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Chapter 15
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15:1 I am the true vine, and My Father is the farmer/vine-dresser.

Word for word (13 words in the Greek text): I (i/I)-am the wine the true and the father my the farmer is.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

The Lord God planted a ‘place by the side of apprehension’/Paradise ... and took the man ... and put him in (it) to work it and watch (it). (Gen 2:8a,15, Greek OT)

The Lord God enjoined Adam saying: “From every wood of the thing in the ‘place by the side of apprehension’/Paradise you may eat consumption/fruit, but from the wood of the thing to have knowledge of fine and evil, from it you shall not eat. But/and (in) which day you – according to the circumstances – may eat from it, you will die (in) death." (Gen 2:16-17, Greek OT)

(“You shall not eat) from fruit of the wood (of the thing to know/'have knowledge' of fine and evil), which is in a middle of the ‘place by the side of apprehension’/paradise,” God spoke (to the male and the woman). “Do not eat from it, ‘nor not’/nor touch it, in order that you may not die.” And the serpent spoke to the woman: “You will not die (in) death!” ... Having taken its fruit (the woman) ate. And she gave and/also to her male (being) in company with her, and he ate. And the eyes of (the) two were opened throughout, and they gained knowledge, that they (continually) were naked. And they sewed leaves of a fig tree and made themselves (clothes) girded (them) around. And they heard the voice/sound of the Lord God walking about in the ‘place by the side of apprehension’/Paradise. (Gen 3:3-4,6b-8a, Greek OT)

(The chief cup-bearer said to Joseph:) “In my sleap a vine (continually) was opposite me, but in the vine (there were) three bottoms/roots. And on its sprouting it carried up sprouts (and) the bunches of 'grapes of grape'/grapes (were) ripe.” (Gen 40:9b-10, Greek OT)

Moses spoke (directed) towards God: “Behold, I shall come towards the sons of Israel, and I shall speak towards them: ‘The God of your fathers has dispatched (and dispatches) me away towards you.’ They will ask me: 'What (is) a name to Him?' What shall I speak towards them?” And God spoke towards Moses: “I am the One who is.” And He spoke: “In this way you shall speak to the sons of Israel: ‘The One who is has dispatched (and dispatches) me away towards you.’” (Ex 3:13-14, Greek OT)

(Asaph said to the Lord:) "You 'lifted afterwards'/'set out' a vine out of Egypt. ... Inspect this vine. ... Let Your hand become/come against a male of Your right hand and against a son of man." (Ps 80:8a,14b,17a or 80:9a,15b,18a, Greek OT)

(Solomon said:) "Happy all the ones fearing the Lord. ... As a thriving vine (is) your woman." (Ps 128:1a,3a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) “I will sing for the one being (and having been) welcomed, a song (concerning) the vineyard of my welcomed one. It became a vineyard for the one being (and having been) welcomed in a horn/mountain-peak, in a fat/fertile place. And I put an enclosure round about and I provided (it) with pales and I planted a vine, a fine vine and I built a tower in its middle, and I dug a reservoir in it for the little wine-press. And I stayed to the thing to 'make grape'/'get grapes', but it made/yielded thorns." (Is 5:1-2, Greek OT)

(The Lord said: “The slaves with the new name) ... will bless God, the True One.” (Is 65:16a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Israel:) "I planted you, a fruit-bearing vine, every/wholly true. How have you been turned/changed into bitterness, the alien vine?" (Jer 2:21, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to the priest leader of His people:) "In that day (when I lead My slave Upsticking) ... everyone will call together his neighbour below a vine and below a fig tree. (Zech 3:10, Greek OT)

(Wisdom said:) “I sprouted as a vine (with) joybringing (grace). And my flowers (gave) a fruit of glory and riches.” (Sir 24:17)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to the crowds:) "The kingdom of the heavens ... becomes a tree." (Matt 13:31b-32a)

Peter spoke to (Jesus): “Lord, if You are, exhort me to come towards You against the waters.” But/and He spoke: "Come!" (Matt 14:28b-29a)

Having (א*, B*) 'led up on'/returned into the city early in the day (Jesus) was hungry. And having beheld one fig tree (alone) upon the way, (Jesus) came against it and did not find anything in it, ‘if not’/except leaves only, and He says to it: “Oh that (א,* א) it may not become fruit out of you any longer into the (coming) age.” And immediately the fig tree was dried. (Matt 21:18-19)

(Jesus said to the priest leaders and the elders of the people:) "... A man (continually) was a master of a house, whoever/who planted a vineyard ... and he gave/let it out to farmers and went abroad." (Matt 21:33)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “From just now I may not/certainly not drink out of this * (P37*,א*) produce of the vine, till that day when I – according to the circumstances – may drink it new in company with you in the kingdom of My Father.” (Matt 26:29b)

(Jesus) '(continually) said'/'went on to tell' this parable: "A certain one (continually) had a fig tree being (and having been) planted in his vineyard. And he came seeking fruit in it and he did not find. But/and he spoke towards the vinedresser: 'Behold, three years from/after which (time) I come/”have come” seeking fruit in this fig tree, and I ‘do not find/’have not found’. Cut it out, ‘in order that what’/why does it and/also make the earth inactive/barren?' But/and 'having answered'/answering he says to him: ‘Lord, let (the fig tree) be and/also this year, till (the time) whichever/’in which’ I may dig around it and throw/put (on) dung. And if – according to the circumstances - it indeed may make/bear fruit into the ‘(year) being about’/’future (year)’, (fine); but if not, you will/may cut it out/down at any rate.’” (Luke 13:6-9)

(Jesus said: “The kingdom of God) is like a scarlet kernel of mustard, which having taken a man threw/sowed into his garden. And it increased and became into/to a tree.” (Luke 13:19a)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "I may not/certainly not drink from the product of the vine from the now till (the time in) which the kingdom of God may come." (Luke 22:18)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Jesus said to Nathanael:) "Because I spoke to you that I beheld you below the fig tree, you believe. You will behold greater things than these." (John 1:50)

(The threebedleader said to the bridegroom:) "Every man puts/’puts out’ the fine wine first and when they – according to the circumstances – may have been made drunk the less/inferior. You have kept (and keep) the fine wine till just now." This beginning of His signs, (the) first one (א*), Jesus made/did in Cana of Galilee, and made His glory visible. (John 2:10b-11a)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 - about 1500

(In third Baruch, Greek version) Baruch receives instruction on the vine which at one time was in the garden of Eden and caused the fall of Adam and Eve. ... (In the third heaven) Baruch asks to see the tree which led Adam astray. The tree, which is a vine, was planted at one time by Samael in the garden of Eden. The vine led to the depravity of mankind (4:8) but is now useful (4:9). “And I Baruch said to the angel, ‘Lord, if God has cursed the vine and its seed, then how can it be of use now’.” ... “Its bitterness will be changed into sweetness, and its curse will become a blessing, and its fruit will become the blood of God, and just as the race of men have been condemned through it, so through Jesus Christ Emmanuel in it (they) will receive a calling and entrance into Paradise” (4:15). ... After the flood, Noah found a branch of the vine. Because he was aware of the earlier negative consequences it caused, he prayed to God and asked what he should do with the branch. He received a reply from the angel, Sarasael, to replant it. The people, through its fruit, will come near to God through Jesus Christ, Emmanuel (4:15). ... This (third) heaven emphasizes the dualism between evil and good. The reader must make a choice. The choice concerns a life of good and evil works and decides whether or not one may continue to the fourth heaven or must stay behind in the third. ... The journey through the third heaven reflects ... the journey which people take already here in this life. By performing correct actions while one lives, one reaches paradise in the fourth heaven after death. (Leif Carlsson “Round Trips to Heaven” p 278,318-321)

In Baruch 39:7 it is said about the messianic time: ”In the time of fulfilment … my Messiah's power will be revealed, he who is like a spring and a vine.” (René Kieffer "Johannesevangeliet" p 364, translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

The LXX in Ps 80:14-15 had already identified the vine with the "son of man", and so the identification of the vine as Jesus may have had roots, as it were, in an older tradition. (Raymond E. Brown "The Gospel according to John" p CVIII)

Concerning Nathanael below the fig tree Raymond E. Brown (p 83) mentions J Jeremias who thinks of the symbolism of the tree of knowledge in Paradise, a tree which the late Judaism thought was a fig tree. Brown also refers to Midrash Rabbah on Eccles v 11, where it is said that the rabbis sometimes taught and studied under a fig tree.

The name of the inn is neither more nor less than "The Paradise", and at the dim shine from a sleepy lantern one can see an above the low door hanging signboard representing Adam and Eve in the state of innocence, the former holding a colossal beer mug and the later a tapering dram-glassfilled with a red liquid, which name and nature we deliver to investigate to the one who more thoroughly than we has studied the occurrence of wine culture before the flood (that Noah was the first vine-dresser is nowadays assumed only by fanatic orhtodox ones, who are deaf to the most speaking arguments). . . . "I wonder", (Kunz said), "if (Heinrich) puts up as well with the heavenly Paradise as he has done with Rastatt's 'Paradise', where angels in soldier figure drink Weissbier." . . . The huge Kunz sits at a table with a bottle of the dearest grapes of the Paradise in front of him. (Viktor Rydberg "Positivspelarne" p 62,171,202; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


about 1500 and time before

As he who was made a living soul forfeited life when he turned aside to what was evil, so, on the other hand, the same individual, when he reverts to what is good, and receives the quickening Spirit, shall find life. (Irenaeus, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol I, p 538)

Some of the Rabbis have imagined that the vine had grown in Paradise, and that somehow the Nazarite's abstinence from its fruit was connected with the paradisiacal state, and with our fall. (Alfred Edersheim “The Temple” p 371)

In the Old Testament, and partially in Jewish thought, the Vine was the symbol of Israel, not in their national but in their Church-capacity. (Alfred Edersheim "The Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah Part II" p 520)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: H.C. Andersen, Aron Andersson, Fredrik Böök, Henry Daniel-Rops, Lars Magnar Enoksen, Inger Estham, Tore Fasth, Carl-Johan Gadd, Carl Grimberg, Lars Gustafsson, Jens Heimdahl, Kazuo Ishiguro, Lars-Johan Jarnegren, Inga Johansson, Lennart Johansson, Eskil Jonsson, Adolf Kloo, Lars Levi Laestadius, Olle Larsson, Bengt Leion, Sigurd Lindgren, Frank Mangs, Vilhelm Moberg, Ingun Montgomery, Elvy Nilbratt, Bulat Okudzjava, Thede Palm, Claes Pettersson, Carl Olof Rosenius, Gösta Sandberg, Karin Sennefelt, Anfin Skaaheim, Josef Stenlund, John Stott, Svante Ståhl, Kari Syreeni, P. Waldenström, Gustaf Wikner.


My own comments and speculations:

Observe the near connection between the fig tree and the vine/wine in the prophets (Micah 4:1a,4a; Zech 3:10), in the Synoptics (Luke 13:6-9) and in John (1:50; 2:10). The fig tree has a negative shade of meaning in the Synoptics and in John, the vine/wine a positive. Compare also James 3:13. So it is natural to contrast the fig leaves of the deadly tree in Eden in Gen 3:7 to the true vine in John 15, a vine giving fine wine (John 2:10) and agelong life. The old deadly fig tree of knowledge (Greek OT: wood of the thing to know/'have knowledge of'), forbidden for men, is substituted by a new quickening vine of knowledge, recommended to men. On the connection between life and knowledge, see John 17:3. And a vine cannot yield deadly figs! Cf. James 3:12. And the fig leaves with which men cover their nakedness have been replaced by a living indoors in a vine, which means a constant openness towards Him who is the Light (cf. John 3:20-21).

The vineyard-the kingdom of God in the Synoptics can be compared with God's garden/’place by the side of apprehension’/Paradise. The vine Jesus in the Gospel of John can be compared with the fig tree in the Paradise. Observe also the difference between the Father's responsibility for the tree of knowledge (Greek OT: wood of the thing to know/'have knowledge of') and man's responsibility for the other trees in the garden. The Father is the farmer/vine-dresser of the tree of knowledge, which in a special way is His own welcomed tree. The other “honoured” trees in God's creation man is put to cultivate.

Contact in disbelief with the forbidden fig led to an expulsion from the fig out of the Paradise. As a contrast contact in faith with the ordered vine leads to a union into the vine and at last into a new Jerusalem. The slanderer managed to persuade the man to eat of the forbidden thing. Now he often manage to get the man to refrain from eating of the ordered thing. Would God has said, that just the vine Jesus leads to life? Of course there are so many other trees, of which you can eat!

Paul in Rom 11:13-25 speaks about the reconciliation of the world (cf. Rom 11:15) and the unification of the nations (cf. Rom 11:13,25) with an olive-tree. Here in chapter 15 John speaks about the mutual fellowship of the believers in a vine. The olive-tree gives a picture of the participation of the nations in Jesus' death and resurrection, the vine a picture of the participation of the believers in Jesus and His present glory.

On "I am", see My own comments and speculations to John 4:25-26.


(James said:) "My brothers, … a vine is not able to (make/bear) figs, (is it)?" (Jas 3:12a)


Greek words:

ampelos (vine) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Sir 24:17; Matt 26:29; Luke 22:18; John 15:1; Jas 3:12 – 1 Macc 14:12; Mark 14:25; John 15:4-5; Rev 14:18-19.

geôrgos (farmer) (in the NT + one example in the Apocrypha) Matt 21:33; John 15:1 – Wisdom of Solomon 17:16(17); Matt 21:34-35,38,40-41; Mark 12:1-2,7,9; Luke 20:9-10,14,16; 2 Tim 2:6; Jas 5:7.


Additional studies:

Gen 9:20; Is 5:7; 27:2-3; Ezek 17:5-6; Hos 10:1; Micah 4:4; Matt 20:1-16; 21:28-31; John 8:24; Rom 6:5; 11:17-18,24; 1 John 5:20; Rev 1:8; 6:6; 14:18-19.


Gary W. Derickson "Viticulture and John 15:1-6"; Bibliotheca Sacra 153 (Jan-March 1996): 34-52.

David J, Hawkin "Orthodoxy and Heresy in John 10:1-21 and 15:1-17"; The Evangelical Quarterly 47.4 (Oct. - Dec. 1975): 208-213.

Aelred Lacomara "Deteronomy and the Farewell Discourse (Jn 13:31-16:33)"; Catholic Biblical Quarterly 36 (1974): 65-84.

Francis J. Moloney "The Structure and Message of John 15:1-16:3"; Australian Biblical Review 35 (1987): 35-49.

J.C. de Smidt "A perspective on John 15:1-8"; Neotestamentica 25.2 (1991): 251-272.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-05-04; 2011-12-29; 2014-08-31)

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15:2-3 Every twig in Me carrying/producing not/no fruit, He lifts/’takes ... up’ it. And every (twig) carrying/producing fruit, He cleans it, in order that it may carry/produce more fruit. You are already clean because of the saying which I have talked (and talk) (with) you.

Word for word: 15:2 (20 words in the Greek text) every twig in me not carrying fruit (he)-lifts it, and every the fruit carrying (he)-cleans it in-order-that more fruit (it)-may-carry. 15:3 (10 words in the Greek text) already you clean are because-of the saying which (i/I)-have-talked-(and-talk) (with)-you.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

Noah built a sacrificial altar to the Lord … and carried up wholly offerings of fruits against the sacrificial altar. And the Lord God smelled a scent of fragrance. (Gen 8:20-21a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Israel:) "You shall watch/keep the sabbaths, because this is (made) holy of the Lord to you. The one profaning it shall be put to death (with) death. Every who will make/do a work in/on it, that soul shall be destructed wholly out of (the) middle of his people." (Ex 31:14, Greek OT)

(The men dispatched out to spy the land of Canaan) came till a ravine of bunch of grapes and they contemplated it entirely, and from there they cut a twig and/with a bunch of grapes of a grape. ... (When they returned) they showed (the synagogue) the fruit of the earth/land. ... (They said: "The) earth/land flew (with) milk and honey, and this (is) its fruit. ... (and) the nation dwelling upon the earth/land (is) bold, and the cities (are) firm, being (and having been) walled in and extremely great/large. And we have beheld (and behold) the generation of Anak there." (Num 13:23a,26b,27b-28 or 13:24a,27b,28b-29, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) “Behold, behold that/: ‘I am.’ And it/there is not a god more than Me. I shall kill and I shall make alive. I shall hit and I shall heal.” (Deut 32:39a, Greek OT)

And behold, the doorkeeper of the house cleaned/cleansed the wheats/wheat. (2 Sam 4:6a, Greek OT)

(David said to the Lord:) “You ascended into a height having led a captivity in captivity. You took gifts in a man, for and/also the disobeying ones (will) pitch a tent.” (Ps 68:18a or 68:19a, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said:) “Educating the Lord educated me, and to the death he did not give me ‘to the side of’/over.” (Ps 118:18, Greek OT)

(Solomon said:) “Give a wise a starting-point, and he will be wiser. Give knowledge to a righteous and he will ‘put to’/’set himself’ the thing to receive.” (Prov 9:9, Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) “Before the harvest, when – according to the circumstances – a flower may be brought to a consummation, and a flower ... may set up an unripe grape, (the Lord) will take off the small little bunches of grapes with the sickles, and He will take off the vine-twiggrowths and cut (them) down.” (Is 18:5, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) "That day God will lead the holy and the great and the stable dagger against, against the dragon, a fleeing serpent, against the dragon, a crooked serpent, and He will ‘take ... up for Himself’/’get rid of’ the dragon. (In) that day (there will be) a fine vineyard. Desiring (will) ‘begin out of’/issue ‘down from’/against her. I (am) a stable city, a city being besieged, (but) I will water it in vain. For it will be threshed a night, but/and a day the wall will fall." (Is 27:1-3, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) “I, the Lord, (is the One letting) hearts (undergo tests) and proving kidneys (on the basis) of the thing to give to everyone according to his ways and according to the fruits of his pursuits.” (Jer 17:10, Greek OT)

(The Man set/clothed in linen said to Daniel:) "Out of the ones ‘letting together’/understanding (some) will understand throughout into/’for the purpose of’ the thing to make themselves clean and into/’for the purpose of’ the thing to be chosen and into/’for the purpose of’ the thing to be made clean till a seasonable time of a consummation." (Dan 11:35a, Greek OT)

(Amos said to the people of Israel:) “Hear this saying which the Lord has talked against you.” (Amos 3:1a, Greek OT)

(Simon) ‘lifted out’/’took away’ the impurities out of (the border/castle of Jerusalem) … (1 Macc 14:7b)

(Solomon said:) “Desire my sayings. Long for (them) and you will be educated.” (Wisdom of Solomon 6:11)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “The branches of (a woman having entirely left her male) will not carry/produce fruit.” (Sir 23:25)

(Wisdom said:) “I sprouted as a vine (with) joybringing (grace). And my flowers (gave) a fruit of glory and riches.” (Sir 24:17)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “The works of (the Lord) (are) in (His) sayings.” (Sir 42:15b)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said: “God) chose (Aaron) from every living thing to ‘lead towards’/bring a sacrifice of fruit offering to the Lord, an incense and a fragrance into a remembrance to ‘propitiate out’/propitiate on account of Your/His people." (Sir 45:16; to offer first fruits belonged to the voluntary sacrifices)


The Latter Revelation:

(John the Baptist said to the Pharisees and the Sadducees:) "Make/give so fruit worthy the change of mind." (Matt 3:8)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Happy the clean ones (in) the heart, because they will behold God.” (Matt 5:8)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “It ‘carries together’/’is profitable’ for you, ‘in order that’/that one of your limbs may perish, and (that) your whole body may not be thrown into hell.” (Matt 5:29b)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "Whoever has, to him it will be given, and it will be ‘over and above’/’more than enough’. But whoever has not, and/also what he has will be lifted/’taken away’ from him." (Matt 13:12)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "The one having been sown against the rocky (ground), this is the one hearing the saying and straight off taking it in company with joy, but has not a root in himself, however/but is transitory. But/and having become oppression or pursuit because of the saying, he is straight off caused to stumble." (Matt 13:20-21)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "The one having been sown against the fine earth, this is the one hearing the saying and ‘lets together’/perceives (it)." (Matt 13:23a)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “In this way it will be in the consummation of the age; the messengers will come out and divide by a boundary-line the evil out of a middle of the righteous ones.” (Matt 13:49)

The most/’very great’ crowd (continually) extended/’spread out’ their garments in/on the way, but/and others cut (continually) branches from the trees and * (א*) extended/’spread out’ in/on the way. (Matt 21:8)

Having beheld one fig tree (alone) upon the way, (Jesus) came against it and did not find anything in it, ‘if not’/except leaves only, and He says to it: “Oh that (א,* א) it may not become fruit out of you any longer into the (coming) age.” And immediately the fig tree was dried. And having beheld (this), the disciples wondered, saying: “How (was it that) the fig tree dried up immediately?” But/and ‘Having answered’/’Jesus answered and’ spoke to (the disciples): “Amen, I say to you, if you – according to the circumstances – may have faith and may not doubt, you will not only make/do the thing (which was done) of/to the fig tree, ‘however and’/’but also’ – according to the circumstances – you may speak to this mountain: ’’Be lifted’/rise and ‘be thrown’/’throw yourself’ into the sea’, (and) it will become/’come about’.” (Matt 21:19-21)

(Jesus said to the priest leaders and the elders of the people:) “The kingdom of God will be lifted from you and be given to a nation making/giving its fruits.” (Matt 21:43b)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “They had not knowledge till the inundation came and lifted/’took away’ all of them, in this way the ‘being by the side of’/presence of the Son of the Man will be.” (Matt 24:39)

(Jesus taught the crowd:) "Hear! Behold, the one sowing came out to sow. ... (Some sowing gave no fruit.) ... Other (sowings) fell into the fine earth ... and carried/produced fruit into/’up to’ (א,* א) thirty/thirtyfold and into/’up to’ (א,* א) sixty/sixtyfold ..." (Mark 4:3,8a)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “If – according to the circumstances - your hand may cause you to stumble, cut it off; it is fine/’better for’ you to come into, into the life crooked, or/than having/with the two hands, come into (א*), into the Gehenna, into the unquenchable fire. … And if – according to the circumstances - your foot may cause you to stumble, cut it off; it is fine/’better for’ you to come into, into the life lame, or/than having/with the two feet, to be thrown into the Gehenna.” (Mark 9:43,45)

Going to the side of (the fig tree) early in the day, (Jesus and His disciples) beheld the fig tree having been (and being) dried up out of (the) roots. (Mark 11:20)

(John the Baptist said to the crowds:) “Make/’bring ... forth’ so fruits worthy the change of mind and you may not begin to say in yourselves: ‘We have a father, Abraham,’ for I say to you, that God is able to out of these stones raise children to Abraham.” (Luke 3:8)

The Lord spoke towards (a Pharisee): “Now you Pharisees make clean the cup and the plate ‘the from outside’/without; but your ‘the from inside’/inner is full of raping and evil. Thoughtless (men)! Did not He having made the ‘from outside’/outside made the ‘from inside’/inside and/also? Give the things being within (as) alm/’work of mercy’, and behold, all things is/are clean to you.” (Luke 11:39-41)

The second (slave) came saying: ”Your mine/’100 denarii’, lord, made/gave five minas/’500 denarii’.” But/and (his lord) spoke to this one: “And you, become/’be lord’ above/over five cities.” (Luke 19:18-19)

The disciples (continually) were completed/fulfilled (with regard to) joy and holy spirit. (Acts 13:52)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

The Jews encircled (Jesus) and said to Him: "Till when do You lift/’take away’ our soul? If You are the christ/'anointed one', speak to us (in) plain language." (John 10:24)

(Jesus said to Simon Peter:) “The one having been (and being) bathed has not need * (א,*א) to wash however/but is clean whole/’all over’.” (John 13:10a)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "I will not let you be left orphan. I come towards you." (John 14:18)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 - about 1500

(The Greek word) klêma is found in the New Testament only in this passage (vv. 2,4,5 and 6). The term denotes not a branch in our sense of the term (klados), but a cane or shoot of a vine. ... John uses (the Greek word) karpos 8 times in veses 1-16, and twice only in the rest of the Gospel. (Leon Morris "The Gospel according to John" p 594)

One of the leading industries in California is winemaking. Franciskan monks began producing wine in the Napa/Sonoma region in the 1780s; by 1850, mission vineyards produced 58,000 gallons o wine annually. . . . Much of the state is planted with grapes; indeed California produces 90 (per cent) of the nation's grape harvest. Most of the grapes are sold as table grapes or turned into raisins and grape juice. Ideal soil and weather conditions in the Sonoma-Napa region, however, result in world-class wines. (Deborah Dinzes "A Guide to California's historic sites and museums" p 37)

The bearing of fruit is simply the life of a Christian disciple (see vv. 5,8); perhaps especially the practice of mutual love (v 12). (C.K. Barrett "The Gospel according to St John" p 474)

Be not afraid of the great oppressors! The great and strong one is noble, but the little one is malicious and insidious and stupid! . . . If I now would say the name on my standpoint (about the system of government), perhaps it would be: Anarchist of lecturer's desk! It is freedom for the best ones to also be allowed to rule. . . . What a society! Democracy after 1792! 1848! Yes, society has so grown as a thicket, because the millions of Little ones never have endured a gardener, as little as a pair of scissors in the hair! (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev VIII jan 1890-dec 1891" p 36; letter 1890-04-22 to Georg Brandes; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


about 1500 and time before

Let not him that is reproved be indignant: for we are men and we have failings; neither let him who reproves do it as exulting over him and making a display, but privately, with gentleness. He that reproves has need of greater gentleness, that thus he may persuade (them) to bear the cutting. Do you not see surgeons, when they burn, when they cut, with how gentleness they apply their treatment? Much more ought those who reprove others to act thus. For reproof is sharper even than fire and knife, and makes (men) start. On this account surgeons take great pains to make them bear the cutting quietly, and apply it as tenderly as possible, even giving in a little, then giving time to take breath. So ought we also to offer reproofs, that the reproved may not start away. (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers XIV:505)

Where there exists an increase of love, there a greater glory is wrought out by the power of God for those who love (Gud). (Irenaeus, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol I, p 529)

Private peace-offerings (could be) ‘voluntary offerings’ (Lev vii. 16) ... the free gift of loving hearts, as even the use of the same term in Ex. xxv. 2, xxxv. 29 implies. Exceptionally in this case an animal that had anything either ‘defective’ or ‘superfluous’ might be offered (Lev 22:23). (Alfred Edersheim “The Temple” p 135)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Patricia Atkinson, Elisabeth Beskow, Georg Boberg, August Bondeson, Lars-Ola Borglid, Barthold Carlson, Elizabeth Charles, Chas. E. Cowman, Ulf Ekman, Runar Eldebo, Bo Frid, Karl Fries, Bengt Frithiofsson, Anders Frostenson, Bo Giertz, Carl Grimberg, Lennart Gustavsson, Hermann Hartfeld, John Hedlund, A.G. Joelsson, Ivar Johansson, Swening Johansson, Stanley Jones, Ulrik Josefsson, Dag Kihlblom, Adolf Kloo, Lars Levi Laestadius, Sven Lidman, Ernst Lindblom, F. Lundahl, Martin Luther, Helge Lööf, Eric Maurice, Handley Carr Glyn Moule, Mikael Möhlstad, Watchman Nee, Richard Newton, Hedvig Charlotta Nordenflycht, Olle Olofsgård, Alex Olovson, Luther Peterson, Lewi Pethrus, Niklas Piensoho, Carl Olof Rosenius, Fr. Sandberg, Gösta Sandberg, Gunnar E. Sandgren, Vikram Seth, Bo Setterlind, Anfin Skaaheim, John Stott, Jesper Svartvik, P. Waldenström, Johan Olof Wallin, LisBeth Wedin, Paul Wern, N.P. Wetterlund, Carl Wilson, Carl Fr. Wislöff, Fredrik Wislöff, Verner Zimmergren.


My own comments and speculations:

In the NT the Greek word “klêma” (twig) only occurs in John 15. In the OT it occurs the first time in Num 13:23(24).

The fruit on the twig in Canaan was intended to give faith to the people of God. In a restoration perspective the fruit on the twig in Christ now is intended to give faith to the adornment/’adorned world’. If Jesus' disciples are one in Him by welcoming each other, the adornment/’adorned world’ may believe that the Father has dispatched Him away. Cf. John 17:21.

The Father “lifts” the twig that does not bear fruit like the fig tree/mountain that did not bear fruit is lifted (with the root Mark 11:20; see also Matt 21:19-21). Here in John 15:2 we have a contrast compared with Matt 21:43, where “the kingdom of God” is lifted from the ones who do not produce fruit. In John the ones who do not bear fruit is lifted from Him who is “the kingdom of God”. Concerning the translation of the Greek word “airô” (lyfta), compare John 19:14b-16a with My own comments and speculations.

It is the Father, and not men, who takes away the twig producing no fruit. God Himself settles, when the hour for the taking away is suitable. The task of the Christian is to do everything, in order that his brothers and sisters shall be able to produce fruit. Cf. Luk 13:6-9.

See also My own comments and speculations to John 15:5.


Paul said to the believing husbands in Ephesos: "Christ welcomed the (assembly) of called out and gave Himself ‘to the side of’/over in favour of her, in order that He might make her holy, having made her clean (with) the bath of the water in/with a word, in order that He Himself might cause the (assembly) of called out to stand by the side of Himself, glorious, having not dirt or wrinkle or any of such kinds, however/but in order that she might be holy and unblemished." (Eph 5:25b-27)

Paul said to the believers in Philippi: "This I pray, in order that your welcome may be over and above still ‘rather and rather’/’more and more’, in/with additional knowledge and every/all notice/sense." (Phil 1:9)

Paul said to Titus: “To the clean (ones) all things (are) clean.” (Tit 1:15a)

I write to you, little children, because the misses (of the mark of God) have been (and are) left (alone) to you because of His name. I write to you, fathers, because you have gained (and gain) knowledge of Him from a beginning. I write to you, youths, because you have conquered (and conquer) the evil (thing) (א,* א). I have written to you, little boys and girls, because you have (and have gained) knowledge of the Father. I have written to you, fathers, because you have (and have gained) knowledge of Him from a beginning. I have written to you, youths, because you are stable and the saying of God stays in you, and you have conquered (and conquer) the evil one. (1 John 2:12-14)


Greek words:

kathairô (clean) 2 Sam 4:6; John 15:2 – Is 28:27.

klêma (twig) (the NT + one example in the OT) Num 13:23; John 15:2 – John 15:4-6.


Additional studies:

Lev 17:10; Ps 92:14(15); Jer 18:1-6; Matt 3:9-10; 15:13,18-20; 23:25-28; Mark 7:20-23; 11:12-14,21-23; Luke 6:43-45; John 6:63; 17:17; Acts 15:9; Rom 1:16; 8:28; 11:22; 1 Cor 5:1b,5; Gal 5:22-23; Eph 5:9; Jas 1:18; 1 Pet 1:23; 1 John 2:24; Rev 2:5; 3:19; 14:15-20; 15:6.


G.K. Beale "The Old Testament Background of Paul's Reference to 'the Fruit of the Spirit' in Galatians 5:22"; Bulletin for Biblical Research (Spring 2005): 1-38.

Gary W. Derickson "Viticulture and John 15:1-6"; Bibliotheca Sacra 153 (Jan-March 1996): 34-52.

M.A. Kruger "'Tina Karpon', 'Some fruit' in Romans 1:13"; Westminster Theological Journal 49.1 (1987): 167-173.

J.C. de Smidt "A perspective on John 15:1-8"; Neotestamentica 25.2 (1991): 251-272.

Charles R. Smith "The Unfruitful Branches in John 15"; Grace Journal 9.2 (Spring 1968): 3-22.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-05-04; 2012-01-01; 2014-09-01; 2014-12-13)

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15:4-6 Stay in Me, and I (stay) in you. Entirely as the twig is not able to carry/produce fruit from itself, if – according to the circumstances – it may not stay in the vine, in this way nor you (are able), if – according to the circumstances – you may not stay in Me. I am the vine, you (are) the twigs. The one staying in Me - and I in him - this one carries/produces much fruit, because separate from Me you are not able to make/do nothing/anything. If – according to the circumstances – a certain (person) may not have stayed in Me, he has been thrown outside as the twig and been dried. And they lead it (א,*א) together (with other twigs) and throw (them) into the fire, and it is burnt.

Word for word: 15:4 (29 words in the Greek text) stay in me, and-i/I in you. entirely-as the twig not is-able-to fruit carry from itself if-according-to-the-circumstances not (it)-may-stay in the wine, in-this-way nor you if-according-to-the-circumstances not in me (you)-may-stay. 15:5 (25 words in the Greek text) i/I (i/I)-am the vine, you the twigs. the-one standing in me and-i/I in him this-(one) carries fruit much, because separate-from me not (you)-are-able-to make nothing. 15:6 (23 words in the Greek text) if-according-to-the-circumstances anyone/'a-certain-(person)' not may-stay in me, (he)-was-thrown outside as the twig and was-dried and (they)-lead-together it and (they)-throw into the fire and (it)-is-burnt.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Lot's) woman saw against (Sodom), into the things behind, and she became a pillar of salt. (Gen 19:26, Greek OT)

(The chief cup-bearer said to Joseph:) “In my sleap a vine (continually) was opposite me, but in the vine (there were) three bottoms/roots. And on its sprouting it carried up sprouts (and) the bunches of 'grapes of grape'/grapes (were) ripe.” (Gen 40:9b-10, Greek OT)

It/there will be a leader in the one being (and having been) welcomed on leaders of peoples having been led together, tribes of Israel together. (Deut 33:5; Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) “The ones entirely leaving the Lord in (a place) will be brought to a consummation. ... They will be as a terebinth having ‘thrown from’/’let ... fallen’ (and ‘throwing from’/’letting fall’) the leaves and as a ‘place by the side of apprehension’/paradise not having water.” (Is 1:28b,30, Greek OT)

(Judas sang to the Lord:) "Give peace for us, for You have ‘given back’/performed all things for us." (Is 26:12b, Greek OT)

(The prophet said about Judas:) "Into/with a voice/sound of a circumcision (the Lord) fastened/fixed up fire against her, the great oppression against (her), her branches became useless." (Jer 11:16b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Ezekiel:) "Will they take wood out of (the vine) to the thing to to make ‘into an occupation’/anything? ... (As) the wood of the vine in/among the woods of the oak-wood, the same which I have given (and give) to the fire into/to dissolution/fuel, in this way I have given (and give) the ones dwelling (in) Jerusalem." (Ezek 15:3a,6b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to the prophet: "I am the One) ‘drying up’/’letting ... dry’ a light green wood/’piece of wood’, and causing a dry wood/’piece of wood’ to sprout. I, the Lord, have talked (and talk), and I will make/do (it).” (Ezek 17:24b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to the princes of Israel:) "Your mother (was) as a vine, as a flower in a pomegranate-tree being (and having been) planted in/by water. Its fruit and its sprout became/came out of much water. ... And/but it was ‘fragmented down’/’broken off’ in passion. It was tossed against the earth/ground, and the hot wind dried its chosen (fruits). Its stable rod/stem was procured justice and it was dried. Fire dissolved/consumed it. And now it is (and has been) planted in the desolate (district), in a waterless earth/land. And fire has come out, out of its chosen rod/stem and eaten it down/up, and it/there (continually) was not a stable rod/stem in it. " (Ezek 19:10,12-14a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) “The farmers were dried. ... The vine was dried.” (Joel 1:11a,12a, Greek OT)

(Solomon said:) “The ones having been (and being) persuaded on/’for the sake of’ (the Lord) are together with truth, and the faithful ones will abide (in) Him in welcome.“ (Wisdom of Solomon 3:9a)

(Solomon said:) “Being one (wisdom) is able all things, and staying/remaining in herself she makes all things new.” (Wisdom of Solomon 7:27a)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “The branches of (a woman having entirely left her male) will not carry/produce fruit.” (Sir 23:25)

(Wisdom said:) “I sprouted as a vine (with) joybringing (grace). And my flowers (gave) a fruit of glory and riches.” (Sir 24:17)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said: “Child,) let (you) be called to the side of in (the dead body) in/’by means of’ (the) ‘way out’/departure of his spirit.” (Sir 38:23b)


The Latter Revelation:

(John the Baptist said to the Pharisees and Sadducees:) "Every tree making/bearing not fine fruit is cut out and thrown into fire." (Matt 3:10b)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) ”You are the salt of the earth. But if – according to the circumstances – the salt may be made foolish/insipid, in which (way) shall it be salted? It is not any longer stable into anything ‘if not’/except, having been thrown outside, to be trodden down by the men.” (Matt 5:13)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Your Father knows which things you have need (of), before 'of the you'/you demand (towards) Him.” (Matt 6:8b)

(Jesus said to the twelve:) "Every/everyone whoever will confess in/with Me in front of the men, I will and/also confess in/with him in front of My Father, the One (being) in * (P19, א,* א) heavens.” (Matt 10:32)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “The one having been sown into the thorns, this is the one hearing the saying and/but the care of the age and the cheating of the riches choke up the saying, and he becomes fruitless.” (Matt 13:22)

They threw the rotten/bad (fish) outside. (Matt 13:48b)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "Where two or three having been (and being) led together into My name, there I am in their middle." (Matt 18:20)

(Jesus) says to (the fig tree): “Oh that (א,* א) it may not become fruit out of you any longer into the (coming) age.” And immediately the fig tree was dried. (Matt 21:19b)

(Jesus taught the crowd:) "Hear! Behold, the one sowing came out to sow. ... (Some sowing) fell against the rocky (ground) … and ‘because of’/because 'the not to have/'it had not' a root, it was dried. … Other (sowing) fell into the fine earth ... and carried/produced into/’up to’ (א,* א) thirty/thirtyfold and into/’up to’ (א,* א) sixty/sixtyfold and into/’up to’ (א,* א) hundred/hundredfold." (Mark 4:3,5a,6b,8)

(One out of the crowd said to Jesus:) “Whereat/where * (א*) (the spirit) may take down/up (my son), he breaks ‘in pieces’/down * (א,* א) and foams and chirps/grinds the teeth and is dried.” (Mark 9:18a)

(Jesus said to the crowd: “Some) fell in a middle of the thorns, and having 'been produced'/grown together the thorns choked it away.” (Luke 8:7)

(Jesus) '(continually) said'/'went on to tell' this parable: "A certain one (continually) had a fig tree being (and having been) planted in his vineyard. And he came seeking fruit in it and he did not find. But/and he spoke towards the vinedresser: 'Behold, three years from/after which (time) I come/”have come” seeking fruit in this fig tree, and I ‘do not find/’have not found’. Cut it out, ‘in order that what’/why does it and/also make the earth inactive/barren?' But/and 'having answered'/answering he says to him: ‘Lord, let (the fig tree) be and/also this year, till (the time) whichever/’in which’ I may dig around it and throw/put (on) dung. And if – according to the circumstances - it indeed may make/bear fruit into the ‘(year) being about’/’future (year)’, (fine); but if not, you will/may cut it out/down at any rate.’” (Luke 13:6-9)

(Jesus said:) "Were not the ten made clean? But where (are) the nine? Were they not found having returned to give glory to God, ‘if not’/except this one, the one of other descent?" (Luke 17:17b-18)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “The day the Son of the Man is revealed … let not the one (being) in a field turn next to, into the things behind. Recollect the woman of Lot!” (Luke 17:30b,31b-32)

The other (slave) came, saying: “Lord, behold your mine/’100 denarii’.” ... (The lord) says to him: “ ... evil slave.” ... And he spoke to the ones standing by the side of (him): “Lift/take the mine/’100 denarii’ from him and give to the one having the ‘ten mines’/’1000 denarii’.” (Luke 19:20a,22a,24)

(Jesus said:) “To every/everyone having will be given, but from the one not having will be lifted/taken and/also which/what he has.” (Luke 19:26b)

Saul (continually) outraged the (assembly) of called out. ... (Jesus said to him:) “Saul, Saul, what/why do you pursue Me?” (Acts 8:3a; 9:4b)

(Paul said the males in Athen:) ”In (God) we live and are stirred and are.” (Acts 17:28a)

(Paul, the apostle of the nations, said:) "I beheld ‘according to’/downwards the way a light from heaven, over/’more than’ the lustre of the sun, having shone round about me and the ones going together with me." ... But/and (he) spoke: "Who are You, Lord? But/and the Lord spoke: "I am Jesus whom you pursue." (Acts 26:13b,15)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

All things became through (the Saying), and separate from It nothing (P66, א*) became that has become (and becomes). (John 1:3)

(Jesus said to the Jews:) "The one chewing My flesh and drinking My blood stays in Me and I in him." (John 6:56)

(Jesus said:) “Amen, amen, I say to you, if – according to the circumstances – the scarlet kernel of the bread-stuff having fallen into the earth may not die, it stays alone. But if – according to the circumstances – it may die, it carries/produces much fruit. The one being friends with his soul perish it. And the one hating his soul in this adornment/’adorned world’ will watch it into an agelong life.” (John 12:24-25)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "In that day you will gain knowledge, that I (am) in My Father and you in Me and I in you." (John 14:20)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Every twig in Me carrying/producing not/no fruit, (My Father) lifts/’takes away’ it.” (John 15:2a)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 - about 1500

If the love of God is allowed to come into us, it gives us an assurance that we are in him, in his field of force, surrounded of his presence. "The one saying himself remain in him .." Here is one of the favourite expressions of John. We hear it 11 times in John 15. - Remain in me. (Bengt Pleijel "... för att ni skall veta ... En vandring genom Johannes första brev" p 51 in comment to 1 John 2:5-6; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

J Foster has made the suggestion that Polycarp, bishop of Smyrna in the early 2nd century and a disciple of John (according to Irenaeus …) received his name in the light of the challenge of these verses. He was a disciple bearing much fruit. (Raymond E. Brown "The Gospel according to John" p 661)

Religion wants to bring about sympathy and community between the men with reference to their deepest presentiments of human purpose. . . . The future of mankind depends on the awakening and the spreading of sympathy in wider and wider circles. More apposite and, one can say, more beautiful and artistic the nature of this feeling has never become expressed than in Jesus' parable of the vine and its branches. (Viktor Rydberg "Konstnären och konstverket" p 55; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

My friends (?) withhold newspapers from me, for they prefer (Björnstjerne) Björnson to me. . . . You are right, friend, I have no friends! Am nevertheless allowed to live, I suppose! To have done the good I have done and at so young years become thrown away as a worn out broom! They want to pass me if they can! (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev IV 1884" p 402; letter 1884-12-17 to Isidor Kjellberg; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Did you see if my roses flowered? On Kymendö? Was it any fruit on the trees? Any berries? (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev IV 1884 p 318; letter 1884-09-05 to the brother Axel Strindberg; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

(Cousin Kristofer) again enters the wing of the cavaliers, makes a fire and hides his uniform. . . . He dies little by little, as old eagles use to do in captivity. . . . He does not care to use his freedom. . . . He has not more strength to spread his swings to flight. (Selma Lagerlöf "Gösta Berlings saga" p 211; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Our revered (bishop) Johannes Matthiae (working for a reconciliation between the Lutheran and the Reformed Church) . . . is irretrievably entangled in the toils of the tempter", (Rev.) Suenonius said in a deep voice. "The 'Olivekvistar' ('Olive-twigs', religious publication) he has scattered in the congregation have become germs of quarrel, a weed among wheat. . . . We are to cut off the dried branches of the wine, we are to pull up the weed burning it in fire." (Viktor Rydberg "Fribytaren på Östersjön I" p 50-51; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


about 1500 and time before

I see many after their baptism living more carelessly than the uninitiated, and having nothing peculiar to distinguish them in their way of life. (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers X:26)

See ye not the unfruitful trees, how strong they are, how fair, how large also, and smooth, and of great height? But if we had a garden; we should much rather have pomegranates, or fruitful olive trees: for the others are for delight to the eye, not for profit, which in them is but small. Such are those men who only consider their own interest: nay, not such even since these persons are fit only for burning: whereas those trees are useful both for building and for the safety of those within. (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers XI:133)

Do not wait to be loved by another but ... be the first to begin it. For so wilt thou reap the wages of his love also. ... There is nothing that makes men beloved so much as honor and forethought. For to love is not enough, but there must be this also. ... There are many that love in mind, yet reach not forth the hand. (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers XI:503)

Let us not ... stretch (our hands) out honorably, not for grasping, but for alms-giving. Let us not have our hand unfruitful nor withered; for the hand which doeth not alms is withered; and that which is also grasping, is polluted and unclean. (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers XIV:480)

What then, you say, if I cannot do works of mercy? But thou hast “a cup of cold water” (Matt x. 42), however poor thou art. But thou hast “two mites” (Mark xii. 42), in whatever poverty thou art; but thou hast feet, so as to visit the sick, so as to enter into a prison; but thou hast a roof, so as to receive strangers. For there is no pardon, no, none for him who does not do works of mercy. (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers XIV:509)

(The elders who saw John the disciple of the Lord remembered that they had heard from him how the Lord taught in regard to those times and said): “The days will come in which vines shall grow, having each ten thousand branches, and in each branch ten thousand twigs, and in each true twig ten thousand shoots, and in every one of the shoots ten thousand clusters, and on every one of the clusters ten thousand grapes, and every grape when pressed will give five-and-twenty metretes of wine.” (Papias, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol I, p 153)

Since the Son of God is always one and the same, He gives to those who believe on Him a well of water (springing up) to eternal life, but He causes the unfruitful fig-tree immediately to dry up; and in the days of Noah He justly brought on the deluge for the purpose of extinguishing that most infamous race of men then existent, who could not bring forth fruit to God ... but (that at the same time) He might preserve the archetype, the formation of Adam. And it was He who rained fire and brimstone from heaven, in the days of Lot, upon Sodom and Gomorrah, “an example of the righteous judgment of God,” that all may know, “that every tree that bringeth not forth good fruit shall be cut down, and cast into the fire.” (Irenaeus, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol I, p 516)

Above the entrance into the Holy Place (of the Temple) hung that symbol of Israel, a gigantic vine of pure gold, and made of votive offerings – each cluster the height of a man. (Alfred Edersheim “The Temple” p 58)

The relationship in which God presented Himself to His people, as their Father, would give peculiar strength and sacredness to the bond which connected earthly parents with their offspring. ... It was said that he who had no child was like one dead. (Alfredc Edersheim “Jewish Social Life” p 98)

To die within fifty years was to be cut off. ... Premature death was likened to the falling off of unripe fruit, or the extinction of a candel. To depart without having a son was to die, otherwise it was to fall asleep. (Alfred Edersheim “Jewish Social Life” p 165)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Per Daniel Amadeus Atterbom, Vaclav Benda, Elisabeth Beskow, Gordon Bridger, Amadeus Creutzberg, Sven Danell, Sven Delblanc, Bob Dylan, Runar Eldebo, Bo Frid, Gustaf Fröding, Carl Grimberg, Peter Halldorf, Ole Hallesby, Dag Hammarskjöld, Anna Hellström, Alf Henrikson, Viktor Johansson, Eyvind Johnson, Ulrik Josefsson, Adolf Kloo, Lars Levi Laestadius, Sven Lidman, Torgny Lindgren, Martin Luther, Martin Lönnebo, Frank Mangs, Howard Marshall, Carl Henrik Martling, Margareta Melin, Gabriel Moran, Gustav Mosesson, Handley Carr Glyn Moule, J. Nyrén, Karl Palmberg, Blaise Pascal, Niklas Piensoho, Hilding Pleijel, Harald Rasmussen, L.C. Retzius, Patrik Reuterswärd, Carl Olof Rosenius, Klaas Runia, Gösta Sandberg, Gunnar E. Sandgren, Henrik Schartau, William Shakespeare, Tomas Sjödin, Erik Sollerman, Marika Stjernstedt, Sven Stolpe, Rune Storck, John Stott, Jesper Svartvik, Howard Taylor, Esaias Tegnér, Einar Thomassen, Zacharias Topelius, T. Truvé, P. Waldenström, Einar Wallquist, Anna Thekla von Weling, Gunnar Weman, Gustaf Wikner, Anna Ölander.


My own comments and speculations:

In a restoration perspective we see how the burned vine Israel is restored in the vine Jesus. John sees a vine with much fruit like the vine which the chief butler saw in the dream he told Joseph.

And as the seed yielded up to thirtyfold and up to sixtyfold and up to a hundredfold, so the tree will produce fruit and more fruit and much fruit. As for the seed to the side of the way (Matt 13:19), see John 6:66-69; 8:31-47. As for the seed on rocky ground (Matt 13:20-21), see John 9:18-23; 12:42-43. Compare also My own comments and speculations to Rev 14:18b-19 and 16:8-9a.

We can notice that Jesus in the Gospel of John is the whole vine included the twigs. Compare Paul who sees Jesus as the head of the body, (the assembly) of called out. Compare Col 1:18 and Eph 5:23. Compare also how the Swedish hymn-writer Anders Frostensson rightly changed the text in his beautiful song "The branches are many, the stem is one" to "The branches are many, the tree is one" (my translation).

The one believing into Jesus Christ is united with Him. He not only is together with Him in His home (John 1:38-39) or inside His hand (John 10:28) or close up to His breast (John 13:25). He is within Him. What a blessed rest and security! What a cause to thankfulness and fruit-bearing.

Observe also the difference between being thrown into the fire as a dried branch and as a “living branch” (cf. 2 Macc 7:5-7; Rev 19:20).

Concerning “separate from”, see also John 1:3. Concerning “lead together”, see also John 4:35-36.


Paul said to the believers in Rome: “If some of the branches were ‘fragmented out’/’broken out to pieces’, but you, being a rural/wild olive-tree, was ingrafted in (the Israelites) and became a companion together with them of/from the root of the fatness/abundance of the olive-tree, do not boast ‘down from’/against the branches.” (Rom 11:17-18a)

Paul said to the believers in Corinth: “The fire will prove the work of everyone, of what kind it is. … If the work of anyone will be burnt down, he will ‘be damaged’/’suffer damage’, but he himself will be saved, but in this way as through fire.” (1 Cor 3:13b,15)

Paul said to the believers in Corinth: “Do you not know, that you are a temple of God?” (1 Cor 3:16a)

Paul said to the believers in Corinth: "You are Christ's body and limbs out of a part. ... Not because we are fit from ourselves, to count anything as out of ourselves, however/but our fitness (is) out of God." (1 Cor 12:27; 2 Cor 3:5)

Paul said to the believers in Corinth: “The one sowing sparingly and/also will harvest sparingly, and the one sowing on/’for the sake of’ blessings/praises he will and/also harvest on/’for the sake of’ blessings/praises.” (2 Cor 9:6b)

Paul said to the believers in Philippi: “(My prayer is that you) are (and have been) completed to a fruit of righteousness, the one through Jesus Christ into a glory and a ‘praise upon’/’praisefulness of’ God.” (Phil 1:11)

If we – according to the circumstances – may speak, that we have not a/any miss (of the mark of God), we lead ourselves astray and the truth is not in us. (1 John 1:8)

The one welcoming his brother stays in the light, and it/there is not a/any stumbling block in him. (1 John 2:10)

I write to you, little children, because the misses (of the mark of God) have been (and are) left (alone) to you because of His name. I write to you, fathers, because you have gained (and gain) knowledge of Him from a beginning. I write to you, youths, because you have conquered (and conquer) the evil (thing) (א,* א). I have written to you, little boys and girls, because you have (and have gained) knowledge of the Father. I have written to you, fathers, because you have (and have gained) knowledge of Him from a beginning. I have written to you, youths, because you are stable and the saying of God stays in you, and you have conquered (and conquer) the evil one. (1 John 2:12-14)

You, what you have heard from a beginning, let (it) stay in you. If – according to the circumstances – what you have heard from a beginning may stay in you, and/also you will stay in the Father and in the Son (א,*א). (1 John 2:24)

If – according to the circumstances – He may be made visible, we may have ‘plain language’/frankness and not (have to) be put a shame to from Him ‘in His being by the side of’/’at His coming’. (1 John 2:28b)

The one who – if according to the circumstances – may confess that/: “Jesus is the Son of God”, in him God stays, and he himself in God. (1 John 4:15)

If – according to the circumstances – anyone may behold his brother ‘missing (the mark of God)’/making a miss (of the mark of God), not towards death, he will demand and he will give life to him, to those who do not miss (the mark of God) towards death. It/there is a miss (of the mark of God) towards death. I do not say/speak on account of that, in order that you may ask (for it). (1 John 5:16)

We know, that the Son of God has arrived and has given (and gives) us a mind, ‘in order’/so that we * (א,* א, A, B*) have knowledge of the true One, and we are in the true One, in His Son, Jesus Christ. This One is the true God and agelong life. (1 John 5:20)


Greek words:

xêrainô (dry) (in the NT + one example in the Apocrypha) Matt 21:19; Mark 4:6; Mark 9:18; John 15:6 – Sir 40:13; Matt 13:6; 21:20; Mark 3:1; 5:29; 11:20-21; Luke 8:6; Jas 1:11; 1 Pet 1:24; Rev 14:15; 16:12.

pyr (fire) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Matt 3:10; John 15:6; 1 Cor 3:13,15 - Esther 8:12x(E24); Judith 13:13; 16:17; 1 Macc 6:39; 2 Macc 1:18-21(18-20),33; 2:1,10; 9:7; 10:36; 13:8; 14:41; Wisdom of Solomon 10:6; 13:2; 16:16-17,19,22,27; 17:5-6; 19:20; Sir 2:5; 3:30; 7:17; 8:3,10; 9:8; 15:16; 16:6; 21:9; 22:24; 23:16(17); 28:11; 36:8(11); 39:26,29; 40:30; 43:21; 45:19; 48:1,3,9; 50:9; 51:4; Baruch 4:35; Epistle of Jeremiah v 54,61(62); The Prayer of Azariah v 2,26-27; The Song of Praise of the Three Men v 43,65; Matt 3:11-12; 5:22; 7:19; 13:40,42,50; 17:15; 18:8-9; 25:41; Mark 9:22,43,48-49; Luke 3:9,16-17; 9:54; 12:49; 17:29; 22:55; Acts 2:3,19; 7:30; 28:5; Rom 12:20; 2 Thess 1:8; Heb 1:7; 10:27; 11:34; 12:18,29; Jas 3:5-6; 5:3; 1 Pet 1:7; 2 Pet 3:7; Jude v 7,23; Rev 1:14; 2:18; 3:18; 4:5; 8:5,7-8; 9:17-18; 10:1, 11:5; 13:13; 14:10,18; 15:2; 16:8; 17:16; 18:8; 19:12,20; 20:9-10,14-15; 21:8.


Additional studies:

Is 10:16-18; Mal 4:1; Matt 3:11; 7:16-20; 13:6-8,23; 28:20; Mark 9:43-47; Luke 8:7-8; 23:31; John 5:19,29; 14:20,23; 15:8,16; 21:4-6; Rom 11:22; 12:4-5; 1 Cor 12:12; 13:2; Eph 5:30; Phil 2:13; 4:13; Col 1:23; 2:19; Heb 6:8; 1 John 2:6; Rev 2:5,22,25; 14:15-20; 19:40; 22:2.


Gary W. Derickson "Viticulture and John 15:1-6"; Bibliotheca Sacra 153 (Jan-March 1996): 34-52.

P.J. Hartin "Remain in me (John 15:5). The foundation of the ethical and its consequenses in the farewell discourses"; Neotestamentica 25.2 (1991): 341-356.

John F. O'Grady "The Good Shepherd and the Vine and the Branches"; Biblical Theological Bulletin 8 (1978): 86-89.

J.C. de Smidt "A perspective on John 15:1-8"; Neotestamentica 25.2 (1991): 251-272.

Charles R. Smith "The Unfruitful Branches in John 15"; Grace Journal 9.2 (Spring 1968): 3-22.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-05-05; 2012-01-06; 2014-09-03; 2014-12-15)

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15:7-8 If you – according to the circumstances – may stay in Me and My words may stay in you, what – if according to the circumstances – you may want, you will (א,* א) demand and it will become/’come about’ for you. In this My Father was glorified, in order that you may carry/produce much fruit, and you will (א,* א, A) become disciples to Me.

Word for word: 15:7 (18 words in the Greek text) if-according-to-the-circumstances (you)-may-stay in me and the words my in you may-stay, which according-to-the-circumstances (you)-may-want (you)-will-demand, and (it)-will-become (for)-you. 15:8 (14 words in the Greek text) in this was-glorified the father my, in-order-that much fruit (you)-may-carry and (you)-will-become (to)-me disciples.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

The Lord was beheld to Solomon in a sleep (by) the night, and the Lord spoke towards Solomon: "Demand a certain demand for yourself." ... (Solomon said to the Lord:) "You shall give Your slave a heart to hear and ‘judge asunder’/judge Your people in righteousness, (in) the thing to ‘let together’/perceive ‘upwards middle’/between good and bad, because/for who will be able to judge this Your weighty/burdensome people?" And it pleased in the very eyes of the Lord, that Solomon had demanded this word. And the Lord spoke towards him: “’In stead of which’/because you have demanded this word from the side of Me and have not demanded many days for yourself and have not demanded riches, nor have you demanded souls of your enemies, however/but have demanded for yourself understanding (to) the thing to listen to ‘a judicial verdict’/’an accusation’, behold, I make/do (and have made/done) according to your word ... and I give (and have given) you (things) which you have not demanded, and/both riches and glory, as has not become/happened (and becomes/happens) a male like you in/among kings.” (1 Kings 3:5b,9-12a,13, Greek OT)

(Solomon said to the Lord:) "And the alien one, who is not from this Your people, and/also they will arrive and pray in this place, and You shall listen to (him) out of the heaven, out of Your ready dwelling, and You shall make/do according to all things, as many as the alien one – according to the circumstances – may call against You, in that way (that) all the peoples may have knowledge of Your name and fear You entirely as Your people Israel, and You may have knowledge, that Your name has been (and is) called against, against this house, which I have built.” (1 Kings 8:41-43, Greek OT)

Elijah spoke towards (Elisha): "Demand what I shall make/do for you, ‘before or’/before be/'I am' taken up from you." And Elisha spoke: "Let it presently/then become double in/with your spirit against/over me." And Eliah spoke: "You have ‘ hardened the thing to demand’/’demanded a hard thing’. If – according to the circumstances – you may behold me being taken up from you, it shall and/also be in this way for you." (2 Kings 2:9b-10a, Greek OT)

(David said:) “One thing I have demanded from the side of the Lord. This I shall seek out, the thing 'to dwell me'/'that I shall dwell' in a house of the Lord all the days of my life, the thing 'to look me'/'that I shall look' at the amusement of the Lord and inspect His temple.” (Ps 27:4, Greek OT)

(David said:) “Live entirely delicately (before) the Lord, and He will give you the demands of your heart.” (Ps 37:4, Greek OT)

(David said:) "The Lord (is) near all the ones ‘calling on’/invoking Him, all the ones ‘calling on’/invoking Him in truth." (Ps 145:18, Greek OT)

(The father Tobit said to his son Tobias:) “Bless the Lord God in every seasonable time and demand from the side of Him in what way your ways may become straight, and all the paths and counsels will be led in a good way.” (Tobit 4:19a, BA)

(Solomon said:) “Being one (wisdom) is able all things, and staying/remaining in herself she makes all things new.” (Wisdom of Solomon 7:27a)

(Wisdom said:) “I sprouted as a vine (with) joybringing (grace). And my flowers (gave) a fruit of glory and riches.” (Sir 24:17)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said: “The Lord is) the Great One ‘to the side of’/’in comparison with’ all His works. ... Wondrous (is) His sovereignity. Glorifying heighten Him. ... Who makes Him great entirely as He is?” (Sir 43:28b,29b,30a,31b)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "In this way let your light shine in front of the men in that way (that) they may behold your fine works and glorify your Father in the heavens." (Matt 5:16)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Your Father knows which things you have need (of), before 'of the you'/you demand (towards) Him.” (Matt 6:8b)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “You may so not care, saying: 'What may we eat?' or 'What may we drink?' or 'In what may we wrap up ourselves?' For the nations seek after all these things. For your heavenly Father knows that you of these things need all of them. But seek first His (א,*א) kingdom and righteousness, and all these things will be ‘put to’/added to you. So you may not care into/about the following day." (Matt 6:31-34a)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "All things as many as you – if according to the circumstances – may want in order that the men may make/do to you, make/do and/also you in this way to them, for this is the law and the prophets." (Matt 7:12)

Jesus spoke to the “leadership of a hundred (men)”: "Withdraw! As you have believed, (let it) become for you." (Matt 8:13a)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “If – according to the circumstances - two out of you together will (א,* א) raise your voices upon the earth on account of ‘every concern’/anything, which – if according to the circumstances – they may demand, it will become/’come about’ for them from the side of My Father, the One (being) in heavens.” (Matt 18:19b)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “All things as many as you – according to the circumstances – may demand in the prayer, believing, you shall take.” (Matt 21:22)

The lord uttered to (his slave): “Well (done), good and faithful slave. You (continually) were faithful against/over few things. I will ‘cause ... to stand down’/appoint you upon many things, Come into, into the joy of your lord.” (Matt 25:21 and 25:23)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “I say to you: ‘Demand and it will be given you; seek and you will find; knock and it will be opened to you. ... If so you being (א,* א) evil know to give good gifts to your children, how much will the Father * (P75,א,*א) out of a heaven rather give holy spirit to the ones demanding/asking Him?’” (Luke 11:9,13)

The first (of the slaves) became/came to the side of (his lord) saying: “Lord, your mine/’100 denarii’ ‘worked to’/gave ten minas. And (the lord) spoke to him: ”Well/’well done’, good slave, because you became faithful in a least thing, ’be having’/have (judicial) authority above/over ten cities.” (Luke 19:16-17)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

Jesus so (continually/repeatedly) said towards the Jews believing (and having believed) (in) Him: “If – according to the circumstances – you may stay in My saying, you are truly My disciples.” (John 8:31)

When (Judas) so had come out, Jesus says: “Now has the Son of the Man been glorified, and God has been glorified in Him.” (John 13:31)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "In/’by means of’ this all will gain knowledge that you are disciples to Me, if you – according to the circumstances – may have a welcome in company with (א,*א) one another." (John 13:35)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "Whatever you – according to the circumstances – may demand in My name, this I will make/do, in order that the Father may be glorified in the Son. If – according to the circumstances – you may demand anything (of) Me in My name, I will make/do (it)." (John 14:13-14)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

The prayer of a truly obedient Christian cannot fail, since he can ask nothing contrary to the will of God. (C.K. Barrett The Gospel according to St John" p 475)

Father in heaven, as your son has promised in the text, that all what we want we may pray, and it will happen to us, so we pray you, that you might not spare but clean us, your poor, frail branches, that we may bear much fruit. Draw us still more intimate to Christ and to you, that you might glorify us in you, when you glorify him. Pour your love richly in our hearts, that we, as branches in him, may intimatly love one another, and that you so become praised through us. (Karl Palmberg "Ur livskällan. Första årgången." p 293; comment to John 15:1-9; Karl Palmberg /1842-1920/ was from 1883 a Lutheran clergyman in Månsarp in the diocese of Växjö and president in Jönköpings Missionsförening (Missionary Society) 1886-1911; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

The impulsive emotion had shaken (Karl-Artur's) soul, and a door had been thrown up to a room in his soul, which he up to now never had beheld. In this room the walls were hung with rich bunches and beautifully flowering runners. But these bunches and runners were words, glorious, sweet, perfect in form. He only needed to step forward and take them in possession. All these words were at his disposal. A richness, a tremendous richness. (Selma Lagerlöf "Charlotte Löwensköld" p 141; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Seeing that the divine fruits of righteousness abound among you, I rejoice exceedingly and above measure in your happy and honoured spirits, because ye have with such effect received the engrafted spiritual gift. (Epistle of Barnabas, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol I, p 137)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Johann Arndt, Werner Aspenström, Gunnar Björkborg, Bo Brander, Sophus Claussen, Henry Daniel-Rops, Adolphine Fogtmann, Johannes Gossner, Paulus Mar Gregorius, Bengt Hägglund, Irenaeus, Juan Ramon Jiménez, Lars Levi Laestadius, Selma Lagerlöf, Sven Lidman, Martin Luther, Vilhelm Moberg, Lewi Pethrus, Bengt Pleijel, Anna Maria Roos, Göran Skytte, Herman Stolpe, August Strindberg, Nathan Söderblom, P. Waldenström.


My own comments and speculations:

To ”demand what you – if according to the circumstances – may want” has a synoptical background in Matt 7:12 (Luke 6:31). A true prayer seems to be directed towards works for the best of other men and as to John in the first place for other Christians in mutual welcome.


Paul said to the believers in Corinth: “Jews demand signs.” (1 Cor 1:22a)

Paul said to the believers in Philippi: “(I pray that you may be) completed to a fruit of righteousness, the one through Jesus Christ into glory and ‘praise upon’/’praisefulness of’ God.” (Phil 1:11)

James said: "If any of you leaves/lacks wisdom, let him demand from the side of God, giving to all plainly and not/without reproaching, and it will be given to him. But let him demand in faith, nothing ‘judging asunder’/doubting." (Jas 1:5-6a)

James said: “You demand and do not take, for the reason that you demand badly, in order that you may spend (it) in your enjoyments.” (Jas 4:3)

Peter said to the believers: "Have your ‘turning back’/behaviour fine in/among the nations, in order that in (this in) which they talk down/against you as (men) doing bad things, surveying (you) ‘out of’/’in consequence of’ the fine works they may glorify God in/on a day of visitation/inspection.” (1 Pet 2:12)

What we – if according to the circumstances – may demand, we take from Him, because we may (א,*א,A) keep His commandments and (because) we make/do the pleasing things in the very eyes of Him. (1 John 3:22)

This is the ‘plain language’/confidence, which we have towards/’in regard to’ Him, that – if according to the circumstances – we may demand anything according to His will, He hears us. And if we – according to the circumstances – know, that He hear us, what we – if according to the circumstances – may demand, we know that we have the demands/requests which we have demanded (and demand) from Him. (1 John 5:14-15)


Additional studies:

Ps 2:8; Wisdom of Solomon 16:25; Matt 7:7-11; 9:8; 14:7; Mark 10:35; 11:24; Luke 11:10-12; John 5:38; 11:22,42; 15:16; 16:23-24,26; Eph 3:20; Rev 3:8; 4:9; 5:8; 8:3-4.


J.C. de Smidt "A perspective on John 15:1-8"; Neotestamentica 25.2 (1991): 251-272.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-05-05; 2012-01-07; 2014-09-04; 2014-12-15)

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15:9-10 Entirely as the Father has welcomed Me, and/also I have welcomed you. Stay in the welcome, (in) My (welcome). If – according to the circumstances – you may keep My commandments, stay in My welcome, entirely as and/also (א,*א) I have kept (and keep) My Father's, My (א*) commandments, and stay in His welcome.

Word for word: 15:9 (14 words in the Greek text; the sequence of the words according to Sinaiticus) Entirely-as welcomed me the father, and-i/I welcomed you. stay in the welcome the my. 15:10 (25 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus prima manus) if-according-to-the-circumstances the commandments my (you)-may-keep, stay in the welcome my, entirely-as and-i/I (of)-the (of)-father my the commandments my have-kept-(and-keep) and stay his in the welcome.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(God said to Abraham:) "Take your welcomed son Isaac, whom you have welcomed, and go into the high earth/land and carry him up there into a burnt offering." (Gen 22:2a, Greek OT)

(Moses said to Israel:) "You shall welcome the Lord your God and watch/keep His watchings/charges and His fundamental laws and His judgments all the days." (Deut 11:1, Greek OT)

(God said to Solomon:) “If you – according to the circumstances – may walk in My way, watch My commandments and My commands, as your father David (the name means “welcomed”) went, I will and/also make your days full.” (1 Kings 3:14, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) “My slave David (= welcomed) … watched My commandments and went behind Me in/with every/all his heart to the thing to make/do without/only (that which was) straight/upright in My eyes.” (1 Kings 14:8b, Greek OT)

(Nehemiah said to the Lord:) “You watch) the covenant and the mercy for the ones welcoming (You) and watching (Your) commandments.” (Neh 1:5b, Greek OT)

(Daniel said:) “Lord, great and wondrous God watching Your covenant and the mercy for the ones welcoming You and for the ones watching Your commandments.” (Dan 9:4b, Greek OT, Theod)

(Solomon said:) “The faithful ones will abide (in) (the Lord) in welcome …” (Wisdom of Solomon 3:9b)


The Latter Revelation:

Behold, a voice out of the heavens saying (about Jesus): "This One is My welcomed Son, in/with whom I have been pleased." (Matt 3:17)

(Jesus said to a rich man:) “If you want to come into, into the life, keep the commandments.” (Matt 19:17b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

The Father welcomes the Son and has given (and gives) all things in His hand. (John 3:35)

(Jesus said to the Jews:) “The Father is friends with the Son and shows Him all things which He Himself makes.” (John 5:20a)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) " A new commandment I give you, that you may welcome one another, entirely as I have welcomed you, in order that and/also you may welcome one another." (John 13:34)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "If – according to the circumstances – you may welcome Me, you may keep (P66,א,*א) My commandments." (John 14:15)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "I will no longer talk many things in company with you, for the leader of the adornment/’adorned world’ comes, and in Me he has not nothing/anything. However, in order that the adornment/’adorned world’ may gain knowledge that I welcome the Father, and entirely as the Father has enjoined Me, in this way I make/do. Rise. We may lead/move from here." (John 14:30-31)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

(Stay in My welcome) In the Greek text aor imp is used and not pres imp, perhaps to more marked exhort the disciples to decide themselves for Jesus. (René Kieffer "Johannesevangeliet" p 366; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Love and obedience are mutually dependent. Love arises out of obedience, obedience out of love. (C.K. Barrett "The Gospel according to St John" p 476)

(Gud) reconciled us, when we were His enemies, let us now that we have become His friends remain so. He led the way, let us at least follow; He loveth us not for His own advantage – for He needeth nothing – let us at least love Him for our profit. (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers XIV:280)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Bo Frid, Gustaf Landmér, Martin Luther, Gösta Sandberg, Jesper Svartvik, Nathan Söderblom.


Paul said to the believers in Corinth: "(What matters is) a keeping of commandments of God." (1 Cor 7:19b)

In/by this we have knowledge, that we have (and have had) knowledge of Him, if we – according to the circumstances – may watch/’stand up for’ (א*) His commandments. (1 John 2:3)

The one saying (himself) stay in Him is obliged, and/also he, to wander about entirely in this way as that One wandered about. (1 John 2:6)

But the one who – according to the circumstances – may have the subsistence of the adornment/’adorned world’ and (who) may look at his brother having need and (who) may shut his inward vital parts from/for him, how does the welcome of God stay in him? (1 John 3:17)

What we – if according to the circumstances – may demand, we take from Him, because we may (א,*א,A) keep His commandments and (because) we make/do the pleasing things in the very eyes of Him. (1 John 3:22)

The one keeping His commandments stays in Him, and He in him. And in this we have knowledge, that He stays in us, out of the Spirit, of which He has given us. (1 John 3:24)

In this we have knowledge, that we welcome the children of God, when we – according to the circumstances – may welcome God and keep (א,*א) His commandments. For this is the welcome of God, in order that we may keep His commandments, and His commandments are not weighty. (1 John 5:2-3)


Additional studies: 1 Kings 8:61; 11:34,38; 2 Kings 18:6; 2 Chron 34:31; Prov 7:2; 19:16; Mark 12:6; Luke 20:13; John 8:29,31,55; 10:18; 12:49; 14:21,23-24; 17:23-24; Phil 2:6-8; 1 John 2:4; 2 John v 6; Rev 2:4-5,26; 3:10; 12:17.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-05-05; 2012-01-08; 2014-09-05)

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15:11 These things I have talked (and talk) (with) you, in order that the joy, My (joy), may stay (א,*א) in you, and (that) your joy may be completed.

Word for word (16 words in the Greek text): These-(things) i/I-have-talked-(and-talk) (to)-you in-order-that the joy the my in you may-stay and the joy your may-be-completed.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Moses said to Israel:) "If – according to the circumstances - the Lord your God may bless you in all your produces and in every/all (the) work of your hands, and/then you will ‘be being’/be cheerful." (Deut 16:15b, Greek OT)

(David said to the Lord:) “You gave me knowledge of ways of life. You will complete me (with) cheerfulness in company with Your face.” (Ps 16:11a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Jerusalem:) “I, the Lord, have talked (and talk).” (Ezek 5:13b and 5:15b, Greek OT)

"Amuse yourself and be cheerful, daughter of Zion; for the reason, behold, that I come and will pitch a tent in your middle", says the Lord. (Zech 2:10, Greek OT)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples: "Happy are you when – according to the circumstances - men) may speak every/all evil ‘down from’/against you lying with respect to Me. Rejoice and exult, because your wage (is) much/great in the heavens." (Matt 5:11b-12a)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "The one having been sown against the rocky (ground), this is the one hearing the saying and straight off taking it in company with joy, but has not a root in himself, however/but is transitory.” (Matt 13:20-21a)

(Mariam (א,*א) from Magdala and the another/other Mary had quickly gone) away from the memorial tomb in company with fear and great joy. (Matt 28:8a)

(Jesus said to the seventy:) “Do not rejoice because the spirits are arranged under you, but rejoice because your names are (and have been) written in, in the heavens.” (Luke 10:20b)

It became in His blessing (the disciples), (that Jesus) stood asunder/apart from them * (א*). And having prostrated themselves (in adoration) (towards) Him, they returned into Jerusalem in company with great joy. (Luke 24:51b-52)

The disciples (continually) were completed/fulfilled (with regard to) joy and holy spirit. (Acts 13:52)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(John the Baptist said to His disciples:) "The friend of the bridegroom, who has stood (and stands) and hears Him, rejoices greatly because of the bridegroom's voice. And so this joy of mine has been (and is) completed." (John 3:29b)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Already the one harvesting takes wage and leads together fruit into/for agelong life, in order that and/both (א,* א, A) the one sowing and the one harvesting may rejoice together.” (John 4:36)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 - about 1500

The deepest joy we find when we give, not when we receive. It is the joy of the recovered Paradise to get the song of praise to sound giving the world around a presage of what waiting everything created. (Peter Halldorf "Andens folk" s 40-41; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

It is a counterfeit Christianity which brings an atmosphere of gloom; the real thing radiates joy. (William Barclay “The Acts of the Apostles” p 65 commenting Acts 8:5-13)

It is odd that when one "is allowed" to be glad with one's friends, so all things taste so excellent; nothing on the table is without, the wine is wonderful although so simple, the coffee excites admiration without being admirable: one feels a good benevolent spirit in the room giving oneself a moment of rest and comfort, and according minds and uniting hearts. (August Strindberg "En blå bok II" p 734; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

When Ingmar Ingmarsson saw the large, well illuminated room and the many glad and pleased men, he could not help to think: "It is sure, that the peasants of Dalecarlia are happy here (in Jerusalem), and that they do not long for home. These Americans understand much better to do it pleasant for themselves and others than what we do. I understand, that it is for the sake of the good home life, as the colonists can bear sorrows and privations. It is true that those who before owned a whole farm, now confine themselves to one room, but so they receive in return much more gladness and merriness than before. (Selma Lagerlöf "Jerusalem II" p 378; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


about 1500 and time before

It is not possible for him who joys after the fashion of the world, to rejoice also after a godly sort: for every one who joys after the world's fashion, has his joy in riches, in luxury, in honor, in power, in arrogance: but he who rejoices after the mind of God, has his joy in dishonor for God's sake, in poverty, in want, in fasting, in humbleness of mind. Seest thou, how opposite are the grounds (of joy)? (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers XI:104)

According to ... Rabbinical authorities the Holy Spirit dwells in a man only through joy. (Alfred Edersheim “The Temple” p 280)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Johann Arndt, Augustinus, UllaBritt Beglund, Sven Danell, Johannes Edfelt, Ylva Eggehorn, Hilding Fagerberg, Jacob Frese, Johannes Gossner, Astrid Gustafsson, Axel Gustafsson, Bertil Gärtner, David Harley, David Hedegård, C.G. Hjelm, Majken Johansson, Stanley Jones, Lars Levi Laestadius, Lars Åke Lundberg, Martin Luther, Oscar Lövgren, Helge Lööf, Vilhelm Moberg, Hugo Odeberg, John Ortberg, Lewi Pethrus, Bengt Pleijel, Harald Rasmussen, Carl Olof Rosenius, Gösta Sandberg, Lina Sandell, Bo Setterlind, Sundar Singh, John Stott, Einar Thomassen, Carl-Herman Tillhagen, Leo Tolstoj, R.A. Torrey, Nils Tägt, David Wickberg, Torgny Wirén, Karl-Göran Zettergren, Göran Åberg.


Paul said to the believers in Philippi: “Complete my joy in order that you may consider the same, having the same welcome …’being in command’/stating (others) having/being over yourselves.” (Phil 2:2a,3b)

Paul said to the believers in Thessalonica: “Rejoice always ... in Christ Jesus.” (1 Thess 5:16-18a)

And these things we write, in order that our joy may be being (and having been) completed. (1 John 1:4)


Additional studies: Ps 126:3-6; Is 35:10; 55:12; 65:18; Zeph 3:14; Matt 2:10; 7:28; 11:1; 13:44,53; Mark 4:16-17; Luke 1:14; 8:13; John 1:33; 14:10; 16:20-22,24; 17:13; 20:20; Acts 8:8; Rom 14:17; 15:13; 2 Cor 2:3; 7:4; 8:2; 13:11; Gal 5:22; Phil 1:25; 2:17-18,29; 4:4; Col 1:11-12; 1 Thess 1:6,8; Philemon v 7; Heb 10:34; Jas 1:2; 2 John v 12.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-05-06; 2012-01-09; 2014-09-06; 2014-12-15)

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15:12-13 This is the commandment, My (commandment), ‘in order that’/that you may welcome one another, entirely as I have welcomed you. Greater welcome has no one than this, ‘in order that’/that he (P66,א*) may put/inter his soul in favour of his friends.

Word for word: 15:12 (12 words in the Greek text) This is the commandment the my, in-order-that (you)-may welcome one-another entirely-as (i/I)-welcomed you. 15:13 (14 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus prima manus) greater (of/than)-this welcome no-one has, in-order-that the soul his (he)-may-put/inter in-favour-of the friends his.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The Lord said to Israel:) "Your hand shall not procure justice and you shall not take offence at the sons of your people, and you shall welcome your neighbour as yourself. I am the Lord." (Lev 19:18, Greek OT)

(Moses said to Israel: "The Lord) welcome/welcomed your fathers." (Deut 4:37a, Greek OT)

The Lord welcomed (the son Solomon). (2 Sam 12:24b, Greek OT) … And Solomon welcomed the Lord. (1 Kings 3:3, Greek OT)

(David sang:) "Behold 'however or'/however presently/already, what fine or what amusing (it is) the thing 'to dwell brothers'/'that brothers dwell' 'against themselves'/together ... because (in the place where they dwell together) there the Lord has enjoined the blessing and life till the (coming) age." (Ps 133:1,3b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Israel:) "I welcomed you." (Mal 1:2, Greek OT)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “A comrade is together with a friend in hardship in grace/favour of womb/belly, (but) opposite/before a war he will take (his) shield. You may not forget a friend in your soul and ’not not’/- recollect him in your matters/prosperity.” (Sir 37:5-6)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "And/also the Son of the Man has not come to ‘be rendered’/receive service however/but to render service, and to give His soul (as) a ransom instead of many." (Mark 10:45)

(One of the scribes questioned Jesus:) "Of what kind is a first commandment of all?" Jesus answered that/: "First is 'Hear, Israel! The Lord our God is one Lord. And you shall welcome the Lord your God out of whole/all your heart and out of whole/all your soul and out of whole/all your mind and out of whole/all your stability.' A second oneis (א,* א) this: 'You shall welcome your neighbour as yourself.' Greater than these ones is not another commandment." (Mark 12:28b-31)

(Jesus said to His disciples first:) “I say to you, My friends, you may not fear from/- the ones killing the body.” (Luke 12:4a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Already the one harvesting takes wage and leads together fruit into/for agelong life, in order that and/both (א,*א,A) the one sowing and the one harvesting may rejoice together.” (John 4:36)

(Jesus said to the Pharisees:) "I am the fine shepherd. The fine shepherd gives (P45,א*) His soul over/’in defence of the sheep’." (John 10:11)

(Jesus said:) “Because of this the Father welcomes Me, because I put/inter My soul, in order that I may take it again. No one lifted (P45,א*,B) it from Me, however/but I put/inter it from Myself. I have (judicial) authority to put/inter it, and I have (judicial) authority to take it again. This commandment I have taken from the side of My Father.” (John 10:17-18)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “A new commandment I give you, that you may welcome one another, entirely as I have welcomed you, in order that and/also you may welcome one another.” (John 13:34)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Amen, amen, I say to you, the one believing into Me, that one will and/also make/do the works which I make/do, and greater works than these he will make/do, because I go towards the Father.” (John 14:12)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 - about 1500

It is not said that (the Christians) should love their enemies (cf. Matt 5:44), and John has been accused of narrowing the Christian idea of love. … It cannot be said that, in John, God does not love the world (see 3:16); but his love for the world results in the separation from it of a group of (friends) (5:14). In a special sense the love of Jesus was lavished upon these ‘friends’ to the end that among them and in them love in turn might grow. (C.K. Barrett "The Gospel according to St John" p 476)

Love for enemies, though one of the highest forms of ethical achievement, is not an exclusively Christians ideal; for a noble example see Sophocles, Antigone, 522f. Christian love is new in its origin and basis, and the mutual love of Christians is a reflection of Jesus' love for them, more, of the mutual love which exists eternally between the Father and the Son. The eternal divine love reached its complete and unsurpassable expression in the death of Christ, which was at the same time the death of a man for his friends. (C.K. Barrett "The Gospel according to St John" p 476)

(John 15:13) does not claim that love for friends is better than love for enemies; only that there is nothing greater you can do for your friends than die for them. Life sacrificed in death is the supreme gift and the mark of love. (c.K. Barrett "The Gospel according to St John" p 476-477)

"I cannot give you (the boy) Tummetott", (the leader-goose) Akka said to (the fox) Smirre. "From the youngest to the eldest of us we willingly give our lifes for his sake." - "Have you him so dear", Smirre said, "then I promise you, that he will become the first of you, on whom I shall take revenge." Akka did not answer more, and after Smirre had sent up some houlings, it was silent. The boy still lay awake. Now it was Akka's words to the fox, which prevented him from sleeping. Never he had thought, that he would hear something so great as that someone wanted to risk his life for his sake. From this while it could not be said about Nils Holgersson, that he did not like anyone. (Selma Lagerlöf "Nils Holgerssons underbara resa genom Sverige" p 115; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

I have not met any born of man who has loved his enemy, namely if not this enemy has been of opposite sex, or then the enemy has been knocked down and it has been in gladness of this that one has become noble-minded, and has forgiven. The day I would love my enemies, I would hate myself. (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev XI maj 1895-nov 1896" p 259; letter 1896-07-11 to Torsten Hedlund; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

What shall be forgotten shall be forgotten so that the eye becomes clear as the light of the day, as the friendship being based on a mutual boundless confidence! (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev I" p 279; letter 1876-02-06 to Mrs Siri von Essen and her husband the baron and the captain at Svea Livgarde Carl Gustaf Wrangel)

The beggar over at the door had listened, and the words had for a moment deadened the sound of the attracting sough of the eternal woods. See, this mighty lady, she made herself to his equal in sin, his sister in losing to give him courage to live! So he would learn, that it lay sorrow and guilt over other heads than his. He rose and went away to the Majorin. "Does he want to live now, Gösta Berling", she asked with a voice breaking in tears, "for what would he die? . . . Does he want to live?" . . . She, who a moment ago had been wrathful and threatening, sat in a quiet glory, and her eyes shone with merciful, compassionate love. . . . "Gösta Berling!" she solemnly said. "I have fought for him as for myself." (Selma Lagerlöf "Gösta Berlings saga" p 22-24; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


about 1500 and time before

One loves, because he is loved, another because he hath been honored, a third because such a one has been useful to him in some other worldly matter, a fourth for some other like cause; but for Christ's sake it is a difficult thing to find any one loving his neighbour sincerely, and as he ought to love him. For the more part are bound one to another by their worldly affairs. But Paul did not love thus, but for Christ's sake. (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers X:374)

Let us return glory to our merciful God, not by words only, but much more by works, that we may obtain the good things hereafter. (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers XIV:40)

In the New Testament generally self-love is seen not as a limitation but rather as a stimulus to love of one's neighbour. The Letter of Barnabas, which uses Jesus' commandment of love in many admonitions on following the “Way of Light”, shows itself in this respect closer to the mind of Jesus than many more modern moral theologians, when expounding it: “thou shouldst love thy neighbour more than thy life” (19:5). (Rudolf Schnackenburg “The Moral Teaching of the New Testament” p 219)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Stig Abrahamsson, Eskil Albertsson, Svetlana Aleksijevitj, Carl Jonas Love Almqvist, Ingvar Andersson, Ingmar Bergman, August Bondeson, Colin Brown, George Carey, William Dalrymple, Tage Danielsson, Charles Dickens, Bob Dylan, Ylva Eggehorn, Sven Engkvist, Folke Fridell, Anders Frostenson, Eva Furst, Gao Xingjian, Bo Giertz, Carl Grimberg, Jan Guillou, Björn Hallström, Dag Hammarskjöld, Liselotte J Andersson, Elfriede Jelinek, Barbro Jern, Gustav F. Johnson, Johan Henrik Kellgren, Amy Le Feuvre, C.S. Lewis, Astrid Lindgren, Harry Lundahl, Gösta Lundberg, Martin Luther, Sune Lyxell, Olaus Magnus, Vilhelm Moberg, Ewert Mårtensson, Sten Nilsson, Peggy Noonan, Ivan Oljelund, Börje Ottosson, Efraim Palmqvist, Pansy, Carl Fr. Peterson, Lewi Pethrus, Anna Maria Roos, Joanne Kathleen Rowling, Johan Ludvig Runeberg, Viktor Rydberg, Sven Edvin Salje, Elisabeth Sandlund, Bo Setterlind, Tomas Sjödin, Sven Stolpe, John Stott, Hesba Stretton, Gun-Britt Sundström, Mats Svegfors, Wislawa Szymborska, Henning Söderhjelm, Thomas a Kempis, Lennart Thörn, Anton Tjechov, Sergej Vasiljevitj Sobolev, P. Waldenström, Sigrid Westberg, Stig Wikström, Nicholas Wiseman.


My own comments and speculations:

The mutual welcome between the Lord and Solomon is an OT type of the mutual Christian welcome.

To give one's soul in favour of one's friends is the greatest expression for the mutual welcome prevailing in God's kingdom of glory, in the kingdom where there are no enemies. To welcome one's enemy perhaps can be seen as the greatest expression for the one-sided welcome being in the deeds of honour characterizing what is fine in the world of this time.


Paul said to the believers in Ephesos: "Become imitators of God as welcomed children and walk about in welcome, entirely as Christ and/also welcomed you (א*,A,B) and gave ‘Himself to the side of’/’over Himself’ in favour of us." (Eph 5:1-2a)

Peter said: “Before all things having the zealous welcome into yourselves, because welcome will (P72,א,*א) veil a multitude of misses (of the mark of God). (Be) hospitable to friends into/’for the purpose of’ one another without grumbling.” (1 Pet 4:8-9)

We know, that if – according to the circumstances – He may be made visible, we will be like Him, because we will behold Him entirely as He is. And 'every the'/everyone having this hope on Him purifies himself, entirely as that One is pure. (1 John 3:2b-3)

In this we have (and have had) knowledge of the welcome, because that One put/intered His soul in favour of us. And/also we are indebted to put/inter the souls in favour of the brothers. (1 John 3:16)

Little children, we may not welcome (with) saying and (א,*א) tongue however/but in/with work and truth. (1 John 3:18)

This is His commandment, ‘in order that’/that we may (א,*א,A) believe (in) the name of His Son, Jesus Christ, and welcome one another, entirely as He ‘gave us a commandment’/’commanded us’. (1 John 3:23)

Welcomed, let us welcome one another, because the welcome is out of God, and 'every the'/everyone welcoming is (and has been) begotten out of God and has knowledge of God. (1 John 4:7)

In this is the welcome of God (א,*א), not that we welcomed (א,*א) God, however/but that He Himself welcomed us and has dispatched (and dispatches) (א,*א) away His Son (to be) a propitiation on account of our misses (of His mark). Welcomed, if God welcomed us in this way, we and/also are indebted to welcome one another. (1 John 4:10-11)

We welcome God (א,* א), because He Himself first welcomed us. (1 John 4:19)


Additional studies:

Matt 20:28; Luke 20:13; John 10:15,17-18; 13:14; 15:9,17; Rom 5:7-8; 8:37; 9:13; Gal 2:20; 6:2; Eph 5:25; Col 3:14; 1 Thess 4:9; 1 John 3:11; 4:21; Rev 2:19.


K.-J. Illman "Vän och fiende i bönepsalmerna"; Svensk Exegetisk Årsbok 54 (1989): 90-100.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-05-06; 2012-01-10; 2014-09-07; 2014-12-15)

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15:14-15 For (א*) you are My friends, if – according to the circumstances – you may make/do the things I enjoin you. No longer I say ”slaves” to you, because the slave does not know what his lord makes/does. But I have spoken/said (and speak/say) “friends” to you, because all things which I have heard from the side of My Father I have given you knowledge of.

Word for word: 15:14 (11 words in the Greek text Sinaiaticus prima manus) you for friends my are if-according-to-the-circumstances (you)-may-make which/the-(things) i/I enjoin you. 15:15 (28 words in the Greek text) no-longer (i/I)-say (to)-you slaves, because the slave not 'know-(and-has-known)'/knows what makes his the lord. (to)-you but (i/I)-have-spoken-(and-speak) friends, because all-(things) which (i/I)-heard from-the-side-of the father my (i/I)-have-given-of (to)-you.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Moses said to the Lord: "Remember) Abraham, Isaac and Israel, Your members of (Your) house." (Ex 32:13a, Greek OT)

The Lord talked towards Moses ‘in the very eyes of in the very eyes of’/’face to face’ as if a certain one might/would talk towards a friend of himself. (Ex 33:11a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Aaron and Miriam:) "If – according to the circumstances – it may become a prophet (of/among) you to the Lord, I will ‘be gained’/give knowledge to him in a vision, and I will talk (with) him in a sleep. Not in this way (with) the one attending/’caring for’ Me, Moses. He is faithful in My whole house. I will talk (with) him mouth ‘according to’/to mouth, in a form/beholding and not through riddles. And he has beheld the glory of the Lord." (Num 12:6b-8a, Greek OT)

(David said to the Lord:) “You gave me knowledge of ways of life.” (Ps 16:11a, Greek OT)

(God said:) "You, Israel, My boy Jacob, whom I have chosen, a seed of Abraham, whom I have welcomed.” (Is 41:8, Greek OT)

The Lord God may not/certainly not make/do a concern/thing, if – according to the circumstances – He may not reveal His education towards His slaves the prophets. (Amos 3:7, Greek OT)

(The men of the king said to the Jew Mattathias:) “Come to/forward first (of all) and make/do the command of the king. … You and your sons (then) will be the friends of the king.” … (But Mattathias said: “We will not) entirely leave law and fundamental laws.” (1 Macc 2:18a,21b)

(Solomon said: “Wisdom) is for men an inexhaustible heap/treasure, which the ones having acquired (it) towards God have been dispatched/equipped (with) friendship.” (Wisdom of Solomon 7:14a)

(Solomon said: “Wisdom) prepares (men) entirely to friends of God and prophets, for God welcomes nothing ‘if not’/except the one inhabiting (wisdom) together with (her)”. (Wisdom of Solomon 7:27b-28)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “If a member of the household is/belongs to you, let him be as you, because you acquired him in blood.” (Sir 33:31)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “Every friend will speak: ‘I have and/also been friends with (you).’ However ‘a friend is a friend’/’many friends are friends’ only (with) name. ... A comrade of a friend enjoys himself in cheerfulness and/but in a seasonable time of oppression he will be ‘from opposite’/’an adversary’.” (Sir 37:1,4)


The Latter Revelation:

Jesus says to (the priest leaders and the elders): “Did you nor at any time read in the writings: ‘A stone which the ones building rejected, this has become into a head/beginning of a corner, from the side of the Lord this became, and it is wondrous in our eyes?’” (Matt 21:42)

The ready ones came in, in company with (the bridegroom), into the wedding banquets, and the door was shut. But afterwards the rest of the virgins and/also come, saying: “Lord, lord, open for us.” But ‘having answered’/’he answered and’ spoke: “Amen I say to you: ‘I do not know you.’” (Matt 25:10b-12)

(Judas said to Jesus:) ”Rejoice, Rabbi, and he ‘was entirely friends with’/’kissed ... tenderly’ Him.” But Jesus spoke to him: “Comrade, against which/what are you by the side of?” (Matt 26:49b-50a)

(Jesus said to His disciples: "Teach the future disciples) to keep all things as many as I have enjoined you; and behold, I am in company with you all the days till the consummation of the age." (Matt 28:20)

(Luke said: ”I have written) to you, most powerful Theofilos (what eyewitnesses and rowers/servants of the saying have given by the side of us), in order that you may have additional knowledge on account of the security of which/the sayings you have 'been resounded'/heard.” (Luke 1:3b-4; the name Theofilos means “friend of God”)

(The shepherds said:) “We may behold this word, the one becoming (and having become), of which the Lord has given us knowledge.” (Luke 2:15b)

(Jesus said:) "My mother and My brothers, these are the ones hearing the saying of God and making/doing (it)." (Luke 8:21b)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "I say to you, My friends." (Luke 12:4a)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Make friends for yourselves out of the mammon of the unrighteousness, in order that when – according to the circumstances – it may ‘leave out’/disappear, they may receive you into the agelong tents.” (Luke 16:9b)

(The lord said to the ones standing by the side of him:) “‘More than’/however these my enemies having not wanted me to be king against/over them, lead (them) here and slaughter them entirely in front of me.” (Luke 19:27)

(David says into/’for the purpose of’ Jesus:) ”You have given me knowledge of ways of life. You will complete me (with) cheerfulness in company with Your face.” (Acts 2:28)

(Paul said to the elders in Ephesos:) ”I did not ‘dispatch under to not’/’omit to’ bring up a message to you (about) every counsel of God.” (Acts 20:27)

(Julius) gave (Paul), having gone towards the friends, permission to reach/get care. (Acts 27:3b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

The Father is friends with the Son, and He shows Him all things which He Himself makes. (John 5:20a)

Jesus so (continually/repeatedly) said towards the Jews believing (and having believed) (in) Him: “If – according to the circumstances – you may stay in My saying, you are truly My disciples. And you will gain knowledge of the truth, and the truth will set you free.” (John 8:31-32)

(Jesus said to His disciples): "Our friend Lazarus is (and has) fallen asleep. …” (John 11:11b)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "Amen, amen, I say to you, a slave is not greater (than) his lord.” (John 13:16)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 - about 1500

God gives himself to us in a new and more real way. He now gives not only gifts, he gives his friendship! The friendship not desiring anything in return - except friendship! (Peter Halldorf "Andens folk" p 368 in comment to Acts 22; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

God's friendship is not like human friendship. Most people will drop an old friend when one who is smarter or welthier comes along. Not so with God. God is a faithful friend to Israel, even though there are richer, smarter, and more powerful nations available. (Williams ”Exodus-Joshua” p 152; Numbers Rabbah 20.20)

It is characteristic of John that that which (according to him) distinguishes the friend from the slave is knowledge, and that knowledge should be very closely related to love. (Barrett p 477)

When one at last has acknowledged the free exchange between work and wages, when . . . domestic chatisement and regulation of servants are away, the position of the servant in a house should surely be based on something else than mastery and employment. The servant gives her work in exchange to wages and board, and the agreement is free. Why then treat the house servant as a subordinate? (August Strindberg "Människans Rättigheter i ett civiliserat och kristet samhälle" p 182; Social-Demokraten 1912-01-22; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

My brother Sven! Today doctor Albert Bååth goes to Gothenburg, and I seize the opportunity to do him a good favour by recommend him to your sympathies. You should read his "Marit Vallkulla", an account from Dalarna in the 17th century, now being published in the book trade. It is a work, no exaggeration to say, of rare beauty in combination with nature truth. The friendship you show this excellent poet and man of honour you show your own friend Viktor Rydberg. (Viktor Rydbergs brev I "Viktor Rydbergs och S.A. Hedlunds brevväxling" p 335; letter 1887-12-09 to S.A. Hedlund; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


about 1500 and time before

The elder brother's (thoughts) were the thoughts of a servant: of service and return; the younger brother's (joy) was the welcome of a son in the mercy and everlasting love of a Father. And this to us, and to all time! (Edersheim II:263 concerning Luke 15:11-32)

Christ (does) not compel, but urges, sparing us. ... For so, if one were a judge at the games, and had a friend in the lists, he would not wish to crown him by favor only, but also for his own toils; and for this reason especially, because he loves him. Even so Christ also; whom He most loves, those He most of all will have to approve themselves by their own means also, and not from His help alone. But see how at the same time He makes His saying not a grievous one. For He doth by no means compass them ... (but says) “If any one will,” be it woman or man, ruler or subject, let him come this way. (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers X:339)

(Alms) is as a limpid and pure stream in a paradise. ... Beside this fountain (is) ... friendship with God. This is the fountain by which the plant of love is nourished. ... It makes its branches to lift themselves on high. This fountain is better than that in Paradise (Gen. ii. 10); a fountain, not dividing into four heads, but reach in unto Heaven itself: this gives birth to that river “which springeth up into eternal life” (John iv. 14). ... Let no unfruitful tree stand beside it, that it may not waste its spray. ... Better to possess such a fountain, than to have fountains running with gold. Better than all gold-bearing soil is the soul which bears this gold. For it advances us, not into these earthly palaces, but into those above. The gold becomes an ornament to the Church of God. (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers XI:147-148)

Nothing is so pleasing to God as an excellent course of life. “If ye love Me” (John xiv. 15), He declares; He did not say “work miracles,” but what? “Keep My commandments.” And again, “I call you friends” (John xv. 14), not when ye cast out demons, but “if ye keep My words.” (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers XIV:136)

The law (draws the soul), as by a bond, to obey its commandments, that man might learn to serve God. But the Word set free the soul ... that the bonds of slavery should be removed, to which man had now become accustomed, and that he should follow God without fetters. ... The children possess greater confidence (than the servants), inasmuch as the working of liberty is greater and more glorious than that of obedience which is rendered in (a state of) slavery. (Irenaeus, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol I, p 477)

In that which (the Lord) says: “I will not now call you servants,” He indicates in the most marked manner that it was Himself who did originally appoint for men that bondage with respect to God through the law, and then afterwards conferred upon them freedom. ... When He terms His disciples “the friends of God,” He plainly declares Himself to be the Word of God, whom Abraham followed voluntary and under no compulsion, because of the noble nature of his faith, and so became “the friend of God.” ... The Word spake to Moses, appearing before him, “just as any one might speak to his friend.” (Irenaeus, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol I, p 478,490)

Abraham, styled “the friend”, was found faithful, inasmuch as he rendered obedience to the words of God. (Clement of Rome to the Corinthians, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol I, p 7)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: David Aikman, Carl Jonas Love Almqvist, Ann-Charlotte Alverfors, Johann Albrecht Bengel, UllaBritt Berglund, Elisabeth Beskow, Malte Blaxhult, Valerij Brjusov, A. Conrady, Stig Dagerman, Vilhelm Ekelund, Emilie Flygare-Carlén, Emilia Fogelklou, Anne Frank, Bo Frid, Johannes Gossner, Carl Grimberg, Dag Hammarskjöld, Alf Henrikson, Homeros, Eyvind Johnson, Ragnar Järhult, Karl Kilsmo, Klemens av Rom, Hans Larsson, Anna Maria Lenngren, C.S. Lewis, Jonas Lie, Lars Lindberg, Edin Lövås, Per Mases, Vilhelm Moberg, Fredrik Nielsen, Anders Nohrborg, Hugo Odeberg, Lewi Pethrus, Anders Pilz, Arthur O. Roberts, Anna Maria Roos, Joanne Kathleen Rowling, Gunnar E. Sandgren, Bo Setterlind, Charles M. Sheldon, Erik Sollerman, Sven Stolpe, Jesper Svartvik, Kari Syreeni, Thomas a Kempis, Ragnar Thoursie, P. Waldenström, Johan Olof Wallin, N.P. Wetterlund, Gustaf Wikner.


My own comments and speculations:

Jesus' twelve disciples were His slaves. Eleven of them were truly His disciples by staying in His word. And they were given knowledge of all that Jesus had heard from His Father. So He called them His friends. Judas, who wanted to stand out as a friend, was called “comrade’ by Jesus (cf. Matt 26:49-50).


Paul said to the believers in Colossae: ”You once being (and) having been (and being) alienated from (God) and (being) enemies (in) the mind, in the evil works … Now, now He has ’changed entirely from’/reconciled.” (Col 1:21-22a)

James said: "The writing was completed saying: 'But Abraham believed (in) God, and it was counted him into/to righteousness. And he was called a friend of God.'“ (Jas 2:23)

James said: “Adulteresses! Do you not know that the friendship of this (א,*א) adornment/’adorned world’ is enmity to (א,*א) God? The one who so – if according to the circumstances – may wish to be a friend of the adornment/’adorned world’ is ‘caused to stand’/'set down' (as) an enemy of God.” (Jas 4:4)

You have ointment from the Holy One, and 'you know all ones'/'all of you have knowledge'. (1 John 2:20)


Greek words:

gnôrizô (give knowledge of) (the NT + one example in the OT) Ps 16:11; Luke 2:15; John 15:15; Acts 2:28 – Luke 2:17; John 17:26; Rom 9:22-23; 16:26; 1 Cor 12:3; 15:1; 2 Cor 8:1; Gal 1:11; Eph 1:9; 3:3,5,10; 6:19,21; Phil 1:22; 4:6; Col 1:27; 4:7,9; 2 Pet 1:16.


Additional studies:

Matt 7:21; 11:19; 12:50; Mark 3:35; Luke 6:46; John 3:11; 8:26; Acts 19:31; 1 Cor 2:16; Heb 2:11; 3 John v 14(15); Rev 3:7,19; 7:3.


K.-J. Illman "Vän och fiende i bönepsalmerna"; Svensk Exegetisk Årsbok 54 (1989): 90-100.

Edwin Yamauchi "Slaves of God"; Bulletin of the Evangelical Theological Society 9.1 (Winter 1966): 31-49.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-05-06; 2012-01-13; 2014-09-08; 2014-12-16)

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15:16-17 You did not choose Me, however/but I chose you, and put/appointed you, in order that you may withdraw and carry/produce fruit and (that) your fruit may stay. * (א*) What you – according to the circumstances – may demand to the Father in My name, He will ( א*) give to you. These things I enjoin you, in order that you may welcome one another.

Word for word: 15:16 (34 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus prima manus) not you me chose, however i/I chose you and put you in-order-that you may-withdraw and fruit may-carry and the fruit your may-stay. 'which something'/what according-to-the-circumstances (you)-may-demand (to)-the father in the name my (he)-will-give (to)-you. 15:17 (6 words in the Greek text) these-(things) (i/I)-enjoin you, in-order-that (you)-may-welcome one-another.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(God said to Abram:) "I have put (and put) you a father of many nations." (Gen 17:5, Greek OT)

(Jethro, the father-in-law of Moses, said to him: "You shall) contemplate/choose able God-fearing (males) from every/all the people, righteous males, hating overweening (pride). And you shall ‘cause ... to stand down’/place them upon/over (the people), leaders of a thousand (men) and of a hundred (men) and of fifty (men) and of ten (men)." (Ex 18:21a, Greek OT)

(Moses said to Israel:) "You are a holy people to your God. And the Lord Your God has chosen you to become a people to Him ‘around from’/’more than’ all the nations of the ones (being) upon the face of the earth." (Deut 14:2, Greek OT)

(Moses said to Israel:) "The Lord your God had ‘said against’/named (the priests, the levites) to stand by the side of Him and to bless on/in His name and on/’under the rule of’ their mouth every gainsaying and every ligament will be." (Deut 21:5b, Greek OT)

(God said:) "You, Israel, My boy Jacob, whom I have chosen, a seed of Abraham, whom I have welcomed, whom I have taken ‘in stead’/’part with’ from/’away from’ borders of the earth and called you out of its look-outs and spoken to you: 'You are My boy. I have chosen you and have not entirely left you in (a place).'" (Is 41:8-9, Greek OT)

(Jeremiah said:) "A saying of the Lord became/came towards me saying: ... 'Before the thing you come/came out, out of (the) womb I had made (and made) you holy, I had put (and put) you a prophet into nations.'" (Jer 1:4,5b, Greek OT)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said: “The Lord) enjoined (the men), everyone, on account of the neighbour.” (Sir 17:14b)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said: "No one) has additional knowledge of the Father ‘if not’/except the Son, and (the one) to whom the Son – if according to the circumstances – may wish to reveal." (Matt 11:27b)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “If – according to the circumstances - two out of you together will (א,* א) raise your voices upon the earth on account of ‘every concern’/anything, which – if according to the circumstances – they may demand, it will become/’come about’ for them from the side of My Father, the One (being) in heavens.” (Matt 18:19b)

(Jesus said to His disciples: "Teach the future disciples) to keep all things as many as I have enjoined you; and behold, I am in company with you all the days till the consummation of the age." (Matt 28:20)

(Jesus said to the crowd:) “Other (sowings) fell into the fine earth ... and carried/produced into/’up to’ (א,* א) thirty/thirtyfold and into/’up to’ (א,* א) sixty/sixtyfold and into/’up to’ (א,*א) hundred/hundredfold.” (Mark 4:8)

(Jesus chose from the disciples) twelve, whom He and/also named apostles. (Luke 6:13b)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Make friends for yourselves out of the mammon of the unrighteousness, in order that when – according to the circumstances – it may ‘leave out’/disappear, they may receive you into the agelong tents.” (Luke 16:9b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Already the one harvesting takes wage and leads together fruit into/for agelong life, in order that and/both (א,*א,A) the one sowing and the one harvesting may rejoice together.” (John 4:36)

Jesus (said to His disciples:) "Did I Myself not choose you?" (John 6:70a)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “A new commandment I give you, in order that you may welcome one another, entirely as I have welcomed you, in order that and/also you may welcome one another. In/’by means of’ this all will gain knowledge that you are disciples to Me, if you – according to the circumstances – may have a welcome in company with (א,*א) one another.” (John 13:34-35)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "The one staying in Me - and I in him - this one carries/produces much fruit, because separate from Me you are not able to make/do nothing/anything." (John 15:5b)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “If you – according to the circumstances – may stay in Me and My words may stay in you, what – if according to the circumstances – you may want, you will (א,* א) demand and it will become/’come about’ for you.” (John 15:7)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) " This is the commandment, My (commandment), ‘in order that’/that you may welcome one another, entirely as I have welcomed you." (John 15:12)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

There is the wonderful fact that wherever Paul went he found a Christian community waiting to welcome him. If that was true in Paul's time, it is still more true today. One of the great privileges of belonging to the Church is the fact that no matter where a man goes, he is sure to find a community of like-minded people into which he may enter. The man who is in the family of the Church has friends all over the world. (William Barclay “The Acts of the Apostles” p 154)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Eric S. Alexandersson, Karl Erik Freed, Bo Giertz, Johannes Gossner, Hjalmar Gullberg, Swening Johansson, Ad. Kolmodin, C.S. Lewis, Sven Lidman, Vilhelm Moberg, Watchman Nee, Olle Nystedt, Gunnar Olén, Lina Sandell, Tomas Sjödin, Anfin Skaaheim, Knut Svensson, David Wickberg.


My own comments and speculations:

As Abraham, the friend of God, was appointed by the Lord, so the friends of Jesus were appointed by Him who is the Lord. Perhaps we have a difference in John's view of being chosen (the Greek word “eklegomai”) and being appointed (the Greek word “tithêmi”). Judas was chosen by Jesus but not appointed by Him.

We see what near connection there is between bearing abiding fruit, welcoming one another and having prayers answered. Cf. 1 John 3:22-23. See also My own comments and speculations to John 13:34-35 and John 14:12-14.

Concerning “welcome one another”, see John 13:34-35.

Concerning “having prayers answered”, see John 15:7-8.

Concerning “in My name”, see John 16:23-24.


Paul said the believers in Rome: "I have many times put before to come ‘towards you’/’your way’ ... in order that I might have some fruit and/also in/among you entirely as and/also in/among the rest of the nations." (Rom 1:13b)

Paul said to the believers in Corinth: “God put/appointed in the (assembly) of called out first apostles.” (1 Cor 12:28a)

Welcomed, I do not write a new commandment to you however/but an old commandment, which you (continually) had from a beginning; the old commandment is the saying, which you have heard. (1 John 2:7)

What we – if according to the circumstances – may demand, we take from Him, because we may (א,*א,A) keep His commandments and (because) we make/do the pleasing things in the very eyes of Him. (1 John 3:22)

This is His commandment, ‘in order that’/that we may (א,*א,A) believe (in) the name of His Son, Jesus Christ, and welcome one another, entirely as He ‘gave us a commandment’/’commanded us’. (1 John 3:23)

This is the ‘plain language’/confidence, which we have towards/’in regard to’ Him, that – if according to the circumstances – we may demand anything according to His will, He hears us. And if we – according to the circumstances – know, that He hear us, what we – if according to the circumstances – may demand, we know that we have the demands/requests which we have demanded (and demand) from Him. (1 John 5:14-15)


Additional studies: Deut 4:37; 10:15; 1 Kings 11:34; Ps 33:12; Mark 3:13; 13:20; John 4:36; 13:18; 14:13; 15:19; 16:23; Acts 1:2; 13:17; Rom 4:17; 1 Cor 1:27; Eph 1:4; Phil 1:22; 1 Tim 2:7; 2 Tim 1:11; Jas 1:5-6; 4:3; 1 John 3:11; 4:10-11; 2 John v 1; Rev 2:19; 14:15-20.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-05-06; 2012-01-14; 2014-09-09)

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15:18-19 If the adornment/’adorned world’ hates you, have knowledge of that it * (א*) first has hated (and hates) Me. If you (continually) were out of the adornment/’adorned world’, the adornment/’adorned world’ – according to the circumstances – (continually) was friends with the own thing. But because you are not out of the adornment/’adorned world’ – however/certainly I chose you out of the adornment/’adorned world’ – because of this the adornment/’adorned world’ hates you.

Word for word: 15:18 (10 words in the Greek text) If the adornment you hates, have-knowledge-of that me first (it)-has-hated-(and-hates). 15:19 (31 words in the Greek text; the sequence of the words according to Sinaiticus) if out-of the adornment (you)-(continually)-were, the adornment, according-to-the-circumstances, the own-(thing) (continually)-was-friends-with. because but out-of the adornment not (you)-are, however i/I chose you out-of the adornment, because-of this the adornment hates you.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Moses said to Israel: "It was) not because you were a much/many-headed multitude ‘to the side of’/’in comparison with’ all the nations (that) the Lord took you for Himself before (them) and took you out, for you are only a few persons ‘to the side of’/’in comparison with’ all the nations.” (Deut 7:7, Greek OT)

(Moses said to Israel:) "The abominations which the Lord has hated, (the nations whom you go in to dispossess) have made/done for their gods, because they burn down their sons and daughters in fire to their gods." (Deut 12:31b, Greek OT)

An unrighteous male is an abomination to righteous ones. (Prov 29:27a, Greek OT)

Hear the word of the Lord, the ones quivering (because of) His saying: "Speak/’let ... speak’ our brothers, the ones hating us and abominating (us), in order that the name of the Lord may be glorified and be beheld in their cheerfulness. And/but to those ones it will be put a shame." (Is 66:5, Greek OT)

(The godless men say about the righteous:) "He became to us into/to a refutation of our thoughts. It is and/also weighty/painful for us 'be seeing'/'to see' (him), because his subsistence is unlike (compared with) the anothers/the others." (Wisdom of Solomon 2:14-15a)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “The one having (judicial) authority in (a lot of things) will be hated.” (Sir 20:8b)

(The Lord) made (Moses) holy in faith and meekness. He chose him out of every/all flesh. (Sir 45:4)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “No one is able to be a slave to two lords, for or/either he will hate the one and welcome the other, or he will hold himself next to one and ‘consider down’/downgrade the other. You are not able to be a slave to God and mammon.” (Matt 6:24)

(Jesus said to the twelve:) “’Give heed from’/’beware of’ the men, for they will give you ‘to the side of into’/’over to’ councils and whip you in their synagogues.” (Matt 10:17)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "You will be being hated by all ones because of My name. … It is enough for the disciple ‘in order that’/that he may become as his teacher and the slave as his lord. If they have called the master of the house (as) Beezebul (א,*א,B) to themselves (א*), how much rather/more (then) the ones (being) of his habitation.” (Matt 10:22a,25)

(Jesus said to the scribes and the Pharisees:) “You are witnesses to yourselves, that you are sons of the ones having murdered the prophets. And you, complete the measure of your fathers.” (Matt 23:31-32)

(Jesus said:) "Jerusalem, Jerusalem, the (city) killing the prophets and throwing stones at the ones having been (and being) dispatched away towards her! How many times have I wanted to lead together against/’in quest of’ your children, 'which a turn'/'the way' a hen against/’in quest of’ her ‘young birds’/chickens leads together underneath the wings, and/but you did not want." (Matt 23:37)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “You will be ‘being hated’/hated by * (א*) the nations because of my name.” (Matt 24:9b)

(The apostles) had been thought entirely worthy to be dishonoured in favour/defence of the name. (Acts 5:41b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Jesus said to His german brothers:) "The adornment/’adorned world’ is not able to hate you, but it hates Me, because I am a witness on account of it, that its works are evil." (John 7:7)

(Jesus said to the Jews:) "You are of this adornment/’adorned world’. I am not of this adornment/’adorned world’." (John 8:23b)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "You did not choose Me, however/but I chose you." (John 15:16a)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

As foreign as large parts of this world is to God and his word, as foreign they are to his people. (Niklas Piensoho "En för alla - alla för en" p 139 in comment to 1 Pet 2:9-10; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

(John 15:19) Cf. Ryle, "It is not the weaknesses and inconsistencies of Christians that the world hates, but their grace." So also Barclay, "It is dangerous to have and to practise a higher standard than the standard of the world." He adds, "Nowadays a man can be persecuted for working too hard or too long." (Leon Morris "The Gospel according to John" p 602)

The one loving God does not love the world. (Gösta Sandberg "Om livets Ord tala vi" p 142 in comment to Jak 1:12-15; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

(The teacher:) "The madmen leers, when one of them gets reason back, and then they said, he has gone mad." - The disciple answered: "Yes, I know of it." (August Strindberg "En blå bok I" p 75)

Brother! Your letter contained many words of wisdom, it is true. But You are a child of this world, and therefore the world loves You. But we -! "Because you are not of this world, therefore the world hates you." You are well in your environment, and therefore You have harmony. But it is sure, this? . . . Have You had it so nicely? Always? However, we are not children of the same spirit, as You know; and this is the chasm; but as fellow-wanderers on the path of excrements we have, you know, put up with the company of one another when the loneliness surrounded one. (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev XV april 1904-april 1907" p 113; letter 1905-03-23 to Leopold Littmansson; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Luther was, as we know, the first free church man in the Nordic countries, and now his free church stands as the worst enemy of the free church men. The heathens love the rotten state church, for they love all rotten, and the broad-minded ones hate the broad-minded pietists, it is a bizrre situation. To be appointed broad-minded they must be so much liberal that they . . . are intolerant against persons holding different opinions from theirs. (August Strindberg "Svarta fanor" p 166; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

The old philosopher Aidesios one day wrote to Chrysanteus: " . . . Eusebius supported the caesar, when this eradicated his family, only sparing their children, Gallus and Julian. But I thought, that Eusebius's crime and vice was unknown for Julian. It was not so. This I experienced, when Julian took my hand saying: "I hate the Christians. He who taught me in their doctrine reeks of the blood of my father. I now throw to your feet the mask having concealed my disgust from him and from all of them. He wanted to force my soul into the formulas, which he and his equal ones force upon the world. Now I am free. . . . (The Christians) are an atrocious meeting of blood-men, intrguers, hypocrites and blockheads. They tear the world and one another to pieces about words without sense, but the thing in which they all agree is what I most detest: all they ban the freedom of reason, all they teach, that the power of the ruler and the slavery of the people are of God. The freedom is vanished in reality, but these men deny her also in the thought. . . . I love the faith of my fathers and the glorious memories of the republic. Do you want to teach me in Platon's wisdom and in the sense of the myths?" - So spoke Julian. (Viktor Rydberg "Den siste atenaren I" p 69-70; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Martin Allwood, Mortimer Arias, Johann Arndt, Honoré de Balzac, Natanael Beskow, John H.Y. Briggs, O. Carling, Amadeus Creutzberg, Sven Danell, Linné Eriksson, Britta Eskdal, Hilding Fagerberg, Bo Giertz, Johannes Gossner, Axel Gustafsson, Berndt Gustafsson, Josef Gustafsson, S.E. Hagberg, C.G. Hjelm, Swening Johansson, Viktor Johansson, Bernhard J:son Ernestam, M. Karlgren, Lars Levi Laestadius, Selma Lagerlöf, Severin Larsen, Sven Lidman, Ivar Lundgren, Martin Luther, Helge Lööf, Emil Malm, Magnus Malm, Mathilda Malmvall, Carl Henrik Martling, Vilhelm Moberg, Olaf Moe, Fredrik Nielsen, N. Odenvik, Lennart Olsson, Roland Oscarsson, Efraim Palmqvist, Lewi Pethrus, Einar Rimmerfors, Carl Olof Rosenius, Johan Runius, Viktor Rydberg, Nelly Sachs, Bo Setterlind, Anfin Skaaheim, E. Aug. Skogsbergh, Erik Sollerman, Alexander Solsjenitsyn, Milton Steinberg, Sven Stolpe, Mikael Tellbe, Thomas a Kempis, Magnus Utvik, Göran Åberg.


My own comments and speculations:

As the Lord chose Moses out of all flesh, so Jesus chose His disciples out of the adornment/’adorned world’. Here the Lord rather than Moses is a type of Jesus, while Moses is a type of the disciples.

As Israel is among the nations, so the Christian (assembly) of called out is in the nation.


Paul said to the believers in Rome: "We have become as round about (lying) offscourings of the adornment/’adorned world’, (as) dirt of all till just now." (1 Cor 4:13b)

James said: “Adulteresses! Do you not know that the friendship of this (א,*א) adornment/’adorned world’ is enmity to (א,*א) God? The one who so – if according to the circumstances – may wish to be a friend of the adornment/’adorned world’ is ‘caused to stand’/'set down' (as) an enemy of God.” (Jas 4:4)

Peter said to the believers: "If you are reproached in/with (the) name of Christ, (you are) happy, because the Spirit of the glory and ability (א,* א, A), and/namely (the Spirit) of God, is brought to rest against/over you." (1 Pet 4:14)

Do not wonder, brothers, if the adornment/’adorned world’ hates you. (1 John 3:13)

Themselves they are out of the adornment/’adorned world’. Because of this they talk ‘out of’/’on the basis of’ the adornment/’adorned world’, and the adornment/’adorned world’ hears them. (1 John 4:5)

In this the welcome in company with us is (and has been) made perfect, in order that we may have ‘plain language in’/’courage by means of’ the welcome (א,* א) of the judgment/justice, because entirely as that One is, and/also we will (א,* א) be in this adornment/’adorned world’. Fear is not in the welcome. (1 John 4:17)


Additional studies: Ps 74:18; Matt 5:10-12; Mark 13:13; Luke 6:22-23; 16:13; 21:12,17; John 6:70; 13:18; 17:14,16; Acts 9:14: 26:9; 1 Thess 2:15; Heb 10:32-34; 1 Pet 4:12-16; 1 John 3:1; 4:5-6.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-05-07; 2012-01-16; 2014-09-10; 2014-12-16)

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15:20a Recollect the saying which I spoke to you: “A slave is not greater (than) his lord.” If they have pursued Me, they will and/also pursue you.

Word for word (20 words in the Greek text): recollect the saying which i/I spoke (to)-you: not is (a)-slave greater (than)-the lord his. if me (they)-pursued, and you (they)-will-pursue.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Jacob said to Laban:) "What (is) my unrighteous work and what my misdeed, because you (have) hunted behind me?" (Gen 31:36b, Greek OT)

(The king of Egypt) ‘pursued entirely behind’/hunted the sons of Israel, but the sons of Israel went out in/with a ‘high hand’/’great power’." (Ex 14:8b, Greek OT)

(All the leading priests and the people in Jerusalem treated) the messengers of God scornfully, treated His sayings despicably and ‘jested in/with’/mocked His prophets. (2 Chron 36:16a, Greek OT)

(Mordecai) ... recollecting/recollected all the works of the Lord. (Esther 4:17aa/C1a, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said to the Lord:) "All Your commandments (are) truth. (The ones being by the side of the law) have unrighteously ‘pursued ... entirely’/hunted me. Succour me!" (Ps 119:86, Greek OT)

Judas spoke (with) the males (being) in company with him: ”Do not fear the multitude (of the enemies) and you may not be cowardly (before) their storming. Remember our fathers as they were saved in a red sea, when Pharaoh pursued them in/with ability/power.” (1 Macc 4:8-9)

(Solomon said: “The wicked say:) ‘We may lie in ambush for the righteous ... (for) he promises/claims have knowledge of God and names himself “boy/slave of the Lord”.’” (Wisdom of Solomon 2:12a,13a)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “’According to’/as the judge of the people in this way (are) and/also his (servants) performing public duties.” (Sir 10:2a)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "Happy the ones having been (and being) pursued (Greek: diôkô) with respect to righteousness, because the kingdom of the heavens is theirs. Happy are you when (men) – according to the circumstances – may reproach you and they will (א,*א) pursue (you) and they may speak every/all evil ‘down from’/against you lying with respect to Me. Rejoice and exult, because your wage (is) much/great in the heavens, for in this way they pursued the prophets, the ones (being) before you." (Matt 5:10-12)

(Jesus dispatched away the twelve and said to them:) "A disciple is not over/’more than’ his (א,* א) teacher, nor a slave over/’more than’ his lord." (Matt 10:24)

(Jesus said to the crowds:) “The one being not in company with Me is downwards/against Me, and the one not leading together with Me he scatters Me (א*).” (Luke 11:23)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Recollect the woman of Lot!” (Luke 17:32)

It became ... a great pursuit against (the members of the assembly) of called out in (a disgraced) Jerosolyma/Jerusalem. ... (Acts 8:1b)

(Paul said to the elders in Ephesos:) “In this way you must bothering take ‘in stead’/’part with’ the ones being weak, to both/also recollect the sayings of the Lord Jesus, that He Himself spoke: 'It is happy to give rather than to take.'” (Acts 20:35b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

Because of this the Jews (continually) pursued Jesus, because He (continually/repeatedly) made these things in/on a sabbath. (John 5:16)

Having so beheld the sign (Jesus) had made/done the men (continually) said that/: “This is truly the prophet coming/’who is to come’ into the adornment/’adorned world’!” So having knowledge that they are about to come and rape Him and show up (א*) a king, Jesus, He (Himself) alone, flees (א*) again into/to the mountain. (John 6:14-15)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "Amen, amen, I say to you, a slave is not greater (than) his lord." (John 13:16a)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 - about 1500

Christ and the world are against one another as light and darkness, fire and water. So you must be wholly on his side, otherwise you are on the side of the enemies. In this case it is not given any adjustment and any compromise. Either you are wholly with him or not at all with him. A third thing is not given. (Karl Palmberg "Ur livskällan. Tredje årgången." p 44; comment to Matt 23:34-39; Karl Palmberg /1842-1920/ was from 1883 a Lutheran clergyman in Månsarp in the diocese of Växjö and president in Jönköpings Missionsförening (Missionary Society) 1886-1911; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Some fight in vain, some find the helper, and it is only given one: Jesus Christ he is called, the subjugator of demons. You know that I was one and passed the fight, which nevertheles is not at an end. The apemen preach tolerance, with that meaning that one must have patience with them endlessly, let them undisturbed preach and make propaganda, while they more or less pursue the Christians. As soon as they scent Christian blood they shudder, then they begin to "exclude" the "unfaithful" one; his name is not named, and if it exists in print, so it is cut away; had he before belonged to the assembly of the apemen, so he is called apostate and must die as a traitor. (August Strindberg "En blå bok I" p 258; the word "apeman" Strindberg uses to describe the followers of the out-of-date naturalistic and darwinistic views of the eighties of the nineteenth century; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Of course so clever men as the colonists (in Jerusalem) said to themselves, that at this nothing was to do, that they had to let people talk, that their adversaries in time probably would realize, that they were wrong. . . . When people still continued to show them contempt, they had their great joy in thinking that God regarded them worthy to suffer pursuit and shame in the same city, where people had mocked and crucified Christ. (Selma Lagerlöf "Jerusalem II" p 285-286; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

I remember in our Baptist martyrology the story of one of the Baptists of Holland escaping from his persecutors. A river was frozen over, and the good man crossed it safely, but his enemy was of greater bulk, and the ice gave way under him. The Baptist, like a child of God as he was, turned round and rescued his persecutor just as he was sinking beneath the ice to a certain death. And what did the wretch do? As soon as ever he was safely on the shore he seized the man who had saved his life, and dragged him off to the prison, from which he was only taken to be put to death.” We wonder at such inhumanity. (C.H. Spurgeon "Flashes of thought" p 227)


about 1500 and time before

Let us not then seek relaxation: for Christ promised tribulation to His disciples: and Paul says, “All who will live godly in Christ Jesus, shall suffer persecution.” (2 Tim. iii.12.) No noble-spirited wrestler, when in the lists, seeks for baths, and a table full of food and wine. This is not for a wrestler, but for a sluggard. For the wrestler contendeth with dust, with oil, with the heat of the sun's ray, with much sweat, with pressure and constraint. (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers XIV:392)

David ... suffered persecution from Saul for righteousness' sake, and fled from King Saul, and would not avenge himself of his enemy. (Irenaeus, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol I, p 498)

Tribulation is necessary for those who are saved ... (so that) they may be fitted for the royal banquet. (Irenaeus, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol I, p 557)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Per Ahlmark, Eskil Albertsson, Hjalmar Arvidsson, David Bellingham, Carl-Erik Berg, Natanael Beskow, Emil Birkeli, Bo Brander, Gordon Bridger, Sten Carlsson, Roger Cowley, William Dalrymple, Sven Danell, E.J. Ekman, Hilding Fagerberg, Bo Frid, W. Ward Gasque, Bo Giertz, Johannes Gossner, Carl Grimberg, Axel Gustafsson, Berndt Gustafsson, Hermann Hartfeld, Alfred Hauge, Alf Henrikson, John Hedlund, Heinrich Himmler, C.G. Hjelm, Bengt Högglund, Ulrik Josefsson, M. Karlgren, Karl Kilsmo, Adolf Kloo, Peter Kuzmic, Lars Levi Laestadius, Christopher Lamb, Karl Larsson, Sven Lidman, Sigurd Lindgren, Sigvard Lindqvist, J.E. Lundahl, Ivar Lundgren, Martin Luther, Oscar Lövgren, Frank Mangs, Carl Henrik Martling, Margareta Melin, Vilhelm Moberg, Fredrik Nielsen, J.P. Norberg, Folke Nordangård, J. Nyrén, Pablo E. Perez, Lewi Pethrus, Richard Pierard, Viktor Rydberg, Carl-Erik Sahlberg, Vinay Samuel, Gösta Sandberg, David Satter, E. Aug. Skogsbergh, Göran Skytte, Samuel Sollerman, Erik Sonesson, Sven Stolpe, John Stott, Margareta Strömstedt, Chris Sugden, Jesper Svartvik, Kari Syreeni, Tacitus, Tertullianus, Thomas a Kempis, Carl-Herman Tillhagen, Nils Tögt, Kallistos Ware, P. Waldenström, Stig Wikström, Birgitta Yavari, Alf Åberg.


Paul said to the believers in Galatia: "Just as then the one having been (and being) begotten ‘according to’/after flesh pursued the one (having been and being begotten) ‘according to’/after spirit, in this way (it is) and/also now." (Gal 4:29)

Paul said to Timothy: "All the ones wanting to live reverently in Christ Jesus will be pursued." (2 Tim 3:12)

We know, that if – according to the circumstances – He may be made visible, we will be like Him, because we will behold Him entirely as He is. And 'every the'/everyone having this hope on Him purifies himself, entirely as that One is pure. (1 John 3:2b-3)

In this the welcome in company with us is (and has been) made perfect, in order that we may have ‘plain language in’/’courage by means of’ the welcome (א,* א) of the judgment/justice, because entirely as that One is, and/also we will (א,* א) be in this adornment/’adorned world’. Fear is not in the welcome. (1 John 4:17)


Greek words:

mnêmoneuvô (recollect) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Esther 4:17a(C1); Luke 17:32; John 15:20; Acts 20:35 – Esther 2:1; Tobit 4:5,19; 14:7,9; Judith 13:19; 1 Macc 12:11; 2 Macc 9:21; 10:6; Wisdom of Solomon 2:4; Matt 16:9; John 16:4,21; Acts 20:31; Gal 2:10; Eph 2:11; Col 4:18; 1 Thess 1:3; 2:9; 2 Thess 2:5, 2 Tim 2:8; Heb 11:15,22; 13:7; Rev 2:5; 3:3; 18:5.


Additional studies: Ex 14:4,9,23; Wisdom of Solomon 16:16; 19:2-3; Sir 6:17; Matt 10:23; 23:34; Luke 6:26,40; 11:49; 21:12,17; John 8:51; Acts 7:52; 9:4-5; 22:4,7-8; 26:11,14-15; Rom 12:14; 1 Cor 4:12; 15:9; 2 Cor 4:9; Gal 1:13,23; 5:11; 6:12; Phil 3:6; Rev 1:9; 12:6,17.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-05-07; 2012-01-18; 2014-09-11; 2014-12-16)

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15:20b-21 If they have kept My saying, they will keep yours and/also. However, all these things they will make/do * (א*) because of My name, because they do not know the One having sent Me.

Word for word: 15:20b (9 words in the Greek text) if the saying my (they)-kept, and the-(one) your (they)-will-keep. 15:21 (14 words in the Greek text) however these-(things) all (they)-will-make because-of the name my, because not (they)-'know-(and-have-known)'/know the-(one) having-sent me.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Solomon said to the Lord:) “Every alien, who is not himself out of Your people Israel, may and/also come out of ‘an earth’/’a country’ from afar because of Your great name and Your powerful hand and Your high/outstretched arm, and they may come and pray into this place, and You will listen to (them) out of the heaven, out of Your ready/prepared dwelling, and You will make/do according to all things as many as the alien calls against/to You, in that way (that) all the peoples of the earth may gain knowledge of Your name and the thing fear You as (do) Your people Israel.” (2 Chron 6:32-33a, Greek OT)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "You will be being hated by all ones because of My name.” (Matt 10:22a)

(Jesus said:) "All things have been given to the side of Me by the (א*) Father, and no one has additional knowledge of the Son ‘if not’/except the Father. Nor anyone has additional knowledge of the Father ‘if not’/except the Son, and (the one) to whom the Son – if according to the circumstances – may wish to reveal." (Matt 11:27)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “You will be ‘being hated’/hated by * (א*) the nations because of my name.” (Matt 24:9b)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Having gone * (א,* א, A) be/make disciples (of) all the nations, baptizing them/'the disciples' into the name of the Father and the Son and the Holy Spirit, teaching them to keep all things as many as I have enjoined you." (Matt 28:19-20a; BG Ask-comment: Walter Bauer says in his Greek-English lexicon - p 485 - that the Greek word for "be or become a disciple" - as a transitive verb has the meaning of "make a disciple". Perhaps no translator has another meaning. But I am not sure that this is the johannine view. To be disciples in a company of all nations can cause the crowd of disciples to increase. Cf. John 17:21-23.)

The Lord of the vineyard spoke: “What shall I make/do? I will send my welcomed son. Perhaps they will ‘turn in themselves’/’be ashamed’ (towards) this one.” (Luke 20:13)

(The disciples said to God:) “Give Your slaves to talk Your saying in company with every/all plain language, ‘to stretch out Yourself in/with’/’that You stretch out’ Your hand into/’for the purpose of’ healing and to (cause) signs and omens become/’come about’ through the name of Your holy boy Jesus.” (Acts 4:29b-30)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven: Jesus answered (the Pharisees:) “’And you do not’/’neither you’ know Me, ‘and not’/nor My Father. If you knew Me, you – according to the circumstances – knew and/also My Father.” (John 8:19b)

Jesus said to the Jews: “Amen, amen I say to you, if – according to the circumstances – anyone may keep My saying, He will (א,* א) not/certainly not look at death into the (coming) age.” The Jews * (P66,א,* א, B) spoke to Him: “Now we have gained (and gain) knowledge, that You have a little demon. Abraham died and the prophets, and You say: ‘If – according to the circumstances – anyone may keep My saying, He may not/certainly not taste death into the (coming) age.’” (John 8:51-52)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: P. Waldenström.


Peter said to the believers: "If you are reproached in/with (the) name of Christ, (you are) happy ones, because the Spirit of the glory and ability (א,* א, A), and/namely (the Spirit) of God, is brought to rest against/over you." (1 Pet 4:14)

Behold of what nature the Father has given (and gives) you a welcome, in order that you may be called children of God, (which) you and/also are. Because of this the adornment/’adorned world’ has not knowledge of you (א*), because it had not knowledge of Him. (1 John 3:1)


Additional studies: 1 Sam 12:22; Jer 14:21; Matt 10:22; Mark 15:31; Luke 10:22; John 8:55; 16:3; 17:25; Acts 2:38; 3:17; 4:17; 5:41; 8:16; 9:14,16; 10:43; 26:9; 1 John 2:12; 3 John v 7; Rev 1:9; 2:3; 3:8.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-05-07; 2012-01-18; 2014-09-12)

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15:22-23 If I had not come and talked (with) them, they had/’had ... had’ (continually) not miss (of the mark of God). But now they have not a pretence on account of their miss (of the mark of God). The one hating Me and/also hates My Father.

Word for word: 15:22 (18 words in the Greek text) if not (i/I)-came and talked (with)-them miss-(of-the-mark-of-God) not (they)-(continually)-had. now but (a)-pretence not (you)-have on-account-of the miss-(of-the-mark-of-God) their. 15:23 (8 words in the Greek text) the-one me hating and the father my hates.

The different imperfectform "eichosan" of the verb "echô" (have) occurs here in John 15:22 and in John 15:24. This form is very usual in the Greek Old Testament (cf. Barratt p 481).


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(David said to the Lord:) “You may not lean/bend my heart out/aside into sayings of evil, to the thing to use ‘a pretence pretences’/pretences in/for misses (of Your mark) together with men working lawlessness.” (Ps 141:4a, Greek OT)

(Solomon said: “The one who) ‘considers down’/downgrades ‘a concern’/’an occurence’ will be ‘considered down’/downgraded by it.” (Prov 13:13a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Israel:) "If – according to the circumstances – they may hear you or may be frightened - for the reason that it is a house making ‘by the side of’/’the surroundings’ bitter – they will have knowledge, that you are a prophet in their middle." (Ezek 2:5, Greek OT)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to the much/many-headed crowd: “See from/’away from’ the scribes) eating down/up the habitations of the widows and (for) a pretence praying long.” (Mark 12:40a)

(Jesus said:) "The one not adopting Me, does not adopt the One having dispatched me away." (Luke 10:16b)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "That slave having knowledge of his lord's will and having not made ready or made/done towards/’in regard to’ his will, will be flayed (with) many (blows)." (Luke 12:47)

(When Jesus was near Jerusalem He said:) “The fellow-citizens (of the man of noble descent) (continually) hated him and dispatched away a delegation behind/after him saying: ‘We do not want this one to be king against/over us.’” (Luke 19:14)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Jesus said to the Jews:) "The one not honouring the Son does not honour the Father having sent Him." (John 5:23b)

Jesus said to (the Pharisees:) “If you may be blind, you (continually) had – according to the circumstances – not (any) miss (of the mark of God). But now you say that/: ‘We see.’ Your miss (of the mark of God) stays.” (John 9:41)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "The one taking Me takes the One having sent Me." (John 13:20b)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: Bo Giertz, P. Waldenström.


If we – according to the circumstances – may speak, that we have not a/any miss (of the mark of God), we lead ourselves astray and the truth is not in us. (1 John 1:8)

(Jesus Christ) is a propitiation on account of our misses (of the mark of God), but not on account of ours only, however/but and/also on account of the whole adornment/’adorned world’. (1 John 2:2)

'Every the'/everyone denying the Son, nor has the Father. The one confessing the Son and/also has the Father. (1 John 2:23)


Greek words:

profasis (pretence) (in the NT + one example in the OT) Ps 141:4; Mark 12:40; John 15:22 – Luke 20:47; Acts 27:30; Phil 1:18; 1 Thess 2:5.


Additional studies: Matt 11:20-24; Luke 11:29-32; John 15:24; 16:9; Rom 1:20; 2 John v 9.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-05-07; 2012-01-19; 2014-09-14)

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15:24-25 If I had not made/done in/among them the works, which no one other/else had made/done, they had/’had ... had’ (continually) not (any) miss (of the mark of God), but now they have and/both beheld (and behold) and have hated (and hate) and/both Me and My Father. However (this comes about) in order that the saying may be completed, the one having been (and being) written in their law that/: “They hated Me as (if it was) a benefit.”

Word for word: 15:24 (26 words in the Greek text) if the works not (i/I)-made in them which no-one other made, (a)-miss-(of-the-mark-of-God) not (they)-(continually)-had. now but and (they)-have-beheld-(and-behold) and (they)-have-hated-(and-hate) and me and the father my. 15:25 (15 words in the Greek text) however in-order-that may-be-completed the saying the-(one) in the law their having-been-(and-being) written that they-hated me as-a-benefit.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

A prophet as Moses has not yet stood up in Israel ... in/with all the signs and omens which the Lord dispatched away him to make them in earth/'the land' Egypt, to Pharaoh and to all his attendants/servants and to every/all his earth/land. (Deut 34:10a,11, Greek OT)

(David said to the Lord:) "The ones hating me as (if it was) a benefit and throughout nodding/winking (with) eyes." (Ps 35:19b, Greek OT)

(David said to God:) "The ones hating me as (if it was) a benefit ‘were made full’/abounded more than the hairs of my head." (Ps 69:4a or 69:5a, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said to the Lord:) “Leaders ‘pursued entirely’/hunted me as (if it was) a benefit, and my heart was cowardly from/’owing to’ Your sayings.” (Ps 119:161, Greek OT)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “The one having (judicial) authority in (a lot of things) will be hated.” (Sir 20:8b)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to the twelve:) “You took as a benefit, as a benefit give.” (Matt 10:8b)

The disciples of John the Baptist said to Jesus:) " Are You the One coming/’who is to come’, or wait/'are ... to wait' we for ‘the other’/another?" And ‘having answered Jesus’/’Jesus answered’ and spoke to them: "Having gone bring a message to John from (you) (about) the things you hear and see. Blind ones see/look up and lame ones walk about, leapers are made entirely clean and dumb ones hear, and dead (bodies) are raised, and beggarly ones are given a good little message." (Matt 11:3-5)

(Jesus said to the crowd:) “You did not got power over Me. However (this comes about) in order that the writings may be completed.” (Mark 14:49b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Jesus said to the Jews:) "The works which the Father has given (and gives) Me, in order that I may make them perfect, the works themselves which I make/do are witnesses on account of Me, that the Father has dispatched (and dispatches) Me away." (John 5:36b)

(Jesus said to the Jews:) "If I do not make/do the works of My Father, do not believe Me. But if I make/do, and you – according to the circumstances – do (א,* א, A) not believe Me, believe the works, in order that you may have knowledge and may believe (א,* א), that the Father (is) in Me and I in the Father." (John 10:37-38)


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning the verb “complete”, see My own comments and speculations to John 19:33-37.


If we – according to the circumstances – may speak, that we have not a/any miss (of the mark of God), we lead ourselves astray and the truth is not in us. (1 John 1:8)


Greek words:

dôrean (as a benefit) (in the NT + examples in the OT) Ps 35:19; 69:4(5); 119:161; Matt 10:8; John 15:25 – Gen 29:15; Ex 21:11; 1 Sam 19:5; Job 1:9; Ps 35:7; 1 Macc 10:33; Sir 20:23; 29:6-7; Rom 3:24; 2 Cor 11:7; Gal 2:21; 2 Thess 3:8; Rev 21:6; 22:17.


Additional studies: John 3:2; 6:36; 7:31; 8:17; 9:32,41; 10:25,34; 11:17; 12:38; 13:18; 14:9; 15:21; 17:12; 19:24,36; 1 John 2:19.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-05-08; 2012-01-19; 2014-09-15)

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15:26-27 When – according to the circumstances – the One being called to the side of (you) may come, which I will send to you from the side of the Father, the Spirit of the truth, which goes out from the side of the Father, that One will be a witness on account of Me. But and/also you are witnesses, because you are in company with Me from a beginning.

Word for word: 15:26 (24 words in the Greek text) when-according-to-the-circumstances may-come the one-being-called-to-the-side-of which i/I will-send you from-the-side-of the father, the spirit (of)-the (of)-truth which from-the-side-of the father goes-out, that-(one) will-be-a-witness on-account-of me. 15:27 (10 words in the Greek text) and you but are-witnesses, because from (a)-beginning in-company-with me (you)-are.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Moses said to the synagogue/gathering:) "... You will gain knowledge that the Lord has dispatched me away to make/do all these works, because (these are) not from Myself." (Num 16:28, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to His Son:) “Demand from the side of Me, and I will give You nations to Your inheritance.” (Ps 2:8a, Greek OT)

(Solomon said:) “From the side of the Lord (is) the help.” (Prov 21:31b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Israel:) “Become My witnesses, and/also I (am) a witness ... and the boy whom I have chosen, in order that you may gain knowledge and believe and perceive that I am." (Is 43:10a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to His boy:) "I shall give water in thirst to the ones going in waterless (land). I will put My Spirit against, against your seed and My blessings against your children." (Is 44:3, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Israel:) "From a beginning I have not talked in a hidden (place), nor in a dark place of 'an earth'/'a land'. At the time when it became, I (continually) was there. And now the Lord has dispatched (and dispatches) away Me and His Spirit." (Is 48:16b, Greek OT)

Behold, the Lord goes out, out of His place, and He will descend and step against, against the heights of the earth. (Micah 1:3, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Bethlehem:) “The One will come out, out of you for Me to be into/to a leader in Israel, and His ‘ways out’/departures (are) from a beginning, out of days of an age.” (Micah 5:2b, Greek OT)

(The messenger) Rafael (whose name was Asarja, which means "The Lord has helped") was dispatched away (from the glory of God) to heal (the parents of Tobias). ... (Tobias' father said to his woman:) “A good messenger will come together with (Tobias).” ... (Rafael) said to (Tobias): "You will save (Sarah)." ... (And Rafael said to Tobias and his father:) "I will show every/’the whole’ truth underneath/secretly for you, and I will not/certainly not hide every/any word from/for you." (Tobit 3:17a; 5:22; 6:18; 12:11a, S)

(Solomon said to God:) “Who has gained knowledge of Your counsel, if not You have given wisdom and sent Your Holy Spirit from highest things?” (Wisdom of Solomon 9:17)


The Latter Revelation:

Jesus says to (the priest leaders and the elders): “Did you nor at any time read in the writings: ‘A stone which the ones building rejected, this has become into a head/beginning of a corner, from the side of the Lord this became, and it is wondrous in our eyes?’” (Matt 21:42)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "Children, how troublesome it is to come into, into the kingdom of God! … By the side of men (it is) unable, however/but not by the side of God. For all things are able by the side of God." (Mark 10:24b,27b)

(Jesus) going/went out, out of the sanctuary. (Mark 13:1a)

(Luke said:) "The ones having become from a beginning eyewitnesses and rowers/servants of the saying have given (the things having been and being completed among us) ‘by the side of’/over to us." (Luke 1:2)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "You are (א,* א) witnesses to these things. And behold, I dispatch away the promise of My Father against you. But you, sit down in the city till (the time in) which you may be set/clothed in ability out of (the) height." (Luke 24:48-49)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "You will take ability, on the Holy Spirit's having come against, against you, and you will be My witnesses." (Acts 1:8a)

(Peter said to the brothers:) "One of the males having come together with us in every/all time (in) which the Lord Jesus came into/in and came out against/’up to’ us – having begun from the baptism of John, until (א,* א, A) the day which He was taken up from us – one of these must so become a witness together with us of His resurrection." (Acts 1:21-22)

(Peter said to the Jews:) "Having so been heightened (at) the right (hand) of God both/and having taken from the side of the Father the promise of the Holy Spirit, (Jesus) poured out this which you see and hear." (Acts 2:33)

(Peter and the apostles said to the priest leader and the Council:) "We are witnesses of/to these words and (so is) the Holy Spirit, which God gave to the ones obeying Him." (Acts 5:32)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Jesus said to the Jews:) “If – according to the circumstances – I am a witness on account of Myself, My evidence is not truthful. It/there is Another being a witness on account of Me, and you (א*) know, that the evidence (to) which He is a witness on account of Me is truthful.” (John 5:31-32)

(Jesus said to the disciples:) “Out of you some are who do not believe. For the Saviour (א,*א) knew from (P66, א,* א) a beginning (that) some are the * (א,*א) believing ones and (that) someone (continually) was the one being about to give Him ‘to the side of’/over (P66, א,*א).” (John 6:64)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "I will ask the Father, and He will give you Another, One being called to the side of (you), in order that It may be in company with you into the (coming) age, the Spirit of the truth, which the adornment/’adorned world’ is not able to take, because it does not look at It, nor it has knowledge. You have knowledge of It, because It stays by the side of you and It will be in you." (John 14:16-17)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "The One being called by the side of (you), the Holy Spirit, which the Father will send in My name, that One will teach you all things and remind you all things which I have spoken to you." (John 14:26)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

The believer can from his own inner experience confirm the truth in the testimony given about the Son. (René Kieffer "Johannesevangeliet" p 142; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Bo Giertz, Michael Green, Martin Luther, Viktor Rydberg, P. Waldenström, Kallistos Ware.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning, “one being called to the side of (you)”, see also John 14:16. Concerning “from a beginning”, see also John 6:60-65.


And the life was made visible, and we have beheld (and behold) and we are witnesses and bring a message to you (about) the agelong life, whichever/which (continually) was towards the Father and was made visible to you. (1 John 1:2)

I write to you, fathers, because you have gained (and gain) knowledge of 'the One'/Him from a beginning. I write to you, youths, because you have conquered (and conquer) the evil (thing) (א,*א). (1 John 2:13)

We have viewed (and view) and are witnesses, that the Father has dispatched (and dispatches) away the Son, a Saviour of the adornment/’adorned world’. (1 John 4:14)

This is the One having come through water and blood and spirit (א,* א, A), Jesus Christ, not in the water only, however/but in the water and in * (א,* א) blood and the Spirit is the One being a witness, because the Spirit is the truth. (1 John 5:6)


Additional studies: Hes 47:12; Matt 10:18-20; Mark 13:9,11; Luke 21:13-15; John 1:14; 4:23-24; 8:42; 13:3; 16:4,7,27-30; 17:8; 19:35; 21:24; Acts 1:4; 4:31,33; 10:37,41; 15:28; 2 Cor 1:21-22; 1 John 1:1; 2:1,14;24; 4:13; 3 John v 12; Rev 1:2,9; 3:1; 12:11; 13:12; 16:13; 20:4; 22:8,16.

James A. Draper "The sociological function of the Spirit/Paraclete in the farewell discourses in the Fourth Gospel"; Neotestamentica 26.1 (1992): 13-30.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-05-08; 2012-01-20; 2014-09-16)

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