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Chapter 18
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18:1 Having spoken these things Jesus came out together with His disciples on the other side of the Cedar-tree (א*) torrent, whereat/where it/there (continually) was a garden, into which He Himself and His disciples came into.

Word for word (24 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus prima manus): These-(things) having-spoken Jesus came-out in-company-with the disciples his on-the-other-side (of)-the (of)-torrent (of)-the (of) (of)-Cedar-tree whereat (continually)-was (a)-garden, into which caame-into he-(himself) and the disciples his


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

Having stood up that night (Jacob) took the two women and the two young girls and his eleven little boys and stepped through/across the ‘stepping through’/crossing of Jabbok. An he took them and stepped through/across the torrent. And he coupled/brought through/over ‘all his things’/’whatever he had’. And Jacob was left behind alone, and a man wrestled in company with him till early in the day. (Gen 32:22-24, Greek OT)

(Balaam said:) “As/how fine (are) your houses, Jacob, your tents, Israel, as if wooded vales shadowing (them) and as if ‘places by the side of apprehension’/Paradises upon rivers and as if tents which the Lord has fixed, as if cedar-trees ‘to the side of’/along waters.” (Num 24:5-6, Greek OT)

The king (David) passed over the brook of Kidron, and all the people passed over toward the way of the wilderness. (2 Sam 15:23b, New American Standard)

Every/all the people (continually) went by the side of in/at the Cedar-trees torrent and the king (David) stepped through/across the torrent of Kidron. And every/all the people and the king (continually) went to the side of against … the desolate (district). (2 Sam 15:23b, Greek OT, alternative reading)

(King Solomon said to Shimei:) "It will be in/on the day of your way out and you will step through/across the torrent of Kidron, (and) gaining knowledge you will have knowledge that you shall die (with) a death." (1 Kings 2:37a, Greek OT)

Asa cut out/down (the image) and set it on fire in/at the torrent of Kidron (alternative reading “Cedar-trees torrent”). (1 Kings 15:13b, Greek OT)

(David said:) “I beheld a wicked, being heightened over/exceedingly and being lifted on/up as the cedar-trees of Libanon. I ‘came by the side of’/passed, and behold, he was not (continually/more).” (Ps 37:35-36a, Greek OT)

(David said:) “If not the Lord (continually) was in/among us ... a torrent had come through our soul.” (Ps 124:1a,4b, Greek OT)

Judas drew near against the torrent of the water (with his people). ... He penetrated through (the torrent) against (the enemies). (1 Macc 5:42a,43a)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus) comes in company with (His disciples) into a little district being said/called Gethsemane. (Matt 26:36a)

(Jesus said: “The kingdom of God) is like a scarlet kernel of mustard, which having taken a man threw/sowed into his garden. And it increased and became into/to a tree.” (Luke 13:19a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "Amen, amen, I say to you, if - according to the circumstances - the scarlet kernel of the bread-stuff having fallen into the earth may not die, it stays alone. But if - according to the circumstances - it may die, it carries/produces much fruit." (John 12:24)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 - about 1500

(The heavenly journey of Adam in the Life of Adam and Eve – the Greek Version) deals with a transition to the heavenly world via water. ... All indications are ... that paradise in this heavenly journey text should be understood as an intermediary state before the final and definitive death takes place. (Leif Carlsson ”Round trips to heaven” p 273)

When John especially names that Jesus passed the brook of Kidron, he without any doubt had in view, that it was along this way that David fled from Jerusalem from his son Absalom, 2 Sam 15:23. Now the Son of David walks out from Jerusalem in the footsteps of David, rejected by his people. (Studiebibeln II:717; translation from the Sedish text: BG Ask)

To wander in an old garden now is my only longing now (when) it suffers downwards. (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev XX juni 1911-maj 1912" p 56; letter 1911-07-01 to Fanny Falkner; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Ljung Björn Olofsson, feeling to be the leading among the Swedes (in Jerusalem) after the death of Tims Halvor, tried . . . to encourage the other ones. He began to speak with them about the brook Kidron, which in old days had floated throw the valley of Josaphat and made Jerusalem a city abounding in water. He had his bible in his pocket, he opened it and read for all of them the passages where Kidron was named. He described for them what a great and huge stream Kidron had been. It had driven mills and in winter it hade even been so mighty, that it had overflown and flooded the province. (Selma Lagerlöf "Jerusalem II" p 324; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

(The book) Inferno is published! And I have a certain unrest that it ends badly, for the book cannot be used by any party. . . . What will come now? Gethsemane! (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev XII dec 1896-aug 1898" p 192; letter 1897-11-02 to Axel Herrlin; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

I took my hymn-book and opened it with a mood of festival in my soul seeing a woodcut - and I see it still, faithful kept in my memory. It represents king David himsel by Kidron or by the river of Jordan, he plays a psalm for the Lord with joy, the contour in the distance is the height of Zion. - It was artistically a strangely thing in Lundström's manner, from his workshop, the one of the old Lundström in Jönköping. . . . But then, what beauty I saw in it! With what colours on the hour my trembling imagination of devotion had coated the blurred ground! What meads of sapphire and what blue mountains! King David's strings have the colour of the sun, there from the harp sparks spring forth, which sound and ring and at last die in the mighty roar of the billows of the organ. To the strokes of the harp I heard the voice of the crowned son of Isai. . . . I heard his voice in the song of the people: "my saved soul will some time swing itself to the heavenly mountain, where the harps of the angels ring." I looked at my leaf, how the contour of the mountain in the bath of the sun rose towards the azure; I heard and saw of the multitude of larks a jubilant procession to a blessed mead. My longing also got a pair of wings and soared, she also, in the flock of larks towards Zion shining in ether clear. (Viktor Rydberg "Träsnittet i psalmboken" p 20-22; depicted time 1838-1845; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


about 1500 and time before

The entrance to Gethsemane may have been (the one) that led through the building with the ‘oil-press’. (Alfred Edersheim "The Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah Part II" p 538)

On (Cant. i. 17) the Targum contrasts the Temple built by Solomon with the far superior Temple to be built in the days of the Messiah, of which the beams were to be made of the cedars of Paradise. (Alfred Edersheim "The Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah Part II" p 722)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Maria Adolfsson, Märta Ahlbom, Friedrich Ahlfeld, Nils Alin, Lennart Angselius, Carl-Martin Bergstrand, Erik Bernspång, Hjalmar Bjurulf, Lisa Bysell, Peter Carelli, Leif Carlsson, J.M. Danielsson, Alexander Daumont, Allan Eddeland, Allan Ellenius, Melker Fredbrant, Sven Gaunitz, Nikolaj Gogol, Carl Grimberg, Georg Gustafsson, Peter Halldorf, Alf Henrikson, Sven Ingvar, Irenaeus, Kazuo Ishiguro, Erik Johannesson, Bo E. Karlson, Yasunari Kawabata, Dag Kihlblom, Rainer Knapas, Inge Kvarnström, Ingeborg Lindqvist, Arne Losman, Verner Malmsten, Vilhelm Moberg, Fredrik Nielsen, Elvy Nilbratt, Bertil Nordenstam, Thede Palm, Birgit Th Sparre, Herbert Sundemo, Ingvar Svanberg, Sigfrid Svensson, Herman Vendell, P. Waldenström, Gösta Weiler, Magnus Widell, Gösta Wikner, Ewert Wrangel.


My own comments and speculations:

Jesus - like Jacob - goes across a torrent with His eleven "little boys" (cf. John 14:18). Then He will be alone - like Jacob - in His fight with God (cf. Mark 14:27).


Greek words:

kedros (cedar-tree) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) John 18:1 – Sir 24:13; 50:12.

kêpos (garden) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Luke 13:19; John 18:1 – Esther 7:7-8; Sir 24:31; John 18:26; 19:41.

cheimarros/-ous (torrent) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) 1 Macc 5:42; John 18:1 – Judith 2:8,24; 7:18; 16:3; 1 Macc 5:37,39-40; 12:37; 16:5-6.


Additional studies: 2 Kings 23:4,6,12; 2 Chron 15:16; 29:16; 30:14; Jer 31:40; Matt 26:30; Mark 14:26,32; Luke 22:39; John 14:31; Rev 18:12.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-05-19; 2012-02-25; 2014-10-22; 2014-12-17)

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18:2-3 But Judas, the one giving Him ‘to the side of ‘/over, and/also knew the place, because Jesus many times had ‘been led’/come together there in company with his disciples. Judas, having taken the cohort and rowers/servants out of the priest leaders and the Pharisees, so comes there ‘in company with’/with lanterns and torches and weapons.

Word for word: 18:2 (18 words in the Greek text) 'Knew-(and-had-known)'/knew but and Judas the-(one) giving-to-the-side-of him the place, because many-times was-led-together Jesus there in-company-with the disciples his. 18:3 (23 words in the Greek text) the so Judas having-taken the cohort and out-of the priest-leaders and out-of the Pharisees rowers comes there in-company-with lanterns and torches and weapons.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

Everyone (of the two hundred and fifty leaders of the synagogue) took his firepan and they put fire against, against it. ... And Korah stood/set every/all the synagogue together against, against (Moses and Aaron). (Num 16:18a,19a, Greek OT)

(Tobias spoke to the messenger: “Have you) insight in the way to go into Media?” And he spoke to him: “Yes, many times I have become/been there, and I have experience and insight in all the ways.” (Tobit 5:5b-6a, S)

Torches of silver being/were led/carried before (Holophernes). (Judith 10:22b)

Every (Israelitic) male took up his weapons and they came ‘according to’/in cohorts out against (the enemies) … . (Judith 14:11b)

Ptolemaios and the ones (being) from the side of him ... took their weapons ... and killed (Simon) and his two sons and some of his very little boys. And he made a great breach of covenant and gave back bad things in stead of good things. (1 Macc 16:16b-17)

(The commander of the enemies) dispatched away over five hundred soldiers to take together/’hold of’ (a father of the Jews). (2 Macc 14:39b)


The Latter Revelation:

Jesus was led by the Spirit up into the desolate (district) to be tried by the slanderer. (Matt 4:1)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “If so the light, the one (being) in you, is darkness, how much/great (is) the darkness.” (Matt 6:23b)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “The kingdom of the heavens will be likened to ten virgins, whoever/who having taken their torches came out into/to a going of the bridegroom to meet.” (Matt 25:1)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “The one giving Me ‘to the side of’/over has drawn near (and is near).” And on His still talking, behold, Judas, one of the twelve, came and in company with him a much/many-headed crowd – ‘in company with’/with daggers and (pieces of) wood – from the priest leaders and elders of the people. (Matt 26:46b-47)

Having taken Jesus to the side of into the Praetorium the soldiers of the commander led together the whole cohort against Him. (Matt 27:27)

Jesus spoke towards the ones having become/come to the side of (Him), priest leaders and officers of the sanctuary and elders, (who had come) towards (א*) Him: "... ‘According to’/’day after’ day on My being in company with you in the sanctuary, you did not stretch out the hands against Me. However, this hour is Yours, and/likewise the (judicial) authority of the darkness." (Luke 22:52a,53)

The kings of the earth stood ‘by the side of’/near and the leaders were led together ... ‘down from’/against the Lord and ‘down from’/against His Anointed (Christ). ... both Herod and Pontius Pilate together with nations and peoples of Israel. (Acts 4:26,27b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

The Saviour (א,*א) knew from (P66, א,* א) a beginning (that) some are the * (א,*א) believing ones and (that) someone (continually) was the one being about to give Him ‘to the side of’/over (P66, א,*א). (John 6:64)

The Pharisees heard the crowd grumbling these things on account of Him, and the priest leaders and the Pharisees dispatched away rowers/servants, in order that they might seize (Jesus). (John 7:32)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

Because in John 18:12 the leader is called ”commandant (over 1000 men)”, chiliarchos, the evangelist probably means the cohort. (René Kieffer "Johannesevangeliet" p 416; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

A cohort (was) a unit of the Roman army containing (normally) 600 men; but it could also mean a maniple (200 men). … If there is any historical basis for (John's) statement maniple is more probable. (C.K. Barrett "The Gospel according to St John" p 518)

In the Roman military set-up there was first of all the legion. It was a force of six thousand men and therefore was roughly equal to a division. In every legion there were ten cohorts. A cohort therefore had six hundred men and comes near to being the equivalent of a battalion. The cohort was divided into centuries and over each century there was a centurion. The century is therefore roughly the equivalent of a company.. The parallel to the centurion in our military organisation is a company sergeant-major. These centurions were the backbone of the Roman army. (William Barclay “The Acts of the Apostles” p 79)

Thus Jönköping's castle, one of the oldest and most richest in memories in Sweden, stood up to 1737, when, as they suspected, an incendiary annihilated (it). . . . Then the castle also was an arsenal . . . which enclosed an enormous store of arms. In the conflagration 396,000 rifles were destroyed. (Viktor Rydberg "Det forna Jönköping" p 10)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Ingvar Andersson, Jacob Bircherod, Ragnar Blomqvist, Arnold Carlson, Alan Dufberg, Moloud Feraoun, Gunilla Granberg, Carl Grimberg, Lennart Gustavsson, Torsten Gårdlund, Olof Hamrén, Dick Harrison, Jens Heimdahl, Stephanie Jeffs, Gerhard Johansson, Bror Kugelberg, Lars-Olof Larsson, Olle Larsson, Egil Lönnberg, I. Meerman, Vilhelm Moberg, Axel Mollstadius, Petrus M. Nicander, Claes Pettersson, Johan Ludvig Runeberg, Georg Sahlsträm, Sven Stolpe, Carl Peter Thunberg, Zacharias Topelius, Magnus Widell, Ewert Wrangel.


Greek words:

lampas (torch) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Judith 10:22; Matt 25:1; John 18:3 – 1 Macc 6:39; Sir 48:1; Matt 25:3-4,7-8; Acts 20:8; Rev 4:5; 8:10.

(h)oplon (weapon) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) 1 Macc 16:16; John 18:3 – Judith 6:12; 14:11; 1 Macc 1:35; 5:43; 6:2,6,41; 7:44; 8:26,28; 9:39; 10:6,21; 11:51; 12:27; 14:33,42; 15:7; 2 Macc 5:26; 8:18; 9:2; 10:27; 15:5,21; Wisdom of Solomon 18:21-22; Rom 6:13; 13:12; 2 Cor 6:7; 10:4.

pollakis (many times) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Tobit 5:6; John 18:2 – Esther 8:12e(E5); Tobit 1:6; 5:10; 1 Macc 14:29; 2 Macc 9:25; Sir 19:15; Matt 17:15; Mark 5:4; 9:22; Acts 26:11; Rom 1:13; 2 Cor 8:22; 11:23,26-27; Phil 3:18; 2 Tim 1:16; Heb 6:7; 9:25-26; 10:11.

speira (cohort) Judith 14:11; Matt 27:27; John 18:3 – 2 Macc 8:23; 12:20,22; Mark 15:16; John 18:12; Acts 10:1; 21:31; 27:1.

fanos (lantern) John 18:3.


Additional studies:

Mark 14:42-44,48; Luke 11:34-35; 21:37; 22:39,47; John 7:45; 13:2,11,21; 18:18; Acts 1:16; 5:22-23.


Charles H. Giblin "Confrontations in John 18:1-27"; Biblica 65 (1984): 210-232.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-05-19; 2012-02-26; 2014-10-23)

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18:4-5 But (א,* א) having (א,* א, A) come out, Jesus – knowing all the things coming against Him – spoke (א,* א, A) to them: “Whom do you seek?” They answered Him: “Jesus, the Nazoraean.” Jesus (א,*א,A) says to them: "I am." But and/also Judas, the one giving Him ‘to the side of ‘/over, stood in company with them.

Word for word: 18:4 (13 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus) Jesus but 'knowing-(and-having-known)'/knowing all the-(hings) coming against him having-come-out (he)-spoke (to)-them: whom seek-(you)? 18:5 (19 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus) (they)-answered him: Jesus the Nazoraean. says (to)-them Jesus: i/I (i/I)-am. 'stood-(and-had-stood)'/stood but and Judas the-(one) giving-to-the-side-of him in-company-with them.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

God spoke towards Moses: "I am the One who is." And He spoke: "In this way you shall speak to the sons of Israel: 'The One who is has dispatched (and dispatches) me away towards you.'" (Ex 3:14, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Moses:) "I know the evil thing (of the sons of Israel), as much as they make/do here to-day, before 'the thing to lead Me'/'I have led' them into the good earth/land which I swore (to give) their fathers." (Deut 31:21b, Greek OT)

Having been made a holy naziraean, (Samson) will be the very little boy to God out of the womb. And he will begin to save Israel out of a hand of other tribes. … The very little boy will be a naziraean of God from the womb till days of his death. (Judges 13:5b,7b, Greek OT A)

(David said to Solomon:) " ... The Lord lets all hearts undergo a test and has knowledge of every device." (1 Chron 28:9a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Israel:) “Become My witnesses, and/also I (am) a witness ... and the boy whom I have chosen, in order that you may gain knowledge and believe and perceive that I am." (Is 43:10a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to His people:) "I am the God ... bringing up a message (about) the last/later things before they become and together/’at the same time’ it was brought to a consummation." (Is 46:9b-10a, Greek OT)

(Judas and his brothers) raised the naziraeans, who had completed the days. (1 Macc 3:49b)


The Latter Revelation:

Having come/gone (Joseph) dwelt into/in a city being said/called Nazareth. In that way the thing having been spoken through the prophets (about Jesus) might be completed that/: "He will be called a Nazoraean." (Matt 2:23)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Amen I say to you: ‘Till – according to the circumstances - the heaven and the earth may come by the side of, not one “iota” (the smallest letter) or one tittle, may not/certainly not come by the side of from the law, till – according to the circumstances – all things may become/’come about’.’” (Matt 5:18)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "You know that after two days it becomes the ‘paschal lamb’/Passover, and the Son of the Man will be given ‘to the side of’/over into the thing to be crucified." (Matt 26:2)

(A young girl/’female slave’ beheld Peter) and says to the ones (being) there: ”This one (continually) was in company with Jesus, the Nazoraean.” (Matt 26:71b)

(Jesus said to Peter and James and John:) "The hour has come. Behold, the Son of the Man is given ‘to the side of’/over into the hands of the missers (of the mark of God)." (Mark 14:41b)

(Jesus said to the many crowds:) “What king, going to ‘throw together with’/meet the other king into a war, will by no means, having first sat down, ‘take counsel’/consider, if he is able in/with ten of the number of one thousand to go to meet the one coming against him in company with twenty of the number of one thousand?” (Luke 14:31)

All (the elders of the people) spoke (to Jesus): "So You are the Son of God?" But 'the One'/He (continually/-) uttered towards them: "You say that I am." But/and they spoke: "(Of) what evidence have we yet need, for we have heard ourselves from His mouth." (Luke 22:70-71)

It became against the following day (that) ... Hannas, the priest leader, and Caiaphas and John and Alexander and as many as (continually) were of the descent of priest leader (‘were led together). And having caused (Peter and John) to stand in the middle of (them) they inquired: ”In/with what kind of ability or in/with what kind of name did you make/do this?” ... (Peter said:): ”Let it be known to you and to every/’the whole’ people of Israel, that (it has come about) in the name of Jesus Christ, the Nazoraean, whom you have crucified.” (Acts 4:5a,6-7,10a)

(Tertullus said about Paul: “We have found) this male ... a ‘first standing’/’front-rank man’ of the ‘taking for oneself’/sect of the nazoraeans.” (Acts 24:5)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

Philip finds Nathanael and says to him: "We have found (and find) the One of whom Moses in the law and/’and also’ the prophets wrote, Jesus from Nazareth, a son of Joseph." * (א,*א) Nathanael says to him: "Is it able to be any good thing out of Nazareth?" Philip says to him: "Come and behold!" (John 1:45-46)

(Jesus said to the Jews:) “If you do not believe (Moses') letters (of the alphabet), how will you believe My words?” (John 5:47)

The Saviour (א,*א) knew from (P66, א,* א) a beginning (that) some are the * (א,*א) believing ones and (that) someone (continually) was the one being about to give Him ‘to the side of’/over (P66, א,*א). (John 6:64b)

(Jesus said to the Jews:) “I spoke * (P66,א*) to you, that you will die in your misses (of the mark of God). For if – according to the circumstances – you may not believe Me (א,*א), that I am, you will die in your misses (of the mark of God).” (John 8:24)

Before the Feast of the ‘paschal lamb’/Passover (Jesus knew) that His hour had come, in order that He might step over out of this adornment/’adorned world’ towards the Father. (John 13:1a)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

Hegesippus, Justin and other authors of the ancient Church has mediated information of Jewish-Christian groups in the land of East Jordan and Syria from the time after year 70 and ahead. These circles laid claim to be descendants of the members of the original congregation. It is from these groups the tradition about the flight to Pella dates. This narrative would obviously confirm their position as legitimate followers to the original congregation in Jerusalem. ... The Jewish Christianity ... soon was divided in a number of sects. The most known are the Ebionites (“the poor”) and the Nasorees. (Edvin Larsson "Jesu liv och urkristendomens historia" s 336; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Sofia read, and then she gave a cry. "They have taken Orvar also", she said. "Now there are not anyone being really able to do something. She handed the slip to Jonatan, and when he had read it, he became still more black in his eyes. "A traitor in Cherry Valley", he said, "who is this, you think, who can be so vile?" "I do not know", Sofia said. "Not yet. But so help him God, whoever he is, when I get to know it." (Astrid Lindgren "Bröderna Lejonhjärta" p 47-48; translation from the Swdish text: BG Ask)

My plan (is) to describe the Farmer of Europe, a plan which certainly will put a big stop to all the thoughtless industrial socialism. . . . Help me in the name of Jesus Christ, the Nazarene, for otherwise I must sit down to write a stage play again, which I hate and therefore will write badly! (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev V 1885-juli 1886" p 233; letter 1885-12-29 to Edvard Brandes; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

The Rabbis often, for Haggadic (”theological”) purposes, alter letters, and thus change the meaning of words. (Alfred Edersheim "The Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah Part II" p 689)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Aron Andersson, Sven Danell, Bo Frid, Birger Gerhardsson, Peter Halldorf, Edvin Larsson, Fredrik Nielsen, Carl Fr. Peterson, Anna Maria Roos, Anders Runesson, Viktor Rydberg, Giorgos Seferis, Jesper Svartvik, N.P. Wetterlund.


My own comments and speculations:

As Samson saved Israel out of the hand of other tribes, so Jesus saves His people out of the adornment/’adorned world’ (cf. John 17:6)

The word ”naziraean” (naziraion) in Judges 13 is exchanged for ”nazoraean” (nazôraion). The first part (”alpha”) of the last and the longest letter (ω, omega) in the Greek alphabet (small letters) has the form of a Greek iota (ι), which is the least and the shortest letter. Here the shortest letter (cf. John the Baptist who was a naziraen; se Luk 1:15) is extended/filled out to the longest one by Him, who is alpha and omega (Rev 1:8) and who said that not a jota of the law (OT) would go by away from the law. Jesus had come to complete and not to take away (cf. Matt 5:18). Cf. 1 Macc 3:49 about the raised naziraeans, who had completed the days. Cf. also 2 Cor 1:20 and My own comments and speculations to John 5:45-47, John 6:70-71, John 19:25-27 (Greek word: Klôpas) and Rev 4:9a.

Concerning the name of God "I am", compare the seven "I am-names" for Jesus. "I am the bread of life" (John 6:35), "I am the light of the adornment/’adorned world’" (John 8:12), "I am the door" (John 10:7), "I am the fine shepherd" (John 10:11), "I am the resurrection and the life" (John 11:25), "I am the way and the truth and the life" (John 14:6) and "I am the true vine" (John 15:1).


Paul said to the believers in Corinth: "As many as the promises of God (are) the Yes in Him, therefore (is) and/also through Him the Amen to God towards/to glory through us." (2 Cor 1:20)


Greek words:

Nazôraios (Nazoraean) Matt 2:23; 26:71; John 18:5; Acts 4:10; 24:5 – Mark 10:47(א,*א); Luke 18:37; John 18:7; 19:19; Acts 2:22; 3:6; 6:14; 22:8; 26:9. Cf. My own comments and speculations.


Additional studies:

Judges 16:17; Matt 26:46; Mark 13:6; John 1:48; 2:24-25; 6:16; 13:3,11; 19:28; Rev 1:8.


Charles H. Giblin "Confrontations in John 18:1-27"; Biblica 65 (1984): 210-232.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-05-19; 2012-02-28; 2014-10-24; 2014-12-17)

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18:6-9 As He so spoke to them: “I am”, they went away into the things behind and fell on the ground. Again He so questioned them: “Whom do you seek?” But/and they spoke: “Jesus, the Nazoraean.” Jesus answered: “I spoke to you, that I am. If you so seek Me, let these be to withdraw,” in order that the saying, which He had spoke, might be completed: “The ones whom You have given (and give) Me, out of them I have not perished ‘no one’/anyone.”

Word for word: 18:6 (13 words in the Greek text) as so (he)-spoke (to)-them: i/I (i/I)-am gick-(de)-bort into the-(things) behind and (they)-fell on-the-ground. 18:7 (12 words in the Greek text; the sequence of words according to Sinaiticus) again so them (he)-questioned: whom seek-(you)? 'the-(ones)'/they but spoke: Jesus the Nazoraean. 18:8 (14 words in the Greek text) answered Jesus: (i/I)-spoke (to)-you that i/I (i/I)-am. if so me (you)-seek, let-be these (to)-withdraw. 18:9 (15 words in the Greek text) in-order-that might-be-completed the saying which (he)-spoke that whom (you)-have-given-(and-give) me not (i/I)-perished out-of them no-one.


The Gospel of John and the Book of Revelation: The one who in the Gospel of John is addressed "Nazoraean" (John 18:7), a word which vowels in the Greek text begin with alpha and omega, is in the Revelation named "the Alpha and the Omega" (Rev 22:13). Jesus is the one who "must increase" (John 3:30).


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

The Lord God spoke to the serpent: “Because you have made/done this ... you shall go on your breast and the belly and earth you may eat all the days of your life." (Gen 3:14, Greek OT)

(Lot's) woman saw against (Sodom), into the things behind, and she became a pillar of salt. (Gen 19:26, Greek OT)

As (Moses) ‘was caused to cease’/ceased talking all these sayings ... the earth was opened and drank down (the rebellious) and their houses and all the men being in company with Corah and (also) their domestic animals. And they and as many things as are theirs descended living into Hades. And the earth veiled them, and they perished out of a middle of the synagogue. And every/all Israel, the ones (being) in a circle of them fled from their voice/cry, because saying: "Not at any time may the earth drink us down!" And fire came out from the side of the Lord and the two hundred and fifty males, the ones ‘carrying to’/offering the incense. ... And the ones deceasing (and having deceased) in the quake became 14700 separately the ones deceasing (and having deceased) with respect to Korah. (Num 16:31-35,49, Greek OT)

Having been made a holy naziraean, (Samson) will be the very little boy to God out of the womb. And he will begin to save Israel out of a hand of other tribes. … The very little boy will be a naziraean of God from the womb till days of his death. (Judges 13:5b,7b, Greek OT A)

(David said:) “In the thing to draw near against me treating (me) ill of the thing to eat my flesh, the ones oppressing me and my enemies themselves were weak and fell.” (Ps 27:2, Greek OT)

(David said:) "Let them be put a shame to and let them be turned in/towards themselves the ones seeking my soul. Let them be turned away into the things behind and let them entirely be put a shame to the ones counting/devising bad things to me." (Ps 35:4, Greek OT)

(David said to God:) “My enemies will turn next to into the things behind in the day I – according to the circumstances – will call against You to myself. Behold, I have gained knowledge, that You are my God.” (Ps 56:9 or 56:10, Greek OT)

(Isaiah said to Israel: "The Lord) will be for you into a holy place, and you will not be met together (with) Him as ‘a stone cutting towards’/’an offence’, nor as a rock to fall. But the house of Jacob (will be as) in ice and being seated in a hollowing out in Jerusalem. Because of this many in/among them will be unable and fall and be crushed. (Is 8:14b-15a, Greek OT)

(Daniel said:) “I did not hear the voice of the talking (of the man set/clothed in linen), (and) I (continually) was (and had been) fallen against my face, against the earth.” (Dan 10:9, Greek OT)

Behold, (Holophernes, the commander-in-chief of the enemies is) on the ground and the head is not on him. (Judith 14:18b)

The male Judah and his brothers were extremely glorified opposite every/’the whole’ Israel and all the nations, where their name (continually) was heard. (1 Macc 5:63)

(Israel said about Judas:) “How has/’has ... not’ 'an able one saving'/'one able to save' Israel.” (1 Macc 9:21)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to the twelve:) “Not one out of (the sparrows) will fall against the earth without (the knowledge and consent of) your Father. ... You ‘carry throughout (than)’/excel many sparrows.” (Matt 10:29b,31b)

(Jesus said to the crowd:) “Whole/all this becomes/’comes about’ (and has become/’come about’), in order that the writings of the prophets may be completed.” Then having let Him be all the disciples fled. (Matt 26:56)

(A young girl/’female slave’ beheld Peter) and says to the ones (being) there: ”This one (continually) was in company with Jesus, the Nazoraean.” (Matt 26:71b)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "And/also the Son of the Man has come ... to give His soul (as) a ransom instead of many." (Mark 10:45)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “The heaven and the earth will come by the side of, but My sayings will not/certainly not come by the side of.” (Mark 13:31)

Having come before/forth a small/little (bit) (Jesus) fell upon the earth and prayed (continually), in order that, if it is able/possible, the hour might come by the side of from Him. (Mark 14:35)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “The day the Son of the Man is revealed … let not the one (being) in a field turn next to, into the things behind. Recollect the woman of Lot!” (Luke 17:30b,31b-32)

Peter spoke: "Ananias, because of what has the adversary maimed (א*) your heart, 'to lie you'/'that you lie to' the Holy Spirit?" ... Hearing these sayings Ananias, having fallen, breathed out/’his last”(Acts 5:3a,5a)

Paul said: “I fell into/to the ground and heard a voice saying to me: “Saul, Saul, why do you pursue Me?” But/and I answered: “Who are You, Lord?” Both/and He spoke to me: “I am Jesus, the Nazoraean, whom you pursue.” (Acts 22:7-8)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Jesus said to the crowd:) "I have descended out of (א,*א) heaven, in order that I might make/do My will but the will of the One having sent Me, *(א*) that I shall perish none of all (nations) that He has given Me but raise it up on the last day." (John 6:38-39)

‘Out of’/’in consequence of’ this many * (א,* א) of (Jesus') disciples went away into the things behind and no longer (continually) walked about in company with Him. (John 6:66)

Jesus answered and spoke to (א,*א) them: “Did I not choose you, the twelve? And out of you it/there is a slanderer.” But He (continually) said/meant Judas of Simon from Karuoth (א*), for this one, being (א,*א) one out of the twelve, was (continually) about to give Him ‘to the side of’/over. (John 6:70-71)

(Jesus said to the Pharisees:) "I am the fine shepherd. The fine shepherd gives (P45,א*) His soul in favour of the sheep." (John 10:11)

The one being (and having been) deceased came out, being (and having been) bound to the feet and the hands (with) bandages and his sight/face being (and having been) bound around (with) a kerchief. Jesus says to them: “Loosen him and let (him) (א,* א, A) be to withdraw.” (John 11:44)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) " These things I have talked (and talk) (with) you, in order that you may * (א*) ‘be caused to stumble’/stumble.” (John 16:1)

(Jesus said to His Father:) "I watched (My disciples), and no one out of them perished, ‘if not’/except the son of the perdition, in order that the writing might be completed." (John 17:12b)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

The first Christians were careful of the words of Jesus. They were to complete the Scriptures. (René Kieffer "Johannesevangeliet" p 418; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Elsewhere … the verb (fulfil/complete) is used to describe the NT fulfilment of OT passages. … Only here and in 18:32 do we have the verb used for fulfilling (completing) the words of Jesus. … Such usage implicitly puts Jesus' words on a level with the words of the Jewish Scriptures and is the beginning of an attitude that would lead toward the recognition of canonical Christian writings alongside the Jewish ones. (Raymond E. Brown "The Gospel according to John" p 811)

Brown notes that the notion of fulfilment (completion) puts Jesus' words on the same level as the Old Testament; but see already Mark 13:31. (C.K. Barrett "The Gospel according to St John" p 521)

Corah and his company agreed together for evil … and Judas agreed with the Jews for evil. (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers XIV:206)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Gordon Bridger, Carl Grimberg, Selma Lagerlöf, Jonas Lie, Mouloud Mammeri, Alexander Solsjenitzyn, Viktor Rydberg, Fredrik Wislöff.


My own comments and speculations:

In a restoration perspective it is possible to see how the 250 men (togeher with the 14700; cf. “the leader of a thousand (men)” in John 18:12) in Num 16 are restored, when the men in John 18:1-12 fall to the ground without being “drunk down” by it. In stead they soon rise again.

However, after this event nothing more in the Gospel of John is said about Judas. In fact it is as if he has been “drunk down” by the earth. Judas - who was a slanderer - fell “on the ground” like the serpent and like Holophernes (Judith 14:18). Nothing is said about his rising again.

The word meaning ”on the ground” in the OT first occurs in Judith (12:15; 14:18) and in the NT it only occurs in the Gospel of John (9:6; 18:6). Compare the possible allusion in the near context of the Greek word for cohort (cf. John 18:3 and Judith 14:11). This word occurs four times in the OT and seven times in the NT. Furthermore the Greek word for weapon occurs in both John 18:3 and Judith 14:11.

Observe the contrast between Jesus' falling to the ground in Mark (14:35) and the the falling “on” the ground of the adversaries in John (18:6).

Concerning the verb “complete”, see My own comments and speculations to John 19:33-37.


Additional studies:

Job 1:20; Is 28:13; Matt 26:50; Mark 10:45; Luke 12:20-21; 21:33; John 18:4,32; 19:19; Acts 9:4-5; 26:14-15; Rev 1:17.


Charles H. Giblin "Confrontations in John 18:1-27"; Biblica 65 (1984): 210-232.

Alasdair B. Gordon "The Fate of Judas According to Acts 1:18"; The Evangelical Quarterly 43.2 (April-June 1971): 97-100.

H.S. Nyberg "Korah's uppror (Num 16f.)"; Svensk Exegetisk Årsbok 12 (1947): 236-252.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-05-19; 2012-03-01; 2014-10-25)

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18:10-11 Simon Peter, having a dagger, so drew it and hurt/struck the slave of the priest leader and cut off his right little ear. But a name to the slave (continually/-) was Malchus. Jesus so spoke to Peter: “Throw/put the dagger into the repository/sheath. The cup which the Father has given (and gives) Me, may not/certainly not I drink it?”

Word for word: 18:10 (26 words in the Greek text; the sequence of the words according to Sinaiticus) Simon so Peter having (a)-dagger drew it and hurt the slave (of)-the (of)-priest-leader and cut-off his the little-ear the right. was-(continually) but (a)-namn (to)-the slave Malchus. 18:11 (23 words in the Greek text) spoke so the Jesus (to)-the Peter: throw the dagger into the repository. the cup which has-given-(and-gives) me the father not/certainly not (i/I)-may-drink it?


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

Abraham took ... the dagger, and (he and his son) the two went together. ... (But the messenger of the Lord spoke:) “You may not throw/lay Your hand against, against the very little boy.” (Gen 22:6b,12a, Greek OT)

Having taken (Dinah, Jacob's daughter) (Sychem) ‘fell asleep’/’went to bed’ in company with her and humbled her. … (And Simeon and Levi, two of Jacob's sons) killed Sychem in/with 'a mouth'/'an edge' of a dagger. (Gen 34:2b,26a, Greek OT)

(Jacob said to his sons:) "Simeon and Levi (are) brothers. They brought unrighteousness to a consummation out of their ‘taking for themselves’/choice." (Gen 49:5, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Moses and Aaron:) ”It will not be a blow of the thing to 'rub out of'/'destroy by rubbing' in/among you, when I – according to the circumstances – hurt in earth/'the land' Egypt.” (Ex 12:13b, Greek OT)

Israel hit (Sihon, the king of the Amorites) with a murder/’deadly wound’ of a dagger. (Num 21:24a, Greek OT)

(Judas and Simon) cut off the borders/tops of the hands and feet of (the king of Canaan). (Judges 1:6b, Greek OT)

Every/all the people having been (and being) left behind from/by the Amorites (and the other nations) being not out of the sons of Israel … (these) Solomon led up into a tribute of slavery till this day. (1 Kings 9:20,21b, Greek OT)

(Eliphaz said: “The Lord) hurt, and/but His hands healed.” (Job 5:18, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said:) “A cup (is) in a hand of the Lord, an undiluted wine ... . All the missers (of His mark) of the earth will be drunk.” (Ps 75:8 or 75:9, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Zion:) ”Your stable ones will fall (with/by) a dagger, and the repositories of your adornment will be humbled and grieved.” (Is 3:25b-26a, Greek OT)

Arouse/’wake up’, arouse/’wake up’, stand up Jerusalem having drunk the cup of the passion out of a hand of the Lord. (Is 51:17a, Greek OT)

The dagger of the Lord! ... Restore/withdraw into your sheath. Bring/come to rest. (Jer 47:6, Greek OT)

... This is what the Lord God says towards the sons of Ammon and towards their reproach ... : "A large sword, a large sword is pulled/drawn into/’purposed for’ a sacrifice of slaughter and ... a consummation. ... Turn away/back." (Ezek 21:28a,30a, Greek OT)

(Judith said:) ”The Lord, the God of my father Simon, whom You gave a large sword in (his) hand into/’purposed for’ a procuration of justice of (the) ones of other descent.” (Judith 9:2a)

(Maccabaeus had knowledge), that it is not through weapons, but – if according to the circumstances – ... to the worthy ones (the Lord) will ‘make ... about Himself’/acquire the conquest. (2 Macc 15:21b)

(Solomon said: “The blameless male) conquered the gall, not (with) a stability of the body, not (with) the activity of weapons however/but (with) a saying he arranged the chastiser under oaths of fathers and having reminded of covenants.” (Wisdom of Solomon 18:22)

(Daniel said to the king:) “Give me (judicial) authority, and I will kill the dragon without dagger and rod.” (Bel and the Dragon v 25b or 26a, Theod)


The Latter Revelation:

Jesus spoke (to James and John and their mother): "You do not know what you demand. Are you able to drink the cup which I am about to drink?" (Matt 20:22a)

Jesus says to (the one having hit the slave): “Turn/put your dagger away/back into its place.” (Matt 26:52a)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “If – according to the circumstances - your hand may cause you to stumble, cut it off; it is fine/’better for’ you to come into, into the life crooked, or/than having/with the two hands, come into (א*), into the Gehenna, into the unquenchable fire. … And if – according to the circumstances - your foot may cause you to stumble, cut it off; it is fine/’better for’ you to come into, into the life lame, or/than having/with the two feet, to be thrown into the Gehenna.” (Mark 9:43,45)

Having come before/forth a small/little (bit) (Jesus) fell upon the earth and prayed (continually), in order that, if it is able/possible, the hour might come by the side of from Him. And He (continually/repeatedly) said: “Abba, the Father, all things are able for You. Carry this cup from the side of, from Me. However/but not what I want, however/but what You (want).” (Mark 14:35-36)

One of the ones standing by the side of having pulled the dagger he hurt/struck the slave of the priest leader and took off his little ear.” (Mark 14:47)

(Jesus raised His voice to the crowd:) “The one having ears to hear, let him hear.” (Luke 8:8b)

(Jesus) spoke to (His disciples): "The kings of the nations are lords of/over them. ... But you (are) not in this way, however/but let ... the one (among you) being in command (become) as the one rendering service." (Luke 22:25a,26a,c)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) ”Let (now) the one having not (money) sell his garment and buy a dagger.” (Luke 22:36b; cf. the dagger of the Spirit, which is the word of God, see Eph 6:17)

One, a certain one out of (the ones standing around) hit the slave of the priest leader and took off his right ear. (Luke 22:50)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Jesus said:) “Now My soul is (and has been) troubled, and what may I speak? ‘Father, save Me out of this hour?’ However because of this I came into this hour.” (John 12:27)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

“Ou mê” with aorist subjunctive emphatic negative referring to future, here interrogative, “is it conceivable that I should not?” (Max Zerwick-May Grosvenor "A Grammatical Analysis of the Greek New Testament"; the comment to John 18:11).

The man (Malchus) is named only in John. The name is probably derived from the common Semitic root m-l-k (e.g. Hebrew melek, king). (C.K. Barrett "The Gospel according to St John" p 522)

John, who omits the prayer in Gethsemane before the arrest, shows his knowledge of it, but emphasizes two further points. (a) He uses the expression (“the cup”) not in a prayer that the cup may pass but in a calm determined acceptance of it (cf. 12:27 …). (b) The cup is the Father's gift; Jesus suffering is not the arbitrary and unfortune result of circumstances but the work appointed him by the Father. It is right to note the freedom with which John handles the synoptic material, but also his faithfulness to its meaning, and the fact that behind the peculiarly Johannine language there lies the common vocabulary of the primitive tradition. (C.K. Barrett "The Gospel according to St John" p 522)

What well they do, who hold their hands from the sword, the ones understanding to wait upon in quiet, to place their hearts in peace letting God govern. (Selma Lagerlöf "Gösta Berlings saga" p 180; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Luther: Put your sword into sheath Ulrich and fight with the pen! The weapons of the spirit are ours! Only the spirit's! You know: the worldly might is the one we fight against. (August Strindberg "Näktergalen i Wittenberg" s 133; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: James Atkinson, Tage Aurell, Håkan Bengtsson, Ragnar Blomqvist, Ingmar Brohed, Görel Cavalli-Björkman, Carl Grimberg, Jan Guillou, Dick Harrison, Alf Henrikson, C.G. Hjelm, Anders Jeffner, Bruce Kaye, Christofer Klasson, Rolf Klinth, Veikko Antero Koskenniemi, Martin Luther, Vilhelm Moberg, Alice Munro, Fredrik Nielsen, John Ongman, Efraim Palmqvist, Anna Maria Roos, Viktor Rydberg, Isaac Bashevis Singer, Stig Sjödin, Sven Stolpe, John Stott, Chris Sugden, Esaias Tegnér, Zacharias Topelius, Roger Williamson, Emile Zola.


My own comments and speculations:

The king of the Amorites was hit with dagger in the desolate (district). Later the Amorites became slaves under Israel. Now – in a restoration perspective - the slave/king, who is hit with dagger, is restored by escaping the dagger (and be healed according to the Gospel of Luke).

It is noteworthy, that John, like Matthew and Mark but unlike Luke, doesn't say that the ear was healed. Perhaps we also have an explanation and a restoration in a possible background in Mark 9:43,45, where the thought is, that it is better to come into life crooked (even if it is the right and best “little” ear which perish) than to go into the Gehenna with a whole body. Cf. Rev 2:7a: “He who has an ear, let him hear what the Spirit says to the (assemblies) of called out.” Compare the two ears in Luke 8:8. Cf. also My own comments and speculations to John 18:25-27.

John, like Mark, mentions that Simon cut or took off ”the little ear” (or ear lobe, cf. John 18:26) of the “king”. Compare with Judges 1:6 where Simon and Judas cut off the “tops” of the hands and feet of the king of the enemies. We can so see the words here in John as a kind of completion of the words in the OT.

Concerning the connection between Jacob's son Simeon and Jesus' disciple Simon Peter, see My own comments and speculations to John 1:42.


Paul said to the believers in Corinth: ”The body is not one limb however/but many. If – according to the circumstances - the foot may speak that/: ‘I am not a hand, I am not out of the body’, this is ‘not not’/nevertheless to the side of, out of the body. And if – according to the circumstances - the ear may speak that/: ‘I am not an eye, I am not out of the body’, this is 'not not'/nevertheless to the side of, out of the body.” (1 Cor 12:14-16)

Paul said to the believers in Ephesos: "(Receive) the dagger of the Spirit, which is a word of God." (Eph 6:17b)


Greek words:

apokoptô (cut off) (in the NT) Mark 9:43,45; John 18:10 – John 18:26; Acts 27:32; Gal 5:12.

dexios (right) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Luke 22:50; John 18:10 – Tobit 1:2; 1 Macc 2:22; 6:45; 7:47; 9:1,14-16; 11:66; 13:45,50; 1 Macc 10:85; 2 Macc 4:34; 11:26; 12:11-12; 13:22; 14:33; 15:15; Wisdom of Solomon 5:16; Sir 12:12; 21:19,21; 49:11; Epistle of Jeremiah v 13(14); Matt 5:29-30,39; 6:3; 20:21,23; 22:44; 25:33-34; 26:64; 27:29,38; Mark 10:37,40; 12:36; 14:62; 15:27; 16:5; Luke 1:11; 6:6,29(א*); 20:42; 22:69; 23:33; John 21:6. Acts 2:25,33-34; 3:7; 5:31, 7:55-56; Rom 8:34; 2 Cor 6:7; Gal 2:9; Eph 1:20; Col 3:1; Heb 1:3,13; 8:1; 10:12; 12:2; 1 Pet 3:22; Rev 1:16-17,20; 2:1; 5:1,7; 10:2,5; 13:16.

thêkê (repository) Is 3:26; John 18:11 – Ex 25:7; Is 6:13.

Malchos (Malchus) John 18:10. See Exegetes, evangelists and others + My own comments and speculations.

machaira (dagger) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Bel and the Dragon v 26; Matt 26:52; Mark 14:47; Luke 22:36; John 18:10-11 – Esther 3:13f(B6); 1 Macc 3:12; 4:6; 2 Macc 5:2(3); Sir 28:18; Matt 10:34; 26:47,51,55; Mark 14:43,48; Luke 21:24; 22:38,49,52; Acts 12:2; 16:27; Rom 8:35; 13:4; Eph 6:17; Heb 4:12; 11:34,37; Rev 6:4, 13:10,14.

paiô (hurt) (in the NT) Mark 14:47; John 18:10 – Matt 26:68; Luke 22:64; Rev 9:5.

potêrion (cup) (in the NT + one example in the Apocrypha) Matt 20:22; Mark 14:36; John 18:11 – Esther 1:7; Matt 10:42; 20:23; 23:25-26; 26:27,39; Mark 7:4; 9:41; 10:38-39; 14:23; Luke 11:39; 22:17,20,42; 1 Cor 10:16,21; 11:25-28; Rev 14:10; 16:19; 17:4; 18:6.

ôtarion (little ear) Mark 14:47; John 18:10.


Additional studies:

Jer 25:15; Matt 13:9,43; 26:42-44; Mark 4:9,23; 8:18; 9:47;10:42-44; 14:37-39; Luke 18:7; 22:51; John 18:26; Rev 2:7,17,29; 3:6,13,22; 6:4; 11:5; 13:9.


Charles H. Giblin "Confrontations in John 18:1-27"; Biblica 65 (1984): 210-232.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-05-20; 2012-03-03; 2014-10-26; 2014-12-17)

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18:12-14 The cohort and “the leader of a thousand (men)” and the rowers/servants of the Jews took so together Jesus and bound Him. And they led (Him) first towards Annas, for he (continually/-) was father-in-law of Caiaphas, who (continually/-) was a priest-leader of that period of time. But Caiaphas (continually) was the one who had given the Jews counsel, that it 'carries/brings together'/'is profitable' (to get) one man to die in favour of the people.

Word for word: 18:12 (17 words in the Greek text) the so cohort and the leader-of-a-thousand and the rowers (of)-the (of)-Jews took-together the Jesus and bound him. 18:13 (16 words in the Greek text) and (they)-led towards Annas first. (he)-(continually)-was for father-in-law (of)-the (of)-Caiaphas, who (continually)-was (a)-priest-leader (of)-the (of)-period-of-time that. 18:14 (15 words in the Greek text) was-(continually) but Caiaphas the-(one) having-given-counsel (to)-the Jews that (it)-carries-together one man (to)-die in-favour-of the people.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The father-in-law Jethro said to Moses:) "You will be entirely ruined ... you and every/all this people, who are in company with you. This word (to judge between a man and his neighbour) is weighty to you. You will not be able to make/do it alone. So now hear Me and I will give you counsel, and God will be in company with you. Become you to the people the things towards God. ... And you will be able to stand by the side of, and every/all this people also will arrive into their place in company with peace. ... And Moses ‘said at’/named able males from every/all Israel and made them ... leaders of a thousand (men) and of a hundred (men) and of fifty (men) and of ten (men)." (Ex 18:18b-19a,23b,25a, Greek OT)

(The Lord spoke to Moses about "this evil synagogue/gathering":) "They will be utterly used up in this desolate (district) and they will die there." ... And/but Jesus/Joshua ... and Caleb ... lived. (Num 14:35b,38a, Greek OT)

The ones deceasing (and having deceased) in the quake became 14700 separately the ones deceasing (and having deceased) with respect to Korah. (Num 16:49, Greek OT)

(The inhabitants in Jerusalem will say:) “We may bind the righteous one, because he is not beneficial to us.” (Is 3:10a, Greek OT)

The soul (of the boy/servant of the Lord) was given ‘to the side of’/over into death and He was counted in/among the lawless ones. And He Himself carried up misses (of the mark of God) of many and because of their misses (of the mark of God) He was given ‘to the side of’/over. (Is 53:12b, Greek OT)

(The commanders) came against the officers and “the leaders of a thousand (men)” and against all their leaders. (Judith 14:12b)

(The lawless enemies said: “Bakchides) will take together/’hold of’ all (the Israelites) in one night.” And having gone they took counsel together (with) him. (1 Macc 9:58b-59a)

(The commander of the enemies) dispatched away over five hundred soldiers to take together/’hold of’ (a father of the Jews). (2 Macc 14:39b)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “Every counsellor ‘lifts out’/praises a/his counsel. However he is giving counsel into/’purposed for’ himself.” (Sir 37:7)


The Latter Revelation:

(The priest leaders and the elders of the people) took counsel together, in order that they might get power over Jesus (with) deceit and kill Him. (Matt 26:4)

Herod/’Herod's men’ ... ‘got power (over)’/seized John and bound him. … Having become a seasonable day ... Herod made a chief meal for his great men and for the leaders of a thousand (men) and for the first ones of Galilee. (Mark 6:17a,21)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "The one who – according to the circumstances – may want to be first in/among you will be a slave of all. For and/also the Son of the Man has not come to ‘be rendered’/receive service however/but to render service, and to give His soul (as) a ransom instead of many." (Mark 10:44-45)

Early in the day having made ready (א,*א) a council meeting the priest leaders in company with the elders and the (א,*א) scribes and the whole council and having bound Jesus they straight off carried Him away and gave Him by the side of to Pilate. (Mark 15:1)

Upon/’in the time of’ a priest leader Annas and of Caiaphas, a word of God became/came against/to John. (Luke 3:2a)

Having taken (Jesus) together (the priest leaders and the officers of the temple and the elders) led Him ... into the habitation of the priest leader. (Luke 22:54a)

(Peter said:) ”Males, brothers, the writing (continually) had to be completed, which the Holy Spirit spoke beforehand through the mouth of David on account of Judas, the one having become a guide to the ones having together taken Jesus.” (Acts 1:16)

Annas, the priest leader, and Caiaphas ... (continually) were (in Jerusalem). (Acts 4:6a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

One, a certain one of (the priest leaders and the Pharisees), Caiaphas, being a priest leader of that period of time, spoke to them: “You do not know nothing/anything, nor you count that it 'carries/brings together'/'is profitable' * (א,*א) 'in order that'/that one man may die in favour of the people, and (that) not the whole nation may perish.” But this he did not speak from Himself, however/but being a priest leader that period of time, he prophesied, that Jesus was (continually) about to die in favour of the nation. (John 11:49-51)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "Greater welcome has no one than this, ‘in order that’/that he (P66,א*) may put/inter his soul in favour of his friends. " (John 15:13)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: August Strindberg.


My own comments and speculations:

In both Ex 18:17-25 and in John 18:12-14 we have the three words for 1) father-in-law (Greek OT: pentheros), 2) give counsel (Greek OT: symbouleuô) and 3) leader of a thousand (Greek OT: chiliarchos). In the NT the word for father-in-law only occurs here, while it occurs eight times in the OT. In the Gospels the word for "give counsel" is rare. It only occurs in Matt 26:4 and in John 18:14. And in Ex 18:21 it is the first time in the Bible the word for "leader of a thousand" occurs. Concerning “the leader of a thousand” in John 18:12 and “the 14700” in Num 16:49, cf. My own comments and speculations to John 18:6-9.

In Ex 18 both Moses and the people were spared from being entirly ruined. So in a a restoration perspective - when Messiah appears - the people must be entirely ruined. But Jesus will die for the people. Like Moses He represents the people before God.

In Ex 18 a father-in-law, who has confessed God to be greater than all gods (Ex 18:11), gives counsel and speaks about how Moses and the people will be spared. In John a son-in-law gives counsel and speaks prophetically about Jesus' death for the people. Even this contrast can be seen in a restoration perspective.

The name Jethro means "abundance" (cf. John 3:34; 7:39) or "rest/remnant" (cf. John 12:3; 19:28). As father-in-law Jethro can be seen as a type of Annas, whose name means "grace" (cf. John 1:18).

As son-in-law Caiaphas corresponds to Moses. In Caiaphas we see how the prophet Moses prophesies (cf. John 11:51) about the Prophet Jesus (cf. Deut 18:15-18), that He will die for the people. Moses, who had come with the Law, testifies about Him, who will complete the law in an abundant way by being its last part, its rest.

In Num 16 the people dies, while Jesus/Joshua and Caleb are alive. Now Jesus must die, while the people are alive.

In Mark 6:17,21 we see the bound John the Baptist in the presence of “leaders of a thousand (men)”. Here John became a NT-type of Jesus.

See also My own comments and speculations to John 18:6-9.


Paul said to the believers in Corinth: “For the welcome of Christ holds us together, having judged this, that/: ‘One has died in favour of all; consequently all have died.’” (2 Cor 5:14)


Greek words: (H)annas (Annas) Luke 3:2; John 18:13; Acts 4:6 – John 18:24.

pentheros (father-in-law) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) John 18:13 – Tobit 10:12; 14:12,13(BA); 1 Macc 11:2. Cf. penthera (mother-in-law) in Matt 8:14; 10:35; Mark 1:30; Luke 4:38; 12:53.

syllambanô (take together) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) 1 Macc 9:58; 2 Macc 14:39; Luke 22:54; John 18:12; Acts 1:16 – Judith 6:10-11; 10:12; 1 Macc 5:26-27; 7:2,16,19; 9:36,60-61; 12:40,48,50; 14:2-3; 2 Macc 7:1; 14:40; Bel and the Dragon v 21(Theod); Matt 26:55; Mark 14:48; Luke 1:24,31,36; 2:21; 5:7,9; Acts 12:3; 23:27; 26:21; Phil 4:3; Jas 1:15.

symbouleuô (give counsel; symboleuomai: take counsel together/take counsel together with) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) 1 Macc 9:59; Sir 37:7; Matt 26:4; John 18:14 – 1 Macc 9:69; Sir 44:3; Acts 9:23; Rev 3:18.

chiliarchos (leader of a thousand /men/) (in the NT + examples in the OT) Ex 18:21; Judith 14:12; Mark 6:21; John 18:12 - Ex 18:25; 1 Macc 3:55; 16:19; Acts 21:31-33,37; 22:24,26-29; 23:10,15,17-19,22; 24:22; 25:23; Rev 6:15; 19:18.


Additional studies: Matt 14:3; 20:26-28; 23:11; 26:3,50,57; 27:2; Mark 9:34-35; 14:46,48,53; Luke 22:24-29; John 18:3,24; Rev 3:18; 20:2.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-05-21; 2012-03-04; 2104-10-27)

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18:15-16 But/and Simon Peter (continually) followed Jesus, and (so did) another disciple. But that disciple (continually) was a known one (to) the priest leader, and he came into the court of the priest leader together with Jesus. But Peter stood outside at the door. The other disciple, who (continually) was a known one to (א,*א,A) the priest leader, so came out and spoke to the (female) doorkeeper and he carried (א,* א) Peter into (the court).

Word for word: 18:15 (26 words in the Greek text) Followed-(continually) but the Jesus Simon Peter and another disciple. the but disciple that (continually)-was (a)-known-(one) (to)-the priest-leader and (he)-came-in-together (with)-the Jesus into the court (of)-the (of)-priest-leader. 18:16 (25 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus) the but Peter 'stood-(and-had-stood)'/stood at the door outside. came-out so the disciple, who (continually)-was (a)-known-(one) (to)-the priest-leader and (he)-spoke (to)-the (female)-doorkeeper and (he)-carried-into the Peter.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The Lord said to Moses:) "You shall to (Aaron) be the things (being) towards God." (Ex 4:16b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Moses:) "You shall make a court to the tent." (Ex 27:9a, Greek OT)

The Lord spoke towards Moses: “... You have found (and find) joybringing (grace) in the very eyes of Me, and I know you ‘to the side of’/’in comparison with’ all." (Ex 33:17, Greek OT)

And behold, the doorkeeper of the house cleaned/cleansed the wheats/wheat. (2 Sam 4:6a, Greek OT)

The gate-keepers stood against the gates of the house of the Lord, and/’so that’ an unclean will not come into every/any concern. (2 Chron 23:19a, Greek OT)

(David said:) “If the one hating me had been big-mouthed against me, I had - according to the circumstances - hidden me from him. But you, man having ‘an equal soul’/’the same mind’, my commander and my known/acquaintance.” (Ps 55:12b-13 or 55:13b-14, Greek OT)

(Zerubbabel) will carry ‘out of’/out the stone of the inheritance of/with an equality of joybringing (grace) of its joybringing (graces). (Zech 4:7b, Greek OT)

(The father Tobit said:) “I took a woman (Anna) out of the seed of our lineage and I begot out of her a son ... Tobias.” (Tobit 1:9b, S)

(Tobit said: “One of the ones being in Nineveh) raped all things, as many as ‘was begun under me’/’I possessed’ ... ‘more than’/except my woman Hannah and Tobias, my son.” (Tobit 1:20, S)

When (the son) Tobias heard ... that (his woman was) out of the seed of his father's house, he welcomed her exceedingly. ... (And the name of the mother of Tobias was Anna; cf. the name John, in Greek “Iôannês”.) (Tobit 6:18b or 6:19a, S)

(The nations) carrying/carried into (the sanctuaries) the things (being) not proper to be within (them). (2 Macc 6:4b)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “If – according to the circumstances – (the one understanding the law of the Highest One) may stay in/on, he will entirely leave a name (greater) than (of) a thousand, and if – according to the circumstances – he may be brought to rest (the Highest One) ‘makes ... out’/releases him. (Sir 39:11)

(Baruch said:) ”Happy are we, Israel, because the pleasing things for God are known for us.” (Baruch 4:4)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus taught His disciples to pray in this way:) “You may not carry us into test.” (Matt 6:13a)

(Jesus said to His disciples: "When the Son of the Man is coming it is) as a man having let his habitation be (to go) abroad and having given his slaves the (judicial) authority to everyone his work, and he enjoined the doorkeeper ‘in order that’/that he may be awake." (Mark 13:34)

Peter had followed (Jesus) from afar, till inside into the court of the priest leader. (Mark 14:54a)

(The ones dwelling round about and the relatives) (continually) called (the little boy) on/after the name of his father Zechariah. And/but ‘having answered’/answering his mother and spoke: “By no means, however/but he will/shall be called John.” And they spoke towards her that/: “It/there is no one out of your kinsfolk who is called (with) this name.” … (But his father wrote:) “John is the (א,*א,A) name of him.” And all wondered. (Luke 1:59b-61,63b)

It/there (continually) was a prophetess Anna, a daughter of Phanuel, out of (the) tribe of Asher. This one, 'stepping (and having stepped) forward'/'being (and having been) advanced' in many days, having/had lived in company with a male seven years from her virginity and her widow/widowhood (was) till seventyfour (א*) years, who/'and she' did not stand aloof of/from the sanctuary, serving night and day (with) fastings and prayers. And having stood on/near she this hour ‘confessed against’/praised God and talked on account of (the child Jesus) (with) all the ones ‘receiving towards’/’waiting for’ the redemption of Jerusalem. (Luke 2:36-38) Cf. the words of Moses in Deut 33:24 (Greek OT): “Blessed from/among children (is) Aser, and his brothers will be agreeable. His foot will dipped in olive-oil.”

All Jesus' ‘known (ones)’/acquaintances … (stood) 'from from afar'/’at a distance’ and (beheld) these things. (Luke 23:49)

It became against the following day (that) ... Annas, the priest leader, and Caiaphas and John and Alexander and as many as (continually) were of the descent of priest leader (‘were led together). And having caused (Peter and John) to stand in the middle of (them) they inquired: ”In/with what kind of ability or in/with what kind of name did you make/do this?” ... (Peter said:): ”Let it be known to you and to every/’the whole’ people of Israel, that (it has come about) in the name of Jesus Christ, the Nazoraean, whom you have crucified.” (Acts 4:5a,6-7,10a)

(The leaders and the elders of the people said about the apostles:) "What shall we do (with) these men? For that indeed a known sign has become/’come about’ (and becomes/’comes about’) through them (is) visible to all the ones dwelling in Jerusalem, and we are not able to deny (it)." (Acts 4:16)

(The young girl) brought away a message that Peter stand/stood before/’in front of’ the gateway. (Acts 12:14b)

The priest leader Ananias 'arranged on'/ordered the ones standing by the side of (Paul) to slap his mouth. (Acts 23:2)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

We have all taken out of the complement (of the Saying) and joybringing (grace) instead of joybringing (grace). (John 1:16)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Amen, amen, I say to you, the one not coming into, into the court of the sheep through the door, however/but ascending from another place, that one is a thief and a robber. But the one coming into/in through the door is (the) shepherd of the sheep. To this one the doorkeeper opens, and the sheep hear his voice, and he raises his voice (towards) his own sheep ‘according to name’/’after their names’, and he leads them out.” (John 10:1-3)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

It is possible even from bare names to find a great treasure. If, for instance, you were shown why Sarah, why Israel, why Samuel, you would find even from this a great many real subjects of research. (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers XI:553)

Who is that other disciple? It is the writer himself. (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers XIV:308)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Ad. Kolmodin, LarsOlov Eriksson, Edvin Larsson, Martin Luther, Emil Malm, Olof Moe, Einar Rimmerfors, Esaias Tegnér.


My own comments and speculations:

It is quite possible to identify “the other disciple” with the apostle John. In contrast to Peter he doesn't hesitate to follow Jesus right into court. John is a “spiritual” known with the priest leader Annas (and with the priest leader Ananias in Acts 23:2) by his name John. Compare the spiritual meaning of “known” in Luke 23:49. And in Luke 2:44 “known” are separated from “relatives”.

Both names, Annas and John, have the meaning of “grace”. Their names are “equal” (cf. Ps 55:13). The name of a person is important (cf. John 10:3), and the name of John is as important as any (cf. John 1:6) or perhaps more important (cf. Luke 1:59-63 where John is a name given rather according to spirit than to flesh). In the names of Annas and John it could be said that we have "joybringing (grace) instead of joybringing (grace)" (see John 1:16). Cf. Zech 4:7. Compare also the double use of “joybringing (grace)” with the double use of “amen” (cf. My own comments and speculations to John 1:51a). The words “joybringing (grace)” and “truth” are especially important (cf. John 1:17) to describe Jesus. Compare also the resemblance between the prophetess Anna and John concerning name, task (prophetess/prophet, cf Rev 1:3), age, selection (Anna: “blessed among children”; John: “welcomed by Jesus”) and the number seven.

Probably we also have an allusion to Acts 4:5-10,16 where we can observe the following words: Annas, priest leader, Caiaphas, John (who was of the descent of priest leader), Peter (who here was together with the apostle John), known (Greek: gnôstos). The apostle John will by his (and Peter's) teaching about the resurrection of Jesus make himself “known” to the priest leader.

We also can observe that the doorkeeper opens to Jesus and John. Jesus is the fine shepherd in a unique meaning but also John is a fine shepherd. Peter can enter the court of Annas - the court of grace - only on the authority of John. Perhaps we can here compare the relation between John and Peter with the relation between Moses and Aaron, which is described in Ex 4:16, where Moses would be to Aaron as God. Cf. John 10:1-3. Peter also enters the court of the priest leader, which can allude to the priest leader Aaron as a type of Peter (cf. My own comments and speculations to John 21:16). On John's precedence over Peter in the Gospel of John, see for instance My own comments and speculations to John 20:3-10 and John 21:16.

Furthermore observe the near connection between Matt 6:13 and John 18:15 and the following verses 18:16-18,25-27.


Greek words:

gnôstos (known) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Baruch 4:4; Luke 23:49; John 18:15-16; Acts 4:10,16 – Sir 21:7; Luke 2:44; Acts 1:19; 2:14; 9:42; 13:38; 15:18; 19:17; 28:22,28; Rom 1:19.

eisferô (carry into) (in the NT + one example in the Apocrypha) 2 Macc 6:4; Matt 6:13; John 18:16 – Luke 5:18-19; 11:4; 12:11; Acts 17:20; 1 Tim 6:7; Heb 13:11.


Additional studies:

Tobit 10:4; 11:9; Matt 26:58; Luke 11:21-22; 22:54-55; John 10:3; 18:24,28; Acts 12:13; Rev 11:2.


Robert T. Fortna "Jesus and Peter at the High Priest's House: A Test Case for the Question of the Relation Between Mark's and John's Gospels"; New Testament Studies 24 (1978): 371-383.

Frans N. Neirynck "The 'Other Disciple' in Jn 18:15-16"; Ephemerides Theologicae Lovanienses 51 (1975): 113-141.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-05-21; 2012-03-05; 2014-10-28)

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18:17-18 The young girl, the (female) doorkeeper, so says to Peter: “Are not and/also you out of the disciples of this Man? That one says: “I am not.” But the slaves and the rowers/servants having made (and making) a charcoal heap stood (there), because it (continually) was a cold, and they (continually) warmed themselves. But and/also Peter, standing and warming himself, (continually) was in company with them, .

Word for word: 18:17 (22 words in the Greek text; the sequence of the words according to Sinaiticus) says so the young-girl the (female)-doorkeeper (to)-the Peter: not and you out-of the disciples (you)-are (of)-the (of)-man this? says this: not (i/I)-am. 18:18 (24 words in the Greek text) 'stood-(and-had-stood)'/stood but the slaves and the rowers (a)-charcoal-heap having-made-(and-making), because (a)-cold (it)-(continually)-was and (they)-(continually)-warmed-themselves. was-(continually) but and the Peter in-company-with them 'standing-(and-having-stood)'/standing and warming-himself.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The Lord said to Moses:) "You shall to (Aaron) be the things (being) towards God." (Ex 4:16b, Greek OT)

(The people said to Aaron:) “Stand up and make us gods who will go before us. For Moses, this man, ... we do not know what has become (and becomes) (with) him.” ... And (Aaron) made a cast/molten young bull to them and (the people) said: “These (are) your gods, Israel, whoever/who have caused you to go up out of (the) earth/land of Egypt.” And having beheld (this) Aaron built a sacrificial altar entirely opposite it. (Ex 32:1b,4b,5a, Greek OT)

(Balaam said:) "I shall show him and/but by no means now. I call him happy, and/but he does not draw near. A constellation shall stick up out of Jacob, and a man shall stand up out of Israel." (Num 24:17a, Greek OT)

Sarah ... (had to hear) reproaches by one of the young girls of her father. (Tobit 3:7b, BA)

(The males in the city) opened the gate and received (Judith) underneath/kindly and having fastened/ignated fire into a beacon they encircled (her) around. (Judith 13:13b)

(Solomon said to the Lord:) “Your word keeps throughout the ones believing (in) You, for the thing which was not ruined by fire melted plainly/simply by a warming short/little ray of sun. In such way it was known, that one must be in advance of the sun against/’in quest of’ Your thankfulness and entreat you towards an upsticking of light.” (Wisdom of Solomon 16:26b-28)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “From/’owing to’ a spark of fire a charcoal heap is ‘made full’/fulfilled, and a man ‘being a misser (of)/missing (the mark of God) lies in ambush into/’for the purpose of’ blood/bloodshed. Give heed from/to a badman, for he frames/devises evil things.” (Sir 11:32-33a)

(The three men in the burning fiery furnace said:) “Bless the Lord, fire and scorching heat … Bless the Lord, coldness and cold.” (The Song of Praise of the Three Men v 43a,44a)


The Latter Revelation:

(Peter) began to accurse and swear that/: “I do not know the Man!” (Matt 26:74a)

Peter was (continually) seating in company together with the rowers/servants and warming himself towards the light. ... One (א,*א) young girl of the priest leader comes and having beheld Peter warming himself, (and) having seen/’fixed her eyes’ in him she says: “And/also you were (continually) in company with the Nazarene Jesus.” But 'the one'/he denied (it). (Mark 14:54b,66b-68a)

Having fastened/ignated a fire round about in a middle of the court (the priest leaders and the officers of the temple and the elders) and having sat down together Peter (continually) was seated in (א,*א,A) their middle. (Luke 22:55)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

The rowers/servants answered (to the priest leaders and The rowers/servants answered: “’Nor at any time’/never has a man talked in this way as this One, the Man, talks (P66,א*)!” (John 7:46)

(Peter said to Jesus:) “My soul I will put/inter in favour of You.” Jesus answers: “Will you put/inter your soul in favour of Me? Amen, amen, I say to you: ‘A rooster may not/certainly not ‘raise its voice’/crow, till (the time in) which you will deny away (א,* א, A) Me three times.’” (John 13:37b-38)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: Martin Ader, Sivar Ahlrud, Lars-Ola Borglid, T.S. Eliot, Bo Giertz, William Golding, Carl Grimberg, Agne Hamrin, Juan Ramon Jiménez, Torgny Lindgren, Harry Sjöman, Anfin Skaaheim, Sigfrid Svensson, Esaias Tegnér, Anton Tjechov, Bertil Waldén.


My own comments and speculations:

Peter - like Aaron - denied the Lord three times. See My own comments and speculations to John 13:37b-38, 18:25-27 and 21:17.

Concerning the charcoal heap, see also My own comments and speculations to John 21:8-9.


Greek words:

anthrakia (charcoal heap) Sir 11:32; John 18:18 – John 21:9.

thermainomai (warm oneself) (in the NT + one example in the Apocrypha) Wisdom of Solomon 16:27; Mark 14:54,67; John 18:18 – John 18:25; Jas 2:16.

paidiskê (young girl) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Tobit 3:7; Mark 14:66; John 18:17 – Esther 7:4; Tobit 3:8; 8:12-13; 10:10; Judith 8:7; 10:10; 12:13; Wisdom of Solomon 9:5; Sir 41:22(24); Susanna v 36; Matt 26:69; Mark 14:69; Luke 12:45; 22:56; Acts 12:13; 16:16; Gal 4:22-23,30-31.

psychos (cold) (in the NT + one example in the Apocrypha) The Song of Praise of the Three Men v 44; John 18:18 – Acts 28:2; 2 Cor 11:27.


Additional studies:

Is 44:16; Matt 26:58,70; Mark 14:30; Luke 22:57; John 18:25; Rev 3:15.


Craig A. Evans "Peter Warming Himself: The Problem of an Editorial 'Seam'."; Journal of Biblical Literature 101 (1982): 245-249.

Robert T. Fortna "Jesus and Peter at the High Priest's House: A Test Case for the Question of the Relation Between Mark's and John's Gospels"; New Testament Studies 24 (1978): 371-383.

Charles H. Giblin "Confrontations in John 18:1-27"; Biblica 65 (1984): 210-232.

Maurits Sabbe "The Denial of Peter in the Gospel of John"; Louvain Studies 20 (1995): 219-240.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-05-21; 2012-03-06; 2014-10-29)

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18:19-21 The priest leader so asked Jesus on account of His disciples and on account of His teaching. Jesus answered him: “I have talked (and talk) (in) plain language (with) the adornment/’adorned world’. I have always taught in a synagogue and in the sanctuary, whereat all the Jews come together, and in a hidden (place) I talked nothing. What/why do you ask Me? Ask the ones having heard (and hearing) what I have talked (with) them. Behold, these know what things I have spoken.”

Word for word: 18:19 (15 words in the Greek text) The so priest-leader asked the Jesus on-account-of the disciples his and on-account-of the teaching his. 18:20 (27 words in the Greek text) answered him Jesus: i/I (in)-plain-language has-talked-(and-talks) (with)-the adornment, i/I always taught in (a)-synagogue and in the sanctuary, whereat all the Jews come-together, and in (a)-hidden-(place) (i/I)-talked nothing. 18:21 (15 words in the Greek text) what/why me (you)-ask? ask the-(ones) having-heard-(and-hearing) what (i/I)-talked (with)-them. behold, these 'know-(and-have-known)'/know what-(things) spoke i/I.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

The Lord spoke towards Moses: "Behold, I have beheld the ill-treatment of My people in Egypt, and I have heard (and hear) their scream.... And I have descended to take them out for Myself, out of the hand of Egyptians." ... But Moses and Aaron went and led together the council of elders of the sons of Israel. And Aaron talked all these words which God had talked towards Moses. (Ex 3:7a,8a; 4:29-30a, Greek OT)

It/there (continually) was not water (in/for) the synagogue, and they assembled themselves against Moses and Aaron. ... (They said to Moses:) "’In order that’/’because of’ what have you led the synagogue of the Lord up into this desolate (district)? ... And ‘in order that’/’because of’ this what/why have you led us up out of Egypt?" (Num 20:2,4a,5a, Greek OT)

(Solomon said:) “Upon the high things of borders/tops (the Wisdom) is, ‘upwards middle’/at the paths she stands, for she sits by the side of, by the side of gates of sovereigns, but/and she sings hymns in/at ‘ways in’/entrances (of cities).” (Prov 8:2-3, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) "I have not talked (and do not talk) in a hidden (place), nor in a dark place of 'an earth'/'a land'. I did not spoke to the seed of Jacob: 'Seek vain.' I am, I am the Lord, talking righteousness and bringing up a message (about) truth.” (Is 45:19, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Israel:) "From a beginning I have not talked in a hidden (place), nor in a dark place of 'an earth'/'a land'. At the time when it became, I (continually) was there. And now the Lord has dispatched (and dispatches) away Me and His Spirit." (Is 48:16b, Greek OT)

A mystery of a king (it is) fine to hide, but the works of God (it is fine) to unveil gloriously. (Tobit 12:7a, BA)

(Solomon said:) “The one having been up early in the morning towards (the wisdom) will not bother, for he will find her sitting by the side of his gateways. … (Wisdom) goes herself about seeking the ones (who are) her worthy and kindly she displays to them in/on their paths and in every after-thought she goes to meet them.” (Wisdom of Solomon 6:14,16)

(God) gave (the wisdom) to His boy Jacob and to Israel, he having been (and being) welcomed by Him. After this she was beheld upon the earth and ‘turned back together with’/associated in/among the men. (Baruch 3:37b-38)


The Latter Revelation:

And (Jesus) led around in * (א*) Galilee, teaching in their synagogues. (Matt 4:23a)

(Jesus said to the crowds:) "’According to day’/’day after day’ I (continually/repeatedly) sat still in the sanctuary teaching ..." (Matt 26:55b)

(The priest leader said to Jesus:) “Do You answer nothing? What (is it that) these are witnesses ‘down from’/against You?” But Jesus (continually) was quiet. (Matt 26:62b-63a)

(The people in the synagogue) were all of them amazed, so that seek/'they sought' themselves together with * (א,* א, B) themselves, saying: “What is this? A new teaching!” (Mark 1:27a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

These things (Jesus) spoke in a synagogue teaching in Capharnaum. (John 6:59)

But already being in the middle of the feast Jesus ascended into the sanctuary and taught. (John 7:14)

(Some of the inhabitants of a disgraced Jerosolyma/Jerusalem said about Jesus): “Behold, He talks (in) plain language, and they say nothing to Him.” (John 7:26a)

(Jesus said to the Jews:) “The things which I have heard from the side of Him, these I talk into the adornment/’adorned world’.” (John 8:26b)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

Here, as often in John, the world is represented by the Jews. (C.K. Barrett "The Gospel according to St John" p 528)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Johannes Gossner.


Additional studies:

Prov 9:3; Matt 9:35; 12:9; 13:54; Mark 1:39; 3:1; 6:2; 8:32; 14:49,55; Luke 2:47; 4:15-16,22,32,44; 6:6; 19:47; 22:53,66-67; John 2:14; 5:14; 6:27; 7:4,10,28,37; 8:2,20; 10:23-24; 16:12-13,25; Acts 26:26.


Charles H. Giblin "Confrontations in John 18:1-27"; Biblica 65 (1984): 210-232.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-05-22; 2012-03-08; 2014-10-30)

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18:22-24 But (when) these things having been spoken by Him, one standing by the side of the rowers/servants gave Jesus a slap with a cudgel, (after) having spoken: “Do you answer the priest leader in this way?” But Jesus spoke (א,*א) to him: “If I have talked badly, be a witness on account of the bad, but if finely, what/why do you flay/flog Me?” But (א,*א) Annas dispatched Him away having been (and being) bound towards Caiaphas, the priest leader.

Word for word: 18:22 (17 words in the Greek text) these-(things) but (of/by)-him having-been-spoken one 'standing-(and-having-stood)'/standing-by-the-side-of the rowers gave (a)-slap-with-a-cudgel (to)-the Jesus having-spoken: in-this-way answer-(you) the priest-leader? 18:23 (18 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus) the but Jesus spoke (to)-him: if but badly, be-a-witness on-account-of the bad. if but finely, what/why me (you)-flay? 18:24 (10 words in the Greek text) dispatched-away but him the Annas having-been-(and-being)-bound towards Caiaphas the priest-leader.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The Lord said to Israel:) "You shall not say/speak badly (of) gods and you shall not speak badly (of) leaders of your people." (Ex 22:28b, Greek OT)

The Lord talked towards Moses, saying: "Take the rod and assemble the synagogue of called out, you and your brother Aaron, and you shall talk towards the rock opposite them, and it will give its waters." ... And Moses and Aaron assembled out the synagogue of called out opposite from the rock ... And having lifted against/up his hand Moses hit the rock (with) his rod twice. And it came out much water. ... And the Lord spoke towards Moses and Aaron: "Because you did not believe Me ... you shall not lead this synagogue into the earth/land which I have given (and give) them." (Num 20:7,8a,10a,11a,12, Greek OT)

The number/counting became of the burnt offering, which the (asembly) of called out ‘carried up’/performed: seventy young bulls, a hundred ‘male sheep’/rams (and) two hundred lambs. All these (were) into/’purposed for’ a burnt offering to the Lord. ... 'However or'/but the priests (continually) were few, and they were not able to flaw the burnt offering. And their brothers, the Levites, 'were taken'/'took hold of (it)' in stead 'till where'/until the work was brought to a consummation. (2 Chron 29:32,34a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) “I am, I am the Lord, talking righteousness and bringing up a message (about) truth.” (Is 45:19b, Greek OT)

(The boy of the Lord said:) "I have given (and give) My back into whips, My cheeks into slaps with a cudgel." (Is 50:6a, Greek OT)

The tacticians and the satraps (continually) sought to find a pretence ‘down from’/against Daniel. And/but every pretence and fall from the side of (God) ... they did not find ‘down from’/against him, because he (continually) was faithful. And the tacticians spoke: “We will not found ‘down from’/against Daniel a pretence/motive ‘if not’/except in laws of his God.” (Dan 6:4-5, Theod)

(Solomon said:) "These well-doers, being foreigners, (continually) were made slaves.” (Wisdom of Solomon 19:14a)

(Judas said to the Lord: “The leader of the enemies) talked badly/evil against Your holy things and judge him according to his badness/evil.” (1 Macc 7:42b)

(Ptolemaios) made a great breach of covenant and gave back bad things in stead of good things. (1 Macc 16:17)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "Whoever cudgels you into/’purposed for’ * (א,*א) the right cheek, turn to him and/also the other." (Matt 5:39b)

(The priest leaders and the elders) say to (Jesus: “The lord of the vineyard) will badly perish bad (farmers).” (Matt 21:41a)

The ones having got power over Jesus led Him away towards Caiaphas, the priest leader. (Matt 26:57a)

They cudgelled (Jesus). (Matt 26:67b)

The scribe spoke to Jesus: “Finely, teacher, You have spoken upon/’with regard to’ truth.” (Mark 12:32a)

One of the ones standing by the side of having pulled the dagger he hurt/struck the slave of the priest leader and took off his little ear.” (Mark 14:47)

The rowers/servants took (Jesus with) slaps with cudgels. (Mark 14:65b)

(The young girl said) to the ones standing by the side of that/: “This one (Peter) is out of them.” (Mark 14:69b)

Early in the day having made ready (א,*א) a council meeting the priest leaders in company with the elders and the (א,*א) scribes and the whole council and having bound Jesus they straight off carried Him away and gave Him by the side of to Pilate. (Mark 15:1)

Some of the scribes spoke (to Jesus): “Teacher, you spoke finely.” (Luke 20:39b)

Flaying/flogging Jesus the males ‘holding together’/’being in charge of’ Him (continually) ‘jested with’/mocked Him. (Luke 22:63)

(Jesus said to the priest leaders and the scribes:) ”If I – according to the circumstances – may ask, you may not/certainly not answer.” (Luke 22:68)

The priest leader Ananias 'arranged on'/ordered the ones standing by the side of (Paul) to slap his mouth. Then Paul spoke towards him: “God is about to slap you, wall of a house, being (and having been) whitewashed. And you are seated judging me according to the law, and/but being by the side of the law you exhort ‘me to be slapped’/’them to slap me’.” But the ones standing by the side of spoke: “Do you insult the priest leader of God?” Both/and Paul uttered: “I did not know, brothers, that he is a priest leader.” For it has been (and is) written that/: “You will/shall not speak badly of a leader of your people.” (Acts 23:2-5)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Jesus said to those Jews who to begin with had believed Him:) "Which one out of you convicts Me on account of miss (of the mark of God)? If I say truth, because of what do you not believe Me?” (John 8:46)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “If I had not made/done in/among them the works, which no one other/else had made/done, they had/’had ... had’ (continually) not (any) miss (of the mark of God), but now they have and/both beheld (and behold) and have hated (and hate) and/both Me and My Father. However (this comes about) in order that the saying may be completed, the one having been (and being) written in their law that/: ‘They hated Me as (if it was) a benefit.”’ (John 15:24-25)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

(1907 May 19th) It seems to be a part of my fate to not be allowed to defend myself! As soon as I try to be right, they give me unright and call it justice! (August Strindberg "Ockulta dagboken" p 260; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

"Here there also is in the code of Sweden something calling 'husaga' (domestic chastisement)", (squire Brackander said to Sven). "Perhaps you do not know, what 'husaga' is? Your back soon will experience it, my boy. I have legal right to maul you, to bruise you, to whip you so that the soul cries in your body . . . " "Yes, legal right", the knowledgeable in legal matters (Crown constable) Spöqvist put in, "according to the 14th chapter of the commercial code and the 36th chapter of the misdoing code." . . . "With such an instrument as this (the squire waved with the chambrière) I cannot beat a bull as you lame and maimed, but I can draw blood from you, can scourge you from top to toe, so that your poor skin hings as a piece of rag, and this, you see, is my right, in the code of laws approved and established in Riksdagen 1734." (Viktor Rydberg "De vandrande djäknarne" p 77; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

The skins of the most holy sacrifices, except such as were wholly burnt, belonged to the priests; those of the less holy to the offerers. ... The Rabbis mention the following five acts as belonging to the offerer of a sacrifice: the laying on of hands, slaying, skinning, cutting up, and washing the inwards. (Alfred Edersheim “The Temple” p 112-113)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Svetlana Aleksijevitj, Eric S. Alexandersson, Carl Jonas Love Almqvist, Vasilij Borisovitj Nesterenko, Winston Churchill, Henry Daniel-Rops, Tage Danielsson, Honoré de Balzac, Oscar Fagerberg, P. Fjellstedt, Röl Gording, Carl Grimberg, Lennart Gustavsson, David Hedegård, Marianne Herrlin, Homeros, Erik Johannesson, Aleksis Kivi, Eskil Källquist, Gustaf Lövqvist, Emil Malm, Vilhelm Moberg, Fredrik Nielsen, Laurence Rees, E. Aug. Skogsbergh, Esaias Tegnér, Thomas a Kempis, Leo Tolstoj.


My own comments and speculations:

To translate by "a blow with a club" is to render the Greek word “rapisma” by a more literal meaning than is usual. Jesus is the slave-servant/boy of the Lord, who gives His cheeks to clubs. He also is the rock, which gives water, living water. And as it was wrong to strike the rock in stead of speaking to it, so it is wrong to strike Jesus in stead of speaking to Him.

Moses and Aron were struck by God for their disobedience to Him. They were not allowed to come into the promised land. In a restoration perspective we see how the men, who struck Jesus, now are on the court of Annas, the court of grace.

To translate by “flaw” is also to render the Greek word by a more literal meaning than is usual. The more figurative meaning of “beat” in Luke 22:63 has in John probably been changed to the literal meaning of the word in 2 Chron 29:34. The word for “flaw” – “derô” – is only used here in the Greek OT. The flawing of the burnt offerings (among others 200 lambs) before their offering is a type of the flawing/beating of the Lamb of God, Jesus Christ, before His offering on the cross (cf. John 1:29).


Greek words: derô (flay) 2 Chron 29:34; Luke 22:63; John 18:23 – Matt 21:35; Mark 12:3,5; 13:9; Luke 12:47-48; 20:10-11; Acts 5:40; 16:37; 22:19; 1 Cor 9:26; 2 Cor 11:20.

kakos (bad) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) 1 Macc 16:17; Matt 21:41; John 18:23 – Esther 3:13e(B5); 7:7; 9:25; 10:3f(F6); Tobit 7:6(7); 12:7; 1 Macc 1:9,11,52; 2:30,43; 3:42,59; 6:12-13,18; 7:15; 8:31; 9:71; 10:5; 2 Macc 1:25; 2:18; 5:8; 10:4,10; 13:4; Wisdom of Solomon 15:6,12; 16:8; Sir 7:1; 11:14,25; 12:5,8-9,17; 17:7; 18:8; 20:9,18; 22:26; 27:22; 31:10,13; 33:1,14; 37:18; 39:4,27; Baruch 1:20,22; 2:7,9; 3:4; 4:18,29; Epistle of Jeremiah v 33,48-49; Prayer of Manasseh v 13. Matt 24:48; 27:23; Mark 7:21; 15:14; Luke 16:25; 23:22; John 18:30; Acts 9:13; 16:28; 23:9; 28:5; Rom 1:30; 2:9; 3:8; 7:19,21; 12:17,21; 13:3-4,10; 14:20; 16:19; 1 Cor 10:6; 13:5; 15:33; 2 Cor 13:7; Phil 3:2; Col 3:5; 1 Thess 5:15; 1 Tim 6:10; 2 Tim 4:14; Tit 1:12; Heb 5:14; Jas 1:13; 3:8; 1 Pet 3:9-12; 3 John v 11; Rev 2:2; 16:2.

kakôs (badly) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrrypha) 1 Macc 7:42; Matt 21:41; John 18:23; Acts 23:5 – Wisdom of Solomon 14:29-30; Matt 4:24; 8:16; 9:12; 14:35; 15:22; 17:15; Mark 1:32,34; 2:17; 6:55; Luke 5:31; 7:2; Jas 4:3.

paristêmi/-anô (stand by the side of) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Mark 14:47,69; John 18:22; Acts 23:2,4 – Esther 8:4; Judith 4:14; 9:6; 11:13; Tobit 12:15; Wisdom of Solomon 19:22; Matt 26:53; Mark 4:29; 14:70; 15:35,39; Luke 1:19; 2:22; 19:24; John 19:26; Acts 1:3,10; 4:10,26, 9:39,41; 23:24,33; 24:13; 27:23-24; Rom 6:13,16,19; 12:1; 14:10; 16:2; 1 Cor 8:8; 2 Cor 4:14; 11:2; Eph 5:27; Col 1:22,28; 2 Tim 2:15; 4:17.

rapisma (slap with a cudgel) Is 50:6; Mark 14:65; John 18:22 – John 19:3.


Additional studies:

Matt 26:3; 27:2; Mark 15:19; Luke 3:2; 6:29; John 1:29;18:3,13,15; 19:3; Rev 22:11.


John A. Beck "Why did Moses Strike Out? The Narrative-Geographical Shaping of Moses' Disqualification in Numbers 20:1-13"; Westminster Theological Journal 65.1 (2003): 135-141.

Martin Emmrich "The Case Against Moses Reopened"; Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 46.1 (2003): 53-62.

Charles H. Giblin "Confrontations in John 18:1-27"; Biblica 65 (1984): 210-232.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-05-22; 2012-03-08; 2014-10-31; 2014-12-17)

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18:25-27 But Simon Peter (continually) was standing and warming himself. They so spoke to him: “Are not and/also you out of His disciples?” That One denied and spoke: “I am not.” One out of the slaves of the priest leader – being a relative of whom Peter had cut off the ear lobe – says: “Did I not behold you in the garden in company with Him?” Peter so denied again. And straightaway a rooster ‘raised its voice’/crowed.

Word for word: 18:25 (24 words in the Greek text) Was-(continually) but Simon Peter 'standing-(and-having-stood)'/standing and warming-himself. (they)-spoke so (to)-him: not and you out-of the disciples his are? denied that-(one) and spoke: not (i/I)-am. 18:26 (23 words in the Greek text) says one out-of the disciples (of)-the (of)-priest-leader, (a)-relative being (of)-whom cut-off Peter the ear-lobe: not i/I you beheld in the garden in-company-with him? 18:27 (9 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus) again so denied the Peter, and straightaway (a)-rooster raised-its-voice.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

Sarah denied, saying: “I did not laugh.”(Gen 18:15a, Greek OT)

... (Aaron) built a sacrificial altar entirely opposite (the molten young bull). (Ex 32:5a, Greek OT)

Mariam and Aaron talked ‘according to’/concerning Moses. ... They spoke: "Not has the Lord talked (and talks) alone/only (with) Moses? Has He by no means and/also talked (with) us?" (Num 12:1a,2a, Greek OT)

The Lord talked towards Moses, saying: "Take the rod and assemble the synagogue of called out, you and your brother Aaron, and you shall talk towards the rock opposite them, and it will give its waters." ... And Moses and Aaron assembled out the synagogue of called out opposite from the rock ... And having lifted against/up his hand Moses hit the rock (with) his rod twice. And it came out much water. ... And the Lord spoke towards Moses and Aaron: "Because you did not believe Me ... you shall not lead this synagogue into the earth/land which I have given (and give) them." (Num 20:7,8a,10a,11a,12, Greek OT)

Israel hit (Sihon, the king of the Amorites) with a murder/’deadly wound’ of a dagger. ... And Og, king of Bashan, came out into a meeting together with them and all his people into war into/at Edrei. ... And (Israel) hit (Og) and his sons and every/all his people. ... And (Israel) took in that seasonable time the earth/land out of hands of two kings of the Amorites. (Num 21:24a,33b,35a; Deut 3:8a, Greek OT)

(Moses said to Israel:) ”You shall take your little shoemakerawl and bore the ear lobe (of your Hebrew brother) towards the door. And he will be member of the household for you into the (coming) age. And you shall make/do in the same manner (with) your ‘young girl’/’female slave’.” (Deut 15:17, Greek OT)

Every/all the people having been (and being) left behind from/by the Amorites (and the other nations) being not out of the sons of Israel … (these) Solomon led up into a tribute of slavery till this day. (1 Kings 9:20,21b, Greek OT)

(King Alexander) dispatched away a golden pin to (Jonathan), as it is a custom to be given given to the relatives of the kings. (1 Macc 10:89a)

(Solomon said to the Lord:) “Your word keeps throughout the ones believing (in) You, for the thing which was not ruined by fire melted plainly/simply by a warming short/little ray of sun. In such way it was known, that one must be in advance of the sun against/’in quest of’ Your thankfulness and entreat you towards an upsticking of light.” (Wisdom of Solomon 16:26b-28)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to the twelve:) "Whoever may – according to the circumstances – deny Me in front of the men, I and/also will deny him in front of My Father, the One (being) in * (P19, א,* א) heavens.” (Matt 10:33)

Jesus uttered to him: “Amen, I say to you, that in this night before a rooster ‘raise/raises its voice’/crows, you shall three times deny away Me.” Peter says to Him: “And if – according to the circumstances – I may have to die together with You, I will not/certainly not deny away You.” (Matt 26:34-35a)

Having stretched out the hand one of (the ones being) in company with Jesus pulled away/out his dagger and having hit the slave of the priest leader, he took off his ear lobe. (Matt 26:51)

(Peter) began to accurse and swear that/: “I do not know the Man!” And straightaway a rooster ‘raised its voice’/crowed. (Matt 26:74)

(Jesus' parents) sought out/for Him in/among the relatives and the known/acquaintances. (Luke 2:44b)

(The other one said to Peter:) "You and/also are out of (the ones being together with Jesus)!" But Peter uttered: "Man, I am not." And having stood asunder/apart ‘as if’/about one hour, some other throughout/repeatedly (continually) affirmed, saying: "Upon/’with regard to’ truth this one and/also (continually) was in company with Him, for and/also he is a Galilean." But Peter spoke: "Man, I do not know what you say." And immediately, (on) his still talking a rooster ‘raised its voice’/crowed. (Luke 22:58b-60)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Jesus said to the Jews believing (and having believed) (in) Him:) “The slave does not stay in the habitation into the (coming) age *(א,*א). If so – according to the circumstances – the Son may set you free, you will certainly be free.” (John 8:35-36)

(Jesus said to Peter:) “Will you put/inter your soul in favour of Me? Amen, amen, I say to you: ‘A rooster may not/certainly not ‘raise its voice’/crow, till (the time in) which you will deny away (א,* א, A) Me three times.’” (John 13:38)

Simon Peter, having a dagger, so drew it and hurt/struck the slave of the priest leader and cut off his right little ear. But a name to the slave (continually/-) was Malchus. (John 18:10)

The young girl, the (female) doorkeeper, so says to Peter: “Are not and/also you out of the disciples of this Man? That one says: “I am not.” (John 18:17)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: Martin S. Allwood, Birger Gerhardsson, Ebba Lindqvist, Vilhelm Moberg, Anfin Skaaheim, Leo Tolstoj, Anna Greta Wide.


My own comments and speculations:

As the type Aaron "denied" the Lord three times, so Peter denied Him three times (compare My own comments and speculations to John 13:36-37a). The man's way to formulate the question in John 18:26 (with “not” = “ou” in Greek) invites Peter to answer, that he was together with Jesus in the garden. At the first two denials the questions had invited to a denial (“not” = “mê” in Greek). When Peter now for the third time - against the expectation of the man who put the question – answers “no”, the denial is all the more definitive. So it is with the third denial also in Matt 26:74, Mark 14:71 and perhaps also in Luke 22:60, but this is then described in another way. Peter's third denial in the Gospel of John stands out as especially insensible, because nothing is said about Peter's weeping after this denial (cf. Matt 26:75, Mark 14:72 and Luke 22:62). See also My own comments and speculations to John 21:17.

Concerning the one being a relative of whom Peter had cut off the ear lobe, see My own comments and speculations to John 18:10-11. The types of these two are Sihon and Og, who were subjects of the same nation by being kings of the Amorites (in a broader sense the Greek word for relative also can be rendered by “fellow-countryman”). Now Og is restored – like Malchus - by escaping the dagger and by being in the court of Annas, the court of grace. Furthermore the bored ear lobe, the mark of a slave, is away (cf. Deut 15:17). The enslaved Amorites are free (cf. 1 King 9:20-21).


Greek words:

syngenês (relative) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) 1 Macc 10:89; Luke 2:44; John 18:26 – Tobit 3:15; 6:11; 1 Macc 11:31; 2 Macc 5:6; 11:1,35; 15:18; Susanna v 30,63; Mark 6:4; Luke 1:58; 14:12; 21:16; Acts 10:24; Rom 9:3; 16:7,11,21.

ôtion (ear lobe) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Matt 26:51; John 18:26 – Sir 27:14; 43:24; Luke 22:51.


Additional studies:

Ex 21:6; Matt 26:71-75; Mark 14:30; 69-72; Luke 12:9; John 18:17-18; Acts 3:13; 4:27; Rev 11:14.


Robert T. Fortna "Jesus and Peter at the High Priest's House: A Test Case for the Question of the Relation Between Mark's and John's Gospels"; New Testament Studies 24 (1978): 371-383.

Charles H. Giblin "Confrontations in John 18:1-27"; Biblica 65 (1984): 210-232.

Maurits Sabbe "The Denial of Peter in the Gospel of John"; Louvain Studies 20 (1995): 219-240.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-05-23; 2012-03-09; 2014-11-01)

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18:28-29a They so lead Jesus from Caiaphas into the Praetorium. But it (continually) was early in the day. And they themselves did not come into, into the Praetorium, in order that they might not stain themselves however/but eat the paschal lamb. Pilate came so out outside towards them.

Word for word: 18:28 (27 words in the Greek text) (They)-lead so the Jesus from the Caiaphas into the praetorium. (it)-(continually)-was but early-in-the-day. and they-(themselves) not came-into into the praetorium, in-order-that not (they)-might-stain-themselves however (they)-might-eat the paschal-lamb. 18:29a (7 words in the Greek text; the sequence of the words according to Sinaiticus) came-out so towards them the Pilate outside.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

The Lord talked towards Moses, saying: "Talk (with) the sons of Israel, saying: ‘A man, a man, who – if according to the circumstances – may become unclean ... he shall (still) make/keep the ‘paschal lamb’/Passover to the Lord. In the second/next month … they shall make/keep it.’” (Num 9:9-11a, Greek OT)

A multitude of the assembly (of called out) did not purify themselves. And the Levites (continually/repeatedly) was/had the thing to sacrifice the "fasek"/'passover lamb' for every/all being not able to be purified to the Lord. (2 Chron 30:17, Greek OT)

The priests and the levites had made themselves clean. ... And they slaughtered the paschal lamb. (Ezra 6:20a, Greek OT)

(Judith said to the Lord: “The enemies) took counsel to profane Your holy things, to stain the dwelling-tent of the stillness of the name of Your glory. ... “ (Judith 9:8b)

(Many Israelites) showed on/forth to die, in order that they might not stain themselves (with the unclean) food. (1 Macc 1:63a)

(The leader of the enemies) treated (the Jewish priests) scornfully ... and stained them. (1 Macc 7:34a)

(Solomon said:) “Nothing being (and having been) stained falls in by the side of into (Wisdom).” (Wisdom of Solomon 7:25b)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said: “Was it not with the hand of Jesus/Joshua so that) one day became towards two?” (Sir 46:4b)


The Latter Revelation:

(The disciples said to Jesus:) “Where do you want (that) we may make ready toYou to eat the paschal lamb?” (Matt 26:17b)

Having taken Jesus to the side of into the Praetorium the soldiers of the commander led together the whole cohort against Him. (Matt 27:27)

Early in the day having made ready (א,*א) a council meeting the priest leaders in company with the elders and the (א,*א) scribes and the whole council and having bound Jesus they straight off carried Him away and gave Him by the side of to Pilate. (Mark 15:1)

Altogether ... (stood up and) led (Jesus) against/’up to’ Pilate. (Luke 23:1b)

Peter uttered towards (the ones having come together in the habitation of Cornelius): “You have insight in as/’in what way’ it is illicit for a Jewish male to attach himself to or come to (anyone) of another tribe. And to me God has shown to not say/call anyone/any man common (people) or unclean. (Acts 10:28)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

But the ‘paschal lamb’/Passover of the Jews (continually) was near, and many ascended into (a disgraced) Jerosolyma/Jerusalem ‘out of’/from the district/country before the ‘paschal lamb’/Passover in order that they might purify themselves. (John 11:55)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

“the Praetorium”: The Roman headquarters, the barracks. As a dwelling place of Gentiles it was unclean. (C.C. Ryrie "The Ryrie Study Bible" p 1636)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: LarsOlov Eriksson, Karl Gjellerup, C. Fr. Lundin, P. Waldenström, Cecilia Wassén, Gustaf Wikner.


My own comments and speculations:

In the Gospel of John Jesus was crucified the day when the paschal lamb hade been eaten. In the Synoptics Jesus was crucified the day after the eating of the lamb. In the light of Sir 46:4 we can read John in a restoration perspective. In the time of Joshua one day became two (cf. Joshua 10:12-13). Now two days become one day.


Paul said to the believers in Corinth: “Clean out the old leaven in order that you may be a young/fresh dough, entirely as you are unleavened. For Christ, our paschal lamb, and/also has been sacrificed.” (1 Cor 5:7)


Greek words:

miainô (stain) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Judith 9:8; 1 Macc 1:63; 7:34; Wisdom of Solomon 7:25; John 18:28 – 1 Macc 1:46; 4:43,45; 13:50; 14:36; Tit 1:15; Heb 12:15; Jude v 8.

Pilatos (Pilate) Mark 15:1; Luke 23:1; John 18:29 – Matt 27:2,13,17,22,24,58,62,65; Mark 15:2, 4-5,9,12,14-15,43-44; Luke 3:1; 13:1; 23:3-4,6,11-13,20,24,52; John 18:31,33,35,37-38; 19:1,4,6,8,10,12-13,15,19,21-22,31,38; Acts 3:13; 4:27; 13:28; 1 Tim 6:13.

praitôrion (Praetorium) Matt 27:27; John 18:28 – Mark 15:16; John 18:33; 19:9; Acts 23:35; Phil 1:13.

prôï (early in the day) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Mark 15:1; John 18:28 – 1 Macc 3:58; 4:52; 6:33; 11:67; 12:29; 16:5; Sir 31:20; Bel and the Dragon v 11(12),16; Matt 20:1; 21:18; Mark 1:35; 11:20; 13:35; 16:2; John 20:1; Acts 28:23.


Additional studies: Gen 35:2; Ex 12:21; Lev 22:26-27; Num 19:16,21-22; 31:19; Matt 20:19; 27:1; Mark 14:12-14; Luke 18:32; 22:7,11-15; John 18:13,33; 19:9,14; Acts 10:14; 11:3,9.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-05-23; 2012-03-10; 2014-11-02)

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18:29b And he utters: "What accusation do you carry (‘down from’/against) (א*,B) this Man?"

Word for word (8 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus prima manus): and (he)-utters: what accusation carry-(you) ('down-from'/against)-the man this?


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Balaam said:) "I shall show him and/but by no means now. I call him happy, and/but he does not draw near. A constellation shall stick up out of Jacob, and a man shall stand up out of Israel." (Num 24:17a, Greek OT)

The tacticians and the satraps (continually) sought to find a pretence ‘down from’/against Daniel. And/but every pretence and fall from the side of (God) ... they did not find ‘down from’/against him, because he (continually) was faithful. And the tacticians spoke: “We will not found ‘down from’/against Daniel a pretence/motive ‘if not’/except in laws of his God.” (Dan 6:4-5, Theod)

(The Man set/clothed in linen said to Daniel:) "Out of the ones ‘letting together’/understanding (some) will understand throughout into/’for the purpose of’ the thing to make themselves clean and into/’for the purpose of’ the thing to be chosen and into/’for the purpose of’ the thing to be made clean till a seasonable time of a consummation." (Dan 11:35a, Greek OT)


The Latter Revelation:

(Peter) began to accurse and swear that/: “I do not know the Man!” (Matt 26:74a)

(Pilate) uttered (to the crowds): “For what bad has He made/done?” (Matt 27:23a)

Having beheld that (Jesus) in this way blew/breathed out, the centurion, the one standing 'out of His opposite'/'opposite Him', spoke: “Truly, this Man (continually) was a son of God.” (Mark 15:39)

The scribes and the Pharisees (continually) kept/observed (Jesus) by the side of (to see) if He attends in/on the sabbath, in order that they might find (anything) to accuse Him of. (Luke 6:7)

Having ‘kept ... by the side of’/observed (Jesus) (the priest leaders and the scribes) dispatched away suborners playing the hypocrites ‘to be’/’that they ... were’ righteous themselves, in order that they might ‘take on’/blame His saying, so that they (might) give Him ‘to the side of’/over to the beginning/leadership and the (judicial) authority of the commander. (Luke 20:20)

(The “leadership of a hundred men” said about Jesus:) "Certainly this Man (continually) was righteous." (Luke 23:47b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

The rowers/servants answered: “’Nor at any time’/never has a man talked in this way as this One, the Man, talks (P66,א*)!” (John 7:46)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

Don't bother so much; only smell in the brief-case and write three words: like this for example: Jews sued for false weights , do. for sexual intercourse with animals, and so on. Also a simple bigamy or a forging of bills is welcome! And it doesn't matter very much with the judgment, only I get the accusation. (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev II 1877-1882" p 381; letter 1882-03-09 to Richard Bergström; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Sigurd Wildte.


Greek words:

katêgoria (accusation) John 18:29 – 1 Tim 5:19; Tit 1:6. Cf. “katêgoros”/accuser as a name of the dragon in Rev 12:10.


Additional studies: Matt 12:10; 27:12,18; Mark 3:2; 15:1,3; Luke 11:54; 23:2,10; Acts 22:30; 23:30,35; 24:2,8,13,19; 25:5,16-18; Rev 12:10.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-05-23; 2012-03-11; 2014-11-03; 2014-12-17)

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18:30-32 They answered and spoke to him: “If not this One (continually) ‘was having’/had made/done (א*) bad, we had – according to the circumstances – not given Him ‘to the side of’/’over to’ you.” Pilate so spoke to them: “Take Him you and judge * (א*) according to your law.” The Jews so (א,*א) spoke to him: “It is not permitted for us to kill ‘no one’/anyone”, in order that the saying of Jesus might be completed, which He had spoken giving a sign of what kind death He (continually) was about to die.

Word for word: 18:30 (15 words in the Greek text) (they)-answered and spoke (to-)-him: if not was-(continually) this bad having-made, not according-to-the-circumstances (to)-you (we)-gave-to-the-side-of him. 18:31 (25 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus prima manus) spoke so (to)-them the Pilate: take him you and according-to the law your judge. spoke so (to)-him the Jews: (for)-us not (it)-is-permitted (to)-kill no-one. 18:32 (13 words in the Greek text) in-order-that the saying (of)-the (of)-Jesus might-be-completed which (he)-spoke giving-a-sign-(of) what-kind death (he)-(continually)-was-about-to die.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

Moses made a serpent of copper and caused it to stand upon a sign. And it became, when – according to the circumstances – a serpent bit a man, he saw against, against the serpent of copper and lived. (Num 21:9, Greek OT)

(Moses said to Israel:) "If – according to the circumstances – it may become in anyone a miss (of the mark of God) (deserving) a judicial verdict of death, and he may die, you may hang him up upon a (piece of) wood. His body shall not ‘fall asleep’/die upon, upon the (piece of) wood, however/but you shall bury him (in) a grave in that day, because every/everyone being hanged up upon a (piece of) wood is (and has been) cursed by God." (Deut 21:22-23a, Greek OT)

(The commander Rehum and the scribe Shimshai and the entirely rest (of) together-/fellow slaves in Jerusalem wrote a letter to king Artaxerxes. They wrote:) “If (Jerusalem) – according to the circumstances – may be built up and its walls may be ‘fitly adjusted’/’put in order’, (the Jews) will not be tributaries to you, nor they will give (anything), and this will make kings bad. And it is not permitted to us to behold a king's indecency/dishonour. Because of this we have sent (this letter) and given knowledge to the king.” (Ezra 4:13b-14, Greek OT)

... (The prophet) beheld the Lord being seated upon a throne, high and being lifted upon/up. (Is 6:1a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) "Behold, my boy will be together (with Me), and he will be heightened and extremely glorified." (Is 52:13, Greek OT)

The tacticians and the satraps (continually) sought to find a pretence ‘down from’/against Daniel. And/but every pretence and fall from the side of (God) ... they did not find ‘down from’/against him, because he (continually) was faithful. And the tacticians spoke: “We will not found ‘down from’/against Daniel a pretence/motive ‘if not’/except in laws of his God.” (Dan 6:4-5, Theod)

The Jews and the priests have been pleased with Simon being their commander and priest leader into the (coming) age till a faithful prophet (will) stand up. … It will not be permitted to no/any one of the people and/or of the priests to not adopt any of these (provisions). (1 Macc 14:41b,44a)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “Glorious (men) have been given ‘to the side of’/over into hands of the others.” (Sir 11:6b)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples: "The priest leaders and scribes) will ‘judge ... down’/condemn (the Son of the Man) into/’for the purpose of’ (א,* א) death and give Him ’to the side of’/’over to’ the nations ... to crucify (Him)." (Matt 20:18b-19a)

(The Pharisees asked Jesus:) “Is it permitted to give tax to Caesar or not?” (Matt 22:17b)

The priest leaders, having taken the silvermetals/’pieces of silver’, spoke: "It is not permitted to throw them into the offering chest, since it is an 'honour' of blood." (Matt 27:6)

(Pilate) uttered (to the crowds): “For what bad has He made/done?” (Matt 27:23a)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “The heaven and the earth will come by the side of, but My sayings will not/certainly not come by the side of.” (Mark 13:31)

The rowers/servants took (Jesus with) slaps with cudgels. (Mark 14:65b)

(Jesus said to the twelve:) “All the things having been (and being) written through the prophets (about) the Son of the Man will be ended. For He will be given ‘by the side of’/’over to’ the nations ... and having whipped Him, they will kill Him.” (Luke 18:31b-32a,33a)

(The multitude) began to accuse (Jesus before Pilate) saying: "We have found this One turning throughout/asunder our nation and hindering us to give Caesar tributes and saying Himself be 'a christ'/'an anointed one', a king." (Luke 23:2)

(Cleopas said to Jesus:) “You alone inhabit by the side of Jerusalem and has not gained knowledge of the things having become/’come about’ in (the city) in these days?” And He spoke to them: “Of what kinds?” (Luke 24:18b-19a)

(The proconsul Gallio said to the Jews:) "If it is seekings on account of saying and names and law, the one ‘according to’/concerning you, you shall yourselves behold/observe. I do not to wish be a judge of these things." (Acts 18:15)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

Entirely as Moses heightened the serpent in the desolate (district), in this way must the Son of the Man be heightened. (John 3:14)

The Jews so (continually/repeatedly) said to the one having been (and being) attended: “It is sabbath, and it is not permitted for you to lift your mattress.” (John 5:10)

(Jesus said to the Pharisees: “In your law, having been (and being) written it is (א,*א), that the evidence of two men is truthful.” (John 8:17)

(Jesus said to the crowd:) "And, if – according to the circumstances – I may be heightened out of the earth, I will draw all (nations) (P66,א*) towards Myself. But/and He (continually) said this giving (so) a sign (with) what kind of death He (continually) was about to die. (John 12:32-33)

(Jesus said to the men who wanted to seize Him:) “I spoke to you, that I am. If you so seek Me, let these be to withdraw,” in order that the saying, which He had spoke, might be completed: “The ones whom You have given (and give) Me, out of them I have not perished ‘no one’/anyone.” (John 18:8-9)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

Even words may be signs, e.g. in ... 18:32. (Raymond E. Brown "The Gospel according to John" p 528)

In Jewish eyes the execution of Jesus on a cross would bring him into disrepute. It was considered the same as hanging (Acts 5:30; 10:39), and Deut 21:23 enunciates the principle: “A hanged man is cursed by God” (see Gal 3:13). (Raymond E. Brown "The Gospel according to John" p 851)

We may here have an attempt on the part of John - or of earlier tradition on which he depended - to fasten guilt of the condemnation of Jesus yet more firmly upon the Jews and to exonerate the romans – a tendency frequently visible in early Christians literature. … Pilate's action … places all the responsibility on the Jews. (C.K. Barrett "The Gospel according to St John" p 533; cf. John 19:14b-16a with Bible passages and “My own comments and speculations”.)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: P. Waldenström.


My own comments and speculations:

In Ezra 4:13-14 slaves in Jerusalem, who refer to what is not permitted for them, accuse the Jews before a foreign ruler. In John 18:29-31 slaves in Jerusalem, who refer to what is not permitted for them, accuse a Jew before a foreign ruler.

Concerning the verb “complete”, see My own comments and speculations to John 19:33-37.


Paul said to the believers in Galatia: “Christ bought us out, out of the curse of the law, having become a curse in favour of us – because it has been (and is) written: ‘Against/on (something) cursed (is) every/everyone (being) hung up upon a wood/’piece of wood’.’” (Gal 3:13)


Additional studies: Jer 26:24; Matt 12:2,4,10,12; 14:4; 15:26; 17:22-23; 19:3; 22:17; 26:2,45; 27:2,18; Mark 2:26; 3:4; 9:31; 10:32-34; 12:14; 14:41; 15:1; Luke 6:2,4,9; 9:44; 14:3; 18:32; 20:22; 23:14; 24:7,20; John 8:28; 10:34; 13:18; 15:25; 19:6-7; 21:19; Acts 3:13; 21:11; 27:1; 1 Pet 2:12; 3:17; 4:15; Rev 1:1.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-05-23; 2012-03-12; 2014-11-04)

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18:33-36 Pilate so came into, into the Praetorium again and he raised his voice to Jesus and spoke to Him: “Are You the King of the Jews?” Jesus answered him (א,*א): “Do you say this from yourself, or did others speak to you on account of Me?” Pilate answered: “I am * (P66,א*) not a Jew, (am I)? Your nation and the priest leader (א*) have given You ‘to the side of’/’over to’ me. What have You made/done?” Jesus answered: “My kingdom is not out of this adornment/’adorned world’. If My kingdom (continually) was out of this adornment/’adorned world’, My rowers/servants (continually) had – according to the circumstances – fought, in order that I might not had been given ‘to the side of’/’over to’ the Jews. But now My kingdom is not from here.”

Word for word: 18:33 (21 words in the Greek text; the sequence of the words according to Sinaiticus) Came-into so again into the praetorium the Pilate and (he)-raised-his-voice (to)-the Jesus and spoke (to)-him: you are the king (of)-the (of)-Jews? 18:34 (14 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus prima manus) answered him the Jesus: from yourself this (you)-say or others (to)-you spoke on-account-of me? 18:35 (19 words in the Greek text) answered the Pilate: not i/I Jew (i/I)-am? the nation the your and the priest-leader gave-to-the-side-of you (to)-me. what made-(you)? 18:36 (39 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus) answered Jesus: the my kingdom not is out-of the adornment this. if out-of the adornment this (continually)-was the my kingdom, the rowers the my (continually)-fought according-to-the-circumstances in-order-that not (i/I)-might-be-given-to-the-side-of the Jews. now but the my kingdom is not from-here.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The result) of the inspection out of the tribe of Judas (was) 74 of the number of one thousand and 600. (This was the greatest tribe in Israel.) (Num 1:27, Greek OT)

These popular assemblies for/of Judas ‘according to’/after their inspection (were) 76500 (men). (Judas still was the greatest tribe in Israel.) (Num 26:22b, Greek OT)

(The Lord) chose the tribe of Judas, the mountain Zion, which He welcomed. (Ps 78:68, Greek OT)

The king of the adornment/’adorned world’ will cause us, having died in favour/defence of the laws (of the Lord), to stand up into an agelong revival. (2 Macc 7:9b)

(Maccabaeus exhorted the Jews) to fight nobly. … (He said: “Our enemies) are (and have been) persuaded’/’trust (and have trusted)’ on/to weapons together and/with bold things, but we (Jews) ‘are (and have been) persuaded’/’trust (and have trusted)’ on/to God, the All-powerful , being (with) a nod able to throw down and/both the ones coming against us and the whole adornment/’adorned world’.” (2 Macc 8:16b,18b)

(Maccabaeus and his men) together with the crowds supplicated the Lord to dispatch away a good messenger towards/’in regard to’ a saving of Israel. (2 Macc 11:6b)

Having given the entrusting to the creator of the adornment/’adorned world’ (Judas) called to the side of (him) the ones having fought nobly together with him as long as to death on account of laws, sanctuary, city, fatherland, right of a citizen. (2 Macc 13:14a)

(Solomon said: “The kings) are rowers/servants of the kingdom (of the Lord).” (Wisdom of Solomon 6:4a)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “Fight till death on account of the truth, and the Lord God will wage war in favour of you.” (Sir 4:28)


The Latter Revelation: (Soothsayers from upstickings/east said:) “Where is the One having been brought forth, a King of the Jews?” (Matt 2:2a)

... Again the slanderer takes (Jesus) to the side of (himself) into/to an exceedingly high mountain and shows Him all the kingdoms of the adornment/’adorned world’ and their glory. And he spoke to Him: "All these things I will give You, if – according to the circumstances – on having fallen/’sunk down’ You may prostrate Yourself before me (in honour of me)." (Matt 4:8-9)

(Jesus said to His disciples: "The priest leaders and scribes) will ‘judge ... down’/condemn (the Son of the Man) into/’for the purpose of’ (א,* א) death and give Him ’to the side of’/’over to’ the nations." (Matt 20:18b)

(Jesus said to the one who had drawn his dagger:) "Do you think that I am not able call to the side of My Father, and He here (א*) will just now cause to stand by the side of Me more than twelve legions of messengers?" (Matt 26:53)

(Jesus said:) "... The seasonable time has been (and is) completed, and the kingdom of God has drawn (and draws) near." (Mark 1:15a)

Jesus spoke to (some of the Pharisees and Herodians): "Give back to Caesar the things (that are) Caesar's, and to God the things (that are) God's." (Mark 12:17a)

Pilate questioned (Jesus): "Are You the King of the Jews?" But ‘having answered’/answering him 'the One'/He says: “You say (it).” (Mark 15:2)

(Luke said:) "The ones having become from a beginning eyewitnesses and rowers/servants of the saying have given (the things having been and being completed among us) ‘by the side of’/over to us." (Luke 1:2)

(The slanderer said to Jesus:) “If You are a son of God, throw Yourself down from here.” (Luke 4:9b)

(Jesus said) “Fight to come into/in through the narrow door.” (Luke 13:24a)

(Some Pharisees said to Jesus:) “Come out and go from here, because Herod wants to kill You.” And He spoke to them: “Having gone speak to this fox: ‘Behold, I throw out little demons, and healings I end off today and (the) following day, and the third (day) I am made perfect.’” (Luke 13:31b-32)

(Jesus said to the Pharisees:) "The kingdom of God does not come in company with ‘a keeping to the side of’/’an observation’. Nor will they speak 'Behold, here!' or 'There!' for behold, the kingdom of God is within you/'the limits of you'." (Luke 17:20b-21)

(Paul spoke:) “I, a man, am indeed a Jew.” (Acts 21:39a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

Nathanael spoke (to Jesus): “Rabbi, You are the Son of God.” (John 1:49)

So having knowledge that they are about to come and rape Him and show up (א*) a king, Jesus, He (Himself) alone, flees (א*) again into/to the mountain. (John 6:15)

(Jesus') brothers so spoke towards Him: “Step over from here and withdraw into Judea, ‘in order’/so that and/also Your disciples look at * (א*) the works which You make/do. For no one makes/does anything in the hidden. One seeks and/also oneself be/’express oneself’ in plain language. If You make/do these things, make Yourself visible to the adornment/’adorned world’.” (John 7:3-4)

(Jesus said to the Jews): “You are out of the things down. I am out of the things up. You are out of this adornment/’adorned world’. I am not out of this adornment/’adorned world’.” (John 8:23)

(Caiaphas) did not speak this (away) from Himself, however/but being a priest leader of that period of time, he prophesied, that Jesus was (continually) about to die in favour of the nation and not in favour of the nation only, however/but in order that He might lead together into one and/also the children of God, the ones being (and having been) scattered asunder. (John 11:51-52)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "I will no longer talk many things in company with you, for the leader of the adornment/’adorned world’ comes, and in Me he has not nothing/anything. However, in order that the adornment/’adorned world’ may gain knowledge that I welcome the Father, and entirely as the Father has enjoined Me, in this way I make/do. Rise. We may lead/move from here." (John 14:30-31)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 - about 1500

(The counterfeit picture of Christ) went from hand to hand among the instigators of rebellion, until one of them bent forward to look at its crown. Then he set eyes on the words being engraved there: "My kingdom is only of this world." The man cried this out wholly highly, and all cried, that this little picture would be their sign in the field. They brought it up to the top of the barricade and put it there as a banner. Among those defending the barricade there was a man, who was not a poor worker, but a learned man, who had spent all his life in the study. He knew all the distress paining the men, and his heart was filled of compassion, so that he always sought means to improve their lot. . . . As often as the gunpowder smoke was dispersed, the little picture shone for his eyes, the picture which in all the tussle remained in sole possession highest on the barricade. Every time he saw the picture, his brain was crossed by the words: "My kingdom is only of this world." . . . Suddenly he knew, that this was the word he had sought for during all his life. He knew what he would say to the men, and it was this poor picture, which had given him the solution. He would go out in the whole world and proclaim: "Your kingdom is only of this world." "Therefore you must care for this life and live as brothers. And you shall divide your riches, so that no one becomes rich and no one poor. You shall all work, and the earth shall be owned by all, and you shall all be equal. No one will hunger, no one will be tempted to luxuriance, and no one will be in need in one's old age. And you must think to prepare the happiness of all, for there is no compensation waiting you. Your kingdom is only of this world." . . . The man, who during the struggle had been taught by the picture, began proclaiming for the world a new doctrine calling socialism, but which is an Antichristianity. . . . And although the picture, which had spread the doctrine, is unobserved and unknown, so is not the doctrine, but it goes through the world to save and transform it. It is spread day by day. It goes over all countries and have many names, and it is so enticing thereby, that it to all promises earthly happiness and enjoyment, that it entices followers more than something having gone forward through the world since the time of Christ. (Selma Lagerlöf "Antikrists mirakler" p 22-24; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Brother, for the last time, help me, so I shall help you when I come in my kingdom, perhaps soon enough! . . . For the very last time: help me so I help you, when I come in my kingdom! (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev IX 1892-jan 1894" p 180-181; letter 1893-04-25 to Adolf Paul; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


about 1500 and time before

(Justin Martyr wrote to the Emperor Titus and some of his men:) “When you hear that we look for a kingdom, you suppose, without making any inquiry, that we speak of a human kingdom; whereas we speak of that which is with God. ... If we looked for a human kingdom, we should also deny our Christ. (Justin Martyr, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol I, p 166)

In India the spirit of Christianity existed at the time of the birth of Christ, and we have not a long time ago heard it confirmed in the drama Vasantasena (The wagon of clay) which is from the same time as the birth of Christ. There the mendicant friar says in the end of the eighth act: "Tame your hand, control your mouth, restrain your mind, and you do not care of the lustre of the might of the king, for your kingdom is not of this world." (August Strindberg "Världshistoriens mystik" p 16; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Lars Adaktusson, Alf Ahlberg, Stefan Andhé, Werner Aspenström, Malte Blaxhult, Elisabeth Beskow, Th. Brieger, Yngve Brilioth, Sven-Erik Brodd, Ingmar Brohed, E.J. Ekman, Bo Frid, Anton Fridrichsen, Nikolaj Gogol, Johannes Gossner, Joel Halldorf, Dick Harrison, Hermann Hartfeld, John Hedlund, Verner von Heidenstam, Alfons Holmqvist, Bo E Karlsson, Lars-Olof Larsson, J.M.G. Le Clézio, Sven Lidman, Lars Lindberg, Per Lundberg, Martin Luther, Vilhelm Moberg, Gösta Nicklasson, Fredrik Nielsen, Bertil Nilsson, Anders Nohrborg, Niklas Piensoho, Nils Rodén, Carl Olof Rosenius, Viktor Rydberg, Allan Rydén, Vinay Samuel, Gösta Sandberg, Östen Sjöstrand, Chris Sugden, Jesper Svartvik, Mats Svegfors, Johan Henrik Thomander, Nils Tägt, Lars Vitus, Kallistos Ware, Fredrik Wislöff.


My own comments and speculations:

In a restoration perspective we see how the exalted men of Judas tribe are humilated by being those who give over their King to the nations to be crucified.

According to Sinaiticus prima manus Annas ("grace") does not belong to those who gave over Jesus to Pilate.

Concerning “from here”, see My own comments and speculations to John 19:18.


Paul said to the believers in Rome: "The kingdom of God is not consumption and drinking however/but righteousness and peace and joy in holy spirit." (Rom 14:17)

Paul said to the believers in Ephesos: “Know this, having knowledge of, that every fornicator or unclean or one urging more - who is an idolater - has not inheritance in the kingdom of Christ and of God.” (Eph 5:5)


Greek words:

agônizomai (fight) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) 2 Macc 8:16; 13:14; Sir 4:28; Luke 13:24; John 18:36 – 1 Macc 7:21; 2 Macc 15:27; 1 Cor 9:25; Col 1:29; 4:12; 1 Tim 4:10; 6:12; 2 Tim 4:7.


Additional studies: Matt 3:2; 4:17; 10:7; 17:24-26; 20:22; 22:21; 27:11,29,37; Mark 15:9,12,18,26; Luke 10:9; 20:25; 23:3,13,37-38; John 3:3,5; 5:19; 8:59; 10:31; 18:28-29,39; 19:3,9,12,14-15,19-22;.Acts 13:5; 26:16; 1 Cor 4:1; Rev 1:6; 5:10; 9:11; 10:7; 11:15; 12:10; 13:8; 17:14; 19:14,16.

David Hill "My Kingdom is not of this world (Jn 18:36)"; Irish Biblical Studies 9.2 (1987): 54-62.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-05-24; 2012-03-14; 2014-11-05; 2014-12-17)

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18:37-38 Pilate spoke so to Him: “(Is it) not so (that) You are a king?” Jesus answered: “You say, that I am a king. Into/’for the purpose of’ this I am (and have been) begotten, and into/’for the purpose of’ this I have come (and come) into the adornment/’adorned world’, in order that I may be a witness to the truth. 'Every the'/everyone being out of the truth hears My voice. Pilate says to Him: “What is truth?” And having spoken this he again came out towards the Jews, and he says to them: “I find 'no one'/no cause/guilt in Him.”

Word for word: 18:37 (42 words in the Greek text) spoke so (to)-him the Pilate: not-so (a)-king are you? answered the Jesus: you say that (a)-king (i/I)-am. i/I into this am-(and-have-been)-begotten and into this (i/I)-have-come-(and-come) into the adornment, in-order-that (i/I)-may-be-a-witness (to)-the truth. every the being out-of the truth hears my the voice. 18:38 (24 words in the Greek text; the sequence of the words according to Sinaiticus) says (to)-him the Pilate: what is truth? And this having-spoken again (he)-came-out towards the Jews and (he)-says (to)-them: i/I 'no-one'/no cause find in him.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The Lord said to Abraham: "With respect to that) you have not spared your son, the welcomed one ‘because of’/’with a view to’ Me, blessing I shall verily, indeed greatly, bless you ... having hearkened My voice." (Gen 22:16b-17a,18b, Greek OT)

The Lord came by the side of before the face (of Moses) and called: "The Lord God, compassionate and merciful, long-suffering and much merciful and true." (Ex 34:6, Greek OT)

(Balaam said:) "Out of Mesopotamia Balak has sent after/for me, the king of Moab out of mountains from risings saying: 'Come here to implore/curse Jacob for me and come here, (and wish) Israel on/'under the rule of' the cursed for me!' What/how may I implore/curse (against) the one the Lord may not curse? Or what/how may I curse, the one God may not curse, because from a border of mountains I will behold him, and from hills I will understand towards him. Behold, a people will dwell alone and will not in/among nations be counted together with (them)! Who did exactly examine out of the seed of Jacob and who will count up the number out of popular assemblies of Israel? Oh, that my soul may die in/among souls of righteous ones and oh, that my seed may become as the seed of these!" And Balak spoke towards Balaam: "What have you made/done (and make/do) to me? I have called (and call) you into a damnation of my enemies. And behold, you have blessed (and bless) a blessing!" And Balaam spoke towards Balak: "Shall I by no means watch/observe to talk this, as much as - if according to the circumstances - God may throw/put in, into my mouth?" (Num 23:7b-12, Greek OT)

(Moses said to Israel:) "When the Lord dispatched you out, out of Kadesh-barnea, saying: 'Ascend and inherit the earth which I give you', and/but you disobeyed the word of the Lord your God, and you did not believed (in) Him, and you did not listen to His voice." (Deut 9:23, Greek OT)

(Moses said to Israel:) "The Lord your God will cause a prophet as/like me to stand up out of your brothers, you shall hear his (word)." (Deut 18:15, Greek OT)

The woods/’kinds of woods’ went to anoint a king to themselves, and they spoke to the olive-tree: “Be king upon/over us!” (Judges 9:8, A, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said to Israel: "The Lord) is our God, and we a people of His pasture and sheep of His hand. Today, if you – according to the circumstances – may hear His voice, you may not harden your hearts as in the ‘embitterment by the side of’/challenge, ‘according to’/during the day of test in the desolate (district)." (Ps 95:7-8, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said to the Lord:) "All Your commandments (are) truth. (The ones being by the side of the law) have unrighteously ‘pursued ... entirely’/hunted me. Succour me!" (Ps 119:86, Greek OT)

The tacticians and the satraps (continually) sought to find a pretence ‘down from’/against Daniel. And/but every pretence and fall from the side of (God) ... they did not find ‘down from’/against him, because he (continually) was faithful. And the tacticians spoke: “We will not found ‘down from’/against Daniel a pretence/motive ‘if not’/except in laws of his God.” (Dan 6:4-5, Theod)

(The Lord said Jerusalem:) "I shall begin the thing to hit you (and) make you unseen/disfigured on/'for the sake of' your misses (of My mark). ... You shall sow and you may not/certainly not mow, you shall press an olive-tree and you may not/certainly not besmear olive-oil, and you may not/certainly not drink wine!" (Micah 6:13,15a, Greek OT)

A king of the adornment/’adorned world’ will cause us, having died in favour/defence of the laws (of the Lord), to stand up into an agelong revival. (2 Macc 7:9b)

(Solomon said:) “The ones having been (and being) persuaded on/’for the sake of’ (the Lord) are together with truth, and the faithful ones will abide (in) Him in welcome.“ (Wisdom of Solomon 3:9a)

Another (enemy had been) tossed half-dead to another place, (and) because of (the way in) which they (continually) deceased they made a cause conspicuous. (Wisdom of Solomon 18:18)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “Fight till death on account of the truth, and the Lord God will wage war in favour of you.” (Sir 4:28)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “Truth will arrive up against, towards the ones who work/’are busy with’ it.” (Sir 27:9b)


The Latter Revelation:

(Soothsayers from upstickings/east said:) “Where is the One having been brought forth, a King of the Jews?” (Matt 2:2a)

(Jesus) will not quarrel, but/and He will not scream, but/and ‘anyone ... not’/noone will hear His voice in/on the streets. (Matt 12:19b)

(The Pharisees) dispatch away their disciples, in company with the Herodians, to (Jesus), saying: "Teacher, we know that You are truthful and teach the way of God in truth." (Matt 22:16a)

(Jesus said to Simon and the ones in company with him:) “Let us lead/move to another place into the having/neighbouring village-cities/’country towns’, in order that I and/also there may proclaim, for into/’for the purpose of’ this I have come out.” (Mark 1:38)

(Jesus raised His voice to the crowd:) “The one having ears to hear, let him hear.” (Luke 8:8b)

Pilate asked (Jesus), saying: "Are You the King of the Jews?" But ‘having answered him’/’He answered him and’ uttered: "You say (it)." But/and Pilate spoke towards the priest leaders and the crowds: “I find nothing/no cause/guilt (Greek: aition) in this Man.” (Luke 23:3-4)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

The One coming out of the heaven * (P75,א*), (of) what He has beheld (and beholds) and has heard * (א,* א) He is a witness, and no one takes His evidence. The one having taken His evidence has sealed, that God is truthful. (John 3:31b-33)

(Jesus said to the Jews:) “You have dispatched (and dispatch) away (men) towards John, and he has been (and is) a witness to the truth.” (John 5:33)

(Jesus said:) “… The sheep hear the voice (of the shepherd).” (John 10:3a)

(A much/many-headed crowd, having come into/to the feast said:) “Hosanna! Being (and having been) blessed the one coming in (the) name of a lord, and/namely the king of Israel.” (John 12:13b)

Jesus says to (Thomas): "I am ... the truth." (John 14:6a)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 - about 1500

The (Jewish) tradition states that peace is so important that a person is allowed to make up a story to keep it, just as the brothers (of Joseph) made up their father's wish to keep peace between Joseph and themselves (cf. Gen 50:16-17). (Michael E. Williams “Genesis” p 197; Genesis Rabbah 100.8)

Like Nicodemus in chapter 3 Pilate stands outside the truth which Jesus reveals, if he is not born again. (René Kieffer "Johannesevangeliet" p 426, translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

"I want to say something to you," (Stina said). "I have not called Vesterman an old rascal, this he had heard wrong." Then she ran away. Sometimes she lies, Stina, but it probably disappears with time, when she grows up. (Astrid Lindgren "Skrållan och sjörövarna" p 27-28, translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

At dawn my lover comes to me And tells me of her dreams ... At times I think there are no words But these to tell what's true And there are no truths outside the Gates of Eden. (Bob Dylan "Gates Of Eden" p 155; 1965)

The official statistics computed and published by the Soviet government claim that over the period 1929-56 the average annual rate of growth of Soviet GNP has been 9.8 per cent per year. (Remember that the figure for the United States for the same period was 2.9 per cent per year.) ... Knowing that Soviet statisticians have proclaimed that "statistics are a weapon in the class war" Western economists have suspected that these figures were somehow falsified or biased. ... Western economists have concluded that the Russians have followed a set of rules and definitions which give an upward bias to the result. It is worth emphasizing here that the problem is not that Soviet statistics are lies, but that ... the Soviet statisticians follow procedures which exaggerate the rate of growth. (Robert W. Campbell "Soviet Economic Power" p 34-35)

Alfredo almost got offended (saying to Rasmus:) "Do you think I am sitting here and lie. 'You must always keep to the truth, little Alfredo', my mother used to say. 'Only for the police you shall lie as hard you can.'" (Astrid Lindgren "Rasmus, Pontus och Toker" p 110; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Sympathy is, in John's mind, a quite inadequate attitude to Jesus; like Nicodemus (7:50f.), Pilate for all his fair play and open-mindedness is not of the truth; he is of the world. (C.K. Barrett "The Gospel according to St John" p 538)

The argumentative particle “oukoun” seeks a definite answer: “Very well; so you are a king?” (C.K. Barrett "The Gospel according to St John" p 537)

There are the men with the gentle smile, will never do any good. They never find anything worth their while. It seems they never could. They feel the fashions come and go but what is Truth they can't say. So there are the men who think they know, steer the world astray. (Alf Henrikson "Rhymes" s 80; On enjoying a gentle old sceptic)

Do you not find it strange, that one becomes killed if one says (writes) that V(iktor).R(ydberg)'s translation of Faust is bad, when it is bad? One shall say that it is good, although it is bad! Where have we then our home? In an anchor smithy or in hell, which Swedenborg also means. One shall worship their "dirty gods", otherwise one becomes killed as the Maccabees. (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev XVII 13 juli 1908-april 1909" p 309; letter 1909-01-31 to Karl Börjesson; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Just when the defendant begins to repeat the oath, (the plaintiff) rushes up, throws away his held out hand snatching the bible. . . . He must not swear away his soul. He must not. . . . "I want to give up the case", she exclaims in a high and piercing voice. "I don't want to force him to swear. . . . He is the father of the child. But I still like him. I do not want, that he will swear false." (Selma Lagerlöf " Tösen från Stormyrtorpet" p 18-22; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

When I wrote the first part (of the book Nils Holgersson) it was much talk that I would have taken a zoologist to adviser, but I did not dare for my own sake. I wanted to have a free possibility to write. . . . I did not think that it bothered me the least to let the wild geese sleep on a church roof or that the seals snapped at birds. But this is a serious country, where people take hard on things, and I have got hard criticism . . . for my light-hearted proceeding. Now I have taken a zoologist to my help, and however kind he has been, it has been rather unbearable to know that everything would be criticized. Other masters I also have had, schoolmasters and language scientists. All have been most amiable, but certainly I long for writing without all these overseers. (Selma Lagerlöf "Brev 2 - 1903-1940" s 67; letter 1907-12-10 to Elise Malmros)

(1907 April 15th) I want to write bright and beautiful, but must not, can not; take it as a duty of horror to be true, and life is so indescribable ugly. (August Strindberg "Ockulta dagboken" p 260; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

(The short story) Taklagsöl becomes, I suppose, also unprinted; because it is true; the ones writing lie get it printed and played!!! (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev XV april 1904-april 1907 p 324; letter 1906-11-29 to Emil Schering; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Here in (Sweden) everything is falsified, the public opinion, the newspapers, the telegrams, the concepts of justice, the education, the text-books. If I was younger, I would emigrate! (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev XV april 1904-april 1907 p 156; letter 1905-08-12 to Emil Schering; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

What is truth? Let us think! An untrue information is the one disagreeing with the real state of things, that is, a true information is the one agreeing with the real state of things. . . . If you say that it is the 2th May today, and our date hand says the same thing, and the newspaper of the day confirms it, of course this is true. But it is not absolutely true, for in Russia it is the 12th May after the old style. But when no one of us is a Russian, we have tacitly understood the new style, and if anyone of us would tacitly understand the old style or without due cause lead in the number to Russia, we call this quibbling or sophistry. . . . The materialists in our days are so far away from the truth, that they are on the other side. (August Strindberg "Svarta fanor" p 104,109-110; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

The jurist: "What is truth? Where is the truth?" The theologian: "I am the Truth and the life." . . . The philosopher: "I am the knowledge of the knowledge." . . . The (Doctor of) Medicine:"I am the exact knowledge." . . . The jurist: "I doubt." (August Strindberg "Ett drömspel" p 100,102-105; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

(Allan's son) Kurt: "There are wolves and there are sheep, it is no human glory to be the sheep! But I still want to be it, rather than to be the wolf!" Captain (Edgar): "You know the old truth, that everyone is the architect of his own fortunes?" Kurt: "Is this a truth?" (August Strindberg "Dödsdansen" p 219; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Being at home in the natural sciences since childhood, then follower of Darwin, I had discovered the unsatisfactory in this scientific method, which acknowledged the excellent mechanism of cosmos without admitting the existence of the mechanic. The weakness of the system betrayed itself in a general degeneration of the science, which had laid down for itself a boundary-line, above which one was not allowed to go on. We have solved all problems. The universe have no mysteries more. This conceited lie had provoked me already about year 1880, and during the following fifteen years I had made a revision of the natural sciences. (August Strindberg "Inferno" p 25-26; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Oh God(?) what is truth and purity? Jig! Machtgefühl! Alles! (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev X febr 1894-april 1895" p 161; letter 1894-07-25 to Leopold Littmansson; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

To be a betrayed husband! . . . I want to know the truth! To retaliate! . . . I must absolutely know the truth! . . . I shall use all the means of the new psychological science . . . without for this sake give up well-tried methods as housebreaking, stealing . . . everything. (August Strindberg "En dåres försvarstal" p 17; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

What I, after having used studies i scientific methodology of many years' duration, with certainty can assure the youth I here see in front of me is, that no scientific discovery is made or ever can be made, which would constrain us for the sake of truth to give up our faith in the highest ideal, which the thought, the imagination and the feeling of man have created in collaboration, our faith in Him, who "lives in the light, where no one can come", "nevertheless he is not far from us, for in Him we live, move and have our being". And when this youth once hears of criteria of truth, of touchstones for the worth of the thoughts, so I want to lay it to heart, that such one - and also this of experimental kind - also exists for spiritual, for moral truths. Also these have a touchstone for its validity, namely in the effects, which arise if one follows or does not follow them. (Viktor Rydberg "Tal vid avslutningar i Djursholms samskola" p 169; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

In his utterly negative course of action (Descartes) has a presentiment of what in our days, the philosopher of our time, Herbert Spencer discovers concerning the nature of the truth: that the same is in eternal motion and therefore cannot be fixed in a lasting system, from which the rule for all reformatory activity becomes, that it shall remain negative, sceptical, or, popularly spoken, pulling down, desructive, dissolving, which word in our time has been blackened with an ugly meaning by the champions of the standstill, the faith and the many programs. (August Strindberg "Voltaire" p 303; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

My authorship: a searching for the truth! An idiotic thing in itself perhaps, for the truth is only conventional. People agree in large numbers that this shall be true, and so the other is a lie! But there is a kind of truth which remains: that is, what is the position as regards this thing? Ex. Is the woman inferior to the man? The examination shows that it is so, but the masses have voted that it is not so! The contradictions in my authorship depend on my standing and having stood at different standpoints to see the matter from many sides! It is, to be sure, rich and human! Experimental! (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev VII febr 1888-dec 1889" p 92; letter 1888-05-25 to Verner von Heidenstam; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Is it not a dangerous illusion that in our days (now in year 1887) of evolution mania regard everything which in time follow after be a developed (= higher) form; and would we not be more careful at the editing of our liberal programs, so that we then were spared from standing as "Atter- och dumbommare" (Atterbommare and fools) before posterity? If we really love truth for the clean enjoyment being in the labour of the discovery work itself, so would we not shunt that, if so was needed, a little more often repudiate us, revise us, with one word change opinions; and we would not as the hecatomb-ox tremble every time a truth was born, even if it was unpleasant to our pride. (August Strindberg "Utveckling" p 293; Politiken 1887-05-23; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

"Do not believe in any stories", (the sea-duck said to the gull), "except indecent stories. The truth always is indecent." (August Strindberg "Måsarne" p 187; Revue Universelle Internationale n:o 8 1885-12-16; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Hard is the struggle which with me has woken against beauty, which I suspect stands in opposition to truth. To make a beautiful description of life, which is so ugly in many respects, is, you know, to falsify. I find this unright just as well as to only describe the ugly and have therefore sought a middle way. (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev V 1885-juli 1886" s 94; letter 1885-06-10 to Mathilde Prager; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Is beauty not true, then farewell with beauty! Now it is the useful which must out. Literature has up to now most often been a pleasure for the upper classes, why the authors have had to appear in frock-coat and gloves. Is beauty true? No, not always. . . . There are two directions within the arts, which both are entitled: realism, reproducing objects true, and idealism, reproducing untrue. The one loving truth soon chooses between the two directions. (August Strindberg "Kvarstadsresan" p 130,132-133; Chexbres, June 1884; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Calvin began with heaving the works of art out of the church, and with this he showed where the lie was. (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev IV 1884" p 144-145; letter 1884-05-04 to Björnstjerne Björnson; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

If I would have written about (the German social democrat Ferdinand) Lassalle in our days I would have skipped all disadvantageous about his person. . . . I would have lied if it had been necessary! (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev III 1882-1883" p 53; letter 1882-07-26 to Edvard Brandes; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Come to me if you have confidence in me and love me. . . . Lie if it is necessary - for liers one has a right to lie! (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev I 1858-1876" p 323; letter 1876-04-29 to Siri von Essen; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

I am tired of this woven fabric of lie and dissimulation. Here it is lied to right and to left so that one soon probably does not know what was true from the beginning. (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev I 1858-1876" p 221; letter1875-08-05 to Siri von Essen and his husband Carl Gustaf Wrangel; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

When I was a youth I was extremely religious. . . . I joined the pietists who sought the health of the soul and taught love. . . . These men had not love. They were a group of incredibly selfish egos with an overwhelming majority and all has found the only Truth. They had to go in flock, for they were weak. (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev X febr 1894-april 1895" p 206-208; letter 1894-08-11 to Torsten Hedlund; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

In Johan's home the truth was worshipped. . . . "Speak always truth, happen what may", the father so often repeated. (August Strindberg "Tjänstekvinnans son" p 67-71; the beginning of the sixties in the nineteenth century; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

The true Christian is, according to Adolf (Sparrfält's) opinion of our doctrine, a soldier, who for ever has sworn the banner of the truth and undertaken to with sacrifice of all earthly fight to the last breath against the evil thing in the world or in his own bosom; no armistice to get his breath is allowed to him; he must not mediate, not negotiate with the enemy, but all time, over succumbing hopes and fading joys of living, push forward and at last fall under the banner of the cross. The one confessing Christ "must take his cross on himself" following him. (Viktor Rydberg "De vandrande djäknarne" p 154; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Jönköping's Higher School of Learning was during a couple of terms visited by a Stockholmer, Åbrandsson. . . . One day he told me . . . that he was the youngest member of one in Stockholm formed association of young men, which perhaps had the literary future of Sweden in its hand. . . . Its motto was "Truth, Reality". . . . Its name was Pro Veritate. . . . Some days ago a letter from the association had arrived to him . . . which enjoined him to become apostle for its sake in Jönköping. . . . When Åbrandsson rejected Tegnér's "Jätten" as untrue, because no giants live in the halls of the mountains, and his "Flyttfåglarne", because no ghost orchid with green mantle walks in the evening, I got angry (and) gave him the by-name Fool. . . . The following Sunday when I heard the words of the priest: "Lift up your hearts to God!", I thought of the idea, that I would ask Åbrandsson, if he regarded in this exhortation be an untruth, because we in the real meaning of the word cannot lift our hearts over us. He answered in a gently explanatory tone, that it was an untruth, which should not be used. Then we never interchanged meanings in such subjects. . . . (Another time F-d cried:) "Viva our banner!" and a stick with a white flap was swung over the crowd (of playing boys). But the nearest beings also heard Åbrandsson crying: "It is not a banner; it is F-d's handkerchief." (Viktor Rydberg "Realisten Åbrandsson" p 129-132; the years 1843-44?)

"Boy, say me, are you in the habit of lying?" The boy was silent. "Answer!" the county governor said in louder voice; "are you in the habit of lying?" "No." "Have you never lied?" "Yes." "Many times?" "Fairly, it is perhaps many times summed up, but mostly I speak the truth." . . . (The boy has bought a paper out of which the governor exhorts him to read:) "I remember the nice time, I remember it as it was yesterday, when innocence and peace followed my footsteps" . . . (The governor goes on:) "You have acknowledged, that you occasionally lie. Why do you lie? Do you think, that it is right or amusing?" "Not at all." "Then, I suppose, it is to escape chastisement, when you have done something, which was not right?" "Yes." "You have perhaps not considered, that the one doing so acts cowardly. You are consequently a cowardly boy." "No", the boy answered, red of indignation and shame, "I am not cowardly. I have never fled out of a fight between boys. I rather take a thrashing than I flee. I do not flee for the superior force." "But you are cowardly before your superiors. Consequently still an afraid boy. Morally afraid. This is just the worst fear. An afraid boy is not worthy to bear the name Swede. You still want to be that name worthy, I suppose?" "Yes." "My friend", the old gentleman said, " . . . I want to heart you, that God demands truthfulness and that your country needs truth-loving, courageous men. They are needed in the council of the king, in the national assembly, in the rank of the soldiers, in the government offices, in the pulpit, in dealings and at the plough. Whatever you become in course of time, the native country needs in you a truthful and fearless man. . . . You are of course now in the nice time, which you in older days certainly will remember as if they were yesterday. Every child gets to companions the good spirits Innocence and Peace. You have them here (the governor pointed with the cane, as if he with bodily eyes had beheld them in the nearness), be careful that they do not abandon you." (Viktor Rydberg "Pojkarne" p 125-128; about 1839; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


about 1500 and time before

(The truth) only exists, the last philosophers of Greece said, above the confusing appearance of the material world, above the knowledge of understanding, above the reason and all qualifications of concepts, in the concept- and formless, where the World Spirit inpours in the particular spirit of man. Do you want to acquire the divine, do you want to behold the truth face to face, so suppress all pertaining to the sense, all what is your own and for you peculiar, all what make you a particular being, separated from the one and general, obliterate out of your soul every thought, every feeling, every image, every manifestation of the will! Then, only then you come to the beholding of the One, the supersensual, the incomprehensible. Nothing then stands between the beholding soul and the beholded divine. The beholding and the beholded are one. The seeker after truth has become one with the truth. (Viktor Rydberg "Den siste atenaren I" p 78-79; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Truth stands forth unveiled for all that will behold her beauty; she seeks no concealment, dreads no danger, trembles at no plots, desires not glory from the many, is accountable to no mortal thing, but stands above them all. (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers XIV:99)

Solomon ... built the temple as the type of truth. (Irenaeus, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol I, p 499)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Stig Abrahamsson, Tokunboh Adeyemo, Alf Ahlberg, Sivar Ahlrud, Eskil Albertsson, Eric S. Alexandersson, Nils Andrén, Åke Andrén, Ivo Andric, Eric Anthoni, Gunnar Aspelin, Margit Assarsson, Jerram Barrs, Agne Beijer, Ingmar Bergman, Elisabeth Beskow, Oloph Bexell, Marcus Birro, Gunnar Bjurman, Hjalmar Bjurulf, Gunnar Björling, Malte Blaxhult, Harry Blomberg, Clarence Blomquist, Enid Blyton, Kåre Boberg, Thomas Bodström, Maria-Pia Boëthius, Lars-Ola Borglid, Yngve Brilioth, Ingmar Brohed, Jacob Bronowski, Robert W. Campbell, Barthold Carlson, Ernst Cassirer, Elisabeth Charles, Elisabeth Cohen, Joseph Conrad, Stig Dagerman, Annica Dahlström, Sven Danell, Tage Danielsson, Zoja Danilovna Bruk, Christopher Dawson, René Descartes, Charles Dickens, Fjodor Dostojevskij, Bob Dylan, Stefan Einhorn, E.J. Ekman, Runar Eldebo, Allan Ellenius, Harald Elovson, Lars Åke Engblom, Albert Engström, LarsOlov Eriksson, Gabriel Fackre, Hilding Fagerberg, Gunnar Fjellestad, Adil Albert Fogelberg, Emilia Fogelklou, Sigmund Freud, Folke Fridell, Maurice Friedman, Galileo Galilei, Gao Xingjian, Roger Martin du Gard, Einar Genitz, Pieter Geyl, André Gide, Nikolaj Gogol, Saxo Grammaticus, Pontus Grate, Graham Greene, Carl Grimberg, Jan Guillou, Stefan Gustavsson, Hugo Gyllander, Jürgen Habermas, Sören Halldén, Joel Halldorf, O. Hallesby, Björn Hallström, Inger Hammar, Fredrik Hammarsten, Raymond Hammer, Vaclav Havel, John Hedlund, Jens Heimdahl, Otto Hermansson, C.G. Hjelm, Claes-Göran Holmberg, Alma Hongell, Darrell Huff, Lars Hult, Kazuo Ishiguro, Liselotte J Andersson, Anders Jarlert, Malcolm Jeeves, Johannes W. Jensen, PC Jersild, C.E.M. Joad, Viktor Johansson, Eyvind Johnsson, Stanley Jones, Jonas Jonson, Ghassan Kanafani, Bernhard Karlgren, Bo E. Karlson, Carolyn Keene, Johan Henrik Kellgren, Sören Kierkegaard, Alexis Kivi, Karl Knutsson, Arthur Koestler, Ad. Kolmodin, Eskil Källquist, Lars Levi Laestadius, Pär Lagerkvist, Annty Landherr, Hans Larsson, Harry Lenhammar, Sven Lidman, Jonas Lie, Gertrud Lilja, Claes Lindskog, J.E. Lundahl, Ulf Lundell, Sune Lyxell, Norman Mailer, Bertil Malmberg, Henning Mankell, Vladimir Matvejevitj Ivanov, Bertil Melkersson, Mo Yan, Vilhelm Moberg, Ingun Montgomery, V.S. Naipul, Richard Newton, Fredrik Nielsen, Torsten Nilsson, Fritiof Nilsson Piraten, Folke Nordangård, Hedvig Charlotta Nordenflycht, Helmer V. Nyberg, Anders Olivius, Ivan Oljelund, Eugene O'Neill, Christopher O'Regan, John Ongman, George Orwell, Blaise Pascal, Boris Pasternak, Lewi Pethrus, Olaus Petri, Claes Pettersson, Hilding Pleijel, Björn Ranelid, Joseph Ratzinger, Felicitas Rose, Jerker Rosén, Nils von Rosenstein, Joanne Kathleen Rowling, Eva Rydberg, Joh Heinrich Schmid, Catharina Segerbank, Sven-Åke Selander, Karin Sennefelt, Isaac Basjevis Singer, Birger Sjöberg, Tage Sjöberg, John Sjögren, Erik Sollerman, Alexander Solsjenitsyn, Göran Sonnevi, Wole Soyinka, John Steinbeck, Milton Steinberg, Yrsa Stenius, Sven Stolpe, Rune Storck, Svend Erik Stybe, Mats Svegfors, Per-Axel Sverker, Hjalmar Söderberg, Rabindranath Tagore, Esaias Tegnér, Anthony C. Thiselton, Thomas Thorild, Ragnar Thoursie, Owe Thörnqvist, Anton Tjechov, Leo Tolstoj, Bertil Torekull, Arne Trankell, Tomas Tranströmer, Mario Vargas Llosa, Nils Erik Villstrand, Cornelius Vreeswijk, P. Waldenström, N.P. Wetterlund, R.A. Whitacre, Björn Wiedel, Mikael Wiehe, O. Wieselgren, Ernst Wigforss, Carl Fr. Wislöff, Virginia Woolf, J. Wren-Lewis, Tore Zetterholm, Emile Zola, Göran Åberg, William Öhrman, Klas Östergren.


My own comments and speculations:

Balaam, whose name can mean "stranger", was called to curse the people of Israel, but three times he blessed them (Num 23:7-12,18-26; 24:3-10). In John we read about the Jews, who came with Jesus hoping that the “foreigner” Pilate would judge him to death. But three times Pilate said that he couldn't find any guilt in Jesus (John 18:38; 19:4,6). We can also notice that while the words “ouk” and “oun” are usual in the Bible, the compound “oukoun” only occurs here. The word is a word of a foreigner. Furthermore we can observe that also Paul three times was explained unguilty to die (Acts 23:29; 25:25; 26:31).

Concerning “be a witness to the truth”, see also John 5:33-35.


Paul said to the believers in Thessalonica: "You turned yourselves next to, towards God from the idols to be slaves to a living and true God. (1 Thess 1:9b)

If we – according to the circumstances – may speak, that we have communion in company with Him, and we may walk about in the darkness, we lie and do not make/do the truth. (1 John 1:6)

The one saying that/: ”I have (and have had) knowledge of Him” and does not keep His commandments, is a liar, and * (א,*א) is not the truth of God (א,*א). (1 John 2:4)

I have not written to you, that you do not know the truth, however/but that you know it, and that every lie is not out of the truth. (1 John 2:21)

In this we shall have knowledge, that we are out of the truth, and in front of Him we shall persuade our hearts (א,*א,A), that, if – according to the circumstances – our heart may have a downhearted knowledge, that God is greater (than) our heart and has knowledge of all things. (1 John 3:19-20)

We are out of God. The one having knowledge of God hears us. The one who is not out of God does not hear us. Out of this we have knowledge of the spirit of the truth and the spirit of the going astray. (1 John 4:6)


Greek words:

aitia (cause) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Wisdom of Solomon 18:18; Matt 27:37; John 18:38 – 2 Macc 4:28; 12:40; Matt 19:3,10; Mark 15:26; John 19:4,6; Acts 10:21; 13:28; 22:24; 23:28; 25:18,27; 28:18,20; 2 Tim 1:6,12; Tit 1:13; Heb 2:11.

oukoun (not so) John 18:36.


Additional studies:

Jer 10:10; Matt 27:11; Mark 15:2; Luke 22:70; 23:14,22; John 1:14,17; 3:3,21; 5:33; 6:14-15; 8:14,40,45-47; 9:39; 10:16,27; 11:27; 16:7; 18:33; 19:22; Acts 23:29; 1 Tim 6:13; 1 John 3:18; Rev 1:5; 3:20; 4:5; 9:11; 11:15; 15:3; 22:15.


Josephine M. Ford "Jesus as Sovereign in the Passion according to John"; Biblical Theological Bulletin 25 (1995): 110-117.

E.R. Wendland "What is truth? Semantic density and the language of the Johannine Epistles (with special reference to 2 John)"; Neotestamentica 24.2 (1990): 312-334.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-05-24; 2012-03-15; 2014-04-06; 2014-12-17)

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18:39-40 But it is a usage (in/among) you, ‘in order that’/that I might ‘loosen from’/’let loose’ one (person) for you ‘in the paschal lamb’/’at the Passover’. Do you so wish (that) I might ‘loosen from’/’let loose’ for you the King of the Jews?” They so screamed again, saying: “Not this One however/but Barabbas.” But Barabbas (continually) was a robber.

Word for word: 18:39 (19 words in the Greek text) (it)-is but (a)-usage (in/among)-you in-order-that one (i/I)-might-loosen-from you in the paschal-lamb. wish-(you) so (i/I)-might-loosen-from you the king (of)-the (of)-Jews? 18:40 (14 words in the Greek text) (they)-screamed so again saying: not this-(one) however the Barabbas. was-(continually) but the Barabbas (a)-robber.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(God said to Abraham:) "Take your welcomed son Isaac, whom you have welcomed, and go into the high earth/land and carry him up there into a burnt offering against one of the mountains of which I - according to the circumstances - may speak to you.” ... (But the messenger of the Lord said to Abraham:) "You may not throw/lay your hand against, against the very little boy but/and not you may make/do nothing/anything to him, for now I have gained knowledge that you fear God, and you have not spared your son, the welcomed one ‘because of’/’with a view to’ Me." (Gen 22:2,12, Greek OT)

(At the Passover) it became a great scream in every/’the whole’ earth/land Egypt, for it/there (continually) was not a habitation, in which it/there (continually) was not in it (one) having been (and being) deceased. … It is a night of ‘watch in front’/out-post for the Lord, ‘so that to’/to lead (Israel) out, out of earth/land of Egypt. (Ex 12:30b,42a, Greek OT)

(The evil) Haman was hung up upon the wood/’piece of wood’, which he had made ready for (the righteous) Mordecai, and then 'the king grew weary of the passion'/'the passion of the king abated'. (Esther 7:10a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said about the temple: “Is) not this house, on/in which My name is (and has been) called/invoked there on/in it, a cave of robbers in the very eyes of you?" (Jer 7:11a, Greek OT)

Who (the Romans) - according to the circumstances - may wish to succour to 'be kings'/rule, they 'are kings'/rule, but/and who they - according to the circumstances - may wish, they substitute. And they were extremely heightened. (1 Macc 8:13)

Twelve myriades (120000) males into a middle of the city ... (continually) wished to ‘take up ... for themselves’/kill the king. (1 Macc 11:45b)

(The king) loosened/released Menelaos from the things he had been accused of, the one (being) indeed the cause of ‘the whole bad’/’all bad things’, but the wretched ones, whoever would had been ‘loosened from’/released (as) not disregarded … these he ‘judged against’/’decided to’ death. Quickly they so suffered the unrighteous damage, the ones having spoken for others on account of city (a disgraced Jerosolyma/Jerusalem) and popular assemblies and the holy vessels. (2 Macc 4:47-48)

(The enemies) ‘loosened from’/released (the Jew) Timothy ‘with respect to’/’for the sake of’ the saving of (their) brothers. (2 Macc 12:25b)


The Latter Revelation:

The male (of Mary) ... wished to ‘loosen from’/divorce her in secret. (Matt 1:19b)

The lord of the slave ‘loosened from’/released him and let the loan be to him. (Matt 18:27b)

(Jesus said:) "It has been (and is) written: 'My house will be called a house of prayer, but you make it a cave of robbers'" (Matt 21:13b)

After a feast (Pilate) (continually/repeatedly) ‘loosened from’/released for them one fettered/captive whom they (continually/repeatedly) demanded from the side of (him). ... (Pilate said to the crowd:) “Do you want (that) I may ‘loosen from’/release the King of the Jews to you.” ... But again they shouted: ”Crucify Him!” ... But wishing to make the crowd 'the fit thing'/calm Pilate ‘loosened from’/released Barabbas to them. (Mark 15:6,9b,13,15a)

(Peter said to the men of Israel:) "You denied the Holy and Righteous One and demanded a male, a murderer, to be given graciously to you." (Acts 3:14)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Jesus said to the Pharisees): “All as many as have come * (P45,P75,א*) are thieves and robbers. However, the sheep did not hear them.” (John 10:8)

(A much/many-headed crowd, having come into/to the feast said:) “Hosanna! Being (and having been) blessed the one coming in (the) name of a lord, and/namely the king of Israel.” (John 12:13b)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

The Synoptics describe (the custom) as a practice of Pilate (Mark 15:6; Luke 23:17) or of the governor (Matt 27:15). John describes it as a Jewish custom. For John it is a Passover custom. … Amnesty fits the general theme of release from Egypt that characterizes Passover. (Raymond E. Brown "The Gospel according to John" p 855)

The teacher (to his disciple): The one who suffers when the good and the deserving thing is rewarded, this is an evil man. The one called for the releasing of the murderer Barabbas and perhaps gave a banquet for him, this was an evil man. (August Strindberg "En blå bok I" p 46; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Hjalmar Alving, Ivo Andric, UllaBritt Berglund, Elisabeth Beskow, August Blanche, Hjalmar Börjeson, Fjodor Dostojevskij, Albert Engström, Birger Gerhardsson, Bo Giertz, Georg Hafström, Knut Hamsun, Gudmar Hasselberg, Alf Henrikson, Viktor Johansson, Pär Lagerkvist, Sigurd Lindgren, Vilhelm Moberg, Harry Månsus, Richard Newton, Efraim Palmqvist, Viktor Rydberg, Michail Sjolochov, Gunnar Skogsmark, John Stott, Anton Tjechov, Elin Wägner.


My own comments and speculations:

The great crowd who had come to the feast (and among them some non-Jews) screamed and blessed the King of Israel (John 12:13). Now the Jews scream and curse "the King of the Jews". Compare My own comments and speculations to John 18:33-36.

Barabbas was a murderer according to Mark and Luke. For John he is above all a robber. Barabbas (the name means "the son of the father") is a robber who deserves to be crucified. But Jesus - the Son of the Father - lets Himself be crucified in Barabbas' place.

In times of old the son of Abraham was saved from being killed by his father. In a restoration perspective the Son Jesus this time must be killed by His Father. And in a restoration perspective also the Israelites, who were released from Egypt, now must die in the person of Jesus.

In times of old "the evil man" Haman (Esther 7:6) was hanged in the place of "the righteous man" Mordecai. In a restoration perspective we see how "the righteous Man" Jesus now is hanged in the place of "the evil male (Acts 3:14)" Barabbas.

In a “resemblance perspective” we see how as the evil Menelaos was released in the place of the defenders of the holy things, so the robber Barabbas is released in the place of Jesus (2 Macc 2:47-48).


Greek words:

apolyô (loosen from) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) 2 Macc 4:47;12:25; Matt 1:19; 18:27; Mark 15:6,9; John 18:39 – Tobit 3:6,13,17; 10:12; 1 Macc 10:29; 11:38; 2 Macc 6:30; 7:9; 10:21; 12:45; 14:23; Sir 27:19; Susanna v 53(Theod); Matt 5:31-32; 14:15,22-23; 15:23,32,39; 19:3,7-9; 27:15,17,21,26; Mark 6:36,45; 8:3,9; 10:2,4,11-12; 15:11,15; Luke 2:29; 6:37; 8:38; 9:12; 13:12; 14:4; 16:18; 23:16-18,20,22,25; John 19:10,12; Acts 3:13; 4:21,23; 5:40; 13:3; 15:30,33; 16:35-36; 17:9; 19:40; 23:22; 26:32; 28:18,25; Rom 14:20(א*); Heb 13:23.

Barabbas (Barabbas) Matt 27:16-17; Mark 15:15; John 18:40 – Matt 27:20-21,26; Mark 15:7,11; Luke 23:18.

boulomai (wish) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) 1 Macc 8:13; 11:45; Matt 1:19; Mark 15:15; John 18:39 – Esther 3:11,13b(B2); 8:11; Tobit 5:14; Judith 5:7; 8:15; 1 Macc 3:34; 4:6; 5:48,67; 7:5,30; 11:49; 12:14; 14:31; 15:3-4,27; 16:13; 2 Macc 11:23,29; 12:35; 14:39; Wisdom of Solomon 12:6; 14:19; 16:21; Sir Prologue; 12:16; Matt 11:27; Luke 10:22; 22:42; Acts 5:28,33; 12:4; 15:37; 17:20; 18:15,27; 19:30; 22:30; 23:28; 25:20,22; 27:43; 28:18; 1 Cor 12:11; 2 Cor 1:15,17; Phil 1:12; 1 Tim 2:8; 5:14; 6:9; Tit 3:8; Philemon v 13; Heb 6:17; Jas 1:18; 3:4; 4:4; 2 Pet 3:9; 2 John v 12; 3 John v 10; Jude v 5.

synêtheia (usage) John 18:39 – (4 Macc 2:13; 6:13; 13:22,27); 1 Cor 8:7; 11:16.


Additional studies:

Dan 6:23-24; Obadiah v 5a; Matt 27:23,38; Mark 11:17; 15:6-15,27; Luke 19:46; 23:17-25; John 10:1; 19:10,12.


Charles B. Chavel "The Releasing of a Prisoner on the Eve of Passover in Ancient Jerusalem"; Journal of Biblical Literature 60 (1941): 213-278.

Thomas D. Lea "Who Killed the Lord? A Defense Against the Charge of Anti-Semitism in John's Gospel"; Criswell Theological Review 7 (1994): 103-123.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-05-25; 2012-03-16; 2014-11-07; 2014-12-18)

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