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Chapter 19
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19:1-4 Then having (א,* א) so taken Jesus * (א,* א) Pilate whipped (Him). And having plaited a crown out of thorns the soldiers put (it) on His head and wrapped Him up in a purple garment. And they came (continually/repeatedly) towards Him and said (continually/repeatedly): “Rejoice, (you) a (P66,א,*א) king of the Jews!” They (continually) and/also gave Him slaps with a cudgel. * (א,* א) Again Pilate came out outside and he says to them: ”Behold, I lead Him outside to you, in order that you may gain knowledge, that I do not find (P66,א*) (any) cause/guilt * (א*).”

Word for word: 19:1 (8 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus) The so having-taken the Pilate the Jesus (he)-whipped. 19:2 (16 words in the Greek text) and the soldiers having-plaited (a)-crown out-of thorns (they)-put-on his the head and (a)-garment purple wrapped-up-in him. 19:3 (14 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus) and (they)-(continually)-came towards him and (they)-(continually)-said: rejoice (you)-(a)-king (of)-the (of)-Jews. and (they)-(continually)-gave him slaps-with-a-cudgel. 19:4 (19 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus prima manus) Came-out again the Pilate outside and (he)-says (to)-them: behold (i/I)-lead (to)-you him outside, in-order-that (you)-may-gain-knowledge that cause not (i/I)-find.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The Lord God said to the male Adam:) "Because you heard the voice of your woman and ate from the wood, which I enjoined you: 'Alone/only this (you may) not eat from it', on/’under the rule of’ the cursed (is) the earth in your works. In/with sorrows you may eat it all the days of your life. Thorns and tistles it will (let) stick up to you." (Gen 3:17-18a, Greek OT)

(Judas) cleanses his dress in wine and his wrapper in blood of a grape. (Gen 49:11b, Greek OT)

The scribes of the descent of the sons of Israel were whipped. (Ex 5:14a, Greek OT)

(Balaam said Balak:) "Behold, I have been (and is) taken from the side of (God) to bless. I shall bless, and I shall not/certainly not turn (it) away. It will not be a toil in Jacob. Nor it will be beheld a hardship in Israel. The Lord his God (is) in company with him and the glorious things of leaders (are) in/with him." ... And Balak spoke towards Balaam: "(If) you will not curse him (with) curses to me, (on your) blessing you may ‘not and not’/nor bless him." And 'having answered'/'Balaam answered' (and) spoke to Balak: “Did I not talk (with) you saying: ‘The word, which God – if according to the circumstances - may talk, this I shall do?’” (Num 23:20-21,25-26, Greek OT)

(Moses said to Israel:) “You shall make yourself twisted/twined things upon/’with regard to’ the four tassels of your cloak-mantels, in which you – if according to the circumstances – may wrap yourself up.” (Deut 22:12, Greek OT)

(David) took the crown (of gold) (from the king) … and it (continually) was upon David's head. (2 Sam 12:30a, Greek OT)

(David) took the crown (of gold) (from the king) … and it (continually) was against David's head. (1 Chron 20:2a, Greek OT)

(All the leading priests and the people in Jerusalem treated) the messengers of God scornfully, treated His sayings despicably and ‘jested in/with’/mocked His prophets. (2 Chron 36:16a, Greek OT)

(Mordecai) came out being dressed up in the kingly dress and having a golden crown and a purple diadem of fine linen. But beholding (him) the ones (being) in Susa rejoiced. (Esther 8:15, Greek OT)

(David said:) “All looking at me turned up the nose at me. They ‘talked in/with lips’/’made mouth at me’. They stirred/wagged head.” (Ps 22:7 or 22:8, Greek OT)

(The woman said:) “Come out (daughters of Zion) and behold in/at king Solomon in/with the crown, in/with which his mother has crowned him in/on a day of his marriage and in/on a day of a cheerfulness of his heart.” (Song of Solomon 3:11, Greek OT)

In that day the Lord of hosts will be the crown of the hope, the plaited one of the glory. (Is 28:5a, Greek OT)

(The boy of the Lord said:) "I have given (and give) My back into whips, My cheeks into slaps with a cudgel." (Is 50:6a, Greek OT)

(The prophet said to Israel:) “Sow wheats/’grains of wheat’ and harvest thorns.” (Jer 12:13a, Greek OT, cf. Matt 13:3,25,29-30)

(When Daniel had made the interpretation of the inscription) Belshazzar, the king, set/clothed (him) in purple cloth. (Dan 5:29a, Greek OT)

The tacticians and the satraps (continually) sought to find a pretence ‘down from’/against Daniel. And/but every pretence and fall from the side of (God) ... they did not find ‘down from’/against him, because he (continually) was faithful. And the tacticians spoke: “We will not found ‘down from’/against Daniel a pretence/motive ‘if not’/except in laws of his God.” (Dan 6:4-5, Theod)

… the one being (and having been) wrapped up in the things of fine linen ... (continually) was above the water of the river. (Dan 12:7a, Greek OT)

(The priest leader) Jesus (continually) was (and had been) set/clothed in dirty garments. (Zech 3:3a, Greek OT)

(Tobit wrote: “... God) whips and He has/shows mercy. He leads down into Hades, and He leads up.” (Tobit 13:2a, BA)

... (King Alexander) dispatched away to (Jonathan) a purple cloth and a golden crown. (1 Macc 10:20a)

(Antiochus) was king and a diadem (continually) was put on (him). (1 Macc 11:54b)

(The boy said to the king:) “I call on God ... that you in company with ... whips shall confess Him out/frankly for the reason that alone/only God He is.” (2 Macc 7:37b)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “… A weighty yoke (rests) against sons of Adam … from (one) wearing ‘of hyacinth’/dark-blue and crown and till (one) being wrapped up in (what is) made of coarse linen.” (Sir 40:1a,4b)

(Aaron had) a holy dress in … purple cloth. (Sir 45:10a)

(The idols) are (and have been) wrapped up in purple clothing. (Epistle of Jeremiah v 11a)


The Latter Revelation:

(Some seeds) fell against the thorns, and the thorns ascended and choked them. (Matt 13:7, cf. the bread-stuff in Matt 13:25,29-30)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "You will all ‘be caused to stumble’/stumble in/at Me in this night, for it is (and has been) written: 'I will hit the shepherd, and the sheep of the flock will be scattered asunder.'" (Matt 26:31)

Having taken Jesus to the side of into the Praetorium the soldiers of the commander led together the whole cohort against Him. (Matt 27:27)

Having plaited a crown out of thorns (the soldiers) put (it) upon, upon the head of (Jesus) and a reed in His right hand, and having fallen down in front of Him on their knees they ‘jested with’/mocked Him saying: “Rejoice, the (א,* א, A) King of the Jews!” (Matt 27:29)

(Jesus said to His disciples: “The priest leaders and the scribes) will ‘jest with’/mock (the Son of the Man) and spit in/on Him and they will whip Him." (Mark 10:34a)

The rowers/servants took (Jesus with) slaps with cudgels. (Mark 14:65b)

Having scourged Jesus, (Pilate) gave Him ‘to the side of’/over, in order that he might be crucified. ... And (the soldiers) put on (Jesus) a purple cloth and having plaited a thorny crown they put it round about Him. And they began to greet Him: "Rejoice, (You) a king of the Jews!" And they slapped His head (with) a reed. (Mark 15:15b,17-19a)

(Jesus said to the crowds about John the Baptist:) “What/why did you come out to behold? A man being (and having been) clad around in soft garments? Behold! The ones ‘beginning under’/’being the first’ in glorious clothing and delicacy are in the royal palaces.” (Luke 7:25)

Herod together with his army/soldiers … having wrapped up Jesus in a shining clothing, he sent Him * (P75, א*) to Pilate. (Luke 23:11b)

(Pilate said to the priest leaders and the leaders and the people:) “I have found nothing/no cause/guilt in this Man of which/the things you accuse * (א,* א, A) Him. …” (Luke 23:14b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Jesus said:) “Amen, amen, I say to you, if – according to the circumstances – the scarlet kernel of the bread-stuff having fallen into the earth may not die, it stays alone. But if – according to the circumstances – it may die, it carries/produces much fruit.” (John 12:24)

(Pilate) said to (the Jews): “I find 'no one'/no cause/guilt in Him.” (John 18:38b)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

When Linus-Ida comes to Junibacken and washes and scours, then she tells Madicken and Lisabet all the exciting stories of the bible. . . . Most (Madicken) weeps, when Linus-Ida tells how cruel and malignant they were against poor Jesus, how they beat him and hung him on a cross, and nevertheless he only was kind and patient all time. "They tormented and pained him simply unmercifully, but he did not even say as much as oh ", Linus-Ida assures. (Astrid Lindgren "Madicken och Junibackens Pims" s 88-89; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

"How cruel men are!" (bird Redbreast) said. . . . "It is not enough for them to fasten these poor beings with nails on the cross, but on the head of one of them they also have fixed a crown of sticking thorns. I see, that the thorns have lacerated his forehead, so that blood sheds", he went on. . . . The little bird began feel a gradually stronger compassion with the one crowned with thorns. . . . He saw how blood dropped down on the forehead of the crucified and could not longer hold himself still in his nest. . . . And he left his nest flowing out in the air, beating wide circles around the crucified. . . . Little by little he plucked up courage, flew up to him and with his bill he drew out a thorn having penetrated the forehead of the crucified. But while he did this, a drop of the blood of the crucified, fell down upon the breast of the bird. It quickly widened and flew out and coloured all the little tender (gray) feathers of the breast. But the crucified opened his lips whispering to the bird: "For the sake of your mercy you now have won what your genus has striven to attain since the creation of the world." . . . (And) however the little bird bathed, the red colour did not more disappear from his breast, and when his little young birds were full-grown, the blood-red colour glowed also on their breastfeathers, as it glows on the throat and breast of every bird Redbreast up to this day. (Selma Lagerlöf "Fågel Rödbröst" p 117-118; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

I always fear the prosperity, for then the hosts of hell fume. If I then am modest, in that case I came whole out of the struggle, giving the glory to God, then the demons still more fume, crying "He has Grössenwahn (Megalomania) and thinks himself being under God's protection." Would I have said: "See, villains, how strong I was!" the demons would also say: "He has Grössenwahn." . . . You exhort me to live for this world! It is, you know, materialism, and this is not for me, who has directed all my existence to death or a life after this. (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev XI maj 1895-nov 1896" p 283-284; letter 1896-07-20 to Torsten Hedlund; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

In order to love one's tormentors one shall be a cunt as Christ or believe in a life after this, which I nowadays does not do. It is also a duty to hit back. (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev V 1885-juli 1886" p 157; letter at about 1885-08-08 to Carl Larsson; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

The walls are all over hung with whips by all sorts and sizes; from the modest horsehair whip, with which the post-farmer treats his overdriven jade to the noble Chambrier. The squire Brackander has namely a passion for whips; nevertheless this passion is not so one-sided, that it does not also comprise riding-whips, of which there is a rather chosen store. (Viktor Rydberg "De vandrande djäknarne" p 35-36; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Everywhere the Scripture calleth sins “thorns”. For David also saith, “I was turned into mourning when a thorn was fixed in me.” (Ps xxxii. 4, so LXX) (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers XIV:414)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Carl Jonas Love Almqvist, Hjalmar Bergman, Enid Blyton, Gunnar Bolin, Lars-Ola Borglid, Wilhelm von Braun, Gustav Bränsvik, Barthold Carlson, Herman Carlson, Sten Carlsson, Jung Chang, Helmer Comstedt, Sven Danell, Charles Dickens, Per Ericsson, Jane Fredlund, Nikolaj Gogol, Carl Grimberg, Berndt Gustafsson, Enar Gustafsson, Lennart Gustavsson, Jon Halliday, Krister Hanell, Dick Harrison, Verner von Heidenstam, Albert Henning, Alf Henrikson, Otto Hermansson, Manne Hofrén, Victor Hugo, Alice Hulting, Mats Janson, Edvard Johansson, Eskil Jonsson, Sören Kierkegaard, Ernst Kjellberg, Bror Kugelberg, Mona Larsson, Olle Larsson, C.S. Lewis, Sven Lidman, Sigurd Lindgren, Martin Luther, K.G. Meyer, Vilhelm Moberg, Herta Müller, Gunnar Myrdal, Fabian Månsson, Fredrik Nielsen, John Nilsson, Agne Nordlander, Gunnar Olén, Martin P:n Nilsson, G.H. Pember, Sven-Erik Pernler, Anna Maria Roos, Allan Rydén, Erik Sjöberg, Enar Skillius, Åke Sköld, Alexander Solsjenitsyn, Rune Storck, A.M. Strinnholm, Gösta Säflund, Nathan Söderblom, Rabindranath Tagore, Howard Taylor, Adolf Thomander, Ragnar Thoursie, Anton Tjechov, Magnus Widell, P. Widesheim, Gustaf Wikner, Carl David Wirsén, Thecla Wrangel, Per Wästberg, Emile Zola.


My own comments and speculations:

In times of old the crown of gold from the king of Rabbah was placed on David's head. Now in a restoration perspective we see how a crown of thorns, which rightly would have been placed on the son of Rabbas, is placed on the Son of David. (The name Barabbas means “the son of Rabbas”/“the son of the father”; cf. John 18:40.) The crown of glory is changed to a crown of curse (cf. Gen 3:17-18a), the wedding crown of cheerfulness (Song of Solomon 3:11) to a crown of death and sorrow.

Concerning Balaam as a type of Pilate, see My own comments and speculations to John 18:37-38.

Concerning the purple garment, compare My own comments and speculations to John 12:24. The ancients used the grain of the scarlet berry to prepare a purplishred dye. Here we can see Aaron with his garment in purple as a type of Jesus.


Greek words:

akantha (thorn) (in the NT + one example in the Apocrypha) Matt 13:7; 27:29; John 19:2 – Sir 28:24; Matt 7:16; 13:22; Mark 4:7,18; Luke 6:44; 8:7,14; Heb 6:8.

mastigoô (whip) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Tobit 13:2; Mark 10:34; John 19:1 – Tobit 11:14(15); 13:5,9(10); 2 Macc 3:26,34; 5:18; 6:30; Wisdom of Solomon 16:16; Sir 30:14; Matt 10:17; 20:19; 23:34; Luke 18:33; Heb 12:6.

periballô (wrap up in) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Sir 40:4; Epistle of Jeremiah v 11; Luke 23:11; John 19:2 – Judith 4:12; 1 Macc 2:14; 3:47; 8:14; 10:64; 14:44; Baruch 5:2; Matt 6:29,31; 25:36,38,43; Mark 14:51; 16:5; Luke 12:27; Acts 12:8; Rev 3:5,18; 4:4; 7:9,13; 10:1; 11:3; 12:1; 17:4; 18:16; 19:8,13.

plekô (plait) Is 28:5; Matt 27:29; John 19:2 – Ex 28:14; Mark 15:17.

porfyrous (purple) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Esther 8:15; Epistle of Jeremiah v 11; John 19:2 – Esther 1:6; John 19:5; Rev 17:4; 18:16.

stefanos (crown) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Esther 8:15; 1 Macc 10:20; Sir 40:4; Matt 27:29; John 19:2 – Judith 3:7; 15:13; 1 Macc 1:22; 4:57; 10:29; 11:35; 13:37,39; 2 Macc 14:4; Sir 1:11,18; 45:12; 50:12; Epistle of Jeremiah v 8; Mark 15:17; John 19:5; 1 Cor 9:25; Phil 4:1; 1 Thess 2:19; 2 Tim 4:8; Jas 1:12; 1 Pet 5:4; Rev 2:10; 3:11; 4:4,10; 6:2; 9:7; 12:1; 14:14. (Cf. also the name Stephen-Stefanos in Acts 6:5,8-9; 7:59; 8:2; 11:19; 22:20)

stratiôtês (soldier) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Matt 27:27; John 19:2 – 2 Macc 5:12; 14:39; Matt 8:9; 28:12; Mark 15:16; Luke 7:8; 23:36; John 19:23-24; 19:32,34; Acts 10:7; 12:4,6,18; 21:32,35; 23:23,31; 27:31-32,42; 28:16; 2 Tim 2:3.


Additional studies:

Joshua 10:26; Is 34:13; 1 Macc 10:62-63; Wisdom of Solomon 2:8,18-20; 11:14; Matt 26:49,67; 27:26-30; Luke 1:28; 19:1; 22:63-65; 23:4,13-14; John 6:15; 12:13; 18:22,33; 19:6; Acts 25.25; Rev 9:9; 18:11-12; 19:12-13,16.


T. Arvedson "Jesus som narrkonung"; Svensk Exegetisk Årsbok 12 (1947): 25-35.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-05-25; 2012-03-18; 2014-11-08; 2014-12-18)

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19:5 Jesus came so out outside, wearing the thorny crown and the purple garment. And He says to them: “Behold, the Man!”

Word for word (19 words in the Greek text): came-out so the Jesus outside, wearing the thorny crown and the purple garment. and (he)-says (to)-them: behold the man.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The man) spoke to (Jacob): "What is your name?" But/and he spoke: "Jacob." But/and (the man) spoke to him: "Your name shall not any longer be called Jacob, however/but Israel shall be your name, because you have been stable in, in company with God and able in company with men." (Gen 32:27-28, Greek OT)

The Lord came by the side of before the face (of Moses) and called: "The Lord God, compassionate and merciful, long-suffering and much merciful and true." (Ex 34:6, Greek OT)

(Balaam said:) "I shall show him and/but by no means now. I call him happy, and/but he does not draw near. A constellation shall stick up out of Jacob, and a man shall stand up out of Israel." (Num 24:17a, Greek OT)

(Mordecai) came out being dressed up in the kingly dress and having a golden crown and a purple diadem of fine linen. But beholding (him) the ones (being) in Susa rejoiced. (Esther 8:15, Greek OT)

(David said: “The righteous ones) will laugh against (the wicked one) and speak: ‘Behold, a man who has not put/counted God (as) his succour.’” (Ps 52:6b-7 or 52:8b-9, Greek OT)

The form of (the boy of the Lord was) unhonoured and left out ‘to the side of’/’in comparison with’ all men, a man being in/with blow. (Is 53:3a, Greek OT)

(The Man set/clothed in linen said to Daniel:) "Out of the ones ‘letting together’/understanding (some) will understand throughout into/’for the purpose of’ the thing to make themselves clean and into/’for the purpose of’ the thing to be chosen and into/’for the purpose of’ the thing to be made clean till a seasonable time of a consummation." (Dan 11:35a, Greek OT)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “… A weighty yoke (rests) against sons of Adam … from (one) wearing ‘of hyacinth’/dark-blue and crown and till (one) being wrapped up in (what is) made of coarse linen.” (Sir 40:1a,4b)

(The elders said to the people:) "Having 'taken upon'/brought (Susanna) we question (her): 'Who (was) the man?'" (Susanna v 40)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to the crowds about John the Baptist:) “However, what/why did you come out? To behold a man (א*) being (and having been) clad around in mild/soft things? Behold, the ones wearing the mild/soft things (are) (א*,B) in the houses of the kings.” (Matt 11:8)

(Peter) began to accurse and swear that/: “I do not know the Man!” (Matt 26:74a)

(Jesus said to Peter and James and John:) "The hour has come. Behold, the Son of the Man is given ‘to the side of’/over into the hands of the missers (of the mark of God)." (Mark 14:41b)

(The soldiers) put on (Jesus) a purple cloth and having plaited a thorny crown they put it round about Him. (Mark 15:17)

(Jesus was a son) of Adam (= man), of God. (Luke 3:38b)

(Jesus said to the crowds about John the Baptist:) “What/why did you come out to behold? A man being (and having been) clad around in soft garments? Behold!” (Luke 7:25a)

Pilate asked (Jesus), saying: "Are You the King of the Jews?" But ‘having answered him’/’He answered him and’ uttered: "You say (it)." But/and Pilate spoke towards the priest leaders and the crowds: “I find nothing/no cause/guilt (Greek: aition) in this Man.” (Luke 23:3-4)

(The “leadership of a hundred men” said about Jesus:) "Certainly this Man (continually) was righteous." (Luke 23:47b)

(Peter said to the men of Israel:) "You denied the Holy and Righteous One and demanded a male, a murderer, to be given graciously to you." (Acts 3:14)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

The rowers/servants answered: “’Nor at any time’/never has a man talked in this way as this One, the Man, talks (P66,א*)!” (John 7:46)

Having plaited a crown out of thorns the soldiers put (it) on the head (of Jesus) and wrapped Him up in a purple garment. (John 19:2)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

Duke finds irony running right through (the) Gospel (of John) and indeed finds the central truth of which John writes as essentially ironical: "They had beheld a man - and now, 'Behold the Man!' They had beheld flesh - and he was the Word; in him what they had beheld was glory. He came graciously to a world he had made - and was unrecognized. He visited his own chosen people - and was spurned. They lifted him up to shame - and he was lifted up indeed. He was beheld there by the outcast and accursed - and he made them his friends and children of God. So crucial is this irony to the Johannine message that it may fairly be said, if we do not grasp the Irony we do not grasp the Gospel." (Leon Morris "The Gospel according to John" p 144; P.D. Duke "Irony in the Fourth Gospel")

When (Madicken and Lisabet) wake up in the morning of Christmas Day, they hear someone crying so pitiably. . . . They rush into the bedroom. There mother sits in the bed holding their (newborn) sister. . . . "Look, what she is like mother", father says. "Exactly the same nose!" . . . Mother strokes Kajsa over the black hair. "Little child, it doesn't matter, I suppose, if you get my nose, if only you become like father within and get his heart." . . . "Have you got any thing of blessedness", Lisabet asks when all the Christmas presents are distributed. Madicken thinks. . . . Lisabet also is uncertain. . . . But then Madicken says triumphantly: "Well, you have got a thing of blessedness! And I too! We have got Kajsa, you know." . . . This year mother and father are to accompany us to the May fire. And Kajsa too. "She must of course see that there is something so fine as May fires.", father says. "Yes", Lisabet says, "and so must all there see that there is something so fine as Kajsa!" It is wise said, Madicken thinks. "Then they probably say as Lindkvist said about you. 'I saw the little man', do you remember it?" . . . If people have eyes in their skulls, they of course must see 'the little man' in the pram wondering at how fine she is. Stupid ones, this they do not! They only wait for that the chimney-sweep is to light the fire and the male choir will begin to sing. Not that they have time to admire Kajsa!" (Astrid Lindgren "Madicken och Junibackens Pims" p 226-240; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

John indicates that the crown and cloak were kept on during the latter part of the trial and, indeed, never mentions that Jesus was allowed to put on his own clothes again. It is because of John's evidence that in popular art the crucified Jesus is portrayed as still wearing a crown of thorns. (Raymond E. Brown "The Gospel according to John" p 875)

In John's thought … Jesus (may be presented) to the people under a messianic title. (Raymond E. Brown "The Gospel according to John" p 876 refers to “the man” in Num 24:17).

The emperor bent forward and looked at this picture, which seemed to be done of blood and tears and black shadows of sorrow. . . . "Is this a man?" he said lowly and slowly. "Is this a man? . . . You are the man", he said. "You are what I never thought be allowed to see." And he pointed to himself, to his damaged face and his devoured hands. "I and all others are wild animals and monsters, but you are the man." (Selma Lagerlöf "Den heliga Veronikas svetteduk" p 110-111; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

After I now have completed the natural sciences I return to the study of the man. (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev XI maj 1895-nov 1896" p 104; letter 1895-11-30 to Mathilde Prager; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Our Lord Jesus Christ in the last times was made a man among men, that He might join the end to the beginning, that is, man to God. (Irenaeus, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol I, p 488)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Svetlana Aleksijevitj, Simone de Beauvoir, August Bondeson, Carl Cederblad, Fjodor Dostojevskij, Ylva Eggehorn, Runar Eldebo, LarsOlov Eriksson, Marat Filippovitj Kochanov, Bo Giertz, Liselotte Johansson, Ad. Kolmodin, Isak Krook, Sven Lidman, D.L. Moody, Torsten Nilsson, Saint-John Perse, Viktor Rydberg, Alex. Westin, Fredrik Wislöff.


My own comments and speculations:

Jesus presents Himself as the Man, that is as something more than a male or a female. Is he a man as the very first Adam or is He the Man (that is God) who is the Prototype of this Adam who was created to the image of God. Thomas gives the answer in John 20:28.

It is not unusual that Jesus is proclaimed as the God who "became" man (often in connection to John 1:14, where it is said that the Saying/Word became flesh). In contrast to this the Gospel of John describes Jesus as the God who "is" the Man.

Concerning the crown of thorns and the purple garment, see also John 19:1-4.


Paul said to Timoty: "(There is) one God, and (there is) one mediator (between) God and men, a man, Christ Jesus." (1 Tim 2:5)


Greek words:

akanthinos (thorny) Mark 15:17; John 19:5 – Is 34:13.

foreô (wear) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Sir 40:4; Matt 11:8; John 19:5 – Esther 4:17w(C27); Sir 11:5; Rom 13:4; 1 Cor 15:49; Jas 2:3.


Additional studies:

Gen 37:15; Is 52:14; Matt 26:72; 27:28-29; John 9:6; 16:21; 18:29; Rev 4:7; 6:2; 18:11-12; 19:12-13,16.


J. Leslie Houlden "John 19:5, 'And he said to them, Behold the man''" Expository Times 92 (1981): 148-149.

A.R.C. Leaney "The Doctrine of Man in 1 Corinthians"; Scottish Journal of Theology 15 (1962): 394 -.

John Suggit "John 19:5. Behold the Man."; Expository Times 94 (1983): 333-334.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-05-26; 2012-03-19; 2014-11-09; 2014-12-18)

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19:6 When so the priest leaders and the rowers/servants beheld Him, they screamed * (א,*א): “Crucify, crucify Him (א,*א,A)!” Pilate says to them: “Take Him you and crucify, for I do not find (any) cause/guilt in Him.”

Word for word (29 words in the Greek text): When so beheld him the priest-leaders and the rowers (they)-screamed: crucify crucify him. says (to)-them the Pilate: take him you and crucify. i/I for not find in him (a)-cause.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Balaam said:) “As/how fine (are) your houses, Jacob, your tents, Israel. ... Blessed the ones blessing you and cursed (are and have been) the ones cursing you.” ... Balak spoke towards Balaam: "I have called (and call) you to curse my enemy, and/but behold, blessing you have blessed this three times!" (Num 24:5,9b,10b, Greek OT)

The king spoke: “Crucify (the evil Haman) upon the (wood/’piece of wood’)!” … And Haman was hung up upon the wood/’piece of wood’, which he had made ready for (the righteous) Mordecai. (Esther 7:9b-10a, Greek OT)

The form of (the boy of the Lord was) unhonoured, left out ‘to the side of’/’in comparison with’ all men, a man being in/with blow. (Is 53:3a, Greek OT)

The tacticians and the satraps (continually) sought to find a pretence ‘down from’/against Daniel. And/but every pretence and fall from the side of (God) ... they did not find ‘down from’/against him, because he (continually) was faithful. And the tacticians spoke: “We will not found ‘down from’/against Daniel a pretence/motive ‘if not’/except in laws of his God.” (Dan 6:4-5, Theod)

The Latter Revelation: (Peter continually) was seated in company with the rowers/servants to behold the end. (Matt 26:58b)

(The priest leaders and the leaders and the people continually) raised their voices against (Pilate), saying: “Crucify, crucify Him.” But he spoke towards them a third time: “For/why, what bad thing has this One made/done? I have found nothing causing/deserving death in Him. Having so ‘educated Him’/’given Him a lesson’, I will ‘loosen ... from’/’let ... loose’ Him. But they (continually) lay on, demanding (with) great/loud voices, (that Jesus should) be crucified. And their voices (continually) were entirely stable. And Pilate ‘judged on’/decided that their demand (should) become (granted). (Luke 23:21-24)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

Pilate said to (the Jews): "Take (Jesus) yourselves and judge * (א*) according to your law." The Jews so (א*) said to him: "It is not allwed to us to kill anyone". (John 18:31)

(Pilate) again came out towards the Jews, and he says to them: “I find 'no one'/no cause/guilt in Him.” (John 18:38b)

Again Pilate came out outside and he says to them: ”Behold, I lead Him outside to you, in order that you may gain knowledge, that I do not find (P66,א*) (any) cause/guilt * (א*).” (John 19:4)


My own comments and speculations:

In a restoration perspective we see how the righteous Jew Jesus replaces the evil “Gentile” Haman on the cross. And the “Gentile” king's “crucify (the ‘Gentile’) Haman” is replaced by the Jewish leaders' “crucify (the Jew) Jesus”.

See My own comments and speculations to John 18:37-38, 18:39-40 and 19:5.


Greek words:

stauroô (crucify) Esther 7:9; Luke 23:21,23; John 19:6 – Esther 8:12r(E18); Matt 20:19; 23:34; 26:2; 27:22-23,26,31,35,38; 28:5; Mark 15:13-15,20,24-25,27; 16:6; Luke 23:33; 24:7,20; John 19:10,15-16,18,20,23,41; Acts 2:36; 4:10; 1 Cor 1:13,23; 2:2,8; 2 Cor 13:4; Gal 3:1; 5:24; 6:14; Rev 11:8.


Additional studies:

Num 23:7-12,18-26; 24:3-10,15-19; Luke 17:25; 23:3-4,14; John 18:3; Acts 13:28; 23:9; 26:31.


T.C.G. Thornton "The Crucifixion of Haman and the Scandal of the Cross"; Journal of Theological Studies 37 (1986): 419-426.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-05-26; 2012-03-19; 2014-11-10)

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19:7-8 The Jews answered * (P66,א,*א): “We have a law, and according to the law He is indebted to die, because He has made Himself a son of God.” When Pilate so heard this saying, he rather feared.

Word for word: 19:7 (17 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus) answered the Jews: we (a)-law have and according-to the law (he)-is-indebted (to)-die, because (a)-son (of)-God himself (he)-made. 19:8 (10 words in the Greek text) When so heard the Pilate this the saying, rather (he)-feared.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The Lord said to Moses:) "Let the one ‘naming the name of the Lord’/’calling the Lord by name’ be put to death (with) death. Let every/’all the’ synagogue of Israel throw stones at him (with) stones." (Lev 24:16a, Greek OT)

(The king said:) “I behold four males being (and having been) loosened/released wandering about in the fire and no ruin/harm became in them, and the beholding of the fourth (has) a likeness of a messenger of God (Theod: ... with a son of God).” (Dan 3:25b, Greek OT)

Till (the) evening (the king) (continually) was fighting to ‘take out ... for himself’/’set ... free’ (Daniel). … (But the males of the king said to him:) “Have knowledge, king, that it is a decree of Medes and Persians the thing (that) every restriction and standing/stand which the king – according to the circumstances – may stand/establish, must not be changed by the side of (him).” Then the king spoke and they led Daniel and threw him in, into the den of the lions. (Dan 6:14b,15b-16a, Greek OT Theod)

(Raphael said to Tobias: “If Raguel) may hinder (Sarah) from (becoming your woman he would) be indebted to death according to the judgment of the book of Moses. ... “ (Tobit 6:13b, Theod)

(The wicked ones say:) "If the righteous is a son of God, (God) will take 'in stead of'/'part with' him and deliver him out of a hand of (the ones) standing (and having stood) (him) against. . . . We shall 'administer justice entirely'/'give judgment against' (the righteous one) (to) an indecent/ugly death, for it will be 'a visitation'/'an inspection' of him 'out of'/'in consequence of' his sayings." (Wisdom of Solomon 2:18,20)


The Latter Revelation:

(The priest leader said to the members of the council:) “What does it seem to you?” But/and 'having answered'/answering they spoke: “He is liable to death!” (Matt 26:66)

(Pilate had beheld) that nothing helps, however/but rather it becomes a noise. (Matt 27:24a)

‘Jesting with’/mocking (Jesus) the priest leaders, in company with the scribes of (א,* א) (the) elders, ... (continually/repeatedly) said: "He saved others. He is not able to save Himself. He is (a) king of Israel! Let Him now descend from the cross and we may (א,* א) believe against Him. He ‘is (and has been) persuaded’/'trusts (and has trust)' against God. Let Him deliver now, if He wants Him, for He spoke that/: 'I am a son of God.'" But/and the same thing and/also the robbers, the ones having been crucified together with, together with Him, (continually/repeatedly) reproached Him. (Matt 27:41b-44)

(The Jews said: ”Paul) ‘persuades up’/seduces the men to revere God to the side of the law.” (Acts 18:13)

Paul spoke towards (the priest leader Ananias): “God is about to slap you, wall of a house, being (and having been) whitewashed. And you are seated judging me according to the law, and/but being by the side of the law you exhort ‘me to be slapped’/’them to slap me’.” (Acts 23:3)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

Because of this * (א,* א) rather/’all the more’ the Jews (continually) sought to kill (Jesus), because He not only (continually) loosened the sabbath, ‘however and’/’but also’ (continually) said/called God an own Father, making Himself equal (with) God. (John 5:18)

(The Jews said to Jesus): “We do not stone You on account of a fine work however/but on account of a blasphemy, and because You, being a man, make Yourself God.” (John 10:33)

Jesus answered them: “Has it not been (and is it not) written in * (P45,א*) the law that/: ‘I spoke, you are gods.’ If He ‘spoke to’/called those ‘gods’, towards whom the saying of God became/came (and the writing is not able to be loosened), do you say to the One whom the Father made holy and dispatched away into the adornment/’adorned world’ that/: ‘You blaspheme’, because I spoke: ‘I am a Son of God’?” (John 10:34-36)

(Jesus said to the disciples:) “If so I, the Lord and the Teacher, have washed your feet, and/also you are indebted to wash the feet of one another.” (John 13:14)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "An hour comes, ‘in order that’/when 'every the'/everyone having killed you may think, (that) he carries a divine service to God." (John 16:2b)


My own comments and speculations:

In a restoration perspective we see how the law of the king (Dan 6:15) is a type of the law of the Jews.

Compare the resemblance between Matt 27:24 (ôfelei-help; mallon-rather) and John 19:7-8 (ofeilei-be indebted; mallon-rather). Observe also the demands for crucifixion in the preceding verses in Matt 27:23 and John 19:6.


Additional studies:

Num 15:30; Matt 26:63-65; Mark 14:61-64; Luke 17:25; John 18:31; 1 John 2:6; 3:16; 4:11; 3 John v 8.


Thomas D. Lea "Who Killed the Lord? A Defense Against the Charge of Anti-Semitism in John's Gospel"; Criswell Theological Review 7 (1994): 103-123.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-05-26; 2012-03-20; 2014-11-11)

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19:9 And he again came into, into the Praetorium, and he says to Jesus: “From where are You?” But Jesus did not give him an answer.

Word for word (20 words in the Greek text) and (he)-came-into the praetorium again and (he)-says (to)-the Jesus: from-where are you? the but Jesus (an)-answer not gave him.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

As a lamb (is) voiceless/soundless opposite the one shearing it, in this way (the slave of the Lord) does not open His mouth. (Is 53:7b, Greek OT)


The Latter Revelation:

(Elizabeth said:) “From where (is) this to me, in order that the mother of my Lord may come towards me?” (Luke 1:43)

(Jesus asked the priest leaders and the elders of the people:) “From where was (continually) the baptism of John, out of heaven or out of men?” … They spoke: “We do not know.” Jesus (א,*א) uttered to them: “Nor I say to you in/with what kind of (judicial) authority I make/do these things.” (Matt 21:25a,27)

(Jesus) did not answer (Pilate). (Matt 27:14a)

(Pilate) questioned (the priest leaders and the people) if the Man (Jesus) is a Galilean. (Luke 23:6b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

Nathanael spoke to (Jesus): "From where have You gained knowledge of me?" (John 1:48)

(Jesus said to Nicodemus:) "The Spirit blows whereat/where it wants, and you hear its voice. However, you do not know from where it comes, and where it withdraws. In this way is 'every the'/everyone having been (and being) begotten out of the water and (א,*א) the Spirit." (John 3:8)

The One coming from above is above all. The one being out of the earth is out of the earth and out of the earth he talks. The One coming out of the heaven * (P75,א*), (of) what He has beheld (and beholds) and has heard * (א,* א) He is a witness, and no one takes His evidence. (John 3:31-32)

Having so lifted against/up the eyes and viewed that a much/many-headed crowd comes towards Him, He says towards Philip: “From where may we buy breads/bread, in order that these ones may eat?” This He (continually) said to try him, for He Himself knew (and had known) what He (continually) was about to make/do. (John 6:5-6)

Some of the inhabitants of a disgraced Jerosolyma/Jerusalem said (about Jesus): "We know from where this One is. * (א,* א) When – according to the circumstances – the christ/'anointed one' may come, no one has knowledge from where He is.” (John 7:27a)

Jesus said to (the Pharisees): “And if I – according to the circumstances – am a witness on account of Myself, My evidence is truthful, because I know from where I came and where I withdraw. * (א,*א) You do not know from where I come and (א,*א) where I withdraw.” (John 8:14)

(The Jews said:) “We know, that God has talked (and talks) (with) Moses, but we do not know from where this One is.” (John 9:29)

Jesus answered (Pilate): “My kingdom is not out of this adornment/’adorned world’. If My kingdom (continually) was out of this adornment/’adorned world’, My rowers/servants (continually) had – according to the circumstances – fought, in order that I might not had been given ‘to the side of’/’over to’ the Jews. But now My kingdom is not from here.” (John 18:36)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

The form of the question (From where are you?) recalls Luke 23:6 (Pilate questioned if the man Jesus was a Galilean) and may be based upon a recollection of it. If this is so, the meaning has been transformed in Johannine style; or, rather, a characteristic double meaning has been attached. John does not think primarily of the province of Jesus' birth but of the fact, being Son of God, he is ‘from above’. (Barrett p 542)

Like a lamb voiceless before his shearer, so (Jesus did not open) His mouth – for He, while Pilate interrogated Him, spake nothing. (Tertullian, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol III, p 171)


Additional studies:

Matt 21:23-27; 26:63; 27:12; Mark 6:2; 14:60-61; 15:3-5; Luke 20:1-8; 23:9; John 2:9; 7:3; 14:31; 18:28,33-37; 1 Pet 2:22-23; Rev 7:13-14; 8:1.


L.M. Dewailly "Varifrån är du? (Joh 19:9)"; Svensk Exegetisk Årsbok 49 (1984): 126-135.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-05-26; 2012-03-21; 2014-11-12)

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19:10-11 Pilate * (א*,A) says to Him: “You do not talk (with) me? Do You not know, that I have (judicial) authority to ‘loosen from’/release You, and I have (judicial) authority to crucify You?” Jesus answered him: “You have (א,*א,A) not ‘no one’/any (judicial) authority ‘down from’/against Me, if it (continually) was/’has ... been’ (and is) not given you from above. Because of this the one having given Me ‘to the side of’/over to you has a greater miss (of the mark of God).”

Word for word: 19:10 (19 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus prima manus) says (to)-him the Pilate: (with)-me not (you)-talk? not 'know-(and-have-known)'/know-(you) that (judicial)-authority (i/I)-have (to)-loosen-from you and (judicial)-authority (i/I)-have (to)-crucify you? 19:11 (25 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus) answered him the Jesus: not have-(you) (judicial)-authority 'down-from'/against me no-one if not it-(continually)-was having-been-(and-being)-given you from-above. because-of this the-(one) having-given-to-the-side-of me (to)-you (a)-greater miss-(of-the-mark-of-God) has.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Balaam said to Balak:) "The word which God – if according to the circumstances – may throw into my mouth, this I shall talk. ... By no means I talked with your messengers whom you dispatched away towards me: 'If – according to the circumstances – Balak may give me his house filled with silvermetal and goldmetal, I shall not be able to step to the side of the word of the Lord, to make it evil or fine ‘from the side of Myself’/’of my own accord’?'" ... (But the females) (continually) were/caused the sons of Israel, according to the word of Balaam, the thing to stand aloof from and ‘behold over’/overlook the word of the Lord. (Num 22:38b; 24:12b-13a; 31:16a, Greek OT)

The Lord gave (Jerusalem) ‘to the side of’/over into (the) hands (of the king of Babylon). (Dan 1:2a, Greek OT)

(Daniel said to the king:) "The highest One … will give (the kingdom of men) to whom He – according to the circumstances – may glorify. ... It/there is not (anyone) who will ‘make in stead of’/resist His hand or say to Him: 'What have You made/done?'" (Dan 4:22b,32b or 4:25b,35b, Greek OT Theod)

To (one as a son of man) was given the beginning and the honour and the kingdom, and all the peoples, tribes, tongues will be slaves to Him. His (judicial) authority (is) an agelong (judicial) authority, and His kingdom will not be ruined throughout. (Dan 7:14, Greek OT, Theod)

Who (the Romans) - according to the circumstances - may wish to succour to 'be kings'/rule, they 'are kings'/rule, but/and who they - according to the circumstances - may wish, they substitute. And they were extremely heightened. (1 Macc 8:13)


The Latter Revelation:

Jesus spoke towards the ones having become/come to the side of (Him), priest leaders and officers of the sanctuary and elders, (who had come) towards (א*) Him: "... ‘According to’/’day after’ day on My being in company with you in the sanctuary, you did not stretch out the hands against Me. However, this hour is Yours, and/likewise the (judicial) authority of the darkness." (Luke 22:52a,53)

(Peter said to the males of Israel:) "This (Jesus), having been (and being) marked out by boundaries (in) a counsel and foreknowledge of God, given out through a hand of lawless (ones), having fixed (Him) towards/'in regard to' (a cross) you 'took up ... for yourselves'/'got rid of' (Him)." (Acts 2:23a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

John answered and spoke: “A man is not able to take nothing (P75, א,* א, A)/anything, if – according to the circumstances – it may not have been (and is) given to him out of the heaven.” (John 3:27)

The Saviour (א,*א) knew from (P66, א,* א) a beginning (that) some are the * (א,*א) believing ones and (that) someone (continually) was the one being about to give Him ‘to the side of’/over (P66, א,*א). (John 6:64b)

(Jesus said to the Pharisees:) “No one lifted (P45,א*,B) (My soul) from Me, however/but I put/inter it from Myself. I have (judicial) authority to put/inter it, and I have (judicial) authority to take it again. This commandment I have taken from the side of My Father.” (John 10:18)

(Pilate said to Jesus:) “I am * (P66,א*) not a Jew, (am I)? Your nation and the priest leader (א*) have given You ‘to the side of’/’over to’ me. What have You made/done?” Jesus answered: “My kingdom is not out of this adornment/’adorned world’. If My kingdom (continually) was out of this adornment/’adorned world’, My rowers/servants (continually) had – according to the circumstances – fought, in order that I might not had been given ‘to the side of’/’over to’ the Jews. But now My kingdom is not from here.” (John 18:35-36)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

It should be noted that the participle “dedomenon” (being given) is neuter and does not agree with “exousia” (authority); the meaning is, Unless it had been granted you to have authority. (C.K. Barrett "The Gospel according to St John" p 543)

Every word You let fall about me is, it is true, taken as the truth itself, even if it is not true; therefore You could murder me with one word - if I had not laid my fate in the hand of God. Once I thought to say You, when You misused the might You had got by Providence over me, the same thing as Christ said to Pilate: "You have no might over me, if it was not given You from above." You had the might over me, but You misused it, and You thought that it was your own, therefore You lost it. (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev XV april 1904-april 1907" p 9; letter at about 1904-04-09 to Harriet Bosse; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Johannes Gossner, Peter Halldorf.


My own comments and speculations:

Balaam had no authority to do anything of his own will. He only could bless Israel. But the Lord let him counsel the women to trespass against Honom. And therefore the leaders of Israel were hung in the sun before the Lord (Num 25:4, the Hebrew text). Now we see how also Pilate, who had three times proclaimed Jesus not guilty, is given authority from above to let crucify Jesus, He who was with the hung leaders of Israel in the wilderness.


(Paul said to the believers in Rome:) “Let every soul arrange itself under (judicial) authorities having/being over itself, for it/there is not a (judicial) authority if not by God, but the ones being/existing they are (and have been) arranged by God.” (Rom 13:1)

If we – according to the circumstances – may speak, that we have not a/any miss (of the mark of God), we lead ourselves astray and the truth is not in us. (1 John 1:8)


Additional studies: Num 22:18; John 1:12-13; 3:3; 18:5,28-30; 19:16; Acts 3:13; 4:27-28; John 19:1; 20:6; Rev 6:8; 7:2.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-05-26; 2012-03-22; 2014-11-13; 2014-12-18)

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19:12-14a ‘Out of’/’in consequence of’ this Pilate (continually) sought to ‘loosen Him from’/’let Him loose’, but the Jews (continually/repeatedly) said (א*): “If you – according to the circumstances – may ‘loosen ... from’/’let loose’ this One, you are not a friend of the Caesar. 'Every the'/everyone making himself a king gainsays the Caesar.” Pilate so having heard these sayings led Jesus outside and he sat down upon a tribune into a place being said/called Stone extension, but in Hebrew Gabbatha. But it (continually) was a preparation of the paschal lamb. It (continually) was as a sixth hour.

Word for word: 19:12 (27 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus prima manus) out-of this the Pilate (continually)-sought (to)-loosen-from him. the but Jews (continually)-said: if-according-to-the-circumstances this-(one) (you)-may-loosen-from, not (you)-are (a)-friend (of)-the (of)-Caesar. every the (a)-king himself making gainsays the Caesar. 19:13 (22 words in the Greek text) 'the so Pilate'/'so Pilate' having-heard the sayings these led outside the Jesus and (he)-sat-down upon (a)-tribune into (a)-place being-said Stone-extension, (in)-Hebrew but Gabbatha. 19:14a (9 words in the Greek text) was-(continually) but (a)-preparation (of)-the (of)-paschal-lamb. (an)-hour (it)-(continually)-was as (a)-sixth.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Balaam said:) “A man will come out, out of the seed of (Israel), and He will be lord of many nations, and His kingdom will be heightened if/’more than’ Gog, and His kingdom will 'be increased'/grow.” (Num 24:7, Greek OT)

The Lord spoke to Moses: "Take all the rulers of the people and expose them to shame by the side of the Lord over against the sun, and the wrath of the passion of the Lord may turn away from Israel." (Num 25:4, Greek OT)

(All the sons of Israel) fell against (the) face against the earth against the stone extension, and they prostrated themselves and (continually) praised the Lord, (saying), that (He is) good, that His mercy (is) into the (coming) age.” (2 Chron 7:3b, Greek OT)

Ezra, the scribe, stood upon a tribune of wood … and (beside him) stood (six males) ‘out of’/at his right (parts) and (seven males) ‘out of’/at his left (parts). And Ezra opened the scroll in the very eyes of every/all the people. (Neh 8:4-5a, Greek OT)

Mordecai ‘was quiet’/rested in the court in company with Gabatha and Tharra, the two eunuchs of the king, of the ones watching the court. Both/and he heard their reasoning ... that they made ready to throw/lay the hands on ... the king. ... (In the court was) a stone extension/pavement. ... (And) the queen gainspoke/gainsaid the king. (Esther 1:1m-na/A12-13a; Esther 1:6a,17b, Greek OT)

Within/interior (king Solomon's litter was) a stone extension/pavement, a (gift of) welcome from the daughters of Jerusalem. (Song of Solomon 3:10b, Greek OT)

... (The prophet) beheld the Lord being seated upon a throne, high and being lifted upon/up. (Is 6:1a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) “I will give the key of the house of David on (Eliakim's) shoulder, and he will open, and it/there is not (anyone) shutting up, and he will shut up, and it/there is not (anyone) opening.” (Is 22:22, Greek OT א*; the name Eliakim means God restores or God raises.)

Till (the) evening (the king) (continually) was fighting to ‘take out ... for himself’/’set ... free’ (Daniel). … (But the males of the king said to him:) “Have knowledge, king, that it is a decree of Medes and Persians the thing (that) every restriction and standing/stand which the king – according to the circumstances – may stand/establish, must not be changed by the side of (him).” Then the king spoke and they led Daniel and threw him in, into the den of the lions. (Dan 6:14b,15b-16a, Greek OT Theod)

(The men of the king said to the Jew Mattathias:) “Come to/forward first (of all) and make/do the command of the king. … You and your sons (then) will be the friends of the king.” … (But Mattathias said: “We will not) entirely leave law and fundamental laws.” (1 Macc 2:18a,21b)

(The king Alexander said to his brother Jonathan:) “Today we now ‘cause you to stand down’/’ordain you’ ... to be called friend of king.” (1 Macc 10:20a)

(The minister of the king) came to, against the tribune ... (and) defended (the matter before the people in the city). (2 Macc 13:26a)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said about the sanctuary:) “Here may not/certainly not be ‘let be’/left stone against stone, which will not be loosened down/up.” (Matt 24:2b)

When the Son of the Man – according to the circumstances – may come in His glory, and all the messengers in company with Him, then He will sit down upon His throne of glory. (Matt 25:31)

(On Pilate's) being seated upon the tribune his woman dispatched away (a message) towards him, saying (about Jesus: “Let there be) nothing ‘to you and to’/’between you and’ that righteous One." (Matt 27:19a)

(Jesus said to His disciples: “The master of the house) will show you a great ‘place above earth’/’upper apartment’, being made ready (with) extended (couches).” (Mark 14:15a)

(Jesus) (continually/repeatedly) said: "Abba, the Father, all things are able for You. Carry this cup from the side of, from Me. However/but not what I want, however/but what You (want)." (Mark 14:36)

Having become a sixth hour it became darkness against/over the whole earth/land till a ninth hour. (Mark 15:33)

It (continually) was preparation, that is, (the day) before the sabbath. (Mark 15:42b)

(Simeon said to Mary:) “Behold, (Jesus) lies/’lies still’ into/’for the purpose of’ a fall and a resurrection of many in Israel, and into/’for the purpose of’ a sign being gainsaid.” (Luke 2:34b)

(Jesus said to the Pharisees concerning His disciples:) ”If – according to the circumstances - these are quiet, the stones will shout.” (Luke 19:40b)

(The multitude) began to accuse (Jesus before Pilate) saying: "We have found this One turning throughout/asunder our nation and hindering us to give Caesar tributes and saying Himself be 'a christ'/'an anointed one', a king." (Luke 23:2)

Pilate again raised his voice towards (the whole multitude) wanting to ‘loosen from’/release Jesus. (Luke 23:20)

It (continually) was * (א,* א, A) as if (it was) a sixth hour and it became darkness against/over the whole earth/land till a ninth hour. (Luke 23:44)

God had sworn (with) an oath to (David) to make (one) out of a fruit of his hip to sit down against his throne. (Acts 2:30b)

(The Jews said to the leader of the state/city about the believers:) "They all practise/act ‘from opposite’/’over against’ the decrees of (the) caesar, saying that be/’there is’ ‘the other’/another king, Jesus." (Acts 17:7b)

(Paul said to the first ones of the Jews:) “Having ‘judged ... up’/examined me (the Romans) wished to ‘loosen from’/release (me) ... but (on the) gainsaying of the Jews I was urged to ‘call on’/’appeal to’ (the) Caesar.” (Acts 28:18a,19a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

Jesus, bothering (and having bothered) ‘out of’/’in consequence of’ the way of the journey, sat ‘in this way’/so (continually) still on the spring. It (continually) was as a sixth hour.” (John 4:6b)

(Caiaphas said to the other priest leaders and the Pharisees:) “You do not know nothing/anything, nor you count that it 'carries/brings together'/'is profitable' * (א,*א) 'in order that'/that one man may die in favour of the people, and (that) not the whole nation may perish.” (John 11:50)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

The hour of noon on the Preparation Day for the Passover was the hour for beginning the slaughter of the pascal lambs. (Raymond E. Brown "The Gospel according to John" p 883)

We may suppose that John meant that Pilate did in fact sit on (the tribunal), but that for those with eyes to see behind this human scene appeared the Son of the Man, to whom all judgement has been committed (5:22), seated upon his throne. (C.K. Barrett "The Gospel according to St John" p 544)

Gabbath or Gabbetha means ’a rounded height.’ (Alfred Edersheim "The Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah Part II" p 580)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Oloph Bexell, Miguel de Cervantes, Hilding Fagerberg, Anton Fridrichsen, Gillis Gerleman, Bo Giertz, Carl Grimberg, Alf Henrikson, Per Lundberg, H.M. Melin.


My own comments and speculations:

The Greek word “lithostrôton”, rendered by “stone extension”, only occurs here in the NT. The word is compounded by the words “lithos” (stone) and “strônnymi” (extend). Concerning “stone”, compare with Matt 24:2 (Mark 13:2; Luke 19:44), where Jesus says, that the sanctuary will not be left “a stone against a stone”. Concerning “extension”, compare with Matt 21:8; Mark 11:8; Mark 14:15; Luke 22:12. Three times we have the word “lithostrôton” in the OT, for instance in the Song of Solomon 3:10. In the light of this passage we can see King Solomon, the son of David, as a type of Jesus.

It is worth to observe, that there in the first chapter of Esther are the three rare Greek words lithostrôton (v 6, three times in the OT), anteipon-antilegô (v 17, antilegô-anteipon eight times in the OT) and Gabatha (v 1m, once in the OT). In John 19:12-13 we have lithostrôton (once in the NT), antilegô (eleven times in the NT) and Gabbatha (once in the NT). Cf. also the possible allusion to Esther 1:1o in John 19:17.

The translation “(Pilate) made Him to sit down” of John 19:13b (with a type in Neh 8:4) occurs also in the pseudepigrapf the Gospel of Peter (“they … made him sit upon the seat of judgment”; cf. Barrett p 540). The translation “(Pilate) sat down” (with a type in 2 Macc 13:26) corresponds better to Matt 27:19. Possibly we here in the Gospel of John have an intentional double meaning (cf Barrett p 544).

In the wilderness the chiefs of Israel were hung in the sun before the Lord. Now in the middle of the day the king of the Jews, or perhaps better the king of Israel, sits on a place called Gabbatha, a name which meaning is uncertain but that perhaps can mean "elevation" (cf. the Hebrew word “gabah”). Jesus will be crucified before the Lord, and the chiefs of the people will be released in His place. According to the double meaning, discussed above, we can also see both Jesus and Pilate on the tribune at the same time. When the man Jesus dies on the cross, He dies for the sake of Pilate and all other men.

A sixth hour associates to the number six, which in turn associates to imperfection. Compare the perfect ending in John 19:30.

The word ”bainô” (tribune) is derived from ”bainô” (to step) and signified originally “step”.

Concerning the time for the preparation of the paschal lamb, see My own comments and speculations to John 18:28-29a.


Paul said to the believers in Rome: “We will all stand by the side of the tribune of God.” (Rom 14:10)


Greek words: antilegô (gainsay) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Luke 2:34; John 19:12; Acts 28:19 – Sir 4:25; Acts 13:45; 28:22; Rom 10:21; Tit 1:9; 2:9.

bêma (tribune) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) 2 Macc 13:26; Matt 27:19; John 19:13; Rom 14:10 – Sir 45:9; Acts 7:5; 12:21; 18:12,16-17; 25:6,10,17; 2 Cor 5:10.

Gabbatha (Gabbatha) John 19:13. This Hebrew word only occurs here in the Bible. However, we have the Greek word “Gabatha” in Esther 1:1m(A12) and the Aramaic word “abba” (Father) in Mark 14:36. In the word “Gabbatha” are Hebrew, Aramaic and Greek – the three “holy” languages of the Bible – united. In a difficult hour (cf. Mark 15:34) the Father is near His Son in the stone extension (cf. Matt 24:2). Yes, if the disciples are quiet, the stones will shout (Luke 19:40). And John the Baptist say to the Pharisees and the Sadducees in Matt 3:9: “You may not think (that you can) say in yourselves: 'We have Abraham (as) father'. For I say you, that God is able to raise children to Abraham out of these stones.” Cf. Luke 3:8. Now in John 19:13 we have a feeling of how the children of Abraham are shouting to the Father in heaven. And among the children of the father Abraham we have the Son of Father – the stone which the builders rejected (cf. Matt 21:42; Mark 12:10; Luke 20:17) – who in His uneasiness says: “Abba.” See also My own comments and speculations.

Kaisar (Caesar) Luke 23:2; John 19:12; Acts 28:19 – Matt 22:17,21; Mark 12:14,16-17; Luke 2:1; 3:1; 20:22,24-25; John 19:15; Acts 17:7; 25:8,10-12,21; 26:32; 27:24; Phil 4:22.

lithostrôton (stone extension) 2 Chron 7:3; Esther 1:6; Song of Solomon 3:10; John 19:13.

paraskeuê (preparation) Mark 15:42; John 19:14 – Judith 2:17; 4:5; 2 Macc 15:21; Matt 27:62; Luke 23:54; John 19:31,42.


Additional studies: 1 Macc 3:38; 10:65; Matt 27:45; Mark 15:25; Luke 23:5,16; John 5:2; 6:15; 11:51-52; 12:13; 19:17,20,31,42; 20:16; Rev 3:21; 9:11; 16:16; 20:4.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-05-27; 2012-03-24; 2014-11-14)

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19:14b-16a And he says to the Jews: “Behold, your King!” But they (continually/repeatedly) said (א*): “Lift, lift, crucify Him!” Pilate says to them: “Shall I crucify your King?” The priest leaders answered: “We have not a king ‘if not’/but a Caesar.” So he then gave Him ‘to the side of’/’over to’ them, in order that He might be crucified.

Word for word: 19:14b (8 words in the Greek text) and (he)-says (to)-the Jews: behold the king your. 19:15 (24 words in the Greek text) they but (continually)-said: lift lift, crucify him. says (to)-them the Pilate: the king your (i/I)-will/shall-crucify? answered the priest-leaders: not (we)-have (a)-king if not (a)-Caesar. 19:16a (7 words in the Greek text) then so (he)-gave-to-the-side-of him (to)-them in-order-that (he)-might-be-crucified.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(A Hebrew man said to Moses:) "Who has ‘caused ... to stand’/set you down (as) a leader or ‘an administrator of justice’/’a judge’ upon/’with regard to’ us?" (Ex 2:14a, Greek OT)

(The result) of the inspection out of the tribe of Judas (was) 74 of the number of one thousand and 600. (This was the greatest tribe in Israel.) (Num 1:27, Greek OT)

(Balaam said:) “A man will come out, out of the seed of (Israel), and He will be lord of many nations, and His kingdom will be heightened if/’more than’ Gog, and His kingdom will 'be increased'/grow. ... I shall show him and/but by no means now. I call him happy, and/but he does not draw near. A constellation shall stick up out of Jacob, and a man shall stand up out of Israel.” (Num 24:7,17a, Greek OT)

These popular assemblies for/of Judas ‘according to’/after their inspection (were) 76500 (men). (Judas still was the greatest tribe in Israel.) (Num 26:22b, Greek OT)

(Moses said to Israel:) “Lift out the evil thing out of yourselves.“ (Deut 17:7b; 19:19b; 21:21b; 22:21b,24b; 24:7b, Greek OT)

Jesus killed (the five kings), and he hung them up upon five woods/’pieces of wood’. (Joshua 10:26a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Samuel: “The people) have not despised (and do not despise) you, however they have treated (and treat) Me despicably ‘the thing to not be’/’from being’ king upon/over them.” (1 Sam 8:7b, Greek OT)

(The Lord) chose the tribe of Judas, the mountain Zion, which He welcomed. (Ps 78:68, Greek OT)

… (The prophet) beheld the Lord being seated upon a throne, high and being lifted upon/up. (Is 6:1a, Greek OT)

(The Lord) will lift/’lift up’ a sign into/'purposed for' the nations and will lead together the perished ones of Israel and lead together the sown asunder ones of Judas out of the four wings/corners of the earth. (Is 11:12, Greek OT)

(Jermiah said to Jerusalem:) “Lift, lift (Codex Alexandrinus) your hands towards (the Lord) on account of the soul of your infants …” (Lam 2:19b, Greek OT)

(The enemies of Israel wanted to) take down/up and ‘lift out’/remove all these (Jews) in one day. (1 Macc 5:27b)

(Simon) ‘lifted out’/’took away’ the impurities out of (the border/castle of Jerusalem) … (1 Macc 14:7b)

The male Judah and his brothers were extremely glorified opposite every/’the whole’ Israel and all the nations, where their name (continually) was heard. (1 Macc 5:63)

(Solomon said: “The aliens) having been ‘received into’/admitted in company/connection with festivities, the ones already having ‘in company with’/’a share of’ their ‘righteous things’/rights, treated (the missers of the mark of God) badly (with) terrible hardships.” (Wisdom of Solomon 19:16)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said: “God) had not mercy on a nation of perdition, the ones having been ‘lifted out’/’taken away’ in their misses (of His mark).” (Sir 16:9, Greek OT)

(Baruch said to Jerusalem:) “God leads (your children) towards, into you being lifted in company with glory as a throne of a king.” (Baruch 5:6b)

(The Babylonians said to their king:) “Give Daniel to the side of us. But if not we will kill you and your house.” And the king beheld, that they extremely/vehemently hastened him and having been urged he gave Daniel to the side of them. (Bel and the Dragon v 29b-30, Theod)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to the disciples of John:) “Days will come, when – according to the circumstances - the bridegroom may be lifted away from (the disciples) …” (Matt 9:15b)

(Jesus said to the disciples of John:) “No one throws/puts on a patch of unshrunken rag/cloth on an old garment, for it lifts/’takes away’ its complement from the garment, och it becomes a worse split/tear.” (Matt 9:16)

Jesus spoke to (the people): "A prophet is not unhonoured ‘if not’/except in the own (א,*א) fatherland and in his habitation." (Matt 13:57)

(Jesus said to His disciples: "The priest leaders and scribes) will ‘judge ... down’/condemn (the Son of the Man) into/’for the purpose of’ (א,* א) death and give Him ’to the side of’/’over to’ the nations." (Matt 20:18b)

(Jesus said to the priest leaders and the elders of the people:) “The kingdom of God will be lifted from you and be given to a nation making/giving its fruits.” (Matt 21:43b)

(Under) the command of Tiberius …, a word of God became/came against/to John … (Luke 3:1a,2b)

(When Jesus was near Jerusalem He said:) “The fellow-citizens (of the man of noble descent) (continually) hated him and dispatched away a delegation behind/after him saying: ‘We do not want this one to be king against/over us.’” (Luke 19:14)

(The priest leaders and the leaders and the people) shouted up/out saying (about Jesus): “Lift/’take away’ this One.” … They raised their voices against (Pilate), saying: “Crucify, crucify Him.” But he spoke towards them a third time: “For/why, what bad thing has this One made/done? I have found nothing causing/deserving death in Him. Having so ‘educated Him’/’given Him a lesson’, I will ‘loosen ... from’/’let ... loose’ Him. But they (continually) lay on, demanding (with) great/loud voices, (that Jesus should) be crucified. And their voices (continually) were entirely stable. And Pilate ‘judged on’/decided that their demand (should) become (granted). ... (And he ) gave Jesus ’to the side of’/over to their will. (Luke 23:18,21-24,25b)

Having turned Himself Jesus spoke towards (the women): “Daughters of Jerusalem, do not weep against/over Me, ‘more than’/but weep against/over yourselves and against/over your children.” (Luke 23:28)

(Stephen said:) “This Moses whom (the people of God in Egypt) denied speaking: ‘Who has ‘caused ... to stand’/set you down (as) a leader and ‘an administrator of justice’/’a judge’ upon/’with regard to’ us (א,*א)?’” (Acts 7:35a)

(The Jews said about Paul:) “Lift the one (being) of such kind from the earth, for it (continually) was not proper (to) him to live.” (Acts 22:22b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Jesus) came into the own things, and the own ones did not take Him to the side of (them). (John 1:11)

On the following day (John the Baptist) sees Jesus coming towards him, and he says: “Behold, the Lamb of God, the One lifting/’taking away’ the miss (of the mark of God) of the adornment/’adorned world’!” (John 1:29)

Entirely as Moses heightened the serpent in the desolate (district), in this way must the Son of the Man be heightened, in order that 'every the'/everyone believing into (P63, א,* א, A) Him may have agelong life. (John 3:14-15)

Jesus Himself ‘was a’/bore witness that a prophet has not honour in the own fatherland. (John 4:44)

But/and having found a little ass Jesus sat down against it, entirely as it is (and has been) written: “Do not fear, daughter Zion. Behold, your King comes, being seated against a foal of an ass.” (John 12:14-15)

(The Jews) answered and spoke to (Pilate): “If not this One (Jesus) (continually) ‘was having’ had made/done (א*) bad, we had – according to the circumstances – not given Him ‘to the side of’/’over to’ you.” Pilate so spoke to them: “Take Him you and judge * (א*) according to your law.” (John 18:30-31a)

Pilate spoke so to (Jesus): "So You are a king?" Jesus answered: "You say that I am a king." (John 18:37a)

(Jesus) says to (the Jews): "Behold, the Man!" (John 19:5b)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

Just as Pilate inscribes on the cross (vv. 19,22) the royal title of Jesus, so here, in spite of all appearances, he truly proclaims Jesus as the king of Israel. The title recalls the messianic claim, and the charge on which Jesus was no doubt prosecuted in the Roman court. Cf. v. 5; the representative Man is also the true king of the human race. (C.K. Barrett "The Gospel according to St John" p 546)

Barrett quotes R.H. Lightfoot: “We may think it possible that the Jews, in thus crying ‘Hoist Him up! Hoist Him up!’, unconsciously ask for his exaltation as the Son of the Man (3:14; 8:28; 12:32,34).” Barrett comments: “Possible perhaps, but hardly probable.” (C.K. Barrett "The Gospel according to St John" p 546; compare My own comments and speculations below.)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Elisabeth Beskow, Nils Bolander, Gordon Bridger, Albert Camus, Sten Carlsson, Henry Daniel-Rops, Bo Frid, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Nikolaj Gogol, Peter Halldorf, Dick Harrison, Alf Henrikson, Lars Levi Laestadius, Ebba Lindqvist, Wilhelm Möller, Agne Nordlander, Viktor Rydberg, C. Skovgaard-Petersen, Wilh. Sjöholm, August Strindberg, Jesper Svartvik, Birgitta Yavari.


My own comments and speculations:

In a restoration perspective we see how the honoured men of Judas tribe are humilated by being those who demand that their king shall be lifted from them to be crucified. Now in Jesus Christ there is no longer Jew or Greek (Gal 3:28). In the salvation history a new time of equality has begun (cf. 2 Cor 8:13-14). Compare the high value of the tribe of Judas in Rev 5:5, where Jesus is described as ”the Lion of the tribe of Judas”.

Pilate has three times declared Jesus without guilt. This corresponds to Bileam’s three blessings of Israel (cf. My own comments and speculations to John 18:37-38). Now – together with John 19:19-22 - we here have Pilate's last “prophecy” corresponding Bileam's last prophecy about the sceptre (Greek OT: a man) who shall stand up out of Israel (Num 24:17).

“Lift, lift” is no usual translation of the Greek “aron, aron” in John 19:15. Nevertheless this is a more literal meaning of the Greek “airô” than “take away, take away”. Only once “aron, aron” occurs in the Greek OT (Lam 2:9; cf. Luke 23:28), and then the meaning is “lift, lift”. This is also the meaning of this verb in John 8:59 (lift/take up) rather than “lift/take away”. I also think that “lift up” can be used as translation of John 15:2 with regard to the background of this verse in Matt 21:19-21. Compare with Matt 21:43, where Jesus says that the kingdom of God will be lifted from (Israel) and be given to a nation giving its fruits. Now we see how the Jews demand that He, who is the kingdom of God, shall be lifted from them. So Jesus will be given to a people that believe in Him and that in Him will bear His fruit. Compare also Barrett's comment here above. He can accept “hoist/lift” as a possible translation, but I mean, if I may say so, that this translation is as good as any and probably a better one.

In a restoration perspective we see how Jesus who in the OT-time hung foreign kings on pieces of wood (Joshua 10:26) now is dispatched away by the representative of the caesar to be crucified.

Concerning “crucify”, see John 19:6.


Additional studies:

Judges 8:23; Matt 27:23,25-26; Mark 12:16; 15:14-15; Luke 17:25; 20:15; John 6:15; 19:19,21; Acts 2:23,36; 3:15; 8:33; 10:39; 21:36; Rev 5:5; 20:11.


Thomas D. Lea "Who Killed the Lord? A Defense Against the Charge of Anti-Semitism in John's Gospel"; Criswell Theological Review 7 (1994): 103-123.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-05-27; 2012-03-25; 2014-11-15)

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19:16b-17 But having taken (א*) Jesus they led Him away (א,*א). And bearing the cross Himself He came out into what being said/called Place of a Skull, which is said/called in Hebrew, Golgotha.

Word for word: 19:16b (7 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus prima manus) they but having-taken the Jesus led-away him. 19:17 (15 words in the Greek text) and bearing himself the cross (he)-came-out into the/what being said '(of)-(a)-Skull Place'/'Place of-a-Skull', which is said (in)-Hebrew Golgotha.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

Abraham … took in company with himself to his side ... his son Isaac … and (he) took the woods/’pieces of wood’ of/for the whole offering of fruits and put/laid it on Isaac his son. But/and he took and/also the fire and the dagger after/in (his) hand and the two went together (to the mountain, where Isaac would be offered). (Gen 22:3a,6, Greek OT)

Hezekiah, king of Judas, dispatched away messengers towards a king of Assyrians into Lachish, saying: “I have missed (and miss) (the mark of God). Turn away from me. What – if according to the circumstances - you may ‘put against’/’impose on’, against me I will bear.” (2 Kings 18:14a, Greek OT)

The two eunuchs ... were led away. (Esther 1:1ob/A14b; cf. My own comments and speculations to John 19:12-14a)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “Put (wisdom) under your shoulder/’upper arm’ and bear it. And you may not be indignant at her bands. … For upon her it/there is a golden adornment.” (Sir 6:25,30a)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus) bore the sicknesses. (Matt 8:17b)

Jesus spoke to His disciples: "If anyone wants to come behind Me, let him deny away himself and lift his cross and follow Me.” (Matt 16:24)

(The soldiers) led (Jesus) away into/'for the purpose of' the thing to be crucified. But coming out they found a man ‘belonging to’/of Cyrene (with) (the) name Simon. This they impressed, in order that he might lift His cross. And having come into a place being said/called Golgotha, which 'is being said'/means Place of Skull, they gave Him wine to drink. (Matt 27:31b-34a)

(Jesus said to the crowds:) “Whoever (who) does not bear his cross and come behind Me, is not able to be My disciple.” (Luke 14:27)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 - about 1500

Another possible theological reason for the Johannine stress that Jesus carried his own cross may have been a desire to introduce the typology of Isaac, who carried the wood for his own sacrifice. ... The comment on Isaac's carrying the wood in Midrash Rabbah LVI 3 (a late work) is most interesting: '... as one bears the cross (or stake of execution) on one's shoulder’. (Raymond E. Brown "The Gospel according to John" p 917-918)

(The Greek word stauros) refers only to the upright post on which the cross-beam carried by the victim was fixed. This was a fixture at the place of execution and sawn-off tree-trunks no doubt provided a firmer post. The final shape was a T, not the familiar crucifix. (EM Blaiclock "The Acts of the Apostles" p 74)

During all the years the Gordon colony had existed in Jerusalem, every day in the streets of the holy city a man had appeared dragging a heavy and lumbering cross of wood. He did not speak to anyone, and no one spoke to him. No one knew if the man was a mentally deranged one, who had got the idea, that he was Christ, or if he only was a poor pilgrim performing a discipline. . . . The crossbearer did not hurry away. In stead he walked more nearer the house. He lifted the cross from his shoulder and placed it against the wall, and likewise he took the crown of thorns from his head hunging it on the one arm of the cross. One minute later the people from Dalecarlia saw that he walked erect along the way with light steps, released from his burden. When the men from Dalecarlia understood, that he had left his burden outside their home, they did not say a word. But some shook the hands hard of the ones standing beside them and tears came in the eyes of some of them. It came a brightening over the faces of most of them, which almost made them beautiful. They had got answers to their questions. They had come here, not to die and not to live, but only and solely to bear Christ's cross. This was the only thing, which they were in need of knowing. (Selma Lagerlöf "Jerusalem II" p 249,257; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

It becomes no triumphal procession my travel to Berlin, rather a gauntlet (Spiessruthe)! But when one has to choose Gethsemane or Gethsemane, so at last one prefers the Calvary mountain. (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev XIV 1901-mars 1904" p 224; letter 1902-10-26 to Emil Schering; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Do you read Brandes' In the fourth abyss where he compares himself to the penitent robber on the cross! It was not seriously, but it can become! . . . . . . After my book (Inferno)! It becomes a Golgotha! And I do not understand your sanguinism in this case. Certainly I think of a higher protection saving me from ruin, but I shall be pained, it belongs to. (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev XII dec 1896-aug 1898" p 167,181; letter 1897-09-22 to Axel Herrlin and letter 1897-10-22 to Gustaf af Geijerstam; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

A friend asks me: "Where does our way point?" "This I cannot say, but for me personally it looks as if the way of the cross would bring me back to the faith of my forefathers. . . . Buddhism, being praised by the Young France, has introduced resignation and a worship of suffering leading directly to the Place of a Skull." (August Strindberg "Inferno" s 134-135; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

I have for a long time asked the Lord if I would leave Paris, but got no clear answer. . . . I still do not know what God intends with me! Shall I go to Ystad where the lunatic asylum in Lund is waiting. Perhaps this Golgotha also shall be passed? In order to be taught still more. (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev XI maj 1895-nov 1896 p 276; letter 1896-07-19 to Torsten Hedlund)

The probabilities for my travel to Berlin are increased daily, and soon I shall up to eat the Paschal lamb on Ferkeln before I go to Golgotha in Plötzensee! (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev X febr 1894-april 1895" p 7-8; letter 1894-02-09 to Bengt Lidforss; alludes to the prosecution against Die Beichte eines Thoren and Strindberg's fear to end up in Plötzensee, the house of correction in Berlin; Ferkeln = Zum schwarzen Ferkel, The Black Swine, pet name on a wine-cellar in Berlin; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Brünn (Brno) is a scurril city, and it is said that I am the first Swede since the Thirty Years' War who dared to settle down there. (General Lennart) Torstenson namely left a disagreeable memory behind and still people every year celebrate his marching off with a huge festival. I am therefore terribly hated! . . . . . . I have not seen Wien, but that I am hours from the Place of a Skull have surprised Viennese and is probably interpreted as a banishment. Had I had money I would for a long time ago have been there! (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev IX 1892-jan 1894" p 306-308; letter 1893-11-10 to Elis Strömgren and letter the same day to Adolf Paul; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Now when I go up to Jerusalem, perhaps my Golgotha to celebrate Easter, alone, without disciples - perhaps a Peter . . . I entrust you, with the sympathy of understanding and suffering, this letter. (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev VII febr 1888-dec 1889" p 37; letter 1888-03-15 to Edvard Brandes; "go up to Jerusalem" aims at Strindberg's - later changed - decision that to 1888-04-01, Easter Sunday, settle down in Stockholm; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

The seventh half an hour began with the climbing of Scoglio nero. . . . It was a hard wandering, and one only needed to have had a cross on the back to a real vivid way imagine a Calvary walk, but now we had the sun in stead and Filippo had my overcoat. (August Strindberg "Från det vaknande Italien" p 87; Pegli 1884-03-10; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

"That Copernican system", Mr Sven said, "wants to give me giddiness. To have one's parish church and one's dear study on a grain of dust whirling around in an immeasureable universe! One can get dizziness for less things." . . . "What do size, extension, distance mean before the one who spiritually judges?" (doctor Svante said). . . . "Perhaps this plantet bears the most sinful of all generations and has for this sake become chosen to the Golgotha of the planets. If our earth was the least one, as she probably had been the most unworthy to receive the Saviour of the world, so we may remember, that Jesus was not born in the mighty Rome, not in the enormous Babylon, not even in Jerusalem but in the insignificant Bethlehem. . . . Friends, I do not fear the Copernican hypothesis. The ones wanting to believe will not by her be hindered to do it. The ones not wanting to believe will with or without her find arguments for their unbelief." (Viktor Rydberg "Vapensmeden" p 103-105; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


about 1500 and time before

“And He came to the place of a skull.” Some say that Adam died there, and there lieth; and that Jesus in this place where death had reigned, there also set up the trophy. For He went forth bearing the Cross as a trophy over the tyranny of death. And as conquerors do, so He bare upon His shoulders the symbol of victory. What matter if the Jews did these things with a different intent? (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers XIV:317)

Isaac, when led by his father as a victim, and himself bearing his own ”wood”, was even at that early period pointing to Christ's death. (Tertullian, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol III, p 165)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Eskil Albertsson, Sven Alverlin, Margit Assarsson, Elisabeth Beskow, Per Beskow, Nils Bolander, Stig Dagerman, Sven Danell, E.J. Ekman, Hilding Fagerberg, Bo Frid, Harry Frödin, Bo Giertz, Johannes Gossner, Carl Grimberg, Viktor Johansson, Lars Levi Laestadius, Pär Lagerkvist, C. Fr. Lundin, Emanuel Minos, Kaj Munk, Efraim Palmqvist, Joh Heinrich Schmid, Alexander Solsjenitsyn, Sven Stolpe, Jesper Svartvik, Knut Svensson, Patrik Reuterswärd, Fredrik Wislöff.


My own comments and speculations:

Simon lifted (Matt 27:32; Mark 15:21 “airô”) and carried the cross behind Jesus (Luke 23:26 “ferô opisthen”; cf. Matt 16:24), while Jesus bore (John 19:17 “bastazô”; cf. Luke 14:27) it. We can discuss the words which are best to use in a translation, but to use the same word to translate two or three of these Greek words is in this context hardly to do justice to the author. This one is not interested in proclaiming a message at variance with what God already has revealed.


Greek words:

apagô (lead away) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Esther 1:1o(A14); Matt 27:31; John 19:16 – Tobit 6:13; 7:1; 14:3; Judith 6:14; 1 Macc 2:9; 3:50; Baruch 4:16; Epistle of Jeremiah v 17; Susanna v 45(Theod); Matt 7:13-14; 26:57; 27:2; Mark 14:44,53; 15:16; Luke 13:15; 21:12; 22:66; 23:26; Acts 12:19; 23:17; 1 Cor 12:2.

Golgotha (Golgotha) Matt 27:33; John 19:17 – Mark 15:22.

kranion (skull) Matt 27:33; John 19:17 – Judges 9:53; 2 Kings 9:35; Mark 15:22; Luke 23:33.

stauros (cross) Matt 16:24; 27:32; Luke 14:27; John 19:17 – Matt 10:38; 27:40,42; Mark 8:34; 15:21,30,32; Luke 9:23; 23:26; John 19:19,25,31; 1 Cor 1:17-18; Gal 5:11; 6:12,14; Eph 2:16; Phil 2:8; 3:18; Col 1:20; 2:14; Heb 12:2.


Additional studies: John 19:13; Rev 2:2; 9:11.

R. Alan Culpepper "The theology of the Johannine passion narrative: John 19:16b-30"; Neotestamentica 31.1 (1997): 21-38.

Maurits Sabbe "The Johannine Account of the Death of Jesus and Its Synoptic Parallells (Jn 19:16b-42)"; Ephemerides Theologicae Lovanienses 70 (1994): 34-64.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-05-27; 2012-03-26; 2014-11-16; 2014-12-18)

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19:18 ... whereat they crucified Him, and in company with Him two others, from here and from here/there, but Jesus (is) a middle One.

Word for word (15 words in the Greek text): whereat him (they)-crucified, and in-company-with him others two from-here and from-here, middle but the Jesus.


The Gospel of John and the Book of Revelation: The one who in Jerusalem was a Middle among crucified ones - from here and from here - (John 19:18) can in a new Jerusalem perhaps very well be seen as a wood of life in a middle - from here and from there - of a river of water of life (Rev 22:1-2). Jesus is the one who "must increase" (John 3:30).


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Balaam) hit the ass (with) the rod to the thing to straighten/guide her in the way. And the messenger of the Lord stood in the furrows of the vines (with) an enclosure from here and an enclosure from here/there. (Num 22:23b-24, Greek OT)

Ezra, the scribe, stood upon a tribune of wood … and (beside him) stood (six males) ‘out of’/at his right (parts) and (seven males) ‘out of’/at his left (parts). (Neh 8:4, Greek OT)

The soul (of the boy/servant of the Lord) was given ‘to the side of’/over into death and He was counted in/among the lawless ones. And He Himself carried up misses (of the mark of God) of many and because of their misses (of the mark of God) He was given ‘to the side of’/over. (Is 53:12b, Greek OT)

Upon the river, upon its lip, ‘in from’/’from here’ and ‘in from’/’from there’, will ascend every consumable wood. (Ezek 47:12a, Greek OT)

I, Daniel, beheld and behold, two others stood, one from here of the river and one from here/there. And … one being (and having been) wrapped up in the things of fine linen ... was (continually) above the water of the river. (Dan 12:5-a, Greek OT)

The rest on/’with regard to’ the (foreign king's) cavalry stood ‘in from’/’from here’ and ‘in from’/’from there’, stood against ‘the two parts’/’both sides’ of the (walled) camp (to war against the Jews). (1 Macc 6:38a)

(The Jew Jonathan said to his men:) “Behold, the war (is) opposite and backwards/behind us, and the water of Jordan ‘in from’/’from here’ and ‘in from’/’from there’ and marsh and oak-wood.” (1 Macc 9:45a)


The Latter Revelation:

Two robbers were crucified together with (Jesus), one ‘out of’/from (the) right (parts) and one ‘out of’/from (the) ‘(parts) of a good name’/’left-hand side’. But/and the ones going by the side of (continually) blasphemed (Jesus), stiring/shaking their heads, and saying: “The One loosening down/up the temple and in three days building (it), save Yourself, if You are a son of God, and descend from the cross.” ‘Jesting with’/mocking (Jesus) likewise the priest leaders, in company with and/also the scribes of (א,* א) (the) elders, ... (continually/repeatedly) said: "He saved others. He is not able to save Himself. He is the King of Israel! Let Him now descend from the cross and we may (א,* א) believe against Him. He ‘is (and has been) persuaded’/'trusts (and has trust)' against God. Let Him deliver now, if He wants Him, for He spoke that/: 'I am a son of God.'" But/and the same thing and/also the robbers, the ones having been crucified together with, together with Him, (continually/repeatedly) reproached Him. (Matt 27:38-44)

(Jesus said:) "... The seasonable time has been (and is) completed, and the kingdom of God has drawn (and draws) near." (Mark 1:15a)

(The slanderer said to Jesus:) “If You are a son of God, throw Yourself down from here.” (Luke 4:9b)

(Abraham said to the rich man:) “In all these things a great chasm between us and you has been (and is) set fast, in that way (that) the ones wanting to step through/across ‘in from’/’from here’ towards you may not be able, ‘but not’/nor may (anyone) penetrate through from there towards us.” (Luke 16:26)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “I say to you that this, the thing having been (and being) written must be ended in Me, the/this: ‘And He was counted in company with lawless.’ For and/also the thing on account of Me has an end.” (Luke 22:37)

And/also the others, two badmen, (continually) were led together with (Jesus) to be ‘taken up ... for themselves’/’got rid of’. (Luke 23:32)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Jesus') brothers so spoke towards Him: “Step over from here and withdraw into Judea, ‘in order’/so that and/also Your disciples look at * (א*) the works which You make/do.” (John 7:3)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "I will no longer talk many things in company with you, for the leader of the adornment/’adorned world’ comes, and in Me he has not nothing/anything. However, in order that the adornment/’adorned world’ may gain knowledge that I welcome the Father, and entirely as the Father has enjoined Me, in this way I make/do. Rise. We may lead/move from here." (John 14:30-31)

(Jesus said to Pilate:) “My kingdom is not from here." (John 18:36b)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

Farthest away on the horizon three white-coloured thin and worn masts of a barque being stranded. . . . The three masts (with the platforms under the top) straight across look like Golgotha, or three grave-cross. (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev X febr 1894-april 1895" p 178; enclosure to letter 1894-07-31 to Leopold Littmansson; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

From Stockholm a sentence had come, that the judgement of God would be interpreted so, that all three accused were equal guilty and that they would be put to death by hanging. . . . But the people . . . (were convinced) that all three accused were unguilty. (Selma Lagerlöf "Löwensköldska ringen" p 60-61; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Now we have repeatedly shown that the incarnate Word of God was suspended upon a tree, and even the very heretics do acknowledge that He was crucified. (Irenaeus, The Ante-Nicene Fathers vol I, p 546)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Fredrik Böök, Dick Harrison, Selma Lagerlöf, C.S. Lewis, Howard Marshall, Vilhelm Moberg, Sigrid Rosell, Viktor Rydberg, Nelly Sachs, Gunnar E. Sandgren, Knut Svensson, Edith Södergran, Carl Wilson.


My own comments and speculations:

The allusion to Num 22:24 is specially motivated owing to all other allusions to Num 20-26 in John 18-19.

The Lord Jesus is ”here” not only in a middle (like "the wood of the thing to know" in the Paradise, Gen 2:9), But He is Himself a Middle One. He is not “there” or ”from here” as the two others on each side of Him (cf. for instance Is 65:1, Mark 1:15 and John 18:36). But in the future, in the new city Jerusalem, the Lord God will also be ”there”. The name of the city will be ”The Lord is there” (Ezek 48:35, the Hebrew text). In the new Jerusalem there will be no evil, no slanderer, no Hades, no death (Rev 20:10,14; 21:27). God will be not only “here” but also “there”. Or to speak with Paul: ”God will be everything to all” (1 Cor 15:28). Cf. Rev 22:2a: ”from here and from there (or “there and here” or “everywhere”) a wood of life.” Compare also My own comments and speculations to John 18:36.

Jesus is in a beginning (John 1:1), in a middle (John 1:26) and in an end (John 13:1). But the revelation grows so that Jesus not only is in these things but that He Himself is a Middle One (John 19:18), a Beginning (Rev 1:8a) and an End (Rev 1:8a). At last the Revelation points to Him who is the Beginning and the End in definite form (Rev 22:13) and, if we compare the resemblance in choice of words between John 19:18 and Rev 22:2, also seems to point to the thing that He Himself is a "wood of life" in the Middle of the new Jerusalem.

Concerning “crucify”, see John 19:6.


Additional studies: Ps 22:16(17); Mark 15:27; Luke 23:39-43; Rev 22:2.

R. Alan Culpepper "The theology of the Johannine passion narrative: John 19:16b-30"; Neotestamentica 31.1 (1997): 21-38.

Maurits Sabbe "The Johannine Account of the Death of Jesus and Its Synoptic Parallells (Jn 19:16b-42)"; Ephemerides Theologicae Lovanienses 70 (1994): 34-64.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-05-28; 2012-03-27; 2014-11-17; 2014-12-18; addition to my own comments and speculations 2016-07-17)

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19:19-22 But/and Pilate and/also wrote a superscription and put upon the cross. But/and it (continually) was (and had been) written: “Jesus, the Nazoraean, the King of the Jews.” So many of the Jews read this superscription, because the place whereat Jesus was crucified (continually) was near the city, and it (continually) was (and had been) written in Hebrew, in Latin (and) in Greek. The priest leaders of the Jews so (continually/repeatedly) said to Pilate: “Do not write ‘The King of the Jews’, however/but that that one spoke ‘I am a king of the Jews’.” Pilate answered: “What I have written (and write), I have written (and write).”

Word for word: 19:19 (21 words in the Greek text) wrote but and (a)-superscription the Pilate and put upon the cross. (it)-(continually)-was but being-(and-having-been)-written: Jesus the Nazoraean the King (of)-the (of)-Jews. 19:20 (25 words in the Greek text) this so the superscription many read (of)-the (of)-Jews, because near (continually)-was the place '(of)-the (of)-city'/'the city' whereat was-crucified the Jesus. and (it)-(continually)-was being-(and-having-been)-written (in)-Hebrew, (in)-Latin, (in)-Greek. 19:21 (22 words in the Greek text) said-(continually) so (to)-the Pilate the priest-leaders (of)-the (of)-Jews: not write: the king (of)-the (of)-Jews, however that that-(one) spoke: (a)-king (i/I)-am (of)-the (of)-Jews. 19:22 (6 words in the Greek text) answered the Pilate: what (i/I)-have-written-(and-write) (i/I)-have-written-(and-write).


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The men) spoke: “Come here, 'we may'/'let us' build for ourselves a city and a tower, which head/top shall be till the heaven, and 'we may'/'let us' make a name for ourselves, before the 'thing to sow asunder'/'sowing asunder' upon the face of ‘all the’/’the whole’ earth.” ... (But the Lord) ‘poured together’/confounded there their tongue/language ... (and) sowed them asunder from (Confusion/Babel) against/’extending over’ (the) face of ‘every the’/’the whole’ earth. (Gen 11:4,7a,8a, Greek OT)

(Lot said to the two messengers:) "This city (Zoar) (is) near (from Sodom) to flee down there to me, which is small/little. There I will be saved." (Gen 19:20a, Greek OT)

The messenger of God spoke to (Balaam): "Because of what have you this third time hit your ass?" ... And Balaam spoke to the messenger of the Lord: "I have missed (and miss) (the mark of God), for I did not/certainly not believe, that You have stood (and stand) against me in the way." (Num 22:32a,34a, Greek OT)

(Balaam said Balak:) “Behold, I have been (and is) taken from the side of (God) to bless. I shall bless, and I shall not/certainly not turn (it) away.” (Num 23:20, Greek OT)

(Balaam said:) “A man will come out, out of the seed of (Israel), and He will be lord of many nations, and His kingdom will be heightened if/’more than’ Gog, and His kingdom will 'be increased'/grow. ... I shall show him and/but by no means now. I call him happy, and/but he does not draw near. A constellation shall stick up out of Jacob, and a man shall stand up out of Israel.” (Num 24:7,17a, Greek OT)

Having been made a holy naziraean, (Samson) will be the very little boy to God out of the womb. And he will begin to save Israel out of a hand of other tribes. … The very little boy will be a naziraean of God from the womb till days of his death. (Judges 13:5b,7b, Greek OT A)

(The Seleucid king Demetrius said to the priest leader and to the elders of the Jews and to the Jewish people:) “As many things as we have ‘caused to stand’/fixed towards/’in regard to’ you, they have stood/’been fixed’ (and stand/’are fixed’).” (1 Macc 13:38a)

It was heard in Rome, that (the Jew) Jonathan had died, and till Sparta, and they were extremely sorrowful. ... (The Romans) wrote towards/to (his brother on) writing-tablets of copper (for) the thing to rejuvenate/’rise anew’ friendship and alliance in war. ... And they were read in the very eyes of the (assembly) of called out in Jerusalem. (Also) the Spartans dispatched away (letters). ... And (the popular assembly of Jews) wrote down in/on writing-tablets of copper, and they put (them) in/on pillars in/on (the) mountain Zion. ... (And they stood) in a marked/designated place. (1 Macc 14:16-20,26b,48b) BG Ask-comment: Observe the fixed writings in Latin, Greek (see also 1 Macc 14:23) and Hebrew in the place of a sign.


The Latter Revelation:

Having come/gone (Joseph) dwelt into/in a city being said/called Nazareth. In that way the thing having been spoken through the prophets (about Jesus) might be completed that/: "He will be called a Nazoraean." (Matt 2:23)

There was (continually/-) and/also an inscription on/at (Jesus) (with) letters (in) Greek, (in) Latin, (in) Hebrew (א*): "This One (is) the King of the Jews." (Luke 23:38)

(Paul said to the leader of a thousand men:) “’If it is permitted to me to’/’may I’ speak something towards you?” But/and he uttered: “Have you knowledge in Greek?” (Acts 21:37b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

Bethany (continually) was near the (disgraced) Jerosolyma/Jerusalem (John 11:18a)

Again (Jesus) questioned ("the crowd"): “Whom do you seek?” But/and they spoke: “Jesus, the Nazoraean.” (John 18:7)

Pilate spoke to (Jesus): "Are You the King of the Jews?" (John 18:33b)

(Pilate said to the Jews:) “Do you so wish (that) I might ‘loosen from’/’let loose’ for you the King of the Jews?” (John 18:39b)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 - about 1500

The Greek that is spoken in Greece today has survived in unbroken tradition from ancient Greece, though there have been great changes in pronunciation, grammar, and vocabulary, and a modern Greek cannot read ancient texts without some special training. Ancient Greek also survives in the languages of modern Europe. ... During the Reformation Greek was used as a lever against the Roman church. ... A new height (was reached) in the Greek Revival at the end of the eighteenth century. ... The proportion of educated people who can read ancient Greek is (now 1976) smaller than it was 100 years ago. On the other hand the archaeology of ancient Greece thrives as never before. ... We know more about ancient Greece, and though the language may be less widely taught, there have never been so many readers of ancient Greek literature in translation or so many visitors to ancient Greek sites. (Maurice Pope "The Ancient Greeks - How they lived and worked" p 144,158-159)

Richer aunt (than his grandmother's grandmother) never has existed Abbe declares. She had rings of diamonds on every finger, and when she baked her figure-of-eight biscuits it sometimes happened that some diamonds came loose and came into the dough. . . . "And you would see that it grated between the false teeth of the old women, when they ate her bisquits. . . . And she was not niggardly. "Keep them", she said, when they came wanting to give back. "What I have placed in the dough, I have placed." (Astrid Lindgren "Madicken och Junibackens Pims" p 42; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

The wisdom of learned old men who made noise sank back into dust again, but the games of the little Athenian boys and Etruscian girls remain. Few know Latin, less know Greek to the learned old men's concern. But the ancient classic of hide-and-seek is not so hard to learn. (Alf Henrikson "Rhymes" p 76; On regarding toys at the British Museum)

All languages are in all. But the shortest way to a word is Greek. . . . Is Greek in the way, Hebrew helps, which is the most perfect and beautiful of all languages. (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev XX juni 1911-maj 1912" p 200; letter at about 1911-12-21 to Elias Lönnqvist; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

A committee round a large table with specialists would soon produce a Finnish Dictionary, but the Finn must know Hebrew, Greek, Latin, and this can only a priest! Merry Christmas! (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev XX juni 1911-maj 1912" p 199; letter 1911-12-21 to Theodor Finnilä)

With thanks for sended writings I shall as soon as possible send my two preceding: Bibelns Egennamn and Svenska Ordfränder, from which it is clear, that all languages are related, through Latin, Greek and Hebrew. (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev XX juni 1911-maj 1912" p 67; letter 1911-07-08 to Joseph Guinchard)

The Aeneid is written in Latin, this remarkable language, without which grammar's learning it would be the northerner quite impossible to learn to think orderly, although his own old language has an extraordinary abundance in forms and, completely as good as Latin, expresses through the flexion of the words their conceptual position in a clause. For this sake no wonder that Virgil is preferred. (Viktor Rydberg "Fornnordiskt" p 236; Göteborgs Handelstidning 1872-12-30; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

The old Latin culture lives on as a class culture and goes to weaken or suffocate the Nordic feeling for language just with them, who preferably are called to write and develope the Swedish language. With distaste and pain one must daily witness this. The feeling for the genus of the thingwords (= nouns), for the sound and force of the strong timewords (= verbs), for the laws of the word-formation are still in this while only with the country people and a few writers. (Viktor Rydberg "Nordisk språkodling" s 231-232; Göteborgs Handelstidning 1871-12-28; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

"Now go and place yourself in the fifth class", (schoolmaster Blomertz said to Benoni). "Do they read Latin in the fifth class?" Benoni asked. "I have read till 'anno' in the Latin grammar." "Have you read Latin?" Blomertz put in, pleasantly surprised. "Then decline 'mensa' to the test." Benoni declined faultlessly and fluently. "Benoni Strand", Blomertz said patting him on the head, you certainly is too little to bear the truncheon of the overmonitors and neither you know the method of mutual instruction, nevertheless I do not regard this prevents that you today take your place in the upper eighth class, that is among the big boys in the circle here beside the teacher's desk. In the evening after the end of the reading-hour I want to speak more with you." With eyes sparkling with satisfaction Benoni marched to the one to him assigned place of honour. All the gentlemen overmonitors, to not speak of the rest of the numerous spectators, were very surprised at this sudden change in the fate of the newcomer. Just he was on his way to the low circle of the abcdians . . . (now he was) heightened to the indescribable glory of the upper eighth class. (Viktor Rydberg "Benoni Strand" p 184-185; the Lanchaster school in Jönköping year 1839?; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

The clergy (in New England) had to be men of power, rectitude, and erudition. They were deeply versed in theology and the ancient languages. President Chauncy of Harvard, who had the Old Testament read to him in Hebrew in the morning and the New in Greek in the afternoon, commented upon them in Latin; many another minister could have done the same. (Allan Nevins – Henry Steele Commager "A Pocket History of the United States" p 34)

In the schools (the Greek language has been) pushed into the background by the Latin, while nevertheless the Greek literature wide more than the Roman has had continued influence with the modern. Still more incomprehensible is the dogma, that the study of the Latin language preferably promotes the developement of concepts and the mental acumen. During its lifetime the literature of this language had not a single speculator of the first order to show. (Viktor Rydberg "Modersmålets litteratur i skolorna" s 254-255; Göteborgs Handelstidning 1861-01-26 - 1861-02-06; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

After Lars Gudmundsson and Fabbe had met, Lars went into Rev. Sven's scoolchamber, where he from early age was at home in, for there the rector had impressed Donatus' grammar and versio vulgata in him and his friend Arvid Nilsson, son of the mighty mayor Mr. Nils Arvidsson, possessor of a county and a man of weapon. Nowadays the rector and Lars together worked through the new testament in Greek. One example of this, not a long time ago come in from abroad, lay on the study table beside two handwritings. The one was by the hand of doctor Svante - in Jönköping they called this harp-player doctor - and contained the most important Greek paradigmata. Doctor Svante hade during a stay last winter in Jönköping on request of the rector submitted to the trouble to write it down from memory. The other handwriting was a Greek dictionary, written by Wesse Gansevoort, belonging to Svante. (Viktor Rydberg "Vapensmeden" p 19-20; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

"The bishop in Skara . . . asked me questions in Latin", (Arvid said to Margit). "I suspect, that his Latin would not receive the highest mark by Rev. Sven, and I answered tactfully in a Latin, which I tried to do as bad as his. . . . I have decided to again become a schoolboy before Mr. Sven, and, if your dear father allows it, also before him. Mr. Sven will teach me a Latin, which is good enough before diplomats, chancellors and princes." (Viktor Rydberg "Vapensmeden" p 115-117; translation from the Swedish text)

The conjuration should preferably be ended before moon reached 45 grades in the sky. . . . Because the day was a Thursday standing under the influence of Mars, the incense must be of the Martian kind . . . composed of (among other things) bdellium . . . being ordinary resin, but which had not to be called so, for Latin gives greater strength to a thing than Swedish; Hebrew greater strength than Latin, but the Hebrew word they did not knew. (Viktor Rydberg "Vapensmeden" p 259-260; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


about 1500 and time before

(Pater Henrik) gladly read old Roman poems, although their authours had been heathens, and the virgilian verse "Magnus ab integro seclorum nascitur ordo" (A new great circle of centuries comes to the world) sounded for him in a prophetic ring. Also books, written with curious letters, he read, of which the other monks said: - "Graeca sunt, non leguntur": it is Greek, such we do not read. For pater Henrik had stayed a couple of years in the Greek imperial city. (Viktor Rydberg "Singoalla" p 16; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

There was a time, when the superior Hellenic cuture forced itself upon the Romans with a strength, as, if possible, surpassed the one, with which the Roman culture has forced itself upon us. They fancied the language, arts and science of Greece. They adorned their houses in Greek taste, they put the Greek poems in the hand of the children, they surrounded themselves with Greek paintings and statues, often bought to unreasonable prices, they went on pilgrimages to Athene in order to tramp the same earth as Pericles, Plato and Sophocles. But in two points the Roman did not yield to this influence, for then he had given proof of self-contempt and denied his blood. He stood on the hereditary names, and he stood on the purity of his language. Caesar Tiberius, who had a passion for all Hellenic, a man simply crazy about Greek, nevertheless made apologies in the senate, when he once had happened to mix up a Greek word in the speech he made. (Viktor Rydberg "Om förnamn i allmänhet och de nordiska i synnerhet" p 243-244; Göteborgs Handelstidning 1874-09-14; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Along with the Hebraic Aramaean – for so we would designate the language – the Greek had for some time been making its way among the people. The Mishnah itself contains a very large number of Greek and Latin words with Hebraic terminations, showing how deeply Gentile life and customs around had affected even those who hated them most, and by inference, how thoroughly they must have penetrated Jewish society in general. But besides, it had been long the policy of their rulers systematically to promote all that was Grecian in thought and feeling. (Alfred Edersheim “Jewish Social Life” p 21)

Through millenia (the Israelites) have defended their hereditary names. . . . (Nevertheless) they once were near annihilation. . . . For a time they were under Greek influence, and against the gentle usages and customs of the Greeks they had difficulty to get along. The Greeks set the fashions for the world, and there was a whole crowd of Israelites, who wanted to be modern. To this belonged to have Greek names. An Israeli dandy that time, who had received the honourable name Joshua, changed it to Jason, for it was Greek and fine. . . . (At last) the classes of the people, who were counted among "the uncultivated", raised themselves under the command of Judas Maccabaeus, and used up a movement, which had begun as a foolery and out of the fool's cap had developed into an act of treason to faith and native country. (Viktor Rydberg "Om förnamn i allmänhet och de nordiska i synnerhet" s 243-244; Göteborgs Handelstidning 1874-09-14; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

It is generally known, that the Germanic languages are related with Latin, Greek, the Lettish-Slavic and Celtic dialects, and that the family tie also stretches outside Europe to the tongues of the Armenians, the Iranians and the Indians. The ones to Zoroaster added holy writings, which for the priests of Cyrus and Darius were what the bible is for us, the hymns of Rig Veda, which the peoples around Ganges honour as the revealed word of God, are written with a tongue, which directs to a common origin with our own. How different all these related languages turned out during the course of the centuries, they nevertheless stand as a distinctly defined group of older and younger relatives against all other groups of languages of the earth. Even the Semitic languages are separated from this by a broad and precipitous breach, over which it shows itself to be difficult to bridge. This our own language family has got different names: the Indo-Germanic, the Indo-European, the Aryan. I use this last-named designation. Armenians, Iranians and Indians I call the Asiatic Aryans; all remaining the European. (Viktor Rydberg "Mythen om urtiden och vandringarna" p 2-3; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Alf Ahlberg, John Allen, Martin Allwood, Jonas Love Almqvist, Jane Austen, Kjell Barnekow, Birger Bergh, UllaBritt Berglund, Bernhard Bexell, Oloph Bexell, Selim Birger, Margareta Björkman, August Bondeson, Gerald Bray, Yngve Brilioth, Barthold Carlson, Elisabeth Charles, Winston Churchill, Theodor Cronqvist, Rune W Dahlén, Olof von Dalin, Sven Danell, Charles Dickens, Gunnar Dinnetz, Christel Eklöv, E.J. Ekman, Hilding Fagerberg, Peter Fjellstedt, Anton Fridrichsen, Roger Martin du Gard, Ingemar Glemme, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Carl Grimberg, Berndt Gustafsson, Krister Hanell, Alf Henrikson, Bengt Holmberg, Victor Hugo, Håkan Håkansson, Alf Härdelin, Sven Ingebrand, Hasib Kayali, Christofer Klasson, Eskil Källquist, Anna Landén, John Landquist, Samuel Landtmanson, Olle Larsson, Sigfrid Leifland, Aug. E. Lernberg, Bo Lindberg, Gustaf Lindencrona, Arne Losman, Per Lundberg, C.F. Lundström, Carl Henrik Martling, W. Somerset Maugham, Vilhelm Moberg, Ingun Montgomery, D.L. Moody, Fredrik Nielsen, Olle Nystedt, Ragnar Ohlsson, Sigurd Ohlsson, Carl Olausson, Bernt Olsson, Birger Olsson, Martin P:n Nilsson, Karl Palmberg, Efraim Palmqvist, Olaus Petri, Nils Ramselius, Per S. Ridderstad, Anna Maria Roos, Sigrid Rosell, Göran Rosenberg, Gunnar Rudberg, Abraham Rundbäck, Gustaf Ruuth, Kristiina Savin, Håkan Sjögren, Martin Sjöstrand, Wilhelm Sjöstrand, Michael A. Smith, Alexander Solsjenitsyn, Birgit Th. Sparre, Stig Stenström, A.M. Strinnholm, Bertil Ström, Knut Svensson, Stig Svärd, Mikael Tellbe, Anton Tjechov, P. Waldenström, Kallistos Ware, Sigrid Westberg, Ernst Wigforss, Gustaf Wikner, Virginia Woolf, Göran Åberg.


My own comments and speculations:

In the OT-time the righteous Lot was spared in the little city near the great city Sodom, while Sodom was destroyed. Now in a restoration perspective we see how the righteous Jesus is “destroyed” in the “little” place (cf. Bethany John 11:18) near the great city, the (disgraced) Jerosolyma/Jerusalem ( = Sodom; cf. Rev 11:8), while the (disgraced) Jerosolyma/Jerusalem is spared. Compare John 11:17-20 with My own comments and speculations. The connection between Jesus' and Lazaros' situation is obvious.

The title on the cross was written in three languages. Balaam three times sinned (missed the mark of God) against the messenger of the Lord. In a restoration perspective we now see, how Pilate three times “blesses” the Lord. And he will not revoke his blessings. Compare also the high confession of Pilate "the King of the Jews" with the confession of the soldiers (John 19:3, Sinaiticus) and the priest leaders (John 19:21) "a king of the Jews". Concerning Balaam and his last prophecy, compare My own comments and speculations to John 19:14b-16a.

Concerning “nazoraean”, see My own comments and speculations to John 18:4-5.

Concerning “crucify”, see John 19:6.


Greek words:

anaginôskô (read) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) 1 Macc 14:19; John 19:20 – Esther 6:1; 1 Macc 5:14; 10:7; 2 Macc 2:25; Sir Prologue; Baruch 1:3,14; Matt 12:3,5; 19:4; 21:16,42; 22:31; 24:15; Mark 2:25; 12:10,26; 13:14; Luke 4:16; 6:3; 10:26; Acts 8:28,30,32; 13:27; 15:21,31; 23:34; 2 Cor 1:13; 3:2,15; Eph 3:4; Col 4:16; 1 Thess 5:27; Rev 1:3.

(H)ellênisti (in Greek) John 19:20; Acts 21:37. Cf. Hellênikos in Luke 23:38, א,* A; see also Rev 9:11.

Rômaisti (in Latin) John 19:20 . This word does not occur in the rest of the Bibel (but cf. Rômaikos in Luke 23:38, א*,A). Together with (H)ebraisti (in Hebrew) and (H)ellênisti (in Greek) the word is well matched with the presentation of the former and the latter revelation in the writings of John.

titlos (superscription) John 19:19-20. Latin loanword well matched with the multilingual text and the Roman government.


Additional studies:

Matt 26:71; 27:37; Mark 15:26; John 18:5; 19:3,13-14; Acts 2:22; Heb 13:12-13; Rev 5:5; 7:9; 9:11; 10:11; 11:9.


Josephine M. Ford "Jesus as Sovereign in the Passion according to John"; Biblical Theological Bulletin 25 (1995): 110-117.

Mary Coloe "Raising the Johannine Temple (John 19:19-37)"; Australian Biblical Review 48 (2000): 47-58.

R. Alan Culpepper "The theology of the Johannine passion narrative: John 19:16b-30"; Neotestamentica 31.1 (1997): 21-38.

Maurits Sabbe "The Johannine Account of the Death of Jesus and Its Synoptic Parallells (Jn 19:16b-42)"; Ephemerides Theologicae Lovanienses 70 (1994): 34-64.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-05-28; 2012-03-28; 2014-11-18)

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19:23-24(25a) When the soldiers so had crucified Jesus, they took His garments and made four parts, a part for everyone/each soldier * (א*). But the tunic (continually) was unsewn, woven out of the things from above through/'right through' whole. They so spoke towards one another: “We may not split/tear it, however/but we may obtain by lot on account of it whose it shall be, in order that the writing might be completed: ‘They divided My garments asunder (among) themselves and against/’in quest of’ My clothing they ‘threw a share of inheritance’/’cast lot’. So these things the soldiers indeed made/did.

Word for word: 19:23 (29 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus prima manus) the so soldiers, when (they)-crucified the Jesus, (they)-took the garments his and made four parts, (for)-everyone soldier (a)-part. was-(continually) but the tunic unsewn, out-of the-(things) from-above through whole. 19:24 (35 words in the greek text Sinaiticus) spoke so towards one-another: not (we)-may-split it, however (we)-may-obtain-by-lot on-account-of it whose (it)-will/shall-be, in-order-that the writing might-be-completed: (they)-divided-asunder the garments my (in/among)-themselves and against the clothing my (they)-threw (a)-share-of-inheritance. the indeed so soldiers these-(things) made.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

The Lord God made to Adam and his woman leathern tunics and set/clothed them in. (Gen 3:21, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Moses: "The underclothing o Aaron, the robe reaching to the feet,) out of its middle the ‘little mouth’/opening shall be round about, ... having/with a woven work (in) a circle of the ‘little mouth’/opening ... in order that it may not be ‘broken in pieces’/torn." (Ex 28:32, Greek OT)

(The Lord/Moses said to the priests:) “The great priest (who is) from/’asunder from’ his brothers … shall not ‘break through ... in pieces’/tear his garments.” (Lev 21:10, Greek OT)

(David said to the Lord: "A company of evildoers) divided asunder My garments (among) themselves, and against/’in quest of’ My clothing they ‘threw a share of inheritance’/’cast lot’." (Ps 22:18 or 22:19, Greek OT)

(David said to the Lord: "You) 'threw up'/'put on' Yourself light as a garment stretching out the heaven as if (it was) a skin." (Ps 104:2, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Israel:) “You shall divide asunder this earth/land to you, to the tribes of Israel. You shall 'throw it in share of inheritance'/'divide it with lot' to you.” (Ezek 47:21-22b, Greek OT)

(Solomon said: “The ones who oppressed the righteous will say about him:) ‘How (could) he entirely be counted in/with among sons of God, and is his share of inheritance in/with holy ones?” (Wisdom of Solomon 5:5)

(Solomon said:) “I obtained by lot a good soul. But rather: Being good I came into an undefiled body, but having knowledge that I will not otherwise have power in/of (wisdom), if – according to the circumstances – not God may give (it).” (Wisdom of Solomon 8:19b-21a)

(Solomon said to the Lord:) “You have arranged every thing throughout (with) measure and number and standing-place/balance.” (Wisdom of Solomon 11:20b)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to the disciples of John:) “No one throws/puts on a patch of unshrunken rag/cloth on an old garment, for it lifts/’takes away’ its complement from the garment, och it becomes a worse split/tear.” (Matt 9:16)

The curtain of the temple was split/torn into two from, from above till down. (Matt 27:51a)

(Jesus said:) “No one sews a patch of a unshrunken (Greek: agnafos; cf. arafos/unsewn in John 19:23) rag/cloth (Greek: rakos) against, against an old garment, ‘but if not’/otherwise it lifts/’takes away’ (its) complement from it, (namely) the new (cloth) of the old (garment), and it becomes a worse split/tear.” (Mark 2:21)

The priest leader ‘having broken ... through in pieces’/tore his tunics. (Mark 14:63a)

Having (א,* א, A) crucified (Jesus), (the soldiers) divided His garments asunder, throwing ‘a share of inheritance’/lot against them, who might lift/’take away’ what. (Mark 15:24)

The curtain of the temple was split/torn into two from, from above till down. (Mark 15:38)

Having come into, into the temple of the Lord, (Zacharias) obtained by lot to burn incense. (Luke 1:9b)

Simon said (to Jesus): "Having bothered through a whole night we took nothing. ... " (Luke 5:5b)

(Jesus) (continually/repeatedly) said/told a parable towards (the Pharisees and their scribes) that/: “No one having split/torn a patch from a new garment throws/lays (it) against, against an old garment. ‘But if not’/otherwise he at any rate splits/tears and/also the new. And the patch from the new will not ‘raise its voice together’/be in accord’ with the old.” (Luke 5:36)

(Jesus said to the ones who heard:) “The one lifting/taking your garment, you may not also/either hinder (him to take) the tunic.” (Luke 6:29b)

‘In ... pray’/’on (Jesus') praying’ the form of His face became ‘the other’/another and His clothing white. (Luke 9:29a)

(Jesus said:) “(Men) will arrive from upstickings/east and settings/west and * (א,*א,A) ‘north wind’/north and ‘south wind’/south and lean up/back in the kingdom of God.” (Luke 13:29)

So indeed the soldiers, ... having taken up Paul, led him through/during night into Antipatris. (Acts 23:31)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

For in this way God welcomed the adornment/’adorned world’, so that He gave the Son, the only descendant, in order that 'every the'/everyone believing into Him may not perish however/but have agelong life. For God did not dispatch away the Son into the adornment/’adorned world’, in order that He might judge the adornment/’adorned world’, however/but in order that the adornment/’adorned world’ might be saved through Him. (John 3:16-17)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “I do not say/speak on account of all of you. I know whom I have chosen. However, (this comes about) in order that the writing may be completed.” (John 13:18)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

(The description of the tunic) corresponds to the description of the tunic of the high priest in Josephus, Antiquitates III, 161. (René Kieffer "Johannesevangeliet" p 431; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

When the first Adam sinned and was driven out of the Paradise God gave him clothes, so that he could cover his nakedness. When the last Adam died for our sins and became a curse for us he was undressed. (Studiebibeln II:717, my translation)

According to tradition, during the seven days of consecration, Moses ministered in a seamless white dress, woven throughout. (Taan. 11b.) (Alfred Edersheim "The Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah Part II" p 592)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Gösta Berg, Gordon Bridger, Ingmar Brohed, LarsOlov Eriksson, Bo Giertz, Johannes Gossner, Verner von Heidenstam, Olaus Magnus, Fredrik Nielsen, Viktor Rydberg, A.M. Strinnholm, Anton Tjechov, Rudolf Vrba.


My own comments and speculations:

According to Jewish number symbolism the number four represents the world and the whole created universum. Everyone of the four soldiers has part of Jesus' death by getting a part of His garments. In this way the four soldiers represent the participation of all men in Jesus' death.. Cf. John 3:16-17.

God clothed Adam and his wife with tunics. Now the undressing of Jesus begins, and more and more we see that He is the Man (cf. the rib in John 19:34 and the las discarded clothes in John 20:6-7).

Solomon obtained a good soul by lot. And the righteous will have a share of inheritance with the holy ones. Now one of the soldiers obtains the tunic of Jesus (or of Adam and Eve) by lot, and he will have a share inheritance with the holy ones. In John 19:35 he bears witness to his faith. Cf. the believing “leader of a hundred men” (Greek: hekatontarchos) and the believing soldiers in Matt 27:54, the believing centurion (Greek: kenturiôn) in Mark 15:39 and the believing centurion (Greek: hekatontarchos) in Luke 23:47.

Concerning “crucify”, see John 19:6.

Concerning the verb “complete”, see My own comments and speculations to John 19:33-37.


Greek words:

arafos (unsewn) John 19:23. This word does not occur in the rest of the Bible. The tunica is the new patch of rag/cloth, now shrunken, united and woven together with the old garment. Cf. Mark 2:21 and Matt 9:16.

diamerizô (divide asunder) (in the NT) Mark 15:24; John 19:24 – Matt 27:35; Luke 11:17-18; 12:52-53; 22:17; 23:34; Acts 2:3,45.

(h)imatismos (clothing) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Luke 9:29; John 19:24 – Tobit 10:10; Judith 12:15; 1 Macc 11:24; Epistle of Jeremiah v 19,57; Luke 7:25; Acts 20:33; 1 Tim 2:9.

klêros (share of inheritance) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Wisdom of Solomon 5:5; Mark 15:24; John 19:24 – Esther 3:7; 4:17h(C10); 9:24,26; 10:3g-h(F7-8); Wisdom of Solomon 3:14; Sir 25:19; 37:8; Matt 27:35; Luke 23:34; Acts 1:17,25(א,*א),26; 8:21; 26:18; Col 1:12; 1 Pet 5:3.

langchanô (obtain by lot) Wisdom of Solomon 8:19; Luke 1:9; John 19:24 – 1 Sam 14:47(B); (3 Macc 6:1); Acts 1:17; 2 Pet 1:1.

schizô (split) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Matt 27:51; Mark 15:38; Luke 5:36; John 19:24 – 1 Macc 10:80; Wisdom of Solomon 5:11; Susanna v 55; Mark 1:10; Luke 23:45; John 21:11; Acts 14:4; 23:7.

(h)yfantos (woven) Ex 28:32; John 19:23 – Ex 26:31; 35:35; 37:21 (+ seven examples further in Ex 26:31- 37:21).

chitôn (tunic) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Mark 14:63; Luke 6:29; John 19:23 – Judith 14:19; 2 Macc 4:38; 12:40; Epistle of Jeremiah v 30; Matt 5:40; 10:10; Mark 6:9; Luke 3:11; 9:3; Acts 9:39; Jude v 23.


Additional studies: Ex 28:4; 31:10; 39:27; Lev 16:4; Ps 107:3; Matt 26:54; Mark 14:63; Luke 15:12; John 19:28,34-37; Acts 12:4; Rev 4:6.

Mary Coloe "Raising the Johannine Temple (John 19:19-37)"; Australian Biblical Review 48 (2000): 47-58.

R. Alan Culpepper "The theology of the Johannine passion narrative: John 19:16b-30"; Neotestamentica 31.1 (1997): 21-38.

Maurits Sabbe "The Johannine Account of the Death of Jesus and Its Synoptic Parallells (Jn 19:16b-42)"; Ephemerides Theologicae Lovanienses 70 (1994): 34-64.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-05-29; 2012-03-30; 2014-11-19)

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19:25(25b)-27 But His mother and His mother's sister, Mariam (א,*א) of Clopas, and Mariam (א,*א) from Magdala stood by the the side of the cross of Jesus. Jesus so having beheld the mother and the disciple whom He (continually) welcomed standing by the side, He says to the mother: “Woman, behold, your son!” Next He says to the disciple: “Behold, your mother!” And from that hour the disciple took her into the own things.

Word for word: 19:25 (24 words in the Greek text) 'Stood-(and-had-stood)'/stood but by-the-side-of the cross (of)-the (of)-Jesus the mother his and the sister (of)-the (of)-mother his, Mariam the-(one) (of)-the (of)-Clopas and Mariam the-(one) from-Magdala. 19:26 (19 words in the Greek text) Jesus so having-beheld the mother and the disciple 'standing-(and-having-stood)'/standing-by-the-side-of whom (he)-(continually)-welcomed (he)-says (to)-the mother: woman, behold the mother your. 19:27 (20 words in the Greek text; the sequence of the words according to Sinaiticus) next (he)-says (to)-the disciple: behold the mother your. and from that the hour took her the disciple into the own-(things).


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Sarah) spoke to Abraham: "Throw out this young girl/’female slave’ and her son, for the son of this young girl/’female slave’ shall not inherit ‘in company’/together with my son Isaac. ... (And Abraham) dispatched her away (together with her son)." (Gen 21:10,14b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Israel:) “Honour your father and the mother, in order that it may become/’come about’ you well, and in order that you may become long-lived upon the earth/land, the good one, which the Lord, your God, gives you.” (Ex 20:12, Greek OT)

(The Lord talked towards Moses: “Talk with the sons of Israel and speak towards them:) ‘You shall make the fiftieth period of time holy and cry throughout/out a ‘letting be’/’leaving alone’ upon the earth to all the ones dwelling/inhabiting it, a period of time of ‘letting be’/’leaving alone’, (a period) furnished with signs it shall be for you, and ‘one everyone’/’every single one’ shall go away into/to his acquisition, and everyone shall go away into his fatherland. ... (And if the slave is not redeemed in another way) he shall come out in the year of the ‘letting be’/’leaving alone’.’” (Lev 25:10,54b, Greek OT)

Mariam was divided by a boundary-line (to a place) outside the (walled) camp (for) seven days. (Num 12:15a, Greek OT)

... Cozbi, a daughter of a leader of Midian, a sister of (the Midianites). (Num 25:18a, Greek OT)

(Elijah took the very little boy, who had been dead,) and gave him to his mother. And Elijah spoke: "See, your son lives." (1 Kings 17:23b, Greek OT)

And (the Shunammite) came into/in towards (Elisha). And Elisha spoke: "Take your son." … And she took her son and went out. (2 Kings 4:36b,37b, Greek OT)

(Tobit said: “One of the ones being in Nineveh) raped all things, as many as ‘was begun under me’/’I possessed’ ... ‘more than’/except my woman Hannah and Tobias, my son.” (Tobit 1:20, S)

(Tobit said to his son:) “Bury me finely and honour your mother and you may entirely not leave her (in a place during) all the days of her life. ... “ (Tobit 4:3b, S)

(Raguel said to his son-in-law:) “Be confident, (my) little boy! I (am) your father and (my wife) Edna your mother, and we are from the side of you and (our daughter) your sister from the now into the (coming) age. Be confident, (my) little boy!” (Tobit 8:21b, S)

(Most of the ones being in the holy place) were scattered, everyone into His place. (1 Macc 6:54b)

(A foreign nation) led away the welcomed ones of the widow, and (away) from the daughters they made the alone desolate. (Baruch 4:16)


The Latter Revelation:

(A messenger of the Lord said to Joseph:) ”You may not fear to take Mariam (א,*א), your woman, to the side of (you). What having been begotten in her is out of holy spirit” ... and he took his woman to the side of (him). (Matt 1:20b,24b)

(Jesus said:) “Whoever – according to the circumstances – may make/do the will of My Father, the One in heavens, he is My brother and sister and mother.” (Matt 12:50)

Many women (continually) were (by the cross of Jesus, women who) ... had followed Jesus from Galilee rendering service to Him, in/among whom (continually) were Mary from Magdala, Mary the one of James and the Mary of Joseph, and the Mary (א*) of the sons of Zebedee. (Matt 27:55-56)

But late/after (one) of (the) sabbaths, (at the hour) of the dawn into one/’the first’ (day) of (the) sabbaths, Mariam (א,*א) from Magdala and the another/other Mary came to look at the grave. (Matt 28:1)

(Jesus said:) "(The one) who – according to the circumstances – may make/do the will of God, this one is my brother and sister and mother." (Mark 3:35)

(Jesus said to a rich man:) “You know the commandments: ‘ ... Honour your father and your (א*) mother.’” (Mark 10:19)

Some of the ones standing by the side of (the cross of Jesus) having heard (Him) (continually/repeatedly) said: “Behold, He raises His voice to Eliah.” (Mark 15:35b)

(Elizabeth said:) “From where (is) this to me, in order that the mother of my Lord may come towards me?” (Luke 1:43)

(Jesus) gave (the son) to his mother. (Luke 7:15b)

Some women (were together with Jesus, women) who (continually) were (‘and had been’/permanently) attended from/for unclean (א,* א) spirits and weaknesses. (Among these women was) Mary, being called “from Magdala”, from whom seven little demons had come (‘and come’/permanently) out. (Luke 8:2)

(Jesus said:) “My mother is (the one) … hearing the saying of God and making/doing (it).” (Luke 8:21b)

(A woman said to Jesus:) “Happy (is) the belly having borne You, and nipples that You sucked.” But (Jesus) spoke: "So happy (are) indeed/actually the ones hearing the saying of God, and watching/keeping (it)." (Luke 11:27b-28)

(Jesus said to a rich man:) “You know the commandments: ‘You may not commit adultery. You may not murder. You may not steal. You may not be a false witness. Honour your father and your (א*) mother.’” (Luke 18:20)

Having become/come together to the side of (the cross) against/’in quest of’ this looking/spectacle (and) having looked at the things having become/come about, all the crowds '(continually) returned'/'began to return' slapping/beating the/their breasts. (Luke 23:48)

(Cleopas said to Jesus:) “You alone inhabit by the side of Jerusalem and has not gained knowledge of the things having become/’come about’ in (the city) in these days?” … Some women out of us ‘stood out of themselves for’/amazed us. Having become/come against/’in quest of’ the memorial tomb early in the morning and not having found (Jesus') body, they came saying (that) they and/also had beheld (and beheld) a sight/vision of messengers who say ‘Him live’/’that He lives’.” (Luke 24:18b,22-23)

All these were (continually) unanimously ‘being patient to’/patient (in) the prayer together with women and Mary (א,*א,A), the mother of Jesus, and His brothers. (Acts 1:14)

(Peter) came against/to the habitation of Mary, the mother of John, the one being ‘called upon’/called Mark. ... (Acts 12:12b)

Having taken (Paul and Silas) to the side of (him) (the jailer) bathed/washed them from the blows in that hour of the night. (Acts 16:33a)

Those returned into the own things. (Acts 21:6b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Jesus) came into the own things, and the own ones did not take Him to the side of (them). But as many as took him, to them He gave (judicial) authority to become children of God, to the ones believing into His name, who were begotten not out of bloods/blood, nor out of a will of flesh, nor out of a will of a male, however/but out of God. (John 1:11-13)

The Jews grumbled so (continually) on account of (Jesus), because He spoke: “I am the bread having descended out of the heaven.” And they (continually) said: “Is not this Jesus, the son of Joseph, whose father * (א*) we know? How does this (א,*א,A) so (P66,א,*א,A) say: ‘I (א,*א) have descended (and descends) out of the heaven.’?” (John 6:41-42)

The Pharisees (continually) said to (Jesus): “Where is Your Father?” Jesus answered: “’And you do not’/’neither you’ know Me, ‘and not’/nor My Father. If you knew Me, you – according to the circumstances – knew and/also My Father.” (John 8:19)

But (P66,א,*א,A) there (continually) was one out of His disciples, whom Jesus (continually) welcomed, lying up/’down to table’ in the bosom of Jesus. (John 13:23)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "Behold, an hour comes, and the hour (א*) has come (and comes), in order that you may be scattered, everyone into his own things, and you may let Me be alone. And/but I am not alone, because the Father is in company with Me." (John 16:32)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 - about 1500

In the Synoptics the treachery of the disciples is total, in John at least the beloved disciple is left by the cross. (René Kieffer "Johannesevangeliet" p 392; translation from the Swedish text)

The evangelist likes to pun with words which can be misunderstood. (René Kieffer "Johannesevangeliet" p 271 in comment to John 11:11; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask).

John never mentions the name of the mother of Jesus. (C.K. Barrett "The Gospel according to St John" p 551)

It is possible that this Clopas should be identified with the (Kleopas) of Luke 24:18. (C.K. Barrett "The Gospel according to St John" p 551)

(Borg) passed some remarks on and a Proposal to Catechism . . . The Fourth Commandment would have the following wording: You shall not let your inborn feeling of reverence for the parents come you to admire also their faults, and you need not honour them more than they deserve. You are on no condition guilty parents any thankfullness, for they did you no service to bring you into the world; that they feed and clothe you, it bids them both their egoism and the civil law. The parents who ask for (there are even the ones who demand) thankfulness of their children are as usurer: they let the capital willingly be risked only they get out the interest. (August Strindberg "Röda rummet" p 305; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


about 1500 and time before

The sex that was most condemned ... this most shows its courage. And when the disciples had fled, these (women) were present. (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers X:522)

(The Evangelists) proposed to speak the truth where it was possible both materially and spiritually, and where this was not possible it was their intention to prefer the spiritual to the material. The spiritual truth was often preserved, as one might say, in the material falsehood. … My desire (is) to have (the Gospels) treated in a way of spiritual interpretation. (Origen, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol X, p 383-384 in comment to John 2:13-25).


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Ann-Charlotte Alverfors, Joel Andersson, Margit Assarsson, Elisabeth Beskow, Gordon Bridger, Bo Frid, Anton Fridrichsen, Harry Frödin, Gillis Gerleman, Bo Giertz, Peter Gillgren, Johannes Gossner, Bertil Gärtner, Verner von Heidenstam, Gustaf Hellström, Edwin Hodder, Ad. Kolmodin, Lars Levi Laestadius, Selma Lagerlöf, Tony Lane, Amy Le Feuvre, Sven Lidman, Teodor Lindhagen, Per Lundberg, Martin Luther, Carl Henrik Martling, H. Dermot McDonald, Vilhelm Moberg, Birgitta Odén, Lewi Pethrus, Olaus Petri, Niklas Piensoho, Johan Ludvig Runeberg, Sven Edvin Salje, Isaac Basjevis Singer, Erik Sollerman, Birgit Th Sparre, John Stott, Jesper Svartvik, Knut Svensson, Anton Tjechov, T. Truvé, Tore Zetterholm, P. Waldenström, Christy Wilson.


My own comments and speculations:

John's mother is rather his own mother than Jesus' german mother Mary. Compare Acts 1:14 where Jesus' mother Mary is named together with His brothers. Nothing suggests, that she then is together with John. Here we should also remember, that it is said in Matt 13:55 (א*), that the four german brothers of Jesus were called James/Jacob, John, Simon and Judas, that is the same names which four of Jesus' apostles had. Jesus' german brothers got spiritual counterparts, and so it also was with His german mother. Compare also with John 6:42 א,* where the Jews are said to know Jesus' father but where nothing is said about His mother.

Matthew says that a woman “of the sons of Zebedee” was by Jesus' cross (Matt 27:56). In all probability it is this woman, who is the mother of John. We know, that she was one of the women who followed Jesus (Matt 20:20), a woman who therefore can be called Jesus' mother (Matt 12:49-50).

Furthermore we also must pay attention to that in the Synoptics Jesus never call Mary His mother but rather repudiates this designation (cf. Matt 12:46-50; Mark 3:31-35; Luke 8:19-21; 11:27-28). That “the spiritual” John would have a contrasting point of view in this question than the Synoptics is not probable with regard to that John rather deepens than corrects these Gospels.

The text of Matt 27:56 in Sinaiticus, prima manus, says that both Mary of (the son?, the husband?) Joseph and Mary of the sons of Zebedee were by Jesus' cross together with two other women. ”Mary of Joseph” can here hardly be Jesus' german mother Mary, because this one scarcely can be said to belong to the women having followed Jesus from Galilee (cf. Matt 27:55 with Matt 12:46-50). It seems as if John unites Mary of Joseph and Mary of the sons of Zebedee in one woman, “the mother of Jesus”. It is characteristic of Matthew and John, that no woman by the cross of Jesus are named with any other name than Mary (Mariam). Mary was the woman who “had chosen the good portion” (Luke 10:42) by listening to Jesus' word, sitting at His feet (Luke 10:39), smearing them with “trustworthy” oil. And the women, rather than the men, are those who are near Jesus by His cross. Cf. also Ex 15:20 where all women followed Miriam/Mariam, when she exhorted them to sing to the exalted Lord. Concerning the meaning of the name Mariam, see also My own comments and speculations to John 11:17-20.

In the book of Tobit we have a background to the spiritual relationship of the Gospels. The messenger Asarja is a ‘spiritual’ brother to Tobit (5:13) and his son Tobias (5:17; 6:7,10,14; 7:1). The wife of Tobit is a ‘spiritual’ sister to her husband (5:21; 10:6). The wife of Tobias also i a ‘spiritual’ sister to her husband (6.18; 7.11; 8.4,6,21), like her mother is a ‘spiritual’ sister to her husband (7:15). Furthermore she is a ‘spiritual’ daughter to her parents-in-law (11:17). And Tobias is a ‘spiritual’ brother to his parents-in-law (7:3,7; 10:12), who also are a ‘spiritual’ father and mother to their son-in-law (8:21). In a restoration perspective we then can state the following: “In the book of Tobit a father gets back his german daughter in connection with the death of her ‘spiritual’ mother (Tobit 14:12). In John a mother gets back her german son in connection with the death of her ‘spiritual’ son.” Cf. also with My own comments and speculations to John 11:1-2.

Concerning the priority of the spiritual relationship, compare John 8:19, where the Jews wrongly think that Jesus' father is His Father according to the flesh. Cf. also with My own comments and speculations to John 2:1-2 and John 2:3-5. Furthermore, compare with Revelation, where the word for “mother” only is used once and then in a spiritual meaning (Rev 17:5).

In this Bible passage in John we also see that Isaac, Elijah and Elisha are types of Jesus. And the son of the slave-woman and his mother can be seen as types of John and his mother. The slave-woman and her son were driven away from “their own”. Now those who in times of old were slaves are restored to become friends (John 15:15), and they are welcomed by the Father and His Son (cf. John 14:21). And John can take his mother to his own things. It is time for the year of jubilee. John and his mother can "return to their family", and the slaves will be released (cf. John 2:19-22).

In the interpretation tradition of the Christian Church we can doubtless say that Jesus' mother in John 19:25-27 throughout is understood as His german mother Mary. If we on the other hand first of all see this text in its synoptic-johannine context it is for me more probable to understand Jesus' mother as His spiritual mother Salome. The exegete, who at last chooses to see Jesus' mother as His german mother, perhaps has to ask why the Synoptics don't say anything about Mary's presence at the cross and why nor John does this by explicitly naming her name.

Concerning “Mariam of Clopas”, we can see a possibility that she went home to her son (husband?), without knowing anything about the resurrection, then telling him that she had seen the crucifixion. “Cleopas” later walked together with the risen Jesus, then only knowing what he had heard by his mother. Concerning “the change of ”Cleopas” to ”Clôpas” (with ô/omega), cf. My own comments and speculations to Rev 4:9a.


Paul said to the believers in Rome: “Greet Rufus, the choice one in the Lord, and his mother and mine.” (Rom 16:13)


Greek words:

Klôpas (Clopas) John 19:25. This word does not occur in the rest of the Bible. However, observe the similarity to Cleopas in Luke 24:18. The two letters “eo” in Luke are in John replaced with the last letter “ô” (omega), a sign of the completion of the work of Jesus, He who is Alpha and Omega. Cf. My own comments and speculations to John 18:4-5. The Greek name Kleopas has taken the Aramaic form Klôpas, something which possibly also can allude to the union between Greeks and Jews in Christ.

Magdalênê (from Magdala) Matt 27:56; Luke 8:2; John 19:25 – Matt 27:61; 28:1; Mark 15:40,47; 16:1; Luke 24:10; John 20:1,18.

Mariam (Mariam) (in the NT + examples in the OT) Num 12:15; Matt 1:20(א,*א); Matt 28:1; John 19:25 – Ex 15:20-21; Num 12:1,4-5,10; 20:1; 26:59; Deut 24:9; Matt 13:55; Luke 1:27,30,34,38-39,46,56; 2:5,16,34; 10:39; John 20:1,11,16,18; Rom 16:6(P46,א,*א).


Additional studies: Ps 38:11(12); 88:8(9); Song of Solomon 8:2; Judith 16:21; Matt 15:4-5; 19:19; 20:20; Mark 7:10-12; 15:40-41; Luke 18:28; 23:49; John 2:3-5; 13:23; 14:18; 20:2; 21:20; 1 Tim 5:2,8.

Mary Coloe "Raising the Johannine Temple (John 19:19-37)"; Australian Biblical Review 48 (2000): 47-58.

R. Alan Culpepper "The theology of the Johannine passion narrative: John 19:16b-30"; Neotestamentica 31.1 (1997): 21-38.

E. Franck "Att översätta dubbeltydigheter - några iakttagelser"; Svensk Exegetisk Årsbok 48 (1983): 102-108.

Troy W. Martin "Assessing the Johannine Epithet 'Mother of Jesus'." Catholic Biblical Quarterly 60 (1998): 63-73.

Maurits Sabbe "The Johannine Account of the Death of Jesus and Its Synoptic Parallells (Jn 19:16b-42)"; Ephemerides Theologicae Lovanienses 70 (1994): 34-64.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-05-29; 2012-04-02; 2014-11-20; 2014-12-19)

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19:28 After this Jesus, knowing that all things already are (and have been) ended, in order that the writing might be completed (א,* א), says: “I thirst.”

Word for word (15 words in the Greek text; the sequence of the words according to Sinaiticus) After this 'knowing-(and-having-known)'/knowing the Jesus that all-(things) already are-(and-have-been)-ended, in-order-that might-be-completed the scripture (he)-says: (i/I)-thirst.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(In Rephidim) the people thirsted (in/for) water, and the people grumbled there towards Moses saying: "’In order of what this’/'why ... for this' did You cause us to go up out of Egypt to kill us and our children and the domestic animals (with) thirst?" (Ex 17:3, Greek OT)

(Moses) ‘caused ... to stand’/laid the court (in) a circle of/round the tent and the sacrificial altar. And Moses brought all the works to a consummation.” (Ex 40:33, Greek OT)

Sheshbazzar came and gave/laid bases of the house of God in Jerusalem. And from then till the now it has been built, and it has not been ended. (Ezra 5:16, Greek OT)

(David said to God:) "My stability is dried as a potsherd, and my tongue has attached (and attaches) to my throat. And You have led me down into gravel of death." (Ps 22:15 or 22:16, Greek OT)

(The Psalmist said:) “My soul thirsted towards the living God. When will I arrive and behold the face of God?” (Ps 42:2 or 42:3, Greek OT)

(David said to God, when he was in the desolate district of Judas:) “My soul thirsted for You, how often (does not) my flesh (thirst) for You in a desolate and inaccessible and waterless earth/land.” (Ps 63:1b or 63:2b, Greek OT)


The Latter Revelation:

Around the ninth hour Jesus cried upwards (with) a great/loud voice, saying: “Eloi, Eloi, (א,*א,B) lema sabachthani?” this is/means,”My God, My God, ‘in order that what’/why have You entirely left Me in (a place)?” (Matt 27:46)

(Jesus said:) “I have a baptism to be baptized, and how (do) I (not) ‘hold Myself together’/’constrain Myself’ till (the time) whatever/’in which’ it may be ended.” (Luke 12:50)

(Jesus said to the twelve:) “All the things having been (and being) written through the prophets (about) the Son of the Man will be ended.” (Luke 18:31b)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “I say to you that this, the thing having been (and being) written must be ended in Me, the/this: ‘And He was counted in company with lawless.’ For and/also the thing on account of Me has an end.” (Luke 22:37)

(Paul said to the sons of Abraham and the ones fearing God: “When the ones dwelling in Jerusalem and their leaders) had ended all things having been (and being) written on account of (Jesus) (and) having taken Him ‘entirely for themselves’/away from the wood/’piece of wood’, they put/laid Him into a memorial tomb.” (Acts 13:29)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven: The Father welcomes the Son and has given (and gives) all things in His hand. (John 3:35)

Jesus says to (His disciples): “My food is ‘in order that’/that I might make/do the will of the One having sent Me and make His work perfect.” (John 4:34)

(Jesus said:) “The evidence I have (is) greater than (that) of John, for the works which the Father has given (and gives) Me, in order that I may make them perfect, the works themselves which I make/do are witnesses on account of Me, that the Father has dispatched (and dispatches) Me away.” (John 5:36)

(Jesus said to His Father:) " I glorified You upon the earth, having made perfect the work, which You have given (and give) Me, in order that I may make." (John 17:4)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: Sven Lidman, John Stott.


Greek words:

teleô (end) (in the NT + examples in the OT) Ezra 5:16; Luke 2:39; 12:50; 18:31; 22:37; John 19:28; Acts 13:29 - Num 25:3; Neh 6:15; 1 Macc 13:10; Wisdom of Solomon 4:16; Sir 7:25; Matt 7:28; 10:23; 11:1; 13:53; 17:24; 19:1; 26:1; John 19:30; Rom 2:27; 13:6; 2 Cor 12:9; Gal 5:16; 2 Tim 4:7; Jas 2:8; Rev 10:7; 11:7; 15:1,8; 17:17; 20:3,7.


Additional studies: Deut 34:8; Wisdom of Solomon 11:8; Matt 25:35; John 4:6-7; 13:1,3; 15:15; 18:4; 19:24,36-37; 1 Cor 4:11; Rev 7:1.

G. Bampfylde "John XIX:28: A case for a Different Translation". See Novum Testamentum 11 (1969): 247-260.

Robert L. Brawley "An Absent Complement and Intertextuality in John 19:28-29"; Journal of Biblical Literature 112 (1993): 427-443.

Mary Coloe "Raising the Johannine Temple (John 19:19-37)"; Australian Biblical Review 48 (2000): 47-58.

R. Alan Culpepper "The theology of the Johannine passion narrative: John 19:16b-30"; Neotestamentica 31.1 (1997): 21-38.

Maurits Sabbe "The Johannine Account of the Death of Jesus and Its Synoptic Parallells (Jn 19:16b-42)"; Ephemerides Theologicae Lovanienses 70 (1994): 34-64.

L.T. Witkamp "Jesus' Thirst in John 19:28-30: Literal or Figurative?"; Journal of Biblical Literature 115 (1996): 489-510.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-05-29; 2012-04-03; 2014-11-21)

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19:29 But (א,*א) it/there (continually) lay a vessel filled up (with) sour wine. Having so put a sponge filled up (with) * (א*) sour wine round about (on) a hyssop (stalk) they carried it to the mouth.

Word for word (15 words in the Greek text): (a)-vessel but (continually)-lay (with)-sour-wine filled-up. (a)-sponge so filled-up (with)-sour-wine (on)-(a)-hyssop having-put-round-about (they)-carried-to it the mouth.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Moses said to the elders of Israel:) "… From the first day you shall ‘make ... unseen’/remove leaven out of your houses. … Take a bundle of hyssop and having dipped (it) from the blood to the side of the door ‘make (it) sit down’/’apply (it)’ to the lintel and from the blood upon both of the standing-places/door-posts ... (When the Lord beholds the blood, He will) not let the destroyer be (alone) to come into, into your habitations to hit (you)." (Ex 12:15a,22a,23b, Greek OT)

(The Lord/Moses said to Israel:) ”These (are) the feasts to the Lord ... (when you) carry to the Lord ... drink-offerings ... ‘more than’/besides (those) of the sabbaths of the Lord.” (Lev 23:37a,38a, Greek OT)

Boaz spoke to (Ruth): “(It is) already hour/time (to) the thing to eat. Come to/forward here and eat the breads/’pieces of bread’ and you shall dip your morsel in the sour wine.” (Ruth 2:14a, Greek OT)

(Solomon) talked on account of the woods, from the cedar-tree in Lebanon and till the hyssop going out through the wall of a house. (1 Kings 4:33a, Greek OT)

(The king of kings wrote to Ezra:) “You shall carry (drink-offerings) to, upon the sacrificial altar of the house of our God in Jerusalem. (Ezra 7:17b, Greek OT)

(David said to God:) “You will sprinkle me (with) hyssop, and I shall be made clean.” (Ps 51:7a or 51:9a, Greek OT)

(David said to the Lord:) "Into/’for the purpose of’ my thirst (my enemies) gave me sour wine to drink." (Ps 69:21b or 69:22b, Greek OT)

(The enemies of the Lord will be) as a stalk filled up (with) drought. (Nahum 1:10b, Greek OT)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “Noah was find perfect (and) righteous. In a seasonable time of wrath he became an exchange.” (Sir 44:17a)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said: “The Lord) ... made (the priest leader Aaron) firm/stable (with) vessels of stability.” (Sir 45:8a)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “If – according to the circumstances - you so may carry your gift to, against the sacrificial altar and you there may remember that your brother has something ‘down from’/against you, let your gift be there in front of the sacrificial altar and withdraw. First ‘be different’/’reconcile yourself’ (with) your brother and having come carry then your gift to (the sacrificial altar).” (Matt 5:23-24)

(Jesus said to the Pharisees:) “How is anyone able to come into, into the habitation of the stable one and rape his vessels throughout (א,* א), if – according to the circumstances – he may first not bind the stable one?” (Matt 12:29a)

(Jesus said to the crowds:) “The kingdom of the heavens is like a scarlet kernel of mustard … . It is indeed smaller than all seeds but ... it becomes a tree.” (Matt 13:31b-32a; cf. the hyssop as the smallest wood according to 1 Kings 4:33)

(Jesus said:) “Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites, because you make the cup and the small dish clean from the outside ... but from inside you are filled up of hypocrisy and lawlessness.” (Matt 23:25a,28b)

Having taken a sponge both/and fulfilled it (with) sour wine and having put (it) round about (in/through) a reed one * (א,*א) (of the ones who stood by the cross) (continually/repeatedly) gave (Jesus) to drink. (Matt 27:48b)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Behold, see from/’away from’ the leaven of the Pharisees and the leaven of Herod.” (Mark 8:15b)

Coming to/forward the soldiers carrying/carried sour wine to (Jesus). (Luke 23:36b)

(Peter) spoke: “Not at all, Lord, that (anything) common or unclean nor/- at any time came into, into my mouth.” (Acts 11:8b)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

It seems to have been John's purpose to set forth Jesus as the true Paschal lamb, slaughtered for the deliverance of his people (see 1:29,36; 19:14,36), and it will be recalled that hyssop played an important part in Passover observance; see Exod. 12:22. (C.K. Barrett "The Gospel of St John" p 553)

Pewterers were not the oldest of the benefactors of mankind, inasmuch as Adam drank out of the fist, Noah out of an earthen vessel and our Saviour out of a sponge. The pewter tankard was a later invention. (August Strindberg "Svenska öden och äventyr 2" p 118-119; the short story "Beskyddare" from 1883; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Albert Engström, Dario Fo, Anton Fridrichsen, Bo Giertz, Eli F. Heckscher, Victor Hugo, Per Lundberg, Fredrik Nielsen, Martha Sandwall-Bergström, August Strindberg, Knut Svensson, Leo Tolstoj.


My own comments and speculations:

In Egypt blood with insignificant (1 Kings 4:33) hyssop was applied on the old, saving entrance. Now the new, saving door/entrance (cf. John 10:7-9). drinks sour wine round about on an insignificant hyssop stalk.

The wine which has become sour is something which has “missed the mark”, in Greek “hamartanô”. The jar, filled up with sour wine, is filled up with all sins (misses of the mark of God) of the adornment/’adorned world’ (cf. Matt 23:25,28). The sponge, filled up with sour wine, round about on the hyssop stalk (which can allude to the enemies of the Lord in Nahum 1:10) points to sprinkling and cleansing from sin (miss of the mark of God) (Ps 51:7). The drinking of the sour wine points to Him who is the Lamb of God, taking away the sin (miss of the mark of God) of the adornment/’adorned world’ (John 1:29). Observe also the word “prosferô” (carry to) which in the OT is used about offerings which are carried to the Lord.

Leaven can be like sour wine. Compare Matt 16:6,11; Mark 8:15; Luke 12:1; 1 Cor 5:6-8.

It is also possible to read this Bible passage in the light of the Rabbinic Judaism. In the Midrashim (Genesis Rabbah XXX:IX) we read that the righteous Noah (Gen 6:9; 7:1) was not special righteous in the eyes of God. It is said that when God one dag went to His cellar to fetch a jar with good wine, He was disappointed. The wine in the jars had become vinegar. Only one jar contained wine - sour wine - which was possible to drink. This jar was Noah. And this "righteous" Noah was spared from the deadly flood. .

So in Jesus on the cross we can see the Lord drinking Noah. In the OT-time Noah was spared in spite of his soiled righteousness. But also Noah had to die. When Jesus suffered and died for all, the sour wine Noah was in Him together with all other men. By God's grace also Noah could take credit for Jesus' death. Cf. 2 Cor 5:14.


Paul said to the believers in Corinth: “We may keep a feast/festival, not in/with old leaven, but/and not in/with a leaven of badness and evil, however/but in/with unleavened (cakes) of purity and truth.” (1 Cor 5:8)


Greek words:

keimai (lie) (in the NT + examples in the OT) John 19:29 – Joshua 4:6; Jer 24:1; Tobit 5:10; 2 Macc 3:11; 4:11,31,34; Sir 22:18; Matt 3:10; 5:14; 28:6; Luke 2:16,34; 3:9; 12:19; 23:53; John 20:5,7,12; 21:9; 1 Cor 3:11; 2 Cor 3:15; Phil 1:16; 1 Thess 3:3; 1 Tim 1:9; 1 John 5:19; Rev 21:16.

mestos (filled up) Nahum 1:10; Matt 23:28; John 19:29 – Esther 5:2a(D14); Prov 6:34; Ezek 37:1; John 21:11; Rom 1:29; 15:14; Jas 3:8,17; 2 Pet 2:14.

oxos (sour wine) Ruth 2:14; Ps 69:21(22); Matt 27:48; Luke 23:36; John 19:29 – Num 6:3; Prov 25:20; Mark 15:36; John 19:30.

peritithemi (put round about) (in the NT + examples in the OT) Matt 27:48; John 19:29 – Gen 24:47; 41:42; Esther 1:20; Job 38:10; Is 5:2; 1 Macc 11:13; 12:39; 13:32; Sir 6:31; Matt 21:33; 27:28; Mark 12:1; 15:17,36; 1 Cor 12:23.

skeuos (vessel) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Sir 45:8; Matt 12:29; John 19:29 – Tobit 10:10; 1 Macc 1:21,23; 2:9; 4:49; 6:12; 14:10,15; 15:26; 2 Macc 4:48; 5:16; 9:16; Wisdom of Solomon 13:11; 15:7,13; Sir 27:5; 38:28; 43:2; 50:9; Baruch 1:8; Epistle of Jeremiah v 15, 58; Mark 3:27; 11:16; Luke 8:16; 17:31; Acts 9:15; 10:11,16; 11:5; 27:17; Rom 9:21-23; 2 Cor 4:7; 1 Thess 4:4; 2 Tim 2:20-21; Heb 9:21; 1 Pet 3:7; Rev 2:27; 18:12.

spongos (sponge) Matt 27:48; John 19:29 – Mark 15:36.

stoma (mouth) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) John 19:29; Acts 11:8 – Esther 4:17h(C10),17o-p(C20); Tobit 11:15; Judith 5:5; 1 Macc 2:60; Wisdom of Solomon 1:11; 10:21; Sir 5:12; 14:1; 15:5,9; 20:20; 21:26; 22:27; 23:7,9,13; 24:2-3; 26:12; 27:23; 28:12,18,25; 39:35; 40:30; 49:1; 51:25; The Song of Praise of the Three Men v 28; Bel and the Dragon v 27; Matt 4:4; 5:2; 12:34; 13:35; 15:11,17-18; 17:27; 18:16; 21:16; Luke 1:64,70; 4:22; 6:45; 11:54; 19:22; 21:15,24; 22:71. Acts 1:16; 3:18,21; 4:25; 8:32,35; 10:34; 15:7; 18:14; 22:14; 23:2; Rom 3:14,19; 10:8-10; 15:6; 2 Cor 6:11; 13:1; Eph 4:29; 6:19; Col 3:8; 2 Thess 2:8; 2 Tim 4:17; Heb 11:33-34; Jas 3:3,10; 2 John v 12; 3 John v 14; Jude v 16; Rev 1:16; 2:16; 3:16; 9:17-19; 10:9-10; 11:5; 12:15-16; 13:2,5-6; 14:5; 16:13; 19:15,21.

(h)yssôpos (hyssop) Ex 12:22; 1 King 4:33; Ps 51:7(9); John 19:29 – Lev 14:4,6,49,51-52; Num 19:6,18; Heb 9:19.


Additional studies: Lev 14:4-7; Matt 16:6,11; Mark 15:23; Luke 12:1,50; 1 Cor 5:6-7; Rev 14:8; 16:19.

F.G. Beetham - P.A. Beetham "A Note on John 19:29"; Journal of Theological Studies 44 (1993): 163-169.

Robert L. Brawley "An Absent Complement and Intertextuality in John 19:28-29"; Journal of Biblical Literature 112 (1993): 427-443.

Mary Coloe "Raising the Johannine Temple (John 19:19-37)"; Australian Biblical Review 48 (2000): 47-58.

R. Alan Culpepper "The theology of the Johannine passion narrative: John 19:16b-30"; Neotestamentica 31.1 (1997): 21-38.

Maurits Sabbe "The Johannine Account of the Death of Jesus and Its Synoptic Parallells (Jn 19:16b-42)"; Ephemerides Theologicae Lovanienses 70 (1994): 34-64.

L.T. Witkamp "Jesus' Thirst in John 19:28-30: Literal or Figurative?"; Journal of Biblical Literature 115 (1996): 489-510.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-05-30; 2012-04-05; 2014-11-23)

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19:30 When He (א*) so had taken the sour wine, He spoke: "It is (and has been) ended!" And having lent the head He gave the spirit ‘to the side of’/over.

Word for word (14 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus prima manus) when so (he)-took the sour-wine (he)-spoke: it-is-(and-has-been)-ended. and having-lent the head (he)-gave-to-the-side-of the spirit.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

And the heaven and the earth and every/all their adornment were brought to a consummation. In/on the sixth day God brought His works to a consummation, what He had made/done, and He ‘caused to cease entirely ... from’/finished (in/on) the seventh day all His works, which He had made/done. (Gen 2:1-2, Greek OT)

'Arranging on'/ordering his sons Jacob ‘caused to cease entirely’/finished and having lifted out/up his feet against the bed he ‘left out’/died. (Gen 49:33a, Greek OT)

(Moses) ‘caused ... to stand’/laid the court (in) a circle of/round the tent and the sacrificial altar. And Moses brought all the works to a consummation.” (Ex 40:33, Greek OT)

(David said to the Lord:) “Into Your hands I shall put/lay my spirit to the side of.” (Ps 31:5a or 31:6a, Greek OT)

The soul (of the boy/servant of the Lord) was given ‘to the side of’/over into death and He was counted in/among the lawless ones. And He Himself carried up misses (of the mark of God) of many and because of their misses (of the mark of God) He was given ‘to the side of’/over. (Is 53:12b, Greek OT)

(Tobit said to the Lord:) “Now make/do in company with me according to Your pleasing/pleasure and 'arrange on'/order to take up my spirit out of me.” (Tobit 3:6a, S)

(Judith said to the elders of the city:) “You shall not investigate out my occupying, for I shall not speak to you, till the thing to be ended, (the things) which I shall make.” (Judith 8:34)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “Humble your head for the great men.” (Sir 4:7b)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said: “Child,) let (you) be called to the side of in (the dead body) in/’by means of’ (the) ‘way out’/departure of his spirit.” (Sir 38:23b)


The Latter Revelation:

(On Jesus' and the disciples') going in/on the way someone spoke towards Him: “I will follow You whereat - if according to the circumstances – You may go away.” And Jesus spoke to him: “The foxes have dens, and the flying creatures of the heaven/sky (have) resting places, but the Son of the Man has not (a place) where He may lean the head.” (Luke 9:57-58)

(Jesus said to the many crowds:) “On (someone's) having put/laid a base (of a house) and not being stable (enough) to bring (the house) to an end all who look at (it) may begin to ‘jest with’/mock him saying that/: “This man began to build a house and was not stable (enough) to bring (it) to an end.” (Luke 14:29b-30)

(Jesus said:) “Father, into Your hands I put/lay My spirit to the side of (You).” But/and having spoken this, He ‘blew out’/’breathed his last’. (Luke 23:46b)

And (the people) (continually) threw stones at Stephen ‘calling against’/invoking and saying: "Lord Jesus, receive my spirit." (Acts 7:59)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

Jesus says to (His disciples): “My food is ‘in order that’/that I might make/do the will of the One having sent Me and make His work perfect.” (John 4:34)

(Jesus said to His Father:) "I glorified You upon the earth, having made perfect the work, which You have given (and give) Me, in order that I may make." (John 17:4)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

(The morning of Christmas Day 1911) I thought I had completed the day's work of my life, had said all what I wanted to say; and the unprinted lay in handwriting in ordered cardboards. . . . Death as only a separation of the soul from this troublesome "body of humiliation" is for me an axiom. (August Strindberg "Betraktelser på Födelsedagen med anledning av Sjukdomen" p 192-193; Afton-Tidningen 1912-01-22; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

The confessor speaks to the Lady: " . . . You must suffer all the pains of hell by being evil, suffer for the sake of (your friend) and come off the atonement! - Your work is completed! Go in peace!" (August Strindberg "Till Damaskus III" p 326; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

The rumour that strong Måns has killed captain Lennart runs in flying speed around the market. They say that he, who was the friend of the people, has died to save women and defenceless children. . . . Captain Lennart opens his eyes, sees and sees enough. . . . But he has only woken to die. He draws a rattling breath and gives up the ghost. (Selma Lagerlöf "Gösta Berlings saga" p 371-376; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

(Jesus Christ) did not endure this death common (to man) in appearance only, but did truly die. (Origen, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol IV, p 240)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Evert Axelsson, UllaBritt Berglund, Elisabeth Beskow, Harry Blomberg, Lars-Ola Borglid, Albert Camus, Abd es-Salam el-Ujeili, Bo Frid, Erik Gustaf Geijer, Johannes Gossner, Carl Grimberg, Dag Hammarskjöld, Eric Hertz, Victor Hugo, Lars Hult, Aug. Hultgren, Alice Hulting, IngaMay Hörnberg, Irenaeus, Pär Lagerkvist, Annty Landherr, Signe Larsson, Paul Liljenberg, N.P. Madsen, Carl Henrik Martling, Watchman Nee, Bertil Nilsson, J. Nyrén, Bertil Olingdahl, Nelly Sachs, Henrik Sjögren, John Stott, Jesper Svartvik, Knut Svensson, Anton Tjechov, E.H. Wang, Kallistos Ware, Arwid Wickström, Henrik Williams.


My own comments and speculations:

There are resemblances between John 19:30 and Gen 49:33. Compare 1) end – cause to cease entirely 2) lay down - lifted up (in a restoration perspective the “laying down” of the head is contrasted to the lifting up of the feet) 3) give over His spirit – left out.


Greek words:

klinô (lean) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Luke 9:58; John 19:30 – Sir 15:4; 38:28; Baruch 2:16,21; Matt 8:20; Luke 9:12; 24:5,29; Heb 11:34


Additional studies: Job 19:26; Matt 27:50; Mark 15:37; John 10:18; Rev 10:9-10; 11:7; 14:8; 16:17; 17:17.

Mary Coloe "Raising the Johannine Temple (John 19:19-37)"; Australian Biblical Review 48 (2000): 47-58.

R. Alan Culpepper "The theology of the Johannine passion narrative: John 19:16b-30"; Neotestamentica 31.1 (1997): 21-38.

Maurits Sabbe "The Johannine Account of the Death of Jesus and Its Synoptic Parallells (Jn 19:16b-42)"; Ephemerides Theologicae Lovanienses 70 (1994): 34-64.

L.T. Witkamp "Jesus' Thirst in John 19:28-30: Literal or Figurative?"; Journal of Biblical Literature 115 (1996): 489-510.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-05-30; 2012-04-06; 2014-11-24; 2014-12-19)

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19:31-32 Since it (continually) was a preparation, in order that the bodies might not stay upon the cross in/on the sabbath – for that day of the sabbath (continually) was great – the Jews so asked Pilate, in order that their legs might be broken down/off and lifted/’taken away’. The soldiers so came and broke indeed down/off the legs of the first one and of the another/’other one’ having been crucified together with Him.

Word for word: 19:31 (35 words in the Greek text) the so Jews since (a)-preparation (it)-(continually)-was, in-order-that not might-stay upon the cross the bodies in the sabbath, (continually)-was for great the day (of)-that (of)-the (of)-sabbath, asked the Pilate in-order-that might-be-broken-down their the legs and might-be-lifted. 19:32 (17 words in the Greek text) came so the soldiers and (of)-the indeed (of)-first-(one) (they)-broke-down the legs and (of)-the (of)-another (of)-the-(one) having-been-crucified-together-with him.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

The first day (of the Passover) will be called holy. (Ex 12:16a, Greek OT)

(The Lord/Moses said to Israel:) ”These (are) the feasts to the Lord ... (when you) carry to the Lord ... drink-offerings ... ‘more than’/besides (those) of the sabbaths of the Lord.” (Lev 23:37a,38a, Greek OT)

(Moses said to Israel:) "If – according to the circumstances – it may become in anyone a miss (of the mark of God) (deserving) a judicial verdict of death, and he may die, you may hang him up upon a (piece of) wood. His body shall not ‘fall asleep’/die upon, upon the (piece of) wood, however/but you shall bury him (in) a grave in that day, because every/everyone being hanged up upon a (piece of) wood is (and has been) cursed by God. And you shall not defile the earth/land, which the Lord your God gives you in/for a share of inheritance.” (Deut 21:22-23, Greek OT)

(Before his death Moses said the Lord concerning Levi:) “Lead down'/'break off' a hip of enemies standing (and having stood) up on him, and the ones hating him may not stand up.” (Deut 33:11b, Greek OT)

(Jesus/Joshua) hung the king of Ai upon a twofold wood, and he (continually) was upon the wood till the evening. And (at) setting upon/down of the sun Jesus/Joshua ‘arranged together’/’gave command’, and they took ‘entirely for themselves’/away his body down from the wood. (Joshua 8:29a, Greek OT)

(Goliath) had greaves of copper above his legs ... and his lance-head/lance (was) six hundred shekels iron. (1 Sam 17:6-7a, Greek OT)

(The king) put out the bodies of the sons of Haman to the Jews of the city to be hung. (Esther 9:14b, Greek OT)

The legs (of the image) ... were hit ... . (Dan 2:33-35a, Greek OT)


The Latter Revelation:

... The robbers (were) crucified together with, together with (Jesus). (Matt 27:44a)

... since it (continually) was preparation, which is (the day) before the sabbath. (Mark 15:42b)

One of the badmen/criminals, having been hanged up, (continually) blasphemed (Jesus), saying: “Are you by no means the Christ? Save Yourself and us!” But the other ... uttered: “Do you not fear God, because you are in/under the same judicial verdict? And we (suffer) indeed righteously, for worthy we ‘take away’/receive the things which we practised/did. But this One has practised/done nothing ‘out of place’/improper.” And he (continually/repeatedly) said: “Jesus, remember me when You – according to the circumstances – may come in (א,*א) Your kingdom!” And He spoke to him: “Amen I say to you, today you will be in company with Me in the ‘place by the side of apprehension’/Paradise.” (Luke 23:39-43)

It (continually) was a day of preparation. (Luke 23:54a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(The Jews said to Pilate about Jesus:) "’Lift, lift’/’take away, take away’, crucify Him!" (John 19:15a)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

“That their legs be broken and that they be taken away.” The grammar is awkward, for syntactically the subject of the second verb is “their legs”, although obviously John means the bodies. The verb is “airein”, not the more technical “katharein”, “to take down”, found in Mark 15:46 and Luke 23:53. Nowhere does John explicitly describe the taking down of Jesus' body from the cross. (Raymond E. Brown "The Gospel according to John" p 934)

"How can (Olle Montanus) stand as a model, he wo looks like a Quasimodo?" (Falk wondered). "Yes, it is at a cross taking down", (Sellén said), "where he shall be the one robber, whose legs already are broken, and the poor devil has had hip-disease, so that, when he places himself over an arm of a chair, he becomes rather good. Sometimes he must turn his back, and then he becomes the other robber." (August Strindberg "Röda rummet" p 32-33; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

The name of Joshua (Jesus) was a type. ... He brought in the people into the promised land, as Jesus (does) into heaven. (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers XIV:489)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Carl Grimberg, August Strindberg.


My own comments and speculations:

For John all men, who do not refuse Jesus, not only the “impenitent” robber, will be in company with the Man Jesus in the Paradise, which however is not the same thing as having agelong life and a part in the new Jerusalem.

Concerning the Greek word “airô” and its translation, see John 19:14b-16a.

In the OT-time Jesus'/Joshua's men took the king of Ai from the tree. In a restoration perspective we now see how the men of the caesar/king take Jesus from the cross.

Concerning the time for the preparation, see My own comments and speculations to John 18:28-29a.


Greek words:

katagnymi (break down) (the NT + examples in the OT) Deut 33:11; John 19:31-32 – Judith 9:8; Matt 12:20; John 19:33.

skelos (leg) (the NT + examples in the OT) 1 Sam 17:6; Dan 2:33; John 19:31-32 – Lev 11:21; Prov 26:7; Ezek 1:7; 16:25; John 19:33.

systauroô (crucify together with) Matt 27:44; John 19:32 – Mark 15:32; Rom 6:6; Gal 2:19.


Additional studies: Lev 23:7; Joshua 10:26-27; 2 Sam 21:12-15; Ps 42:10(11); Matt 27:62; John 7:37; 19:14,42.

Mary Coloe "Raising the Johannine Temple (John 19:19-37)"; Australian Biblical Review 48 (2000): 47-58.

Maurits Sabbe "The Johannine Account of the Death of Jesus and Its Synoptic Parallells (Jn 19:16b-42)"; Ephemerides Theologicae Lovanienses 70 (1994): 34-64.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-05-30; 2012-04-07; 2014-11-25)

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19:33-37 But having come against/’up to’ Jesus, as they beheld Him already being (and having been) deceased, they did not break down/off His legs. However one of the soldiers pricked the rib (with) his lance-head, and straight off there came out blood and water. And the one having beheld (and beholding) he has been (and is) a witness, and his evidence is true. And that one knows, that he says/speaks truthful, in order that and/also you may (א*,B) believe. For these things became/’came about’, in order that the writing might be completed: “His bone will not be crushed.” And the other writing again/furthermore says: “They will behold into Him whom they ‘stabbed out’/pierced.”

Word for word: 19:33 (15 words in the Greek text; the sequence of the words according to Sinaiticus) against but the Jesus having-come, as (they)-beheld him already being-(and-having-been)-deceased, not (they)-broke-down his the legs. 19:34 (15 words in the Greek text) however one (of)-the (of)-soldiers (with)-(a)-lance-head his the rib pricked, and straight-off (it/there)-came-out blood and water. 19:35 (20 words in the Greek text) and the-(one) having-beheld-(and-beholding) (he)-has-been-(and-is)-a-witness, and true his is the evidence, and that-one knows-(and-have-known) that truthful (he)-says, in-order-that and you may-believe. 19:36 (11 words in the Greek text) became for these-(things) in-order-that the writing might-be-completed: bone not will-be-crushed his. 19:37 (9 words in the Greek text): and again the-other writing says: (they)-will-behold into (him)-whom (they)-stabbed-out.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

God spoke: “We may make a man ‘according to’/after Our image.” (Gen 1:26a, Greek OT)

God made the man, ‘according to’/after an image of God He made him. Male and female He made them. (Gen 1:27, Greek OT)

The Lord God built the rib, which He had taken from (the man) Adam, into/to a woman. ... And Adam spoke: “This (is) now a bone out of my bones and flesh out of my flesh. ... And Adam called the name of his woman Life, because she (is) a mother of all living ones. (Gen 2:22a,23a; 3:20, Greek OT)

Cain stood up against his brother Abel and killed him. ... And God spoke: "What have you made/done? A voice of your brother's blood cries towards Me out of the earth. (Belong) now you on/’under the rule of’ the cursed from the earth/field, which has yawned/opened its mouth to receive the blood of your brother out of your hand." (Gen 4:8b,10-11, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Moses and Aaron, and they then spoke to all the synagogue of Israel:) “… You shall not crush a bone (of the paschal lamb).” (Ex 12:10a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Moses and Aaron:) "You shall not crush a/any bone from (the paschal lamb)." (Ex 12:46b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Moses:) “You shall hit the rock, and it will come out water out of it. ... “ (Ex 17:6b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Moses:) “The curtain shall throughout ‘mark out by boundaries’/separate for you ‘upwards middle ... upwards middle’/between the holy place and ‘the holy of the holy things’/’the most holy’.” (Ex 26:33b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Moses:) “The soul of every flesh is in its blood, and I have given (and give) it to you upon the sacrificial altar to ‘propitiate out’/propitiate on account of your souls.” (Lev 17:11a, Greek OT)

Having lifted against/up his hand Moses hit the rock (with) his rod twice. And it came out much water. (Num 20:11a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Moses:) "'Every the'/everyone having been (and being) bitten shall, having beheld (the serpent), live." (Num 21:8b, Greek OT)

God opened the mouth of the ass, and she says to Balaam: “What have I made/done to you, because you have hurt/struck (and hurt/strike) me this third time?” And Balaam spoke to the ass that/: “You have ‘jested with’/mocked (and ‘jest with’/mock) me, and if I (continually) had a dagger in my hand, I might – according to the circumstances – already have ‘stabbed ... out’/pierced you.” (Num 22:28-29, Greek OT)

(Goliath) had greaves of copper above his legs ... and his lance-head/lance (was) six hundred shekels of iron. (1 Sam 17:6-7a, Greek OT)

The male was tossed in the grave of (the prophet) Elisha. And he went and touched the bones of Elisha, and he lived/’came to life’ and stood up against/on his feet. (2 Kings 13:21b, Greek OT)

(David said to God:) "I was poured out as if (I was) water and all my bones were scattered asunder." (Ps 22:14a or 22:15a, Greek OT)

(David said:) "The Lord (is) near the heart (in) the ones having been (and being) crushed and (with) the spirit He will save the humble ones. Many (are) the oppressions of the righteous ones, and out of them all He will deliver them. The Lord watches all their bones. Not one out of them will be crushed." (Ps 34:18-20 or 34:19-21, Greek OT)

(David said to God:) ”Bones having been (and being) humbled will exult!” (Ps 51:8b or 51:10b, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said: “The Lord) having turned the rock into lakes of waters and the cutting border into springs of waters. (Ps 114:8, Greek OT)

(Solomon said:) "What was the man over and above 'to the side of'/'in comparison with' the domestic animal? Nothing, because all tings (are) vain." (Eccl 3:19b, Greek OT)

(The prophet said: “The Lord) spoke towards me: ‘Prophesy against these bones and speak to them: Dried out bones, hear the saying of the Lord: This is what the Lord God says to these bones: Behold, I carry a spirit of life into you.’” (Ezek 37:4-5, Greek OT)

The legs (of the image) ... were hit. (Dan 2:33-35a, Greek OT)

(The prophet said to the king:) ”The great God has given the king knowledge of the things which must become/’come about’ after these things, and the dream (is) true, and its ‘judgment together’/interpretation (is) faithful.” (Dan 2:45b, Greek OT, Theod)

Those two men having been witnesses ‘down from’/against Daniel, they themselves and their women and their children, were tossed to the lions, and the lions killed them and bruised their bones. (Dan 6:24, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) “I will pour out against the house of David and against the inhabitants of Jerusalem, a spirit of joybringing (grace) and pity, and they will see against, towards Me ... and they will cut/mourn against him a mourning as against a welcomed, and they will ‘be caused’/feel pain, a pain as on (one) giving birth for the first time.” (Zech 12:10, Greek OT)

(Solomon said:) “God created the man on/’for the sake of’ immortality, and He made him an image of the own eternity.” (Wisdom of Solomon 2:23)

(Solomon said to the Lord:) “It was given to (Israel) water out of a rock (with) cutting border and out of a hard stone remedy (against) thirst. ... In stead of a spring of an inexhaustible river having been troubled/tarnished (with) soiled murderblood (to their enemies) … You gave (Your people) profused water, which they had not hoped for.” (Wisdom of Solomon 11:4b,6,7b)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said: “As) a missile weapon being (and having been) fixed in/at a thigh of a flesh/body, in this way (is) a saying in a belly of a foolish (person).” (Sir 19:12)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “The one pricking an eye will lead down teardrops and (the one) pricking a heart brings out notice/discomfort to light.” (Sir 22:19)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “Oh, that the bones of the twelve prophets may sprout out of their place, for they called Jacob to the side of and redeemed (the people) in/with a faith of hope.” (Sir 49:10)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “The bones (of Joseph) were inspected.” (Sir 49:15b)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “Over every living being in the creation (is) Adam.” (Sir 49:16b)


The Latter Revelation:

Having been baptized Jesus straight/’straight off’ ascended from the water; and behold, the heavens were opened, and (John) beheld a (א,* א, B) spirit of God descending as if (it was) a pigeon * (א*,B) coming against Him. (Matt 3:16)

(Jesus said to Simon Peter:) "On this rock I will build My (assembly) of called out, and the gates of Hades shall not be entirely stable (with regard to) it." (Matt 16:18b)

(Jesus said to the scribes and the Pharisees:) ‘From inside’/within (you) are full of, out of raping and incontinence ... full of bones of dead (bodies) and every/all impurity.” (Matt 23:25b,27b)

(Jesus said to the scribes and the Pharisees:) "Against you may come every/all righteous blood being poured out upon the earth from the blood of righteous Abel." (Matt 23:35a)

(Jesus said to Jerusalem:) "How many times have I wanted to lead together against/’in quest of’ your children, 'which a turn'/'the way' a hen against/’in quest of’ her ‘young birds’/chickens leads together underneath the wings, and/but you did not want." (Matt 23:37b)

Having taken a lance-head/lance another pricked (Jesus') rib, and it/there came out water and blood. (Matt 27:49b, א,*א,B)

And behold, the curtain of the temple was split/torn into/in two … and the rocks were split … and many bodies of the holy ones, having been (and being) fallen asleep, were raised. (Matt 27:51-52)

(The woman said:) “If – according to the circumstances – I may touch and/namely if – according to the circumstances – His garments, I will be saved.” And straight/’straight off’ the spring of her blood was dried. (Mark 5:28-29a)

Having let a great/loud voice be/’be pronounced’ Jesus blew/breathed out/’His last’. And the curtain of the temple was split/torn into two from from above till down. But having beheld that He in this way blew/breathed out, the centurion, the one standing 'out of His opposite'/'opposite Him', spoke: “Truly, this Man (continually) was a son of God.” (Mark 15:37-39)

(Jesus was a son) of Adam (= man), of God. (Luke 3:38b)

The other (badman/criminal answered). (Luke 23:40a)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "Behold My hands and My feet, that I am He Himself. Feel (on) Me and behold, that a spirit has not fleshes/’pieces of flesh’ (P75, א*) and bones entirely as you look at ‘Me having’/’that I have’." (Luke 24:39)

... The first saying I indeed made on account of all things, which Jesus began both to make/do and teach. (Acts 1:1)

(Peter) was throughout a witness both/also (with) the more other sayings. (Acts 2:40a)

Having hit the rib of Peter (the messenger of the Lord) raised him. ... (Acts 12:7b; cf. the meaning of “patassô” in Ex 2:12; Num 14:12; Judith 2:27; 6:3; 9:3,10; 13:8,15; 16:6; 1 Macc 7:41; Matt 26:31; Luke 22:49-50; Acts 7:24; 12:23; Rev 11:6. I have not found any example elsewhere in the Bible where “patassô” could mean “hit to wake”. It is worth noting, that Peter in the Acts after the twelfth chapter only is mentioned in Acts 15:7-11. Cf. also Gen 32:22-32.)

(God) caused (Jesus) to stand up out of dead (bodies), not any longer being about to return into ruin throughout. In this way (David) has spoken (and speaks) that/: “I will give you the pious things of David, the faithful/trustworthy things”, for the reason that he and/also in the other (place) says: “You will not give Your pious One to behold ruin throughout.” (Acts 13:34-35)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

It became a man having been (and being) dispatched away from the side of God. A name to him (continually) was (א*) John. This one came into/’for the purpose of’ an evidence, in order that he might be a witness on account of the light, in order that all might believe through him. That one was (continually) not the light, however/but (he became) in order that he might be a witness on account of the light. (John 1:6-8)

And we viewed His glory, a glory as of an only descendant from the side of a father, filled with joybringing (grace) and truth. (John 1:14b)

No one has ever beheld (and beholds) God. An only descendant, a God, the One being into/in the bosom of the Father, that One has ‘been in command out’/explained Him. (John 1:18)

(John the Baptist said about Jesus:) "This is (the One) in favour of whom I spoke: 'Behind me comes a male who has become (and becomes) in front of me, because He was my First (One).' And I did not know (and I had not known) Him." (John 1:30-31a)

(Jesus spoke) on account of the temple of His body. (John 2:21)

Entirely as Moses heightened the serpent in the desolate (district), in this way must the Son of the Man be heightened, in order that 'every the'/'everyone believing into (P63, א,* א, A) Him may have agelong life. (John 3:14-15)

The One coming from above is above all. (John 3:31a)

(Jesus continually) said/called God an own Father, making Himself equal (with) God. (John 5:18b)

(Jesus said to the Jews:) "(If) you – according to the circumstances – do (א,* א, A) not believe Me, believe the works, in order that you may have knowledge and may believe (א,* א), that the Father (is) in Me and I in the Father." (John 10:38b)

Jesus says to (Philip): “The one beholding (and having beheld) Me beholds (and has beheld) the Father. How (is it, that) you say: ‘Show us the Father’?” (John 14:9b)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “I will not let you be left orphan.” (John 14:18a)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "(The Spirit) will be a witness to Me. But and/also you are witnesses, because you are in company with Me from a beginning." (John 15:26b-27)

Jesus came so out outside, wearing the thorny crown and the purple garment. And He says to them: “Behold, the Man!” (John 19:5)

(The woman) brought forth a son, a (female) male (P47, א,* א), who is about to be a shepherd to all the nations in/with a rod of iron. (Rev 12:5a)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 - about 1500

(In Isaiah's heavenly journey) the prophet sees how Jesus descends through the heavens. ... At last Jesus reaches the earth, and Isaiah sees how he is born of Mary. (Leif Carlsson ”Round trips to heaven” p 204-205)

(After Adam's death his) grave is sealed until such time that his rib (Eve) would return to him, which happens after six days, when Eve dies. (Leif Carlsson ”Round trips to heaven” p 236; the Greek Version of Adam's Heavenly Journey in the Life of Adam and Eve)

Jesus was not teaching that God is the Father of all. The Jews would have accepted that. His claim meant that God was his Father in a special sense. He was claiming that he partook of the same nature as his Father. This involved equality. (Leon Morris "The Gospel according to John" p 274-275; comment to John 5:18)

Basically faith is trust. But in our reaction against the view that faith means no more than a firm acceptance of certain intellectual propositions we must not go so far as to say that it is entirely a matter of personal relations. It is impossible to have the kind of faith John envisages without having a high view of Christ. Unless we believe that he is more than just another man we can never trust him with that faith which is saving faith. (Leon Morris "The Gospel according to John" p 397; comment to John 7:23-24)

"allon" (in John 14:16) is said to mean "another of the same kind," whereas "heteron" would mean "another of a different kind." Thus J.B. Lightfoot affirms that "heteron" "implies a difference of kind, which is not involved in 'allo'. The primary distinction between the words appears to be, that 'allos' is another as 'one besides,' 'heteros' another as 'one of two.'" (Leon Morris "The Gospel according to John" p 576)

The (Hebrew) word ‘adam means “human being” and should not be indentified as a male figure, which many translations imply. (Michael E. Williams “Genesis” p 32)

"Can you guess", (Madicken says to Lisabet), "what (Mia) once said when the teacher would question on biblical narratives? . . . She said like this: "God let a deep sleep fall over the man, and then he took a grater and created of it the woman." "Did he not this then", Lisabet asks. "Sss, to be sure you are as silly as Mia. Neither he took a grater, did he?" "What did he take then", Lisabet asks. "A fox bone, of course!" . . . They agree that Mia is silly. (Astrid Lindgren "Madicken" p 96-97; the name of "rib" in Swedish is "revben", the name of "grater" is "rivjärn" and the name of "fox bone" is "rävben"; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

In the names of the two boys (Cain and Abel) the reader senses an ominous note, spear over against breath. (Michael E. Williams “Genesis” p 43)

The evangelist has a predilection for (the verb “complete/fulfil” plêroô). In John 12:38; 13:18; 15:25; 17:12 and 19:24,36 it is used about the fulfilment of the Scripture and in John 18:9,32 about the fulfilment of Jesus' words. (René Kieffer "Johannesevangeliet" p 366; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

When (Madicken and Lisabet) wake up in the morning of Christmas Day, they hear someone crying so pitiably. . . . They rush into the bedroom. There mother sits in the bed holding their (newborn) sister. . . . "Look, what she is like mother", father says. "Exactly the same nose!" . . . Mother strokes Kajsa over the black hair. "Little child, it doesn't matter, I suppose, if you get my nose, if only you become like father within and get his heart." . . . "Have you got any thing of blessedness", Lisabet asks when all the Christmas presents are distributed. Madicken thinks. . . . Lisabet also is uncertain. . . . But then Madicken says triumphantly: "Well, you have got a thing of blessedness! And I too! We have got Kajsa, you know." . . . This year mother and father are to accompany us to the May fire. And Kajsa too. "She must of course see that there is something so fine as May fires.", father says. "Yes", Lisabet says, "and so must all there see that there is something so fine as Kajsa!" It is wise said, Madicken thinks. "Then they probably say as Lindkvist said about you. 'I saw the little man', do you remember it?" . . . If people have eyes in their skulls, they of course must see 'the little man' in the pram wondering at how fine she is. Stupid ones, this they do not! They only wait for that the chimney-sweep is to light the fire and the male choir will begin to sing. Not that they have time to admire Kajsa!" (Astrid Lindgren "Madicken och Junibackens Pims" p 226-240; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

The word for side, pleura, used in the singular here, is more normal in the plural. Some, including Feuillet, "Le Nouveau" … , have suggested that John is recalling the use (singular) in Gen 2:21-22 where God takes a pleura from Adam and forms it into a woman. (Raymond E. Brown The Gospel according to John" p 935)

The Hebrew word ‘adam (“man”) is a collective and is therefore never used in the plural; it means literally “mankind” (L. Köhler). Luther instinctively translated the word very well with “Menschen”. ... One will do well to split the physical from the spiritual as little as possible: the whole is created in God's image. ... The idea of man, according to P, finds its full meaning not in the male alone but in man and woman. (Gerhard von Rad "Genesis" p 57-60)

It is highly probable … that in the effusion of blood and water from the pierced side of Christ John saw a symbol of the fact that from the Crucified there proceed those living streams by which men are quickened and the church lives. (C.K. Barrett "The Gospel according to St John" p 557)

God proves himself as a tender father most in this . . . that he gives us what we need often contrary to our own expectation. . . . (God is also) like a mother, but thousandfold more tender than the best mother on the earth. (Karl Palmberg "Ur livskällan. Första årgången." p 58-59; comment to Luke 12:32; Karl Palmberg /1842-1920/ was from 1883 a Lutheran clergyman in Månsarp in the diocese of Växjö and president in Jönköpings Missionsförening (Missionary Society) 1886-1911; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Plato says that man and woman are two halves searching for one another to form something whole. But they might not be halves because it never becomes anything whole. It seems as if 2/3 sought one's 1/3 which is more difficult, or as if they were heterogenous quantities. Two left gloves make not a pair, two right gloves neither; there were the likeness too great. It shall thus be different, but in a certain way. In what way is not yet invented, and while one cogitates it, one goes marrying. (August Strindberg "En blå bok I" p 218; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

How can anyone be so silly and think it is a disaster for mankind that it consists of women and men, or how can one think that it is a disaster for the man that the woman exists. If nature had wanted to have only one sex, so of course it had not created the other. When one philosophizes so one must reckon with what exists and is and not with preposterousnesses. Think a world of mere men! Think a world of mere women! The one as terrible as the other. Then we of course shall be so scolding at one another. (Selma Lagerlöf "Du lär mig att bli fri - Selma Lagerlöf skriver till Sophie Elkan" p 241; letter November 1904; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

One among these "Fontainebleaupainters", as they call them, was Jean Françoise Millet, son of a peasant from Normandie. . . . (Jean Françoise had) a sense which within the coarse surface of the labourer was able to discern the nobleman with a genealogical tree from the Paradise of the religious faith, with the image of God within a weighed down and toiling figure. . . . The day's work of the labourer is a part of something immeasurably whole in the development, which the visible universe has to undergo in pains and struggles which bring up in order to become the perfected image of the invisible. (Viktor Rydberg "Kvällringning - Millets 'Angelus'" p 80,82; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Man is the crown and the masterpiece of creation, within the narrow boundaries of his being a perfect summing up of all what exists - a microcosm - and the own image of the highest God. (Viktor Rydberg "Medeltidens magi" p 9; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Scripture ... takes us up, as it were, to the highest point in the lives of (Cain and Abel) – their sacrifice – and tells us of the presence of faith in the one, and of its absence in the other. ... From the time of Abel onwards, (the sacrifices) are uniformly, and with increasing clearness, set before us as the appointed way of approaching and holding fellowship with God, till, at the close of Scripture history, we have the sacrifice of our blessed Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ, to which all sacrifices had pointed. (Alfred Edersheim “The Old Testament” I:26,28)

How could we know that (Christ) not was God? Of this, that he was man. Must one need to waste time to prove the preposterousness of the preposterous. . . . (We could know that Christ not was God) also of this that he has not left any proofs of his divinity, which had been both easy and clever. (August Strindberg "Ordet i min makt - Läsebok för underklassen sammanställd av Jan Myrdal" p 132; Lilla katekesen för underklassen written 1884/1885; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Without my wife I cannot live! . . . Therefore I travel with my family! (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev IV 1884 p 26-27; letter 1884-02-21 to Björnstjerne Björnson)

The important thing is, that the Christ-ideal is maintained as a divine revelation in the heart of mankind about what man in his high talents is, and in what direction he consequently has to seek the perfection. (Viktor Rydbergs brev II "Brev från Viktor Rydberg 1855-1881" p 280; letter February 1880 to Carl Hasselrot; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Without the woman the man still is only half a man. (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev I 1858-1876" p 30; letter 1870-04-01 to Johan Oscar Strindberg; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

When the Darwinians in (the gorilla ape) found their image, their image of God, so Götterdämmerung (twilight of the gods) was over the world. (August Strindberg "Bevittna vi en upplösning eller en utveckling av den religiösa känslan?" p 100; March-April 1907; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

It is an old thesis, that men create their gods or their god after their own image. If we are allowed to apply this to Demonax and Lukianos, so it is certain, that the god they sought, but were not able to with arms of faith grasp and maintain, was the god of humanity and mercy. This faith - for also they owned such one - was an ethical faith of humanity. Higher they did not dare to stretch their wings by fear of losing the foothold and go astray among the clouds, which covered the intellectual sky of their age. (Viktor Rydberg "Oro i Olympen" p 225; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Where had he been, the pale watchman at the spring of the actions, that night, when she had known the fullness of life? Where was he, when she, the clever Marianne, kissed Gösta Berling before a hundred pair of eyes. . . . She had been a whole man in this single, terrible night. (Selma Lagerlöf "Gösta Berlings saga" p 114-115; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

"I say", (Skytte said), "that if the men are images of God, God is a wild beast. . . . Man from Java, we are going to avenge you! We pursue your tyrants. When we have caught them up, you shall to me point out the most cruel of your executioners, I shall cut him in pieces, and you will cool your revenge in his blood." (Viktor Rydberg "Fribytaren på Östersjön II" p 469; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Although the pagans profess to worship a Creator god, they are in reality worshipping only an idol. As soon as he departs from the one firm foundation of the revelation in Christ, man is bound to follow his natural tendency to make himself gods in his own image. ... We find Calvin's constant preoccupation that nothing should be allowed to diminish divinity (of the Christ) or divest it of any of its privileges. The divinity of the Christ fills all things; it is not bound to his humanity, although it dwells in that humanity. (F. Wendel "Calvin" p 157,223; The Theological Doctrine of Calvin)


about 1500 and time before

Man is the crown and the masterpiece of creation, within the narrow bounderies o its being a perfect summing up of all what exists - a microcosm - and the own image of the highest God. (Viktor Rydberg "Medeltidens magi" p 9; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

The Master took on Him the form of a servant. For He became Son of man, who was God's own Son, in order that He might make the sons of men to be children of God. For the high when it associates with the low touches not at all its own honor, while it raises up the other from its excessive lowness; and even thus it was with the Lord. He in nothing diminished His own Nature by this condescension, but raised us, who had always sat in disgrace and darkness, to glory unspeakable. Thus it may be, a king, conversing with interest and kindness with a poor mean man, does not at all shame himself, yet makes the other observed by all and illustrious. Now if in the case of the adventitious dignity of men, intercourse with the humbler person in nothing injures the more honorable, much less can it do so in the case of that simple and blessed Essence, which has nothing adventitious, or subject to growth or decay, but has all good things immovable, and fixed for ever. So that when you hear that “the Word became Flesh,” be not disturbed nor cast down. For that Essence did not fall from what It was into flesh, (it is truly impious to imagine this,) but continuing what it is, It so took upon It the form of a servant. (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers XIV:38-39 in comment to John 1:14)

“A bone of Him shall not be broken.” … “These things,” saith (the Evangelist), “I have told you, that ye might learn that great is the connection of the type with the reality.” (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers XIV:319)

(Christ is He) who suffers, and yet heals sufferings; who is smitten, and yet confers liberty on the world; who is pierced in the side, and yet repairs the side of Adam. (Hippolytus, The Ante-Nicene Fathers V:237)

As God, and not man, has produced the blood of the vine, so also (the Scripture) has predicted that the blood of Christ would be not of the seed of man, but of the power of God. (Justin Martyr, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol I, p 222)

(Simeon confessed) that the infant whom he was holding in his hands, Jesus, born of Mary, was Christ Himself, the Son of God. ... When He became incarnate, and was made man, He commenced afresh the long line of human beings, and furnished us ... with salvation; so that what we had lost in Adam – namely, to be according to the image and likeness of God – that we might recover in Christ Jesus. ... God recapitulated in Himself the ancient formation of man, that He might kill sin, deprive death of its power, and vivify man; and therefore His works are true. (Irenaeus, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol I, p 441,446,448)

(The Lord) would not have been one truly possessing flesh and blood, by which He redeemed us, unless He had summed up in Himself the ancient formation of Adam. ... In the last times ... the hands (of the Father) formed a living man, in order that Adam might be created (again) after the image and likeness of God. (Irenaeus, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol I, p 527)

Characteristic of the “new human” is unity, the end of the opposed sets of roles that typified the “old human”: Jew/Greek, slave/free, male/female. ... There are patent in this language numerous allusions to the biblical account of the creation of man and to expansions of that account in Jewish lore. Among the latter was a reading of Gen. 1:27 as the creation of an original androgynous human in the image of God, then divided into male and female halves. Moreover, the “garments of skin” made for the fallen couple by God were nothing else than the physical bodies, necessary to replace the “garments of light” (a pun in Hebrew) which had been the “image of God”. In view of these elements, baptism suggests a restoration of paradisiac motifs: the lost unity, the lost image, the lost glory. (Wayne E. Meeks "The first urban Christians - The Social World of the Apostle Paul" p 155; Baptism: Ritual of initiation)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Alf Ahlberg, Eskil Albertsson, John Allen, Greger Andersson, Niels Arbøl, John Allen, Augustinus, Lars Eric Axelsson, Honoré de Balzac, Ulla Bardh, Richard J. Bauckham, Ingvar Bengtsson, Gunnar Bergling, UllaBritt Berglund, Lars Bergquist, Elisabeth Bergstrand-Poulsen, Lennart Bergström, Erik Bernspång, Elisabeth Beskow, Natanael Beskow, Per Beskow, Malte Blaxhult, Harry Blomberg, Ragnar Blomqvist, Gert Borgenstierna, Lars-Ola Borglid, Bo Brander, Gerald Bray, Gordon Bridger, Ivan Bunin, George Carey, F.O. Carlberg, Leif Carlsson, Miguel de Cervantes, Önver Cetrez, Elisabeth Charles, Henrik Cornell, Sven Danell, Marianne Danielsson-Carlsson, Sven Delblanc, Sigfrid Deminger, Elmer Diktonius, Olof Djurfeldt, John Drane, Carl Dymling, Gunnar Edman, E.J. Ekman, Ulf Ekman, Runar Eldebo, Harald Elovson, Albert Engström, LarsOlov Eriksson, Lasse Eriksson, Björne Erixon, Erik Ewalds, Gunnar Fjellestad, P. Fjellstedt, Bo Frid, Erik Gustaf Geijer, Olle Gellerman, Einar Genitz, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Johannes Gossner, Billy Graham, Carl Grimberg, Berndt Gustafsson, Stefan Gustavsson, Jürgen Habermas, Odd Hagen, Peter Halldorf, Krister Hanell, Lars Hartman, Enok Hedberg, David Hedegård, Verner von Heidenstam, Jan Arvid Hellström, Alf Henrikson, Thor Heyerdahl, Homeros, Eskil Hofverberg, Bengt Holmberg, Bengt Hägglund, Erik Axel Karlfeldt, Alexis Kivi, Ad. Kolmodin, Thorvald Källstad, Pär Lagerkvist, Karin Landgren, Annty Landherr, Halldor K. Laxness, Sven Lidman, V. Liljeberg, Lars Lindberg, Harry Lindquist, Martin Luther, Evald Lövestam, Verner Malmsten, Carl Henrik Martling, Margareta Melin, Romanus Meloden, Tryggve Mettinger, Peter Michelmore, Dieter Mitternacht, Vilhelm Moberg, Wilhelm Möller, Fredrik Nielsen, Alfred Nilsson, Nils Henrik Nilsson, Agne Nordlander, David Nyvall, June Osborne, Martin P:n Nilsson, Efraim Palmqvist, Roi Patursson, Lewi Pethrus, Bengt Pleijel, Harald Rasmussen, Patrik Reuterswärd, Carl Olof Rosenius, Waldemar Rudin, Anders Runesson, Daniel Röjås, Margit Sahlin, Ragnar Samuelson, Elisabeth Sandlund, Erich Sauer, Elias Sehlstedt, C.O. Sjöberg, Stanley Sjöberg, Lennart Sjögren, Östen Sjöstrand, Joh. Sköld, Erik Sollerman, Alexander Solsjenitsyn, Milton Steinberg, Wilfrid Stinissen, Sven Stolpe, John Stott, Magnus Sundell, Jesper Svartvik, Alf B. Svensson, Knut Svensson, Per-Axel Sverker, Rabindranath Tagore, Einar Thomassen, R.A. Torrey, Göran Tunström, Karl-Erik Tysk, Gunnel Vallquist, Derek Walcott, P. Waldenström, Kallistos Ware, Gottlieb Weitbrecht, Paul Wern, Ernst Wigforss, Pontus Wikner, David F. Wright, N.T. Wright, Göran Åberg, Eva Åsbrink.


My own comments and speculations:

In Hebrew the name "Cain" means "lance" or "smith". The Greek word “longchê” (lance-head) in John 19:34 can also be translated with "lance". The lance, which in the OT-time only brought forth blood to death, now in a restoration perspective is bringing forth water to life. Jesus' bleeding body died but was raised to life.

It is interesting that the word “heteros” (the other) the first time in the Bible occurs in connection with the death of Abel, who is replaced by Seth. Eve said: “God has caused the other seed to stand up out of me in stead of Abel, who was killed by Kain.”(Gen 4:25) In the johannine writings the word “heteros” occurs here in John 19:37 for the first and only time. ”The other writing” can refer to the Revelation (cf. My own comments and speculations to Rev 1:2). “Allos” (another) is a usual word in the Gospel of John. When the author chooses “heteros” he obviously wants to say something other than what “allos” usually mediate. See also Rev 1:7 which together with John 19:37 is the only verses in the NT with the word “ekkenteô” (‘stab out’/pierce).

Jesus was hit three times (18:22; 19:1,3) just as the ass of Balaam. The messenger of the Lord hindered Balaam to pierce the ass, who had saved his life by taking the beats upon itself. Jesus was hit because of the sins (misses of the mark of God) of men. By letting Himself be beaten and die men were spared. And in a restoration perspective we see how Jesus – in contrast to the ass - also was pierced.

Regarding the connection between life and water, compare for instance John 4:10.

With "blood and water" John connects Gen 4:8-11 (blood) with Num 20:11 (water). We can also note that the Midrashim (Midrash Rabbah III:13 on Exod 4:9) say that after the first stroke on the rock there came out blood. First after the second stroke there came out water, much water. Concerning Jesus as the rock, cf. Matt 16:18, 1 Cor 10:4 and 1 Pet 2:8, where Peter says that Jesus has become a rock. See also My own comments and speculations to John 2:19-22.

In the righteous Abel we have a type of Jesus. In a restoration perspective we can see how the dead Abel now has life in Jesus. The name Abel means "wind". In times of old a living body characterized by wind/spirit was killed. Now a dead (body) - without wind/spirit - receives life.

We can also say that we here have three witnesses; the water, the wind (= spirit) and the blood (cf. 1 John 5:8). Compare with the three deadly blows in Rev 9:17-18; the fire, the smoke and the sulphur. Compare also the Spirit's connection to the bones in Ezek 37:4-5.

The Greek word, which usually is translated by "side", is the same as in the Greek OT is used about the rib in Gen 2:21-22. Observe the resemblance between the hard rock and the hard rib and the seeming impossibility that fluid could come out of such hard substance. In Jesus we see the first man, before the rib is taken out of him. In Himself He includes both the male and the female, both male and woman. Compare Gal 3:28b: "(It is not possible to be) male and female, for you are all of you * (א*) in Christ Jesus." Cf. also the the mention of “bone” i v 36 and what Paul in Col 2:9 says about Christ's bodily complement. Furthermore compare with the sprouting bones in Sir 49:10.

Rehkopf maintains (in the book Septuaginta-Vokabular p 234), that the feminine "pleura" in Septuagint means "Seite des Körpers" or "die Rippen", while the neuter "pleuron" means "Rippe". However, the question is, if he - with all deference to his skill - doen't mean just the reverse. How should we otherwise understand that "pleura" in Gen 2:21-22 in fact means "rib", while "pleuron" in say Gen 27:7 and 30:4 is used to denote the sides of the altar? Moreover, where in the Septuagint is "pleuron" found in the meaning of "rib"? The question should not be understood rhetorically but is in earnest. I have sought named meaning without being able to find it but cannot completely eliminate the possibility of such meaning.

For John the first man Adam is the image of God (cf. Col 1:15)), while Jesus is the Prototype of this very first Adam, indeed, God Himself and God Herself (cf. John 1:1; 20:28). It is important for John, that only male and female together can be the image of God, just as only the Christians together can be an image of God in a new creation (cf. John 15:5). However, according to the interpretation of many, Paul in 1 Cor 11:7 means, that also the first male Adam is the image of God. But the Greek word “hyparchô”, which is translated by ”be/is”, does not in the first place mean ”be” but ”begin (under)”, which rather implies that the male is the first one coming after the image of God = the first man. We can also compare with 1 Cor 15:45-47, where Jesus is called ”the last Adam” and ”the second man”. Paul here refrains from representing Jesus as “the second Adam”.

Compare also Rev 12:5 (p47, א,* א) and Rev 12:13, where the new-born Jesus is described with the Greek word “arsena”, “(female) male”. See My own comments and speculations to Rev 12:5b.

Compare furthermore with John 1:30, where Jesus the first and the only time is mentioned as a male (in Greek: “anêr”). After that the word for “man” (in Greek: “anthrôpos”) always is used. However, that Jesus is mentioned as a male in John 1:30 does not mean that He first after His baptism became the Man. Rather the words in John 1:30-31 can mean, that John the Baptist does not know the real identity of Jesus as “the Man”. The meaning with Rev 12:5,13 can very well be that Jesus already at His birth was a “(female) male”.

The johannine way to see the very first Adam (the male and the female together) as the image of God has in the Christian Chruch been denied by theologians as Clemens of Alexandria, Gregorius of Nyssa and Augustine. Also Luther regarded male and female separately as an image of God by exhorting every Christian to be"a Christ for his neighbour". A later spokesman for this approach is Ragnar Holte in his book "Guds avbild - Kvinna och man i kristen belysning" (see especially p 12-22).

Among theologians having maintained that compound of male/femaleness was an essential aspect of the divine image can be named Karl Barth. He held in "Church Dogmatics III" (p 214) that the simplest exegesis of Gen 1:27 would equate a maleness and femaleness compound in Adam with the image of God. The subsequent division of man into two sexes was for man's own good by making him no longer self-sufficient and in some real sense potentially asocial. An important aspect of the image is the unity in fellowship between men and women under ideal conditions and Barth makes much of this fellowship of love in purity. He is convinced that the text gives us "well-nigh definite statement of the content of the image" (G.C. Berkouwer "Man the Image of God" p 72). See also Paul L. Jewitt "Man as Male and Female" (p 43ff.) and the website www.custance.org.

”He who beheld it” can be the soldier who obtained the tunic of Jesus as a share of inheritance by lot (John 19:24) (see My own comments and speculations to John 19:23-24. Compare also with Mark 15:37-39). But in a deeper spriritual meaning it is the Spirit who is a witness, because it is He who is the truth (cf. 1 John 5:7). He sees how the veil which hides what is in the temple Jesus is parted (cf. Heb 10:19-20) and how the rocks were split (Matt 27:51) like the rock in the wilderness. He sees the rib in the man, the rib which God used to make a woman. He sees the most holy in the temple which is the body of Jesus. He sees how the little and insignificant - but quickening - woman is restored to be the finest part in what is a man. And all these things the Spirit reveals to John. Compare with the ark of the covenant in the opened temple in Rev 11:19. Then it will come out things which hurt and kill. Now it's a matter of something positive and quickening. See also My own comments and speculations to John 4:27-30, 11:25-27 and 16:21-22.

The verb ”complete” (plêroô) is used eight times in the gospel about the completion of the words of the Scripture and Jesus (see Exegetes, evangelists and others-Kieffer above). Twice it is used about the completion of Jesus' words. This can be interpreted as if Jesus is the seventh and the eighth, the end of the Old Testament and the beginning of the New Testament. Se My own comments and speculations to John 4:16-18.

Concerning ”has been (and is) a witness ... evidence”, see also John 1:6-8.


For additional reflection: Every man has something which is unique, which no other man has. Every man consequently also lacks the unique thing which every other man has who now lives, has lived and will live. Here we in a nutshell have the greatness and littleness of every individual man. Can this have any meaning for how one can consider what God is, what a man is and what it can mean to be the image of God? (cf. Ps 8 and Rev 22:13)


Paul said to the believers in Corinth: “The rock (continually) was the christ/'anointed one'.” (1 Cor 10:4b)

Paul said to the believers in Corinth: ”The last Adam (became) into/to a spirit making alive.” (1 Cor 15:45b)

Paul said to the believers in Corinth: “The God of this age has blinded the notions of the faithless into/’for the purpose of’ not ray the enlightening of the good little message of the glory of Christ, who is the image of God. (2 Cor 4:4b)

Paul said to the believers in Colossae: "(Jesus Christ) is an image of the God (being) impossible to behold, a first-born of all creation, because all the things have been (and are) created in Him." (Col 1:15-16a)

Paul said to the believers in Colossae: "In (Christ) every/all the complement of the Divinity dwells bodily." (Col 2:9)

Since the little boys and girls so had (and had had) a thing in common (with) blood and flesh, and/also (the Son), in a way nearly like (that), had ‘in company with’/’a share of’ the same things. (Heb 2:14a)

In/with the blood of Jesus ... He renewed us a fresh and living way through the curtain, this is His flesh. (Heb 10:19b-20)

(You have come) to Jesus, a mediator of a young covenant, and to a blood of a sprinkling talking more powerful ‘to the side of’/’in comparison with’ the (blood of) Abel. (Heb 12:24)

This is the One having come through water and blood and spirit (א,* א, A), Jesus Christ, not in the water only, however/but in the water and in * (א,* א) blood and the Spirit is the One being a witness, because the Spirit is the truth, because three are the ones being witnesses, the Spirit and the water and the blood, and the three are into ’the one’/one. (1 John 5:6-8)


Greek words:

ekkenteô (stab out) (in the NT + examples in the OT) Num 22:29; John 19:37 – 2 Macc 12:6; Rev 1:7.

(h)eteros (the other) (in the NT + examples in the OT) Luke 23:40; John 19:37; Acts 2:40; 13:35 – Gen 4:25; Sir 11:19; 14:4; Matt 6:24; 8:21; 10:23; 11:3,16; 12:45; 15:30; 16:14; 21:30; Luke 3:18; 4:43; 5:7; 6:6; 7:19(א,*א,B),20(א,*א); Luke 7:41; 8:3,6-8; 9:29,56,59,61; 10:1; 11:16,26; 14:19-20,31; 16:7,13,18; 17:34; 18:10; 19:20; 20:11; 22:58,65; 23:32. Acts 1:20; 2:4,13; 7:18; 8:34; 12:17; 15:35; 17:7,21,34; 19:39(א,*א,A); 20:15; 23:6; 27:1,3; Rom 2:1,21; 7:3-4,23; 8:39; 13:8-9; 1 Cor 3:4; 4:6; 6:1; 10:24,29; 12:9-10; 14:17,21; 15:40; 2 Cor 8:8; 11:4; Gal 1:6,19; 6:4; Eph 3:5; Phil 2:4; 1 Tim 1:10; 2 Tim 2:2; Heb 5:6; 7:11,13,15; 11:36; Jas 2:25; Jude v 7.

longchê (lance-head) (in the NT + examples in the OT) 1 Sam 17:7; Matt 27:49; John 19:34 – Judges 5:8(B).

nyssô (prick) Sir 22:19; Matt 27:49; John 19:34 – (3 Macc 5:14; Psalms of Solomon 16:4)

ostoun/osteon (bone) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Sir 49:10,15; Matt 23:27; Luke 24:39; John 19:36 – Sir 28:17; 46:12; Baruch 2:24; Heb 11:22.

pleura (rib) (in the NT) Matt 27:49; John 19:34; Acts 12:7 – John 20:20,25,27.

syntribô (crush) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) John 19:36 – Judith 9:7; 16:2; 1 Macc 3:22-23; 4:10,14,32,36; 5:21,43; 7:42-43; 8:4-6; 9:15-16,68; 10:52-53,82; 13:51; 14:13; 2 Macc 12:28; Sir 13:2; 21:14; 35:20-21(22-23); 36:9(12); 47:7; Epistle of Jeremiah v 15; The Prayer of Azariah v 16,21; Matt 12:20; Mark 5:4; 14:3; Luke 9:39; Rom 16:20; Rev 2:27.


Additional studies:

Num 9:12; Deut 33:11; Zech 13:1; Matt 1:22; 2:17-18; 5:33-37; 7:24-25; 8:17; Luke 11:51; 23:45; John 7:38; 13:18; 19:24,28; 20:20,31; 21:24; Heb 9:22; 3 John v 12; Rev 1:2,5,7,9; 5:9; 7:14; 9:17-18; 12:5,11;16:3.


John A. Beck "Why did Moses Strike Out? The Narrative-Geographical Shaping of Moses' Disqualification in Numbers 20:1-13"; Westminster Theological Journal 65.1 (2003): 135-141.

Mary Coloe "Raising the Johannine Temple (John 19:19-37)"; Australian Biblical Review 48 (2000): 47-58.

Martin Emmrich "The Case Against Moses Reopened"; Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 46.1 (2003): 53-62.

Stephen Hultgren "The Origin of Paul's Doctrine of the Two Adams i 1 Corinthians 15-45-49"; Journal for the Study of the New Testament 25.3 (2003): 343-370.

A.R.C. Leaney "The Doctrine of Man in 1 Corinthians"; Scottish Journal of Theology 15 (1962): 394 -.

Charles Lee Feinberg "The Image of God"; Bibliotheca Sacra 129 (1972): 235-246.

H.A. Lombard "The Adam-Christ 'Typology' in Romans 5:12-21"; Neotestamentica 15 (1981): 69-100.

Maarten J.J. Menken "The Textual Form and the Meaning of the Quotation from Zechariah 12:10 in John 19:37"; Catholic Biblical Quarterly 55 (1993): 494-511.

J. Ramsey Michaels "The Centurion's Confession and the Spear Thrust"; Catholic Biblical Quarterly 29 (1967): 102-109.

Francis J. Moloney "Who is 'the Reader' in/of the Fourth Gospel?"; Australian Biblical Review 40 (1992): 20-33.

Maurits Sabbe "The Johannine Account of the Death of Jesus and Its Synoptic Parallells (Jn 19:16b-42)"; Ephemerides Theologicae Lovanienses 70 (1994): 34-64.

R. Smith "Exodus Typology in the Fourth Gospel"; Journal of Biblical Literature 81 (1962): 329-342.

Michael F. Stitzinger "Genesis 1-3 and Male/Female Role Relationship"; Grace Theological Journal 2.1 (1981): 23-44.

John Wilkinson "The Incident of Blood and Water in John 19:34"; Scottish Journal of Theology 28 (1975): 149-172.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-05-30; 2012-04-10; 2014-11-26; 2014-12-19)

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19:38 But after these things Joseph, the one from Arimathaia, being a disciple of Jesus, but being (and having been) hidden because of the fear of the Jews, asked Pilate, in order that he might lift/’take away’ the body of Jesus. And Pilate gave permission. They (א*) so came and ‘lifted Him (א*)’/’took Him (א*) away’.

Word for word (36 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus prima manus) After but these-(things) asked the Pilate Joseph the-(one) from Arimathaia, being (a)-disciple (of)-the (of)-Jesus being-(and-having-been)-hidden but because-of the fear (of)-the (of)-Jews, in-order-that (he)-might-lift the body (of)-the (of)-Jesus. and gave-permission the Pilate. (they)-came so and (they)-lifted him.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Potiphar) gave permission (to leave) all things, as many as (continually) were/belonged to him, into hands of Joseph. (Gen 39:6a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Moses: “Come/go into Pharaoh and speak to him:) "A hand of the Lord will stand on/near (with) an extremely great death in/among your domestic animals in the plains, both/and in/among the horses and in/among the “beasts of burden”/asses and the camels and the cattles/cattle and the sheep.’” (Ex 9:3, Greek OT)

(Moses said to Pharao:) “After these things I will come/go out.” … (Ex 11:8b, Greek OT)

It became/’came about’ towards settings of sun, (that) Jesus/Joshua enjoined and they took entirely ‘for themselves’/down (the five foreign kings) from the woods/’pieces of wood’. (Joshua 10:27a, Greek OT)

A man (continually) was a man out of Armathaim Sipha out (the) mountain of Ephraim, and a name to him (was) Elkanah. (1 Sam 1:1a, Greek OT)

(The old prophet in Bethel) lifted the body of the man of God ... to bury it in the grave of himself, and they cut/mourned him, (saying): "Woe, (my) brother!" (1 Kings 13:29a,30, Greek OT)

Many of the nations (continually) were ‘cut round’/circumcised and (continually) lived in Jewish fashion because of the fear of the Jews. (Esther 8:17b, Greek OT)

(The king) gave permission ... and (they) put out the bodies of the sons of Haman to the Jews of the city to be hung. (Esther 9:14, Greek OT)

(Tobit said: A certain one) ... (continually) showed the king underneath/secretly on account of me, that I bury (the dead bodies) and it was hidden (to them). (Tobit 1:19a)

(Solomon said:) “Pious boys of good (fathers) (continually) offered sacrifices in the hidden.” (Wisdom of Solomon 18:9a)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said: “The long-suffering one) will hide his sayings till a seasonable time.” (Sir 1:24a)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “Hide a counsel from/for the ones ‘being zealous’/rivalling you.”(Sir 37:10b)


The Latter Revelation:

The other of the disciples spoke to (Jesus): “Lord, give me first permission to go away and bury my father.” (Matt 8:21)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "The kingdom of the heavens is like a heap/treasure having been (and being) hidden in the field." (Matt 13:44a)

Having come to/forward the disciples (of John the Baptist) lifted his (א*) fall/corpse and buried him. (Matt 14:12a)

Having become evening it/there came a rich man from Arimathaia (with) the name Joseph, who and/also he was a disciple to Jesus. Having come to/up to Pilate this one demanded the body of Jesus. (Matt 27:57-58a)

(Jesus said to the disciples:) "It is more without bothers for a camel to come through a hole (א*) of a needle than for a rich to come into the kingdom of God." (Mark 10:25)

“Receiving towards’/’waiting for’ the kingdom of God (and) having taken courage (Joseph from Arimathaia) came into/in towards Pilate and demanded the body of Jesus. ... (And Pilate) gave the fall/corpse as a benefit to Joseph. (Mark 15:43b,45b)

After these things (Jesus) came out and viewed a toll collector (with) name Levi, being seated against the toll-house. And He says (א,* א) to him: “Follow Me!” (Luke 5:27)

Joseph from Arimathaia, a city of the Jews, (a male) ‘beginning under’/being member of the Council, a good and righteous male – ‘putting down together’/consenting * (א,*א) to their counsel and occupying/doing, he waited for the kingdom of God. (Luke 23:50b-51)

(Paul said to the sons of Abraham and the ones fearing God: “When the ones dwelling in Jerusalem and their leaders) had ended all things having been (and being) written on account of (Jesus) (and) having taken Him ‘entirely for themselves’/away from the wood/’piece of wood’, they put/laid Him into a memorial tomb.” (Acts 13:29)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

No one (continually) talked plain language on account of (Jesus) because of the fear of the Jews. (John 7:13)

(The Jews) so lifted stones, in order that they might throw against (Jesus). But Jesus was hidden and He came out, out of the sanctuary. (John 8:59)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

Arimathaia usually is identified with Ramatajim, 1 Sam 1:1. (René Kieffer "Johannesevangeliet" p 435; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: LarsOlov Eriksson, Efraim Palmqvist, Dieter Schröder, Henrik Schück, John Stott.


My own comments and speculations:

If a rich man could become a disciple, how much more shall God give restoration to a camel. Concerning the restoration of the other killed animals in Ex 9:3, see My own comments and speculations to John 1:43-44 (horses), 2:13-15a (cattle and sheep) and 12:14-15 (asses).

This comparison with the camels in Egypt is far-fetched but perhaps not impossible. The connection between the rich man and the camel is documented in all the Synoptics and had to have been well-known among the Christian readers. They also knew that the rich man Joseph had been a disciple of Jesus. So in the light of all other restorations of what the Lord had struck and killed in the Pentateuch, also the killed camels can be restored in the Gospel of John.

In a restoration perspective we see how the foreign kings who was taken down (Joshua 10:27) now is replaced by the King of the Jews who is lifted up.


Greek words:

Arimathaia (Arimathea) Matt 27:57; Mark 15:43; Luke 23:51; John 19:38. Cf. also Armathaim in 1 Sam 1:1.

epitrepô (give permission) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Esther 9:14; Matt 8:21; John 19:38 – Wisdom of Solomon 19:2; Matt 19:8; Mark 5:13; 10:4; Luke 8:32, 9:59,61; Acts 21:39-40; 26:1; 27:3; 28:16; 1 Cor 14:34; 16:7; 1 Tim 2:12; Heb 6:3.


Additional studies:

1 Macc 13:25; Matt 19:23-24; 27:58; Mark 15:44; Luke 9:59; 18:24-25; 23:52; John 9:22; 12:42; Rev 11:9.


Gerald O'Collins - Daniel Kendall "Did Joseph of Arimathea Exist?"; Biblica 75 (1994): 235-241.

T.A.D. Lawton "A Buried Treasure in the Gospels"; The Evangelical Quarterly 39.2 (April-June 1967): 93-101 (The identity of the "Beloved Disciple").

Maurits Sabbe "The Johannine Account of the Death of Jesus and Its Synoptic Parallells (Jn 19:16b-42)"; Ephemerides Theologicae Lovanienses 70 (1994): 34-64.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-05-31; 2012-04-11; 2014-11-27)

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19:39 But and/also Nicodemus, the one having the first (time) come towards Jesus (א,*א) a night, came having (א*) a medley (א*,B) of myrrh and aloes, as (if it was) a hundred pounds.

Word for word (20 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus): came but and Nicodemus, the-(one) having-come towards the Jesus (a)-night the first-(thing/time) having (a)-medley (of)-myrrh and (of)-aloes, as pounds hundred.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The Lord said to Moses:) “Take you sweet spices, the flower myrrh (= smyrna), chosen, five hundred shekels ... and you shall make (the mixture of the sweet spices to) a holy olive-oil ointment ... and out of it you shall anoint the tent of the testimony.”” (Ex 30:23a,25a,26a, Greek OT)

… They carried off (the dead Asa) upon the bed, and they fulfilled (it) of/with spices and ... ointment oils. (2 Chron 16:14a, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said to God:) "Your God has anointed You (with) oil of exultation ‘to the side of’/’in comparison with’ Your partners/fellows. (Fragrance of) myrrh and dropping fluid and cassia (come) from Your garments." (Ps 45:7b-8a or 8b-9a, Greek OT)

(The sleeping-place/litter of Solomon is ascending from the desolate district with fragrance of) myrrh and olibanum/frankincense, from all ‘clouds of dust’/’fragrant salves’ ... . (Song of Solomon 3:6b, Greek OT)

(Solomon said to his bride:) "A scent of your garments (is) as a scent of Lebanon. A garden being (and having been) shut (is) my sister, (my) bride ... (with) myrrh (and) wood of aloes in company with all first/first-class ointment oils. (You are) a spring of gardens." (Song of Solomon 4:11b-12a,14b-15a, Greek OT)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “What you – if according to the circumstances – may give ‘to the side of’/over, (you may give) in/with number and standing-place/weight.” (Sir 42:7a)


The Latter Revelation:

(The soothsayers) carried to (Jesus) gifts; gold and olibanum/frankincense and myrrh. (Matt 2:11b)

(Jesus said to the crowds: “Others) fell against the fine earth, and it (continually) gave fruit, 'which one'/some indeed 'a hundred'/hundredfold.” (Matt 13:8a; the only pound in John 12:3 has in John 19:39 given hundredfold fruit.)

Having come out that slave (who had got his debt forgiven) found one of his together-/fellow-slaves, who (continually) was indebted to him (with) a hundred denarii. (Matt 18:28a)

On the sabbath's having ‘become through’/elapsed Mary of Magdala and Mary of James and Salome bought spices, in order to having come they might smear (Jesus). (Mark 16:1)

(Paul said to the sons of Abraham and the ones fearing God: “When the ones dwelling in Jerusalem and their leaders) had ended all things having been (and being) written on account of (Jesus) (and) having taken Him ‘entirely for themselves’/away from the wood/’piece of wood’, they put/laid Him into a memorial tomb.” (Acts 13:29)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

But it/there (continually) was a man out of the Pharisees. Nicodemus (was the) name to him, a leader of the Jews. This one came towards (Jesus) (by) night. (John 3:1-2a)

Having so taken a pound of a much honoured ointment oil of nard, connected with faith, Mary (P66,א,*א) smeared the feet of Jesus and wiped off His feet (with) her hairs/hair. But/and the habitation was completed out of the scent of the ointment oil. (John 12:3)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

Possibly the two other mentions of Nicodemus (7:50f; 19:39 over and above 3:1) are meant to indicate his gradual progress to the faith. The Pharisé, who began by meeting Jesus only in secret, then speaks out on his behalf in the Sanhedrin, and finally is not afraid, after Jesus' death on the Cross, of contributing lavish amounts of spices for his burial. (Rudolf Schnackenburg ”The Gospel according to St John 1” p 365)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Samuel Josef Agnon, Chas. E. Cowman, Carl August Ehrensvärd, David Hedegård, Adam Oehlenschläger, August Strindberg.


My own comments and speculations:

Compare My own comments and speculations to John 12:1-3 and 12:4-5.


Greek words:

aloê (aloes) Song of Solomon 4:14; John 19:39.

(h)ekaton (a hundred) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Matt 18:28; John 19:39 – Esther 1:1,4; 3:12,13a(B1); 8:9,12b(E1); Tobit 14:1(2),14; Judith 10:17; 16:23; 1 Macc 8:6; 13:16,19; 15:35; 2 Macc 4:9; Sir 18:9; 41:4; Matt 13:8,23; 18:12; Mark 4:8,20; 6:40; Luke 15:4; 16:6-7; 24:13(א,*א); John 21:11; Acts 1:15; Rev 7:4; 14:1,3; 21:17.

(h)eligma (medley) John 19:39. This word does not occur in the rest of the Bible. The word can be a way to describe an event, which in quality and quantity forebodes a future situation in a new Jerusalem with places of honour for the twelve tribes of Israel and the twelve apostles of Jesus.

smyrna (myrrh) (in the NT + one example in the Apocrypha) Sir 24:15; Matt 2:11; John 19:39. Cf. also Smyrna in Rev 2:8.


Additional studies: Esther 2:12; Judith 10:3; Prov 7:17; Mark 15:23; Luke 14:33; 23:56; 24:1; John 7:50; Rev 2:6,8.

Maurits Sabbe "The Johannine Account of the Death of Jesus and Its Synoptic Parallells (Jn 19:16b-42)"; Ephemerides Theologicae Lovanienses 70 (1994): 34-64.

J.N. Suggit "Nicodemus - the true Jew"; Neotestamentica 14 (1980): 90-110.

Dennis Sylva "Nicodemas and His Spices (John 19:39)"; New Testament Studies 34 (1988): 148-151.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-05-31; 2012-04-12; 2014-11-28)

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19:40 They took so the body of Jesus and bound it (with) little linen garments in company with the spices, entirely as it (in/among) the Jews is a custom to embalm/’lay in a grave’.

Word for word (19 words in the Greek text): (they)-took so the body (of)-the (of)-Jesus and bound it (with)-little-linen-garments in-company-with the spices, entirely-as (a)-custom (it)-is (in/among)-the Jews (to)-embalm.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

Joseph commanded his boys/slaves, the embalmers, to embalm his father, and the embalmers embalmed Israel. (Gen 50:2, Greek OT)

The linen/flax and the barley were struck, for the barley was (and had been) standing ‘by the side of’/near and the linen/flax seeding/'had been seeded'. (Ex 9:31, Greek OT)

Having been (and being) made holy (Aaron) shall be set/clothed in a linen tunic and it shall be linen around the legs upon his skin, and he shall be girded with a linen girdle and a linen (turban) shall be put round about (his head). It is holy garments, and he shall bathe ‘every his’/’his whole body (with) water and set/clothe himself in them. (Lev 16:4, Greek OT)

David being/was girded around in a dress of fine linen and the Levites lifting/lifted the ark of the covenant of the Lord and the ones singing psalms and Chenaniah, the leader of the ones singing lays and against/on David a dress of fine linen. (1 Chron 15:27, Greek OT)

(Daniel said:) "I lifted my eyes, and I beheld, and behold, a (certain) man, one being (and having been) set/clothed in (clothes) of fine linen and the hip/hips being (and having been) girded around (with) fine linen." (Dan 10:5a, Greek OT)

(Israel) ‘fornicated out’/’was given to fornication’. ... She spoke: “I will follow behind my charming ones giving me ... my little linen garments.” (Hos 2:5a, Greek OT)

(Judith) took a linen dress ‘into the cheating of’/’for the purpose of cheating’ (the leader of the enemies). (Judith 16:8b)

(Antiochus said: “The Jews will) be citizens ‘according to upon’/’with regard to’ the customs of their forefathers.” (2 Macc 11:25b)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “… A weighty yoke (rests) against sons of Adam … from (one) wearing ‘of hyacinth’/dark-blue and crown and till (one) being wrapped up in (what is) made of coarse linen.” (Sir 40:1a,4b)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "Having throwing/pouring this ointment oil upon My body (the woman) made/did it ‘towards embalm Me’/’in regard to lay Me in a grave’." (Matt 26:12)

Having bought a linen shirt and taken (Jesus) ‘entirely for himself’/down (Joseph) pack/wrapped (Him) in the linen shirt. (Mark 15:46a)

(Mary) brought forth her first-born son, and she swaddled Him and caused Him to lean up/back in a manger, for the reason that there was (continually) not a place for them in the inn. (Luke 2:7)

(Jesus and His parents) ascending/ascended to (Jerusalem) according to the custom of the feast. (Luke 2:42b)

Having returned (the women) made ready spices and ointment oils. (Luke 23:56a)

Having stood up Peter ran against/’up to’ the memorial tomb and having bent ’to the side of’/forward, he sees the little linen garments * (א*,A), and he went away ‘towards of himself’/home wondering (at) the thing having become/’come about’ (and becoming/’coming about’). (Luke 24:12)

(Paul said to the sons of Abraham and the ones fearing God: “When the ones dwelling in Jerusalem and their leaders) had ended all things having been (and being) written on account of (Jesus) (and) having taken Him ‘entirely for themselves’/away from the wood/’piece of wood’, they put/laid Him into a memorial tomb.” (Acts 13:29)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

The one being (and having been) deceased came out, being (and having been) bound to the feet and the hands (with) bandages and his sight/face being (and having been) bound around (with) a kerchief. Jesus says to them: “Loosen him and let (him) (א,* א, A) be to withdraw.” (John 11:44)

Jesus so spoke: “Let her be in order that she may keep/’take care of’ it into/’for the purpose of’ the day of My embalming. For the beggarly ones you have always in company with yourselves, but you do not always have Me.” (John 12:7-8)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

Lillebror did not quite know what mummy was, but he thought that it was something existing in old royal graves in Egypt. It certainly was quite simply to kill kings and queens who lay there as a kind of stiff parcels with staring eyes. Father had told of it once. The kings and the queens were "embalmed" he had said, in order that they would be able to keep them just as they were when they lived, and they were wound in layers with old linen rags father had said. (Astrid Lindgren "Karlsson på taket smyger igen" p 128-129; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Hilding Fagerberg, Carl Grimberg, Krister Hanell, Dick Harrison, Homeros, Carl Henrik Martling, Martin P:ln Nilsson.


My own comments and speculations:

In the Bible the Greek word for "embalm" only occurs in Gen 50:2, Matt 26:12 and John 19:40. We see that - in the events concerning Jesus' death and resurrection - Israel is a type of Jesus. Cf. John 19:30; 20:12. We see how the half naked body of Jesus is offered for the sake of the faithless Israel (Hos 2).

Jesus also died for all "sons of Adam … from (one) wearing 'of hyacinth'/dark-blue and crown to (one) being wrapped up in (what is) made of coarse linen" (cf. Sir 40:1a,4b and John 19:5).

Furthermore, in a restoration perspective we also see how the ruined flax in Egypt is restored by being allowed to be near Jesus' fragrant body.


Greek words: arôma (spice) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Luke 23:56; John 19:40 – Esther 2:12; Sir 24:15; Mark 16:1; Luke 24:1.

ethos (custom) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) 2 Macc 11:25; Luke 2:42; John 19:40 – 1 Macc 10:89; 2 Macc 13:4; Wisdom of Solomon 14:16; Bel and the Dragon v 15(Theod); Luke 1:9; 22:39; Acts 6:14; 15:1; 16:21; 21:21; 25:16; 26:3; 28:17; Heb 10:25.

entafiazô (embalm) Gen 50:2; Matt 26:12; John 19:40.

othonion (little linen garment) Hos 2:5; Luke 24:12; John 19:40 – Judges 14:13(B); Hos 2:9; John 20:5,7.


Additonal studies: 2 King 20:13; 2 Chron 16:14; Matt 27:59; Mark 14:8; Luke 10:34; 16:19; 23:53; John 12:7; Acts 5:6; Rev 2:6,15; 15:6; 18:11-14; 19:8.

Maurits Sabbe "The Johannine Account of the Death of Jesus and Its Synoptic Parallells (Jn 19:16b-42)"; Ephemerides Theologicae Lovanienses 70 (1994): 34-64.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-05-31; 2012-04-14; 2014-11-29)

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19:41-42 But in the place whereat He was crucified it/there (continually) was a garden, and in the garden a new memorial tomb in which no one ‘nor yet’/not (continually) had been (and was) put/laid. So because of the preparation of the Jews (and) because the memorial tomb (continually) was near, they put/laid Jesus there.

Word for word: 19:41 (20 words in the Greek text) (it)-(continually)-was but in the place whereat (he)-was-crucified (a)-garden, and in the garden (a)-memorial-tomb new in which nor-yet no-one (continually)-was was-having-been-(and-was-being)-put. 19:42 (15 words in the Greek text) there so because-of the preparation (of)-the (of)-Jews, because near was-(continually) the memorial-tomb, (they)-put the Jesus.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

The Lord God dispatched out (Adam), out of the ‘place by the side of apprehension’/Paradise of the delicacy to work the earth. (Gen 3:23, Greek OT)

(Moses said to Pharaoh:) ”And you and your attendants/servants, I have insight in (the thing) that you nor yet fear (and have feared) the Lord.” (Ex 9:30, Greek OT; cf. the connection and nearness to the flax/’little linen garments’ in Ex 9:31 and John 19:40; see My own comments and speculations to John 19:40)

(The Lord said to Shebna:) “What/why (are) you here, and what/whom is for you here, that you have hewn a memorial tomb for yourself here? … You shall ‘take off for yourself’/’remove you’ ‘out of’/from your household/office and ‘out of’/from your standing/stand. And it will be in that day I will call My boy/servant Eliakim (a name which means ‘The Lord restores’).” (Is 22:16a,19-20a, Greek OT)

(The slave of the Lord) shall give the evil ones in stead of his burial place and the rich ones in stead of his death, because he had not made/done lawlessness, nor it was found deceit in his mouth. (Is 53:9, Greek OT)

(The slave of the Lord said:) "Let my soul exult on/’for the sake of’ the Lord ... And as earth increasing/’letting ... grow’ its flower and as a garden its seeds, in this way the Lord will let righteousness and gladness to stick/spring up opposite all the nations." (Is 61:10a,11b, Greek OT)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “Joybringing (grace) (is) as a ‘place by the side of apprehension’/Paradise in/with blessings.” (Sir 40:17a)


The Latter Revelation:

Having again shouted (with) a great/loud voice Jesus ‘let ... be’/left the spirit. And behold, the curtain of the temple was split/torn into two from, from above till down. (Matt 27:50-51a)

(Joseph) put/laid (the body) in his new memorial tomb. (Matt 27:60a)

(Jesus said: “The kingdom of God) is like a scarlet kernel of mustard, which having taken a man threw/sowed into his garden. And it increased and became into/to a tree.” (Luke 13:19a)

(Jesus) spoke to (the criminal): "Amen I say to you, today you will be in company with me in the ‘place by the side of apprehension’/Paradise." (Luke 23:43)

(Joseph) put/laid (the body) in a tomb, hewn in stone, where ‘no one (continually) was not nor yet (א,* א) lying’/’anyone nor yet (א,* א) lay’. And it (continually) was a day of preparation. (Luke 23:53b-54a)

(Paul said to the sons of Abraham and the ones fearing God: “When the ones dwelling in Jerusalem and their leaders) had ended all things having been (and being) written on account of (Jesus) (and) having taken Him ‘entirely for themselves’/away from the wood/’piece of wood’, they put/laid Him into a memorial tomb.” (Acts 13:29)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven: (Jesus said:) "Amen, amen, I say to you, if – according to the circumstances – the scarlet kernel of the bread-stuff having fallen into the earth may not die, it stays alone. But if – according to the circumstances – it may die, it carries/produces much fruit." (John 12:24)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "I am the true vine." (John 15:1a)

Having spoken these things Jesus came out together with His disciples on the other side of the Cedar-tree (א*) torrent, whereat/where it/there (continually) was a garden, into which He Himself and His disciples came into. (John 18:1)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 - about 1500

The description (of the third heaven) in ch. 8 (in the second book of Enoch) is an expansion or explanation for the description of paradise which we meet in Gen 1-3. ... Both the unrighteous and the righteous are there. (Leif Carlsson ”Round trips to heaven” p 75)

Some would see a symbolic play on the Garden of Eden, even though Gen 2:15 uses (another Greek word). (Raymond E. Brown "The Gospel according to John" p 943)


about 1500 and time before

God opened Heaven to us, and unfolded Paradise itself. ... This sign (that is, the cross) ... made a new entrance into Paradise. ... Because of this ... death is (not) death, but a sleep. (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers X:376,536)

It belongs to the resurrection that one should be on the first day in the Paradise of God. (Origen, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol X, p 402)

Some choose to maintain that paradise is in heaven, and forms no part of the system of creation. But since we see with our eyes the rivers that go forth from it, which are open, indeed, even in our day, to the inspection of any who choose, let every one conclude from this that it did not belong to heaven, but was in reality planted in the created system. (Hippolytus, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol V, p 163)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Yngve Brilioth, Amadeus Creutzberg, Birger Gerhardsson, Dick Harrison, Irenaeus, Lars Lindberg, Mereth Lindgren, Bertil Nilsson, Agne Nordlander, Viktor Rydberg, Josef Stenlund, Knut Svensson, Cecilia Wassén, Paul Wern.


My own comments and speculations:

The Greek word for "garden" in John 19:41 is the same as is used in Luke 13:19. The garden can allude to the larger garden in Eden, the Paradise, which is mentioned in Luke 23:43.

According to the Targums the man was driven out from the garden of Eden to Mount Moriah in Jerusalem. From the exalted place on the cross in a disgraced Jerosolyma/Jerusalem the Man Jesus now is brought back to the garden. In a restoration perspective we see how the living male Adam and the living female Eva, who were dispatched out of the garden to die, now as the dead Man Jesus are brought back from Jerusalem to receive life in the garden of Eden. Observe that it is the Man Jesus (male and female) who is led into the garden and not only the "male" Jesus. Compare my comments and speculations to John 19:33-37. Jesus' propitiation and His gift of eternal life have reference to both male and female. The scarlet kernel of the bread-stuff has died to receive life and become a tree, the new tree of knowledge (Greek OT: wood of the thing to know/'have knowledge of'), the true vine. Compare My own comments and speculations to John 15:1.

Concerning “crucify”, see John 19:6. Concerning "memorial tomb", see also Rev 11:9.


Greek words:

oudepô (nor yet) Ex 9:30; Luke 23:53; John 19:41 – John 20:9; Acts 8:16.


Additional studies: Gen 23:6-9; Mark 15:46; Luke 23:55; John 19:14,20,31; Rev 2:6,15; 3:12; 5:9; 11:9; 14:3; 21:5.

Maurits Sabbe "The Johannine Account of the Death of Jesus and Its Synoptic Parallells (Jn 19:16b-42)"; Ephemerides Theologicae Lovanienses 70 (1994): 34-64.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-05-31; 2012-04-15; 2014-11-30)

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