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Chapter 14
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14:1-3 Let not your heart be troubled. Believe into God, and believe into Me. In the habitation of My Father are many abodes. But if not, I have * (א,* א) spoken to you, that I go to make a place ready to you. And if I – according to the circumstances – may go and make a place ready to you, I come again and I will take you towards Myself to the side of (Me), in order that whereat I am, you may and/also be.

Word for word: 14:1 (13 words in the Greek text) Not let-be-troubled your the heart. believe into the god and into me believe. 14:2 (19 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus) in the habitation (of)-the (of)-father my abodes many are. if but not, (i/I)-spoke (to)-you that (i/I)-go (to)-make-ready (a)-place (to)-you. 14:3 (21 words in the Greek text) and if-according-to-the-circumstances (i/I)-may-go and may-make-ready (a)-place (to)-you, again (i/I)-come and (i/I)-will-take-to-the-side-of-(me) you towards myself, in-order-that whereat (i/I)-am i/I and you may-be.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

Israel beheld the Egyptians being (and having been) deceased to the side of the lip of the sea. But/and Israel beheld the great hand, (the things) which the Lord had made/done (with) the Egyptians. But/and the people feared the Lord, and they believed (in) the Lord and (in) His attendant Moses. (Ex 14:30b-31, Greek OT)

(Moses and the sons of Israel said to the Lord: ”You plant Your people) into/on the mountain of Your inheritance, into Your ready/prepared dwelling, which You entirely has worked/performed, Lord, a holy place, Lord, which Your hands have made ready.” (Ex 15:17b, Greek OT)

(The Lord says to Moses): “I Myself will go forward you, and I will ‘cause you to cease’/’give you stillness’ entirely.” (Ex 33:14, Greek OT)

The chest/ark of the covenant of the Lord went forward former/before (Israel) three days' way, to entirely comtemplate a rest/resting-place for them. (Num 10:33b, Greek OT)

(Solomon said to the Lord:) "And the alien one, who is not from this Your people, and/also they will arrive and pray in this place, and You shall listen to (him) out of the heaven, out of Your ready dwelling, and You shall make/do according to all things, as many as the alien one – according to the circumstances – may call against You, in that way (that) all the peoples may have knowledge of Your name and fear You entirely as Your people Israel, and You may have knowledge, that Your name has been (and is) called against, against this house, which I have built.” (1 Kings 8:41-43, Greek OT)

(David) made the place ready for the chest/ark of God, and he made a tent for it. (1 Chron 15:1b, Greek OT)

(Solomon said to the Lord:) “Every alien, who is not himself out of Your people Israel, may and/also come out of ‘an earth’/’a country’ from afar because of Your great name and Your powerful hand and Your high/outstretched arm, and they may come and pray into this place, and You will listen to (them) out of the heaven, out of Your ready/prepared dwelling, and You will make/do according to all things as many as the alien calls against/to You, in that way (that) all the peoples of the earth may gain knowledge of Your name and the thing fear You as (do) Your people Israel.” (2 Chron 6:32-33a, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said:) “In order that what’/why are you, soul, ‘sorrowful around’/’exceedingly sorrowful’? And ‘in order that what’/why do you 'trouble together'/vex me? Hope against/for God, because I shall confess Him out/frankly, a means of saving of my face, my God. My soul was troubled towards myself.” (Ps 42:5-6a or 42:6-7a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) "Be entirely stable, ‘every the’/’the whole’ people of the earth/land, and make/work, for the reason that I am in company with you. ... And My spirit stand on/near in a middle of you. Be confident!" … (And concerning His house He said:) “The last glory of this house will be ‘great over’/’greater than’ the first one ... and in this place I shall give peace ... and/namely peace of soul.” (Haggai 2:4b,5b,9a or 2:5b,6b,10a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to the prophet about Judas:) “Behold, … I will make visible/known to them to listen to (Me), and I will be a physician to her, and I will make peace and faith (with) them. (Jer 33:6, Greek OT)

(The messenger Raphael said to Tobias:) "We may run forward your woman and make the habitation (of your father) ready." (Tobit 11:3a, S)

(The priests said about the enemies: “God,) remember their utterances of ill omen and You may not give them an abode.” (1 Macc 7:38b)

Woe a heart being by the side of, because it does not believe. (Sir 2:13a)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “Solomon was king in days of peace ... and he made a holy place ready into the (coming) age.” (Sir 47:13)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “Straighten your heart entirely towards the Lord.” (Sir 49:3a)

The heart of Susanna (continually) was (and had been) persuaded on/’for the sake of’ the Lord. (Susanna v 35b)


The Latter Revelation:

(Joseph, the son of David) took his woman to the side of (him). (Matt 1:24b)

(Jesus said to all being bothered and being - and having been - burdened:) "Lift My yoke against you, and learn * (א*), that I am mild and humble (in) the heart. And you will find rest (in) your souls." (Matt 11:29)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Be confident. I am. Do not fear.” (Matt 14:27b)

(Peter said to Jesus:) “It is fine to us to be here. If You want, I will make three tents here, one for You and one for Moses and one for Elijah.” (Matt 17:4b)

Having been aroused (Jesus) ‘honoured on’/blamed the wind and spoke to the sea: “Be quiet, be gagged (and remain gagged)!” And the wind ‘grew weary’/slackened and it became a great calm. He spoke to (His disciples): "Why are you cowardly? Have you not yet faith?" And they feared (with) a great fear. (Mark 4:39-41a)

(Jesus said to James and John:) “To make sit down ‘out of’/from My right (parts) or ‘out of’/from ‘the (parts) of a good name’/’the left-hand side’ it is not Mine/’My thing’ to give, however/but (to the ones) for whom it has been (and is) made ready by My Father (א*).” (Mark 10:40)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "If (א,* א) you have a faith of God … (The one) may not doubt in his heart however/but may believe, that what he talks becomes/’comes about’, it will be/’come about’ for him.” (Mark 11:22b,23b)

(Simeon said:) "My eyes have beheld Your saving, which You have made ready ‘according to’/after a face/figure of all peoples." (Luke 2:30-31)

(Jesus' parents found Him in the sanctuary.) … And He spoke towards them: "What (is it) that you seek (א*) Me? Did you not know, that I must be in the things of 'the Father My/'My Father'?” (Luke 2:49)

The slave spoke: “Lord, which/what you 'arranged on'/ordered has become (and becomes), and still it/there is a place.” And the lord spoke towards the slave: “Come/go out into/to the ways and enclosures and urge (men) to come in, in order that my house may be filled.” (Luke 14:22-23)

(When the older son) drew near the habitation, he heard music and dancing. (Luke 15:25b)

(Jesus) spoke to (the criminal): "Amen I say to you, today you will be in company with me in the ‘place by the side of apprehension’/Paradise." (Luke 23:43)

(Jesus said to the Emmaus disciples:) "O foolish (men) and slow (in) the heart to believe on/in all things which the prophets have talked!" (Luke 24:25)

(Jesus said to the eleven:) “What/why are and have you been troubled and because of what do ‘countings throughout’/considerations ascend in your hearts (א,* א, A)?”(Luke 24:38b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

To the ones selling pigeons (Jesus) spoke: "Lift/’take away’ these things from here! Do not make the house of My Father a house of a trading-place." (John 2:16)

Jesus spoke to (the Jews): "Loosen this temple, and in three days I will raise it." The Jews so spoke: "Forty-six years this temple has been built and You will raise it in three days?" But that (One) said (it) on account of the temple of His body. (John 2:19-21)

It is (and has been) written: “Do not fear, daughter Zion. Behold, your King comes.” (John 12:14b-15a)

(Jesus said:) “If – according to the circumstances – anyone may render service to Me, let him follow Me. And whereat/where I am, there will and/also My servant be.” (John 12:26a)

Jesus shouted and spoke (to the crowd): “The one believing into Me does not believe into Me however/but into the One having sent Me." (John 12:44)

Jesus (said to Simon Peter): "Whereat/where I withdraw, you are not able to follow Me now, but you will follow afterwards." (John 13:36b)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 - about 1500

(The words of Jesus) can be missunderstood, but they point to the thing that the faith in Jesus should be our identity. ... Jesus seems to say: have not your identity in what others say about you, but have it in me. (LarsOlov Eriksson "För att ni skall tro. Johannesevangeliet" p 265-266; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Oh yes, certainly it was true, that with Nangijala! Jonatan wanted that I would hurry to come there, for there everything is so good in all ways, he said. Think only, it stood a house waiting for him, when he came, quite an own house he has got there in Nangijala. It is an old yard, he said, which is called Rider Yard and it is in Cherry Valley, does it not sound gloriously? And think, the first thing he saw, when he came to Rider Yard, was a little green signboard on the gate, and on that board it was printed: Bröderna Lejonhjärta (The Brothers Lionheart). (Astrid Lindgren "Bröderna Lejonhjärta" p 17; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

On Exod. 33:14 the Neofiti Targum has, The glory of My shekinah will accompany amongst you and will prepare a resting place for you. (C.K. Barrett "The Gospel according to St John" p 457)

The woman: I know your voice! . . . I know who you are! I believe in you, I! The hunter: You shall not believe in me, not in any man; you shall believe in God! The woman: "This I also do! The hunter: But only in God. Children of men are nothing to believe in. (August Strindberg "Stora landsvägen" p 327; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

In Switzerland I, shy (?) northerner, was surprised that a Spanish woman every dinner at the table d'hote of the boarding-house pulled up her dress, took out her breast giving her baby suck! Neither in Stockholm people would find such a thing inmoral, for there they have so enlightened papers, which are on the hunt for "filipstadare", but in Jönköping, where they believe in God and his only begotten son, there they would find it inmoral. (August Strindberg "Kvarstadsresan" p 137; Genève, September 1884; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

We (young men in Sweden) have lost faith in the Order of the Seraphim - it's true, but we still believe in God! (August Strindberg "Om realism - Några synpunkter" p 20; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


about 1500 and time before

If you go into the forum, if you enter into a house, into the streets, into the soldiers' quarters, into inns, taverns, ships, islands, palaces, courts of justice, council chambers, you shall everywhere find anxiety for things present and belonging to this life, and each man laboring for these things, whether gone or coming, traveling or staying at home, voyaging, tilling lands, in the fields, in the cities, in a word, all. ... Considering therefore these things, both the past and the future, let us at least take breath a little from this hard slavery, and make some account of our souls also (as well as of earthly things), that we may obtain both present and future blessings. (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers XIV:136)

There are many mansions in the Father's house, inasmuch as there are also many members in the body. (Irenaeus, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol I, p 449)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Algot Anderberg, Andrea Johanni Arosiandro, Tage Aurell, Hjalmar Bergman, Oscar Bernadotte, Elisabeth Beskow, H.J. Blackham, Gordon Bridger, Barthold Carlson, G.K. Chesterton, Nils Dahlberg, Lennart Dahlqvist, Sven Danell, Tage Danielsson, Albert Engström, Joel Eriksson, Peter Eriksson, Hjalmar Fernström, Siv Fernström, Bo Giertz, Sonia Gustafsson, Lennart Gustavsson, Torsten Gårdlund, Gustav Haag, Eric Hertz, Kazuo Ishiguro, Barbro Jern, Gerhard Johansson, Ingrid Johansson, Jan-Olof Johansson, Simon Johansson, Bengt Jändel, Gunlög Järhult, Bo E. Karlson, Inge Kvarström, Pär Lagerkvist, Amy Le Feuvre, Sven Lidman, Ingeborg Lindqvist, Sigvard Lindqvist, Martin Luther, John Magnusson, Margareta Malmgren, Vilhelm Moberg, Arthur Montgomery, Ingun Montgomery, Hilding Nordström, John Ongman, Pansy, Lewi Pethrus, Laurence Rees, Anna Maria Roos, Sven Edvin Salje, Gunnar E. Sandgren, Henric Schartau, Bo Setterlind, Gunnar Stenberg, Svante Ståhl, Henry Ståhlberg, Nathan Söderblom, Thomas a Kempis, P. Waldenström, Magnus Widell, Gustaf Wikner, Owe Wikström, Mathilda Wrede.


My own comments and speculations:

As David went and made a place ready for the ark of God in the tent (1 Chron 15:1), so Jesus goes and makes a place ready for His woman (cf. Matt 1:24) in Him, who is the temple (cf. Rev 11:19; 21:22).

There are many places in the house of the Fathers and not only on Jesus' right side and on ‘the side of the good name’/’left side’.

Concerning Tobias as a type of Jesus, compare for instance John 4:16-18.


Paul said to the believers in Corinth: "We know that if – according to the circumstances – our earthly tent habitation may be loosened down/up, we have an act of building out of God, an habitation not made by hand, agelong in the heavens." (2 Cor 5:1)

Jesus has come into (the place inside the curtain as) a forerunner in favour of us. (Heb 6:20a)

(God) has made a city ready for (the ones who died according to faith). (Heb 11:16b)

'Every the'/everyone denying the Son, nor has the Father. The one confessing the Son and/also has the Father. (1 John 2:23)

Brothers (א,* א), if – according to the circumstances – our heart may not have a downhearted knowledge (on account of) us (א,*א,A), we have ‘plain language’/courage towards God. (1 John 3:21)


Greek words:

(h)etoimazô (make ready) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Tobit 11:3; Sir 47:13; Mark 10:40; Luke 2:31; John 14:2-3; Heb 11:16 – Esther 1:1f(A6); 1:1h(A8); 1:1n(A13); 5:14; 6:4,14; Tobit 5:17; 7:15; Judith 2:7; 12:19; 1 Macc 5:11; 12:27; 13:22; Wisdom of Solomon 16:2; Sir 2:1,17; 18:23; 33:4; 39:31; 49:12; Matt 3:3; 20:23; 22:4; 25:34,41; 26:17,19; Mark 1:3; 14:12,15-16; 15:1(א,* א); Luke 1:17,76; 3:4; 9:52; 12:20,47; 17:8; 22:8-9,12-13; 23:56; 24:1. Acts 23:23; 1 Cor 2:9; 2 Tim 2:21; Philemon v 22; Rev 8:6; 9:7,15; 12:6; 16:12; 19:7; 21:2.

monê (abode) 1 Macc 7:38; John 14:2 – John 14:23.


Additional studies:

Deut 34:9; Is 35:4; Zeph 3:16; Matt 10:29-31; Luke 15:31; 16:9; 19:12; John 2:16; 7:33; 8:14,21,35; 12:32; 13:33; 14:18,27-28; 16:22,24; 17:24; 21:22; Acts 15:24; Phil 1:23; 1 Thess 4:17; 2 Thess 1:7; 1 Pet 1:21; 1 John 3:2; Rev 3:14,21; 12:6; 17:8; 22:20.


C.P. Bammel "The farewell discourse in patristic exegesis"; Neotestamentica 25.2 (1991): 193-208.

Ernst Bammel: "The Farewell Discourse of the Evangelist John and its Jewish Heritage"; Tyndale bulletin 44.1 (1993): 103-106.

John L. Boyle "The Last Discourse (Jn 13,31-16,33) and Prayer (Jn 17): Some Observations on Their Unity and Development"; Biblica 56 (1975): 210-222.

Steven M. Bryan "The Eschatological Temple in John 14"; Bulletin for Biblical Research 15.2 (Fall 2005): 187-198.

Moses Chin "A Heavenly Home for the Homeless: Aliens and strangers in 1 Peter"; Tyndale Bulletin 42.1 (1991): 96-112.

W. Robert Cook "Eschatology in John's Gospel"; Criswell Theological Review 3.1 (1988): 79-99.

William R. Domeris "The farewell discourse. An anthropological approach."; Neotestamentica 25.2 (1991): 233-250.

Anton Fridrichsen "Jesu avskedstal i fjärde evangeliet. En introduktion till den johanneiska frågan."; Svensk Exegetisk Årsbok 3 (1938): 1-16.

Herbert Giesbrecht "The Evangelist John's Conception of the Church as delineated in his Gospel"; The Evangelical Quarterly 58.2 (Apr.-June 1986): 101-109.

Aelred Lacomara "Deteronomy and the Farewell Discourse (Jn 13:31-16:33)"; Catholic Biblical Quarterly 36 (1974): 65-84.

R. Lemmer "A possible understanding by the implied reader, of some of the coming-going-being sent pronouncements, in the Johannine farewell discourses"; Neotestamentica 25.2 (1991): 289-310.

W.H. Oliver - A.G. van Aarde "The community of faith as dwelling-place of the Father: 'basileia tou theou' as 'household of God' in the Johannine farewell discourse(s)"; Neotestamentica 25.2 (1991): 379-400.

John Painter "The Farewell Discourses and the History of Johannine Christianity"; New Testament Studies 27 (1981): 525-543.

J.A. du Rand "A story and a community: Reading the first farewell discourse (John 13:31-14:31) from Narraiological and sociological perspectives; Neotestamentica 26.1 (1992): 31-46.

J.A. du Rand "Perspectives on Johannine discipleship according to the farewell discourses"; Neotestamentica 25.2 (1991): 311-326.

B.A. du Toit "The aspect of faith in the Gospel of John with special reference to the farewell discourses of Jesus"; Neotestamentica 25.2 (1991): 327-340.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-04-29; 2011-12-07; 2014-08-04; 2014-11-28)

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14:4-6 “And you know the way whereat/where I withdraw.” Thomas says to Him: “Lord, we do not know, where You withdraw. And (א,*א,A) how are we able to know the way?” Jesus says to him: “I am the way and the truth and the life. No one comes towards the Father if not through Me.”

Word for word: 14:4 (7 words in the Greek text) and whereat i/I withdraw (you)-'know-'and-have-known'/know the way. 14:5 (14 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus) Says (to)-him Thomas: lord, not (we)-'know-(and-have-known'/know whereat (you)-withdraw. and how are-(we)-able-to 'know-(and-have-known)'/know the way? 14:6 (22 words in the Greek text sinaiticus) says (to)-him Jesus: i/I (i/I)-am the way and the truth and the life. no-one comes towards the father if not through me.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

The messenger of the Lord spoke (to the woman who to Abram would bear a son “according to the flesh”): “Hagar … from where do you come and where do you go?” (Gen 16:8a, Greek OT)

(The boy/servant of Abraham said:) “I prostrated myself before the Lord (in honour of Him) … who had led me the good way in way of truth to take the daughter of the brother of my lord for his son.” (Gen 24:48b, Greek OT)

God spoke towards Moses: "I am the One who is." And He spoke: "In this way you shall speak to the sons of Israel: 'The One who is has dispatched (and dispatches) me away towards you.'" (Ex 3:14, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to the people of Israel:) "Behold, I dispatch away My messenger before your face, in order that he may watch you in the way, so that he may lead you into, into the earth/land which I have made ready for you." (Ex 23:20, Greek OT)

(David said to the Lord:) “You gave me knowledge of ways of life.” (Ps 16:11a, Greek OT)

(David said to the Lord:) "Show me the way against Your truth." (Ps 25:5a, Greek OT)

(David said:) “All the ways of the Lord (are) mercy and truth to the ones seeking out His covenant and His evidences.” (Ps 25:10, Greek OT)

(David said to the Lord:) ”Show me the way, Lord, (in) Your way, and I will go in Your truth.” (Ps 86:11a, Greek OT)

(David said:) “Prove me, God, and gain knowledge of my heart. Arrange/’give instructions to’ me and gain knowledge of my paths. And behold if a way of lawlessness (is) in me, and show me the way in an agelong way.” (Ps 139:23-24, Greek OT)

(Solomon said:) “A male being led astray out of way of righteousness will be brought to rest in a synagogue of giants.” (Prov 21:16, Greek OT)

Water flowed in the desolate (district) ... And it will be a clean way there. And it will be called a holy way. An unclean may not/certainly not come 'to the side of'/forward there. ... The ones being (and having been) redeemed will go in it. And the ones being in command together ‘because of’/’with a view to’ the Lord will turn away/back and arrive into Zion in company with cheerfulness. (Is 35:6b,8a,9b-10a, Greek OT)

“My ways are not just as your ways”, the Lord says. “However, as the heaven holds off from the earth, in this way My way holds off from your ways.” (Is 55:8b-9a, Greek OT)

(The missers of the mark of God) do not know a way of peace. (Is 59:8a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to the prophet:) “You shall speak towards this people: ‘This is what the Lord says: Behold, I have given (and give) before your face the way of the life and the way of the death.’” (Jer 21:8, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) "I will give (My people) the other way and the other heart to fear Me all the days into/’for the purpose of’ good to them and to their children in company with them." (Jer 32:39, Greek OT)

(Tobit said:) “I, Tobit, have gone ways of truth and in righteousnesses/'righteous things' all the days of my life.” (Tobit 1:3a, S)

(Tobit said to his son:) ”Recollect the Lord our God and ... make/do righteousness (in) all the days of your life and you may not go the ways of the unrighteousness. For the reason 'making your truth'/'that you do what true', you will be (in) good ways in your works.” (Tobit 4:5b-6, BA)

(Tobias, the son of Tobit, said:) “I have not knowledge of the ways, the ones into Media, of the thing to go there/thither.” (Tobit 5:2b, S)

(Tobias spoke to the messenger: “Have you) insight in the way to go into Media?” And he spoke to him: “Yes, many times I have become/been there, and I have experience and insight in all the ways.” (Tobit 5:5b-6a, S)

(Judith said:) “The Lord lives, (the One) who throughout watched me in my way.” (Judith 13:16a)

And having come to/forward some of the ones following together with (Jeremiah) came forward, so that (they) with a sign (would) mark the way for themselves ... they were not able to find (it). But as Jeremiah had knowledge, being disconted (with) them, he spoke that/: “This place will and/namely be unknown till God – according to the circumstances – may lead together a leading together upon/’with regard to’ the people and become propitious.” (2 Macc 2:6b-7)

(Solomon said:) “We were led astray from a way of truth.” (Wisdom of Solomon 5:6a)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “’Strive after’/’pray to’ (the) Highest One, in order that He may straighten your way in truth.” (Sir 37:15b)

(Baruch said:) “It/there is not ‘the one’/anyone having knowledge of the way of (wisdom).” (Baruch 3:31a)

(Azariah said to the Lord:) “Righteous are You on/in all things which You have made/done (with) us. And all Your works (are) true and Your ways straight and all Your judgments true and You have made/done judicial verdicts of truth.” (The Prayer of Azariah v 4-5a)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Narrow (is) the gate and being (and having been) oppressed the way leading away into life, and few are the ones finding it.” (Matt 7:14)

Peter spoke to (Jesus): “Lord, if You are, exhort me to come towards You against the waters.” But/and He spoke: "Come!" (Matt 14:28b-29a)

Two blind being seated to the side of the way … (heard) that Jesus leads/moves by the side of (them). (Matt 20:30a)

(Jesus said to the priest leaders and the elders:) ”John came towards you in a way of righteousness, and you did not believe (in) him.” (Matt 21:32a)

(The Pharisees in company with the Herodians said to Jesus:) "Teacher, we know that You are truthful and teach the way of God in truth. … " (Matt 22:16b)

(Jesus said to the twelve:) “Indeed,the Son of the Man withdraws entirely as it has been (and is) written on account of Him.” (Matt 26:24a)

(John's father Zacharias prophecied:) "You, little boy, will be called a prophet of a Highest One, for you will go forward, in the very eyes of a lord, to make His ways ready ... to entirely straighten our feet into a way of peace." (Luke 1:76,79b)

(Jesus said to the people in the synagogue:). “Upon/’with regard to’ truth I say to you: …” (Luke 4:25a)

(David says into/’for the purpose of’ Jesus:) “You have given me knowledge of ways of life.” (Acts 2:28a)

(Apollos) (continually) was (and had been) resounded/informed (of) the way of the Lord and boiling (in) the spirit he (continually) talked and taught exactly/thoroughly the things on account of Jesus. (Acts 18:25a)

(Paul said:) ”I confess ... that I serve (God) according to the way, which they say/call ‘a taking for oneself’/’a sect’.” (Acts 24:14a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

In (the Saying) is (א,*א) life, and the life (continually) was the light of the men. (John 1:4)

And we viewed His glory, a glory as of an only descendant from the side of a father, filled with joybringing (grace) and truth. (John 1:14b)

No one has ever beheld (and beholds) God. An only descendant, a God, the One being into/in the bosom of the Father, that One has ‘been in command out’/explained Him. (John 1:18)

The Pharisees so spoke to (Jesus): “You are a witness on account of Yourself. Your evidence is not truthful.” Jesus answered and spoke to them: “And if I – according to the circumstances – are a witness on account of Myself, My evidence is truthful, because I know from where I came and where I withdraw. * (א,*א) You do not know from where I come and (א,*א) where I withdraw.” (John 8:13-14)

Jesus said to (Martha): “I am the resurrection and the life. The one believing into Me, and/also if he – according to the circumstances – may die, he will live.” (John 11:25)

Simon Peter said to (Jesus): "Lord, where do You withdraw?" Jesus answered: "Whereat/where I withdraw, you are not able to follow Me now, but you will follow afterwards." (John 13:36)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 - about 1500

All (Linus-Ida's) songs are, as we know, so sad . . . (as for example) 'In the cabin of the drinker'. . . . Afterwards Linus-Ida says: "That drinker nevertheless regretted at last." But Nilsson in Lugnet (The Calm), he is impossible. I say, I say, it will end bad for him! . . . I met him the other day, when he was on his way to the inn. "In this way you will never come to heaven", I said. And do you know what he said then? 'So long I neither shall go, I shall only go to Trill-In (Drop-In) getting some beers.'" (Astrid Lindgren "Madicken och Junibackens Pims" p 126-127; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

If the three phrases, “the way”, “the truth” and “the life” are joined by “and”, the kai (and) between the first and second may be epexegetical or explanatory (= “that is to say”). (Raymond E. Brown "The Gospel according to John" p 621)

The mission (of Jesus) is not at first hand to show the way but to be the way. (Gösta Sandberg "Glädjens budskap" p 213 in comment to John 14:1-12; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Both words (truth and life) are inserted here as explanatory of “hodos” (way). (C.K. Barrett The Gospel according to St John" p 458).

"If I ever meet Nonno, I shall thank him for that he made flutes to us", Jum-Jum said. "That I also shall", I said. Butt then I thought that we probably never meet Nonno. "Jum-Jum, what way are we to go now", I asked. "It doesn-t matter what way we go, only we go it together", Jum-Jum said. And this was precisely what also I thought. (Astrid Lindgren "Mio, min Mio" p 122-123; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Pray but work; suffer but hope; the one eye is directed towards the earth, the other towards the stars; not establish oneself and settle down, it is, you know, walking-tour; not home but hostelry, stage; seek the truth for it exists, but only in one place, with one who himself is the way, the truth and the life. (August Strindberg "En blå bok II" p 833; Summa summarum; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

We saw states arise, with trouble and struggle develope themselves, and after that be ruined without our ability to see the sense of that. We saw great spirits step forward with a calling to proclaim new truths. After struggle and distress the truth won in order to by succeeding generations be confuted and abolished. Mankind wandered in deserts with ruins without knowing where the course was directed. Many were the guides but no one knew the goal. . . . That men did not know what they do is their excuse, but this would also teach them to realize that they are instruments in the hand of someone, whose intentions they could not understand, but who sees to their best. (August Strindberg "Världshistoriens Mystik" p 54; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

A friend asks me: "Where does our way point?" "This I cannot say, but for me personally it looks as if the way of the cross would bring me back to the faith of my forefathers. . . . Buddhism, being praised by the Young France, has introduced resignation and a worship of suffering leading directly to the Place of a Skull." (August Strindberg "Inferno" s 134-135; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

To Catholicism does not my way seem to go! . . . Where I go, I do not know, but I let lead me. (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev XII dec 1896-aug 1898" p 167; letter 1897-09-22 to Axel Herrlin; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

So he has seen them, father and son, already through many generations, slumber as children; but from where would they have come down here? Generation soon followed generation, flourished, grew old, went - but where? The riddle, which does not let guess itself, came so again! . . . . . . Silent the wood is and all the district, life out there is frozen, only from the far of the fall of the rapid the rush is heard wholly slowly. The brownie listens and, half in dream, seems to hear the stream of time, wonders, where it is going to travel, where the spring may be. (Viktor Rydberg "Tomten" p 238; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


about 1500 and time before

If (Jesus is) “the way”, ye will need none to lead you by the hand. (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers XIV:269)

Solomon ... built the temple as the type of truth. (Irenaeus, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol I, p 499)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Gudmund Jöran Adlerbeth, Eric S. Alexandersson, Arvid Almquist, Hjalmar Alving, Werner Aspenström, Augustinus, Jerram Barrs, Karl Barth, Gottfrid Billing, Gordon Bridger, Martin Buber, Atle Burman, Amadeus Creutzberg, Sven Danell, Elmer Diktonius, Bob Dylan, Ylva Eggehorn, Runar Eldebo, LarsOlov Eriksson, Linné Eriksson, Hilding Fagerberg, Erik Fagerlund, P.T. Forsyth, Erik Gustaf Geijer, Bo Giertz, Johannes Gossner, Stefan Gustavsson, Peter Halldorf, Dick Harrison, Gudmar Hasselberg, Alf Henrikson, Carl-Einar Häckner, Samuel Johansson, Gunlög Järhult, Pär Lagerkvist, Edvin Larsson, C.S. Lewis, Sven Lidman, Lars Lindberg, Martin Luther, Harriet Löwenhielm, Vishal Mangalwadi, Vilhelm Moberg, Gösta Nicklasson, Fredrik Nielsen, Hilding Nordström, Roland Oscarsson, Lewi Pethrus, Niklas Piensoho, Bengt Pleijel, Anna Maria Roos, K.A. Rundbäck, Viktor Rydberg, Carl-Erik Sahlberg, Sven Edvin Salje, Elisabeth Sandlund, Bo Setterlind, Hugh Silvester, Sven Stolpe, Nathan Söderblom, Leo Tolstoj, P. Waldenström, Johan Olof Wallin, Tennessee Williams, Carl Fr. Wislöff, Daniel Wärn, Birgitta Yavari, Göran Åberg.


Peter said: “Many will follow (the false prophets and teachers) out (in) the licentiousnesses, because of which the way of the truth will be blasphemied.” (2 Pet 2:2)

And the life was made visible, and we have beheld (and behold) and we are witnesses and bring a message to you (about) the agelong life, whichever/which (continually) was towards the Father and was made visible to you. (1 John 1:2)

I have not written to you, that you do not know the truth, however/but that you know it, and that every lie is not out of the truth. (1 John 2:21)

The one having the Son has the life. The One not having the Son of God has not the life. (1 John 5:12)

We know, that the Son of God has arrived and has given (and gives) us a mind, ‘in order’/so that we * (א,* א, A, B*) have knowledge of the true One, and we are in the true One, in His Son, Jesus Christ. This One is the true God and agelong life. (1 John 5:20)


Additional studies:

Gen 32:17; Deut 1:33; 8:2-5; 32:4; Job 21:14; Ps 1:6; 119:142; Mark 12:14; 14:21; Luke 22:21; John 1:17; 3:21; 5:26,33; 8:25,32,44; 10:7,9; 11:16; 13:33; 17:17; 18:37; Acts 4:12; 9:2; 16:17; 18:25-26; 19:9,23; 22:4; 24:22; Rom 1:25; 3:17; 5:2; 6:4; 8:2; 1 Cor 12:31; Gal 5:7 ; Eph 2:18; 3:12; 4:18; 6:14; Col 3:4; 2 Thess 2:10,12; 1 Tim 2:4-5; 6:5; 2 Tim 1:1; 2:25; 3:7-8; Tit 1:1; Heb 9:8; 10:19-20,26; Jas 5:19; 1 Pet 1:22; 2 Pet 2:15; 1 John 1:6; 5:7,11; 2 John v 1,4; 3 John v 1,3-4; Rev 1:8,18; 3:7,14; 6:10; 7:13-14; 14:6.


F.C. Fensham "I am the Way, the Truth and the Life"; Neotestamentica 2.1 (1968): 81-88.

Herbert Giesbrecht "The Evangelist John's Conception of the Church as delineated in his Gospel"; The Evangelical Quarterly 58.2 (Apr.-June 1986): 101-109.

David J. Hawkin "The Johannine Concept of Truth and Its Implications for a Technological Society"; The Evangelical Quarterly 59.1 (Jan.-Mar. 1987): 3-13.

D. Bruce Woll "The Departure of 'the Way': The First Farewell Discourse in the Gospel of John"; Journal of Biblical Literature 99 (1980): 225-239.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-04-29; 2011-12-09; 2014-08-05; 2014-11-29)

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14:7-9 “If you have (and have had) knowledge of Me, you will and/also have knowledge of My Father. And from just now you have knowledge of Him and you behold (and have beheld) Him.” Philip says to Him: “Lord, show us the Father, and it is enough for us.” Jesus says to him: “I am in company with you so much time, and you have not (and have not had) knowledge of Me, Philip? The one beholding (and having beheld) Me beholds (and has beheld) the Father. How (is it, that) you say: ‘Show us the Father’?”

Word for word: 14:7 (16 words in the Greek text) if (you)-have-(and-have-had)-knowledge-of me, and the father my (you)-will-have knowledge. and from just-now (you)-have-knowledge-of him and (you)-behold-(and have-beheld) him. 14:8 (11 words in the Greek text) Says (to)-him Philip: lord, show us the father, and (it)-is enough (for)-us. 14:9 (27 words in the Greek text) says (to)-him the Jesus: so-much time in-company-with you (i/I)-am and not (you)-have-(and-have-had)-knowledge-of me, Philip? the-(one) beholding-(and-having-beheld) me beholds-(and-has-beheld) the father. how you say: show us the father.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

Moses and Aaron and Nadab and Abihu and seventy of the council of elders of Israel ascended (to the mountain). And they beheld the place, where the God of Israel stood there. ... And they ate and (continually) they drank. (Ex 24:9-10a,11b, Greek OT)

(Moses said to the Lord:) “Show me Your glory!” (Ex 33:18b, Greek OT)

... (The prophet) beheld the Lord being seated upon a throne, high and being lifted upon/up. (Is 6:1a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Israel:) “From the now I have made the new things audible to you, (things) which it is about to become. …” (Is 48:6b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) “… My people did not know Me.” (Jer 4:22a, Greek OT)

(Solomon said:) “We were led astray from a way of truth, and the light of the righteousness did not shine on us.” (Wisdom of Solomon 5:6a)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said:) "All things have been given to the side of Me by the (א*) Father, and no one has additional knowledge of the Son ‘if not’/except the Father. Nor anyone has additional knowledge of the Father ‘if not’/except the Son, and (the one) to whom the Son – if according to the circumstances – may wish to reveal." (Matt 11:27)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Are even now and/also you unintelligent?” (Matt 15:16b)

(Jesus said:) “O generation, faithless and having been (and being) turned aside, till when shall I be in company with you, till when shall I hold up/’out with’ you? Carry (the son) to Me here.” (Matt 17:17a)

The foolish (virgins) spoke to the sensible ones: “Give us out of your olive-oil, because our torches are quenched.” But the sensible answered saying: “They may not at any time ‘not (א,* א, A) be’/be enough for us and you.” (Matt 25:8-9a)

(Jesus said to the priest leader:) “From just now you will behold the Son of the Man being seated out of the right (parts) of the Ability and coming upon the clouds of the heaven.” (Matt 26:64b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Jesus said to the Jews:) “Not (so) that anyone has beheld (and beholds) the Father, ‘if not’/except the One being from the side of the Father (א,*א); He has beheld (and beholds) God (א*).” (John 6:46)

The Pharisees (continually) said to (Jesus): “Where is Your Father?” Jesus answered: “’And you do not’/’neither you’ know Me, ‘and not’/nor My Father. If you knew Me, you – according to the circumstances – knew and/also My Father.” (John 8:19)

(Jesus said:) “I am the fine Shepherd and I have knowledge of the ones (being) Mine, and the ones (being) Mine have knowledge of Me, entirely as the Father has knowledge of Me, and I have knowledge of the Father.” (John 10:14-15a)

(Jesus said to the crowd:) “The one looking at Me looks at the One having sent Me.” (John 12:45)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

(“Henceforth”) refers to the moment when Jesus having completed the revelation of the Father departs in glory. The last discourses as a whole represent this ‘moment’ of completion. (C.K. Barrett "The Gospel according to St John" p 459)

May at last the protection of the Great Unknown be with and over all of us, amen, and may not Nemesis listen with envy to my most violent longing. (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev VII febr 1888-dec 1889" p 162; letter 1888-11-16 to David Bergström; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

We may not receive any other Father, except Him who is revealed by the Son. (Irenaeus, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol I, p 468)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Ann-Charlotte Alverfors, Johann Arndt, Lars Bergquist, Johannes Edfeldt, Bo Frid, Hillis Grane, C.G. Hjelm, Elisabet Sandlund, Jesper Svartvik, P. Waldenström.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “knowledge of My Father”, see also John 10:14-15. Concerning “Philip”, see also Rev 6:2a (“hippos”).


Paul said to the believers in Colossae: "(Jesus Christ) is an image of the God (being) impossible to behold.” (Col 1:15a)

I write to you, fathers, because you have gained (and gain) knowledge of 'the One'/Him from a beginning. I write to you, youths, because you have conquered (and conquer) the evil (thing) (א,*א). I have written to you, little boys (and girls), because you have (and have gained) knowledge of the Father. I have written to you, fathers, because you have (and have gained) knowledge of Him from a beginning. (1 John 2:13-14a)


Additional studies: Hos 6:3; Mark 8:21; 9:19; Luke 9:41; 10:22; John 1:1,14,18,43; 7:28-29; 10:6,30; 13:20; 17:21-23; Heb 1:3; Rev 4:1; 10:6; 14:13.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-04-29; 2011-12-10; 2014-08-10; 2014-11-29)

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14:10-11 "Do you not believe that I (am) in the Father, and (that) the Father is in Me. The words which I talk (P66,א,*א,A) (with) you, I do not talk from Myself, but the Father, the One (א,* א, A) staying in Me, makes/does His works. Believe Me that I (am) in the Father, and the Father in Me. But if not, believe because of the works themselves.”

Word for word: 14:10 (34 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus) not (you)-believe that i/I in the father and the father in me is? the words which i/I talk (with)-you from myself not (i/I)-talk, the but father the-one in me staying makes the works his. 14:11 (20 words in the Greek text) believe me that i/I in the father and the father in me. if but not, because-of the works them/themselves believe.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Moses said to the synagogue/gathering:) "... You will gain knowledge that the Lord has dispatched me away to make/do all these works, because (these are) not from Myself." (Num 16:28, Greek OT)

(Moses said to Israel:) "Know the education of the Lord your God and His magnificent things and the powerful hand and the high arm and His signs and His omens." (Deut 11:2b-3a, Greek OT)

(David said:) "Listen to my prayer, Lord ... I have remembered days of beginnings. I have ‘cared for in’/studied all Your works." (Ps 143:1a,5a, Greek OT)

(Solomon said:) “Out/’on the basis’ of great sizes and embellishment of created things their originator looks at (them) in a corresponding way.” (Wisdom of Solomon 13:5)


The Latter Revelation:

The disciples of John the Baptist said to Jesus:) " Are You the One coming/’who is to come’, or wait/'are ... to wait' we for ‘the other’/another?" And ‘having answered Jesus’/’Jesus answered’ and spoke to them: "Having gone bring a message to John from (you) (about) the things you hear and see. Blind ones see/look up and lame ones walk about, leapers are made entirely clean and dumb ones hear, and dead (bodies) are raised, and beggarly ones are given a good little message." (Matt 11:3-5)

(Jesus said to the hypocrites:) "What/why do you not and/also judge the righteous thing (away) from yourselves?" (Luke 12:57)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

Jesus ... answered and (continually) said to (the Jews): “Amen, amen, I say to you: The Son is not able to make (anything) (away) from Himself, ‘nothing anything’/nothing (which) He – * (א,*א,B) according to the circumstances – may not see the Father making/make, for the things that One – according to the circumstances - may make, these things the Son and/also makes likewise.” (John 5:19)

(Jesus said to the Jews:) "I am not able to do anything from/'owing to' Myself." (John 5:30a)

(Jesus said to the Jews:) “The works which the Father has given (and gives) Me, in order that I may make them perfect, the works themselves which I make/do are witnesses on account of Me, that the Father has dispatched (and dispatches) Me away.” (John 5:36b)

Jesus so spoke to (the Jews) again (א,*א): “When you – according to the circumstances – may heighten the Son of the Man, then you will gain knowledge, that I am, and (that) I do not make/do anything from Myself, however/but I talk these things entirely as the Father has taught Me.” (John 8:28)

(Jesus said to the Jews:) “The works which I make/do in the name of My Father, these are witnesses on account of Me.” (John 10:25b)

(Jesus said to the Jews:) " If I do not make/do the works of My Father, do not believe Me. But if I make/do, and you – according to the circumstances – do (א,* א, A) not believe Me, believe the works, in order that you may have knowledge and may believe (א,* א), that the Father (is) in Me and I in the Father." (John 10:37-38)

(Jesus said to the crowd:) "I have not talked out of Myself, however/but the One having sent Me, a Father, He has given (and gives) Me a commandment, what I may speak and what I may talk." (John 12:49)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

From Jesus' point of view both word and work are revelatory, but from the audience's point of view works have greater confirmatory value than words. (Raymond E. Brown "The Gospel according to John" p 622)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Maria Adolfsson, Miguel de Cervantes, Bo Frid, Milton Steinberg, Jesper Svartvik.


Paul said to the believers in Corinth: "Indeed, the signs of the apostle were entirely worked/accomplished in/among you in/with every/all endurance, both (with) signs and omens and abilities." (2 Cor 12:12)


Additional studies: Matt 11:21; Luke 10:13; John 2:11; 5:17; 7:16; 14:11,20,24; 15:24; 17:21; Rev 2:27(28).


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-04-30; 2011-12-10; 2014-08-11)

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14:12-14 Amen, amen, I say to you, the one believing into Me, that one will and/also make/do the works which I make/do, and greater works than these he will make/do, because I go towards the Father. And whatever you – according to the circumstances – may demand in My name, this I will make/do, in order that the Father may be glorified in the Son. If – according to the circumstances – you may demand anything (of) Me in My name, I will make/do (it).

Word for word: 14:12 (25 words in the Greek text) Amen amen (i/I)-say (to)-you, the-(one) believing into me the works which i/I make and-that-(one) will-make and greater (than)-these (he)-will-make, because i/I towards the father go. 14:13 (18 words in the Greek text) and 'what anything'/whatever according-to-the-circumstances (you)-may-demand in the name my this (i/I)-will-make, in-order-that may-be-glorified the father in the son. 14:14 (10 words in the Greek text) if-according-to-the-circumstances anything (you)-may-demand me in the name my i/I will-make.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Moses said:) “Lord, Lord, You have begun to show to Your attendant/servant Your stability and Your ability and the powerful hand and the high arm. For who is a god in the heaven or upon the earth, whoever will make/do according as You have made/done and according to Your stability.”(Deut 3:24, Greek OT)

The Lord was beheld to Solomon in a sleep (by) the night, and the Lord spoke towards Solomon: "Demand a certain demand for yourself." ... (Solomon said to the Lord:) "You shall give Your slave a heart to hear and ‘judge asunder’/judge Your people in righteousness, (in) the thing to ‘let together’/perceive ‘upwards middle’/between good and bad, because/for who will be able to judge this Your weighty/burdensome people?" And it pleased in the very eyes of the Lord, that Solomon had demanded this word. And the Lord spoke towards him: “’In stead of which’/because you have demanded this word from the side of Me and have not demanded many days for yourself and have not demanded riches, nor have you demanded souls of your enemies, however/but have demanded for yourself understanding (to) the thing to listen to ‘a judicial verdict’/’an accusation’, behold, I make/do (and have made/done) according to your word ... and I give (and have given) you (things) which you have not demanded, and/both riches and glory, as has not become/happened (and becomes/happens) a male like you in/among kings.” (1 Kings 3:5b,9-12a,13, Greek OT)

(Solomon said to the Lord:) "And the alien one, who is not from this Your people, and/also they will arrive and pray in this place, and You shall listen to (him) out of the heaven, out of Your ready dwelling, and You shall make/do according to all things, as many as the alien one – according to the circumstances – may call against You, in that way (that) all the peoples may have knowledge of Your name and fear You entirely as Your people Israel, and You may have knowledge, that Your name has been (and is) called against, against this house, which I have built.” (1 Kings 8:41-43, Greek OT)

Elijah spoke towards (Elisha): "Demand what I shall make/do for you, ‘before or’/before be/'I am' taken up from you." And Elisha spoke: "Let it presently/then become double in/with your spirit against/over me." And Eliah spoke: "You have ‘ hardened the thing to demand’/’demanded a hard thing’. If – according to the circumstances – you may behold me being taken up from you, it shall and/also be in this way for you." (2 Kings 2:9b-10a, Greek OT)

(Solomon said to the Lord:) “Every alien, who is not himself out of Your people Israel, may and/also come out of ‘an earth’/’a country’ from afar because of Your great name and Your powerful hand and Your high/outstretched arm, and they may come and pray into this place, and You will listen to (them) out of the heaven, out of Your ready/prepared dwelling, and You will make/do according to all things as many as the alien calls against/to You, in that way (that) all the peoples of the earth may gain knowledge of Your name and the thing fear You as (do) Your people Israel.” (2 Chron 6:32-33a, Greek OT)

(David prayed to the Lord:) “With respect to Your name, Lord, You may and/also propitiate my miss (of Your mark), for it is much/great.” (Ps 25:11, Greek OT)

(David said:) “One thing I have demanded from the side of the Lord. This I shall seek out, the thing 'to dwell me'/'that I shall dwell' in a house of the Lord all the days of my life, the thing 'to look me'/'that I shall look' at the amusement of the Lord and inspect His temple.” (Ps 27:4, Greek OT)

(David said:) "The Lord (is) near all the ones ‘calling on’/invoking Him, all the ones ‘calling on’/invoking Him in truth." (Ps 145:18, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to the prophet: "I am the One) ‘drying up’/’letting ... dry’ a light green wood/’piece of wood’, and causing a dry wood/’piece of wood’ to sprout. I, the Lord, have talked (and talk), and I will make/do (it).” (Ezek 17:24b, Greek OT)

(Tobit said to Tobias:) “Bless the Lord God in every seasonable time and demand from the side of Him in what way your ways may become straight, and all the paths and counsels will be led in a good way.” (Tobit 4:19a, BA)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said: “The Lord is) the Great One ‘to the side of’/’in comparison with’ all His works. ... Wondrous (is) His sovereignity. Glorifying heighten Him. ... Who makes Him great entirely as He is?” (Sir 43:28b,29b,30a,31b)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “’Every saying did not outdo’/’no saying outdid’ (Elisha) and in a sleeping his body prophesied. And in his life he made/spoke omens, and on/after his end his works (were) wondrous.” (Sir 48:13-14)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “You may so not care, saying: 'What may we eat?' or 'What may we drink?' or 'In what may we wrap up ourselves?' For the nations seek after all these things. For your heavenly Father knows that you of these things need all of them. But seek first His (א,*א) kingdom and righteousness, and all these things will be ‘put to’/added to you. So you may not care into/about the following day." (Matt 6:31-34a)

(Jesus said to His disciples: “A scarlet kernel of mustard) is indeed smaller than all (other) seeds, but when – according to the circumstances - it may have increased, it is greater than the vegetables and becomes a tree.” (Matt 13:32a, cf. John 15:1-5)

In company with an oath (Herod) confessed/promised to give (the daughter of Herodias), which/what – if according to the circumstances – she might demand. (Matt 14:7)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “I say to you: ‘Demand and it will be given you; seek and you will find; knock and it will be opened to you. ... If so you being (א,* א) evil know to give good gifts to your children, how much will the Father * (P75,א,*א) out of a heaven rather give holy spirit to the ones demanding/asking Him?" (Luke 11:9,13)

(Jesus said to His apostles:) “You will take ability, on the Holy Spirit's having come against, against you, and you will be My witnesses both in Jerusalem and in every/all Judea and Samaria and till (the) last/end of the earth.” (Acts 1:8)

(They carried out) the weak into the streets ... in order that, on the coming of Peter, the shadow and/namely – according to the circumstances – might overshadow someone of them. (Apg 5:15)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Jesus said to Nathanael:) "Because I spoke to you that I beheld you below the fig tree, you believe! You will behold greater things than these." (John 1:50)

Jesus so answered and (continually) said to them: “Amen, amen, I say to you: The Son is not able to make (anything) (away) from Himself, ‘nothing anything’/nothing (which) He – * (א,*א,B) according to the circumstances – may not see the Father making/make, for the things that One – according to the circumstances - may make, these things the Son and/also makes likewise. For the Father is friends with the Son, and He shows Him all things which He Himself makes. And greater works than these ones He will show Him, ‘in order’/so that you wonder (א,* א). For just as the Father raises the dead (bodies) and makes them alive, in this way and/also the Son makes alive to the ones He wants.” (John 5:19-21)

Jesus answered * (P66,א*): “I have spoken to you, and you do not believe. The works which I make/do in the name of My Father, these are witnesses on account of Me.” (John 10:25)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 - about 1500

Compare Third Baruch 1:6; 2:1a: ”And again the angel of hosts said to me, ‘Come and I will show you greater mysteries.’ ... And taking me, the angel of the Lord led me (from the first heaven) to a second heaven.” (Leif Carlsson “Round Trips to Heaven p 358)

Now I pray about great and little things with one purpose: That the Father will be glorified. John 14:13. (Bengt Pleijel "... för att ni skall veta ... En vandring genom Johannes första brev" s 123 in comment to 1 John 3:21-22; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

“greater works than these shall he do” Greater in extent (through the worldwide preaching of the gospel) and effect (the spiritual redemption and placing in the body of Christ multitudes of people since the day of Pentecost). These will be done through prayer in His name. (C.C. Ryrie "The Ryrie Study Bible" p 1629)

One evening just before Christmas when we had gone to bed Lotta said: "I have asked father for a sledge, now I only shall pray God, that it will become snow, otherwise I cannot use the sledge." In this way she said: "Dear good God, make so that it will become snow now at once. Think of the poor flowers, they need a warm covering, when they lie sleeping in the ground having so cold." Then she peeped up over the edge of the bed saying to me: "This time I was shrewd, I suppose, I said not that the snow would be to my sledge." And think, next day when we woke up, it had begun to snow." (Astrid Lindgren "Barnen på Bråkmakargatan" p 95; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

“believes in Me” We now have “eis” (“in”) with the accusative, indicating the true believer who trusts in Christ. (C.K. Barrett "The Gospel according to St John" p 460)

Though (John) doubtless accepted the miracles of his day, (he) thought of the (works) primarily as acts in which the power and character of God are made known; cf. 13:15,35. The greater works therefore are the gathering of many converts into the church through the activity of the disciples (cf. 17:20; 20:29), which however is effective only through the continuing power of Jesus' word and the work of the Holy Spirit (15:26f.). … (The) works (of the disciples) are greater not because they themselves are greater but because Jesus' work is now complete. (C.K. Barrett "The Gospel according to St John" p 460)

“in My name”. John's thought is by no means magical; cf. 1 John 5:14 … and v. 15, where it is presumed that the disciples will love Christ and keep his commandments. (C.K. Barrett "The Gospel according to St John" p 460)

The story that began in Jerusalem ... has finished in Rome. It is nothing less than a miracle of God. The Church which at the beginning of Acts could be numbered in scores cannot now be numbered in tens of thousands. (William Barclay “The Acts of the Apostles p 193 commenting Acts 28:30-31)

I always think I do something unrightly, when I am ill in bed. In the old time sickness no doubt was regarded as sin. In the Bible Jesus always says to the sick ones: " Your sins are forgiven to you." . . . I prayed to God, that he would forgive me my sins, against him and against all men, above all against you, who I made so unhappy last night. No, I did not pray for any special grace for you, I only prayed for forgiveness for me, poor, sinful man. And I thought it was such a silly and frugal prayer, for who was I that I would ask God to forgive just me. I wanted, that I had been able to pray for peace and for the thing that the whole world would be spared from the misery of the war, but I was only able to pray. "Forgive me my sins", over and over again. And during this I had absolutely no idea that this could help my sick heart. I had wanted to pray much more beautiful, more moving with greater humility. But nevertheless, can you understand this, I was helped. The great pain in my heart ceased to exist. It was not this I had prayed for, I had prayed for forgivenes for my sins. But during this prayer the bodily pain ceased to exist. I was so astonished and so glad and so thankful. It was the prayer, which helped me, and it is you, dear, little Röpecka, who has taught me to pray. You must have some share in this. It is on that account I know that you live. Today you might have sent intense prayers to God for your Pilewort who is very much fond of you. Thank you. . . . Might God protect us! He has given me much more good things than I have deserved. Might he hold his hand screening over you, who has spread so much happiness around you. (Selma Lagerlöf "Brev 2 - 1903-1940" s 349,359-360,366; letters 1938-06-19, 1939-08-27 and 1939-12-20 to Ida Bäckmann; Ida Bäckmann was in a habit to call Selma Lagerlöf Svalört=Pilewort because of her, as she thought, svala=cool temperament; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

My dear, we are allowed to pray God for peace. Perhaps he does not exist, but I still think, that it is all right to pray. (Selma Lagerlöf "Du lär mig att bli fri - Selma Lagerlöf skriver till Sophie Elkan" p 425; answer to letter 1915-05-10; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Shall I say you, that I am a heretic, as far as I do not think, that there is any use in praying God to help us from a threating accident. Really I do not think this. I do not think there is any use in praying for earthly things. Many times I have done it, and it usually, you know, goes me well in these temporal things, but I do not dare to say, that this has been because of my prayers. I have no proofs of this. But on the other side I think and know, that one can pray for peace of soul, for strength to self-denial and to be able to suffer under bitter things. These things one can get by prayer I have observed. And must it not be so? World order cannot be altered for our sake. But the strength of patience and self-mastery, this the prayer can give. . . . Only the least proof one finds that God lives and exists, this fills us with increased will to live. He probably exists, but he has left to us men for ourselves to work us to a tolerable existence in this world. It is our great test of maturity. Up to now we have solved it badly, but in course of time it will be more and more successful. (Selma Lagerlöf "Brev 2 - 1903-1940" p 103; letter 1912-05-02 to Kaja Hansen; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

A poor student, without home and parents had to stay at Christmas in the university city. He owned no money to buy firewood, no schoolfellow was in the city. He froze in his attic room, and in his great need he prayed to God in a loud voice that he might help him to get wood. Then he went out to get warm. When he came back to the room, a nice fire was in the tiled stove. He knelt and thanked God for the hearing of prayer, believing in a miracle. But so a silly leerer, having got to know the connection, came wanting to leer away the hearing of prayer and the miracle. He namely knew to tell that two servant-girls through the door had heard the prayer of the poor student and, while he was outdoors, had got the fire together. With this God's existence and the effect of the prayer would be explained away. But the student knew better than so. The Lord had heard his prayer and made use of two benevolent servants as an intermediary or an instrument. This is also my opinion, confirmed by endless experiences in the same direction. (August Strindberg "En blå bok III" p 947; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

(1900 May) 3rd. In the morning I met a poor old woman, who demanded a coin, she got such a bigger one. She wept, said that she had slept on a flight of stairs by night, and prayed God to be allowed to meet a merciful man. I asked her not forget to thank God. She wondered if I had suffered much. . . . I answered that I had been as poor as she and had "demanded". . . . The same old woman and the same scene, the same place and the same words, year 1901, the thirtyfirst of May. (August Strindberg "Ockulta dagboken" p 114; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Make use of the prayer: this is the miracle, and which thing I at last discovered. It is so wonderful, that we get all we pray for, only we pray wise. This is the truth, Karin, that I at last have got all I would have. (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev XII dec 1896-aug 1898" p 327; letter 1898-06-20 to the daughter Karin Strindberg; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

One evening the doctor sees the prayer-book on my bedside table and flies into a full rage: "Still that religion! It is a sympton, you understand!" "Or a need as others!" "Stop! I am no atheist, but I think the Almighty does not want to know of such intimacy as in former days. It is over with that fussing with the Eternal, and I prefer the principle of the Mohammedans to not pray for anything else than to with submissiveness be able to bear the burden of the existence." (August Strindberg "Inferno" p 77; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


about 1500 and time before

This would be the greatest of miracles, that without any miracles, the whole world should have eagerly come to be taken in the nets of twelve poor and illiterate men. (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers XI:5)

”That at the least the shadow of Peter passing by,” etc. This had not occurred in the history of Christ; but see here what He had told (the disciples) actually coming to pass, that “they which believe on Me, the works that I do shall they do also; and greater works than these shall they do.” (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers XI:77 commenting Acts 5:15)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Martin Allwood, Stefan Andhé, Lars Bergquist, Elisabeth Beskow, Per Beskow, Gordon Bridger, Amadeus Creutzberg, Sven Danell, Henry Daniel-Rops, Fjodor Dostojevskij, E.J. Ekman, Majken Ekman-Atterlöf, Albert Engström, Adolphine Fogtmann, Jan Guillou, Ole Hallesby, Fredrik Hammarsten, John Hedlund, Alf Henrikson, C.G. Hjelm, Jim Hutchison, Bengt Hägglund, Henrik Ibsen, Anders Jarlert, Julian av Norwich, Erik Axel Karlfeldt, Lars Levi Laestadius, Pär Lagerkvist, Hans Larsson, Sven Lidman, Teodor Lindhagen, Martin Luther, Verner Malmsten, Frank Mangs, Vilhelm Moberg, Thomas More, H. Myrbäck, Olle Nystedt, Efraim Palmqvist, Lewi Pethrus, Olaus Petri, Hilding Pleijel, Harald Rasmussen, Einar Rimmerfors, Anna Maria Roos, Carl Olof Rosenius, Seymor Rossel, Viktor Rydberg, Carl-Erik Sahlberg, Henrik Schartau, Bo Setterlind, Sundar Singh, Milton Steinberg, Wilfrid Stinissen, Hjalmar Söderberg, Thomas a Kempis, Einar Thomassen, Mark Twain, Lars Vitus, P. Waldenström, Johan Olof Wallin, Kallistos Ware, Paul Wern, Ernst Wigforss, Carl Fr. Wislöff, David F. Wright, Yngve Ydreborg.


My own comments and speculations:

Jesus had by the Father been dispatched to the house of Israel (Matt 15:24). The disciples were called to go out to the nations outside the boundaries of Israel. Through the faith in Jesus men from all nations so are brought into Him who is the temple of God, a place which before had been reserved to the people of Israel. To the sanctuary, with its court of the nations, all had had admission, but now all also are given possibility to – as priests – come into the temple itself, into Him who in holiness is greater than the sanctuary. Cf. Matt 12:6.

Through the spreading of the church the greater works are near connected with the welcome of the disciples to one another (John 15:13 “Greater welcome has no one than this, that he (P66,א*) may put/inter his soul in favour of his friends.”; 17:23). The ministry of Jesus among the disciples had first expressed a relation of a lord to his slaves (John 15:15) and God's welcome to sinners (missers of the mark of God)/the adornment/’adorned world’ (John 3:16). When the Spirit has been given it is in stead a matter of a mutual friendship (John 15:15), which reflects the heavenly welcome between the Father and the Son. It is this mutual welcome which makes the joy perfect (John 15:11). In the light of Sir 43:28-31 this is also a way to heighten the Lord who is greater than His works. See also Exegetes, evangelists and others to John 5:19-21.

The signs of Jesus are characterized as “many” (John 10:32; 12:37; 20:30) and “the adornment/’adorned world’ has gone away behind Him” (John 12:19). The works of the disciples, inspired by the Spirit, are greater. Now men are brought into Him, the Vine and the Temple. Compare Elisha's double portion of his lord Elia's spirit. See also My own comments and speculations to John 15:7-8.

Concerning "amen, amen", see also John 1:51a with My own comments and speculations. Concerning “in My name”, see John 16:23-24.


James said: "If any of you leaves/lacks wisdom, let him demand from the side of God, giving to all plainly and not/without reproaching, and it will be given to him." (Jas 1:5)

James said to the believers: “Is anyone in/among you weak, let him call to (himself) the elders of the (assembly) of called out and let them pray against/over him having smeared him (with) olive-oil in the name of the Lord, and the vow of the faith will save/preserve the one being fatigued, and the Lord will raise him.” (Jas 5:14-15a)

What we – if according to the circumstances – may demand, we take from Him, because we may (א,*א,A) keep His commandments and (because) we make/do the pleasing things in the very eyes of Him. (1 John 3:22)

This is the ‘plain language’/confidence, which we have towards/’in regard to’ Him, that – if according to the circumstances – we may demand anything according to His will, He hears us. And if we – according to the circumstances – know, that He hear us, what we – if according to the circumstances – may demand, we know that we have the demands/requests which we have demanded (and demand) from Him. (1 John 5:14-15)


Additional studies:

Prov 10:23; Wisdom of Solomon 16:25; Matt 7:7; 18:19; 21:22; 28:18; Mark 11:24; John 5:41; 7:18,33; 8:50,54; 13:1,31-32; 14:16,26,28; 15:7,13,15-16; 16:23-24,28; 17:1,4,23; Rom 16:27; Gal 1:5; Eph 3:21; Phil 2:11; Rev 2:19; 5:8; 8:3-4.


P.T. O'Brien "Prayer in Luke-Acts"; Tyndale Bulletin 24 (1973): 111-127.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-04-30; 2011-12-13; 2014-08-12; 2014-11-30)

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14:15-17 If – according to the circumstances – you may welcome Me, you may keep (P66,א,*א) My commandments. And I will ask the Father, and He will give you Another, One being called to the side of (you), in order that It may be in company with you into the (coming) age, the Spirit of the truth, which the adornment/’adorned world’ is not able to take, because it does not look at It, nor it has knowledge. You have knowledge of It, because It stays by the side of you, and It will be in you.

Word for word: 14:15 (8 words in the Greek text; the sequence of the words according to Sinaiticus) If-according-to-the-circumstances (you)-may-welcome me, the commandments the my (you)-may-keep. 14:16 (16 words in the Greek text) and-i/I will-ask the father and (an)other (one-who-is)-called-to-the-side-of (he)-will-give you, in-order-that in-company-with you (it)-may-be into the age. 14:17 (27 words in the Greek text) the spirit (of)-the (of)-truth, which the adornment not is-able-to take, because not (it)-looks-at it nor (it)-has-knowledge. you have-knowledge-of it, because by-the-side-of you (it)-stays, and in you (it)-will-be.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

God spoke: “We may make a man ‘according to’/after Our image.” (Gen 1:26a, Greek OT)

(God said to His people:) "I am the Lord your God, a zealous God, giving back misses (of My mark) of fathers against children till third and fourth generation to the ones hating Me and making/showing mercy into the number of thousands with the ones welcoming me and with the ones watching/keeping my commands." (Ex 20:5b-6, Greek OT)

Moses says to (the people): "Be confident, for with respect to the thing to try you God has become/come towards you to the side of (you) in that way (that) fear of Him – according to the circumstances – may be in you, in order that you may not miss (His mark)." (Ex 20:20, Greek OT)

Having stood up Moses and Jesus/Joshua, the one standing by the side of him, ascended into the mountain of God. And he spoke to the elders: "Be quiet ... till we will turn back towards you. And behold, Aaron and Hur (are) in company with you." ... And Moses and Jesus/Joshua ascended into/to the mountain. (Ex 24:13-14a,15a, Greek OT)

(Moses said to Israel:) "You shall welcome the Lord your God and watch/keep His watchings/charges and His fundamental laws and His judgments all the days." (Deut 11:1, Greek OT)

Moses, a member of the household of the Lord, came to an end in earth/land of Moab. ... Jesus/Joshua, son of Nun, was fulfilled with a spirit of understanding, for Moses had put/laid his hands against him." (Deut 34:5a,9a, Greek OT)

All the called of (the false king) ‘stood out of’/’were beside’ themselves. And they ’stood up out of’/rose, and (every) male went away into his way. (1 Kings 1:49, Greek OT)

(Nehemiah said to the Lord:) "You watch) the covenant and the mercy for the ones welcoming (You) and for the ones watching (Your) commandments." (Neh 1:5b, Greek OT)

(David said to the Lord:) “You will give (the sons of men) to drink the torrent of Your delicacy. By the side of You (is) a spring of life.” (Ps 36:8b-9a or 36:9b-10a, Greek OT)

(Solomon said:) “From the side of the Lord (is) the help.” (Prov 21:31b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to His boy:) "I shall give water in thirst to the ones going in waterless (land). I will put My Spirit against, against your seed and My blessings against your children." (Is 44:3, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Israel:) "Now the Lord has dispatched (and dispatches) away Me and His Spirit." (Is 48:16b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) “My people will have knowledge of My name in that day, that I am the One talking: ’I am by the side of.’” (Is 52:6, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Israel:) “Then you may cry, and God will listen to you ... and will speak: “Behold, I am by the side of.” (Is 58:9a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Israel:) ”My spirit, which is on you and the words, which I have given into your mouth, may not/certainly not ‘leave out’/disappear out of your mouth and out of the mouth of your seed, for the Lord has spoken from the now and into the (coming) age.” (Is 59:21b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Israel:) "I shall give My Spirit in you and I will make/do (so), in order that you may go/walk in My fundamental laws, and My judicial verdicts you may watch/observe and make/do." (Ezek 36:27, Greek OT)

(The messenger) Rafael (whose name was Asarja, which means "The Lord has helped") was dispatched away (from the glory of God) to heal (the parents of Tobias). ... (Tobias' father said to his woman:) “A good messenger will come together with (Tobias).” ... (Rafael) said to (Tobias): "You will save (Sarah)." ... (And Rafael said to Tobias and his father:) "I will show every/’the whole’ truth underneath/secretly for you, and I will not/certainly not hide every/any word from/for you." (Tobit 3:17a; 5:22; 6:18; 12:11a, S)

(Solomon said:) “A holy spirit of education will flee deceit.” (Wisdom of Solomon 1:5a)

(Solomon said:) “The soul (of the righteous one) (continually) was pleasing to the Lord. Because of this he hasted out of a middle of evil, but the peoples, having beheld and having not understood, ‘but not’/nor having put the thing of such kind on mind. (Wisdom of Solomon 4:14)

(Solomon said: “The) beginning of (the wisdom is) ... a welcome of education. Welcome (is) a keeping of laws (of the wisdom).” (Wisdom of Solomon 6:17-18a)

(Solomon said:) “’According to generations’/’from generation to generation’ (wisdom) stepping/steps over into pious souls and prepares (men) entirely to friends of God and prophets, for God welcomes nothing ‘if not’/except the one inhabiting (wisdom) together with (her)”. (Wisdom of Solomon 7:27b-28)

(Solomon said to the Lord:) “In company with You (is) the wisdom … Dispatch her out, out of holy heavens and send her from the throne of Your glory, in order that being together (with me) by the side of me, she may bother, and I may gain knowledge of what is well-pleasing by the side of You.” (Wisdom of Solomon 9:9a,10)

(Solomon said to God:) “Who has gained knowledge of Your counsel, if not You have given wisdom and sent Your Holy Spirit from highest things?” (Wisdom of Solomon 9:17)

(Solomon said: ”Lord,) to be greatly stable is always ’by the side of’/’at hand’ for You.” (Wisdom of Solomon 11:21a)

(Solomon said:) “Lord, ‘according to’/concerning all things You have made Your people great and You have glorified and not ‘beheld over’/despised (it) standing by the side of (it) in every seasonable time and place.” (Wisdom of Solomon 19:22)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “The ones fearing the Lord will not disobey His words, and the ones welcoming Him will together keep/observe His ways. The ones fearing the Lord will seek His satisfication and the ones welcoming Him will be fulfilled in/with the law.” (Sir 2:15-16)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “The giving of the Lord stays by the side of reverent ones.” (Sir 11:17a)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “Nothing (is) sweeter (than) the thing to give heed to commandments of the Lord.” (Sir 23:27b)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “The one being stable (to give) on/with his hand keeps commandments.” (Sir 29:1b)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “In every work believe (with) your soul, for this is and/namely a keeping of commandments.” (Sir 32:23)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said: “Child,) let (you) be called to the side of in (the dead body) in/’by means of’ (the) ‘way out’/departure of his spirit.” (Sir 38:23b)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “Oh, that the bones of the twelve prophets may sprout out of their place, for they called Jacob to the side of and redeemed (the people) in/with a faith of hope.” (Sir 49:10)

Baruch said: ”Be confident, Jerusalem, the One having named you will call you to the side of (Him).” (Baruch 4:30)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Happy the ones grieving, because they will be called to the side of.” (Matt 5:4)

(Jesus said to His disciples: “Out of the heart) come evil ‘countings throughout’/considerations, murders, adulteries, fornications, thefts, false evidences, blasphemies. These are the things making the man common/unclean.” (Matt 15:19-20a)

(Jesus said to a rich man:) ”Keep the commandments.” “Of what kind?” he utters (א,* א). But/and Jesus spoke: “You shall not murder. You shall not commit adultery. You shall not steal. You shall not be a false witness. Honour the father and the mother, and you shall welcome your neighbour as yourself.” (Matt 19:17b-19)

(Jesus said to the priest leaders and the Pharisees:) “The kingdom of the heavens has been made like a man, a king, whoever made wedding banquets/festivals for his son. And he dispatched away his slaves to call the ones being (and having been) called into the wedding banquets/festivals, and/but (continually/repeatedly) they did not want to come. … For many are called, but few (are) chosen. (Matt 22:2-3,14)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Having gone * (א,* א, A) be/make disciples (of) all the nations, baptizing them/'the disciples' into the name of the Father and the Son and the Holy Spirit, teaching them to keep all things as many as I have enjoined you." (Matt 28:19-20a; BG Ask-comment: Walter Bauer says in his Greek-English lexicon - p 485 - that the Greek word for "be or become a disciple" - as a transitive verb has the meaning of "make a disciple". Perhaps no translator has another meaning. But I am not sure that this is the johannine view. To be disciples in a company of all nations can cause the crowd of disciples to increase. Cf. John 17:21-23.)

(Jesus said to a rich man:) “You know the commandments: ‘You may not murder. * (א*). You may not steal. You may not be a false witness. You may not deprive away (men). Honour your father and your (א*) mother.’” (Mark 10:19)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "Children, how troublesome it is to come into, into the kingdom of God! … By the side of men (it is) unable, however/but not by the side of God. For all things are able by the side of God." (Mark 10:24b,27b)

(One of the scribes questioned Jesus:) "Of what kind is a first commandment of all?" Jesus answered that/: "First is 'Hear, Israel! The Lord our God is one Lord. And you shall welcome the Lord your God out of whole/all your heart and out of whole/all your soul and out of whole/all your mind and out of whole/all your stability.' A second oneis (א,* א) this: 'You shall welcome your neighbour as yourself.' Greater than these ones is not another commandment." (Mark 12:28b-31)

(Simeon was) a righteous and reverent (א*) man ‘receiving towards’/’waiting for’ a calling to the side of Israel, and holy spirit (continually) was against/over him. (Luke 2:25b)

(The older son said to his father:) “Behold, for so many years I am/’have been’ your slave, and I have nor at any time come by the side of your commandment. …” (Luke 15:29b)

(Jesus said to a rich man:) “You know the commandments: ‘You may not commit adultery. You may not murder. You may not steal. You may not be a false witness. Honour your father and your (א*) mother.’” But 'the one'/he spoke: “All these things I have watched ‘out of’/since my (א,* א, A) youth.” (Luke 18:20-21)

Having drawn near Jesus (continually) went together with (the two disciples). (Luke 24:15b)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "I dispatch away the promise of My Father against you. But you, sit down in the city till (the time in) which you may be set/clothed in ability out of (the) height." (Luke 24:49)

(Jesus said to His apostles:) “You will take ability, on the Holy Spirit's having come against, against you, and you will be My witnesses both in Jerusalem and in every/all Judea and Samaria and till (the) last/end of the earth.” (Acts 1:8)

The (assembly) of called out ... (continually) ‘was made full’/increased (in/’by means of’) the calling of the Holy Spirit by the side of (them). (Acts 9:31)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Jesus) (continually) was in the adornment/’adorned world’, and the adornment/’adorned world’ had become through Him, and the adornment/’adorned world’ had not knowledge of Him. (John 14:17)

(Jesus said to the woman:) "However, an hour comes, and it is now, when the true ‘prostrators’ will prostrate themselves before the Father (in honour of Him) in spirit and truth. For the Father seeks (certainly) and/also of such kind the ones prostrating (towards) Him (in adoration of Him). God (is) spirit, and the ones prostrating themselves * (א*) must prostrate themselves in a spirit of (א*) truth." (John 4:23-24)

(The crowd) so spoke towards (Jesus): “What may we make/do in order that we may work (for) the works of God?” Jesus answered and spoke to them: “This, it is the work of God, in order that you may believe into the One whom that One has dispatched away.” (John 6:28-29)

Jesus so shouted in the sanctuary, teaching and saying: “You and/both know Me and know from where I am? And/but I have not come (and come) from Myself. However the One having sent Me is truthful (P66, א,* א), whom you do not know. But (P66,א,*א) I know Him, because I am from the side of Him, and that One has dispatched (and dispatches) (P66,א,*א) Me away.” (John 7:28-29)

Jesus said to (those Jews who to begin with believed Him:) “If God (continually) was your Father, you – according to the circumstances – welcomed/’would welcome’ Me (continually).” (John 8:42a)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) " A new commandment I give you, that you may welcome one another." (John 13:34a)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 - about 1500

At Sinai God gave the people his instruction how the relation between them would be. This is Torah, manifested in two tables with the ten commandments, the Decalogue. It was only the Jewish people which was obliged to keep Torah. ... Different groups thought different about the demands which would be intended for non-Jews, and some pointed to a less number commandments as a minimum. ... Later the Rabbis would develope the thought of seven Noahcidic commandments, which only were intended for non-Jews, and this theology has later come to be predominant in modern Judaism. (Håkan Bengtsson "Tro och liv inom judendomen" p 120-121; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

"allon" (in John 14:16) is said to mean "another of the same kind," whereas "heteron" would mean "another of a different kind." Thus J.B. Lightfoot affirms that "heteron" "implies a difference of kind, which is not involved in 'allo'. The primary distinction between the words appears to be, that 'allos' is another as 'one besides,' 'heteros' another as 'one of two.' ... 'allos' adds, while 'heteros' distinguishes." ... H.B. Swete is definite: the Spirit is "a second of the same and not of a different order." He further says, "it is impossible to conceive of 'heteron paraklêton' standing in this context". ... It seems best to understand Jesus a Paraclete (all the more so since this term is actually used of him, 1 John 2:1) and the Spirit as another. (Leon Morris "The Gospel according to John" p 576)

The Greek adjective "paraklêtos", being passive in form, should have the meaning, "called to the side of" (i.e. for the purpose of helping). (Leon Morris "The Gospel according to John" p 587)

In the Fourth Gospel ... the translations (of the Greek word “paraklêtos”) are many and varied. The AV translates it comforter, but the margin gives advocate and helper and notes that the Greek is paraclete. The RSV translates it counsellor. J.B. Phillips translates it “someone to stand by you”. ... Clearly this is a difficult word to translate. We shall come to see that the difficulty lies in the fact that the word means so much that there is no single English word by which it can be adequately translated. ... “Paraklêtos” itself is a word which is passive in form. It means literally “one who is called in”. But although it is passive in form it is almost always active in meaning. ... In Greek the “paraklêtos” was the friend of the accused person. ... The word “paraklêtos” has a great Septuagint background to that kind of comfort and consolation in distress which keeps a man on his feet, when, left to himself, he would collapse. It is the comfort which enables a man to pass the breaking-point and not to break. (William Barclay ”New Testament Words” p 215-222)

The Hindu Pundits tell us that there is a trinity in the Hindu religion just as there is in the Christian Faith except that the three gods are separate ... while in Christianity there are three persons in one. Brahma is supposed to be the Creator; Shiva, the Destroyer or Transformer and Vishnu, the Preserver or Protector. ... (One) Pundit told me that Hinduism began with three gods Brahma, Shiva and Vishnu. These are the three from whom the other more than three hundred million gods has all descended. The Pundit told me that although Brahma is considered to be the Life Giver, he is not worshipped in India and is not permitted to have a temple. ... The Muslim believes in the unity, omnipotence and mercy of God. The first clause in the Muslim creed is, there is no God but Allah. (Frank B. Rehnstrom "An Outline of Missionary Enterprise in India, Nepal & Pakistan" p 22-24,28-29)

John never permits love to devolve into a sentiment or an emotion. Its expression is always moral and is revealed in obedience. This is true even of the love of the Son for the Father, cf. 15:10. (C.K Barrett "The Gospel according to St John" p 461)

John asked: Can you prove the existence and possibility of the Trinity? - The teacher answered: Can you mathematics? - Very little! - Then it becomes hard for you to recive my proof, but if you want I shall prove for you that: "Every prism having a triangular base can be divided into three pyramids being equal large among themselves and having triangular bases" (Euclides XII:7). - Do not take trouble, for I cannot follow your argumentation. - Well, then I shall simplify the problem. You want to doubt, I hear, that three can be one? Well three thirds are, you know, equal to one, isn't that so? - Yes, certainly! - Well? - You are right! - No, I am not, and now you will see how easily cheated you were. If namely you take the thirds of different quantities, so they do not become one. Now you will furthermore see how weak mathmatics is as means of evidence. How much is 50 measures and 50 measures? - It is one hundred measures. - However, not always, for 50 measures of water and 50 measures of sulphuric acid give me 97 measures in stead of one hudred. Thus 50 and 50 can become 97. Perhaps we need a higher mathematics to prove the Trinity? Perhaps it is so simple that we can prove it by the thing that three thirds of the one and the same are equal to one, the one and the same, or perhaps it is an axiom, which cannot be proved. - No, it is not a matter of course. - Not for me, you shall say. But do you think that a prism with triangular base can be divided into three pyramids being equal large among themselves? - This I believe, because Euclides has proved it. - This they call belief in authority.You understand! You understand! But - on another level; in a right marriage man and woman are one; and when the child is born, the three are one. This we find clear! Isn't that so? (August Strindberg "En blå bok I" p 14; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

The disciple: When (vedantism) became the fashion in 1890, all renegades sprang to their feet searching to fill their religious emptiness. . . . The ones, a moment ago had denied the resurrection, found the reincarnation obvious. . . . Krishna filled his mission and fought against the evil powers, and suffered death voluntarily. It was all right! The trinity Brahma-Vishnu-Siva, it was all right, but the Father-the Son-the Holy Spirit was not all right! Krishna did, but Christ did not! It was priceless! (August Strindberg "En blå bok I" p 191; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

The theological lessons now turned to disputations with the teacher. This one was priest and atheist and interested in the objections, but also he tired and soon ordered that the disciples would answer according to the textbook. "How many persons in the divinity?" "One!" "Yes, but what does Norbeck say?" "He says three!" "Well, say so then!" In the home it was silent. They left him in peace; they understood that he was lost, and it was too late to seize him. One Sunday the father had a try in the old way, but was given tit for tat. "Why do you never go to church more?" he asked. "What shall I do there?" "A good sermon always has something good to give." "To preach I can do myself." Cut! The pietists let a priest have intercession for Johan in Betlehemskyrkan, after they had seen him in a uniform for men shooting with live cartridges. (August Strindberg "Tjänstekvinnans son" p 209-210; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

The Son was sent into the world; not so the Holy Spirit. Again, the world receives not the Holy Spirit, because it knows Him not. ...Christ came in the Name of the Father, as the first Paraclete, as His Representative; the Holy Spirit comes in the name of Christ, as the second Paraclete, the Representative of Christ, Who is in the Father. (Alfred Edersheim "The Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah Part II" p 516-517)

(The society) "From the heart" was assembled. As usual its meeting was in Master Gudmund's spacious and pleasantly arranged painter's cottage. . . . Mr Sven beat the gavel expressing the customary formulas with which the meetings were opened. "Most honoured be the holy Trinity! Honoured be our patrons Thomas Aquinas and Johannes Scotus, who have found the unity of their different opinions in the heaven, where also we by the grace of God will behold our ones! I shine peace and happiness over this meeting, where the opinions should be allowed to romp around in complete freedom, without fight. We drink health to the holy Trinity! (Viktor Rydberg "Vapensmeden" p 93,96; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Calvin formulates his thought as follows: ”These vocables, Father, Son and Holy Spirit, denote to us a real distinction, so that none may think they are different titles attributed to God simply to signify him in several manners. But we have to observe that it is a distinction, not a division.” ... It is tradition to which (Calvin) is appealing when he defines the attributes of the three Persons of Trinity: “To the Father, the commencement of every action and the source and origin of all things are attributed; to the Son, the wisdom, the counsel and the order in which all things are disposed; to the Holy Spirit, the virtue and efficacy of all action.” (François Wendel "Calvin" p 168-169; The Theological Doctrine of Calvin)


about 1500 and time before

Nothing is so pleasing to God as an excellent course of life. “If ye love Me” (John xiv. 15), He declares; He did not say “work miracles,” but what? “Keep My commandments.” And again, “I call you friends” (John xv. 14), not when ye cast out demons, but “if ye keep My words.” (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers XIV:136)

Although they who were of the circumcision still did not obey the words of God, for they were despisers, yet they were previously instructed not to commit adultery, nor fornication, nor theft, nor fraud; and that whatever things are done to our neighbours' prejudice, were evil, and detested by God. Wherefore also they did readily agree to abstain from these things, because they had been thus instructed. But (the apostles) were bound to teach the Gentiles also this very thing, that works of such a nature were wicked, prejudicial, and useless, and destructive to those who engaged in them. (Irenaeus, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol I, p 495)

The Father is indeed above all, and He is the Head of Christ; but the Word is through all things, and is Himself the Head of the Church; while the Spirit is in us all, and He is the living water, which the Lord grants to those who rightly believe in Him, and love Him, and who know that “there is one Father, who is above all, and through all, and in us all.” (Irenaeus, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol I, p 546)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Ulf Abel, Alf Ahlberg, Lars Ahlberg, Eric S. Alexandersson, Roger Andersson, Stefan Andhé, Margit Assarsson, Johann Albrecht Bengel, Elisabeth Beskow, Per Beskow, Oloph Bexell, Bo Brander, Gerald Bray, Magnus Jacob Crusenstolpe, Sven Danell, Stefan Einhorn, Linné Eriksson, P. Fjellstedt, Jacob Frese, Bo Frid, Antoon Geels, Olle Gellerman, Gillis Gerleman, Bo Giertz, Karl Gjellerup, Nikolaj Gogol, Johannes Gossner, Michael Green, Stefan Gustavsson, Jürgen Habermas, Peter Halldorf, Dick Harrison, Olov Hartman, David Hedegård, Jan Arvid Hellström, Alasdair Heron, C.G. Hjelm, Bengt Hägglund, Rudolf Johannesson, Selma Lagerlöf, Hans Larsson, Lars-Olof Larsson, Edvard Lehmann, Carl Gustaf af Leopold, Ebba L. Lewenhaupt, Sven Lidman, Lars Lindberg, Martin Luther, Mathilda Malmvall, Carl Henrik Martling, H. Dermot McDonald, Vilhelm Moberg, R.H. Moncrieff, Thomas More, Fredrik Nielsen, Bertil Nilsson, Nils Henrik Nilsson, Fritiof Nilsson Piraten, Anders Nohrborg, Helmer V. Nyberg, Olaus Petri, Bengt Pleijel, Hilding Pleijel, Patrik Reuterswärd, Seymor Rossel, Klaas Runia, Gösta Sandberg, Bo Setterlind, Stanley Sjöberg, Harry Sjöman, Russell P. Spittel, Milton Steinberg, Georg Stiernhielm, Sven Stolpe, John Stott, Svend Erik Stybe, Jesper Svartvik, Alf B. Svensson, Knut Svensson, Ture Sällberg, Alf Tergel, Thomas a Kempis, R.A. Torrey, P. Waldenström, Kallistos Ware, Stig Wikström, Erik Wistrand, Virginia Woolf, David F. Wright, Richard Wurmbrand, Edwin Yamauchi, Tore Zetterholm, Eystein Åsgrimsson.


My own comments and speculations:

“My commandments” in plural can concern both the old commandments of Moses according to Matt 19:18-19, Mark 10:19, Luke 18:20 and the new commandment of Jesus to welcome one another (cf. My own comments and speculations to John 13:34-35). This new commandment also includes the commandment to believe in the name of Jesus Christ, the Son of God (1 John 3:23).

Cf. also My own comments and speculations to John 20:20.


Paul said to the believers in Rome: “You are (the) called ones of Jesus Christ … called holy ones.” (Rom 1:6-7a)

Paul said to the believers in Rome: ” If anyone does not have a spirit of Christ, this one is not of Him.” (Rom 8:9b)

Paul said to the believers in Corinth: "No one has knowledge of the things of God ‘if not’/except the Spirit of God. ... A man with (only) soul does not receive the things of the Spirit of God, for it is folly to him, and he is not able to gain knowledge, because it is examined spiritually." (1 Cor 2:11b,14)

Paul said to the believers in Corinth: "(What matters is) a keeping of commandments of God." (1 Cor 7:19b)

God Himself has spoken: “I do (P46,א,*א,A) not/certainly not leave you entirely in (a place).” (Heb 13:5b)

What we have beheld (and behold) and have heard (and hear) we bring away a message and/also to you, in order that and/also you may have communion in company with us. And but/further (we have) our communion in company with the Father and in company with His Son, Jesus Christ. (1 John 1:3)

My little children, these things I write to you in order that you may not miss (the mark of God). And if – according to the circumstances – anyone may miss (the mark of God), we have One being called to the side of, towards the Father, Jesus Christ, (One being) righteous. (1 John 2:1)

In/by this we have knowledge, that we have (and have had) knowledge of Him, if we – according to the circumstances – may watch/’stand up for’ (א*) His commandments. (1 John 2:3)

The one who – according to the circumstances – may keep (Jesus') saying, in this one the welcome of God truly has been (and is) made perfect. In/by this we have knowledge, that we are in Him. (1 John 2:5)

And you, the ointment, which you have taken from Him, it stays in you, and you have not need, in order that anyone may teach you. However, as His Spirit (א*) teaches you on account of all things and is true and is not a lie, and entirely as It has taught you, you stay in Him. (1 John 2:27)

What we – if according to the circumstances – may demand, we take from Him, because we may (א,*א,A) keep His commandments and (because) we make/do the pleasing things in the very eyes of Him. (1 John 3:22)

In this we have knowledge, that we welcome the children of God, when we – according to the circumstances – may welcome God and keep (א,*א) His commandments. For this is the welcome of God, in order that we may keep His commandments, and His commandments are not weighty. (1 John 5:2-3)

This is the One having come through water and blood and spirit (א,* א, A), Jesus Christ, not in the water only, however/but in the water and in * (א,* א) blood and the Spirit is the One being a witness, because the Spirit is the truth. (1 John 5:6)


Greek words:

paraklêtos (one being called to the side of /someone/) John 14:16 – John 14:26; 15:26; 16:7; 1 John 2:1.


Additional studies:

Deut 7:9; 1 Kings 1:41; Mark 10:19-20; John 1:32-33; 3:8; 7:39; 9:16,33; 10:18; 14:6,21,23; 15:10; 16:13; Acts 1:4; 2:33,38; 8:20; 10:45; 11:17; Rom 5:5; 8:26,28; 1 Cor 1:2; 12:11; 2 Cor 4:2; 13:13; 1 John 2:26; 3:23-24; 4:6; 2 John v 2,6; Rev 2:4; 3:3; 12:17; 14:12; 17:14.


Daniel I. Block "How many is God? an investigation into the meaning of Deuteronomy 6:4-5"; Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 47. 2 (June 2004): 193-212.

F.F. Bruce "Luke's Presentation of the Spirit in Acts"; Criswell Theological Review 5.1 (1990): 15-29.

F.F. Bruce "The Holy Spirit in the Acts"; Interpretation 27 (1973): 166-183.

J.C. Coetzee "The Holy Spirit in 1 John"; Neotestamentica 13.1 (1979): 43-67.

W.C. Coetzer "The Holy Spirit and the Eschatological View in Romans 8"; Neotestamentica 15 (1981): 180-198.

N.A. Dahl "Trinitariske dåpsbekjennelser och nytestamentlig teologi"; Svensk Exegetisk Årsbok 48 (1983): 118-143.

James A. Draper "The sociological function of the Spirit/Paraclete in the farewell discourses in the Fourth Gospel"; Neotestamentica 26.1 (1992): 13-30.

Jey J. Kanagaraj "The Implied Ethics of the Fourth Gospel: A Reinterpretation of the Decalogue"; Tyndale Bulletin 52.1 (2001): 33-60.

David W. Mills "The Holy Spirit in 1 John"; Detroit Baptist Seminary Journal 4 (Fall 1999): 33-50.

E.A. Russell "The Holy Spirit in the Fourth Gospel. Some Observations."; Irish Biblical Studies 2.2 (1980): 84-94.

Walt Russel "The Holy Spirit's Ministry in the Fourth Gospel"; Grace Theological Journal 8.2 (1987): 227-239.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-04-30; 2011-12-15; 2014-08-12; 2014-12-01)

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14:18 I will not let you be left orphan. I come towards you.

Word for word (7 words in the Greek text): Not (i/I)-will-let you (be)-left-orphan. (i/I)-come towards you.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The Lord said to Israel:) “You shall not treat every/any widow and (anyone) left orphan badly.” (Ex 22:21 or 22:22, Greek OT)

(Israel) arranged (their men) side by side against Midian, according as the Lord enjoined Moses, and they killed every/all of male sex. ... (Moses said to the officers of the army:) "Kill every/everyone ‘connected with the manly’/’of the males of the little ones’ ... and kill every woman, whoever has (and has had) knowledge of the male. (But) catch alive ... the women, whoever does not know a/any male sleeping-place." (Num 31:7,17-18, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said to the Lord:) “You (continually) were succouring (one being) left orphan.” (Ps 10:14b, Greek OT)

(David said: “God is) the Father of the ones being left orphan.” (Ps 68:5a or 68:6a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Israel:) ”As if a mother will/would call anyone to the side of (her), in this way and/also I will call you to the side of (Me), and in Jerusalem you will be called to the side of (Me).” (Is 66:13, Greek OT)

(The people in Jerusalem said:) “We have become left orphan, ‘it does not begin under’/’there is not’ a father’.” (Lam 5:3a, Greek OT)

(The "righteous" Tobit) said: "The father had left me entirely orphan, and he had died." (Tobit 1:8b, S)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said to his child:) “Become as a father to the ones left orphan.” (Sir 4:10a)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “The one being friends with father or mother over/’more than with’ Me is not worthy of Me.” (Matt 10:37a)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "Who is out of you, a man, whom his son will demand a (piece of) bread, he will not 'give on'/hand him a stone, (will he)? Or and/also will demand a fish, he will not hand 'give on'/him a serpent, (will he)?" (Matt 7:9-10)

(Jesus said to Jerusalem:) "How many times have I wanted to lead together against/’in quest of’ your children, 'which a turn'/'the way' a hen against/’in quest of’ her ‘young birds’/chickens leads together underneath the wings, and/but you did not want." (Matt 23:37b)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "I am in company with you all the days till the consummation of the age." (Matt 28:20b)

They (continually) carried little boys and girls to (Jesus), in order that He might touch them. But the disciples ‘honoured on’/blamed them. But having beheld (this) Jesus was vexed and spoke to them: "Let the little boys and girls be to come towards Me. Do not hinder them, for the kingdom of God is/consists (of the ones who are) of such kind." (Mark 10:13-14)

(The father) spoke to (his older son): ”Child, you are always in company with me, and all my things it is your things.” (Luke 15:31)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

As many as took him, to them He gave (judicial) authority to become children of God, to the ones believing into His name. (John 1:12)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "Little children, a small/little time (א,*א) longer I am in company with you." (John 13:33a)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

The disciples of the rabbis were said to be orphaned at their death. (Raymond E. Brown "The Gospel according to John" p 640)

All the songs of Linus-Ida are in the same way sad. The mothers only die and die, and the fathers continually are sitting at the inn drinking till the children die. Then the fathers go home and weep and repent awfully promising to never drink more . . . but it is a bit late then! (Astrid Lindgren "Madicken" p 18; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

In the garden there was an old house, and in the house Pippi Långstrump lived . . . quite alone. No mother and father she had, and it was really rather nice, for in this way there was no one who could tell her to go to bed, just as she had as the very most amusing, and no one could force her to eat cod-liver oil, when she rather wanted to have sweets. . . . Pippi was a very remarkable child. (Astrid Lindgren "Pippi Långstrump" p 5,8; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Over and over again (Jesus in our text) said (to his disciples): I must go away from you. But how would the situation of the disciples then become? He states it himself in the text with the word "fatherless". "I shall not leave you fatherless." However, our translation does not express the full meaning of this word in the original text. It means father- and motherless, thus children being deprived both their parents; to it as a rule "little" children, for only as to such one usually speaks of orphanage. When Jesus here uses this word about his disciples, it is to that plain, that he means children having been left alone in hostile surroundings and therefore are exposed to all kinds of sufferings. . . . (Christ) had from first to last revealed the truth, led them to the truth and kept them in the truth. Now the holy spirit would do this. (Karl Palmberg "Ur livskällan. Andra årgången." p 297-299; comment to John 14:15-21; Karl Palmberg /1842-1920/ was from 1883 a Lutheran clergyman in Månsarp in the diocese of Växjö and president in Jönköpings Missionsförening (Missionary Society) 1886-1911; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

My thanks for your congratulations (on my 60th birthday), spokesmen of the little people, among whom I never can cease to count, because I am the son of the Servant woman. (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev XVII 13 juli 1908-april 1909" p 286; letter 1909-01-23 to the newspaper Social-Demokraten)

I have discovered a printing-worksboy, of whom something can be done! . . . He is an orphanage child, that is without parents; he owns, it is true, foster-parents who certainly want but are not able to help him. . . . He is unusually well-read bearing his years in mind, clever and above all noticing. I cannot omit taking great pleasure in the thought, so to say, of moving over oneself into another to educate a child without being married, to implant one's opinions in a young mind, to be allowed to accompany an evolution, see how the first thankfulness disappears and how the independence claims its due - and so on. The boy should be educated to a free man with youthful opinions . . . and I wish become in stead of father, until further notice, which one may not refuse me. (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev I 1858-1876" p 130-131; letter December 1872 to the fellow student in Upsala the student society of Stockholm Eugène Fahlstedt; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

(The board's of poor relief in Stapelvik) meeting has already lasted a goodish while . . . when the rural dean and the chairman glances at a paper reading: " . . . The course now has come to the father- and motherless boy Benoni Strand, ten years old." . . . A moment after that there is before Stapelvik's workhouse direction a boy, whose healthy, frank appearance, fine well-fitting clothes and snow white shirt collar by no means indicated a novice for the workhouse. . . . Over Benoni's face suddenly fell a shadow. The word "father- and motherless", however calmly and freely from pathos it was uttered by the chairman, it nevertheless deeply penetrated the heart of the father- and motherless boy, for many were not the days which had passed, since his only earthly support, the beloved mother, was tucked into the grave. The boy squeezed his cap, stifled a sigh but could not prevent that some tears penetrated his eyes. . . . "Benoni Strand", the chairman (at last) said to the boy, "you have become admitted as a pauper into this charitable workhouse. I heart you, that you in all observe a good behaviour and especially show due respect to the manager Mr. Jensson, who is the superintendent of this institution. Only in this way you deserve the compassion, which your distressed situation claims. Mr. Jensson looks after that you visits the lancaster school. Use there well the short time, which you own to acquire useful knowledges. With this wish for your happiness I dismiss you. Go, my boy!" "Now then! Bow to the direction", Mr. Jensson said and pinched Benoni in the arm. "What would you like?" Benoni exclaimed in proud looks, in the same time as he pulled himself loose from the fingers of Mr. Jensson. Then he bowed for the direction and went. "Mr. Jensson", headmaster Mårtensson said, "I look at that boy, that he is in need of strong reins. It is a sad sign, that he laughed the direction in the face. He is a spoilt young rascal, without an idea of his real situation, take charge of him, Mr. Jensson." The manager smiled and bowed to the headmaster. "Mr. Jensson", the rural dean and the chairman said, "the boy has obviously seen better days and has just lost a mother, who has been tender with him, perhaps also easy-going towards him. Do not let the change become too difficult for the poor child. Pair severity with goodness, Mr. Jensson." The manager smiled and bowed to the rural dean. (Viktor Rydberg "Benoni Strand" p 151-152,159-162; Viktor Rydberg in Jönköping 1839; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

(The harp-player) prayed or thought: "Lord, my God! I thank you for the joy you in ample measure have given me, unworthy, and for the sorrow you let flow through my breast. . . . We so often grumble at your counsel. We wanted to have it so comfortable, and when the fire burns our houses, when the waters rises and floods our strips of tilled land, when the lightning does not make a distinction between the righteous one and the unrighteous one and the plague snatches away the pious one, but spares the hard-hearted one, when death reaps our dear ones, and when our prayers are not able to manage to break the eternal order, which is instituted by your infinite reason; then your foolish children are so inclined to say: "We are fatherless, we have no God. They do not consider, that their prayers . . . most often are rebellious to your order, unmindful of the humble custom of the prayer of your first-born Son, when he said: "Not my will, but yours!" . . . I thank you for death, who, when it separates us from the ones we love, exhorts us to not bind our felicity only to the fleeting earthly phenomena." (Viktor Rydberg "Vapensmeden" p 10-13; evening prayers of the harp-player)

Let now (the children) soon come to me, early in the morning, but now while the nice weather and the moonshine are left. Greet the children and say that their Father never leave them, and that we will be seen again, if it also will take some time. Say them this, if the wife makes them believe that I am dead, or do not care for them. (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev VIII jan 1890-dec 1891" p 191; letter 1891-02-25 to the nursemaid and the servant-girl Eva Carlsson)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Friedrich Ahlfeld, Svetlana Aleksijevitj, Ann-Charlotte Alverfors, Sven Alverlin, Johann Arndt, Margit Assarsson, Ulla Bardh, Jevgenija Bilkevitj, Marcus Birro, Amanda M. Blankenstein, Minna Blümmer, Johan Cullman, Annica Dahlström, Henry Daniel-Rops, Sigfrid Deminger, Charles Dickens, Fjodor Dostojevskij, Bob Dylan, John Dyson, Ylva Eggehorn, Lena Einhorn, Stefan Einhorn, E.J. Ekman, Hilding Fagerberg, William Faulkner, Emilia Fogelklou, Adolphine Fogtmann, Emil Frommel, Harry Ginman, Nikolaj Gogol, Johannes Gossner, Billy Graham, Michael Green, Carl Grimberg, Christina Halldorf, Peter Halldorf, Krister Hanell, Lars Hartman, David Hedegård, Erik Hellström, Gunnar Hillerdal, Ulla Holm, Victor Hugo, Kazuo Ishiguro, Liselotte J Andersson, Anna Jennings, Barbro Jern, Zina Kosjak, Lars Levi Laestadius, Pär Lagerkvist, Selma Lagerlöf, Sigvard Lindqvist, Marie Lindstedt Cronberg, Martin Luther, Margareta Malmgren, Margareta Melin, Roland Merullo, Lilija Michajlovna Kuzmenkova, Vilhelm Moberg, David Moller, Fredrik Nielsen, Torsten Nilsson, Ragnar Ohlsson, Martin P:n Nilsson, Hilding Pleijel, Zina Prichodko, Harald Rasmussen, Edvard Rohde, Abraham Rundbäck, Nelly Sachs, Sven-Åke Selander, Tomas Sjödin, Annika Sjöqvist-Platzer, Birgit Th. Sparre, Rune Storck, John Stott, Margareta Strömstedt, Alf B. Svensson, Edith Södergran, Helmut Thielicke, Thomas a Kempis, Einar Thomassen, Anton Tjechov, P. Waldenström, Paul Wern, Gail Cameron Wescott, N.P. Wetterlund, Albin Widén, Carl David af Wirsén, Yngve Ydreborg, Göran Åberg, Brita Åkerman-Johansson, Anna Ölander.


My own comments and speculations:

Tobit (whose name says that he was considered to be a good man) and children in Midian were bereft their parents. In a restoration perspective we now see how children are given parents. The Man Jesus is both as a father and a mother for his children. Cf. My own comments and speculations to John 19:33-37 concerning the rib of Jesus.


Greek words:

orfanos (left orphan) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Tobit 1:8; Sir 4:10; John 14:18 – 2 Macc 3:10; 8:28,30; Sir 35:14(17); Epistle of Jeremiah v 37; Jas 1:27.

Additional studies: Jes 49:14-15; Matt 18:4-5; 19:14-15; Luke 18:16-17; John 12:15; 14:3,28; 15:2-3; 19:26; 20:19,26; Rev 1:4,8; 3:19.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-05-01; 2011-12-16; 2014-08-16; 2014-12-03)

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14:19-21 Yet a small/little (while) and the adornment/’adorned world’ no longer looks at Me. But you look at Me, because I live, and you will live ‘(middle voice)’/’with engagement’ (P66,א,*א,A). In that day you will gain knowledge, that I (am) in My Father and you in Me and I in you. The one having My commandments and keeping them, that one is the one welcoming Me. But the one welcoming Me will be welcomed by My Father. And I will welcome him and make Myself conspicuous to him.

Word for word: 14:19 (18 words in the Greek text) yet (a)-small/little and the adornment me no-longer looks-at, you but look-at me, because i/I live and you will-live-(with-engagement). 14:20 (19 words in the Greek text) in that the day will-gain-knowledge you that i/I in the father my and you in me and-i/I in you. 14:21 (29 words in the Greek text) the-(one) having the commandments my and keeping them that-(one). the-(one) but welcoming me will-be-welcomed by the father my, and make-conspicuous (for)-him myself.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(In Rephidim) Moses cried towards the Lord saying: "What shall I do (with) this people? Still a small/little (while) and they will throw stones down (against) me." (Ex 17:4, Greek OT)

(Moses said to the Lord:) "If I so have found (and find) joybringing (grace) opposite You, make Yourself conspicuous to me. I may behold you in a known way in that way, oh - according to the circumstances - finding (and having found) joybringing (grace) opposite You, I and/also may have knowledge 'in order that'/that Your people (is) this great nation." ... (The Lord spoke towards Moses:) "You have found (and find) joybringing (grace) in the very eyes of Me, and I know you 'to the side of'/'in comparison with' all." And (Moses) says: "Show me Your glory." (Ex 33:13,17b-18, Greek OT)

(Moses said to Israel:) "It will be at the time when you – according to the circumstances – may hear all these fundamental laws and watch/keep and make/do them, (that the Lord your God) ... will welcome you." (Deut 7:12a,13a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) "The ones glorifying Me I will glorify, and the one despising Me will be unhonoured." (1 Sam 2:30b, Greek OT)

(Elihu said to Job:) “Stay (with) me a small/little (while) longer, in order that I may teach you.” (Job 36:2a, Greek OT)

(Wisdom says:) "I welcome the ones being friends with me." (Prov 8:17a)

(Solomon said:) “Pronounced happy (is) the one watching/keeping the law.” (Prov 29:18b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to the people in Jerusalem:) “Yet a small/little (while) and the wrath (against you) will cease, but My passion (will be directed) against the counsel (of the Assyrians).” (Is 10:25, Greek OT)

(The prophet said to the people of God:) “Advance, my people! Come into, into your storehouses and shut up your doors. Hide yourself away for a small/little (while) ..., till the wrath of the Lord may – according to the circumstances - have come by the side of.” (Is 26:20, Greek OT)

(Isaiah said:) "Is it not yet a small/little (while) longer and Lebanon will be ‘put in company with’/altered?" (Is 29:17a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) “My people will have knowledge of My name in that day, that I am the One talking: ’I am by the side of.’” (Is 52:6, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) "Yet a small/little (while) and the mowing of Babylon will arrive." (Jer 51:33b, Greek OT)

(The enemy of the Jews) fall/fell from the wagon. … No one was able to carry of to the side of (the one) a small/little (while) formerly thinking (he would) touch stars of the heavens. (2 Macc 9:7b-10a)

(Solomon said:) “(The Lord) is made conspicuous for the ones ‘do not not believing’/believing (in) Him.” (Wisdom of Solomon 1:2b)

(Solomon said:) “Having become well-pleasing to God (the righteous one) was welcomed, and living between/meanwhile he was put in company with missers (of the mark of God).” (Wisdom of Solomon 4:10)

(Solomon said: “The wisdom) is easy to be ‘looked at’/perceived by the ones welcoming her and (easy) to be find by the ones seeking her.” (Wisdom of Solomon 6:12b)

(Solomon said: “The) beginning of (the wisdom is) ... a welcome of education. Welcome (is) a keeping of laws (of the wisdom).” (Wisdom of Solomon 6:17-18a)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “The Lord welcomes the ones welcoming (wisdom).” (Sir 4:14b)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “The eyes of the Lord (are) against/over the ones welcoming Him.” (Sir 34:16a or 34:19a)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to a rich man:) “If you want to come into, into the life, keep the commandments.” “Of what kind?” he utters (א,* א). But/and Jesus spoke: “You shall not murder. You shall not commit adultery. You shall not steal. You shall not be a false witness. Honour the father and the mother, and you shall welcome your neighbour as yourself.” (Matt 19:17b-19)

Having come out, out of the memorial tombs after (Jesus') raising (many bodies of the holy ones having been and being fallen asleep) came into, into the holy city and they were made conspicuous to many. (Matt 27:53)

(Jesus) said to (His disciples): “Come here you yourselves 'according to the own thing'/'by yourselves' into a desolate place and ‘be brought’/come to rest few/’a little’.” … And they went away in the boat into a desolate place 'according to the own thing'/'to be by themselves'. (Mark 6:31a,32)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “(The one) who – if according to the circumstances – may be ashamed of Me and My sayings in this generation, the adulteress and a misser (of the mark of God), the Son of the Man will and/also be ashamed of him, when – according to the circumstances - He may come in the glory of His Father in company with the holy messengers.” (Mark 8:38)

(Jesus said:) “Why do you call Me ‘Lord, Lord’ and do not make/do what/'the things' I say?” (Luke 6:46)

(Jesus said to a certain lawyer:) "Make/do (what is written in the Law) and you will live." (Luke 10:28b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Jesus said to the crowd:) "This is the will of My Father, in order that 'every the'/everyone looking at the Son and believing into Him may have agelong life." (John 6:40a)

(Jesus said to the Jews:) " The one chewing My flesh and drinking My blood stays in Me and I in him. Entirely as the living Father has dispatched Me away, and I live because of the Father, and the one chewing Me, and/also that one will live because of Me." (John 6:56-57)

Jesus so spoke (to the Jews): “Still a small/little time I am in company with you. And I withdraw towards the One having sent Me.” (John 7:33)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "Believe Me that I (am) in the Father, and the Father in Me. ... If – according to the circumstances – you may welcome Me, you may keep (P66,א,*א) My commandments." (John 14:11a,15)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

When Jesus is dead and buried the world will see him no more; but the disciples, to whom he will appear in his risen body, will see him. Nevertheless, the words are also applicable … to the whole of Christian history, throughout which the church is united to Jesus while the world does not know him. (C.K. Barrett "The Gospel according to St John" p 464)

It is evident that the expressions "in Christ" and "Christ in us" (with Paul) are used alternating with one another and so must sign one and the same thing. It is in fact a question about the unity of the inner man with Christ. This unity occurs by our reception of him in faith and as a consequence of this we experience that he fills our inner man with his perceptible presence by the Spirit. (David Hedegård "Glädjens brev" p 8-9; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Leo Baeck, Sven Danell, LarsOlov Eriksson, Bo Frid, Dag Hammarskjöld, Gustaf Hellström, Bengt Hägglund, Martin Luther, E.W. Moore, L.C. Retzius, Ragnar Samuelson, Henrik Schartau, Milton Steinberg, John Stott, Jesper Svartvik.


My own comments and speculations:

In a mutual welcoming it is God who welcomes the human being and the human being who welcomes God. In such a mutuality it is not the passion of the human being to welcome itself. Nor it is the passion of God to welcome himself. The heavenly welcome is in the welcoming of one another. The human being has its security in being welcomed by God.

For the first time in Sinaiticus we here have the Greek word ”mikron” (= small/a little while) without the following word “chronon” (= time). Before we have had the expression “a small/little time”, in Greek “mikron chronon”, in John 7:33; 12:35; 13:33. And in John 4:23 Jesus says: “However, an hour comes, and it is now, when the true ‘prostrators’ will prostrate themselves before the Father (in honour of Him) in spirit and truth.” (cf. John 4:21; 5:25,28; 16:2,25,31).

Concerning small/little, see also John 7:32-34.


Paul said to the believers in Corinth: "(What matters is) a keeping of commandments of God." (1 Cor 7:19b)

Paul said to the believers in Galatia: “I live no longer, but Christ lives in me.” (Gal 2:20a)

In/by this we have knowledge, that we have (and have had) knowledge of Him, if we – according to the circumstances – may watch/’stand up for’ (א*) His commandments. (1 John 2:3)

'Every the'/everyone making/practising the miss (of the mark of God) and/also makes/practises the lawlessness, and the miss (of the mark of God) is the lawlessness. (1 John 3:4)

What we – if according to the circumstances – may demand, we take from Him, because we may (א,*א,A) keep His commandments and (because) we make/do the pleasing things in the very eyes of Him. (1 John 3:22)

The one keeping His commandments stays in Him, and He in him. And in this we have knowledge, that He stays in us, out of the Spirit, of whch He has given us. (1 John 3:24)

In this we have knowledge, that we stay in Him and He Himself in us, because He has given (and gives) us out of His Spirit. (1 John 4:13)

If – according to the circumstances – anyone may speak that/: ”I welcome God” and (if) he may hate his brother, he is a liar. For the one not welcoming his brother, whom he beholds (and has beheld), the one is not able to welcome God, whom he does not behold (and has not beheld). And this commandment we have from Him, in order that the one welcoming God and/also may welcome his brother. (1 John 4:20-21)

In this we have knowledge, that we welcome the children of God, when we – according to the circumstances – may welcome God and keep (א,*א) His commandments. For this is the welcome of God, in order that we may keep His commandments, and His commandments are not weighty. (1 John 5:2-3)

We know, that the Son of God has arrived and has given (and gives) us a mind, ‘in order’/so that we * (א,* א, A, B*) have knowledge of the true One, and we are in the true One, in His Son, Jesus Christ. This One is the true God and agelong life. (1 John 5:20)


Greek words:

emfanizô (make conspicuous) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Wisdom of Solomon 1:2; Matt 27:53(en-); John 14:21 – Esther 2:22(en-); 1 Macc 4:20(en-); 2 Macc 3:7(en-); 11:29(en-); Wisdom of Solomon 17:4(en-); John 14:22; Acts 23:15,22(en-); 24:1(en-); 25:2(en-),15(en-); Heb 9:24; 11:14.


Additional studies: Deut 10:12-13; Ps 19:9-11(10-12); Mark 10:17-19; Luke 18:18-20; John 10:38; 14:23; 15:10; 16:16,22-23,26-27; 17:21,23; 20:20; Heb 10:37; 1 John 2:5; 2 John v 6; Rev 1:5; 2:26; 3:19; 12:17; 14:12; 20:4; 22:17.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-05-01; 2011-12-17; 2014-08-17)

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14:22 Judas – not Iscariot – says to Him: “Lord, and what/how does it become/come (and has become/come), that You are about to make Yourself conspicuous to us and by no means to the adornment/’adorned world’?”

Word for word (19 words in the Greek text) Says (to)-him Judas, not the Iscariot: lord, and what becomes-(and-has-become)-(it) that (to)-us (you)-are-about-to make-conspicuous yourself and by-no-means (to)-the adornment.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

Moses and Aaron and Nadab and Abihu and seventy of the council of elders of Israel ascended (to the mountain). And they beheld the place, where the God of Israel stood there. ... And they ate and (continually) they drank. (Ex 24:9-10a,11b, Greek OT)

(Solomon said:) “(The Lord) is made conspicuous for the ones ‘do not not believing’/believing (in) Him.” (Wisdom of Solomon 1:2b)

The Latter Revelation: (Jesus chose twelve of the disciples) ... Judas of James and Judas Iscariot, who became a traitor. (Luke 6:16)

(Peter said to the people in Cornelius' house:) "God raised (Jesus) in/on the third day and gave Him to become conspicuous, not to every/all the people, however/but to witnesses (to whom) the hand beforehand having been (an being) stretched by God, to us whoever ate and drank together with Him after 'the to stand up Him'/'His standing up' out of (the) dead (bodies)." (Acts 10:40-41)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Jesus') brothers so spoke towards Him: “Step over from here and withdraw into Judea, ‘in order’/so that and/also Your disciples look at * (א*) the works which You make/do. For no one makes/does anything in the hidden. One seeks and/also oneself be/’express oneself’ in plain language. If You make/do these things, make Yourself visible to the adornment/’adorned world’.” (John 7:3-4)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: Johannes Gossner, Martin Luther, P. Waldenström.


Additional studies: Acts 1:13.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-05-02; 2011-12-18; 2014-08-18)

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14:23-24 Jesus answered and spoke to him: “If – according to the circumstances – anyone may welcome Me, he will keep My saying, and My Father will welcome him, and We will come towards him and make an abode by the side of him. The one not welcoming Me does not keep My sayings. And the saying which you hear is not Mine, however/but the Father's having sent Me.

Word for word: 14:23 (28 words in the Greek text) answered Jesus and spoke (to)-him: if-according-to-the-circumstances anyone may-welcome me the saying my (he)-may-keep, and the father my will-welcome him and towards him (we)-will-come and (an)-abode by-the-side-of him (we)-will-make. 14:24 (22 words in the Greek text) the-(one) not welcoming me the sayings my not keeps. and the saying which (you)-hear is not mine however (of)-the having-sent me (of)-father.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

God spoke: “We may make a man ‘according to’/after Our image.” (Gen 1:26a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Moses:) "You shall make a holy place (a tent; cf. Ex 26:9) to Me and I will be beheld in/among you." (Ex 25:8, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Israel:) "I shall put/make My covenant in/with you, and my soul will not abominate you. And I shall walk about in/among, in/among you, and I shall be your God, and you will be My people." (Lev 26:11-12, Greek OT)

(Moses said to Israel:) “These words the Lord talked towards every/all your synagogue/gathering.” (Deut 5:22a, Greek OT)

(Moses said to Israel:) "It will be at the time when you – according to the circumstances – may hear all these fundamental laws and watch/keep and make/do them, (that the Lord your God) ... will welcome you." (Deut 7:12a,13a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said: “Saul) has from behind turned away from Me and has not kept My sayings. ... “ (1 Sam 15:11b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to David:) "Shall not you build Me a house (to) the thing to dwell/accommodate Me? ... (Your son) shall build a house for My name." (2 Sam 7:5b,13a, Greek OT)

(Wisdom says:) "I welcome the ones being friends with me." (Prov 8:17a, Greek OT)

(Solomon said:) “Pronounced happy (is) the one watching/keeping the law.” (Prov 29:18b, Greek OT)

(The people in Egypt said to the prophet:) “We will not hear your saying, which you in the name of the Lord have talked towards us.” (Jer 44:16, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) "My resting place will be in/among (Judas and Israel). And I will be a God to them, and they will be My people." (Ezek 37:27, Greek OT)

"Amuse yourself and be cheerful, daughter of Zion; for the reason, behold, that I come and will pitch a tent in your middle", says the Lord. (Zech 2:10, Greek OT)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “The ones fearing the Lord will not disobey His words, and the ones welcoming Him will together keep/observe His ways. The ones fearing the Lord will seek His satisfication and the ones welcoming Him will be fulfilled in/with the law.” (Sir 2:15-16)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to a rich man:) “If you want to come into, into the life, keep the commandments.” (Matt 19:17b)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "I am in company with you all the days till the consummation of the age." (Matt 28:20b)

The Lord of the vineyard spoke: “What shall I make/do? I will send my welcomed son. Perhaps they will ‘turn in themselves’/’be ashamed’ (towards) this one.” (Luke 20:13)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

Jesus spoke (to the Jews): “My teaching is not Mine, however/but The One's having sent Me.” (John 7:16)

Jesus said to the Jews: “Amen, amen I say to you, if – according to the circumstances – anyone may keep My saying, He will (א,* א) not/certainly not look at death into the (coming) age.” The Jews * (P66,א,* א, B) spoke to Him: “Now we have gained (and gain) knowledge, that You have a little demon. Abraham died and the prophets, and You say: ‘If – according to the circumstances – anyone may keep My saying, He may not/certainly not taste death into the (coming) age.’” (John 8:51-52)

(Jesus said to the Jews:) "I and the Father are one." (John 10:30)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “The one having My commandments and keeping them, that one is the one welcoming Me. But the one welcoming Me will be welcomed by My Father. And I will welcome him and make Myself conspicuous to him.” (John 14:21)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

Love is not regarded in this Gospel as an abstract emotion but as something intensely practical. It involves obedience. (Leon Morris "The Gospel according to John" p 581)

What has Crist promised us? Not that we shall make the sun stand still, or the moon, nor that the sun shall retrace his step, but what? “I and the Father will come unto him.” (John xiv. 23) What need have I of the sun and the moon, and of these wonders, when the Lord of all Himself comes down and abides with me? I need these not. For what need I any of these things? He Himself shall be to me for Sun and for Light. For, tell me, if thou hadst entered into a palace, which wouldst thou choose, to be able to re-arrange some of the things which have been fixed there, or so to make the king a familiar friend, as to persuade him to take up his abode with thee? Much rather the latter than the former. (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers XIV:489-490)

The highest honour of a scholar (of Rabbinism) was, that he was like a well-plastered cistern, from which not a drop had leaked of what had been poured into it. (Alfred Edersheim "The Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah Part II" p 381)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Amadeus Creutzberg, Sven Danell, E.J. Ekman, P. Fjellstedt, Bo Frid, Dan Johansson, Martin Luther, L.C. Retzius, Carl Olof Rosenius, Jesper Svartvik, P. Waldenström, Torgny Wirén.


My own comments and speculations:

The sanctuary in the wilderness was the tabernacle. The Hebrew word for "tabernacle" has the meaning of an "abode". As the Lord in times of old was with His people in the tabernacle and in the temple, He will now as a temple stay with His disciples together with His Father.

Compare Psalms of Solomon 17:32: “(The son of David) will be a righteous king against/over (Israel), taught by God. (There) is not unrighteousness in days of him, in their middle, because all (are) holy and the Christ of the Lord (is) their king.”


Paul said to the believers in Corinth: "We are the temples (א*) of a living God, entirely as God spoke that/: ‘I will inhabit in/among them and will walk about in/among (them). And I will be their God, and they will be My people.’” (2 Cor 6:16b)

The one saying that/: ”I have (and have had) knowledge of Him” and does not keep His commandments, is a liar, and * (א,*א) is not the truth of God (א,*א). But the one who – according to the circumstances – may keep (Jesus') saying, in this one the welcome of God truly has been (and is) made perfect. In/by this we have knowledge, that we are in Him. (1 John 2:4-5)

'Every the'/everyone denying the Son, nor has the Father. The one confessing the Son and/also has the Father. You, what you have heard from a beginning, let (it) stay in you. If – according to the circumstances – what you have heard from a beginning may stay in you, and/also you will stay in the Father and in the Son (א,*א). (1 John 2:23-24)

The one keeping His commandments stays in Him, and He in him. And in this we have knowledge, that He stays in us, out of the Spirit, of which He has given us. (1 John 3:24)

In this we have knowledge, that we welcome the children of God, when we – according to the circumstances – may welcome God and keep (א,*א) His commandments. (1 John 5:2)


Additional studies:

Ex 20:1; 29:45; Deut 5:5; 1 Kings 8:27; John 1:14; 3:34; 8:51; 14:10,15; 15:10,20; Rom 8:9-10; Eph 3:17; 1 John 2:5; 5:3, 2 John v 6,9; Rev 2:26; 3:3,8,10,20; 21:3.


W.H. Oliver - A.G. van Aarde "The community of faith as dwelling-place of the Father: 'basileia tou theou' as 'household of God' in the Johannine farewell discourse(s)"; Neotestamentica 25.2 (1991): 379-400.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-05-02; 2011-12-19; 2012-08-18)

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14:25-26 These things I have talked (and talk) (with) you, staying by the side of you. But the One being called to the side of (you), the Holy Spirit, which the Father will send in My name, that One will teach you all things and remind you all things which I have spoken to you.

Word for word: 14:25 (6 words in the Greek text) These-(things) (i/I)-have-talked-(and-talk) (with)-you by-the-side-of you staying. 14:26 (26 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus) the-(one) but being-called-to-the-side-of, the spirit the holy, which will-send the father in the name my, that-(one) you will-teach all-(things) and will-remind you all-(things) which (i/I)-spoke (to)-you.


The Former Revelation(preliminary translation):

(The Lord said to Aaron:) "You shall Conclude/teach the sons of Israel all the lawful things which the Lord has talked towards them through a hand of Moses." (Lev 10:11b, Greek OT)

(Moses said to Israel:) “You forgot God … .” (Deut 32:18b, Greek OT)

Moses, a member of the household of the Lord, came to an end in earth/land of Moab. ... Jesus/Joshua, son of Nun, was fulfilled with a spirit of understanding, for Moses had put/laid his hands against him." (Deut 34:5a,9a, Greek OT)

Jehoshaphat (was appointed) upon/over the reminders/remembrancers (of David). (2 Sam 8:16b, Greek OT)

Jehoshaphat (was the one) reminding. (1 Kings 4:3b, Greek OT)

(Some Levites said to the Lord:) “You have given Your good Spirit to make (our fathers) intelligent.” (Neh 9:20a, Greek OT)

(David said:) "Give me knowledge of Your ways, Lord, and teach me Your paths." (Ps 25:4, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said:) “(Our fathers) ... forgot the works (of the Lord).” (Ps 106:13a, Greek OT)

(Solomon said:) "The ones seeking the Lord ‘let together’/understand ‘in every’/’all things’." (Prov 28:5b, Greek OT)

(Solomon said:) “From the side of the Lord (is) the help.” (Prov 21:31b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Israel:) "Now the Lord has dispatched (and dispatches) away Me and His Spirit. In this way says the Lord, the One delivering you, the holy One of Israel: 'I am your God, I have shown (and show) you the thing to find you the way, in which you shall go in it.”(Is 48:16b-17a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to His people:) "I am, I am the One calling you to the side of (Me)." (Is 51:12a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Jerusalem:) "All your sons (will be) taught of/by God." (Is 54:13a, Greek OT)

The Lord utters: “Giving I shall give My laws into the mind of (My people) ... And everyone may not/certainly not teach his fellow-citizen and everyone his brother, saying: 'Gain knowledge of the Lord', because all will know Me, from a small/little one of them and till a great one of them, because I shall be propitious to their unrighteousnesses, and I may not/certainly not any longer remember their misses (of My mark).” (Jer 31:33b-34, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Jerusalem:) “I, the Lord, have talked (and talk).” (Ezek 5:13b and 5:15b, Greek OT)

(The messenger) Rafael (whose name was Asarja, which means "The Lord has helped") was dispatched away (from the glory of God) to heal (the parents of Tobias). ... (Tobias' father said to his woman:) “A good messenger will come together with (Tobias).” ... (Rafael) said to (Tobias): "You will save (Sarah)." ... (And Rafael said to Tobias and his father:) "I will show every/’the whole’ truth underneath/secretly for you, and I will not/certainly not hide every/any word from/for you." (Tobit 3:17a; 5:22; 6:18; 12:11a, S)

(Tobit said to his son:) “Recollect my commandments and let (them) not be wiped out, out of your heart.” (Tobit 4:19b, BA)

(Maccabaeus) encouraged (the Jews) out of the law and the prophets, but (was) and/also (the one) having reminded towards them (about) the contests/struggles which (continually) were (and had been) brought to a consummation. (2 Macc 15:9a)

(Solomon said:) “Wisdom taught me, for it/there is in her an intelligent, holy spirit.” (Wisdom of Solomon 7:21b-22a or 7:22a)

(Solomon said to God:) “Who has gained knowledge of Your counsel, if not You have given wisdom and sent Your Holy Spirit from highest things?” (Wisdom of Solomon 9:17)

(Solomon said to the Lord:) “Therefore You convict the ones falling by the side of ‘according to’/’because of’ few/’a few’, and in the ones missing (Your mark) You bring to mind reminding, in order that, having been changed/separated from the bad thing, they may believe against You, Lord.” (Wisdom of Solomon 12:2)

(Solomon said to the Lord:) “Into/to a reminding of Your sayings (Your sons) (continually) were ingrafted (by the serpents) … Your saying, healing all, (attended them).” (Wisdom of Solomon 16:11a,12b)

(Solomon said: “The blameless male) conquered the gall, not (with) a stability of the body, not (with) the activity of weapons however/but (with) a saying he arranged the chastiser under oaths of fathers and having reminded of covenants.” (Wisdom of Solomon 18:22)

God aroused the holy spirit of a very little young boy in which (was the) name Daniel. (Susanna v 45b, Theod)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciple:) "Do you think that I am not able call to the side of My Father, and He here (א*) will just now cause to stand by the side of Me more than twelve legions of messengers?" (Matt 26:53)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Having gone * (א,* א, A) be/make disciples (of) all the nations, baptizing them/'the disciples' into the name of the Father and the Son and the Holy Spirit.” (Matt 28:19; BG Ask-comment: Walter Bauer says in his Greek-English lexicon - p 485 - that the Greek word for "be or become a disciple" - as a transitive verb has the meaning of "make a disciple". Perhaps no translator has another meaning. But I am not sure that this is the johannine view. To be disciples in a company of all nations can cause the crowd of disciples to increase. Cf. John 17:21-23.)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “When they – according to the circumstances – may lead you giving (you) to the side of, do not care beforehand (about) what you may talk, however/but which/what – if according to the circumstances – may be given you in that hour, talk this. For you are not the ones talking, however/but the Holy Spirit.” (Mark 13:11)

It became/’came about’ after these sayings, ‘as if ‘/about eight days, on Jesus' having taken Peter and John and James to the side of, (that) He ascended into/to the mountain to pray. (Luke 9:28)

Having turned the Lord saw/’fixed His eyes’ in Peter. And Peter reminded the word of the Lord, as He had spoken to him that/: “Before a rooster ‘raise its voice’/crows today, you will deny away me three times.” (Luke 22:61)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "I dispatch away the promise of My Father against you. But you, sit down in the city till (the time in) which you may be set/clothed in ability out of (the) height." (Luke 24:49)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

When (Jesus) so was raised out of dead (bodies), His disciples remembered that He (continually/repeatedly) had said this; and they believed (in) the writing and (in) the saying which Jesus had spoken. (John 2:22)

(Jesus said to the Jews:) "I have come (and come) in the name of My Father.” (John 5:43a)

(Jesus said to the Jews:) "It is (and) has been (and is) written in the prophets: 'And all will be taught of/by God.'" (John 6:45a)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “From just now I say/speak to you before it becomes/’comes about’, in order that when it – according to the circumstances – may become, you may believe, that I am.” (John 13:19)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "I will ask the Father, and He will give you Another, One being called to the side of (you), in order that It may be in company with you into the (coming) age, the Spirit of the truth, which the adornment/’adorned world’ is not able to take, because it does not look at It, nor it has knowledge. You have knowledge of It, because It stays by the side of you and It will be in you." (John 14:16-17)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 - about 1500

The formula (”these things I have talked and talk with you”) come back six times in the continuation of the last discourse: John 15:11; 16:1,4,6,25,33. (René Kieffer "Johannesevangeliet" p 345; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

The Paraclete will realise all Jesus' sayings to the disciples, he will interpret them in their situation and thus give rise to new insights and experiences. In principle this novelty is not new, since the Paraclete in all his 'recalling' activity is bound by what Jesus had previously told the disciples. Christ alone is the Revealer, with the definite article, while the Paraclete is the Teacher and Interpreter. (Birger Olsson "Structure and Meaning in the Fourth Gospel" p 269)

In John the Paraclete (the Holy Spirit) reminds the believer not of anything within himself but of the spoken, though not fully understood, words of Jesus. There is no independent revelation through the Paraclete, but only an application of the revelation in Jesus. (C.K. Barrett "The Gospel according to St John" p 467)


about 1500 and time before

The economy of harmony is led back to one God; for God is One. It is the Father who commands, and the Son who obeys, and the Holy Spirit who gives understanding: the Father who is above all, and the Son who is through all, and the Holy Spirit who is in all. ... The Father willed, the Son did, the Spirit manifested. The whole Scriptures, then, proclaim this truth. (Hippolytus, The Ante-Nicene Fathers V:228)

On the day called Sunday, all who live in cities or in the country gather together to one place, and the memoirs of the apostles or the writing or the prophets are read, as long as time permits. (Justin Martyr, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol I, p 186)

The apostles, like a rich man (depositing his money) in a bank, lodged in the hands (of the Church) most copiously all things pertaining to the truth. ... These are the voices of the apostles; these are voices of the disciples of the Lord, the truly perfect, who, after the assumption of the Lord, were perfected by the Spirit. ... For at that time and place there was neither Valentinus, nor Marcion, nor the rest of these subverters (of the truth), and their adherents. (Irenaeus, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol I, p 416,431)

The offspring (of the Father) and similitude (of the Son) do minister to Him in every respect; that is, the Son and the Holy Spirit, the Word and Wisdom, whom all the angels serve, and to whom they are subject. ... I have also largely demonstrated, that the Word, namely the Son, was always with the Father; and that Wisdom also, which is the Spirit, was present with Him, anterior to all creation. ... There is one God, who by the Word and Wisdom created and arranged all things. (Irenaeus, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol I, p 470,488)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: G.A. Danell, P. Fjellstedt, S. Erlandsson, David Hedegård, Hilma Larsson, Martin Luther, Howard Marshall, Vilhelm Moberg, Fredrik Nielsen, Efraim Palmqvist, Gösta Sandberg, P. Waldenström.


My own comments and speculations:

Kieffer observes that the formula ”these things I have talked and talk with you” comes back six times in the last discourse (see Exegetes, evangelists and others). Because the numbers six (= the imperfect) and seven (= the perfect) belong to the numbers which have a special theological meaning in John, it should be tested, if this is true also here. The sixth time the formula occurs is in John 16:25, where Jesus says that the figures will be replaced by plain speech. The seventh time in John 16:33 Jesus says that He has overcome the adornment/’adorned world’. So the usual theological meaning of the numbers six and seven seems to be true also here. Furthermore notice how the words concerning Jesus' peace to the disciples occur both in a beginning (John 14:27) and in the end (John 16:33). Compare the words of the Lord to His people in Is 46:10: ”I bring formerly/beforehand up a message (about) the last things before they become.”

Concerning “the One being called to the side of (you)”, see also John 14:16.


Paul said to the believers in Corinth: "We have taken not the spirit of the adornment/’adorned world’ however/but the Spirit, the One (being) out of God, in order that we may know the things given us graciously by God, things which we and/also talk, not in/with sayings taught of human wisdom, however/but in/with ones taught of a spirit, ‘judging together with’/comparing spiritual things spiritually." (1 Cor 2:12-13)

You have ointment from the Holy One, and 'you know all ones'/'all of you have knowledge'. (1 John 2:20)

And you, the ointment, which you have taken from Him, it stays in you, and you have not need, in order that anyone may teach you. However, as His Spirit (א*) teaches you on account of all things and is true and is not a lie, and entirely as It has taught you, you stay in Him. (1 John 2:27)


Greek words:

hypomimnêskô (remind) 1 Kings 4:3; Wisdom of Solomon 12:2; 18:22; Luke 22:61; John 14:26 – (4 Macc 18:14); 2 Tim 2:14; Tit 3:1; 2 Pet 1:12; 3 John v 5; Jude v 5.


Additional studies:

Ps 25:9; 78:11; Matt 7:28;10:19-20; 11:1; 13:11,53; 19:1; Mark 13:6; Luke 12:11-12; 24:8,49; John 1:33; 2:17; 12:16; 14:13; 15:11,26; 16:1,6-7,13,25,33; Acts 1:4; 2:33; 1 Cor 2:10; Gal 4:6; 2 Pet 1:13; 3:1; 2 John 9; Rev 2:24; 13:12.


James A. Draper "The sociological function of the Spirit/Paraclete in the farewell discourses in the Fourth Gospel"; Neotestamentica 26.1 (1992): 13-30.

L. Floor "The Lord and the Holy Spirit in the fourth Gospel"; Neotestamentica 2:1 (1968): 122-130.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-05-03; 2011-12-21; 2014-08-19)

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14:27 Peace I ‘let ... be’/leave to you. My peace I give to you. Not entirely as the adornment/’adorned world’ gives, I give to you. Let not your heart be troubled, but/and let it not be cowardly.

Word for word (23 words in the Greek text): Peace (i/I)-let-be (to)-you, peace the my (i/I)-give (to)-you. not entirely-as the adornment gives i/I give you. not let-be-troubled your the heart but/and-not let-(it)-be-cowardly.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The Lord said to Israel:) "War shall not come through, through your earth/land, and I will give peace in your earth/land, and you shall fall asleep and it/there shall not be 'the one'/any to you to fear out/much. And I will perish evil little wild animals out of your earth/land" (Lev 26:6b, Greek OT)

(Moses said to Israel:) "Behold, by the side of you the Lord your God has given (and gives) the earth/land before your face. Having ascending you will inherit (it) as a turning/’manner of living’, the Lord God of your fathers has spoken. Do not fear but/and you may not be cowardly." (Deut 1:21, Greek OT)

The Lord spoke to (Gideon): “Peace to you, do not fear (and) you may not die.” (Judges 6:23, Greek OT, A)

"In this (new temple) I shall give peace," says the Lord All-powerful, "and/namely peace of soul." (Haggai 2:9a or 2:10a, Greek OT)

(The foreign king said: “I have sought) to rejuvenate/’rise anew’ the peace, longed for to all the men.” (Esther 3:13bb/B2b, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said to the Lord:) “Leaders ‘pursued entirely’/hunted me as (if it was) a benefit, and my heart was cowardly from/’owing to’ Your sayings.” (Ps 119:161, Greek OT)

Judas spoke (with) the males (being) in company with him: ”Do not fear the multitude (of the enemies) and you may not be cowardly (before) their storming. Remember our fathers as they were saved in a red sea, when Pharaoh pursued them in/with ability/power.” (1 Macc 4:8-9)

(Judas) called the ones (being) together with him to the side of ... to wait for the conquest, which will be/come to them from the side of the All-powerful. (2 Macc 15:8)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “Woe, cowardly hearts and hands having stood by the side of and a misser (of the mark of God) stepping against, against two paths.” (Sir 2:12)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “A heart having set/stood (and setting/standing) fast throughout upon/at a notion of a counsel will not be cowardly in a seasonable/critical time.” (Sir 22:16b)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) ”Happy (are) the peacemakers, because they shall be called sons of God.” (Matt 5:9)

(Jesus said:) "Come here towards Me, all being bothered and being (and having been) burdened, and I will bring you to rest." (Matt 11:28)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Have salt in yourselves and live in peace in/with one another.” (Mark 9:50b)

(A messenger together with a multitude of the heavenly host said:) “Glory to God in highest things/heavens and upon earth peace 'in men of satisfication'/'among men taking pleasure in good things'.” (Luke 2:14)

(Jesus said to the woman who had been healed from her flow of blood:) “Daughter, your faith has saved (and saves) you. Go into peace!” (Luke 8:48b)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "It will be from the now, (that) five in one house having been (and being) divided asunder, three on/'for the sake of' two and two on/'for the sake of' three, they will be divided asunder, a father on/’for the sake of’ a son and a son on/’for the sake of’ a father." (Luke 12:52-53a)

(One king) asks (the other king) towards/’in regard to’ (א*) peace. (Luke 14:32b)

(Jesus said to a disgraced Jerosolyma/Jerusalem:) “If you had gained knowledge of ... the things towards/’in regard to’ peace, but now it was hidden from your eyes.” (Luke 19:42b)

(Jesus said to the eleven and the other disciples:) “Peace to you.” Having feared (א,* א) and becoming frightened they thought ‘to look’/’that they looked’ at a spirit. And/but (Jesus) spoke to them: “What/why are and have you been troubled and because of what do ‘countings throughout’/considerations ascend in your hearts (א,* א, A)?”(Luke 24:36b-38)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

It is written: "Fear not, daughter of Zion, your King is coming." (John 12:14b-15a)

(Jesus said to the disciples:) “Let not your heart be troubled. Believe into God, and believe into Me.” (John 14:1)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

In the Bible "peace" is given a wider and deeper meaning than in other Greek writings. For the Greeks (as for us) peace was essentially negative, the absence of war. But for the Hebrews it meant positive blessing, especially a right relationship with God. This is to be seen in the Old Testament, and it is carried over into the New. The word here has its fullest content. (Leon Morris "The Gospel according to John" p 584)

The (Jewish) tradition states that peace is so important that a person is allowed to make up a story to keep it, just as the brothers (of Joseph) made up their father's wish to keep peace between Joseph and themselves (cf. Gen 50:16-17). (Williams “Genesis” p 197; Genesis Rabbah 100.8)

I want to tell you, that you have thousands of friends and readers in Sweden, who have the greatest admiration for the moral courage that you have shown in different occasions. This is a rare thing to find in authors of all countries. Personally I esteem you most of all writers now alive in the world, as I have publicly expressed. . . . . . . As narrator you are equal to Tolstoj. (Vilhelm Moberg "Du tror väl att jag är död" - Vilhelm Mobergs brev 1950-1973" p 343,345; letters to Aleksandr Solzjenitsyn from Grisslehamn, Sweden 1971-09-17 and from Stockholm 1972-02-24)

(The johannine peace) has of course nothing in common with the peace the world can provide, neither what they in that time called pax romana, the Roman peace. (René Kieffer "Johannesevangeliet" p 361; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Fortune favours the brave. (Im. Björkhagen "Engelsk läsebok för mellanstadiet" s 172; Proverbs)

Do you listened to the radio last evening? I became so touched by Hitler's peace offer about peace for 25 years. To be sure, it is possible that he only thinks of the advantage of Germany. That the Locarnopact would get notice, this, as we know, one knew before the speech, and it was of course very, very possible, that the notice would be followed by war. . . . But now the notice was followed by this remarkable offer of peace for 25 years and of Germany's re-entry in the League of Nations. . . . But the advantage would not only lie on the side of Germany. We would get the feeling that Europe was a unity, an always quarrelling unity, it is true, but nevertheless something which belonged together and where a firm culture prevailed, higher than with other peoples. So we had it before the war and so it would become again. Oh, what a bliss! . . . It prevailed a strong joy in my soul. I am so old, and I need peace. This I always have wished. And I concluded by thanking God for this little ray of hope, and I also prayed him for something else. I asked him, that he would let it prevail good, safe peace between you and me. . . . Let it become a Locarno between us, which cannot be noticed. You will see, that nothing can give your heart such a peace as this. (Selma Lagerlöf "Brev 2 - 1903-1940" p 332-333; letter 1936-03-08 to Ida Bäckmann; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

In the joy I feel it has . . . mixed a drop of wormwood, in the thing that I have got a new reminder of my own miserable cowardice. I am not always coward, I am not afraid of thunder, not to travel on whatever roads, I dare to appear and speak before whatever audience, but there are things, which my nerves do not stand. I shake with fear in the whole body, when I see a viper, I calmly go into a usual doctor to be operated, but I tremble in the waiting-room of a dentist, and I do not dare to enter into what can lead to newspaper polemics. I cannot remember, that I ever has defend myself for criticism and neitherfor untruths having been spread about me in the press. It has not depended on cleverness and patience as of the thing that I am coward. It is pitiful to say it, but to enter into a newspaper polemics, this is something I do not stand. It is as to play with a viper. (Selma Lagerlöf "Brev 2 - 1903-1940" p 271-272; letter 1930-10-28 to Ida Bäckmann; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

However, I can surely not omit saying some words about peace. The thing which most interests myself is of course the phenomenon (president) Wilson. You understand, it is something special with this peace and probably it has caught your eye. It is that peace is so malicious. All articles are worded so that the disdain, so to say, shines out of the most insignificant sentence. Did not now Wilson know this? Could not he, who came to conclude peace and concord, have been able to remove all these pin-pricks? And on the whole how does he feel? I do not want to disallow the merits of the man. Probably he has done a great deal to mitigate. Does he understand what fiasco they have let him suffer? I am very curious. He seems me in this hour more tragic than someone of the vanquished. Is he great? Is he a nobody, one who they lead where they want? Explain him for me. (Selma Lagerlöf "Du lär mig att bli fri - Selma Lageröf skriver till Sophie Elkan" p 467; letter 1919-06-27; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

In Sobieski's shield Peter Secchi found a black hole with geometrical arrangements. "They are mostly arranged in spiral curves, in which you can count as many as ten or twelve stars of the 9th and 10th size, which follow each other in a curved line, like pearls on a string. Sometimes it is formed rays which seem to diverge from a common focus, and, what is extraordinarily is, that you, either in the middle of the rays or at the beginning of the curve, find a star of red colour, which seems to lead the train. It is impossible to believe the thing that such an arrangement can be a chance." Why do you believe it, then? Coward men, and vile, who are ashamed of God! (August Strindberg "En blå bok II" p 458; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

At last (Ingmar) folded his hands and prayed to God. "Now I pray you, God, that you let me follow your ways", he said. "I do not want to resist you, if you need the people from my parish out here (in Jerusalem)." Scarcely this was said, before Ingmar felt such a strange peace within himself. But at the same time all will within him fell quite away, and Ingmar began to act after a will, which was not his own, but of somebody else. He perceived this so obviously, as if anyone had taken his hand and led him. (Selma Lagerlöf "Jerusalem II" p 410; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Exegetes, evangelists and others: Dagson drove the men in front of him in this way, through fire and smoke and despair. Fire they had in front of themselves, fire behind themselves and fire on all sides. They saw nothing else than that they had to perish. But through all this terror he brought them up to a green place in the wood, where everything was calmness and coolness and safety. In the middle of the flowering woodland meadow Jesus sat, he stretched out his arms over the fleeing and hurried men, and they lay down at his feet, and all danger was gone, and there was not more defeat or pursuit. Dagson spoke as he himself felt it. If he only was allowed to lie down at Jesus' feet, he experienced peace and calmness and feared none of all dangers of life. (Selma Lagerlöf "Jerusalem I" p 106; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

What would you think as the greatest adversity? Answer: To lack peace of mind and a clear conscience. (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs självbekännelse" p 205; year 1899; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Has just read the book of Jonah; wonder if I not am a Jonah resisting the calling, by laziness, by cowardice. The Eternal One says to Jonah: Enter Nineveh saying that they will die! But Jonah does not so, but runs away with a ship. So he becomes heaved into sea, is saved and enters fleeting into Nineveh prophesying shortly: Repent, for you will die! - That's all! And so he makes off sitting down in the sunshine under the gourd. . . . Tired the sun strikes my crown, then the gourds and the humble abode have disappeared. (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev XI maj 1895-nov 1896" p 205; letter 1896-06-05 to Torsten Hedlund; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

I believe in dreams, for my head thinks most keen when I sleep. My struggle against the upper classes threatens me with ruin. . . . Albert Bonnier is so pursued that he does not dare to publish my works. And every publisher coming under suspicions of doing it, hurries up to clear himself of the accusation! (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev IV 1884" p 406; letter 1884-12-24 to Jonas Lie; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Has not (my wife) suffered enough for my sake, when she has had to stop her career for which she had given so much! Now, you know, a reconciliation between me and society seems possible! - Must I tear open the wounds again? - Not be able to come home to my country this summer without being received with insulting words in railway compartments, by steamers and in public places! And my children now are so grown-up that they understand what people say! It is coward, yes, but it is beyond my powers, and I am right to have calm after such storms! (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev IV 1884" p 103; letter 1884-04-07 to Karl Otto Bonnier; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

I did not said anything more to uncle (Oriels) and Miss S. but accompanied (my cousin) Elin. And this was very coward by me. For I should have confessed my faith in God and not sneaked away. . . . I would have witnessed as the old Christian martyrs. Yes, this I should have done. After all I felt so terribly simple, when I entered the nursery. . . . I was afraid to read Our Father, because I had been so terribly coward. I wonder if God ever will forgive me or if he will punish me with many hard adversities. . . . (Some weeks later.) Uppsala cathedral is very magnificent. . . . Think, I who had gone and waited that God would punish me, because I had not confessed my faith in him on Easter Eve! As if God would be so petty! No, that feeling disappeared in the same moment I entered the cathedral. Then I understood, that all I before had thought about God, it was only childess and silly. (Selma Lagerlöf "Dagbok för Selma Ottilia Lovisa Lagerlöf" s 170-173,212-214; the night between Easter Eve and Easter Sunday 1873 and Saturday 1873-05-10; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

About 1870 Swedish literature had become a last homoeopathic thinning of academic, romantic remnants. A coward generation only writing, with one eye on the Academy, with the other on promotion, did not dare to touch upon inflammable things: "The art to write about nothing" then was developed very highly. (August Strindberg "Georg Brandes 70 år" p 197; Illustrert Tidende nr 19/1912)

What was the letters (to the lady-friend) about? About all. About Jesus, about the struggle against sin, about life, death, love, friendship, doubt. . . . There was a time when my intention was to become a priest, actually a good intention. But what was my motive for this? Was it to serve my saviour and work for him, or only by love to him? No, I was coward and wanted to do my burden and his cross light and escape the great temptations I met everywhere. I feared the men. See there the motives. (August Strindberg "Tjänstekvinnans son" p 138-144; the sixties of the nineteenth century; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

There was storm out there in the New Year's night, there was storm inwardly. She felt all the pains of life and death break within her. "Agony!" she sighed. "Agony!" But agony yielded and peace came, and slowly she whispered: "Christ's love - best love - God's peace - the eternal light!" . . . Next day it was sorrow in the country of Sweden, sorrow in wide parts of the earth. Fredrika Bremer was dead (1865). (Selma Lagerlöf "Vägen mellan himmel och jord" p 81-82; out of "Osynliga länkar")

"Boy, say me, are you in the habit of lying?" The boy was silent. "Answer!" the county governor said in louder voice; "are you in the habit of lying?" "No." "Have you never lied?" "Yes." "Many times?" "Fairly, it is perhaps many times summed up, but mostly I speak the truth." . . . (The boy has bought a paper out of which the governor exhorts him to read:) "I remember the nice time, I remember it as it was yesterday, when innocence and peace followed my footsteps" . . . (The governor goes on:) "You have acknowledged, that you occasionally lie. Why do you lie? Do you think, that it is right or amusing?" "Not at all." "Then, I suppose, it is to escape chastisement, when you have done something, which was not right?" "Yes." "You have perhaps not considered, that the one doing so acts cowardly. You are consequently a cowardly boy." "No", the boy answered, red of indignation and shame, "I am not cowardly. I have never fled out of a fight between boys. I rather take a thrashing than I flee. I do not flee for the superior force." "But you are cowardly before your superiors. Consequently still an afraid boy. Morally afraid. This is just the worst fear. An afraid boy is not worthy to bear the name Swede. You still want to be that name worthy, I suppose?" "Yes." "My friend", the old gentleman said, " . . . I want to heart you, that God demands truthfulness and that your country needs truth-loving, courageous men. They are needed in the council of the king, in the national assembly, in the rank of the soldiers, in the government offices, in the pulpit, in dealings and at the plough. Whatever you become in course of time, the native country needs in you a truthful and fearless man. . . . You are of course now in the nice time, which you in older days certainly will remember as if they were yesterday. Every child gets to companions the good spirits Innocence and Peace. You have them here (the governor pointed with the cane, as if he with bodily eyes had beheld them in the nearness), be careful that they do not abandon you." (Viktor Rydberg "Pojkarne" p 125-128; Jönköping year 1839; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Once (Benoni) had deeply distressed (his mother). It was when she caught an untruth on his lips. This memory was sadly. "Only the cowardly lies", she had reproaching said to him. He leaned to the grave and whispered down: "I promise you, mother, that I never shall be cowardly, never lie." (Viktor Rydberg "Benoni Strand" p 166; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

When others are wronged, and we do not take their part, but hold our peace, this is cowardice. (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers XI:290)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Ingegerd Ahlin, Eskil Albertsson, Svetlana Aleksijevitj, Martin Allwood, Stefan Andhé, Dan Andersson, Johann Arndt, Natalja Arsenjevna Roslova, Margit Assarsson, Augustinus, Bo Bergman, Magnus Bergman, Elisabeth Beskow, Carl Boberg, Torsten Bohlin, Nils Bolander, Atle Burman, Donald A. Carson, Anna-Maria Claesson, Chas. E. Cowman, Stig Dagerman, Annica Dahlström, Sven Danell, Runar Eldebo, T.S. Eliot, Hilding Fagerberg, Charles Finney, Emilia Fogelklou, Bo Frid, Anton Fridrichsen, Galileo Galilei, Erik Gustaf Geijer, Röl Gording, Johannes Gossner, Hillis Grane, Graham Greene, Carl Grimberg, Agne Hamrin, Peter Halldorf, Krister Hanell, Ola Hansson, Dick Harrison, Hermann Hartfeld, John Hedlund, Heinrich Heine, Tommy Hellsten, Alf Henrikson, Olof Henricson, Fride Hylander, Bengt Jändel, Gunlög Järhult, Erik Axel Karlfeldt, Søren Kierkegaard, Lars Levi Laestadius, Gustaf Larsson, Hans Larsson, Li Po, Sven Lidman, Ingeborg Lindqvist, Lu Xun, J.E. Lundahl, Per Lundberg, Martin Luther, Emil Malm, Vilhelm Moberg, D.L. Moody, Stephen Neill, Lydia och Josefa Ngoza, Bertil Nilsson, Hedvig Charlotta Nordenflycht, Martin P:n Nilsson, Efraim Palmqvist, Lewi Pethrus, Niklas Piensoho, Carl Olof Rosenius, Joanne Kathleen Rowling, K.A. Rundbäck, Klaas Runia, Allan Rydén, Sven Edvin Salje, Dag Sandahl, Lina Sandell, Gunnar E. Sandgren, Henrik Schartau, M. Basilea Schlink, Bo Setterlind, John Sjögren, Olof Sjöstrand, Östen Sjöstrand, E. Aug. Skogsbergh, C. Skovgaard-Petersen, Eva Spångberg, Ray C. Stedman, Jesper Svartvik, Nathan Söderblom, Evert Taube, Tomas a Kempis, Johan Olof Wallin, Kallistos Ware, Floyd Whaley, Fredrik Wislöff, Birgitta Yavari, Agne Ydrefelt, Göran Åberg.


My own comments and speculations:

The Greek verb for "be coward(ly)" only occurs here in the NT. In the OT we find it the first time in Deut 1:21 in connection with the entering of the promised land.

Concerning “peace”, compare the connection with the name “Solomon”, a name meaning “peaceful/peaceable”.


Paul said to the believers: "The peace of God having/’holding fast’ over every/all understanding will guard your hearts and your notions in Christ Jesus. ... Let the peace of Christ award a prize of victory in your hearts. ... May the Lord of the peace Himself give you the peace through every/everything in every place." (Phil 4:7; Col 3:15; 2 Thess 3:16a)

Paul said to Timothy: "God has not given us a spirit of cowardice." (2 Tim 1:7a)


Greek words:

deiliaô (be cowardly) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) 1 Macc 4:8; Sir 22:16; John 14:27 – Sir 34:14(16).

eirênê (peace) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Esther 3:13b(B2); Luke 2:14; 8:48; 14:32; 19:42; John 14:27 – Esther 8:12h(E8); Tobit 7:11-12(12-13); 10:12; 12:17; 14:1(2); Judith 7:15; 8:35; 1 Macc 5:54; 6:58; 7:13,28,35; 8:20,22; 9:70; 10:4; 11:51; 12:4,52; 13:37,40; 14:11; 16:10; 2 Macc 1:1,4; 3:1; 4:6; 12:12; 14:10; Wisdom of Solomon 3:3; Sir 1:18; 13:18; 38:8; 41:14; 44:14; 47:13,16; 50:23; Baruch 3:13-14; 4:20; 5:4; Epistle of Jeremiah v 2. Matt 10:12(א*); Matt 10:13,34; Mark 5:34; Luke 1:79; 2:29; 7:50; 10:5-6; 11:21; 12:51; 19:38; 24:36; John 16:33; 20:19,21,26; Acts 7:26; 9:31; 10:36; 12:20; 15:33; 16:36; 24:2(3). Rom 1:7; 2:10; 3:17; 5:1; 8:6; 14:17,19; 15:13,33; 16:20; 1 Cor 1:3; 7:15; 14:33; 16:11; 2 Cor 1:2; 13:11; Gal 1:3; 5:22; 6:16, Eph 1:2; 2:14-15,17; 4:3; 6:15,23; Phil 1:2; 4:7,9; Col 1:2; 3:15; 1 Thess 1:1; 5:3,23; 2 Thess 1:2; 3:16; 1 Tim 1:2; 2 Tim 1:2; 2:22; Tit 1:4, Philemon v 3; Heb 7:2; 11:31; 12:14; 13:20; Jas 2:16; 3:18; 1 Pet 1:2; 3:11; 5:14; 2 Pet 1:2; 3:14; 2 John v 3; 3 John v 14(15); Jude v 2; Rev 1:4; 6:4.


Additional studies:

Num 6:26; 1 Sam 1:17; 20:42; 29:7; Ps 29:11; 85:9(10); Is 9:6-7; 52:7; 54:13; 57:19; Ezek 37:26; Dan 10:19; Mark 4:39-40; John 21:15; Col 1:20; Rev 21:8.


Paul R. House "The God Who Gives Rest in the Land: Joshua"; Southern Baptist Journal of Theology 2.3 (Fall 1998): 12-33.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-05-03; 2011-12-23; 2014-08-24; 2014-12-04)

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14:28 You heard that I spoke to you: “I withdraw, and I come towards you.” If you (continually) welcomed Me, you had – according to the circumstances – rejoiced, that I go towards the Father, because My (א*) Father is greater than Me/I.

Word for word (27 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus prima manus) (you)-heard that i/I spoke (to)-you: (i/I)-withdraw an (i/I)-come towards you. if (you)-(continually)-welcomed me (you)-rejoiced according-to-the-circumstances that (i/I)-go towards the father, because the father my greater (than)-me is.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The Lord said to Israel:) "Honour your father and the mother." (Ex 20:12a, Greek OT)

(Solomon said:) "Object of boasting of children (is) their fathers." (Prov 17:6b, Greek OT)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to the twelve:) “Indeed, the Son of the Man withdraws entirely as it has been (and is) written on account of Him.” (Matt 26:24a)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "On account of that day or the hour no one knows, nor the messengers in heaven, nor the Son, ‘if not’/’but only’ the Father." (Mark 13:32)

(The son said:) “Having stood up I will go towards my father.” … (The father said to his slaves:) “Havin eaten we may be cheerful, because this my son (continually) was (a) dead (body) and/but has ‘lived up’/’returned to life’." (Luke 15:18a,23b-24a)

It became in His blessing (the disciples), (that Jesus) stood asunder/apart from them * (א*). And having prostrated themselves (in adoration) (towards) Him, they returned into Jerusalem in company with great joy. (Luke 24:51b-52)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Jesus said to the Jews:) What the Father has given (and gives) Me is greater than all (א*) And no one is able to rape out of the hand of the Father.” (John 10:29)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "If I – according to the circumstances – may go and make a place ready to you, I come again and I will take you towards Myself to the side of (Me), in order that whereat I am, you may and/also be." (John 14:3b)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "Amen, amen, I say to you, the one believing into Me, that one will and/also make/do the works which I make/do, and greater works than these he will make/do, because I go towards the Father." (John 14:12)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

That the Father is apprehended as greater only means that everything comes from him and leads back to him, both the dispatching of the Son and his glorification. (René Kieffer "Johannesevangeliet" p 362, my translation)

That we reasonably worship (Jesus Christ), having learned that He is the Son of the true God Himself, and holding Him in the second place, and the prophetic Spirit in the third, we will prove. (Justin Martyr, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol I, p 166-167)

The Father is indeed above all, and He is the Head of Christ; but the Word is through all things, and is Himself the Head of the Church; while the Spirit is in us all, and He is the living water, which the Lord grants to those who rightly believe in Him, and love Him, and who know that “there is one Father, who is above all, and through all, and in us all.” (Irenaeus, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol I, p 546)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Gerald Bray, Alasdair Heron, P. Waldenström.


Paul said to the believers in Corinth: “A head of the christ/'anointed one' (is) God.” (1 Cor 11:3b)

Paul said to the believers in Corinth: "When – according to the circumstances - all the things have been arranged under (the Son), then the Son Himself and/also will be arranged under the One having arranged all the things under Him." (1 Cor 15:28a)


Additional studies: Matt 24:36; Mark 14:21; John 5:26; 6:57; 7:33; 13:1; 14:16,18; 16:16-17,22,28; 20:17; Phil 2:6-7; Col 2:9.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-05-03; 2011-12-26; 2014-08-25)

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14:29 And now I have spoken (and speak) to you, before it becomes/’comes about’, in order that when it – according to the circumstances – may become/’come about’, you may believe.

Word for word (10 words in the Greek text): and now (i/I)-have-spoken-(and-speak) (to)-you before '(to)-become'/'(it)-becomes, in-order-that when-according-to-the-circumstances (it)-may-become (you)-may-believe.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Joseph's) father ‘honoured on’/blamed him and spoke to him: "What (is) this dream which you have dreamt? Having come shall consequently both/’ ... as well’ I and your mother and your brothers at any rate come to prostrate ourselves before you against the earth/ground." But/and his brothers were zealous/jealous (of) him, but his father kept the word throughout. (Gen 37:10b-11, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to His people:) "I am the God ... bringing up a message (about) the last/later things before they become and together/’at the same time’ it was brought to a consummation." (Is 46:9b-10a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Israel:) "I brought up a message to you (about) things 'long ago'/'of old'. Before come/'they came' against you, I made (them) audible to you, that you might not speak that/: 'My images made (it).', and that you might not speak that/: 'The carved images and the molten images enjoined me.'" (Is 48:5, Greek OT)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "False Christs and false prophets will rise ... so that and/also the chosen ones, if able/possible, will be (א,* א) led astray. Behold, I have spoken (and speak) to you beforehand." (Matt 24:24-25)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “From just now I say/speak to you before it becomes/’comes about’, in order that when it – according to the circumstances – may become, you may believe, that I am.” (John 13:19)


Peter said to the believers: "So you, welcomed, having knowledge beforehand, watch/’be on your guard’." (2 Pet 3:17a)


Additional studies: Is 41:23; 44:7-8; John 16:1,4.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-05-03; 2011-12-26; 2014-08-25)

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14:30-31 I will no longer talk many things in company with you, for the leader of the adornment/’adorned world’ comes, and in Me he has not nothing/anything. However, in order that the adornment/’adorned world’ may gain knowledge that I welcome the Father, and entirely as the Father has enjoined Me, in this way I make/do. Rise. We may lead/move from here.

Word for word: 14:30 (17 words in the Greek text) no-longer many-(things) (i/I)-will-talk in-company-with you, comes for the (of)-the (of)-adornment leader. and in me not (he)-has nothing. 14:31 (20 words in the Greek text) however in-order-that may-gain-knowledge the adornment that (i/I)-welcome the father, and entirely-as enjoined me the father, in-this-way (i/I)-make. rise, (we)-may-lead from-here.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

The Lord God enjoined Adam saying: “From every wood in the ‘place by the side of apprehension’/Paradise you may eat consumption/fruit, but from the wood of the thing to have knowledge of fine and evil, from it you shall not eat. But/and (in) which day you – according to the circumstances – may eat from it, you will die (in) death." (Gen 2:16-17, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Mose:) “Descend from here (with) quickness, for your people, whom you led out, out of the earth/land of Egypt, have acted contrary to law.” (Ex 32:7b, Greek OT)

And Solomon welcomed the Lord. (1 Kings 3:3, Greek OT)

(God said:) "You, Israel, My boy Jacob, whom I have chosen, a seed of Abraham, whom I have welcomed.” (Is 41:8, Greek OT)

(The slave-servant said:) "The education of the Lord opens My ears, but/and I did not disobey." (Is 50:5a, Greek OT)

(The slave of the Lord) had not made/done lawlessness, nor it was found deceit in his mouth. (Is 53:9b)

Tobias ... spoke to (Tobit): “Father, I shall make/do all things, as many as you have enjoined (and enjoin) me.” (Tobit 5:1, BA)

(Solomon said: “The wisdom has knowledge beforehand of) outsteps/outcomes of seasonable times and times/’spaces of time’.” (Wisdom of Solomon 8:8b)

(Azariah said:) "(Lord), may not Your mercy stand aloof from us because of ... Abraham, the one being (and having been) welcomed by You.” (The Prayer of Azariah v 12a)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Rise, we may lead/move. Behold, the one giving Me ‘to the side of’/over has drawn near (and is near).” (Matt 26:46)

Around the ninth hour Jesus cried upwards (with) a great/loud voice, saying: “Eloi, Eloi, (א,*א,B) lema sabachthani?” this is/means,”My God, My God, ‘in order that what’/why have You entirely left Me in (a place)?” (Matt 27:46)

(The disciples) were troubled. But straight/’straight off’ (Jesus) talked in company with them, and He says to them: “Be confident! I am, do not fear!” (Mark 6:50b

(Jesus said to Peter, James and John:) "Rise, we may lead. Behold, the one giving Me ‘to the side of’/over has drawn * (א,*א) near." (Mark 14:42)

(Some Pharisees said to Jesus:) “Go from here, because Herod wants to kill you.” (Luke 13:31b)

Jesus spoke towards the ones having become/come to the side of (Him), priest leaders and officers of the sanctuary and elders, (who had come) towards (א*) Him: "... ‘According to’/’day after’ day on My being in company with you in the sanctuary, you did not stretch out the hands against Me. However, this hour is Yours, and/likewise the (judicial) authority of the darkness." (Luke 22:52a,53)

(The “leadership of a hundred men” said about Jesus:) "Certainly this Man (continually) was righteous." (Luke 23:47b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

The Father welcomes the Son and has given (and gives) all things in His hand. (John 3:35)

(Jesus said to the crowd:) "Now a judgment is of/upon this adornment/’adorned world’. Now the leader of this adornment/’adorned world’ will be thrown out outside." (John 12:31)

(Jesus said to the crowd:) "I have not talked out of Myself, however/but the One having sent Me, a Father, He has given (and gives) Me a commandment, what I may speak and what I may talk." (John 12:49)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

This is the one place in the New Testament in which Jesus' love for the Father is explicitly mentioned. There are, of course, many passages in which the love of the Father for the Son is referred to, and the love of the Son is implied everywhere. But this is the one place where it comes to expression. (Leon Morris "The Gospel according to John" p 586)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Svetlana Aleksijevitj, Elisabeth Beskow, Gordon Bridger, E.J. Ekman, P. Fjellstedt, Per Anders Fogelström, Johannes Gossner, Axel Gustafsson, Dag Hammarskjöld, Lars Levi Laestadius, Martin Luther, Henrik Schartau, Knut Svensson, Nathan Söderblom, P. Waldenström.


My own comments and speculations:

As the father Abraham was welcomed by God (Is 41:8 Greek OT), so the Father in heaven is welcomed by Him who is God (cf. John 1:1; 20:28). And as the Lord was welcomed by the son Solomon (1 Kings 3:3), so He is welcomed by the Son Jesus, He who is the Lord (cf. John 20:28). The Father welcomes the Son (John 3:35) and the Son welcomes the Father. The heavenly welcome is mutual, and the Christians are called to reveal this glory between themselves.

The first time the verb “entellô” (enjoin) occurs in the OT is in Gen 2:16 in connection with the text about the tree of knowledge “to death”. The first time “entellô” occurs in the Gospel of John (Sinaiticus) is here in 14:31, immediately before the text about the vine, the new tree of knowledge (Greek OT: wood of the thing to know/'have knowledge of') “to life”. And in the johannine books “entellô” only occurs in connection with this text.

Concerning “the leader of this adornment/’adorned world’”, see also John 12:31. Concerning “from here”, see My own comments and speculations to John 19:18.


(We have a priest leader) having been (and being) tried ‘according to’/concerning all things, ‘according to’/concerning homogeneity (yet) separated from miss (of the mark of God). (Heb 4:15b)

You are out of God, little children, and you have conquered (and conquer) them, because the One in you is greater than the one in the adornment/’adorned world’. (1 John 4:4)

We know that 'every the'/everyone having been (and being) begotten out of God does not miss (His mark), however/but that the one having been begotten out of God keeps/’takes care of’ hinmself (א,* א), and the evil one does not touch him. (1 John 5:18)


Greek words: entellô,-omai (enjoin; literally “stick in”) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Tobit 5:1; John 14:31 – Esther 2:15,20; 8:9; Tobit 14:3; 1 Macc 1:51; 3:28,34; 4:27; 5:19,42; 7:9,26; 9:55; 12:17,23; 15:39; 2 Macc 2:2; 11:20; Sir 15:20; 17:14; 24:8,23; 45:3; 48:22; Baruch 2:9,28; The Prayer of Azariah v 7; Matt 4:6; 15:4(א*); Matt 17:9; 19:7; 28:20; Mark 10:3; 13:34; Luke 4:10; John (8:5); 15:14,17; Acts 1:2; 13:47; Heb 9:20; 11:22.


Additional studies: Ps 22:1(2); Mark 15:34; John 4:34; 6:70; 8:23,46,55;10:18; 13:2,27; 16:11; 18:1,36; 2 Cor 5:21; Eph 6:12; Rev 11:15.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-05-03; 2011-12-28; 2014-08-26)

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