Himself Jesus includes both the male and the female. So He is more than a male. He is the perfect image of God, the Lord. Concerning “side/rib”, see My own comments and speculations to John 19:33-37.

See also John 2:19-22 and "Exegetes, evangelists and others" to that Bible passage. After the resurrection three days have been added to the number 46 and the following day is the 50th day, the day of the Spirit. Compare the rise from 49 (John 2:19-22) via "not yet 50" (John 8:57) to 50 here i John 20. And this 50th day is also the fourth day, the day when Lazarus saw the light (John 11:39,44; cf. Gen 1:14-19). Compare also Rev 11:11, where “the spirit of life from God” (cf. John 20:22) came into the two witnesses after three and a half days. And they stand up and are seen. But then the joy of men will be changed to fear. Now the fear of the disciples has been changed to joy. The flame of the wrath does no longer reach the disciples of Jesus (cf. The Prayer of Azariah v 24).

See also the Gospel of Mark, which says that Jesus would stand up after three days, that is on the fourth day (Mark 8:31; 9:31; 10:34) and Matt 12:40 which says that Jonah would be in the belly of the sea monster and Jesus in the heart of the earth for three days and three nights. Cf. also My own comments and speculations to John 20:24-25.


Paul said: "(It is not possible to be) male and female, for you are all of you * (א*) in Christ Jesus." (Gal 3:28b)

Paul said to the believers i Ephesos: “Rejoice in the Lord always; again I will speak: ‘Rejoice!’” (Phil 4:4)


Additional studies:

Ps 32:11; Matt 1:18-25; 2:10; Mark 1:44; 8:31; 10:34; 15:33; Luke 1:26-38; 5:14; 23:44; John 15:11; 20:25; Phil 3:1; 3 John v 3; Rev 11:11; 12:5.


David L. Baker "The Jubilee and the Millenium"; Themelios 24.1 (October 1998): 44-69.

John Sietze Bergsma "The Jubilee: A Post-Exilic Priestly attempt to Reclaim Lands?"; Biblica 84 (2003): 225-246.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-03; 2012-04-28; 2014-12-09; 2014-12-19)

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20:21-23 He (א,*א) so spoke to them again: “Peace to you. Entirely as the Father has dispatched (and dispatches) Me away, and/also I will (א*) send you.” And having spoken this He puffed in/on (them), and He says to them: “Take holy spirit. According to the circumstances you may let the misses (of the mark of God) of some (persons) be. It will be (א*) let be (alone) to them. According to the circumstances you may ‘get power over’/seize (the misses of the mark of God) of some (persons). They/'these misses' have been (and are) ‘got power over’/seized.”

Word for word: 20:21 (14 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus) (he)-spoke so (to)-them again: peace (to)-you: entirely-as has-dispatched-(and-dispatches)-away me the father, and-i/I will-send you. 20:22 (10 words in the Greek text) and this having-spoken (he)-puffed-in and says (to)-them: take spirit holy. 20:23 (11 words in the Greek text) according-to-the-circumstances (of)-some-(ones/persons) (you)-may-let-be the misses-(of-the-mark-of-God) (it)-will-be-let-be (to)-them, according-to-the-circumstances (of)-some-(ones/persons) (you)-may-get-power-over.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

God formed the man of gravel from the earth and puffed in, into his face, a breath of life. And the man became into a living soul. (Gen 2:7, Greek OT)

(Lot and his woman and his two daughters) were troubled. But the messengers ‘got power over’/seized (their hands) ‘in the spare of the Lord of (Lot)’/’for the Lord of (Lot) wanted to spare them’. (Gen 19:16a, Greek OT)

(Moses said to the Lord:) “If You indeed let the miss (of Your mark) be for (Your people), let (it) be. But if not, wipe me out, out of Your book, which You have written.” And the Lord spoke towards Moses: “If anyone has missed (and misses) (My mark) in the very eyes of Me, I will wipe him out, out of My book.” (Ex 32:32-33, Greek OT)

Aaron ... shall put/lay (all the misses of the mark of Israel) against the head of the living he-goat and dispatch it out ... into the desolate (district). … (Lev 16:21b, Greek OT)

The (ten) men, the ones having ascended together in company with (Caleb to Canaan) spoke that/: “We do not ascend, because we - according to the circumstances - may not/certainly not be able to ascend towards the nation, because it is more stable rather/than us.” ... (And these ten men) died ... in the blow opposite/before the Lord. (Num 13:31 or 13:32, 14:37b, Greek OT)

A spirit is in mortals of blood, but a breath of an All-powerful is the one teaching. (Job 32:8, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said: “With) the saying of the Lord the heavens were made firm and (with) the spirit of His mouth every/all their ability.” (Ps 33:6, Greek OT)

(The woman said:) “... I found him whom my soul welcomed. I ’got power (over)’/seized him, and I will not let him be.” (Song of Solomon 3:4a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) “I will give the key of the house of David on (Eliakim's) shoulder, and he will open, and it/there is not (anyone) shutting up, and he will shut up, and it/there is not (anyone) opening.” (Is 22:22, Greek OT א*)

(The Lord said:) “From the side of Me spirit will come out, and every breath I have made.” (Is 57:16b, Greek OT)

(The prophet said: “The Lord) spoke towards me: ‘Prophesy against these bones and speak to them: Dried out bones, hear the saying of the Lord: This is what the Lord God says to these bones: Behold, I carry a spirit of life into you.’” (Ezek 37:4-5, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to the prophet:) “Prophecy, son of a man, prophecy against the spirit and speak to the spirit: ‘This is what the Lord says: Come out of the four spirits, and puff on, into these dead (bodies), and let them live.’” (Ezek 37:9b, Greek OT)

(Solomon said:) “Give ear, (you) getting power over a multitude ... because your ‘power over’/power has been given from the side of the Lord.” (Wisdom of Solomon 6:2a,3a)

(Solomon said:) “’According to generations’/’from generation to generation’ (wisdom) stepping/steps over into pious souls and prepares (men) entirely to friends of God and prophets, for God welcomes nothing ‘if not’/except the one inhabiting (wisdom) together with (her)”. (Wisdom of Solomon 7:27b-28)

(Solomon said to God:) “Who has gained knowledge of Your counsel, if not You have given wisdom and sent Your Holy Spirit from highest things?” (Wisdom of Solomon 9:17)

(Wisdom) came into, into the soul of the attendant/servant of the Lord and ‘stood against’/resisted fearful kings in/with omens and signs. (Wisdom of Solomon 10:16)

(Solomon said: “The one who formed idols) had not knowledge of the One having formed him and having blown into him a soul being active and having puffed in a spirit full of life.” (Wisdom of Solomon 15:11)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said: “The Lord) lets misses (of His mark) be, and He saves in a seasonable time of oppression.” (Sir 2:11b)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said: “If you) have power/seized (wisdom), do not let her be (alone).” (Sir 6:27b; the Greek word for "have power/seized" is "engkratês", cf. krateô)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples: ”Pray so in this way:) ‘Let our debts be (alone) to us, as and/also we have let our debtors be (alone).’” (Matt 6:12)

Having beheld the faith (of the men carrying the paralytic) Jesus spoke to (him): “Child, be confident! Your misses (of the mark of God) are ‘let be’/’left alone’.” (Matt 9:2b)

(Jesus) ‘got power over’/seized the hand (of the little eyeball/girl), and (she) was risen. (Matt 9:25b)

(Jesus said to the Pharisees:) “Every miss (of the mark of God) and blasphemy will be ‘let be’/left (alone) to the men, but the blasphemy of/to the Spirit will not be ‘let be’/left (alone). And who – if according to the circumstances – may speak a saying ‘down from’/against the Son of the Man, it will be ‘let be’/left (alone) to him. But who – according to the circumstances – may speak ‘down from’/against the Holy Spirit, it will not/certainly not (א*) be ‘let be’/left (alone) to him, ‘and not’/neither in this age ‘and not’/nor in the (one) being about (to come).” (Matt 12:31b-32)

(Jesus said to Peter:) “I will give you the keys of the kingdom of the heavens. And which/what you – if according to the circumstances – may bind upon the earth, it will be, having been (and being) bound in the heavens, and which/what you – if according to the circumstances - may loosen upon the earth, it will be, having been (and being) loosened in the heavens.” (Matt 16:19)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "If (the brother missing the mark of God) – according to the circumstances – may ‘hear ... from the side of’/ignore them, speak to the (assembly) of called out. But if – according to the circumstances – he may and/also ‘hear ... from the side of’/ignore the (assembly) of called out, let him be for you just as the one belonging to the nations and the toll collector. Amen, I say to you: ‘As many things as you – if according to the circumstances – may bind upon the earth, they will be being (and having been) bound in the heavens (א,* א), and as many things as you – if according to the circumstances – may loosen upon the earth, they will be being (and having been) loosened in heaven.’" (Matt 18:17-18)

Having come to/forward Jesus talked (with the eleven disciples) saying: "Every/all (judicial) authority in heaven and upon earth has been given to Me. Having gone * (א,* א, A) be/make disciples (of) all the nations." (Matt 28:18-19a; BG Ask-comment: Walter Bauer says in his Greek-English lexicon - p 485 - that the Greek word for "be or become a disciple" - as a transitive verb has the meaning of "make a disciple". Perhaps no translator has another meaning. But I am not sure that this is the johannine view. To be disciples in a company of all nations can cause the crowd of disciples to increase. Cf. John 17:21-23.)

(Jesus) (continually/repeatedly) said to (the crowd together with His disciples): “Amen, I say to you that/: ‘They/there are some of the ones standing here, whoever/who not/certainly not may taste death till they – according to the circumstances – may behold the kingdom of God having come (and coming) in/with ability.’” (Mark 9:1)

(John's father Zacharias prophecied:) "You, little boy, will be called a prophet of a Highest One, for you will go forward, in the very eyes of a lord, to make His ways ready, to give to His people knowledge of saving in/through a ‘letting be’/’leaving alone’ of their misses (of His mark), because of inward vital parts of a mercy of our God, in/through which ‘an upsticking’/’a sunrise’ will inspect us out of a height, to bring to light on the ones being seated in darkness and shadow of death, to entirely straighten our feet into a way of peace." (Luke 1:76-79)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “I dispatch you away as rams in a middle of wolves.” (Luke 10:3b)

The Lord of the vineyard spoke: “What shall I make/do? I will send my welcomed son. Perhaps they will ‘turn in themselves’/’be ashamed’ (towards) this one.” (Luke 20:13)

(Jesus said:) “Father, into Your hands I put/lay My spirit to the side of (You).” But/and having spoken this, He ‘blew out’/’breathed his last’. (Luke 23:46b)

It became/came all at once out of the heaven a sound just as (a sound) being carried/produced (by) a violent breath/puff. (Acts 2:2a)

Peter utters towards (the Jews): “Change your minds and let yourselves, everyone/each of you, be baptized on/’for the sake of’ the name of Jesus Christ into/’for the purpose of’ a letting be (alone) of your misses (of the mark of God) and you will take the benefit of the Holy Spirit.” (Acts 2:38)

Peter (said) towards (Sapphira): “’What that’/why did you wear together to try the Spirit of a lord? Behold, the feet of the ones having buried your male (are) on/at the door, and they will carry you out.” And immediately she fell towards his feet and she breathed out/’her last’. (Acts 5:9-10a)

Having descended (to Samaria Peter and John) prayed on account of (the Samaritans), in that way that they might take holy spirit. ... They (continually/repeatedly) put the hands against them, and they (continually/repeatedly) took holy spirit ... through the putting/laying upon of the hands of the apostles. (Acts 8:15,17-18a)

Peter spoke towards (Simon): “Oh, that your silvermetal may be/come into a perdition together with you, because you have adopted as a law (that you could) acquire the benefit of God through/with matters/money.” (Acts 8:20)

(Peter said:) “(About Jesus) all the prophets are witnesses to take (possession of) a ‘letting be’/’leaving alone’ of misses (of the mark of God) through His name, every/everyone believing into Him.” (Acts 10:43)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

As many as took him, to them He gave (judicial) authority to become children of God, to the ones believing into His name, who were begotten ... out of God. (John 1:12-13)

On the following day (John the Baptist) sees Jesus coming towards him, and he says: “Behold, the Lamb of God, the One lifting/’taking away’ the miss (of the mark of God) of the adornment/’adorned world’!” (John 1:29)

John was a witness saying that/: "I have viewed (and view) the Spirit as a pigeon descending out of heaven, and It stayed against Him. And I did not know (and had not known) Him, however/but the One having sent me to baptize in the (P66,א,*א) water, that One spoke to me: ‘(The One) against whom you – according to the circumstances - may behold the Spirit descending and staying against Him, this One is He baptizing in holy spirit.’" (John 1:32-33)

The one believing into the Son has agelong life. * (א*) The one disobeying the Son shall not behold life, however/but the wrath of God stays against him. (John 3:36)

Yet Jesus at any rate did not Himself baptize (continually) however/but His disciples. (John 4:2)

Jesus so shouted in the sanctuary, teaching and saying: “You and/both know Me and know from where I am? And/but I have not come (and come) from Myself. However the One having sent Me is truthful (P66, א,* א), whom you do not know. But (P66,א,*א) I know Him, because I am from the side of Him, and that One has dispatched (and dispatches) (P66,א,*א) Me away.” (John 7:28-29)

In/on the last day, the great (day) of the feast, Jesus stood and (continually/repeatedly) (P66, א,* א) shouted, saying: “If – according to the circumstances – anyone may thirst: ‘Come * (P66,א*) and drink!’ The one believing into Me – entirely as the writing spoke – out of his belly rivers of living water will flow.” (John 7:37-38)

The ones believing (א,*א) into (Jesus) (continually) were about to take (of the Spirit). For spirit was not yet (continually), because Jesus was not * (א,* א, B) yet glorified. (John 7:39)

Jesus said to (the Pharisees): “If you may be blind, you (continually) had – according to the circumstances – not (any) miss (of the mark of God). But now you say that/: ‘We see.’ Your miss (of the mark of God) stays.” (John 9:41)

(Jesus said to the Jews:) “I give them agelong life, and they may not/certainly not perish into the (coming) age, and anyone may not/certainly (א,*א) not rape them out of My hand. What the Father has given (and gives) Me is greater than all (א*). And no one is able to rape out of the hand of the Father.” (John 10:28-29)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "Amen, amen, I say to you, the one taking – according to the circumstances - someone I may send takes Me, but the one taking Me takes the One having sent Me." (John 13:20)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “If – according to the circumstances – a certain (person) may not have stayed in Me, he has been thrown outside as the twig and been dried. And they lead it (א,*א) together (with other twigs) and throw (them) into the fire, and it is burnt.” (John 15:6)

(Jesus said to the Father:) “I talk these things in the adornment/’adorned world’, in order that (the ones You have given Me) may have My joy being (and having been) completed in them * (P66,א*).” (John 17:13b)

(Jesus said to His Father:) "Entirely as You have dispatched Me away into the adornment/’adorned world’, and/also I have dispatched (My disciples) away into the adornment/’adorned world’." (John 17:18)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 - about 1500

Whitsuntide ... deals with ... that the people shall celebrate together with its great Deliverer, and that they shall enter into a covenant with one another. ... To become free means ... not only to become free from something but above all to become free to something, not only to escape something but to receive something. While Easter is about the early aspect, Whitsuntide is about the latter one. ... It is now life community between God and his people can begin. (Göran Larsson "Tid för Gud, Judiska och kristna perspektiv på de judiska högtiderna" p 57,61-62; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

The theological message (of the Latin Version of Adam's Heavenly Journey in the Life of Adam and Eve) can be summarized by saying that God restores those who demonstrate genuine remorse and ask for forgiveness. Adam did that already during his life on earth and it, therefore, also is something which characterizes his followers. Thus, Adam, is a prototype for the righteous. ... In the Greek version ... Adam is the archetype for the sinner who does not become righteous until after death, at the time of the resurrection. (Leif Carlsson ”Round trips to heaven” p 239,247)

"What did God do, when he had formed Adam from that clay clod", the teacher asks again. "This you surely know?" "He probably put him to dry, I should think", Mia says sullenly. Then Madicken bursts out laughing, and Mia glares angrily at her. But Madicken does not notice it. Now it becomes she who comes with the right answer. "God blew his spirit in through Adam's nose so that she got life." At the break afterwards Mia comes up to Madicken. "I shall blow you in the nose, cocky frog", she says flying at Madicken. (Astrid Lindgren "Madicken och Junibackens Pims" p 90-91; translation from the Swedish text)

Jesus' breathing on the disciples ... is like God's breathing on dust when he first created man. (Raymond E. Brown "The Gospel according to John" p CXXI)

That John intended to depict an event of significance parallel to that of the first creation of man cannot be doubted; this was the beginning of the new creation. (C.K. Barrett "The Gospel according to St John" p 570)

It would of course be the most light, sweet feeling to feel oneself be in so near connection with God, that one felt his holiness flow through all one's inner man. Do you think this is what the Oxfordists feel? If I have read rightly in their writings, so an Oxfordist always becomes converted by this that Jesus reveals himself for him. If it is so, one can of course no wonder that that man then wholly devotes himself to the service of his Saviour. But I have not had such an experience and therefore I am neither anything more than a usual child of the world. . . . . . . I prayed to God, that he would forgive me my sins, against him and against all men, particularly against you, a person I did so unhappy last night. No, I do not asked for any special grace for you, I only asked for forgiveness for me, poor, sinful man. And I thought it was such a silly, frugal prayer, for who was I that I would pray God to forgive just me. I wanted, that I had been able to pray for peace and for the thing that the whole world would be spared from the distress of the war, but I was only able to pray "Forgive me my sins", over and over again. And during this I had no thought, that this could help my bad heart. I had wanted to pray much more beautiful, more touching with more humbleness. But nevertheless, can you understand this, I became helped. The hard pain in my heart disappeared. It was not this I had prayed for, I only had asked for forgiveness for my sins. But during this prayer the bodily pain disappeared. I was so astonished and so glad and so thankful. (Selma Lagerlöf "Brev 2 - 1903-1940" p 358-360; letters 1939-03-26 and 1939-08-27 to Ida Bäckmann; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Prior to Pentecost the disciples were disciples, standing away, yet very near – I would not undervalue the nearness of those days – but they were not one with Him. ... In half an hour after Pentecost they knew more about Jesus Christ than they had ever known before. (G. Campbell Morgan "The Acts of the Apostles" p 27-28)

The unknown man: "Give me a reproach!" The lady: "This you yourself do enough; I would rather give you a piece of good advice: go to the monastery The good help, there is a man who can release you from the only thing you fear." The unknown man: "There in the monastery, where they curse and bind . . . " The lady: "They also loosen!" (August Strindberg "Till Damaskus II" p 268; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

(The old man) brought up all talk about (Lars) in Askedalarna after the death of Erik in Falla. The son agreed. It surely was so that Lars was not wholly unguilty. And if he now had begun to drink, this was bad signs. . . . "I hope, that he goes to the priest this evening", the old man said. "For there is forgiveness, only he searches it. . . . Yes, there is forgiveness", he said. "For all the ones letting old men lie waiting and getting frost-bitten in biting frost there is forgiveness up to this day. But then it is at an end." (Selma Lagerlöf "Kejsarn av Portugallien" p 142-143; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


about 1500 and time before

Not all men's sin is taken away by the Lamb of God, not the sin of those who do not grieve and suffer affliction till it be taken away. (Origen, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol X, p 379)

Every one will allow that we are (composed of) a body taken from the earth, and a soul receiving spirit from God. ... Where the Church is, there is the Spirit of God; and where the Spirit of God is, there is the Church, and every kind of grace; but the Spirit is the truth. (Irenaeus, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol I, p 454,458)

He, who was the perfect bread of the Father, offered Himself to us as milk, (because we were) as infants. He did this when He appeared as a man, that we, being nourished, as it were, from the breast of His flesh, and having, by such a course of milk-nourishment, become accustomed to eat and drink the Word of God, may be able also to contain in ourselves the Bread of immortality, which is the Spirit of the Father. ... (The Lord gave) His soul for our souls, and His flesh for our flesh .... (and) poured out the Spirit of the Father for the union and communion of God and man, imparting indeed God to men by means of the Spirit. ... Since the Lord has power to infuse life into what He has fashioned, and since the flesh is capable of being quickened, what remains to prevent its participating in incorruption, which is a blissful and never-ending life granted by God? (Irenaeus, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol I, p 521,527,530)

The title ‘Rabbi’ was formerly bestowed on the candidate, and authority given him to teach and to act as Judge (to bind and loose, to declare guilty or free). (Alfred Edersheim "The Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah Part II" p 382)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Carl Jonas Love Almqvist, David Atkinson, Karl Barth, Johann Albrecht Bengel, Greta Bergholmen, UllaBritt Berglund, Arvid Bergstam, Natanael Beskow, Oloph Bexell, Rudolf Björkman, Anders Blomquist, H. Booth, John H.Y. Briggs, Olaus Brännström, Margareta Byrmo, Elizabeth Charles, Anna-Maria Claesson, Stig Dagerman, Nils Dahlberg, Sven Danell, Ylva Eggehorn, E.J. Ekman, Albert Engström, LarsOlov Eriksson, Emilia Fogelklou, Adolphine Fogtmann, Bo Frid, Bo Giertz, Michael Green, Carl Grimberg, John Gustavsson, Björn Hallström, Olov Hartman, William Heinesen, Brynolf Hellner, Jarl Hemmer, Erik Herneby, C.G. Hjelm, Margareta Holtti, Evan H. Hopkins, Bengt Hägglund, Curt Härenstam, Sven Ingebrand, Kazuo Ishiguro, Anders Jarlert, Hilding Johansson, Viktor Johansson, Eyvind Johnson, Festo Kivengere, Thorsten Kjäll, Adolf Kloo, Martin Koch, Lars Levi Laestadius, Sven Lagerbring, U. Leander, C.S. Lewis, Sven Lidman, Lars Lindberg, Mereth Lindgren, Sigvard Lindqvist, Martin Luther, Edin Lövås, Margareta Malmgren, Verner Malmsten, Frank Mangs, H. Martenson-Larsen, F.B. Meyer, Vilhelm Moberg, D.L. Moody, G. Campbell Morgan, Fredrik Nielsen, Bertil Nilsson, Arvid Norberg, Agne Nordlander, Jan Olof Olsson, John Ongman, Jeanna Oterdahl, Karl Palmberg, Efraim Palmqvist, Sven-Erik Pernler, Hans Peterson, Kenneth Peterson, Hilding Pleijel, Nils Ramselius, Harald Rasmussen, Bo Reicke, Eliza Richardson, Per Rickardsson, Viktor Rydberg, Gösta Sandberg, Gunnar E. Sandgren, Elisabeth Sandlund, Sven-Åke Selander, Bo Setterlind, Isaac Basjevis Singer, Stanley Sjöberg, Harry Sjöman, Alexander Solsjenitsyn, Eva Spångberg, Milton Steinberg, John Stott, Jesper Svartvik, Knut Svensson, Sture Svensson, Wislawa Szymborska, Nathan Söderblom, Rabindranath Tagore, Johannes Tauler, Esaias Tegnér, Alf Tergel, Einar Thomassen, Ragnar Thoursie, Birger Thureson, Anton Tjechov, Nils Tägt, Johan Olof Wallin, Paul Wern, Anne Westblom, N.P. Wetterlund, Eva Österberg.


My own comments and speculations:

In a restoration perspective we see how the ten frightened spies in the wilderness, who were killed before the Lord, now are restored by taking the Holy Spirit to life before the Lord.

Of the rib God made the woman Eve, a name meaning "life" or "life-producer". Compare the water which came out of the rib in John 19:34. As the first Man with the life-producing rib, Jesus now gives living water, agelong life, to all who touch Him in faith.

In a restoration perspective we can compare the order between ”sent … dispatched away” in John 7:28-29 and ”dispatches away … send” here in John 20:21.

The apostles are given – according to the circumstances – the right to let sins (misses of the mark of God) be. The right to get power over sins (misses of the mark of God) is – according to the circumstances – connected with the fact that the sins (misses of the mark of God) have been and are seized in heaven. In the Acts we have a background in the baptism of the apostles, a baptism into “letting be” (remission) of sins (misses of the mark of God) (2:38) and in the sin (miss of the mark of God) of Ananias and Sapphira, which led to their death (5:1-11). Cf. also the qualification to believe into Jesus Christ to receive the “letting be” (remission) of sins (misses of the mark of God) in Acts 10:43.

The way of the Spirit through a man is described as rivers (John 7:38) which go from the mouth of Jesus (John 20:22) into the moth of the man ("drink" John 7:37; cf. 1 Cor 12:13 "to be given the Spirit to drink") and which then go out of the belly (John 7:38). The inflow of the Spirit into a man implies that the outflow functions. Otherwise it will stop the supply, and the Spirit will be caused sorrow (Eph. 4:30). The Spirit is not a person who a man as an individual can seize for his own part. It is by the side of him to glorify Jesus in the mutual love between those who believe into Him.


Paul said to the believers in Rome: “If being enemies we ‘were entirely changed’/’became reconciled’ (with/to) Gud through the death of His son, we will, having ‘been entirely changed’/’become reconciled’, much rather/more be saved in/with His life.” (Rom 5:10)

Paul said to the believers in Corinth: ”We have all been baptized in one Spirit into one body ... and we have all been given one Spirit to drink.” (1 Cor 12:13)

Paul said to the believers in Corinth: ”The last Adam (became) into/to a spirit making alive.” (1 Cor 15:45b)

Paul said to the believers in Galatia: "You are all sons of God through the faith in Christ Jesus, for as many as have been baptized into Christ have set/clothed yourselves in Christ." (Gal 3:26-27)

James said to the believers: “Is anyone in/among you weak, let him call to (himself) the elders of the (assembly) of called out and let them pray against/over him having smeared him (with) olive-oil in the name of the Lord, and the vow of the faith will save/preserve the one being fatigued, and the Lord will raise him.” (Jas 5:14-15a)

If we – according to the circumstances – may confess our misses (of the mark of God), He is faithful and righteous, in order that He may let our (א,* א) misses (of His mark) be to us and make us clean from every unrighteousness. (1 John 1:9)

I write to you, little children, because the misses (of the mark of God) have been (and are) left (alone) to you because of His name. (1 John 2:12)

And you, the ointment, which you have taken from Him, it stays in you, and you have not need, in order that anyone may teach you. However, as His Spirit (א*) teaches you on account of all things and is true and is not a lie, and entirely as It has taught you, you stay in Him. (1 John 2:27)

Behold of what nature the Father has given (and gives) you a welcome, in order that you may be called children of God, (which) you and/also are. Because of this the adornment/’adorned world’ has not knowledge of you (א*), because it had not knowledge of Him. (1 John 3:1)


Greek words:

emfysaô (puff on) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Wisdom of Solomon 15:11; John 20:22 – Tobit 6:9.

krateô (get power (over)) (i NT + exempel i GT) Gen 19:16; Song of Solomon 3:4; Wisdom of Solomon 6:2(3); Matt 9:25; John 20:23 – Gen 19:16; 2 Sam 6:6; Esther 1:1; Ps 73:23; 137:9; Prov 14:18; Is 42:6; Judith 1:14; 1 Macc 1:2; 14:6; 2 Macc 4:50; 5:7; Wisdom of Solomon 3:8; 10:2; 14:19; Sir 27:3; 38:25; Baruch 4:1; Matt 12:11; 14:3; 18:28; 21:46; 22:6; 26:4,48,50,55,57; 28:9; Mark 1:31; 3:21; 5:41; 6:17; 7:3-4,8; 9:10,27; 12:12; 14:1,44,46,49,51; Luke 8:54; 24:16; Acts 2:24; 3:11; 24:6; 27:13; Col 2:19; 2 Thess 2:15; Heb 4:14; 6:18; Rev 2:1,13-15,25; 3:11; 7:1; 20:2.


Additional studies:

Ex 15:10; Deut 34:9; Dan 10:18-19; Matt 6:12-15; 10:16; 18:21-35; Luke 5:20; 7:47; 11:4; 17:3; 22:29; 24:36; John 1:32-33; 3:5,17,34; 4:24,34,38; 5:23-24,30,36-38; 6:29,38-39,44,57; 7:16,18,28-29,33; 8:16,18,26,29,42; 9:4; 10:36; 11:42; 12:44-45,49; 14:16,24,26-27; 15:21,26; 16:5,7; 17:3,8,21,23,25; 20:19,26; Acts 1:2; 3 John v 14(15); Rev 1:4; 3:7-8; 5:6; 8:6,13; 11:11,14; 22:11.


G.K. Beale "The Descent of the Eschatological Temple in the Form of the Spirit at Pentecost: Part 1: The Clearest Evidence"; Tyndale Bulletin 56.1 (2005): 73-102.

G.K. Beale "The Descent of the Eschatological Temple in the Form of the Spirit at Pentecost: Part 2: Corrobating Evidence"; Tyndale Bulletin 56.2 (2005): 63-90.

Cornelius Bennema "The Giving of the Spirit in John's Gospel - A New Proposal?"; The Evangelical Quarterly 74.3 (July-Sept 2002): 195-213

Henry Joel Cadbury "The meaning of John 20:23, Matthew 16:19 and Matthew 18:18"; Journal of Biblical Literature 58.3 (1939): 251-254.

L. Floor "The Lord and the Holy Spirit in the fourth Gospel"; Neotestamentica 2:1 (1968): 122-130.

Steven E. Hansen "Forgiving and Retaining Sin: A Study of the Text and Context of John 20:23"; Horizons in Biblical Theology 19 (1997): 24-32.

Thomas R. Hatina: John 20:22 in Its Eschatological Context: Promise or Fulfillment?; Biblica 74 (1993): 196-219.

R. Le Déaut "sJa/vu/aeo/t och den kristna pingsten"; Svensk Exegetisk Årsbok 44 (1979): 148-170.

Howard Marshall "The Significance of Pentecost"; Scottish Journal of Theology 30 (1977): 347 -.

Henry McKeating "Divine Forgiveness in the Psalms"; Scottish Journal of Theology 18 (1965): 69 -.

J. van Rossum "The 'Johannine Pentecost': John 20:22 in Modern Exegesis and in Orthodox Theology"; Saint Vladimir's Theological Quarterly 35 (1991): 149-167.

E.A. Russell "The Holy Spirit in the Fourth Gospel. Some Observations."; Irish Biblical Studies 2.2 (1980): 84-94.

Walt Russel "The Holy Spirit's Ministry in the Fourth Gospel"; Grace Theological Journal 8.2 (1987): 227-239.

C.C. Ryrie "The Significance of Pentecost"; Bibliotheca Sacra 112:448 (1955): 330-339.

James Swetnam "The Bestowal of the Spirit in the Fourth Gospel"; Biblica 74 (1993):556-576.

M. Max B. Turner "Spirit Endowment in Luke-Acts: Some Linguistic Considerations"; Vox Evangelica 12 (1981): 45-63.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-03; 2012-05-07; 2014-12-10; 2014-12-19)

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20:24-25 But Thomas, one out of the twelve, the one being said/called Twofold, (continually) was not in company with them, when Jesus came. The other disciples so (continually/repeatedly) said to him: “We have beheld (and behold) the Lord!” But he spoke to them: “If – according to the circumstances – I may not behold in His hands the type of the nails and throw/lay my finger into His hand (א*) and throw/lay my hand into/’up to’ His rib, I may not/certainly not believe.”

Word for word: 20:24 (16 words in the Greek text) Thomas but one out-of the twelve, the-(one) being-said Twofold, not (continually)-was in-company-with them when came Jesus. 20:25 (45 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus prima manus) (continually)-said so (to)-him the other disciples: (we)-have-beheld-(and-behold) the lord. 'the-(one)'/he but spoke (to)-them: if-according-to-the-circumstances not (i/I)-may-behold in the hands his the type (of)-the (of)-nails and (i/I)-may-throw my the finger into the hand his and (i/I)-may-throw my the hand into the rib his, not/certainly not (i/I)-may-believe.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Abraham said to his boy/servant:) “Put/lay your hand underneath my thigh/thigh-bone, and I will bind you by oath to/by the Lord, the God of the heaven and the God of the earth.” (Gen 24:2-3a, Greek OT)

The days of (Rebekah) to bring forth (a child) were completed and this is what (continually) were twofold/twins (Esau and Jacob) in her belly. (Gen 25:24, Greek OT)

At the time when it became, (Tamar) brought forth (a child), and this is what (continually) were twofold/twins (Perez and Zerah) in her womb. (Gen 38:27, Greek OT)

The brothers of Joseph, the ten ones, descended to purchase breadstuff out of Egypt. But (Jacob) did not dispatch away Benjamin, the brother of Joseph, in company with his brothers. (Gen 42:3-4a, Greek OT)

Moses and Aaron and Nadab and Abihu and seventy of the council of elders of Israel ascended (to the mountain). And they beheld the place, where the God of Israel stood there. (Ex 24:9-10a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Moses:) "Behold, you shall make (these things) according to the type having been (and being) shown to you in/on the mountain." (Ex 25:40, Greek OT)

Having taken . . . everyone his firepan (Adab and Abihu), the two sons of Aaron, put fire against, against it, and threw incense against, against it, and carried to, opposite the Lord, alien fire, which the Lord had not commanded them. (Lev 10:1, Greek OT)

Moses dispatched away (the twelve) to entirely contemplate the earth/land Canaan, and he spoke towards them: "... Behold the earth/land, what it is! ... What (is) the earth/land, if (it is) fat or ‘being by the side of’/lean? If it is trees in it or not? Having ‘been patient’/adhered to (it), take from the fruits of the earth/land.” And the days (were) days of spring, forerunners of a grape/'bunch of grapes'. (Num 13:17a,18a,20 or 13:18a,19a,21, Greek OT)

(The twelve) turned away/back ... having entirely contemplated the earth/land. ... (Caleb said to Israel:) "We shall ascend and entirely inherit (the land), because we shall be able to (what is) able things towards them." ... (Jesus/Joshua and Caleb said to Israel:) "You may not fear the people of the earth/land, because it is entirely food to us, for the Lord stands aloof from them, but the Lord (is) in/with us. You may not fear them." (Num 13:25a,30b or 13:31b; 14:9b, Greek OT)

David made ready much iron into/’purposed for’ the nails of the portals and the gates (of the house of God). (1 Chron 22:3a, Greek OT)

The drawing/weight of the nails (of the holy of the holies of the house of God was) fifty shekels of gold. (2 Chron 3:9a, Greek OT)

... (The prophet) beheld the Lord being seated upon a throne, high and being lifted upon/up. (Is 6:1a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) “I will give the key of the house of David on (My boy Eliakim's) shoulder, and he will open, and it/there is not (anyone) shutting up, and he will shut up, and it/there is not (anyone) opening. I will cause him to stand (as) a leader in a faithful/firm place, and he will be into/to a throne of glory of the house of his father. And it will be, having been persuaded/trusted (and being persuaded/trusted) against him every glorious thing in the house of his father … (that) in that day … the man being set fast in a faithful/sure place will be stirred and fall and the glory against him will be taken off ‘for oneself’/-.” (Is 22:22-25a, Greek OT; 22:22א*)

(Solomon said to the Lord:) “You have arranged every thing throughout (with) measure and number and standing-place/balance.” (Wisdom of Solomon 11:20b)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said: “As) a missile weapon being (and having been) fixed in/at a thigh of a flesh/body, in this way (is) a saying in a belly of a foolish (person).” (Sir 19:12)


The Latter Revelation:

Judas begot Perez and Zarah/Zerah out of Tamar. (Matt 1:3a)

Having stretched out the hand (Jesus) touched (the leper), saying: “I want, ‘be made’/become clean.” And straightaway his leprosy was made clean. (Matt 8:3)

The ones going by the side of (continually) blasphemed (Jesus), stiring/shaking their heads, and saying: “The One loosening down/up the temple and in three days building (it), save Yourself, if You are a son of God, and descend from the cross.” (Matt 27:39-40)

The curtain of the temple was split/torn into two from, from above till down. (Matt 27:51a)

Having beheld (Jesus the eleven) prostrated themselves before (Him), but (some) doubted. (Matt 28:17)

(Jesus chose from the disciples) twelve, whom He and/also named apostles. … (One of them was) Thomas (a name which in Aramaic means "twin"). (Luke 6:13b,15a)

Having raised his voice (the rich man in Hades) spoke: “Father Abraham, have mercy on me, and send Lazarus, in order that he may dip the border/tip of his finger (in) water and cool my tongue, because I ‘am caused’/feel pain in this flame.” (Luke 16:24)

These words (of the women) ‘were brought’/came to light in the very eyes of (the eleven), as if (they were) an idle tale, and they (continually) did not believe (in) them (= the women). (Luke 24:11)

(The eleven and the other disciples) (continually) thought ‘to look’/’that they looked’ at a spirit. And (Jesus) spoke to them: "What/why are you being (and having been) troubled, and because of what do considerations ascend in your hearts (א,*א,A)?" (Luke 24:37b-38)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "Behold My hands and My feet, that I am He Himself. Feel (on) Me and behold, that a spirit has not fleshes/'pieces of flesh' (P75,א*) and bones entirely as you look at 'Me having'/'that I have'." (Luke 24:39)

(Stephen said to ‘his brothers and fathers’:) “The tent of the testimony (continually) was to our fathers in the desolate (district) ... according to the type which (Moses) beheld (and had beheld) .” (Acts 7:44)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Jesus said:) "Loosen this temple, and in three days I will raise it." The Jews so spoke: "Forty-six years this temple has been built and You will raise it in three days?" But that (One) said (it) on account of the temple of His body. When He so was raised out of dead (bodies), His disciples remembered that He (continually/repeatedly) had said this; and they believed (in) the writing and (in) the saying which Jesus had spoken. (John 2:19-22)

Thomas, who is called the Twin, said to his fellow disciples: "Let us also lead, that we may die in company with (Jesus)." (John 11:16)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “And you know the way whereat/where I withdraw.” Thomas says to Him: “Lord, we do not know, where You withdraw. And (א,*א,A) how are we able to know the way?” Jesus says to him: “I am the way and the truth and the life. No one comes towards the Father if not through Me.” (John 14:4-6)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

When one has added up several long numbers, it is one's guilty to doubt the correctness of the counting. In order to prove one usually adds up again, but from down upwards. This is a sound doubt. There is an unsound doubt, which consists in denying all what one has not oneself seen or heard. To in this way treat one's fellow-beings as liers is inhuman and reduces seriously one's knowing. But there is a sickly doubt reminding of suffering from indigestion; everything is swallowed, but nothing is kept, everything is received but nothing is assimilated. Of this it follows growing thin, marasmus senilis, pulmonary consumption and too early death. Johannes Damascenus had several periods of sound doubt, when he with systematic denial proved the truths of faith. When he with counter-counting, the least square root and the satisfying of the values had become sure, he believed. And then neither fear of men, own gain, ridicule or threats could induce him to deny his dearly acquired faith. In this he was only right. (August Strindberg "En blå bok I" p 10; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

As a sceptic You should search the certainty with an experiment. Do some such ones! Suspend for example your religion pursuits and see if the night sleep returns, and if the nervousness disappears! The other experiments You easily think out yourself. (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev XII dec 1896-aug 1898" p 282; letter 1898-03-24 to Waldemar Bülow; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

The heretics, who bring strange fire to the altar of God – namely, strange doctrines – shall be burned up by the fire from heaven, as were Nadab and Abiud. (Irenaeus, The Ante-Nicene Father Vol I, p 497)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: H.J. Blackham, Leif Christer Boström, Charles Dickens, Carl Grimberg, Axel Gustafsson, Homeros, Alf Henrikson, Britta Hermansson, Lars Levi Laestadius, Kaj Munk, Laurence Rees, Viktor Rydberg, Elin Wägner.


My own comments and speculations:

The names Thomas and Didymus both mean Twin (see My own comments and speculations to John 11:14-16). Here in John 20:24-29 he has his type in the two spies Jesus/Joshua and Caleb who - in difference to the ten frightened spies - were ready to believe, when they had beheld the promised land. In the same way Thomas Twofold (Didymus) wants to believe, only if he is allowed to behold.

Thomas Twofold (Didymus) has also another type in Nadab and Abihu, the sons of Aaron, who had been allowed to behold the place where the Lord stood but offered alien fire before Him, such as He had not commanded them. Making beholding a condition to believe is the same as offering alien fire before the Lord.

Concerning the twins Esau and Jacob as a type to Thomas Twofold (Didymus), see My own comments and speculations to John 11:14-16. Here in John 20 we also can see the twins Perez and Zerah, born in harlotry, as a type to Thomas Twofold (Didymus).

In John 6:71 Judas is called one of the twelve. After Judas leaving the twelve now Thomas is called one of the twelve, he who also is two.

The nails into Him who is the house of God and its holy of the holies “loosened” (cf. John 2:19), three days ago. Only the type/mark of the nails is left. The old house of God has been completed in the body of Jesus Christ. The weight of nails of the holy of the holies was 50 shekels of gold. Can we here possibly have a type to the 50th day, the day of the Spirit? Cf. My own comments and speculations to John 20:20. The nails of the house of God were nailed in the portals. Can we here possibly have a type to Him who is the door of the sheep (John 10:10)?

As a contrast to one person being two we can compare with John 10:30, where two persons are one ("I and the Father are one")

Concerning the rib, see My own comments and speculations to John 20:20. Cf. also with the bones which the resurrected Jesus shows His disciples in Luke 24:39.


Paul said to the believers in Thessalonica: “You became our imitators and the Lord's, having received the saying in much oppression in company with joy of holy spirit, so that 'become yo'/'you became' types (א,* א, A) to all the ones believing in Macedonia and in Achaia.” (1 Thess 1:6-7)

(These things we write) on account of the Saying of the life, what (continually) was from a beginning, what we have heard (and hear), what our eyes have beheld (and behold), what we viewed and (what) our hands felt (on). (1 John 1:1)


Greek words:

daktylos (finger) (in the NT + one example in the Apocrypha) Luke 16:24; John 20:25 – Wisdom of Solomon 15:15; Matt 23:4; Mark 7:33; Luke 11:20,46; John (8:6); 20:27.

(h)êlos (nail) (in the NT + examples in the OT) 1 Chron 22:3; 2 Chron 3:9; John 20:25 – Joshua 23:13; Eccl 12:11; Is 41:7; Jer 10:4.

typos (type) Ex 25:40; John 20:25; Apg 7:44; 1 Thess 1:7 – Amos 5:26; (3 Macc 3:30; 4 Macc 6:19); Acts 7:43; 23:25; Rom 5:14; 6:17; 1 Cor 10:6; Phil 3:17; 2 Thess 3:9; 1 Tim 4:12; Tit 2:7; Heb 8:5; 1 Pet 5:3.


Additional studies:

Mark 3:14,18; 15:29,38; Luke 24:25,41; John 6:70; 20:18,20; 21:2; 1 Cor 10:11; Rev 1:11; 3:1; 12:5; 13:3.


Richard S. Hess "Leviticus 10:1: Strange Fire and an Odd Name"; Bulletin for Biblical Research 12.2 (2002): 187-198.

Dorothy A. Lee "Partnership in Easter Faith: The Role of Mary Magdalene and Thomas in John 20"; Journal for the Study of the New Testament 58 (1995): 37-49.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-03; 2012-05-08; 2014-12-11; 2014-12-20)

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20:26-29 (And after eight days His disciples (continually) again were inside, and Thomas was in company with them. Jesus comes, (while) the doors being (and having been) shut, and He stood into the middle and spoke: “Peace to you.” Next He says to Thomas: “Carry your finger here and behold My hands and carry your hand and throw/lay (it) into/’up to’ My rib and do not become faithless however/but faithful. Thomas answered and spoke to Him: “'The Lord my'/'My Lord' and 'the God my'/my God!'” But (א,*א) Jesus spoke (א,*א) to him: “Because you have beheld (and behold) Me, you have believed (and believe). Happy the ones having not beheld Me (א*) and having believed.”

Word for word: 20:26 (29 words in the Greek text) And after days eight again (continually)-were inside the disciples his and Thomas in-company-with them. comes the Jesus (of)-the (of)-door (of)-being-(and-having-been)-shut and stood into the middle and spoke: peace (to)-you. 20:27 (31 words in the Greek text) next (he)-says (to)-the Thomas: carry the finger your here and behold the hands my and carry the hand your and throw into the rib my, and not become faithless however faithful. 20:28 (13 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus) answered the Thomas and spoke (to)-him: the lord my and the god my. 20:29 (15 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus prima manus) spoke (to)-him the Jesus: because (you)-have-beheld-(and-behold) me (you)-have-believed-(and-believe)? happy the-(ones) not having-beheld me and having-believed.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

The woman beheld that the wood (of the thing to know/'have knowledge of') (is) fine into/’for the purpose of’ consumption and that (it is) pleasing to behold for the eyes, and that it is a seasonable hour of the thing to understand entirely, and having taken its fruit she ate. And she gave and/also to her male (being) in company with her, and he ate. And the eyes of the two were opened throughout, and they gained knowledge, that they (continually) were naked. (Gen 3:6-7a, Greek OT)

Abraham circumcised Isaac (in/on) the eighth day, according as God had enjoined him. (Gen 21:4, Greek OT)

(Abraham said to his boy/servant:) “Put/lay your hand underneath my thigh/thigh-bone, and I will bind you by oath to/by the Lord, the God of the heaven and the God of the earth.” (Gen 24:2b-3a, Greek OT)

(The man) spoke to (Jacob): “What is your name?" But/and he spoke: "Jacob." But/and (the man) spoke to him: "Your name shall not any longer be called Jacob, however/but Israel shall be your name, because you have been stable in, in company with God and able in company with men.” But (Jacob) asked and spoke: “Bring up a message to me (about) your name.” And he spoke: “’In order of what’/why do you ask this my name?” And he blessed him there. And Jacob called the name of that place “Form of God”, for “I have beheld God face towards face, and my soul has been saved.” (Gen 32:27-30, Greek OT)

The brothers of Joseph, the ten ones, descended to purchase breadstuff out of Egypt. But (Jacob) did not dispatched away Benjamin, the brother of Joseph, in company with his brothers. ... (But at the next visit) Joseph beheld (them together with) his brother Benjamin. (Gen 42:3-4a; 43:16a, Greek OT)

No (Egyptian) yet stood by the side of (Joseph), at the time when he (continually/repeatedly) '(was read)'/‘gave knowledge upwards’/’made himself again known’ to his brothers. … And Joseph spoke towards his brothers: “I am Joseph.” (Gen 45:1b,3a, Greek OT)

Moses spoke towards the people: “Be confident! Stand and behold the saving, the one from the side of God, which He will make for you today.” (Ex 14:13a, Greek OT)

It became (in/on) the eighth day (that) Moses called Aaron and his sons and the council of the elders of Israel. ... (And he spoke:) “Today the Lord will be beheld in/among you.” (Lev 9:1,4b, Greek OT)

Fire came out from the the side of the Lord and ‘ate ... down’/devoured (Aaron's two sons having carried alien fire opposite the Lord). And they died opposite the Lord. (Lev 10:2, Greek OT)

(The two men Jesus/Joshua and Caleb) lived from/'away from' those men having gone (and going) to entirely contemplate the earth/land. (Num 14:38b, Greek OT)

(Moses said to Israel:) “The Lord will make your heart clean around and the heart of your seed to welcome the Lord your God out of whole/all your heart and out of whole/all your soul, in order that you may live.” (Deut 30:6, Greek OT)

It became as/when Solomon had brought ‘to build’/’the building of’ the house of the Lord to a consummation ... , (that) the Lord was beheld to Solomon a second time. (1 Kings 9:1-2a, Greek OT; cf. John 21:14)

(The queen of Sheba said to Solomon:) “I did not believe the things which were talked to me, till ... I became/came to the side of, and my eyes have beheld (and behold), and behold, it is not entirely/even the half as (what) has been brought away (as) a message to me.” (1 Kings 10:7a, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said:) “Happy all the ones having been (and being) persuaded on/’for the sake of’ (the Lord).” (Ps 2:12b, Greek OT)

(David said:) "Lord my God, on/in You I have hoped.” (Ps 7:1a or 7:2a, Greek OT)

(David said to the Lord:) "Arouse/awake Lord and give heed to my judgment, into/’for the purpose of’ my justice, my God and my Lord." (Ps 35:23, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said to the Lord: “You are) lord of the ones being able, my King and my God.” (Ps 84:3b(4b), Greek OT)

(David said:) “My eyes (are) against/towards the faithful ones of the earth 'the thing to'/'to let them' be seated together in company with me.” (Ps 101:6a, Greek OT)

(Solomon said:) “The one being (and having been) persuaded against/’in quest of’ the Lord will be ‘in care’/cared.” (Prov 28:25b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) “If you – according to the circumstances – may not believe, not/certainly nor you may ‘let together’/perceive.” (Is 7:9b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) "I will bring up a message about new things, and before 'the thing to stick'/'it sticks' up, it was manifested to you." (Is 42:9b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to the prophet about Judas:) “Behold, … I will make visible/known to them to listen to (Me), and I will be a physician to her, and I will make peace and faith (with) them. (Jer 33:6, Greek OT)

The tacticians and the satraps (continually) sought to find a pretence ‘down from’/against Daniel. And/but every pretence and fall from the side of (God) ... they did not find ‘down from’/against him, because he (continually) was faithful. (Dan 6:4, Greek OT, Theod)

(The Lord said concerning the house of David and the inhabitants of Jerusalem:) "I will lead the third (part of the people) through fire and cause them to glow as the silvermetal 'is caused to glow'/glows and prove them as the goldmetal is proved. It will call against My name, and I will 'hear on'/'listen to' it and I will speak: 'This is My people.' And it will speak: 'The Lord, my God.'" (Zech 13:9, Greek OT)

(The Jews) made/celebrated the renewal of the sacrificial altar (in) eight days ... and offered an offer of means of saving. ... (1 Macc 4:56)

(God remembers) His covenant towards Abraham and Isaac and Jacob, His faithful slaves. (2 Macc 1:2b)

(Solomon said:) “(The Lord) is made conspicuous for the ones ‘do not not believing’/believing (in) Him.” (Wisdom of Solomon 1:2b)

(Solomon said:) “The ones having been (and being) persuaded on/’for the sake of’ (the Lord) are together with truth, and the faithful ones will abide (in) Him in welcome.“ (Wisdom of Solomon 3:9a)

(Solomon said to the Lord:) “You have arranged every thing throughout (with) measure and number and standing-place/balance.” (Wisdom of Solomon 11:20b)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) "Happy the ones having beheld (Eliah) and the ones having (and being) fallen asleep in a welcome (א*), for we will and/also live (in) life. "(Sir 48:11)


The Latter Revelation:

(A messenger of the Lord said to Joseph:) ”What having been begotten in (Mariam א,*א) is out of holy spirit.” (Matt 1:20b)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “When you – according to the circumstances – may pray, come/go into, into your storehouse and having shut your door pray to your Father, 'the One'/who (is) in the hidden, and your Father, the One seeing in the hidden will give you back.” (Matt 6:6)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "Seek first His (א,* א) kingdom and righteousness, and all these things will be 'put to'/added to you." (Matt 6:33)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) ”Happy your eyes, because they see.” (Matt 13:16a)

(Jesus said:) “O generation, faithless and having been (and being) turned aside, till when shall I be in company with you, till when shall I hold up/’out with’ you? Carry (the son) to Me here.” (Matt 17:17)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Who is consequently the faithful and sensible slave, whom the lord has ‘caused to stand down’/set upon his habitation (א,* א) to give them the nourishment in a seasonable time? Happy (is) that slave.” (Matt 24:45-46a)

‘Having answered the messenger’/’the messenger answered and’ spoke to (Mariam): "Holy spirit will come against, against you, and an ability of a highest One will overshadow you. Therefore the thing being begotten and/also will be called holy, a son of God." (Luke 1:35)

(Elizabeth said:) “Happy the/she having believed, because it/there will be a perfection of the things having been (and being) talked to her from the side of a lord.” (Luke 1:45)

When ‘eight days were fulfilled to circumcise Him’/’the eight days of His circumcision were completed’, His name and/also was called Jesus. (Luke 2:21a)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “The ones to the side of the way are the ones having heard, (and) next the slanderer comes and lifts the saying from their heart, in order that having believed they may not be saved.” (Luke 8:12)

It became/’came about’ after these sayings, ‘as if ‘/about eight days, on Jesus' having taken Peter and John and James to the side of, (that) He ascended into/to the mountain to pray. (Luke 9:28)

Having turned towards the disciples ‘according to’/concerning to the own thing (Jesus) spoke: “Happy the eyes seeing which/the things you see. For I say to you, that many prophets and kings wanted to behold what/the things you see, and they did not behold.” (Luke 10:23-24a)

(Jesus) Himself stood in a middle (of the eleven and the other disciples) and says to them: "Peace to you." (Luke 24:36b)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "Behold My hands and My feet, that I am He Himself. Feel (on) Me and behold, that a spirit has not fleshes/’pieces of flesh’ (P75, א*) and bones entirely as you look at ‘Me having’/’that I have’." And having spoken this, He showed them the hands and the feet. ... (But on) their still not believing from/’owing to’ the joy ... . (Luke 24:39-41a)

Having opened the doors of the watch/custody (and) led out ... (the apostles) through/in (the) night, a messenger of the Lord spoke ... (The rowers/servants said:) ”We found the prison having been (and being) shut in/with every/all security and the watchers standing upon/by the doors, but having opened we found no one inside.” (Acts 5:19a,23)

Those faithful out of a circumcision, as many as came together with Peter, they ‘stood out of themselves’/’were amazed’, because the benefit of the Holy Spirit and/also had been (and was) poured out against the nations. (Acts 10:45)

(In Lystra there) (continually) was a certain disciple (with) name Timothy, a son of a faithful Jewish woman, but of a father of a Greek. (Acts 16:1b)

(Paul said to the males in Athen: “God) has ‘caused ... to stand’/fixed a day in which He is about to judge the (inhabited) world in/with righteousness in/’by means of’ a male to whom He has marked out by boundaries a faith having been offered to all (by) having caused Him to stand up out of dead (bodies).” (Acts 17:31)

(Paul said to the king:) “Why is it judged/considered faithless/incredible ‘by the side of’/among you, if God raises dead (bodies)?” (Acts 26:8)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

In a beginning the Saying (continually) was, and the Saying (continually) was towards God, and the Saying (continually) was God. (John 1:1)

No one has ever beheld (and beholds) God. An only descendant, a God, the One being into/in the bosom of the Father, that One has ‘been in command out’/explained Him. (John 1:18)

(Jesus said to the Jews:) "If - according to the circumstances - anyone may want to make/do will (of the One having sent Me), he will gain knowledge on account of the teaching, whether it is out of God or I talk from Myself." (John 7:17)

Jesus says to (Martha): "Did I not speak to you, that if - according to the circumstances - you may believe, you will behold the glory of God?" (John 11:40)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "Amen, amen, I say to you, a slave is not greater (than) his lord. Nor (is) an apostle greater than the one having sent him. If you know these things, happy are you, if you - according to the circumstances - may make/do them." (John 13:16-17)

(Jesus said to His disciples: “On the Spirit's having come, He will convict the adornment/’adorned world’) on account of righteousness, that I withdraw towards the Father, and you no longer look at Me.” (John 16:10)

(Jesus said to His Father:) “I do not ask on account of these only, however/but and/also on account of the ones through their saying believing into Me, in order that they all may be one, entirely as You, Father, (is) in Me and I in You, in order that they and/also may be one (א,*א, A) in Us, in order that the adornment/’adorned world’ may believe, that You have dispatched Me away.” (John 17:20-21)

Being so evening to that one/first day of sabbaths and the doors being (and having been) shut whereat the disciples (continually) were because of the fear of (or: for) the Jews, Jesus came and stood into the middle, and He says to them: “Peace to you.” (John 20:19)

The other disciples told (Thomas): "We have beheld (and behold) the Lord!" (John 20:25a)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 - about 1500

”Pistos” means ”dependable” or ”reliable”. It is used of honourable men whose word and pledge and oath can be unquestionably accepted. (William Barclay ”New Testament Words” p 155)

Madicken is looking at the picture hanging over her bed. There are two little children on it with curly hair and white nightgowns. They sit leaning against mother's knee being at evening prayers. Madicken lies long looking at this picture, and then she all at once feels how she longs for mother, oh, how the children on the picture at all events are happy! (Astrid Lindgren "Madicken och Junibackens Pims" p 158; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

It is not true that later generations of Christians, who have seen neither the empty tomb nor the Risen Christ, are of lower order; Jesus himself pronounces them blessed (v. 29). It is not true that the first apostles have no particular and unique importance; for later generations believe through their word (17:20), that is, it is in their word that later generations encounter the Risen Christ and become believers. (C.K. Barrett "The Gospel according to St John" p 574-575)

A reviewer has recently criticized a study in which a rather rigid and whole-heartedly economic interpretation was applied to a complex set of political and social events. (F. Tannenbaum) concluded (in his article "A Note on the Economic Interpretation of History", Political Science Quarterly, June 1946): "Now, such an extreme position is neither science nor history. It is merely a new theology - not even good theology, because it is uninspired. It has faith in nothing but a verbal formula. It would rule Christ out of the Christian Church, ... Roosevelt and the concept of human dignity out of the battle against the Nazis ... even a great scholor knows a very little and may not understand the little he know. Facts are easily acquired by industry and diligence. The meaning of the facts, all their meaning, is beyond the ken of any scholar - perhaps beyond the ken of mortal man." It would be widely accepted that any satisfactory explanation of political events must leave a place for the role of ideas and for the individual; an the ultimate meaning of facts, indeed, belongs to philosophy, if not to religion, rather than with history or the social sciences. (W.W. Rostow "British Economy of the Nineteenth Century" p 126-127; Economic Factors and Politics)

Since 1896 I call me a Christian (Inferno). . . . For the Darwinian there is no other life than this, therefore he must settle down, and enjoy his only life at any cost; no association (socialism) can exist there, for without religion there are no honour, no faith, no sacrifice; they cannot trust in one another, because they all are faithless. (August Strindberg "Tal till svenska nationen" p 14,16; Social-Demokraten 1910-07-19; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

There is something within me, which insists on and is eager on being a being of immortality. . . . Every exhortation to faith in this preposterous thing, which cannot be proved, every confession that clear-sighted and prominent men have the same longing, fills me with joy and courage, heightens the spirits, gives me a sense of happiness, while the contrary works a clear depression, yes, I almost want to say a bodily weakening. But of religious accounts I neither have any consolation. I find them full of loose passing fancies and unproved truths. . . . I have had my periods, when I have been a strong materialist and rational man, but my poetic mind, which wants to move in the sphere of mysticism, forces me constantly back into the rank of the believers. (Selma Lagerlöf "Brev 2 - 1903-1940" p 80; 1909-03-04 to professor Valfrid Vasenius; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

It was with a certain emotion I handed over the last sheet of "Blå Boken" this evening, and I felt something which I almost had forgotten what it was: happiness! The happiness of having been allowed to write this book! . . . You begin to believe in the happiness! - This I have done during these wonderful six weeks! But your last two letters have deprived me the faith. Write one more! (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev 16, maj 1907-12 juli 1908" p 308; letter 1908-05-13 to Karl Börjesson and letter 1908-05-14 to Harriet Bosse; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

When you last Saturday said to me that You was engaged, so I almost knew it. But I could not wish you happiness, for this I do not believe in, because it does not exist. For (our) child I got no anxiety, for I believe in God. (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev 16, maj 1907-12 juli 1908" p 244; letter 1908-08-04 to Harriet Bosse)

Observe now the visible, which now follows, so You shall know the Unvisible thing. . . . You must certainly believe your experiences and conclude from your events. (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev XV april 1904-april 1907" p 240; letter 1906-03-28 to Birger Mörner; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

The unknown man: "What shall we do then?" The lady: "I don't know." The unknown man: "No, one knows nothing and barely this, therefore, you see, I shall believe henceforth!" The lady: "How do you know that you will believe, when faith is a gift?" The unknown man: "One can, you know, get a gift, if one prays." The lady: "Oh, the one who could pray, but I have never been able to beg . . . " The unknown man: "I have been allowed to learn it, why can't you?" The lady: " One must take oneself down first . . . " The unknown man: "Life effects this so well . . . " (August Strindberg "Till Damaskus III" p 308; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

(1900 July) 15th Sunday. Read in the Bible: II Chron. 20:20: "Believe in the Lord Your God so you will be safe; and believe his prophets, so you will have happiness." (II Chron.) 26:5: "And they sought God . . . And as long as he sought the Lord, God let him well go." This is the sum of all wisdom, which life has learnt me. If the ones being "pursued" by misfortune wanted to do the experiment. (August Strindberg "Ockulta dagboken" p 118; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

The lady: "Came sin into the world with the mother (Eve), so atonement came with another mother! Came the curse with the first, so the blessing came with the second!" . . . The unknown man: "You have eaten of the tree of knowledge!" (August Strindberg "Till Damaskus I" p 101; the spectacle written ready 1898-03-08; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

(Donna Micaela) had thought, that Gaetano was in prison, because the Christ-picture would break down his prison walls. He was brought there by the grace of God, because he would be forced to bend his head before the child of Christ saying: "My Lord and my God." (Selma Lagerlöf "Antikrists mirakler" p 266-267; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

"If You want to know the unvisible, so observe with an open eye the visible." With this learning out of The Secret Doctrine (Talmud) I continue my smooth path my fate more modest allots me, leaving the metaphysics, which is over my "Aevne". (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev XI maj 1895-nov 1896" p 356-357; letter 1896-10-12 to Torsten Hedlund; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

By nature a fantastic sceptic, an apart realist demanding facts, and first I want to have the confirmation of the senses before I let the conviction be formed which at last gets the firmness of faith. Now I am a believer, for I have seen, tasted, smelt, weighed, calculated. (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev XI maj 1895-nov 1896" p 298; letter 1896-08-07 to Torsten Hedlund; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

I am sometimes afraid of You, because your thought is coward. You are busy with metaphysics without having passed physics. You know that after Aristoteles metaphysics is called so because it comes after physics. I am the naturalist-ockultist, as Linné, my great teacher. First physics, so meta-. I want to see with my external eyes first and then with my internal. I do not want to spit at naturalism and sensualism, for when they were admitted they were justified as stages. But go on! My atheism was an experiment falling out so: that I never come back there more! Then, of course, it was good, for many things necessary and justified. Karma is the Socialistgod, and that one we have passed. The individualist-(anarchist)-god is the Eternal and his subordinates. What a tremendous and amenable God, the Eternal in the Old testament! It is mine! (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev XI maj 1895-nov 1896" p 219; letter 1896-06-21 to Torsten Hedlund; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Formerly I thought one could see everything, whatever, only one noticed it. Now I begin to think that one must notice all to be able to see something. (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev XI maj 1895-nov 1896" s 101; letter 1895-11-15 to Torsten Hedlund; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

The matter (if "Jesus was Christ") can impossibly be unimpotant for a Christian, and nevertheless it belongs to them, of which one cannot polemize with hope of a conclusive argumentation and a theoretically convincing result. The foolish fancy, that such a thing is possible to do, has brought about nothing good but much evil. You yourself certainly realize that it is required faith to understand the truth, that Jesus was Christ, and that this truth does not let itself prove in a polemics founded on arguments of intellect, nor with references to the New Testament for others than for the ones already believing. The doubt that Jesus was Christ only can be overcome by the pneumatic process, which beginning is divine grace and which final result is the religious faith - but it cannot be removed by polemizing and disputing. (Viktor Rydbergs brev III "Brev från Viktor Rydberg 1882-1895" p 70; letter 1888-03-14 to Robert Höckert; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

The essential principle (of heathenism) is to reject all that is not seen, and to cling to that which is temporal. ... Idolatry is the religion of sight in opposition to that of faith. ... The worship of the heavens, the worship of nature, or the worship of man – such is heathenism and idolatry. (Alfred Edersheim “Bible History. Old Testament” I:64-65)

I asked (the man with faith) if he was happy. - He answered a reliable, faithful yes! I saw him in his eyes! He spoke true! Then there is happiness in the world - Yes, with Jesus Christ! I never have heard more tha one formerly say he is wholly happy without Christ. This still means something; I want to try! If it does not succeed, I have God. Have I? Where? He has never answered me. (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev I 1858-1876" s 238; letter 1875-10-07 to Carl Gustaf Wrangel; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Olle Montanus walks as in procession into Röda Rummet. . . . He is magnificent, Olle, today. He has high hat . . . new clothes, high boots, not worn out, is just now bathed, freshly-shaved . . . as if he went to his wedding. . . . What has then happened with this poor man, looking so unspeakable happy? . . . He had got a job! (August Strindberg "Röda rummet" p 121-122; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Johan visited Betlehemskyrkan (Bethlehem church) and heard Rosenius. . . . (He) looked as the peace and was radiant with heavenly joy. He certainly acknowledged that he was an entirely wretched sinner, but Jesus had cleaned him and now he was happy. He looked happy. Was it possible so that there was a happy man? Why did not then all become pietists! (August Strindberg "Tjänstekvinnans son" p 131; the sixties of the nineteenth century; translation from the Swedish test: BG Ask)

(Johan) told (the mother) out of the books about nature and history and she who never had got knowledge, listened in a devotional spirit. But when she had listened for a long while, either she now needed to raise herself or really feared the wisdom of the world, she came along with the only knowledge being able to make man happy. She spoke about Christ; Johan recognized well that speech, but the mother understood to say it to him personally. . . . There was something unhealthy in her views, and he thought himself observe the dislike of the uncultivated one to culture. Why this long curriculum in school? He answered himself, when it nevertheless was regarded to be nothing in comparison with this dusky doctrines about Jesus' blood? He also knew that the mother gathered this speech out of conversations with wet-nurses, virgins in sewing-circles and old women going to syrupy church. Strangely, he thought, that these would be in charge of the most highest wisdom, of which neither the priest in church or the teacher in school had an idea. He began to find that these humble ones were exceedingly spiritually proud and that the way to wisdom through Jesus was a made up short cut. (August Strindberg "Tjänstekvinnans son" p 84-85; the sixties of the nineteenth century; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

I now want to believe, as I believed, when my mother first time folded my hands together to say a prayer. She had told me of the good God, who lives in heaven, and no doubt was mixed in the conviction, with which I many times saw up in the blue ether, expecting to between their white skies catch a glimpse of Him and his angels. The strength of my faith one day became rewarded. I say you, brother, that I have seen the winged children in God's throne rooms. This vision . . . I had when I was six years old a brilliant summer forenoon, while the clocks rang down in the city. . . . This vision was a gift of faith which she kindly placed in the lily-white hands of a childlike imagination. (Viktor Rydberg "Ur en klosterbroders dagbok" p 208; Jönköping 1835?; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


about 1500 and time before

None that beholds the invisible things, beholds the visible: no one beholding the things seen, beholds the invisible. Or is not this the case with us also? For when having turned our mind inwards we think of any of the unseen things, our views become raised above the things on earth. Let us despise glory: let us be willing to be laughed at rather than to be praised. ... Let us ... not be excited about the things present: but let us laugh to scorn all the pomp of life, and everywhere practise moderation. (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers XI:312-314)

Augustine emphasizes the place of faith in understanding this saying (John 7:17): "understanding is the reward of faith. Therefore do not seek to understand in order to believe, but believe that thou mayest understand . . . what is 'If any man be willing to do His will'? It is the same thing as to believe." (Leon Morris "The Gospel according to John" p 360)

Those who without letters have believed this faith are barbarians so far as regards our language; but as regards doctrine, manner and tenor of life they are, because of faith, very wise indeed; and they do please God, ordering their conversation in all righteousness, chastity and wisdom. (Irenaeus, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol I, p 417)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Alf Ahlberg, Yngve Ahlberg, Carl Jonas Love Almqvist, Sven Alverlin, Werner Aspenström, Augustinus, Karl Barth, August Berg, Oloph Bexell, Minna Blümmer, Michael Bond, Bo Brander, Fredrika Bremer, Jacob Bronowski, G.K. Chesterton, Lars Collmar, Stig Dagerman, Sven Danell, Tage Danielsson, Charles Dickens, Fjodor Dostojevskij, Kate Douglas, Egil Edvardsen, E.J. Ekman, Runar Eldebo, Donald English, LarsOlov Eriksson, Magdalena Eriksson, Christine Falkenland, Bo Frid, Jan Fridegård, Folke Fridell, Anders Frostenson, Ulla Gabay, Erik Gustaf Geijer, Einar Genitz, Bo Giertz, Johannes Gossner, Günter Grass, Carl Grimberg, Peter Halldorf, Krister Hanell, David Harley, Karin Hartman, Alf Henrikson, Hans Hof, Bob Holmes, Homeros, Carl-Einar Häckner, Anders Jarlert, Gustav F. Johnson, Eyvind Johnson, Erik Axel Karlfeldt, Johan Henrik Kellgren, Aleksis Kivi, Kurt Kleiner, Pär Lagerkvist, Hans Larsson, Harry Lenhammar, C.S. Lewis, Sven Lidman, Jonas Lie, John Locke, Martin Luther, Sune Lyxell, Magnus Malm, Margareta Malmgren, Slobodan Markovic, Alistair Mason, H.D. McDonald, John Stuart Mill, Vilhelm Moberg, Mats Molén, Ingun Montgomery, Leon Morris, Jakob Henrik Mörk, Watchman Nee, Stephen Neill, Fredrik Nielsen, Folke Nordangård, Ulla Olin, Bruce E. Olson, Vibeke Olsson, John Ongman, Martin P:n Nilsson, James Innel Packer, Karl Palmberg, Efraim Palmqvist, Fritz Peterson, Lewi Pethrus, Hilding Pleijel, Per S. Ridderstad, Carl Olof Rosenius, Seymor Rossel, W.W. Rostow, Joanne Kathleen Rowling, Sven Edvin Salje, Gösta Sandberg, Gunnar E. Sandgren, Elisabeth Sandlund, Torgny Segerstedt, Bo Setterlind, William Shakespeare, Frans Eemil Sillanpää, Claude Simon, Isaac Basjevis Singer, Erik Sollerman, Alexander Solsjenitsyn, John Steinbeck, Milton Steinberg, Sven Stolpe, John Stott, Sven-Erik Stybe, Jesper Svartvik, Wislawa Szymborska, Esaias Tegnér, Corrie ten Boom, Thomas av Aquino, Tomas Tranströmer, Göran Tunström, Anders Törngren, P. Waldenström, Johan Olof Wallin, Anna Greta Wide, Ernst Wigforss, Owe Wikström, Carl Wilson, Carl Fr. Wislöff, Birgitta Yavari, Rudolf Zetterquist, Göran Åberg, Elof Åkeson, Anna Ölander.


My own comments and speculations: :

Jesus returns Simon Peter's threefold denial (John 18:17,25-27) by a threefold "Peace to you" (John 20:19,21,26). And Peter's answer to this will be a threefold confession of welcome (John 21:15-17). Concerning “peace”, see also John 14:27 and 20:19.

The day after the eighth day is the day of namegiving. As Jesus received His (old) name after the eighth day (Luke 2:21), He now after the eighth day receives His (new) names “Lord, God” (cf. Phil 2:9-11) and in John 20:31 “Christ, the Son of God”.

In Eden Adam and Eve were disobedient and saw their own nakedness. Now the believing one sees the glory of Jesus.

In a restoration perspective we also see how the two spared spies, Caleb and Jesus/Joshua, are humilated in Thomas “Twofold”. It is not those who behold and believe who are happy but those who believe (and behold). But Thomas remains as a disciple of Christ (cf. John 20:2). We also see how Aaron's two sons, who had been killed though they had seen the Lord, now are restored in Thomas “Twofold”. His confession: "My Lord and my God" is the same thing as to offer holy fire before Him who is the Lord and God.

At the first visit of Jacobs sons in Egypt Joseph did not beheld his brother Benjamin. At the first visit of the “brother” Jesus, Thomas did not beheld his brother. At the second visit the “dead” and heightened Joseph beheld Benjamin, and Thomas beheld the “dead” and heightened Jesus.

Compare also My own comments and speculations to John 20:20 and 20:24-25. Concerning “happy”, cf. My own comments and speculations to John 6:16-21.


Paul said to the believers in Corinth: “The God of this age has blinded the notions of the faithless into/’for the purpose of’ not ray the enlightening of the good little message of the glory of Christ, who is the image of God. (2 Cor 4:4b)

Paul said to the believers in Corinth: “We walk about through/’by means of’ faith, not through/’by means of’ form/seeing.” (2 Cor 5:7)

Paul said to the believers in Corinth: "If and/also we have (and have had) knowledge of Christ according to flesh, however, now we have not any longer knowledge of Him (thus)." (2 Cor 5:16b)

Paul said to the believers in Philippi: "We are ... (the ones) serving God in spirit ... and not being (and not having been) persuaded in flesh." (Phil 3:3)

Faith is a steadfastness of things being hoped, the refutation/conviction of concerns not being seen. (Heb 11:1)

In faith (Moses) entirely left Egypt … for he was patient as (if) beholding the One (being) impossible to behold. (Heb 11:27)

Peter said to the believers: "Having not beheld (Jesus Christ), you welcome Him, believing into Him just now not beholding, but/and you exult for unspeakable joy being (and having been) glorified, carrying off the end of the faith, (the) saving of your souls." (1 Pet 1:8-9)

If we – according to the circumstances – may confess our misses (of the mark of God), He is faithful and righteous, in order that He may let our (א,* א) misses (of His mark) be to us and make us clean from every unrighteousness. (1 John 1:9)


Greek words:

apistos (faithless) Matt 17:17; John 20:27; Acts 26:8; 2 Cor 4:4 - Is 17:10; Prov 17:6a; 28:25(BS); Mark 9:19; Luke 9:41; 12:46; 1 Cor 6:6; 7:12-15; 10:27; 14:22-24; 2 Cor 6:14-15; 1 Tim 5:8; Tit 1:15; Rev 21:8.

esô (inside) (in the NT + two examples in the OT) John 20:26; Acts 5:23 – Gen 39:11; Bel and the Dragon v 19 (Theod); Matt 26:58; Mark 14:54; 15:16; Rom 7:22; 1 Cor 5.12; 2 Cor 4:16; Eph 3:16; Rev 11:2(א*).

pistos (faithful) (in the NT + examples in the OT) Ps 101:6; 2 Macc 1:2; Wisdom of Solomon 3:9; Matt 24:45; John 20:27; Acts 10:45; 16:1; 1 John 1:9 – Tobit 5:3,9; 10:6; 1 Macc 2:52; 3:13; 7:8; 14:41; Sir 1:14; 6:14-16; 31:23; 33:3; 34:8; 44:20; 48:22; Matt 25:21,23; Luke 12:42; 16:10-12; 19:17. Acts 13:34; 16:15; 1 Cor 1:9; 4:2,17; 7:25; 10:13; 2 Cor 1:18; 6:15; Gal 3:9; Eph 1:1; 6:21; Col 1:2,7; 4:7,9; 1 Thess 5:24; 2 Thess 3:3; 1 Tim 1:12,15; 3:1,11; 4:3,9-10,12; 5:16; 6:2; 2 Tim 2:2,11,13; Tit 1:6,9; 3:8; Heb 2:17; 3:2,5; 10:23; 11:11; 1 Pet 4:19; 5:12; 3 John v 5. Rev 1:5; 2:10,13; 3:14; 17:14; 19:11; 21:5; 22:6.


Additional studies:

Ps 7:3(4) 30:2(3); Is 22:22; Matt 1:18-25; 5:3-11; Luke 1:26-38; 6:20-26; 24:25; John 1:18; 5:18; 10:33; 14:27; 16:10; 20:17-19,21,25; Acts 1:3; Rom 10:9; 1 Cor 12:3; 15:45; 2 Cor 6:14; 1 John 1:1; 3 John v 14(15); Rev 1:3,11; 3:1,18,20; 4:11; 8:13; 11:2,17; 12:5; 13:3; 14:13; 15:2-3; 16:15; 17:3; 18:8; 19:6,9,16; 20:6; 21:22; 22:5,7,14.


Leslie C. Allen "Psalm 73: Pilgrimage from Doubt to Faith"; Bulletin for Biblical Research 7 (1997): 1-10.

Dorothy A. Lee "Partnership in Easter Faith: The Role of Mary Magdalene and Thomas in John 20"; Journal for the Study of the New Testament 58 (1995): 37-49.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-04; 2012-05-11; 2014-12-12; 2014-12-20)

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20:30-31 (Jesus so indeed and/also made many other signs in the very eyes of His disciples, (signs) which it is not being (and not having been) written in this scroll. But these are (and have been) written, in order that you may believe (present subjunctive א*,B) , that Jesus is the christ/'anointed one', the Son of God, and in order that believing you may have agelong (א,*א) life in His name.

Word for word: 20:30 (21 words in the Greek text) Many indeed so and other signs made the Jesus in-the-very-eyes-of (of)-the (of)-disciples his, which not (it)-is are-being-(and-having-been)-written-(ones) in the scroll this. 20:31 (24 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus) these but are-(and-have-been)-written in-order-that (you)-may-believe that Jesus is the christ/'anointed-one' the son (of)-the (of)-god, and in-order-that believing life agelong (you)-may-have in the name his.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The Lord said to Moses:) "You shall speak to Pharaoh: 'This is what the Lord says: Israel (is) My first-born son.'" (Ex 4:22, Greek OT)

Having taken the scroll of the covenant (Moses) read it into the ears of the people. And they spoke: “All things, as many as the Lord have talked we will make/do, and we will hear.” (Ex 24:7, Greek OT)

These are the commandments, which the Lord enjoined Moses towards/’in regard to’ the sons of Israel. (Lev 27:34a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Moses:) “’Till what’/’how long’ will (this people) not believe (in) Me in/’by means of’ all the signs, which I have made in/among them?” (Num 14:11b, Greek OT)

Moses made a serpent of copper and caused it to stand upon a sign. And it became, when – according to the circumstances – a serpent bit a man, he saw against, against the serpent of copper and lived. (Num 21:9, Greek OT)

These (are) the commandments and the fundamental laws and the judicial verdicts, which the Lord enjoined in a hand of Moses. (Num 36:13a, Greek OT)

(Moses said to Israel: "Question earlier days becoming earlier than you) if God endeavoured to come into/in and take for himself a nation out of a middle of nations in/’by means of’ test and in/’by means of’ signs and in/’by means of’ omens ... as many as the Lord our God made/did in Egypt seeing in the very eyes of you so that know/’you knew’ that the Lord your God, this One is God and it/there is not any longer (anyone) more than Him.'" (Deut 4:34-35, Greek OT)

A prophet as Moses has not yet stood up in Israel ... in/with all the signs and omens which the Lord dispatched away him to make them in earth/'the land' Egypt, to Pharaoh and to all his attendants/servants and to every/all his earth/land. (Deut 34:10a,11, Greek OT)

Mordecai wrote these sayings into a scroll and dispatched (it) out to the Jews. (Esther 9:20a, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said:) "The kings of the earth stood ‘by the side of’/near and the leaders were led together ... ‘down from’/against the Lord and ‘down from’/against His Anointed (Christ)." ... The Lord spoke towards me: ‘You are My son. Today I have begotten (and beget) you.’” (Ps 2:2,7b, Greek OT)

(The king said:) “I behold four males being (and having been) loosened/released wandering about in the fire and no ruin/harm became in them, and the beholding of the fourth (has) a likeness of a messenger of God (Theod: ... with a son of God).” (Dan 3:25b, Greek OT)

Many of the ones sleeping entirely/soundly in/on the breadth of the earth will stand up, ‘the ones’/these indeed into agelong life, but the ones/others into asunderspread sowing and agelong shame. (Dan 12:2, Greek OT)

(The son of Tobit said:) “ … What sign may I give (Gabael), and/that he may gain additional knowledge of me and believe me?” (Tobit 5:2a, S)

Having beheld all things as many as the God of Israel had made/done Achior believed extremely (in) God. (Judith 14:10a)

The 'over and above'/unusual things of the sayings of Judas and the wars and the male achievements, which he made/did, and his greatness it has not been written down, for it (continually) was extremely many.” (1 Macc 9:22)

The rest of the sayings of John ... these things have been (and are) written on a scroll (about the) days of his priest leadership. (1 Macc 16:23a,24a)

(The wicked say:) “If the righteous is a son of God, (God) will take ‘in turn’/’part with’ him and deliver him out of (the) hand of the ones standing against. ... We shall ‘administer justice entirely’/’give judgment against’ (the righteous) (to) an indecent death, for it will be ‘a visitation’/’an inspection’ of him ‘out of’/’in consequence of’ his sayings.” (Wisdom of Solomon 2:18,20)

(Solomon said to the Lord:) “Therefore You convict the ones falling by the side of ‘according to’/’because of’ few/’a few’, and in the ones missing (Your mark) You bring to mind reminding, in order that, having been changed/separated from the bad thing, they may believe against You, Lord.” (Wisdom of Solomon 12:2)

(Solomon said:) “Vain all men ... (who) out of the beholding of good things were not stable/able to know the One being and giving heed to the works did not gain additional knowledge of the Artist, however/but adopted as a law (that) ... a circle of stars ... or luminaries of heaven (were) Prytans/rulers (and) gods of an adornment/’adorned world’. If, indeed ‘amusing themselves’/’being enchanted’ by the embellishmen of (these things), they ‘took from below’/accepted these gods, (then they should) had had knowledge how much better the Master is (than) these, for the ‘leader of the origin’/originator of the beauty created them.” (Wisdom of Solomon 13:1-3)

(Solomon said: “The Egyptians) did not believe ... but on/at the destruction of the first-born they confessed a people (being) a son of God.” (Wisdom of Solomon 18:13)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said: “The Lord) has not ‘made out’/released (His) holy ones to describe all His wondrous things out/’to the full’.” (Sir 42:17a)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) "Happy the ones having beheld (Eliah) and the ones having (and being) fallen asleep in a welcome (א*), for we will and/also live (in) life." (Sir 48:11)


The Latter Revelation:

Simon Peter 'having answered'/'answered and' spoke (to Jesus:) "You are the christ/'anointed one', the Son of the living God." (Matt 16:16)

(Jesus said to His disciples: "The cursed ones who have not done anything to the least of My brothers) will go away into an agelong chastisement, but the righteous ones (who have done something to the least of My brothers) into an agelong life." (Matt 25:46)

The priest leader spoke to (Jesus): "I bind You with oath down from the living God, in order that You may speak to us, if You are the christ/'anointed one', the Son of God." (Matt 26:63b)

(The “leader of a hundred men” and the ones who were in company with him) said: “Truly this (continually) was a (א*) son of God!” (Matt 27:54b)

A beginning of the good little message of Jesus Christ * (א*). (Mark 1:1)

Having straight off shouted the father of the little boy (continually/repeatedly) said: “I believe. Succour my unbelief.” (Mark 9:24)

(Jesus said to Peter, James, John and Andrew:) “… let the one reading understand …” (Mark 13:14)

(Luke said: ”I have written) to you, most powerful Theofilos (what eyewitnesses and rowers/servants of the saying have given by the side of us), in order that you may have additional knowledge on account of the security of which/the sayings you have 'been resounded'/heard.” (Luke 1:3b-4)

‘Having answered the messenger’/’the messenger answered and’ spoke to (Mariam): "Holy spirit will come against, against you, and an ability of a highest One will overshadow you. Therefore the thing being begotten and/also will be called holy, a son of God." (Luke 1:35)

So indeed calling to the side of and/also (with) many ‘the other’/other things (Jesus) (continually) brought a good little message to the people. (Luke 3:18)

A scroll of the prophet Isaiah was 'given on'/'handed to' (Jesus). (Luke 4:17a)

(The little demons said to Jesus:) "You are the Son of God!" And/but blaming them (Jesus) (continually) did not allow them to talk, because they knew ‘Him be the christ’/’that He was the anointed one’. (Luke 4:41b)

(Jesus said to the male from whom the little demons had been /and were/ come out:) “Return into your house and describe as many things as God has made/done for you.” And he went away ‘according to’/throughout the whole city proclaiming as many things as Jesus had made/done for him. (Luke 8:39)

The eyes (of the two disciples) (continually) ‘did not get power of the to gain’/’were prevented from gaining’ additional knowledge of (Jesus). (Luke 24:16)

(Cleopas and the other disciple said to Jesus:) ”Stay in company with us, because it is towards evening, and the day has already 'leaned (and leans)'/'drawn (and draws)' to an end.” … (Later the same day) the eyes (of the disciples) were opened throughout and they gained additional knowledge of Him, and/but He Himself became invisible from/to them. (Luke 24:29b,31)

(Peter said:) "Males, Israelites, hear these sayings: Jesus the Nazoraean (is) a male having been (and being) shown from/away from God into/to you (with) abilities and omens and signs which God made through Him in your middle, entirely as you yourselves know." (Acts 2:22)

(Peter said to the leaders of the people and the elders:) “In/’by means of’ (Jesus) this (male) stands healthy by the side of (you) in the very eyes of you.” (Acts 4:10b)

Through the hands of the apostles it (continually) became many signs and omens in/among the people. (Acts 5:12a)

The saying pleased in the very eyes of every/all of the multitude (of disciples) ... and (the seven males) stood in the very eyes of the apostles. (Acts 6:5a,6a)

In the synagogues (Saul) (continually) proclaimed Jesus that/: “This One is the Son of God.” ... concluding that/: “This One is the christ/'anointed one'.” (Acts 9:20b,22b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

And (John the Baptist) confessed and did not deny * (א,*א) that/: "I am not the christ/'anointed one'." (John 1:20)

(Nathanael said to Jesus): "Rabbi, You are the Son of God. You are the King of Israel." (John 1:49b)

As (Jesus) (continually) was in/with (the people) in the (disgraced) Jerosolyma/Jerusalem in/at the ‘paschal lamb’/Passover in/during the feast, many believed into His name looking at His signs which He (continually) made. (John 2:23)

Jesus so spoke towards (the kingly one): “If – according to the circumstances – you may not behold signs and omens, you may not/certainly not believe.” (John 4:48)

(Jesus said to the Jews:) "Amen, amen I say to you, that the one hearing My saying and believing (in) the One having sent Me has agelong life and does not come into judgment, however/but has stepped (and steps) over out of the death into the life." (John 5:24)

Jesus answered and spoke to (the Jews): “This, it is the work of God, in order that you may believe into the One whom that One has dispatched away.” (John 6:29)

(The crowd) so spoke to (Jesus): “What sign do You so make/do, in order that we may behold and may believe (in) You? What do You work?” (John 6:30)

(Jesus said to the crowd:) “I spoke to you, because you and/namely have beheld (and behold) * (א,*א,A) and do not believe.” (John 6:36)

(Jesus said to the Jews:) "(If) you – according to the circumstances – do (א,* א, A) not believe Me, believe the works, in order that you may have knowledge and may believe (א,* א), that the Father (is) in Me and I in the Father." (John 10:38b)

(Martha said to Jesus:) “I believe (and have believed), that You are the christ/'anointed one', the Son of God, the One coming into the adornment/’adorned world’.” (John 11:27b)

(Jesus said:) “And, if – according to the circumstances – I may be heightened out of the earth, I will draw all (nations) (P66,א*) towards Myself. But/and He (continually) said this giving (so) a sign (with) what kind of death He (continually) was about to die. (John 12:32-33)

(Jesus said to His Father:) “I do not ask on account of these only, however/but and/also on account of the ones through their saying believing into Me, in order that they all may be one, entirely as You, Father, (is) in Me and I in You, in order that they and/also may be one (א,*א, A) in Us, in order that the adornment/’adorned world’ may believe, that You have dispatched Me away.” (John 17:20-21)

The one who has beheld he has been (and is) a witness, and his evidence is true. And that one knows, that he says/speaks truthful, in order that and/also you may (א*,B) believe. (John 19:35)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 - about 1500

Here (John) singles out two things in faiths's content. The one is that Jesus is the Christ, that is, the Messiah, the long-expected one. The other is that he is the Son of God. We take these two as more or less identical, but the Jews of the day did not. The Messiah was not expected to stand in that close relationship to the Father of which John speaks. John's conception of messiahship is fuller and richer than that of contemporary Judaism. The combination af terms indicates the very highest view of the Person of Jesus, and one that must be taken in conjunction with the fact that John has just recorded the confession of Thomas that hails Jesus as "My Lord and my God". There cannot be any doubt but that John conceived of Jesus as the very incarnation of God. (Leon Morris "The Gospel according to John" p 756)

Luke does not make great use of the title "Son of God". It is remarkably rare in Acts. In Acts 13:33 there is a quotation from Psa. 2:7 which implicitly identify Jesus as God's Son, but in the passage itself no stress is laid on this identification; it is something assumed by the author rather than a point to be emphasized. The only reference is Acts 9:20 where we are told that Paul preached in Damascus that Jesus was the Son of God. ... In the Gospel Luke has taken over the references to Jesus as the Son of God which he found in his sources (Luke 3:22; 4:3,9,41; 8:28; 9:35; 10:22; 22:70) except for Mark 13:32 and 15:39. ... Luke's usage is basically that of his sources, and he does not show any independent development of it. As for the title of Son of God, the evidence of Paul shows that the application of the title to the earthly Jesus is early (e.g. Gal. 4:4f.). Where Luke differs from Paul is in the lack of any clear teaching on the pre-existence of the Son of God. (Howard Marshall "Luke - Historian and Theologian" p 167-169)

Even words may be signs, e.g. in 12:33. (Raymond E. Brown "The Gospel according to John" p 528)

It is noteworthy that ... the early Christians seized on "Messiah" as his title par excellence and in its Greek form "Christ" became part of his proper name. (Raymond E. Brown "The Gospel according to John" p 46)

John 20:30 ends the Gospel on the note of the signs Jesus had performed ... just as Deut 34:11 ends on the note of the signs and wonders that Moses performed. (Raymond E. Brown "The Gospel according to John" p 529)

The continuous presents "pisteuête, schête" do not exclude readers who were already Christians, and whose faith the writer may have wished to confirm by giving it a richer content. That he would welcome such readers is certain. Yet the continuous present could be justified, even as adressed to those who were not yet Christians, if the writer were thinking not so much of the moment of conversion, as of the continuing union with Christ, the condition of which is faith, and which means the perpetual possession of eternal life. If, without too narrowly observing grammatical forms, we try to enter into the author's intention, it must surely appear that he is thinking, in the first place, not so much of Christians who need a deeper theology, as of non-Christians who are concerned about eternal life and the way to it, and may be ready to follow the Christian way if this is presented to them in terms that are intelligibly related to their previous religious interests and experience. (C.H. Dodd "The Interpretation of the Fourth Gospel" p 9)

The teacher spoke: When I call myself Christian, so it is because I confess Christ as a might, a source of power, out of which I through the prayer fetch strength to fairly bear the hardships of life. (August Strindberg "En blå bok I" p 230; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

I believe that Christ is a God, who overthrew Zeus, and perhaps was the son of Zeus. So he is prophesied in Aeschylos' fettered Prometheus, about whom I ask Yo to read. But carefully observe that Prometheus prophesies particularly about his special redeemer (Erlöser) who, you know, became Heracles, and especially about Zeus' son, who will overthrow Zeus. Who has in fact overthrown Zeus, so that he has not an altar left? Who has succeeded him in Hellas, Rome, Europe? Christ! Who else? (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev XII dec 1896-aug 1898" p 316; letter 1898-06-05 to Gustaf Fröding)


about 1500 and time before

(Christ) has built His church upon Peter's confession, and has so fortified it, that ten thousand dangers and deaths are no to prevail over it. (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers X:494)

The Wisdom of God ... chose us twelve, the first who believed in Him, whom He named apostles; and afterwards other seventy-two most approved disciples, that, at least in this way recognizing the pattern of Moses, the multitude might believe that this is He of whom Moses foretold, the Prophet that was to come. ... For on this point only (whether Jesus were the Prophet whom Moses foretold) does there seem to be any difference between us who believe in Jesus, and the unbelieving Jews. (Recognitions of Clement, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol VIII, p 88-89)

(God called the Jewish people) to the things of primary importance by means of those which were secondary; that is, to things that are real, by means of those that are typical; and by things temporal, to eternal; and by the carnal to the spiritual; and by the earthly to the heavenly; as was also said to Moses: “Thou shalt make all things after the pattern of those things which thou sawest in the mount.” For during forty days He was learning to keep (in his memory) the words of God, and the celestial patterns, and the spiritual images, and the types of things to come. ... For by means of types they learned to fear God, and to continue devoted to His service. ... (Irenaeus, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol I, p 479)

Solomon was a servant, but Christ is indeed the Son of God, and the Lord of Solomon. (Irenaeus, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol I, p 499)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Johann Albrecht Bengel, Martin Buber, Sven Danell, Runar Eldebo, Einar Genitz, Bo Giertz, Douglas Gilbert, Peter Halldorf, Colin J. Hemer, John Hedlund, Colin J. Hemer, Alf Henrikson, C.G. Hjelm, Bengt Hägglund, Curt Härenstam, Dan Johansson, René Kieffer, Clyde S. Kilby, Isak Krook, Pär Lagerkvist, Lars Lindberg, Anne Long, Martin Luther, Lennarth Magnusson, D.L. Moody, Ingegerd Norman, Hugo Odeberg, Lewi Pethrus, Einar Rimmerfors, Gordon Rossiter, Elisabeth Sandlund, Stanley Sjöberg, Martin Sjöstrand, Anfin Skaaheim, John Stafford Wright, Milton Steinberg, John Stott, Svend Erik Stybe, Knut Svensson, Mikael Tellbe, Tertullianus, P. Waldenström, Mikael Winninge, Birgitta Yavari.


My own comments and speculations:

Brown sees how the end of chapter 20 can be compared with the end of Deuteronomy. This end in John can also be compared with the ends of Leviticus and Numbers (se above Lev 27:34 and Num 36:13). John makes here in John 20:30-31 a note of the signs in order to after that continue with one more part of his book, just as Moses made notes for the sons of Israel of the commandments in the Pentateuch. As the Pentateuch is the book of the commandments, the Gospel of John is the book of signs.

The Greek word Christ means “anointed”, in Hebrew Messiah.

Sometimes Jesus is called a son of God, sometimes the Son of God. The weaker expression “a son of God” is used by the slanderer (Matt 4:3,6; Luke 4:3,9), by the Jews (Matt 27:43; John 10:36; 19:7, but they can also wonder if He is “the Son of God” Matt 26:63; 27:40; Luke 22:70), by the messenger to Mariam (Luke 1:35) and by the Roman soldiers (Matt 27:54). The stronger expression “the Son of God” is used by the little demons (Mark 3:11; Luke 4:41), by Peter (Matt 16:16), by Nathanael (John 1:49) and by Martha (John 11:27).

The Greek word “enôpion” translated by “in the very eyes of” is frequent in the Apocrypha, Luke and the Revelation. In the Johannine books we also have it in 1 John 3:22 and 3 John v 6. The word is not found in the gospels of Matthew and Mark.


Paul said: "The pays of the miss (of the mark of God) (are) death, but God's gift of joybringing (grace) (is) agelong life in Christ Jesus, our Lord." (Rom 6:23)

And these things we write, in order that our joy may be being (and having been) completed. (1 John 1:4)

Who is the liar, if not the one denying that/: ”Jesus is not the christ/'anointed one'.”? This is the antichrist, the one denying the Father and the Son. (1 John 2:22)

These things I have written on account of those leading you astray. (1 John 2:26)

In this we (א*) have knowledge of the Spirit of God: every spirit which confesses Jesus Christ having come (and coming) in flesh is out of God. (1 John 4:2)

The one who – if according to the circumstances – may confess that/: “Jesus is the Son of God”, in him God stays, and he himself in God. (1 John 4:15)

'Every the'/everyone believing that Jesus is the christ/'anointed one' is (and has been) begotten out of God, and 'every the'/everyone welcoming the One having begotten and/also welcomes the (child) being (and having been) begotten out of Him. (1 John 5:1)

Who is the one conquering the world, if not the one believing that Jesus is the Son of God. (1 John 5:5)

These things I have written to you, in order that you may know, that you have an agelong life, to the ones believing into the name of the Son of God. (1 John 5:13)


Greek words:

biblion (scroll) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Esther 9:20; Luke 4:17; John 20:30 – Esther 10:2; 1 Macc 1:44,56-57; 3:48; 12:9; 16:24; 2 Macc 2:23; Sir Prologue; 50:27; Baruch 1:1,3,14; Matt 19:7; Mark 10:4; Luke 4:20; Gal 3:10; 2 Tim 4:13; Heb 9:19; 10:7; Rev 1:11; 5:1-5,8-9; 6:14; 10:9(P47,א,*א); Rev 10:10(א,*א); Rev 13:8; 17:8; 20:12; 21:27; 22:7,9-10,18-19.

enôpion (in the very eyes of) (in the NT + examples in the OT) John 20:30; Acts 4:10; 6:5-6 – Gen 11:28; Judges 20:28; 1 Sam 7:6; 12:2; 20:1, 25:23; 2 Sam 3:36; 11:13; 1 Kings 1:25; 12:6; 2 Kings 5:1; 2 Chron 1:10; Ps 16:8; 22:27(28),29(30); Prov 3:4; Tobit 13:4; Judith 5:17; Sir 8:18; Luke 1:15,17,19,75-76; 4:7; 5:18,25; 8:47; 12:6,9; 13:26; 14:10; 15:10,18,21; 16:15; 23:14; 24:11,43. Acts 2:25; 4:19; 7:46; 9:15; 10:30-31,33; 19:9,19; 27:35; Rom 3:20; 12:17; 1 Cor 1:29; 2 Cor 4:2; 7:12; 8:21; Gal 1:20; 1 Tim 2:3; 5:4,20-21; 6:12-13; 2 Tim 2:14; 4:1; Heb 4:13; 13:21; Jas 4:10; 1 Pet 3:4; 1 John 3:22; 3 John v 6; Rev 1:4; 2:14; 3:2,5,8-9; 4:5-6,10; 5:8; 7:9,11,15; 8:2-4; 9:13; 11:4,16; 12:4,10; 13:12-14; 14:3,10; 15:4; 16:19; 19:20; 20:12.


Additional studies:

Matt 4:3; 17:24-26; 27:42-43; Mark 15:39; Luke 2:26; 3:15-16,38; John 2:11; 3:14-16; 10:24-25; 11:25,42; 12:37; 16:23; 19:35; 21:25; Acts 10:43; 1 Cor 6:11; 1 John 2:25; 3 John v 13; Rev 1:3; 2:18-19; 3:8; 10:4,36; 11:14-15; 14:12; 16:14; 17:3,14; 19:9.


E.P. Groenewald "The Christological meaning of John 20:31"; Neotestamentica 2.1 (1968): 131-140.

Donald Guthrie "The Importance of Signs in the Fourth Gospel"; Vox Evangelica 5 (1967): 72-83.

Morris Inch "The Apologetic Use of 'Sign' in the Fourth Gospel"; The Evangelical Quarterly 42.1 (1970): 33-43.

David L. Mealand "The Christology of the Fourth Gospel"; Scottish Journal of Theology31 (1978): 449-.

Francis J. Moloney "Who is 'the Reader' in/of the Fourth Gospel?"; Australian Biblical Review 40 (1992): 20-33.

J.A. du Rand "The characterization of Jesus as depicted in the narrative of the fourth gospel"; Neotestamentica 19.1 (1985): 18-36.

Colin Roberts "John 20:30-31 and 21:24-25"; Journal of Theological Studies 38 (1987): 409-410).

Marianne Mete Thompson "Signs and Faith in the Fourth Gospel"; Bulletin for Biblical Research 1 (1991): 89-108.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-06-04; 2012-05-13; 2014-12-13; 2012-12-20)

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