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Chapter 13
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13:1 But before the Feast of the ‘paschal lamb’/Passover knowing that His hour had come in order that He might step over out of this adornment/’adorned world’ towards the Father, having welcomed the own, the ones in the adornment/’adorned world’, Jesus welcomed them into/’up to’ (the) end.

Word for word (34 words in the Greek text): Before but the feast (of)-the (of)-paschal-lamb 'knowing-(and-having-known)'/knowing the Jesus that came the hour his in-order-that (he)-might-step-over out-of the adornment this towards the father, having-welcomed the own the-(ones) in the adornment into (an)-end (he)-welcomed them.


The Gospel of John and the Book of Revelation

: The one who in the Gospel of John "welcomed into an end" (John 13:1) is in the Revelation first named "(a beginning) and an end" (Rev 1:8a) and at last "(the Beginning and) the End" (Rev 22:13). Jesus is the one who "must increase" (John 3:30).


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Moses said to Israel:) "The Lord took/chose beforehand your fathers to welcome them and chose their see, you to the side of all the nations ‘according to’/’as it is’ this day." (Deut 10:15, Greek OT)

Moses talked into the ears of every/'the whole' (assembly) of called out of Israel the words of this lay till into/’up to’ (the) end. (Deut 31:30, Greek OT)

(Eliphaz said: “The man whom God convicts) may come in the grave just as bread-stuff being harvested in a seasonable hour ‘according to’/during a seasonable time. (Job 5:26, Greek OT)

(The Psalmist said:) “God, ‘in order that what’/why will You thrust/push away into/’up to’ (the) end?” (Ps 74:1a, Greek OT)

The Lord was beheld to (Israel) from afar (and He said): “I have welcomed you to an agelong welcoming.” (Jer 31:3a, Greek OT)

(The Lord) will not entirely leave us in (a place) into/’up to’ (the) end. (Judith 7:30b)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “Remember that death will not spend time.” (Sir 14.12a)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus) says to (His disciples:) “For because of your ‘a few’/little faith, amen I say to you: ‘If – according to the circumstances – you may have faith as a scarlet kernel of mustard, you will speak to this mountain: ‘Step ‘in from’/’from here’ over there’, and it will step over, and nothing will be unable to you.” (Matt 17:20)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “The welcome of the many will ‘be breathed’/cease. But the one having stayed behind 'into an'/’up to the’ end, this one will be saved.” (Matt 24:12b-13)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "You know that after two days it becomes the ‘paschal lamb’/Passover, and the Son of the Man will be given ‘to the side of’/over into the thing to be crucified." (Matt 26:2)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "The one having stayed behind 'into an'/’up to the’ end, this one will be saved." (Mark 13:13b)

(Jesus said to Peter and James and John:) "The hour has come. Behold, the Son of the Man is given ‘to the side of’/over into the hands of the missers (of the mark of God)." (Mark 14:41b)

The parents (of Jesus) (continually/repeatedly) went 'according to'/every year into/to Jerusalem (at) the Feast of the ‘paschal lamb’/Passover. (Luke 2:41)

When the hour became/came, (Jesus) ‘fell up’/’lay back’ and the apostles together with Him. (Luke 22:14)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

For in this way God welcomed the adornment/’adorned world’, so that He gave the Son, the only descendant, in order that 'every the'/everyone believing into Him may not perish however/but have agelong life. (John 3:16)

Jesus answers (Andrew and Philip), saying: "The hour has come (and comes), in order that the Son of the Man may be glorified." (John 12:23)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 - about 1500

Many typical elements, in contents and structure, (in John 14-17), which the readers recognize in a literary testament, we find already in Gen 47:29-49:33. The dying patriarch Jacob call to himself his son Joseph and his sons, bless them, promise that God will be with them, proclaim what happens in the coming days and tell them at last about the funeral. Deut 31-34 and in fact the whole Deuteronomy is a farewell speech. ... In the NT the farewell speech of Paul in Acts 20:17-36 is an interesting point of comparison. (Kari Syreeni "Att leva i tiden efter Jesus. Det johanneiska avskedstalet - Joh 13-17 - i hermeneutisk belysning" p 460-461; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

(In his book "Moses in the Fourth Gospel") T.F. Glasson points out that Deuteronomy is the farewell discourse of Moses, and that in these chapters (John 13-17) there are many allusions to Deuteronomy. This is another of the ways in which John sees Moses as helpful for an understanding of the significance of Jesus and what he taught. (Leon Morris "The Gospel according to John" p 543)

It is Easter, You see, the weeks of suffering, the sabbath of the mountain of the block of the Evil thing. Light struggles against darkness at Vernal equinox and light is likely to win, towards midsummer. . . . After Easter follows Whitsuntide! Let us hope! (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev XIII sept 1898-dec 1900" p 265-266; letter 1900-04-10 to Nils Andersson; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


about 1500 and time before

These phrases occur frequently in Jewish writings for dying: ‘the hour has come’’to depart out of this world.’ Thus, in Targum on Cant. i. 7, ‘when the hour had come that Moses should depart out of the world;’ Shem. R. 33, ‘what hour the time came for our father Jacob, that he should depart out of the world.’ (Alfred Edersheim "The Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah Part II" p 481)

In Christ's day the paschal meal was surrounded with a very complicated ceremonial. Before the meal proper, at which the Easter lamb was eaten, there was a little preliminary - a serving of bitter herbs and unleaved bread that recalled the want during the journey out of Egypt. Both before and after this preludial meal the cup was filled. Then the son of the family or the youngest of those present had to place the question: what did these unusual customs signify? With a prayer of thanks to God, the father of the house the told the story of the ancient days in Egypt and of the liberation from darkness into light, from bondage into freedom (Haggada). This closed with the singing of the first part of the Hallel (Vulgate, Psalms 112; 113:1-8), in which all those at table joined by answering "Alleluia" after each half verse. Only after this did the meal proper begin. The father of the house took one of the loaves of unleavened bread, broke it, pronounced over it a little blessing and passed it around. The ceremony of brotherly communion in one bread was the signal for starting the meal. Then the paschal lamb was eaten, with no ritual to hem in the eating and drinking. But after the meal was over the father of the house took the cup, newly filled with wine, and sitting upright he lifted it slightly while he spoke the grace after meal, the real table prayer. Then all drank of it. This was the third cup, called "the cup of the blessing", or "chalice of benediction". All then sang the second and larger part of the Hallel (Vulgate, Psalms 113:9 - 117:29 and 135) and, after a last blessing, drank the fourth ceremonial cup. Into this arrangement our Lord's Last Supper fits very easily. (Joseph A. Jungmann "The Mass of the Roman Rite - Its origins and development I" p 8-9; Mass in the Primitive Church)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: F.O. Carlberg, Henry Daniel-Rops, Carl Grimberg, Alf Henrikson, H. Myrbäck.


Paul said to the believing males in Ephesos: "The males, welcome the women, entirely as and/also Christ welcomed the (assembly) of called out and gave Himself ‘to the side of’/over in favour of her." (Eph 5:25)


Greek words:

telos (end) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Judith 7:30; Matt 24:13; Mark 13:13; John 13:1 – Judith 14:13; 1 Macc 11:35; 2 Macc 5:5; 6:15; 8:29; 13:16; Wisdom of Solomon 3:19; 7:18; 14:14; 16:5; 19:1; Matt 10:22; 17:25; 24:6,14; 26:58; Mark 3:26; 13:7; Luke 1:33; 18:5; 21:9; 22:37; Rom 6:21-22; 10:4; 13:7; 1 Cor 1:8; 10:11; 15:24; 2 Cor 1:13; 3:13; 11:15; Phil 3:19; 1 Thess 2:16; 1 Tim 1:5; Heb 3:6(א,*א,A),14; 6:8,11; 7:3; Jas 5:11; 1 Pet 1:9; 3:8; 4:7,17; Rev 1:8(א*); Rev 2:26; 21:6; 22:13.


Additional studies:

Deut 7:8; 23:5; 33:3; 1 Kings 10:9; Is 63:9; Matt 26:45; Mark 14:1; Luke 22:1; John 2:4,13; 7:6,30; 11:55; 13:3; 14:12,28; 16:10,28; 17:1,11-12,15; 18:4; 20:17; Rom 8:37; Gal 2:20; Eph 2:4; 5:2; 1 John 3:16; 4:10, Rev 1:5; 2:4,10,26; 3:9; 15:1,8; 17:12; 18:10,17.19.


Roberto D. Bademas "The meaning of 'telos' in Romans 10:4." Se Andews University Seminary Studies 22.3 (Autumn 1984): 351.

Steven Richard Bechtler "Christ, the Telos of the Law. The Goal of Romans 10.4."; Catholic Biblical Quarterly 56.2 (1994): 288-308.

James D.G. Dunn "The Washing of the Disciples' Feet in John 13:1-20"; Zeitschrift für die neutestamentliche Wissenschaft 61 (1970): 247-252.

William K. Grossouw "A Note on John XIII 1-3"; Novum Testamentum 8 (1966): 124-131.

Arland J. Hultgren "The Johannine Footwashing (13:1-11) as Symbol of Eschatological Hospitality"; New Testament Studies 28 (1982): 539-546.

H.A. Lombard - W.H. Oliver "A working supper in Jerusalem: John 13:1-38 introduces Jesus' 'farewell discourses'"; Neotestamentica 25.2 (1991): 357-378.

Francis J. Moloney "The Structure and Message of John 13:1-38"; Australian Biblical Review 34 (1986): 1-16.

Sandra M. Schneiders "The Foot Washing (John 13:1-20): An Experiment in Hermeneutics"; Catholic Biblical Quarterly 43 (1981): 76-92.

Fernando F. Segovia "John 13:1-20, The Footwashing in the Johannine Tradition"; Zeitschrift für die neutestamentliche Wissenschaft 73 (1982): 31-51.

J.N. Suggit "John 13-17 viewed through liturgical spectacles"; Neotestamentica 26.1 (1992): 47-58.

J.N. Suggit "John 13:1-30: The mystery of the incarnation and of the eucharist."; Neotestamentica 19.1 (1985): 64-70.

Kari Syreeni "Partial Weaning: Approaching the Psychological Enigma of John 13:1-7"; Svensk Exegetisk Årsbok 72 (2007).

T.C.G. Thornton "1 Peter, a Paschal Liturgy?"; Journal of Theological Studies 12 (1961): 14-26.

D. Francois Tolmie "The function of focalisation in John 13-17"; Neotestamentica 25.2 (1991): 273-288.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-04-23; 2011-10-31; 2014-06-28; 2014-11-24)

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13:2 And becoming a chief meal, the slanderer having already thrown/put (and throwing/putting) into the heart, in order that Judas, of Simon, Iscariot might give Him ‘to the side of’/over ...

Word for word (16 words in the Greek text): and (a)-chief-meal becoming, (of)-the slanderer already having-thrown-(and-throwing) into the heart in-order-that might-give-to-the-side-of him Judas (of)-Simon Iscariot


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Korah, Dathan, Abiram and On) and males of the sons of Israel stood up opposite Moses. (Num 16:2a, Greek OT)

(Moses said to Israel:) "Give heed to yourself, (that) it may not become a hidden word in your heart." (Deut 15:9a, Greek OT)

(Ezra said:) "Blessed (be) the Lord God ... who in this way has given in the heart of the king the thing to glorify the house of the Lord in Jerusalem." (Ezra 7:27, Greek OT)

Daniel pondered in the heart, in what way he might not be polluted in/at the chief meal of the king. (Dan 1:8a, Greek OT)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said: “The Highest One brings away a message about) the things having been (and being) taken to the side of and the things which will be and revealing/'He reveals' hidden away footsteps.” (Sir 42:19)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus) spoke to (a certain one being lying up/’down to table’ together with Him): “A certain man (continually) made a great chief meal, and he called many.” (Luke 14:16)

An adversary came into, into Judas, the one being called Iscariot. (Luke 22:3a)

Peter spoke: "Ananias, because of what has the adversary maimed (א*) your heart, 'to lie you'/'that you lie to' the Holy Spirit?" (Acts 5:3a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Jesus said to the twelve): "Out of you it/there is a slanderer.” But He (continually) said/meant Judas of Simon from Karuoth (א*), for this one, being (א,*א) one out of the twelve, was (continually) about to give Him ‘to the side of’/over. (John 6:70b-71a)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: Margit Assarsson, Hjalmar Bergman, Per Ericsson, Fredrik Nielsen, Hilding Pleijel, Allan Rydén.


My own comments and speculations:

In Ezra's time the Lord given in the hearts of His slaves to glorify His house and build up Jerusalem. Now the slanderer puts into the heart of Judas to betray his Lord and let His body - the temple of God - be destroyed (cf. John 2:19-21).

Concerning the time of the chief meal, see My own comments and speculations to John 18:28-29a.


Additional studies:

Neh 2:12; Matt 26:16,20; Mark 14:10,17; John 6:64; 13:27; 1 Cor 11:20,23; Rev 12:9.


James D.G. Dunn "The Washing of the Disciples' Feet in John 13:1-20"; Zeitschrift für die neutestamentliche Wissenschaft 61 (1970): 247-252.

William K. Grossouw "A Note on John XIII 1-3"; Novum Testamentum 8 (1966): 124-131.

B.E. (Bertil) Gärtner "Vilken karaktär hade Jesu sista måltid?"; Svensk Exegetisk Årsbok 22/23 (1957/1958): 87-97.

J.K. Howard "Passover and Eucharist in the Fourth Gospel"; Scottish Journal of Theology 20 (1967): 329 -.

Arland J. Hultgren "The Johannine Footwashing (13:1-11) as Symbol of Eschatological Hospitality"; New Testament Studies 28 (1982): 539-546.

Sandra M. Schneiders "The Foot Washing (John 13:1-20): An Experiment in Hermeneutics"; Catholic Biblical Quarterly 43 (1981): 76-92.

Fernando F. Segovia "John 13:1-20, The Footwashing in the Johannine Tradition"; Zeitschrift für die neutestamentliche Wissenschaft 73 (1982): 31-51.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-04-23; 2011-10-31; 2014-06-28)

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13:3-4a (and) knowing that the Father had given Him all things into the hands and that He had come out from God and (that) He withdraws towards God, He rises ‘out of’/from the chief meal.

Word for word: 13:3 (20 words in the Greek text) 'having-known-(and-knowing)'/knowing that all-(things) given him the father into the hands and that from god (he)-came-out and towards the god (he)-withdraws 13:4a (4 words in the Greek text) (he)-rises out-of the chief-meal.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

And the Lord listened to the voice of Israel and gave Canaan ‘to the side of’/over under its hand/power. (Num 21:3a, Greek OT)

To (one as a son of man) was given the beginning and the honour and the kingdom, and all the peoples, tribes, tongues will be slaves to Him. His (judicial) authority (is) an agelong (judicial) authority, and His kingdom will not be ruined throughout. (Dan 7:14, Greek OT, Theod)


The Latter Revelation:

Behold, a voice out of the heavens saying (about Jesus): "This One is My welcomed Son, in/with whom I have been pleased." (Matt 3:17)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Just as the ray of light comes out from upstickings/east and ‘is brought to’/gives light till settings/west, in this way the ‘being by the side of’/arrival of the Son of Man will be.” (Matt 24:27)

(Jesus said to the twelve:) “Indeed,the Son of the Man withdraws entirely as it has been (and is) written on account of Him.” (Matt 26:24a)

(Jesus said:) "All things have been given ‘to the side of’/’over to’ Me by My Father." (Luke 10:22a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

The Father welcomes the Son and has given (and gives) all things in His hand. (John 3:35)

(Jesus said to the Pharisees:) "I know from where I have come and where I withdraw. * (א,*א) You do not know from where I come and (א,*א) where I withdraw." (John 8:14b)

(Jesus said to those Jews who to begin with believed Him:) “I have come out, out of God, and I have arrived. For nor I have come (and come) from Myself, however/but that One has dispatched Me away.” (John 8:42b)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 1500 and time before

The return of Jesus to the Father replaces the entrance of the Jews to the promised land. (René Kieffer "Johannesevangeliet" p 329; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Paul said to the believers in Ephesos: "(God, the Father) arranged all things under, underneath the feet (of Jesus Christ) and He gave Him to the (assembly) of called out (as) a head over all things." (Eph 1:22)


Additional studies:

Matt 11:27; 28:18; Mark 14:21; Luke 22:14; John 7:28-29; 13:1; 16:5,10,17; 17:2; 1 Cor 15:27-28; Rev 1:16,20; 2:1.


James D.G. Dunn "The Washing of the Disciples' Feet in John 13:1-20"; Zeitschrift für die neutestamentliche Wissenschaft 61 (1970): 247-252.

William K. Grossouw "A Note on John XIII 1-3"; Novum Testamentum 8 (1966): 124-131.

Arland J. Hultgren "The Johannine Footwashing (13:1-11) as Symbol of Eschatological Hospitality"; New Testament Studies 28 (1982): 539-546.

Sandra M. Schneiders "The Foot Washing (John 13:1-20): An Experiment in Hermeneutics"; Catholic Biblical Quarterly 43 (1981): 76-92.

Fernando F. Segovia "John 13:1-20, The Footwashing in the Johannine Tradition"; Zeitschrift für die neutestamentliche Wissenschaft 73 (1982): 31-51.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-04-23; 2011-11-01; 2014-06-28)

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13:4b-5 And He puts (aside) the garments and having taken a linen cloth, He girded Himself throughout. Next He throws/pours water into the wash-basin and began to wash the feet of the disciples and to wipe off (with) the linen cloth (with) which He (continually) was (and had been) girded throughout.

Word for word: 13:4b (9 words in the Greek text) and (he)-puts-(aside) the garments and having-taken (a)-linen-cloth (he)-girded-throughout himself. 13:5 (20 words in the Greek text) next (he)-throws water into the wash-basin and began (to)-wash the feet (of)-the (of)-disciples and (to)-wipe-off (with)-the linen-cloth (with)-which (he)-(continually)-was being-(and-having-been)-girded-throughout.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

Aaron stretched so (with) the hand out the rod and hit the heap of gravel of the earth/ground, and the stinggnats became/came both in the men and in the fourfooted animals. (Ex 8:17a, Greek OT)

The linen/flax and the barley were struck, for the barley was (and had been) standing ‘by the side of’/near and the linen/flax seeding/'had been seeded'. (Ex 9:31, Greek OT)

Having been (and being) made holy (Aaron) shall be set/clothed in a linen tunic and it shall be linen around the legs upon his skin, and he shall be girded with a linen girdle and a linen (turban) shall be put round about (his head). It is holy garments, and he shall bathe ‘every his’/’his whole body (with) water and set/clothe himself in them. (Lev 16:4, Greek OT)

(Moses said to Israel: "If you may not listen to the voice of the Lord, I wish He will give) the rain (in) your earth (as) a cloud of dust." (Deut 28:24a, Greek OT)

David being/was girded around in a dress of fine linen ... and against/on David a dress of fine linen. (1 Chron 15:27, Greek OT)

(The Chaldeans had been) girded throughout (with) party-coloured (garments) against their hips. (Ezek 23:15a, A, Greek OT)

(The Lord judged the proud Tyre. He said:) "From/’owing to’ the multitude of the horses of (the king of Babylon) their cloud of dust will veil you entirely." (Ezek 26:10a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Israel:) “It will be in the going (of the priests, the Levites) into the gates of the inner court (of the temple) (that) they will set/’clothe themselves’ in linen dresses. ... They shall not gird themselves around (with) domination/might." (Ezek 44:17a,18b, Greek OT)

(Daniel said:) "I lifted my eyes, and I beheld, and behold, a (certain) man, one being (and having been) set/clothed in (clothes) of fine linen and the hip/hips being (and having been) girded around (with) fine linen.” (Dan 10:5a, Greek OT)

(The Man set/clothed in linen said to Daniel:) "Out of the ones ‘letting together’/understanding (some) will understand throughout into/’for the purpose of’ the thing to make themselves clean and into/’for the purpose of’ the thing to be chosen and into/’for the purpose of’ the thing to be made clean till a seasonable time of a consummation." (Dan 11:35a, Greek OT)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “A beginning of a life (is) water and bread and a garment.” (Sir 29:21a)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus) retired from there, and many followed Him, and He attended them all. (Matt 12:15b)

(The Lord said:) " ... a smouldering linen/wick (My boy) will not quench, till He - according to the circumstances - may throw/bring out the judgment into conquesting/conquest." (Matt 12:20b)

(Jesus) was transformed in front of (Peter, James and John), and His face shone as the sun, but/and His garments became white as the light. (Matt 17:2)

(Jesus said to the crowds: “The scribes and the Pharisees) are friends with the first company of guests in/at the chief meals.” (Matt 23:6a)

(The ten disciples) began to be vexed on account of James and John, (but Jesus said to them:) “You know that the ones being thought/seemed to begin/’be the first’ of the nations, they are entirely their lords ... but in this way it is not in/among you ... the one who – according to the circumstances – may want to be first in/among you will be a slave of all. For and/also the Son of the Man has not come to ‘be rendered’/receive service however/but to render service. (Mark 10:41b,42b-43a,44-45a)

Having stood herself weeping behind to/by the side of the feet of (Jesus), (the woman who was a misser of the mark of God) began to wet His feet (with) the teardrops and she * (P3, א*, A) wiped off (with) the hairs/hair of her head and ‘was entirely friends with’/’kissed ... tenderly’ (continually/repeatedly) His feet and smeared (them continually with) the ointment oil. (Luke 7:38)

Having turned Himself towards the woman (Jesus) spoke to Simon: "Do you see this woman? I came into, into your habitation; you have not given My water against/over the feet (א,* א), but she has wet My feet (with) the teardrops and wiped (them) off (with) her hairs/hair." (Luke 7:44)

(Jesus said to His diciples:) “Happy (are) those slaves whom, on (their) lord's having come, he will find being awake. Amen I say to you, that he will gird himself around and cause them to ‘lean back’/’lay down (at table)’. * (א*).” (Luke 12:37)

(Jesus said to the apostles:) “Who is greater, the one lying up/’down to table’ or the one rendering service? Definitely not the one lying up/’down to table’? But I am in your middle as the One rendering service.” (Luke 22:27)

... The first saying I indeed made on account of all things, which Jesus began both to make/do and teach. (Acts 1:1)

Having thrown out (Stephen) outside the city (the Jews) (continually) threw stones (at him). And the witnesses put away their garments to the side of the feet of a young man being called Saul. (Acts 7:58)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

Having so taken a pound of a much honoured ointment oil of nard, connected with faith, Mary (P66,א,*א) smeared the feet of Jesus and wiped off His feet (with) her hairs/hair. (John 12:3a)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

When Jesus lays aside his garments in preparation for his act of humility and cleansing he foreshadows the laying down of his life. (C. K. Barrett "The Gospel according to St John" p 439)

The washing of the master's feet was a menial task which was not required of the Jewish slave (in distinction from slaves of other nationalities; Mekhilta Exod. 21:2 …). The degrading character of the task should not however be exaggerated. Wives washed the feet of their husbands, and children of their parents. (C.K. Barrett "The Gospel according to St John" p 440)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Samuel Josef Agnon, Ingvar Andersson, Oloph Bexell, Carolina Brown, Ylva Eggehorn, Emilia Fogelklou, Jane Fredlund, Dick Harrison, David Hedegörd, Alf Henrikson, Marianne Herrlin, Sigurd Lindgren, Lars Magnusson, Horace Marryat, Vilhelm Moberg, Watchman Nee, Ann Resare, Per Richardsson, Gösta Sandberg, Stig Stenström, Margareta Strömstedt, Karl Syreeni, Birgit Åkerberg.


My own comments and speculations:

The Greek word which is usually translated by "towel" has a more literal meaning of "linen cloth". In a restoration perspective we see how the ruined flax in Egypt is restored by being allowed to come near Jesus. Compare John 6:8-13; 12:24 and My own comments and speculations to these passages. Compare also John 19:40.

In a restoration perspective we also see how the gravel of the ground which came upon the men in Egypt now is taken away from the disciples' feet.


Paul said to Timothy: "Let a widow be recited (only) ... if she has washed feet of holy ones. ..." (1 Tim 5:9-10a)


Greek words:

archô (begin) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Mark 10:41-42; Luke 7:38; John 13:5; Acts 1:1 – Esther 4:17q(C22); 6:13; Tobit 2:13; 7:14; 10:4; 1 Macc 3:25; 5:2,31; 8:16; 9:73; 10:10; 13:42; 15:40; 2 Macc 9:11; Sir 18:7. Matt 4:17; 11:7,20; 12:1; 14:30; 16:21-22; 18:24; 20:8; 24:49; 26:22,37,74; Mark 1:45; 2:23; 4:1; 5:17,20; 6:2,7,34,55; 8:11,31-32; 10:28,32,47; 11:15; 12:1; 13:5; 14:19,33.65,69,71; 15:8,18. Luke 3:8,23; 4:21; 5:21; 7:15,24,49; 9:12; 11:29,53; 12:1,45; 13:25-26; 14:9,18,29-30; 15:14,24; 19:37,45; 20:9; 21:28; 22:23; 23:2,5,30; 24:27,47; John (8:9); Acts 1:22; 2:4; 8:35; 10:37; 11:4,15; 18:26; 24:2; 27:35; Rom 15:12; 2 Cor 3:1; 1 Pet 4:17.

diazônnymi (gird throughout) Ezek 23:15(A), John 13:4-5 – John 21:7.

(h)imation (garment) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Sir 29:21; Matt 17:2; John 13:4; Acts 7:58 – Esther 4:1,17k(C13); 5:1(D1); Tobit 1:17; 4:16(BA); Judith 14:16; 1 Macc 2:14; 3:47,49; 4:39; 5:14; 10:62; 11:71; 13:45; Sir 11:4; 14:17; 39:26; 42:13. Matt 5:40; 9:16,20-21; 14:36; 21:7-8; 24:18; 26:65; 27:31,35; Mark 2:21; 5:27-28,30; 6:56; 9:3; 10:50; 11:7-8; 13:16, 15:20,24; Luke 5:36; 6:29; 7:25; 8:27,44; 19:35-36; 22:36; 23:34; John 13:12; 19:2,5,23-24. Acts 9:39; 12:8; 14:14; 16:22, 18:6; 22:20,23; Heb 1:11-12; Jas 5:2; 1 Pet 3:3; Rev 3:4-5,18; 16:15; 19:13,15.

lention (linen cloth) John 13:4-5. See My own comments and speculations and below (niptêr).

niptêr (wash-basin) John 13:5.


Additional studies:

2 Kings 3:11; Is 4:4; Mark 6:11; 12:39; Luke 14:7; 17:8; 20:46; 22:24-26; Rev 15:6; 18:11-12,16; 19:8; 22:14.


James D.G. Dunn "The Washing of the Disciples' Feet in John 13:1-20"; Zeitschrift für die neutestamentliche Wissenschaft 61 (1970): 247-252.

Arland J. Hultgren "The Johannine Footwashing (13:1-11) as Symbol of Eschatological Hospitality"; New Testament Studies 28 (1982): 539-546.

René Kieffer "Fottvagningens tolkning mot dess judiska bakgrund"; Svensk Exegetisk Årsbok 63 (1998).

Maurits Sabbe "The Footwashing in Jn 13 and Its Relation to the Synoptic Gospels"; Ephemerides Theologicae Lovaniensis 58 (1982): 279-308.

Sandra M. Schneiders "The Foot Washing (John 13:1-20): An Experiment in Hermeneutics"; Catholic Biblical Quarterly 43 (1981): 76-92.

Fernando F. Segovia "John 13:1-20, The Footwashing in the Johannine Tradition"; Zeitschrift für die neutestamentliche Wissenschaft 73 (1982): 31-51.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-04-23; 2011-11-02; 2014-07-02)

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13:6-8a He so comes towards Simon Peter. And (א,*א,A) (Peter) says to Him: “Lord, do You wash my feet?” Jesus answered and spoke to him: “What I do, you do not know just now, but you will gain knowledge after these things.” Peter says to Him: “You may not/certainly not wash my feet into the (coming) age!”

Word for word: 13:6 (14 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus) (he)-comes so towards Simon Peter. and (he)-says (to)-him: lord, you my wash the feet? 13:7 (16 words in the Greek text) answered Jesus and spoke (to)-him: what i/I make you not 'know-(and-have-known)'/know just-now, (you)-will-gain-knowledge but after these-(things). 13:8a (12 words in the Greek text, the sequence of the words according to Sinaiticus) says (to)-him Peter: not/certainly not (you)-may-wash the feet my into the age.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

God was beheld to Abraham. ... (Abraham) spoke (to the three males): "Lord ... let presently/now water be taken/brought and let wash your feet." (Gen 18:1a,3a,4a, Greek OT)

Having beheld (the two messengers), Lot ‘stood up out of’/rose into/to a meeting together with them and prostrated himself (with) his face against the earth and spoke: "Behold, lords, ‘lean out’/’turn aside’ into the house of your boy/servant house, and loosen down/up (your sandals) and wash your feet." (Gen 19:1b,2a, Greek OT)

(An old man) brought (a Levite and his concubine) into his house ... and themselves they washed their feet and they ate and drank. (Judges 19:21, B, Greek OT)

(Abigail, the future wife of David,) stood up and prostrated against (her) face against the earth and spoke (to the boys/slaves of David): "Behold, your female slave into/'purposed for being' a young girl/’female servant’ to wash feet of the boys/slaves of (my lord)." (1 Sam 25:41, Greek OT)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said: “The Lord) is not bound towards ‘no one’/any counsellor.” (Sir 42:21b)


The Latter Revelation:

Jesus became/came from Galilee ‘to the side of against’/’up to the side of’ the Jordan towards John to be baptized by him. But he * (א*,B) hindered Him throughout, saying: "I have need to be baptized by You, and You come towards me?" (Matt 3:13-14)

Having taken (Jesus) to (himself) Peter began to ‘honour on’/blame Him saying: “(May God be) propitious to You, Lord! Not/certainly not this (suffering and this death) will be/happen to You!” (Matt 16:22)

(The disciples) (continually) had not knowledge of (Jesus') word, and it (continually) was (and had been) veiled from/for them by the side of, in order that they might not notice it. (Luke 9:45a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

His disciples had (at) the first not knowledge of these things. However when Jesus was glorified, then they remembered that these things (continually/repeatedly) were (and had been) written on/’for the sake of’ Him, and (that) they made/did these things (with) Him. (John 12:16)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

The Lord washes and makes clean the man who had been fast bound with (the chain of) sin. (Irenaeus, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol I, p 498-499)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: David Bellingham, Elisabeth Beskow, Sven Helander, Hugo Levin, Martin Luther, Mathilda Roos, Ray C. Stedman, Anna Ölander.


My own comments and speculations:

In times of old “the lords” usually washed their feet themselves. But Abigail, the future wife of David, washed the feet of his slaves-servants. In a restoration perspective we see how Jesus now washes the feet of His slaves/friends and His future wife.


Paul said to the believers in Corinth: "Being free ‘out of’/from all I have made myself a slave to all, in order that I may gain (all) the more.” (1 Cor 9:19)


Additional studies:

Gen 43:24; 2 Kings 3:11; Mark 8:32; John 7:39; 13:12-16; 14:26; 16:13.


James D.G. Dunn "The Washing of the Disciples' Feet in John 13:1-20"; Zeitschrift für die neutestamentliche Wissenschaft 61 (1970): 247-252.

Arland J. Hultgren "The Johannine Footwashing (13:1-11) as Symbol of Eschatological Hospitality"; New Testament Studies 28 (1982): 539-546.

Maurits Sabbe "The Footwashing in Jn 13 and Its Relation to the Synoptic Gospels"; Ephemerides Theologicae Lovaniensis 58 (1982): 279-308.

Sandra M. Schneiders "The Foot Washing (John 13:1-20): An Experiment in Hermeneutics"; Catholic Biblical Quarterly 43 (1981): 76-92.

Fernando F. Segovia "John 13:1-20, The Footwashing in the Johannine Tradition"; Zeitschrift für die neutestamentliche Wissenschaft 73 (1982): 31-51.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-04-24; 2011-11-03; 2014-07-03)

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13:8b Jesus answered him: “If – according to the circumstances – I may not wash you, you have not part in company with Me.”

Word for word (13 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus) answered him the Jesus: if-according-to-the-circumstances not (i/I)-may-wash you, not (you)-have part in-company-with me.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Jacob said to his sons:) "Simeon and Levi (are) brothers. ... Let not my soul come into their council. Let not my livers/liver ‘prop on’/support their standing/stand together.” (Gen 49:5a,6a, Greek OT)

The Lord talked towards Aaron: ”In (Israel) you will not inherit, and it will not be a portion to you in/among them, because I (am) your portion and your inheritance in a middle of the sons of Israel.” (Num 18:20, Greek OT)

(Moses said to Israel:) "The Levite upon/at your gates ... is not a portion to you, nor an inheritance in company with you." (Deut 12:12b, Greek OT)

(A worthless fellow) spoke: "It is not a portion to us in David, nor an inheritance to us in the son of Jesse …" (2 Sam 20:1b, Greek OT)

"My ways are not just as your ways", the Lord says. "However, as the heaven holds off from the earth, in this way My way holds off from your ways." (Is 55:8b-9a, Greek OT)


The Latter Revelation:

Having turned (Jesus) spoke to Peter: “Withdraw behind Me, adversary! You are a stumbling block to Me, because you do not consider the things of God however/but the things of the men.” (Matt 16:23)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Who is consequently the faithful and sensible slave, whom the lord has ‘caused to stand down’/set upon his habitation (א,* א) to give them the nourishment in a seasonable time? Happy (is) that slave. … (But if the slave is bad, his lord) … will split him in two (parts) and put/give his part in company with the hypocrites.” (Matt 24:45-46a,51a)

... Some of the scribes of the part of the Pharisees (stood) up. (Acts 23:9a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

Jesus answered (Nicodemus): "Amen, amen, I say to you: If not – according to the circumstances – a certain (person) may be begotten out of water and spirit, he is not able to behold (א*) the kingdom of the heavens (א*)." (John 3:5)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: Elisabeth Beskow, Lars Levi Laestadius.


My own comments and speculations:

The Lord was the part of Levi. In a restoration perspective we see how it now is the turn of his brother Simon to have part in company with the Lord.


Greek words:

meros (part) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Matt 24:51; John 13:8; Acts 23:9 – 1 Macc 6:40; 9:11-12; 2 Macc 2:30; 8:24; 11:20; 15:33; Matt 2:22; 15:21; 16:13; Mark 8:10; Luke 11:36; 12:46; 15:12; 24:42; John 19:23; 21:6. Acts 2:10; 5:2; 19:1,27; 20:2; 23:6; Rom 11:25; 15:15,24; 1 Cor 11:18; 12:27; 13:9-10,12; 14:27; 2 Cor 1:14; 2:5; 3:10: 9:3; Eph 4:9,16; Col 2:16; Heb 9:5; Rev 8:9(א,*א); Rev 16:19; 20:6; 21:8; 22:19.


Additional studies:

1 Kings 12:16; Ps 16:5; 73:26; 119:57; 142:6; Mark 8:33; Luke 12:42-46; John 9:7; Acts 8:21; 1 Cor 6:11; Heb 3:14; Rev 1:9; 22:19.


James D.G. Dunn "The Washing of the Disciples' Feet in John 13:1-20"; Zeitschrift für die neutestamentliche Wissenschaft 61 (1970): 247-252.

Arland J. Hultgren "The Johannine Footwashing (13:1-11) as Symbol of Eschatological Hospitality"; New Testament Studies 28 (1982): 539-546.

Maurits Sabbe "The Footwashing in Jn 13 and Its Relation to the Synoptic Gospels"; Ephemerides Theologicae Lovaniensis 58 (1982): 279-308.

Sandra M. Schneiders "The Foot Washing (John 13:1-20): An Experiment in Hermeneutics"; Catholic Biblical Quarterly 43 (1981): 76-92.

Fernando F. Segovia "John 13:1-20, The Footwashing in the Johannine Tradition"; Zeitschrift für die neutestamentliche Wissenschaft 73 (1982): 31-51.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-04-24; 2011-11-04; 2014-07-03)

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13:9-10a Simon Peter says to Him: “Lord, not my feet only, however/but and/also the hands and the head.” Jesus says to him: “The one having been (and being) bathed has not need * (א,*א) to wash however/but is clean whole/’all over’.”

Word for word: 13:9 (17 words in the Greek text) says (to)-him Simon Peter: lord, not the feet my only however and the hands and the head. 13:10a (14 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus) says (to)-him the Jesus: the-(one) having-been-(and being)-bathed not has need (to)-wash, however (he)-is clean whole.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

Aaron and his sons shall wash the hands and the feet (with) water out of (the bath laver). (Ex 30:19, Greek OT)

(The leper) shall bathe/wash himself in water, and he will be clean. ... (Lev 14:8b, Greek OT)

(The Lord talked towards Moses and Aaron, saying: "Talk (with) the sons of Israel and speak to them:) 'If – according to the circumstances – (anyone) has ‘fallen ill with gonorrhoea’/’a discharge’, he may be made clean out of his stream, and he shall count up for himself the number out of seven days into/for the purification, and he shall cleanse his garments, and he shall bathe the body (with) water, and he shall be clean." (Lev 15:13, Greek OT)

Having been (and being) made holy (Aaron) shall be set/clothed in a linen tunic and it shall be linen around the legs upon his skin, and he shall be girded with a linen girdle and a linen (turban) shall be put round about (his head). It is holy garments, and he shall bathe ‘every his’/’his whole body (with) water and set/clothe himself in them. (Lev 16:4, Greek OT)

(The Lord ‘arranged together’/commanded Moses:) “Every concern which will come through in fire, it will and/also be made clean. Or however/also it will be purified (in) the purification of the water. And all things, as many things - if according to the circumstances – may not be go through, through fire, it will come through, through water. (Num 31:23, Greek OT)

Elisha dispatched away a messenger towards (the leper Naaman who had come from Aram), saying: "Go (and) bathe seven times in the Jordan and your flesh will turn next/back to you and you may be made clean. ... (But Naaman said: "Are) by no means ... the rivers of Damascus good over/’more than’ Jordan and all the waters of Israel. (Is it) by no means (so that) having gone I shall bathe in them and be made clean? ... (And at last) Naaman descended and baptized/dipped himself seven times in the Jordan, according to the word of (Elisha). And his flesh ‘turned next’/’was changed’ to as flesh of a small, very little boy, and he was made clean. And he turned ‘next to’/back towards Elisha. (2 Kings 5:10,12a,14-15a, Greek OT)

(David said:) "According to the cleanliness of my hands (the Lord) will in stead give me back." (Ps 18:20b or 18:21b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to His people:) “Bathe, become clean, take off/away the evil things from your souls (the things which are) over against My eyes. Cease from your evils. ... Come here and we may ‘count throughout’/consider … if – according to the circumstances – your misses (of My mark) may be as crimson, I shall whiten (them) as snow, but/and if – according to the circumstances – they may be as scarlet, I shall whiten (them) as wool.” (Is 1:16,18, Greek OT)

When (the guests) had bathed and washed themselves and 'fallen up'/'lain back' to take the chief meal, Tobias spoke to Raphael: “Brother Azariah, speak to Raguel in that way that he may give me my sister Sarah (to wife).” (Tobit 7:9, S)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “On your fasting smear your head and wash your face, in that way (that) you may not ‘be brought to light’/’shine forth’ fasting (among) the men, however/but (among/with) your Father, the One (being) in the concealed.” (Matt 6:17-18a)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “In/with what judicial verdict you judge, you will be judged. … Why do you see the straw, the one in the eye of your brother, but do not ‘understand ... entirely’/observe the wooden beam in your eye? … First throw/take the wooden beam out of your eye. Then you will and/namely see through to (be able to) throw/take out the straw out of the eye of your brother.” (Matt 7:2a,3,5b)

Pharisees and scribes came to Jesus from (a disgraced) Jerosolyma/Jerusalem saying: "Because of what do Your disciples step to the side of the tradition of the elders? For they do not wash their own hands, when they – according to the circumstances - may eat bread." (Matt 15:1-2)

(Jesus said:) “Blind Pharisee, make first clean the within/inside of the cup and (your) sight by the side of (the cup)(א,* א, B) in order that and/also their (א,* א) 'the without'/outside may become clean.” (Matt 23:26)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Having gone * (א,* א, A) be/mke disciples (of) all the nations, baptizing them/'the disciples' into the name of the Father and the Son and the Holy Spirit, teaching them to keep all things as many as I have enjoined you." (Matt 28:19-20a; BG Ask-comment: Walter Bauer says in his Greek-English lexicon - p 485 - that the Greek word for "be or become a disciple" - as a transitive verb has the meaning of "make a disciple". Perhaps no translator has another meaning. But I am not sure that this is the johannine view. To be disciples in a company of all nations can cause the crowd of disciples to increase. Cf. John 17:21-23.)

(John said:) "I baptized you (in) water, but (the One coming behind me) will baptize you in holy spirit." (Mark 1:8)

The Pharisees and all the Jews do not eat, if they – according to the circumstances – do not frequently (א,* א) may wash their hands, ‘getting power over’/embracing the tradition of the elders. (Mark 7:3)

(Jesus said to the Pharisee:) “You did not smear My head (with) olive-oil, but she has smeared My feet (with) ointment oil.” (Luke 7:46)

(Jesus said to the crowd:) "If so your whole body (is) bright, having not any dark part, it will be wholly bright, as when the lamp – according to the circumstances – may give you light (with) the ray of light." (Luke 11:36)

Having come into (the house) (Jesus) ‘fell up’/’lay back’ (at the table). … But having beheld (this) the Pharisee wondered, because (Jesus) did not first baptize/dip Himself before the breakfest/meal. (Luke 11:37b,38b)

(Jesus said to the Pharisees:) “Give the things being within (as) alm/’work of mercy’, and behold, all things is/are clean to you.” (Luke 11:41)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) ”Out of your head may not/certainly not a hair perish.” (Luke 21:18)

(Paul said to the Jews:) “Your blood against your head. I (am) clean. ... “ (Acts 18:6b)

Ananias said to Paul: ”Having called on the name (of Jesus) be/get baptized and bathe off your misses (of the mark of God).” (Acts 22:16b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(And John was a witness saying:) “I did not know (and had not known) Him, however/but the One having sent me to baptize in the (P66,א,*א) water, that One spoke to me: ‘(The One) against whom you – according to the circumstances - may behold the Spirit descending and staying against Him, this One is He baptizing in holy spirit.’" (John 1:33)

It became so a searching ‘out of’/of the disciples of John in company with Jews (P66,א*) on account of purification. And they came towards John and spoke to him: “Rabbi, the One who (continually) was in company with you on the other side of the Jordan, to whom you have been (and are) a witness, behold, this One baptizes and all come towards Him.” (John 3:25-26)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

(The "shorter" text) "he that has been bathed has no need to wash" ... is supported only by (Sinaiticus and the original text of Vulgata), together with some old Latin texts and Origen. ... It should be noted that v. 8b makes it impossible to suppose that what Jesus has just done can be regarded as trivial; it is of fundamental importance and indispensable - that is, it is not a secondary 'washing' subordinate to an initial 'bath'. (Furthermore) it seems to have been customary at least in some quarters for guests at a meal to take a bath before leaving home, and on arrival at their host's house to have their feet, but only their feet, washed. Knowledge of such a custom as this might have caused the expansion of (the short text) into (the long one). ... It seems probable that the meaning of the verse is as follows. John wrote the text in the (short) form. ... Jesus points out that once one has received the benefit of his love and death ('has been baptized into his death') he is 'entirely clean' ...; further washings are pointless. The disciples have now been initiated into his death and there is no more to do. (C.K. Barrett "The Gospel according to St John" p 441-442)

Let us become clean to the utmost of our power. ... Thou seest that we must cleanse ourselves (Is. 1:16), and then God cleanses us. For having first said: “Wash you, make you clean,” He then added “I will make you white.” (Is. 1:17-18) (Chrysostom commenting Heb 7, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers XIV:426)

The fact that baptism could be construed as a symbolic burial with Christ (Rom. 6:4; Col. 2:12) suggest a complete immersion in water. That was the case with the normal Jewish rite of purification, the tebilah, which was probably, at whatever distance, the primary antecedent of Christian baptism. The first full description of the Christian rite, in Hippolytus's Apostolic Tradition, which probably represents Roman practice at the end of the second century, attests a threefold immersion. However, the little manual of church order called the Didache (“Teaching of the twelve Apostles”), which may represent traditions as much as a century older than Hippolytus, probably in Syria, provides for pouring water thrice over the head, in case sufficient water for immersion is not at hand (7:3). (Wayne A. Meeks "The first urban Christians - The Social World of the Apostle Paul" p 150-151; Baptism: Ritual of initiation)

Now in the last days, when the fulness of the time of liberty had arrived, the Word Himself did by Himself “wash away the filth of the daughters of Zion,” when He washed the disciples' feet with His own hands. ... For He who washed the feet of the disciples sanctified the entire body, and rendered it clean. (Irenaeus, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol I, p 493)

The customary bath required to have been taken before the superintending priest came round, since it was a principle that (no priest) might go into the court to serve, although he were clean, unless he had bathed. A subterranean passage, lit on both sides, led to the well-appointed bath-rooms where the priests immersed themselves. After that they need not all that day to wash again, save their hands and feet, which they had to do each time, however often, they came for service into the Temple. (Alfred Edersheim “The Temple” p 149)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Lennart Andersson, Barthold Carlson, William Dalrymple, Sven Danell, Henry Daniel-Rops, Wayne A. Detzler, E.J. Ekman, Per Ericsson, Bo Frid, Lennart Gustavsson, Marianne Herrlin, Barbro Jern, Lars-Erik Johansson, Ragnar Järhult, Sven Lidman, Henning Mankell, Wilhelm Möller, Fredrik Nielsen, Anders Nohrborg, Carl Olof Rosenius, Viktor Rydberg, Göran Sahlberg, Isaac Basjevis Singer, Håkan Sjögren, Rune Storck, Jesper Svartvik.


My own comments and speculations:

To bathe can for John be to let oneself be baptized. The man who lets himself be baptized takes away the log out of his own eye. For to not believe ‘into Jesus’ is the big log in the eye of a man (cf. John 16:9). When he then has let himself be baptized (in both water and spirit, cf. John 3:5), he can take away the little speck out of the eye of his brother. This is done by washing the feet of other Christians, that is by doing a work of welcome in a mutual relation.

The disciple having bathed (in water and spirit) need not wash himself again, because he is baptized into Christ and continually is in service in Him who is the Temple. Compare Edersheim above, John 16:9, 1 John 1:9 and Rev 7:14.


Paul said to the believers in Thessalonica: "This is a will of God, your holiness." ((1 Thess 4:3a)

Paul said to Titus: “(God) saved us through a bath of regeneration and renewal of holy spirit.” (Tit 3:5b)

We may come to (the holy place) in company with a true heart in full assurance of faith, (with) hearts having been (and being) sprinkled from an evil joint knowledge and (with) the body having been (and being) bathed (in) clean water. (Heb 10:22)

If we – according to the circumstances – may confess our misses (of the mark of God), He is faithful and righteous, in order that He may let our (א,* א) misses (of His mark) be to us and make us clean from every unrighteousness. (1 John 1:9)


Greek words:

katharos (clean) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Matt 23:26; Luke 11:41; John 13:10; Acts 18:6; Heb 10:22 – Tobit 3:14; 13:16(17); Judith 12:9; Wisdom of Solomon 7:23; 14:24; 15:7; Susanna v 46(Theod); Matt 5:8; 27:59; John 13:11; 15:3; Acts 20:26; Rom 14:20; 1 Tim 1:5; 3:9; 2 Tim 1:3; 2:22; Tit 1:15; Jas 1:27; 1 Pet 1:22; Rev 15:6; 19:8,14; 21:18,21.

kefalê (head) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Matt 6:17; Luke 7:46; 21:18; John 13:9; Acts 18:6 – Esther 4:17k(C13),w(C27); 5:1d(D7); Judith 4:11; 9:1,9; 10:3; 13:6,8-9,15,18; 14:1,6,11,15,18; 1 Macc 3:47; 7:47; 11:17,71; 2 Macc 1:16; 10:25; 15:30,32; Wisdom of Solomon 18:24; Sir 4:7; 12:18; 13:7; 17:23; 25:15; 27:25; 36:9(12); Baruch 5:2; Epistle of Jeremiah v 8,21,30; Susanna v 34. Matt 5:36; 8:20; 10:30; 14:8,11; 21:42; 26:7; 27:29-30,37,39; Mark 6:24-25,27-28; 12:10; 14:3; 15:19,29; Luke 7:38; 9:58; 12:7; 20:17; 21:28; John 19:2,30; 20:7,12; Acts 4:11; 18:18; 21:24; 27:34; Rom 12:20; 1 Cor 11:3-5,7,10; 12:21; Eph 1:22; 4:15; 5:23; Col 1:18; 2:10,19; 1 Pet 2:7; Rev 1:14; 4:4; 9:7,17,19; 10:1; 12:1,3; 13:1,3; 14:14; 17:3,7,9; 18:19; 19:12.

louô (bathe) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Tobit 7:9; John 13:10; Heb 10:22 – Tobit 2:5,9; Susanna v 15(Theod),17(Theod); Acts 9:37; 16:33; 2 Pet 2:22.


Additional studies:

Lev 15:11; Ps 24:3-4; Luke 6:41-42; John 15:3; Eph 5:25-26; Rev 7:14.


James D.G. Dunn "The Washing of the Disciples' Feet in John 13:1-20"; Zeitschrift für die neutestamentliche Wissenschaft 61 (1970): 247-252.

Arland J. Hultgren "The Johannine Footwashing (13:1-11) as Symbol of Eschatological Hospitality"; New Testament Studies 28 (1982): 539-546.

Maurits Sabbe "The Footwashing in Jn 13 and Its Relation to the Synoptic Gospels"; Ephemerides Theologicae Lovaniensis 58 (1982): 279-308.

Sandra M. Schneiders "The Foot Washing (John 13:1-20): An Experiment in Hermeneutics"; Catholic Biblical Quarterly 43 (1981): 76-92.

Fernando F. Segovia "John 13:1-20, The Footwashing in the Johannine Tradition"; Zeitschrift für die neutestamentliche Wissenschaft 73 (1982): 31-51.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-04-24; 2011-11-06; 2014-07-03)

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13:10b-11 “And you are clean, however/but by no means all.” For He knew the one giving Him ’to the side of’/over. Because of this He spoke * (א,*א,A): “All are by no means clean.”

Word for word: 13:10b (7 words in the Greek text) and you clean are, however by-no-means all. 13:11 (12 ord i den grekiska texten Sinaiticus) (he)-'knew-(and-had-known)'/knew for the-(one) giving-to-the-side-of him. because-of this (he)-spoke: by-no-means all clean are.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The Lord said to Moses:) "I know the evil thing (of the sons of Israel), as much as they make/do here to-day, before 'the thing to lead Me'/'I have led' them into the good earth/land which I swore (to give) their fathers." (Deut 31:21b, Greek OT)

(David said to Solomon:) "The Lord lets all hearts undergo a test and has knowledge of every device. If you – according to the circumstances – may seek Him, He will be found for you, and if you – according to the circumstances – may leave Him entirely, He will entirely leave you into an end." (1 Chron 28:9b, Greek OT)

(David said:) “Happy (is) a male of/to whom the Lord may not/certainly not count a miss (of His mark), nor it is a deceit in his mouth.” (Ps 32:2, Greek OT)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said: “The Highest One brings away a message about) the things having been (and being) taken to the side of and the things which will be and revealing/'He reveals' hidden away footsteps.” (Sir 42:19)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Happy the clean ones (in) the heart, because they will behold God.” (Matt 5:8)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) ”When the grass sprouted and made/bore fruit, then the darnels and/also ‘were brought to’/came to light. … The darnels are the sons of the evil one.” (Matt 13:26,38b)

(Jesus) spoke to (the Pharisees): "You are the ones justifying yourselves in the very eyes of the men, but God has knowledge of your hearts." (Luke 16:15a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Jesus) Himself had (continually) knowledge of what (continually) was in the man. (John 2:25b)

The Saviour (א,*א) knew from (P66, א,* א) a beginning (that) some are the * (א,*א) believing ones and (that) someone (continually) was the one being about to give Him ‘to the side of’/over (P66, א,*א). (John 6:64b)

Becoming a chief meal, the slanderer having already thrown/put (and throwing/putting) into the heart, in order that Judas, of Simon, Iscariot might give Him ‘to the side of’/over. (John 13:2)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

Judas' feet were washed, but he did not enter into the meaning of Jesus' act of humility and love. (C.K. Barrett "The Gospel according to St John" p 442)

If (the disciples) are clean, why washeth (Jesus) their feet? That we may learn to be modest. (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers XIV:259)


Paul said to the believers in Colossae: "In (Christ) are all the heaps/treasures of the wisdom and knowledge hidden away." (Col 2:3)

Paul said to Titus: “To the clean (ones) all things (are) clean, but to the ones being (and having been) stained and faithless nothing (is) clean however/but and/both their understanding and their joint knowledge are (and have been) stained.” (Tit 1:15)


Additional studies:

Matt 13:48; John 1:47-48; 15:3; Acts 15:9; 1 Cor 10:1-6.


James D.G. Dunn "The Washing of the Disciples' Feet in John 13:1-20"; Zeitschrift für die neutestamentliche Wissenschaft 61 (1970): 247-252.

Arland J. Hultgren "The Johannine Footwashing (13:1-11) as Symbol of Eschatological Hospitality"; New Testament Studies 28 (1982): 539-546.

Maurits Sabbe "The Footwashing in Jn 13 and Its Relation to the Synoptic Gospels"; Ephemerides Theologicae Lovaniensis 58 (1982): 279-308.

Sandra M. Schneiders "The Foot Washing (John 13:1-20): An Experiment in Hermeneutics"; Catholic Biblical Quarterly 43 (1981): 76-92.

Fernando F. Segovia "John 13:1-20, The Footwashing in the Johannine Tradition"; Zeitschrift für die neutestamentliche Wissenschaft 73 (1982): 31-51.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-04-24; 2011-11-07; 2014-07-04)

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13:12 When He so had washed their feet * (P66,א,*א, A), He took His garments and ‘fell up’/’lay back’ again. He spoke to them: “Have you knowledge of, what I have made/done (and make/do) to you?”

Word for word (19 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus): when so (he)-washed the feet their (he)-took the garments his and fell-up again. (he)-spoke (to)-them: have-(you)-knowledge-of what (i/I)-have-made-(and-makes) (for)-you?


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Moses said to the synagogue/gathering:) "... You will gain knowledge that the Lord has dispatched me away to make/do all these works, because (these are) not from Myself." (Num 16:28, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) "I had knowledge of Ephraim, and Israel is not away from Me. ... Their thoughts did not give them the thing to turn next to, towards their God, because a spirit of fornication is in them, but they had not (any) additional knowledge of the Lord. (Hos 5:3a,4, Greek OT)

When (the guests) had bathed and washed themselves and 'fallen up'/'lain back' to take the chief meal, Tobias spoke to Raphael: “Brother Azariah, speak to Raguel in that way that he may give me my sister Sarah (to wife).” (Tobit 7:9, S)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to the Pharisees:) “If you had (and had had) knowledge what ‘it is’/’this means’ 'I want mercy and not sacrifice' you had not – according to the circumstances – ‘administered justice entirely’/’given judgment against’ the guiltless.” (Matt 12:7)

(The disciples) (continually) had not knowledge of (Jesus') word, and it (continually) was (and had been) veiled from/for them by the side of, in order that they might not notice it. (Luke 9:45a)

Having come into (the house) (Jesus) ‘fell up’/’lay back’ (at the table). … But having beheld (this) the Pharisee wondered, because (Jesus) did not first baptize/dip Himself before the breakfest/meal. (Luke 11:37b,38b)

When the hour became/came, (Jesus) ‘fell up’/’lay back’ and the apostles together with Him. (Luke 22:14)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

This proverb Jesus spoke to them, but those ones had not knowledge of what things it (continually) was which He (continually) talked (with) them. (John 10:6)

His disciples had (at) the first not knowledge of these things. However when Jesus was glorified, then they remembered that these things (continually/repeatedly) were (and had been) written on/’for the sake of’ Him, and (that) they made/did these things (with) Him. (John 12:16)

Jesus said to (Peter): “What I do, you do not know just now, but you will gain knowledge after these things.” (John 13:7)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: Kari Syreeni.


Paul said to the believers in Corinth: "No one has knowledge of the things of God ‘if not’/except the Spirit of God. But we have taken not the spirit of the adornment/’adorned world’ however/but the Spirit, the One (being) out of God. ... If and/also we have (and have had) knowledge of Christ according to flesh, however, now we have not any longer knowledge of Him (thus)." (1 Cor 2:11b-12a; 2 Cor 5:16b)


Additional studies:

John 13:4.


James D.G. Dunn "The Washing of the Disciples' Feet in John 13:1-20"; Zeitschrift für die neutestamentliche Wissenschaft 61 (1970): 247-252.

Maurits Sabbe "The Footwashing in Jn 13 and Its Relation to the Synoptic Gospels"; Ephemerides Theologicae Lovaniensis 58 (1982): 279-308.

Sandra M. Schneiders "The Foot Washing (John 13:1-20): An Experiment in Hermeneutics"; Catholic Biblical Quarterly 43 (1981): 76-92.

Fernando F. Segovia "John 13:1-20, The Footwashing in the Johannine Tradition"; Zeitschrift für die neutestamentliche Wissenschaft 73 (1982): 31-51.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-04-25; 2011-11-07; 2014-07-04)

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13:13 You raise your voices to Me the Teacher, and the Lord, and you say “Finely”, for I am.

Word for word (13 words in the Greek text): you raise-your-voices (to)-me the teacher, and the lord, and finely (you)-say (i/I)-am for.


The Latter Revelation:

(Peter said to Jesus:) "Lord, save me!" (Matt 14:30b)

(The two blind men) shouted (to Jesus), saying: ”Lord, have mercy to/on us ... !“ (Matt 20:31b)

(Jesus said to the two disciples:) ”… You will/shall speak that/: ‘The Lord has need of (the ass) (א,*א).’(Matt 21:3a)

(Jesus said to the crowds and to His disciples:) "One is your Conductor (א*), but/and you are all brothers. ... One is your Conductor (א*), the Christ/'anointed One'." (Matt 23:8b,10)

(Jesus) spoke (to His disciples): “Withdraw into the city towards a so-and-so and speak to him: The Teacher says: ‘My seasonable time is near.’” (Matt 26:18a)

(The messenger said to the shepherds:) "It/there has to-day been brought forth for you a Saviour, who is 'a christ/'an anointed' lord." (Luke 2:11a)

Some of the scribes spoke (to Jesus): “Teacher, you spoke finely.” (Luke 20:39b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

*(א*) Having turned and viewed the ones following Jesus says to them: "What do you seek?" But they spoke to Him: "Rabbi" - which being interpreted (א*) ‘is said’/means teacher - "where do you stay?" (John 1:38)

The sisters dispatched away (men) towards (Jesus), saying: "Lord, behold, the one whom you are friends with is weak." (John 11:3)

(Martha) raised her voice (towards) Mary (P45,P66,א,*א) her sister, speaking secretly: “The Teacher is by the side of and raises His voice (towards) you.” (John 11:28b)

Simon Peter says to (Jesus): "Lord, (wash) not my feet only, however/but and/also the hands and the head." (John 13:9)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

They have said me that burial-ground already is bought to Swedenborg's dust, which is said to soon be taken home. Therefore I wished to see my book ready till then and greet my great Leader and Teacher in a dedication. (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev 16, maj 1907-12 juli 1908" p 50; letter 1907-07-26 to the publishing company Björck och Börjesson; Strindberg's "En blå bok" is introduced with a dedication to Emanuel Swedenborg)

(H.C.) Andersen keeps, and Andersen follows me! . . . Read my simple Sagor of 1903, see yourself where I have been apprenticed! Many teachers I have had, Schiller and Goethe, Victor Hugo and Dickens, Zola and Peladan, but nevertheless I want to sign this inerview with August Strindberg (Pupil of H.C. Andersen.) (August Strindberg "Andersen" p 77; Politiken 1905-04-02; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Give me the pleasure with the new year to introduce a more ordinary title when you write to me! Do so! (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev IX 1892-jan 1894" p 374-375; letter 1894-01-27 to Bengt Lidforss; Lidforss began his letters with "Lord and Master", although Strindberg earlier had declined himself such a title; from now on Lidforss in stead writes "Strindberg, Master")

"He was", Chrysanteus said, "a religious spirit, warmed through by the divine, a practical teacher of wisdom and a great theurg. . . . I imagine, that what Plotinus reached by sinking his spirit in the sea of what is without concept and form - this Joseph's son owned more by nature, and as something permanent, so that he could wander among the men and work in the outwardly, without his beholding in the divine was clouded. What he owned in highest extent, this we all own, at least to the possibility, in a lower extent." (Viktor Rydberg "Den siste atenaren I" p 52-53; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Oloph Bexell, Miguel de Cervantes, Colin Chapman, Harald Elovson, Carl Grimberg, Alf Henrikson, Bo Lindberg, Carl Henrik Martling, Fredrik Nielsen, Olle Nystedt, John Samuelson, Charles M. Sheldon.

Paul said to the believers in Corinth: "No one is able to speak 'Lord Jesus' ‘if not’/except in holy spirit." (1 Cor 12:3b)


Additional studies:

Gen 43:19-24; Matt 22:16; Mark 9:5; 11:21; 12:32; Luke 12:41; 22:33,38; John 11:2; 13:6; 20:2; Acts 2:36; Rom 1:4; 1 Cor 8:6; Phil 2:11; Rev 11:15.


James D.G. Dunn "The Washing of the Disciples' Feet in John 13:1-20"; Zeitschrift für die neutestamentliche Wissenschaft 61 (1970): 247-252.

Maurits Sabbe "The Footwashing in Jn 13 and Its Relation to the Synoptic Gospels"; Ephemerides Theologicae Lovaniensis 58 (1982): 279-308.

Sandra M. Schneiders "The Foot Washing (John 13:1-20): An Experiment in Hermeneutics"; Catholic Biblical Quarterly 43 (1981): 76-92.

Fernando F. Segovia "John 13:1-20, The Footwashing in the Johannine Tradition"; Zeitschrift für die neutestamentliche Wissenschaft 73 (1982): 31-51.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-04-25; 2011-11-08; 2014-07-04; 2014-11-25)

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13:14-15 If so I, the Lord and the Teacher, have washed your feet, and/also you are indebted to wash the feet of one another. For I have given (and give; P66, א,* א, A) you a prototype, in order that and/also you may make/do entirely as I have made/done to you.

Word for word: 13:14 (19 words in the Greek text) if so i/I washed your the feet the lord and the teacher and you are-indebted (of)-one-another (to)-wash the feet. 13:15 (12 words in the Greek text) (a)-prototype for (i/I)-have-given-(and-give) you in-order-that entirely-as i/I made (to)-you and you may-make.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The Lord said to Moses:) "Behold, you shall make (these things) according to the type having been (and being) shown to you in/on the mountain." (Ex 25:40, Greek OT)

(Abigail, the future wife of David,) stood up and prostrated against (her) face against the earth and spoke (to the boys/slaves of David): "Behold, your female slave into/'purposed for being' a young girl/’female servant’ to wash feet of the boys/slaves of (my lord)." (1 Sam 25:41, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Jerusalem:) "I have washed you in/with water." (Ezek 16:9a, Greek OT)

(Eleazarus left) to his death … a prototype (to follow). … (2 Macc 6:31b)

(Solomon said:) “The least one is ‘knowledge together with’/excused (on account) of mercy, but able ones are arranged to the best of ability.” (Wisdom of Solomon 6:6)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “Enoch pleased the Lord well and he was ‘put in company’/connected with a prototype of change of mind for the generations.” (Sir 44:16)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “In/with what judicial verdict you judge, you will be judged. … Why do you see the straw, the one in the eye of your brother, but do not ‘understand ... entirely’/observe the wooden beam in your eye? … First throw/take the wooden beam out of your eye. Then you will and/namely see through to (be able to) throw/take out the straw out of the eye of your brother.” (Matt 7:2a,3,5b)

(Jesus said to all being bothered and being - and having been - burdened:) "Lift My yoke against you, and learn * (א*), that I am mild and humble (in) the heart." (Matt 11:29a)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Having gone * (א,* א, A) be/make disciples (of) all the nations, baptizing them/'the disciples' into the name of the Father and the Son and the Holy Spirit, teaching them to keep all things as many as I have enjoined you." (Matt 28:19-20a; BG Ask-comment: Walter Bauer says in his Greek-English lexicon - p 485 - that the Greek word for "be or become a disciple" - as a transitive verb has the meaning of "make a disciple". Perhaps no translator has another meaning. But I am not sure that this is the johannine view. To be a disciple together with others can cause the crowd of disciples to increase. Cf. John 17:21-23.)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "The one who – according to the circumstances – may want to be first in/among you will be a slave of all. For and/also the Son of the Man has not come to ‘be rendered’/receive service however/but to render service, and to give His soul (as) a ransom instead of many." (Mark 10:44-45)

(Jesus spoke to His disciples: “When you – according to the circumstances – may pray, say:) “Let our misses (of the mark of God) be (alone) to us, as (א*) and/also we ourselves let every/everyone being indebted to us be (alone).” (Luke 11:4)

(Jesus said to the apostles:) “When you – according to the circumstances – may have made/done all the things having been throughout arranged to you, say that/: “We are useless slaves. We have made/done (and makes/does) what we (continually) were indebted to make/do.” (Luke 17:10b)

(Jesus said to the apostles:) “Let the greater in/among you become as the younger and the one being in command (become) as the one who rendering service. Who is greater, the one lying up/’down to table’ or the one rendering service? Definitely not the one lying up/’down to table’? But I am in your middle as the One rendering service.” (Luke 22:26b-27)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Jesus said to the Pharisees:) "I am the fine shepherd. The fine shepherd gives (P45,א*) His soul in favour of the sheep." (John 10:11)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 -about 1500

”You are also indebted” A typical rabbinical way to reason was to argument from that which was lower to that which was higher. … Here Jesus reasons in reverse direction from that which is higher (he himself as Lord) to that which is lower (the disciples). (René Kieffer "Johannesevangeliet" p 322; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

We can hardly doubt that the evangelist considered such acts as the cleansing of the Temple and the washing of the disciples' feet as (signs). (C.H. Dodd ”The Interpretation of the Fourth Gospel” p 142)

Just in this, that our being is such, that sooner or later patterns, ideals for thinking and doing, must shine out in our consciousness, just in this and only in this the precedence consists which we (men) have over the animals. (Viktor Rydberg "Konstens ursprung och utvecklingsläran" p 10-11; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


about 1500 and time before

Let us practice humble-mindedness. For there is nothing so powerful as it, since it is stronger even than a rock and harder than adamant, and places us in a safety greater than that of towers and cities and walls, being too high for any of the artillary of the devil. As the recklessness makes men an easy prey even to ordinary occurrences, being, as I was saying, easier broken than a bubble, and rent more speedily than a spider's web, and more quickly dissolved than a smoke; that we then may be walking upon the strong rock, let us leave that and take to this. For thus in this life present we shall find rest, and shall in the world to come have every blessing. (Chrysostomos, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers XI:500)

The prophets used not to prophesy in word alone, but in visions also, and in their mode of life and in the actions which they performed. ... It was not by means of visions alone which were seen, and words which was proclaimed, but also in actual works, that (the Father) was beheld by the prophets, in order that through them He might prefigure and show forth future events beforehand. (Irenaeus, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol I, p 490,492)

Ye were all distinguished by humility, and were in no respect puffed up with pride, but yielded obedience rather than extorted it, and were more willing to give than to receive. ... Day and night ye were anxious for the whole brotherhood. (Clement of Rome to the Corinthians, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol I, p 5)

Let us, brethren, be of humble mind, laying aside all haughtiness and pride and foolishness and angry feelings; and let us act according to that which is written ... being especially mindful of the words of the Lord Jesus, which He spake, teaching us meekness and long-suffering. ... By this precept and by these rules let us stablish ourselves, that we walk with all humility in obedience to His holy words. (Clement of Rome to the Corinthians, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol I, p 8)

It is better for you, that you should occupy a humble but honourable place in the flock of Christ, than that, being highly exalted, ye should be cast out from the hope of His people. (Clement of Rome to the Corinthians, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol I, p 20)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Svetlana Aleksijevitj, H.C. Andersen, Jane Austen, Jacob Blomdahl, Carl Boberg, Bo Brander, John Bunyan, Fredrik Böök, Jakob Christensson, Amadeus Creutzberg, Sigurd Dahllöf, Ylva Eggehorn, Alberth Eriksson, Emilia Fogelklou, Otto Funcke, Erik Gustaf Geijer, Bo Giertz, John Gladwin, Johannes Gossner, Carl Grimberg, Sergej Gurin, Peter Halldorf, William Hanna, Gunnar Heckscher, Swening Johansson, Viktor Johansson, Ulrik Josefsson, Ad. Kolmodin, Selma Lagerlöf, Karl Larsson, Lars-Olof Larsson, Harry Lenhammar, Anna-Maria Lenngren, C.S. Lewis, Sven Lidman, Nils Lindén, Martin Luther, Howard Marshall, Mo Yan, Vilhelm Moberg, J. Nyrén, John Ongman, Efraim Palmqvist, Jessica Parland-von Essen, Lewi Pethrus, Einar Rimmerfors, Sven Edvin Salje, M. Basilea Schlink, August Strindberg, Kari Syreeni, Nathan Söderblom, Thomas a Kempis, Anton Tjechov, Lars Vitus, P. Waldenström, Gunnar Wetterberg, Erik Wettergren, P.G. Wodehouse, Göran Åberg.


My own comments and speculations:

The expression ”the Teacher and the Lord” can be seen in a restoration perspective, if we compare with the expression “the Lord and the Teacher” in John 13:13. Taken together the expressions can be a sign showing that Jesus is God.

"To wash the feet of one another" expresses a "hetero-relation" wher two persons are on different levels. So it is not a question of a "homo-relation" as for example to wash the heads of one another. Compare Paul's exhortation to the believers in Ephesos that they will be subject to one another (Eph 5:21). The Christian community of the believers is a "hetero-community" where men who are unlike find one another in a mutual serving. Compare here also with the marriage as a prototype of the Christian assembly (Eph 5:31-32).


Paul said: “I am the least of the apostles, (one) who is not fit to be called an apostle. … (I am) less than the least of all holy ones. … (Of missers of the mark of God) I am first.” (1 Cor 15:9a; Eph 3:8a; 1 Tim 1:15b)

Paul said to the believers in Philippi: "Consider this thing in/among yourselves, which and/also (was) in Christ Jesus, ... (who) emptied Himself, having taken a shape of a slave." (Phil 2:5,7a)

Paul said to Timothy: "Let a widow be recited (only) ... if she has washed feet of holy ones. ..." (1 Tim 5:9-10a)

Peter said: "Into/to this you have been called, because and/also Christ died (P81,א,*א) in favour of you, leaving from under to you a copy, in order that you might follow on/after (in) His footsteps." (1 Pet 2:21)

Peter said to the believers: ”Tie all the humility on yourselves to one another, because God ranges in battle ‘in stead’/against overweening ones but gives joybringing (grace) to humble ones.” (1 Pet 5:5b)

The one saying (himself) stay in Him is obliged, and/also he, to wander about entirely in this way as that One wandered about. (1 John 2:6)

In this we have (and have had) knowledge of the welcome, because that One put/intered His soul in favour of us. And/also we are indebted to put/inter the souls in favour of the brothers. (1 John 3:16)

Welcomed, if God welcomed us in this way, we and/also are indebted to welcome one another. (1 John 4:11)


Greek words:

ofeilô (be indebted) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Luke 11:4; 17:10; John 13:14; 1 John 2:6; 4:11 – Tobit 6:13; 1 Macc 10:43; 13:15,39; Wisdom of Solomon 12:15,20; Matt 18:28,30,34; 23:16,18; Luke 7:41; 16:5,7; John 19:7; Acts 17:29; Rom 13:8; 15:1,27; 1 Cor 5:10; 7:36; 9:10; 11:7,10; 2 Cor 12:11,14; Eph 5:28; 2 Thess 1:3; 2:13; Philemon v 18; Heb 2:17; 5:3,12; 1 John 3:16; 3 John v 8.

(h)ypodeigma (prototype) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) 2 Macc 6:31; Sir 44:16; John 13:15 – 2 Macc 6:28; Heb 4:11; 8:5; 9:23; Jas 5:10; 2 Pet 2:6.


Additional studies:

Matt 20:26-28; 23:11; Mark 9:33-35; Luke 6:41-42; 22:24-25; Rom 15:1-3; Gal 6:2; Phil 2:5-11; 2 Thess 3:7-9; 1 Tim 4:12; Tit 2:7; 1 Pet 5:3; 3 John v 9,11.


James D.G. Dunn "The Washing of the Disciples' Feet in John 13:1-20"; Zeitschrift für die neutestamentliche Wissenschaft 61 (1970): 247-252.

Jey J. Kanagaraj "Johannine Jesus, The Supreme Example of Leadership: An Inquiry into John 13:1-20"; Themelios 29.3 (Summer 2004): 15-26.

Maurits Sabbe "The Footwashing in Jn 13 and Its Relation to the Synoptic Gospels"; Ephemerides Theologicae Lovaniensis 58 (1982): 279-308.

Sandra M. Schneiders "The Foot Washing (John 13:1-20): An Experiment in Hermeneutics"; Catholic Biblical Quarterly 43 (1981): 76-92.

Fernando F. Segovia "John 13:1-20, The Footwashing in the Johannine Tradition"; Zeitschrift für die neutestamentliche Wissenschaft 73 (1982): 31-51.

Herold Weiss "Foot Washing in the Johannine Community"; Novum Testamentum 21 (1979): 298-325.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-04-25; 2011-11-10; 2014-07-04)

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13:16-17 Amen, amen, I say to you, a slave is not greater (than) his lord. Nor (is) an apostle greater than the one having sent him. If you know these things, happy are you, if you – according to the circumstances – may make/do them.

Word for word: 13:16 (17 words in the Greek text) amen amen (i/I)-say (to)-you, not is (a)-slave greater-(than) the lord his nor (an)-apostle greater-(than) the-(one) having-sent him. 13:17 (8 words in the Greek text) if these-(things) (uou)-'know-(and-have-known)'/know, happy (you)-are if-according-to-the-circumstances (you)-may-make them.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The Lord said to Israel:) "You shall watch/keep all My commands and My judicial verdicts and make/do them, which, having made/done them, a man will live in them." (Lev 18:5a, Greek OT)

(The prophet Ahijah said to the woman of Jeroboam:) “I am a hard apostle (of the Lord) towards/’in regard to’ you.” (1 Kings 14:6b, Greek OT)

(Solomon said:) “Pronounced happy (is) the one watching/keeping the law.” (Prov 29:18b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to His people:) "Hear the sayings of this covenant and make/do them." (Jer 11:6b, Greek OT)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) "Happy the one who will turn back in/with these things and having put/lain them against his heart he 'is made'/becomes wise." (Sir 50:28)

(Baruch said: “The people) died in evil hardships, in famine and in/with large sword and in apostleship/’dispatching away’.” (Baruch 2:25b)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus dispatched away the twelve and said to them:) "A disciple is not over/’more than’ his (א,* א) teacher, nor a slave over/’more than’ his lord." (Matt 10:24)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “The one who – according to the circumstances – may give to one of these small ones (following Me) only a cup of cold (water) to drink, into/’for the purpose of’ a name of a disciple, amen, I say to you, he may not/certainly not perish/lose his wage.” (Matt 10:42)

(Jesus said:) ”A man (continually) had two children. * (א*) Having come to the first he spoke: ‘Child, withdraw (and) work today in the vineyard.’ But ‘having answered’/answering (the child) spoke: ‘I do not want.’. * (א*) Afterward having repented (the child) went away (and did the will of his father). (Matt 21:28b-29)

(Jesus chose from His disciples) twelve, whom He and/also named apostles. (Luke 6:13b)

(Jesus said:) “Why do you call Me ‘Lord, Lord’ and do not make/do what/'the things' I say?” (Luke 6:46)

(Jesus said to a certain lawyer:) "Make/do (what is written in the Law) and you will live." (Luke 10:28b)

(Jesus said to a woman:) "Happy the ones hearing the saying of God and watching/keeping (it)." (Luke 11:28b)

(The Lord said:) ”Happy (is) that slave whom his lord (on his) having come will find in this way making/doing.” (Luke 12:43)

(Jesus) ‘fell up’/’lay back’ and the apostles together with Him. (Luke 22:14b)

(Paul and Timothy) went through the cities and (continually) gave ‘by the side of’/’over to’ them to watch the decrees having been (and being) judged/decided by the apostles and (the) elders in (a disgraced) Jerosolyma/Jerusalem. (Acts 16:4)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

Jesus says to (His disciples): “My food is ‘in order that’/that I might make/do the will of the One having sent Me and make His work perfect.” (John 4:34)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

In John two blessings occur, this one about the blessing when one to the knowledge joins the doing, and in 20:29 the happiness to be able to believe without seeing. (René Kieffer "Johannesevangeliet" p 322; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

According to Jewish thinking, in for instance Mishna, Berakot 5:5, the following is true: ”The one who is a messenger to another man is as this one.” (René Kieffer "Johannesevangeliet" p 342; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

An "apostolos" is in general, 'one who is sent' (the word is used in Jn. 13:16), but regularly in the NT he is one who has received a special commission from Christ. (F.F. Bruce "The Epistle to the Galatians" p 72)

In the early Church ... were the Apostles. Their authority was not confined to one place; their writ ran through the whole Church; and they were looked upon as being in a real sense the successors of Jesus. (William Barclay “The Acts of the Apostles” p 91)

Here (in Stockholm) they are many who have been glad because of the information concerning the result of the Riksdag election in Gothenburg. . . . Happy you, who has had an aim, won it and now see others at your horizon to win! Happy you, who can so be livened up by love to native country and mankind, that the self with its importunate demands for private happiness must subordinate itself to it! Happy you, who to your lot has got will-power enough to make fruit-bearing the pounds God has granted you. (Viktor Rydbergs brev I "Viktor Rydbergs och S.A. Hedlunds brevväxling" p 68; letter 1866-12-06 to S.A. Hedlund; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Jönköping's Higher School of Learning was during a couple of terms visited by a Stockholmer, Åbrandsson. . . . One day he told me . . . that he was the youngest member of one in Stockholm formed association of young men, which perhaps had the literary future of Sweden in its hand. . . . Its motto was "Truth, Reality". . . . Its name was Pro Veritate. . . . Some days ago a letter from the association had arrived to him . . . which enjoined him to become apostle for its sake in Jönköping. . . . When Åbrandsson rejected Tegnér's "Jätten" as untrue, because no giants live in the halls of the mountains, and his "Flyttfåglarne", because no ghost orchid with green mantle walks in the evening, I got angry (and) gave him the by-name Fool. . . . The following Sunday when I heard the words of the priest: "Lift up your hearts to God!", I thought of the idea, that I would ask Åbrandsson, if he regarded in this exhortation be an untruth, because we in the real meaning of the word cannot lift our hearts over us. He answered in a gently explanatory tone, that it was an untruth, which should not be used. Then we never interchanged meanings in such subjects. . . . (Another time F-d cried:) "Viva our banner!" and a stick with a white flap was swung over the crowd (of playing boys). But the nearest beings also heard Åbrandsson crying: "It is not a banner; it is F-d's handkerchief." (Viktor Rydberg "Realisten Åbrandsson" p 129-132; the years 1843-44?)

“To know,” belongeth to all; but “to do,” not to all. (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers XIV:261)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Oloph Bexell, Gordon Bridger, Fredrik Böök, Amadeus Creutzberg, Richard Thomas France, Gao Xingjian, Axel Gauffin, Röl Gording, Carl Grimberg, Lars Hartman, Alf Henrikson, Eirik Hornborg, Betty Janson, Herbert Johansson, Lasse Johansson-Lucidor, Eyvind Johnson, Severin Larsen, Anna-Maria Lenngren, Lars Lindberg, Bodil Malmsten, Carl Henrik Martling, Vilhelm Moberg, Hilding Nordström, J. Nyrén, Jan Olof Olsson, John Ortberg, Enar Skillius, August Strindberg, Kari Syreeni, Anton Tjechov, Edith Unnerstad, Bertil Waldén, Emile Zola.


My own comments and speculations:

An apostle is not greater than the one having sent him. However his office is the first and most important among the Christians (cf. 1 Cor 12:28). We can observe, that many of the letters in the NT begin with a mention of the apostleship of the author (see below). Jude does not speak about himself as an apostle of Jesus Christ (Jude v 17).

In a restoration perspective we can see how the the hard and ill-fated message of the apostle (1 King 14:6,10) now has been replaced by a good message bringing happiness.

Concerning “Amen, amen”, see John 1:51a with My own comments and speculations.

Concerning “happy”, cf. My own comments and speculations to John 6:16-21. See also John 20:26-29.


The one having not become a forgetful hearer however/but a maker/doer of a work, this one will be happy in his making/doing. (Jas 1:25b)


Greek words:

apostolos (apostle) 1 Kings 14:6; Luke 6:13; 22:14; John 13:16; Acts 16:4 – Matt 10:2; Mark 3:14; 6:30; Luke 9:1(א,*א); Luke 9:10; 11:49; 17:5; 24:10. Apg 1:2,26; 2:37,42-43; 4:33,35-37; 5:2,12,18,29,40; 6:6; 8:1,14,18; 9:27; 11:1; 14:4,14; 15:2,4,6,22-23. Rom 1:1; 11:13; 16:7; 1 Cor 1:1; 4:9; 9:1-2,5; 12:28-29; 15:7,9; 2 Cor 1:1; 8:23; 11:5,13; 12:11-12; Gal 1:1,17,19; Eph 1:1; 2:20; 3:5; 4:11; Phil 2:25; Col 1:1,23(א*,A); 1 Thess 2:7; 1 Tim 1:1; 2:7; 2 Tim 1:1,11; Tit 1:1; Heb 3:1; 1 Pet 1:1; 2 Pet 1:1; 3:2; Jude v 17; Rev 2:2; 18:20; 21:14.

makarios (happy) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Sir 50:28; Luke 11:28; 12:43; John 13:17; Jas 1:25 – Tobit 13:16; Sir 14:1-2,20; 25:8-9; 26:1; 28:19; 31:8; 34:15(17); 48:11; Baruch 4:4; Matt 5:3-11; 11:6; 13:16; 16:17; Luke 1:45; 6:20-22; 7:23; 10:23; 11:27; 12:37-38; 14:14-15; 23:29; John 20:29; Acts 20:35; 26:2; Rom 4:7-8; 14:22; 1 Cor 7:40; 1 Tim 1:11; 6:15; Tit 2:13; Jas 1:12; 1 Pet 3:14; 4:14; Rev 1:3; 14:13; 16:15; 19:9; 20:6; 22:7,14.


Additional studies:

Deut 4:1; Matt 7:21,24-25; 12:50; 18:4; 19:17; Mark 3:35; Luke 6:40; 8:21; 22:27; John 12:47-48; 15:20; 20:21; Rom 2:13; Rev 18:20; 21:14.


C.K. Barrett "The Apostles in and after the New Testament"; Svensk Exegetisk Årsbok 21 (1956): 30-49.

James D.G. Dunn "The Washing of the Disciples' Feet in John 13:1-20"; Zeitschrift für die neutestamentliche Wissenschaft 61 (1970): 247-252.

Calvin R. Mercer "Jesus the apostle: 'sending' and the theology of John"; Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 35:4 (Dec. 1992): 457-462.

Maurits Sabbe "The Footwashing in Jn 13 and Its Relation to the Synoptic Gospels"; Ephemerides Theologicae Lovaniensis 58 (1982): 279-308.

Sandra M. Schneiders "The Foot Washing (John 13:1-20): An Experiment in Hermeneutics"; Catholic Biblical Quarterly 43 (1981): 76-92.

Fernando F. Segovia "John 13:1-20, The Footwashing in the Johannine Tradition"; Zeitschrift für die neutestamentliche Wissenschaft 73 (1982): 31-51.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-04-25; 2011-11-11; 2014-07-05)

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13:18 I do not say/speak on account of all of you. I know whom I have chosen. However, (this comes about) in order that the writing may be completed: “The one chewing the bread in company with Me (P66, א,* א, A) has lifted (and lifts) (א,*א,A) his heel against, against Me.”

Word for word (26 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus): Not on-account-of all you (i/I)-say. i/I 'know-(and-have-known)'/know whom (i/I)-chose. however in-order-that the writing may-be-completed: the-(one) chewing in-company-with me the bread has-lifted-(and-lifts)-against against me the heel his.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The Lord said to the serpent:) "I will put enmity upwards/between your middle and upwards/- a middle of the woman and upwards/between a middle of your seed and upwards/- a middle of her seed. He shall keep your head, and you shall keep his heel." (Gen 3:15, Greek OT)

Having beheld that the daughters of the men are fine, the sons of God took women to themselves from all whom they chose. (Gen 6:2, Greek OT)

After this the brother of (Esau) came out of (Rebekah) and his hand ‘being (and having been) taken’/’took (and had taken)’ upon the heel of Esau. And (Isaac) called his name Jacob. (Gen 25:26a, Greek OT)

(Isaac said to Esau:) "Having come in company with deceit your brother took your blessing." And (Esau) spoke: "His name was righteously/rightly called Jacob, for he already this a second time had struck (and struck) me with the heel. Both/furthermore has taken (and takes) my birthright, and now he has taken (and takes) my blessing. (Gen 27:35-36a, Greek OT)

The pieces of the meat (continually) were still in the teeth (of Israel), 'before or'/'before it would ‘leave out’/disappear, and the Lord was passionate into/’for the purpose of’ the people, and the Lord hit the people (with) an extremely great blow. (Num 11:33, Greek OT)

(Moses said to Israel:) "The Lord took/chose beforehand your fathers to welcome them and chose their see, you to the side of all the nations ‘according to’/’as it is’ this day." (Deut 10:15, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said:) “Happy the nation where its God is the Lord, a people whom He has chosen into an inheritance to Himself.” (Ps 33:12, Greek OT)

(David said:) "... All my enemies (continually) whispered ‘down from’/against me. ... For and/also the man of my peace, against whom I hoped, the one eating my breads/bread, he has ‘made ... great’/praised a striking with the heel against me." (Ps 41:7a,9 or 41:8a,10, Greek OT)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said: “The leader who was dispatched out from the foreign king) lifted his hand against, against Zion. ... “ (Sir 48:18b)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to the crowd:) “You did not got power over Me. However (this comes about) in order that the writings might be completed.” (Mark 14:49b)

(Jesus chose from His disciples) twelve, whom He and/also named apostles. (Luke 6:13b)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Behold, the hand of the one giving Me ‘to the side of’/over (is) in company with Me upon the table.” (Luke 22:21)

(Jesus) led (His disciples) out * (P75,א,*א,B) till towards Bethany and having lifted His hands against (them) He blessed them. (Luke 24:50)

(Peter said:) ”Males, brothers, the writing (continually) had to be completed, which the Holy Spirit spoke beforehand through the mouth of David on account of Judas, the one having become a guide to the ones having together taken Jesus.” (Acts 1:16)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Jesus said to the Jews:) "Entirely as the living Father has dispatched Me away, and I live because of the Father, and the one chewing Me, and/also that one will live because of Me. This is the bread, the one descending (P66, א*) out of the (P66, א,* א) heaven, not entirely as the fathers ate and died. The one chewing this bread will live into the (coming) age." (John 6:57-58)

Jesus answered and spoke to (א,*א) them: “Did I not choose you, the twelve? And out of you it/there is a slanderer.” (John 6:70)

(Jesus said to Simon Peter:) “And you are clean, however/but by no means all.” For He knew the one giving Him ‘to the side of’/over. Because of this He spoke * (א,*א,A): “All are by no means clean.” (John 13:10b-11)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

To show the bottom of one's foot to someone in the Near East is a mark of contempt. … Such action was especially grave on the part of a friend who had shared one's table. (Raymond E. Brown "The Gospel according to John" p 554)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Ulla Fredriksson, Liselotte Johansson, Kerstin Hyltmark, Sven Lidman, Vilhelm Moberg, Kari Syreeni, Anton Tjechov, P. Waldenström.


My own comments and speculations:

The bread which is "chewed" is the bread which gives life in contrast to the flesh which was chewed to death in the wilderness. Compare My own comments and speculations to John 6:51b-57. Compare also Ps 41 (Greek OT), where the usual Greek word is used for "eat". In the Gospel of John the Greek word for "chew" has a special theological meaning.

At his birth Jacob (who was welcomed by his father) took hold of the heel of his brother Esau (who was hated by his father). Now before His death Jesus (welcomed by His father) beholds how the heel of His disciple (the slanderer and the son of the perdition) Judas is lifted against Him.

Concerning the verb “complete”, see My own comments and speculations to John 19:33-37.


Paul said to the believers in Ephesos: "(God) chose us in (our Lord Jesus Christ).” (Eph 1:4a)


Greek words: pterna (heel) (in the NT + two examples in the OT) Gen 3:15; 25:26; John 13:18 .


Additonal studies:

Deut 14:12; Sir 48:18; Matt 10:36; 26:21-23; Mark 14:18-20; John 12:38; 13:21,22,26; 15:16,19,25; 17:12; 18:32; 19:24,36; Acts 1:2.


James D.G. Dunn "The Washing of the Disciples' Feet in John 13:1-20"; Zeitschrift für die neutestamentliche Wissenschaft 61 (1970): 247-252.

Maarten J.J. Menken "The Translation of Psalm 41:10 in John 13:18"; Journal for the Study of the New Testament 40 (1990): 61-79.

Sandra M. Schneiders "The Foot Washing (John 13:1-20): An Experiment in Hermeneutics"; Catholic Biblical Quarterly 43 (1981): 76-92.

Fernando F. Segovia "John 13:1-20, The Footwashing in the Johannine Tradition"; Zeitschrift für die neutestamentliche Wissenschaft 73 (1982): 31-51.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-04-26; 2011-11-12; 2014-07-06)

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13:19 From just now I say/speak to you before it becomes/’comes about’, in order that when it – according to the circumstances – may become, you may believe, that I am.

Word for word (14 words in the Greek text): from just-now (i/I)-say (to)-you before 'the (to)-become'/'it becomes', in-order-that (you)-may-believe when-according-to-the-circumstances (it)-may-become that i/I (i/I)-am.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Joseph's) father ‘honoured on’/blamed him and spoke to him: "What (is) this dream which you have dreamt? Having come shall consequently both/’ ... as well’ I and your mother and your brothers at any rate come to prostrate ourselves before you against the earth/ground." But/and his brothers were zealous/jealous (of) him, but his father kept the word throughout. (Gen 37:10b-11, Greek OT)

God spoke towards Moses: "I am the One who is." And He spoke: "In this way you shall speak to the sons of Israel: 'The One who is has dispatched (and dispatches) me away towards you.'" (Ex 3:14, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Israel:) “Become My witnesses, and/also I (am) a witness ... and the boy whom I have chosen, in order that you may gain knowledge and believe and perceive that I am." (Is 43:10a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to His people:) "I am the God ... bringing up a message (about) the last/later things before they become and together/’at the same time’ it was brought to a consummation." (Is 46:9b-10a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Israel:) "I brought up a message to you (about) things 'long ago'/'of old'. Before come/'they came' against you, I made (them) audible to you, that you might not speak that/: 'My images made (it).', and that you might not speak that/: 'The carved images and the molten images enjoined me.'" (Is 48:5, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Israel:) “From the now I have made the new things audible to you, (things) which it is about to become. …” (Is 48:6b, Greek OT)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Your Father knows which things you have need (of), before 'of the you'/you demand (towards) Him.” (Matt 6:8b)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "False Christs and false prophets will rise ... so that and/also the chosen ones, if able/possible, will be (א,* א) led astray. Behold, I have spoken (and speak) to you beforehand." (Matt 24:24-25)

(Jesus said to the priest leader:) “From just now you will behold the Son of the Man being seated out of the right (parts) of the Ability and coming upon the clouds of the heaven.” (Matt 26:64b)

(Jesus said:) “Many will come on/’for the sake of’ My name, saying that/: ‘I am’ and will lead many astray.” (Mark 13:6)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

But already on his descending, the (א,* א) slaves went to meet him and they brought a message (א,* א) that/: “His boy lives.” He so inquired from the side of them (about) the hour, in which he had/behaved more refined. And (א,* א, A) they spoke to him that/: “Yesterday, a seventh hour, the fever-fire/fever let him be. The father so had knowledge, that * (P75, א*, B) (it was) that hour, in which He (א*) spoke (to) him: “Your son lives”. And he himself believed Him, and his whole habitation/household. (John 4:51-53)

(Jesus said to the Jews:) “I spoke * (P66,א*) to you, that you will die in your misses (of the mark of God). For if – according to the circumstances – you may not believe Me (א,*א), that I am, you will die in your misses (of the mark of God).” (John 8:24)


Peter said to the believers: "So you, welcomed, having knowledge beforehand, watch/’be on your guard’." (2 Pet 3:17a)


Additional studies:

Is 41:23; 44:7-8; Matt 26:29,64; John 8:28,58; 14:7,26,29; 16:1,4; Rev 14:13.


James D.G. Dunn "The Washing of the Disciples' Feet in John 13:1-20"; Zeitschrift für die neutestamentliche Wissenschaft 61 (1970): 247-252.

Sandra M. Schneiders "The Foot Washing (John 13:1-20): An Experiment in Hermeneutics"; Catholic Biblical Quarterly 43 (1981): 76-92.

Fernando F. Segovia "John 13:1-20, The Footwashing in the Johannine Tradition"; Zeitschrift für die neutestamentliche Wissenschaft 73 (1982): 31-51.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-04-26; 2011-11-13; 2014-07-11)

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13:20 Amen, amen, I say to you, the one taking – according to the circumstances - someone I may send takes Me, but the one taking Me takes the One having sent Me.

Word for word (19 words in the Greek text): amen amen (i/I)-say (to)-you, the-(one) taking according-to-the-circumstances someone (i/I)-may-send me takes, the-(one) but me taking takes the-(one) having-sent me.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Moses said to the Lord:) “If so – according to the circumstances – (Israel) may not believe me ‘but not’/or listen to My voice? For they will speak: ‘God has not been (and is not) beheld to you.’” ... (The Lord answered:) "You shall speak towards (your brother Aaron) and give My words into his mouth; and I will open your mouth and his mouth, and I will conclude to you what things you shall make/do." ... And Moses brought up a message to Aaron (about) all the sayings of the Lord with which He had dispatched (him) away. (Ex 4:1b,15,28a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Jeremiah:) "Towards all to whom – if according to the circumstances – I have dispatched you out, you shall go, and ‘according to’/concerning all things as many as I – if according to the circumstances – have enjoined you, you shall talk. You may not fear from/of the face/presence of (the people), because I am in company with you to take you out for Myself," says the Lord. (And Jeremiah said:) "And the Lord stretched out His hand towards me and touched my mouth, and the Lord spoke towards me: 'Behold, I have given (and give) My sayings into your mouth.'" (Jer 1:7b-9, Greek OT)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "The one receiving you receives Me, and the one receiving Me receives the One having dispatched Me away.” (Matt 10:40)

(Jesus said: "The kingdom of God) is like a leaven, which having took a woman hid in into three corn-measures (about 13 litres each) of flour, till (the time in) it was wholly leavened." (Luke 13:21)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

But as many as took him, to them He gave (judicial) authority to become children of God, to the ones believing into His name. (John 1:12)

(Jesus said to the Jews:) "All may honour the Son entirely as they may honour the Father. The one not honouring the Son does not honour the Father having sent Him." (John 5:23)

(Jesus said to the crowd): “The one believing into Me does not believe into Me however/but into the One having sent Me. And the one looking at Me looks at the One having sent Me.” (John 12:44b-45)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

Great is the recompense of care bestowed upon the servants of God and from here (“enteuthen”) it yieldeth to us its fruits. For, “he that receiveth you,” it saith, “receiveth Me, and he that receiveth Me, receiveth Him that sent Me.” (Matt x. 40) Now what can be equal to the receiving Christ and His Father? (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers XIV:263)


My own comments and speculations:

On "amen, amen", see John 1:51a with My own comments and speculations.


(Paul said to the believers in Galatia:) "You received me as a messenger of God, as Christ Jesus." (Gal 4:14b)

God (is) not (so) unrighteous (as) to forget your work and the welcome which you showed in into/’for the purpose of’ His name, having rendered service to the holy ones and rendering service. (Heb 6:10)


Additional studies:

Matt 18:2-5; Mark 9:36-37; Luke 9:46-48; 10:16; John 1:18; 13:16; 14:9; 20:21.


James D.G. Dunn "The Washing of the Disciples' Feet in John 13:1-20"; Zeitschrift für die neutestamentliche Wissenschaft 61 (1970): 247-252.

Sandra M. Schneiders "The Foot Washing (John 13:1-20): An Experiment in Hermeneutics"; Catholic Biblical Quarterly 43 (1981): 76-92.

Fernando F. Segovia "John 13:1-20, The Footwashing in the Johannine Tradition"; Zeitschrift für die neutestamentliche Wissenschaft 73 (1982): 31-51.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-04-26; 2011-11-14; 2014-07-12)

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13:21-22 Having spoken these things Jesus was troubled (in) the spirit, and He ‘was a’/bore witness and spoke: “Amen, amen, I say to you, that one out of you will give Me ‘to the side of’/over.” The disciples so (P66, א*, A) (continually/repeatedly) saw into one another, being in a puzzle on account of whom He says/speaks.

Word for word: 13:21 (20 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus) These-(things) having-spoken Jesus was-troubled (in)-the spirit and was-a-witness and spoke: amen amen (i/I)-say (to)-you that one out-of you will-give-to-the-side-of me. 13:22 (10 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus prima manus) (continually)-saw so into one-another the disciples being-in-a-puzzle on-account-of whom (he)-says.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(On the Lord God's) having beheld that the badnesses of the men were made full upon the earth, and (that) ‘every one certain’/everyone carefully ‘understand throughout’/considered in his heart against the evil things ‘all the days’/continually God and/namely pondered, that he had made the man upon the earth. And He ‘understood throughout’/considered (it) ... (and) He was passionate that He had made them. (Gen 6:5-6,7b, Greek OT)

(The messengers said to Jacob:) “Esau ... comes ‘into a meeting to’/’to meet’ you. ... But Jacob feared extremely and (continually) was in a puzzle.” (Gen 32:6b-7a or 7b-8a, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said:) “In order that what’/why are you, soul, ‘sorrowful around’/’exceedingly sorrowful’? And ‘in order that what’/why do you 'trouble together'/vex me? … ‘In order of what’/why do I go looking sullen in the thing to oppress out my enemy? … ‘In order of what’/why are you, soul, ‘sorrowful around’/’exceedingly sorrowful’? And ‘in order of what’/why do you 'trouble together'/vex me?” (Ps 42:5a,9b,11a or 42:6a,10b,12a, Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) "I went in an eagerness of my spirit, and a hand of the Lord became powerful against me." (Ezek 3:14b, Greek OT)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “A friend is a companion of tables, and/but he may not/certainly not stay by the side of (you) in your day of oppression.” (Sir 6:10)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said: “The Highest One brings away a message about) the things having been (and being) taken to the side of and the things which will be and revealing/'He reveals' hidden away footsteps.” (Sir 42:19)


The Latter Revelation:

(On Jesus and His disciples') eating, (Jesus) spoke: "Amen, I say to you that one out of you will give Me ‘to the side of’/over." And being extremely sorrowful they began to say to Him, one everyone/’by one’: "Surely not I am, Lord?" (Matt 26:21-22)

Having come into (the memorial tomb) (the women) did not find the body of the Lord Jesus. And it became/’came about’ to them in the be/being in a puzzle on account of this, and behold, two males stood on/near them in a flashing clothing. (Luke 24:3-4)

Having gazed into/at (the blind male) Peter together with John, (Peter) spoke: “See into us.” (Acts 3:4)

Paul's spirit (continually) was provoked in him, looking at the city being full of idols. (Acts 17:16b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

As so Jesus beheld (Mary) weeping and the Jews having come together with her weeping, He was indignant in/with the spirit and troubled Himself. (John 11:33)

(Jesus said to Simon Peter:) “And you are clean, however/but by no means all.” For He knew the one giving Him ‘to the side of’/over. Because of this He spoke * (א,*א,A): “All are by no means clean.” (John 13:10b-11)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "I do not say/speak on account of all of you. I know whom I have chosen.” (John 13:18a)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

It would be well to hear something of what Goethe has written about Leonardo's "The Holy Communion". . . . The motive, by which Leonardo charges the silent, holy communion with nervousness, is the words of the master: among you is one who will betray me. Jesus just has expressed these words, which have spread uneasiness round about the table; but he bends his head with sunk eyes: the whole party, the motions of the arms, the hands, all, Goethe remarks, repeat with heavenly submission the unlucky words - his silence itself confirms, that it is so: one among you will betray me. (Viktor Rydberg "En underbar man - Leonardo da Vinci" p 72; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning "amen, amen", see John 1:51a with My own comments and speculations.


Greek words:

aporeô (be in a puzzle) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Luke 24:4; John 13:22 – 1 Macc 3:31; Wisdom of Solomon 11:17; Sir 10:27; Mark 6:20; Acts 25:20; 2 Cor 4:8; Gal 4:20.


Additional studies: Ps 41:10; Mark 14:18-19; Luke 22:21-23; John 1:32; 4:44; 12:27; 13:26.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-04-26; 2011-11-15; 2014-07-13)

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13:23-25 But (P66,א,*א,A) there (continually) was one out of His disciples, whom Jesus (continually) welcomed, lying up/’down to table’ in the bosom of Jesus. Simon Peter so nods to this one to inquire who it – according to the circumstances - might be on account of whom He (continually) said/spoke, and he says to Him: “Speak who it is (א,* א) on account of whom He says/speaks.” (On) that one's so * (א,* א, A) having fallen against (P66,א*)’, against the breast of Jesus, he says to Him: “Lord, who is it?”

Word for word: 13:23 (17 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus) (there)-(continually)-was but lying-up one out-of the disciples his in the bosom (of)-the (of)-Jesus, whom (continually)-welcomed the Jesus. 13:24 (21 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus) nods so (to)-this-(one) Simon Peter (to)-inquire who according-to-the-circumstances (it)-might-be on-account-of whom (he)-(continually)-said, and (he)-says (to)-him: speak who (it)-is on-account-of whom (he)-says. 13:25 (13 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus) having-fallen-against so that-(one) against the breast (of)-the (of)-Jesus (he)-says (to)-him: lord, who is-(it)?


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

The Lord God spoke to the serpent: “Because you have made/done this ... you shall go on your breast and the belly. ... “ (Gen 3:14a, Greek OT)

Israel (continually) welcomed Joseph ‘to the side of’/’in comparison with’ all his sons. (Gen 37:3a, Greek OT)

(God) blessed (Joseph) . . . with respect to blessings of nipples and womb. (Gen 49:25b, Greek OT)

Joseph fell against, against the neck of his father (Jacob). (Gen 50:1a A, Greek OT)

(Moses said to the Lord:) “Not have I taken every/all this people (Israel) in womb or have I brought them forth, because You say to me: ‘Take it into your bosom, as if (you were) a nurse ‘to lift’/’who lifts’ the sucking child into the earth/land which You swore (to give) their fathers’?” (Num 11:12, Greek OT)

(The Lord rejected) the dwelling-tent of Joseph and did not choose the tribe of Ephraim. And/but he chose the tribe of Judas, the mountain Zion, which He welcomed. (Ps 78:67-68, Greek OT)

(Asaph said to the Lord:) "You 'lifted afterwards'/'set out' a vine out of Egypt. ... Inspect this vine. ... Let Your hand become/come against a male of Your right hand and against a son of man." (Ps 80:8a,14b,17a or 80:9a,15b,18a, Greek OT)

(Solomon said:) "Just as eagerness/sweep of a water, in this way (is) a heart of a king in (the) hand of God. Where - if according to the circumstances and (if) He wants - (the king) may nod, there (it was) He (who) leant/bent it." (Prov 21:1, Greek OT)

(The father Tobit said:) “I took a woman (Anna) out of the seed of our lineage and I begot out of her a son ... Tobias.” (Tobit 1:9b, S)

When (the son) Tobias heard ... that (his woman was) out of the seed of his father's house, he welcomed her exceedingly. ... (And the name of the mother of Tobias was Anna; cf. the name John, in Greek “Iôannês”.) (Tobit 6:18b or 6:19a, S)

Maccabaeus nodded on/at all things which Lysias ‘called to the side of’/’put forward’, reflecting the thing carrying/bringing together. (2 Macc 11:15a)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said: “... Moses was and had been) welcomed by God and men. ...” (Sir 45:1)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said: “Samuel was and had been) welcomed by his Lord.” (Sir 46:13a)


The Latter Revelation:

(The mother of the sons of Zebedee) says to (Jesus): ”Speak in order that in Your kingdom these my two sons may sit down, one ‘out of’/at * (א,*א,B) 'right (parts)'/'the right (hand)' and one ‘out of’/at ‘Your (parts) of a good name’/’Your left’.” … (Jesus said:) ”To sit down ‘out of’/at My right (parts/hand) and ‘out of’/at ‘(parts) of a good name’/the left * (א,*א,B) is not Mine to give, however/but (it is) to what ones it has been (and is) made ready by My Father.” (Matt 20:21b,23b)

(Jesus) attended many, so that they fell/forced on/upon Him in order that they might touch Him. (Mark 3:10a)

It/there (continually) was a prophetess Anna, a daughter of Phanuel, out of (the) tribe of Asher. This one, 'stepping (and having stepped) forward'/'being (and having been) advanced' in many days, having/had lived in company with a male seven years from her virginity and her widow/widowhood (was) till seventyfour (א*) years, who/'and she' did not stand aloof of/from the sanctuary, serving night and day (with) fastings and prayers. And having stood on/near she this hour ‘confessed against’/praised God and talked on account of (the child Jesus) (with) all the ones ‘receiving towards’/’waiting for’ the redemption of Jerusalem. (Luke 2:36-38) Cf. the words of Moses in Deut 33:24 (Greek OT): “Blessed from/among children (is) Aser, and his brothers will be agreeable. His foot will dipped in olive-oil.” Cf. also the resemblance between the names Anna and John (Greek: Iôannês).

Having stood up (the son) came towards his father. But on his still holding far off, his father beheld him and was moved in his inward vital parts. And having run he ‘fell against, against’/embraced his neck and ‘was entirely friends with’/’kissed ... tenderly’ him. (Luke 15:20)

Having called to (himself) one of the ’boys or girls’/boys the older brother (continually/repeatedly) inquired, what these things * (א,* א, A) might be. (Luke 15:26)

(Jesus said to the Pharisees:) " … The beggarly one died and was carried away by the messengers into Abraham's bosom." (Luke 16:22a)

Having heard a crowd going through/by (Jesus) inquired what this ‘oh, that may’/could be. (Luke 18:36)

(The crowds) (continually) called Barnabas ‘(the) brilliant one’/Zeus but/and Paul, Hermes, ‘already since’/since he (continually) was ‘the one in command of the saying’/’the chief speaker’. ... Barnabas (continually) and/also wished to take John, the one being called Mark, to the side of (himself and Paul) together with (them). (Acts 14:12; 15:37)

The commander ... had nodded to (Paul) to say/speak. (Acts 24:10a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

No one has ever beheld (and beholds) God. An only descendant, a God, the One being into/in the bosom of the Father, that One has ‘been in command out’/explained Him. (John 1:18)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 - about 1500

From the list of names given in (John) 21:2 (Peter, Thomas, Nathanael, the sons of Zebedee, and two others) it seems that the beloved Disciple was one of the sons of Zebedee or else one of the unnamed disciples. If the latter, he must still have been one of the Twelve, for he was present at the Last Supper and it seems that only the Twelve were present on that occasion (Matt 26:20; Mark 14:17,20; Luke 22:14,30). This rules out suggestions like Lazarus and John Mark. The Beloved Disciple appears to have stood in close relationship to Peter (13:24; 20:2; 21:7). From the other Gospels we know that Peter, James, and John formed a trio (and that they were singled out as especially close to Jesus). Since James was martyred early (Acts 12:2), this leaves John. This conjecture may be supported by the curious fact that John is not mentioned by name anywhere in this Gospel. It is not easy to think of a reason why any early Christian, other than John himself, should have completely omitted all mention of such a prominent apostle. It is also the case that in this Gospel we do not read of "John the Baptist" as in the other Gospels, but simply of "John". It is difficult to understand why any informed early Christian (who must have known that there were two Johns) should thus court confusion. But it would have been quite natural for John the Apostle to speak of his namesake simply as "John". This point is all the more significant in that in this Gospel people are consistently distinguished. Thus the Judas who asked a question at the Last Supper is expressly said to be not Judas Iscariot (14:22). (Leon Morris "The Gospel according to John" p 6-8)

It is impossible to know where Peter lies at the table. The evangelist only pays attention to the privilege of the beloved disciple ahead of Peter to be able to lean towards Jesus' breast and ask him. … As in John 20:2-10 and 21:7,20ff the beloved disciple has a start ahead of Simon Peter. He has a nearer relation to Jesus, because he shall bring about Simon's question and lies nearer to the master at the table. Also in the only scene where he is not mentioned in connection to Peter (John 19:26f) the observant reader can find a contrast between his faithfulness to the end and Peter's threefold denial. (René Kieffer "Johannesevangeliet" p 324,333; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

The BD (Beloved Disciple) is on particularly close terms with Jesus as emerges already from the name and the scene mentioned in 13:23f. (Birger Olsson "Structure and Meaning in the Fourth Gospel" p 273)


about 1500 and time before

What is that? What (John) saith of himself: “Whom Jesus loved.” Why did no one else say this of himself? Yet the others were loved to. But he more than any. (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers XIV:263)

Was anything concealed from John, the Lord's most beloved disciple, who used to lean on His breast? (Tertullian, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol III, p 253)

He, who was the perfect bread of the Father, offered Himself to us as milk, (because we were) as infants. He did this when He appeared as a man, that we, being nourished, as it were, from the breast of His flesh, and having, by such a course of milk-nourishment, become accustomed to eat and drink the Word of God, may be able also to contain in ourselves the Bread of immortality, which is the Spirit of the Father. (Irenaeus, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol I, p 521)

(The Talmud) records one (saying) of the School of Rabbi Jannai, to the effect that knowledge of the Law may be looked for, in those who have sucked it in at their mother's breast. (Alfred Edersheim "The Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah Part I" p 228)

From the Gospel-narratives we infer, that St. John must have reclined next to Jesus, on His right hand, since otherwise he could not have leaned back on His bosom. (Alfred Edersheim "The Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah Part II" p 493)

Edersheim maintains that Peter lies opposite John at the one end of a table, formed as an elongated horseshoe. (Alfred Edersheim "The Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah Part II" See illustration p 494)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Gunnar Ahlgren, Eric S. Alexandersson, Ann-Charlotte Alverfors, Hjalmar Alving, Johan Anderson, Ingvar Andersson, Karl Andersson, Elisabeth Beskow, Carl Boberg, Nils Bolander, Donald Coggan, Stig Dagerman, Grazia Deledda, LarsOlov Eriksson, P. Fjellstedt, Bo Frid, Dick Harrison, Gudmar Hasselberg, Alf Henrikson, Homeros, Lars Levi Laestadius, Pär Lagerkvist, Edin Lövås, Thomas Mann, Toni Morrison, Torsten Nilsson, John Ongman, Efraim Palmqvist, A.W. Rendahl, Ragnar Samuelson, William Shakespeare, Jesper Svartvik, Per Johan Svensson, Kari Syreeni, P. Waldenström.


My own comments and speculations:

Joseph is a type of John. As Joseph was the welcomed son of twelve brothers, blessed of the breasts and the womb, so John is the (continually) welcomed disciple of the twelve, blessed of the breast and the bosom. John is the disciple whom Jesus (continually) welcomed, lying in the bosom of Him, who is in the bosom of the Father. Cf. My own comments and speculations to Rev 1:17a.

Compare also the resemblance between the prophetess Anna and John concerning name, task (prophetess/prophet, cf Rev 1:3), age and selection (Anna: “blessed among children”; John: “welcomed by Jesus”).

The number seven occurs in the narrative about Anna (seven years married with a male and after that, from the eighth year, service in the sanctuary) and is easily connected with John (see especially the Revelation). However it is important to note, that John sees himself as the eighth in the meaning that he in his gospel is recorded as the eight of the apostles (cf. My own comments and speculations to John 6:70-71 and the information about Thomas in John 11:16). In Jewish number symbolism the number eight represents the beginning of a new period of time. But John also is “one out of seven” (cf. Rev 17:11) in John 21:2 (see My own comments and speculations to John 21:1-3). However he is subordinated the Jesus who is "the eighth" (that is the first) and "the seventh" (that is the last). Cf My own comments ans speculations to John 4:16-18. John in stead can be compared with the little wild animal (Rev 17:11) who is described as "the eighth" and "one out of seven". Both live in eternity but on separated places (see Rev 20-21). Furthermore John has not any special popsition in front of or above the other apostles in the new Jerusalem (Rev 21:14).

With regard to Ps 78:67-68 we also can see Jesus' welcoming of John as a restoration of the rejected Joseph, who now takes the place of the chosen tribe of Judas.

John laid at the right hand of Jesus. Compare the background in Matt 20:21-23.

See also My own comments and speculations to John 11:53-54.


Greek words:

epipiptô (fall upon/on/against) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Mark 3:10; Luke 15:20; John 13:25 – Esther 7:8; Tobit 11:9,13(BA); Judith 14:3; 1 Macc 1:30; 12:26; Luke 1:12; Acts 8:16; 10:44; 11:15; 19:17; 20:10,37; Rom 15:3.

stêthos (breast) (in the NT) John 13:25 – Luke 18:13; 23:48; John 21:20; Rev 15:6.


Additional studies:

Luke 16:23; John 19:26; 20:2; 21:7,20.


Basil S. Davis "The Identity of the Disciple whom Jesus loved"; Expository Times 113.7 (2002): 230-231.

Margaret Pamment "The Fourth Gospel's Beloved Disciple"; Expository Times 94 (1983): 363-367.

Pierson Parker "John the Son of Zebedee and the Fourth Gospel"; Journal of Biblical Literature 81 (1962): 35-43.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-04-26; 2011-11-18; 2014-07-20)

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13:26-27 Jesus answers and says (א,*א): “That one is the one to whom, having dipped the morsel, I 'give on'/hand (P66, א,* א) (it).” Having so dipped the little morsel * (א*) He gives (it) to Judas, (son) of Simon Iscariot. And after the little morsel * (א,*א) the adversary came into, into that one. Jesus so says to him: “What you make/do, make/do (it) ‘more quickly’/quickly.”

Word for word: 13:26 (21 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus prima manus) answers the Jesus and says: that-(one) (it)-is (to)-whom i/I having-dipped the little-morsel give-on. having-dipped so the little-morsel (he)-gives (to)-Judas (of)-Simon (of)-Iscariot. 13:27 (18 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus) and after the little-morsel came-into into that-(one) the adversary. says so (to)-him the Jesus: what (you)-make make more-quickly.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

Melchizedek, king of Salem, carried out breads/bread and wine. But/and he (continually) was a priest of the highest God. (Gen 14:18, Greek OT)

(Moses said to the elders of Israel:) "… From the first day you shall ‘make ... unseen’/remove leaven out of your houses. … Take a bundle of hyssop and having dipped (it) from the blood to the side of the door ‘make (it) sit down’/’apply (it)’ to the lintel and from the blood upon both of the standing-places/door-posts ... (When the Lord beholds the blood, He will) not let the destroyer be (alone) to come into, into your habitations to hit (you)." (Ex 12:15a,22a,23b, Greek OT)

(The sons of Israel said:) “Who will give us a morsel meat?” (Num 11:4b, Greek OT)

Korah, son of Issaar/Ishar, son of Kaath ... (took males), and they stood up opposite Moses. (Num 16:1-2a, Greek OT)

Boaz spoke to (Ruth): “(It is) already hour/time (to) the thing to eat. Come to/forward here and eat the breads/’pieces of bread’ and you shall dip your morsel in the sour wine.” (Ruth 2:14a, Greek OT)

The Lord raised an adversary (to) Solomon. (1 Kings 11:14a, Greek OT)

(Wisdom) came into, into the soul of the attendant/servant of the Lord and ‘stood against’/resisted fearful kings in/with omens and signs. (Wisdom of Solomon 10:16)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) "In the thing 'to curse a wicked one'/'a wicked one curses' the adversary, he curses his (own) soul." (Sir 21:27)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “Every friend will speak: ‘I have and/also been friends with (you). ’ However ‘a friend is a friend’/’many friends are friends’ only (with) name. ... A comrade of a friend enjoys himself in cheerfulness and/but in a seasonable time of oppression he will be ‘from opposite’/’an adversary’. A comrade is together with a friend in hardship in grace/favour of womb/belly, (but) opposite/before a war he will take (his) shield.” (Sir 37:1,4-5)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "Who is out of you, a man, whom his son will demand a (piece of) bread, he will not 'give on'/hand him a stone, (will he)? Or and/also will demand a fish, he will not 'give on'/hand him a serpent, (will he)?" (Matt 7:9-10)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “The darnels are the sons of the evil one, but/and the enemy, the one having sown them, is the slanderer.” (Matt 13:38b-39a)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) ”The one having in company with Me dipped in the hand in the bowl, this one will give Me ‘to the side of’/over.” (Matt 26:23b)

(Judas said to Jesus:) ”Rejoice, Rabbi, and he ‘was entirely friends with’/’kissed ... tenderly’ Him.” But Jesus spoke to him: “Comrade, against which/what are you by the side of?” (Matt 26:49b-50a; cf. Sir 37:1,4-5)

(Jesus said to Peter:) “Withdraw behind Me, adversary, because you do not consider the things of God, however/but the things of the men.” (Mark 8:33b)

(The lord) spoke to his slave: “Come quickly out into the streets and (the) lanes of the city. ... “ (Luke 14:21b)

Having raised his voice (the rich man in Hades) spoke: “Father Abraham, have mercy on me, and send Lazarus, in order that he may dip the border/tip of his finger (in) water and cool my tongue, because I ‘am caused’/feel pain in this flame.” (Luke 16:24)

An adversary came into, into Judas, the one being called Iscariot. (Luke 22:3a)

(The ones having received Peter's saying continually) ‘were being patient’/adhered to the teaching of the apostles and the communion, to the fragmenting/breaking of the bread and the prayers. (Acts 2:42)

Peter spoke: "Ananias, because of what has the adversary maimed (א*) your heart, 'to lie you'/'that you lie to' the Holy Spirit?" (Acts 5:3a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

Jesus answered and spoke to (א,*א) (the apostles): “Did I not choose you, the twelve? And out of you it/there is a slanderer.” But He (continually) said/meant Judas of Simon from Karuoth (א*). (John 6:70-71a)

Becoming a chief meal, the slanderer having already thrown/put (and throwing/putting) into the heart, in order that Judas, of Simon, Iscariot might give Him ‘to the side of’/over. (John 13:2)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 - about 1500

Whoever could lie in wait among the shadows . . . ghosts and spirits, perhaps avenging their disturbed night's rest by stretching out a bony skeleton hand out of some hole in the wall, where one least suspected it, and suffocated someone. . . . (Eva-Lotta) hurried forward in the dark passage as soon as she could. . . . (She) stroke wildly around her to get her way free. But this enemy was stronger. Eva-Lotta felt her arms bound in a hard grasp. . . . She strained every muscle in her body and gave him a smash under his chin. "Oh", he said, the adversary! And it was Kalle's voice saying it. (Astrid Lindgren "Kalle Blomkvist och Rasmus" p 18-19; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

I wonder what Heidenstam thinks in these days, when he sees his adversaries fall one after another. Wirsén, you know, also was my adversary, but he has not been able to impede me as he had impeded Heidenstam from both academy and Nobel Prize. (Selma Lagerlöf "Du lär mig att bli fri - Selma Lagerlöf skriver till Sophie Elkan" p 381; letter 1912-06-14; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Wonder if the devil does not enter into me and I go home some day and take charge of Sweden. (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev VI aug 1886-jan 1888" p 202; letter 1887-05-11 to Edvard Brandes; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

In a new book (the poet Carl) Snoilsky sings of the ministering spirit by the nickname of Den tjänande brodern (The serving brother). He does not find it enough that we give him his wages, he exhorts the lords to shake their hands as a hand of a brother. The poem ends with a threat intimating the advance of the discontended crowds: "What you do, do it soon!" he exclaims as a believer predicting the approaching outburst. (August Strindberg "Brev från Stockholm" p 271; Revue Universelle Internationale 1886, probably 1886-07-16; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

It is not worth to meet my expenses. On the other hand if You want to save my family, so do a quick and energetic effort. . . . After what I have seen Anarchy probably will become future and not Socialism. None want to conform or subordinate themselves, all go their own way. I think outbursts come here which only can end with a disintegration of the culture of the West - and we become an Orient -without despots or with! . . . Once more, can anything be done, so let it be done! Of Lorens' foundation I don't expect to see anything. What you do, do it soon! If still something can be done! (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev V 1885-juli 1886" p 255-256; letter 1886-01-20 to Gustaf af Geijerstam; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


about 1500 and time before

Generally, the bread was dipped into salt, or something salted. ... After dinner the bread was to be carefully swept together, Otherwise, it was thought, demons would sit upon it. (Alfred Edersheim "The Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah Part II" p 208,210)

There is, we believe, ample evidence that (Judas) not only claimed, but actually obtained, the chief seat at the table next to the Lord. This ... was not , as is generally believed, at the right, but at the left of Christ, not below, but above Him, on the couches or pillows on which they reclined. (Alfred Edersheim "The Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah Part II" p 493)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Svetlana Aleksijevitj, Ann-Charlotte Alverfors, Rudolf Björkman, Henry Daniel-Rops, Anatole France, Agneta Fältskog, Carl Grimberg, Peter Hallberg, Dick Harrison, Ad. Kolmodin, Hans Larsson, Vilhelm Moberg, Thorsten Nunstedt, Boris Pasternak, Joanne Kathleen Rowling, Harry Sjöman, Anton Tjechov, P. Waldenström, N.P. Wetterlund, Elin Wägner, Yang Shuo.


My own comments and speculations:

Although the comparison with Korah's two nearest forefathers - "Is(har)Ka(a)th" – is far-fetched and invites to some justified criticism, I cannot exclude such a comparison; this because the rebel Korah very well can be seen as the type of the betrayer Judas Iscariot. Compare for instance John 18:5-6 with Num 16:31-32. That the letters are not exactly the same in “Iscariot” and in "Is(har)Ka(a)th" should not be a conclusive objection. Compare for instance “naziraean” in Judges 13:5b,7b and “nazoraean” in John 18:5,7.


Greek words:

baptô (dip) (in the NT) Luke 16:24; John 13:26.

epididômi (give on) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Matt 7:9-10; John 13:26 – 2 Macc 11:17; Sir 39:5; Luke 4:17; 11:11-12; 24:42; Acts 15:30; 27:15.

satanas (adversery) Sir 21:27; Mark 8:33; Luke 22:3; John 13:27; Acts 5:3 – Matt 4:10; 12:26; 16:23; Mark 1:13; 3:23,26; 4:15; Luke 10:18; 11:18; 13:16; 22:31; John 13:27; Acts 26:18; Rom 16:20; 1 Cor 5:5; 7:5; 2 Cor 2:11; 11:14; 12:7; 1 Thess 2:18; 2 Thess 2:9; 1 Tim 1:20; 5:15; Rev 2:9,13,24; 3:9; 12:9; 20:2,7.

psômion (little morsel) John 13:26-27 – John 13:30. Cf. psômos (morsel) in for example Num 11:4 and Ruth 2:14.


Additional studies: Mark 5:12; 14:20; Luke 8:30; 13:26-27; 22:21; John 12:4; 13:18.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-04-27; 2011-11-18; 2014-07-20; 2014-11-26)

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13:28-30 But no one of the ones lying up/’down to table’ had knowledge towards/’in regard to’ what/why He spoke this to him. For some (continually) thought, since Judas (continually) had the container/’case for money’, that Jesus says to him: “Buy the things we have need of into/’for the purpose of’ the feast”, or in order that he might give something to the beggarly ones. Having so taken the little morsel that one straight off came out. But it (continually) was night.

Word for word: 13:28 (10 words in the Greek text) this but no-one had-knowledge (of)-the-(ones) lying-up towards what (he)-spoke (to)-him. 13:29 (25 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus) some for (continually)-thought, since the container had-(continually) Judas, that says (to)-him Jesus: buy (of)-which-(things) (we)-have need into/'for the purpose-of' the feast or (to)-the-(ones) beggarly in-order-that something (he)-might-give. 13:30 (10 words in the Greek text) having-taken so the little-morsel that-(one) came-out straight-off. (it)-(continually)-was but night.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The Lord said:) "Woe to ... (the ones whose) works will be in darkness." (Is 29:15a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) “As thieves in a night (fruit gatherers) will put/lay their hand upon (the Idumaeans).” (Jer 49:9b, Greek OT)

(Tobit said to his son:) “Alm/alms deliver out of death and do not allow to come into, into the darkness. For alm/alms is a good gift for all the ones making/giving it in the very eyes of the Highest One.” (Tobit 4:10-11, BA)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “‘Every ... not’/no notion/thought has come to the side of (the Lord). ‘Not ... one ... nor’/neither (any) saying is hidden from Him.” (Sir 42:20)


The Latter Revelation:

(The sensible ones said to the foolish ones): “Go ... towards the ones selling and buy (olive-oil) for yourselves.” (Matt 25:9b)

(The lord of the slaves said:) "Throw out the useless slave into the outer darkness." (Matt 25:30a)

Having become evening (Jesus) (continually) lay up/’down to table’ in company with the twelve disciples (א,* א, A). (Matt 26:20)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "You will all ‘be caused to stumble’/stumble in/at Me in this night.” (Matt 26:31a)

The priest leaders, having taken the silvermetals/’pieces of silver’, spoke: "It is not permitted to throw them into the offering chest, since it is an 'honour' of blood." (Matt 27:6)

Having come out the Pharisees straight/’straight off’ made/held (א,*א) a council meeting in company with the Herodians. (Mark 3:6a)

Straight off the adversary comes and lifts/’takes away’ the saying having been (and being) sown in (א,*א) (the ones being to the side of the way). (Mark 4:15b)

When – according to the circumstances – the fruit may ‘give to the side of’/’be ripe’, (the man who had sown) straight off dispatches away the sickle, because the harvest ‘stands by the side of’/’is near’. (Mark 4:29)

Having straight off come, come to/forth to (Jesus) (Judas) says: “Rabbi.” And he ‘was entirely friends with’/’kissed ... tenderly’ Him. (Mark 14:45)

(The disciples) (continually) had not knowledge of (Jesus') word, and it (continually) was (and had been) veiled from/for them by the side of, in order that they might not notice it. (Luke 9:45a)

God spoke to (a rich man:) “Thoughtless (man)! This night they demand back your soul from you. But the things you have made ready, to whom will they be?” (Jesus said:) “In this way (is) the one heaping for himself and not being rich into/’for the purpose of’ God.” (Luke 12:20-21)

Jesus spoke towards the ones having become/come to the side of (Him), priest leaders and officers of the sanctuary and elders, (who had come) towards (א*) Him: "... ‘According to’/’day after’ day on My being in company with you in the sanctuary, you did not stretch out the hands against Me. However, this hour is Yours, and/likewise the (judicial) authority of the darkness." (Luke 22:52a,53)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven: ‘Us must’/’it is necessary to us to’ work (for) the works of the One having sent us (P66,P75,א*), till/’as long as’ it is day. Night comes, when no one is able to work. (John 9:4)

But (Judas Iscariot) spoke this, not because he (continually) cared for on account of the beggarly ones, however/but because he (continually) was a thief and having the container/’case for money’ he (continually) bore the things being thrown (in it). (John 12:6)

Becoming a chief meal, the slanderer having already thrown/put (and throwing/putting) into the heart, in order that Judas, of Simon, Iscariot might give Him ‘to the side of’/over. (John 13:2)

Jesus said to (Peter): “What I do, you do not know just now, but you will gain knowledge after these things.” (John 13:7)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

‘After the sop Satan entered into (Judas),’ and he ‘went out immediately.’ It was an unusual time to leave the Paschal table, for with ‘the sop dipped’ ... the Paschal Supper itself had just begun. (Alfred Edersheim “The Temple” p 247)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Charles Dickens, Jan Garnert, Carl Grimberg, Dag Hammarskjöld, Dick Harrison, Verner von Heidenstam, Erik Axel Karlfeldt, Pär Lagerkvist, Sven Lidman, Kristina Lugn, Martin Luther, Hugo Odeberg, Johan Ludvig Runeberg, Bo Setterlind, Harry Sjöman, Tormod Vågen.


My own comments and speculations:

Judas leaves the Light and goes out into the night, the sphere of the thieves.


Paul said to the believers in Thessalonica: "We are not of night, nor of darkness." (1 Thess 5:5b)


Greek words:

epei (since) (in the NT + two examples in the OT) Matt 27:6, John 13:29 – Gen 15:17; Job 35:7; Matt 18:32; 21:46; Mark 15:42; Luke 1:34; 7:1(א,*א); John 19:31; Rom 3:6, 11:6,22; 1 Cor 5:10; 7:14; 14:12,16; 15:29; 2 Cor 11:18; 13:3; Heb 2:14; 4:6; 5:2,11; 6:13; 9:17,26; 10:2; 11:11.

euthys (adj: straight) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) – Tobit 4:19(BA); Judith 8:11; 10:11; 13:20; Wisdom of Solomon 9:9; 10:10; Sir 2:6; 4:18; 39:24; Matt 3:3; Mark 1:3; Luke 3:4-5; Acts 8:21; 9:11; 13:10; 2 Pet 2:15.

euthys (adv: straight off) (i the NT + one example in the OT) Mark 3:6; 4:15,29; 14:45; John 13:30 – Gen 15:4; Matt 3:16; 13:20-21; 14:27; 21:3; Mark 1:10,12,18,20-21,23,29-30,42-43; 2:8,12; 4:5,16-17; 5:2,29-30,42; 6:25,27,45,50,54; 7:25,35(א,*א); Mark 8:10; 9:15,20,24; 10:52; 11:2-3; 14:43,72; 15:1; Luke 6:49; John 13:32; 19:34; Acts 10:16.


Additional studies: Matt 8:12; 22:13; John 12:5; 13:1-2; 1 Cor 11:23; Rev 21:25; 22:5.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-04-27; 2011-11-20; 2014-07-21)

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13:31-32 When he so had come out, Jesus says: “Now has the Son of the Man been glorified, and God has been glorified in Him. * (P66,א*,B) And God will glorify Him in Himself, and straight off He will glorify Him.”

Word for word: 13:31 (17 words in the Greek text) When so (he)-came-out, says Jesus: now was-glorified the son (of)-the (of)-man and the god was-glorified in him. 13:32 (11 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus prima manus) and the god will-glorify him in him(self) and straight-off (he)-will-glorify him.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Moses said to the commanders of the tribes of Israel and to their council of elders:) "You (continually/repeatedly) said: 'Behold, the Lord our God has shown us His glory.'" (Deut 5:24a, Greek OT)

(The Lord) spoke to me: "You are My slave, Israel, and in you I will be glorified." (Is 49:3, Greek OT)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “The one having been (and being) glorified in beggary, how much more (is he) and/also (glorified)in riches?” (Sir 10:31a)


The Latter Revelation:

Having beheld (that Jesus had healed the paralytic) the crowds feared and glorified God, the One having given (judicial) authority of such kind to the men. (Matt 9:8)

(Simeon said: "My eyes have beheld) a light into a revelation of nations and a glory of Your people Israel." (Luke 2:32)

(Jesus was) glorified by all. (Luke 4:15b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

Spirit was not yet (continually), because Jesus was not * (א,* א, B) yet glorified. (John 7:39b)

Jesus answered (the Jews): “If – according to the circumstances – I may glorify Myself, My glory is nothing. My Father is the One glorifying Me, of whom you say, that He is your (א,* א, B*) God.” (John 8:54)

Jesus answers (Andrew and Philip), saying: "The hour has come (and comes), in order that the Son of the Man may be glorified." (John 12:23)

(Jesus said:) “Father, glorify Your name.” A voice so came out of the heaven: “I and/both have glorified and will again glorify (it).” (John 12:28)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

The use of tenses in 12:28 and in 13:31f marks two phases or periods in Jesus' glorification ... It seems most natural to ... (interpret) the aorist ("glorified") as referring to Jesus' earthly ministry as a whole and the future ("will glorify") to the work of the risen Christ, when he draws "all" to him, 12:32. ... The manifestations during the first phase are ... given only in the form of "signs" ... whereas they are concentrated on the hour of elevation and the period thereafter ... in the form of the Paraclete. (Birger Olsson "Structure and Meaning in the Fourth Gospel" p 71f)

Now (Johan) had the text for himself to ponder. It was the seventh Sunday in Trinity, the first year, and the words were as a whole the ones following: "Jesus said: now is the son of man glorified, and God is glorified in him. Is now God glorified in him, God will also glorify him in himself; and will glorify him soon." This was all. Johan turned outside in, inside out, but he found no meaning. It was "thick" he thought. But it touched the most tender spot: the divinity of Christ. If he now plucked up courage and explained away the divinity of Christ, he had done a great exploit. It tempted him and with the help of Parker he wrote a song of praise in prose over Christ as the son of God and brought extremely cautiously forward that we all were sons of God, but Jesus, God's chosen, dear son, in which he had a good pleasure, and whose doctrines we would hear. . . . (Johan) had a calling to fulfill. He wanted to draw a sword on the dogmas, the order of grace and on pietism. (August Strindberg "Tjänstekvinnans son" p 199; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Erik Bernspång, LarsOlov Eriksson.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning "the Son of the Man", see My own comments and speculations to John 1:51b.


Upon/’with regard to’ these last days (God) has talked (with) us in/’by means of’ a Son ... being a reflection of His glory and a stamp of His steadfastness, carrying both/moreover all the things (with) the word of His ability. (Heb 1:2a,3a)

Peter said: "God may be glorified in all things through Jesus Christ, to whom the glory is and the power into the (coming) ages of the (coming) ages. Amen.” (1 Pet 4:11b)


Additional studies:

Dan 7:14; Matt 8:20; John 1:51; 10:17-18; 11:4; 14:13; 17:1,4-5.


C.P. Bammel "The farewell discourse in patristic exegesis"; Neotestamentica 25.2 (1991): 193-208.

Ernst Bammel: "The Farewell Discourse of the Evangelist John and its Jewish Heritage"; Tyndale bulletin 44.1 (1993): 103-106.

John L. Boyle "The Last Discourse (Jn 13,31-16,33) and Prayer (Jn 17): Some Observations on Their Unity and Development"; Biblica 56 (1975): 210-222.

William R. Domeris "The farewell discourse. An anthropological approach."; Neotestamentica 25.2 (1991): 233-250.

Anton Fridrichsen "Jesu avskedstal i fjärde evangeliet. En introduktion till den johanneiska frågan."; Svensk Exegetisk Årsbok 3 (1938): 1-16.

Aelred Lacomara "Deteronomy and the Farewell Discourse (Jn 13:31-16:33)"; Catholic Biblical Quarterly 36 (1974): 65-84.

R. Lemmer "A possible understanding by the implied reader, of some of the coming-going-being sent pronouncements, in the Johannine farewell discourses"; Neotestamentica 25.2 (1991): 289-310.

John Painter "The Farewell Discourses and the History of Johannine Christianity"; New Testament Studies 27 (1981): 525-543.

J.A. du Rand "A story and a community: Reading the first farewell discourse (John 13:31-14:31) from Narraiological and sociological perspectives; Neotestamentica 26.1 (1992): 31-46.

J.A. du Rand "Perspectives on Johannine discipleship according to the farewell discourses"; Neotestamentica 25.2 (1991): 311-326.

B.A. du Toit "The aspect of faith in the Gospel of John with special reference to the farewell discourses of Jesus"; Neotestamentica 25.2 (1991): 327-340.

D. Bruce Woll "The Departure of 'the Way': The First Farewell Discourse in the Gospel of John"; Journal of Biblical Literature 99 (1980): 225-239.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-04-28; 2011-11-21; 2014-07-21; 2014-11-27)

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13:33 Little children, a small/little time (א,*א) longer I am in company with you. You will seek Me, and entirely as I spoke to the Jews * (א*): “Whereat/where I withdraw, you are not able to come” I and/also say to you just now.

Word for word (25 words in the Greek text): little-children, still (a)-small time in-company-with you (i/I)-am. (you)-will-seek me, and entirely-as (i/I)-spoke (to)-the Jews whereat i/I withdraw you not are-able-to come, and (to)-you (i/I)-say just-now.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The Lord said:) "Moses alone shall draw near towards the Lord, but (the elders) shall not draw near. But/and the people shall not ascend in company with them." … (But) Moses ascended and/with Aaron and Nadab and Abihu and seventy of the council of elders of Israel. And they beheld the place, where the God of Israel stood there. … And (Moses) spoke to the elders: "Be quiet ... till we will turn back towards you." ... And Moses and Jesus/Joshua ascended into/to the mountain. (Ex 24:2,9-10a,14a,15a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Israel:) "You shall stand up ‘out of from/’because of’ a gray face and honour the face of an elder." (Lev 19:32a, Greek OT)

(Moses said to Israel: "It was) not because you were a much/many-headed multitude ‘to the side of’/’in comparison with’ all the nations (that) the Lord took you for Himself before (them) and took you out, for you are only a few persons ‘to the side of’/’in comparison with’ all the nations, however/but the Lord welcomed you ‘to the side of’/’in comparison with (them)." (Deut 7:7-8a, Greek OT)

(The messenger of the Lord said to Gideon:) “You shall save Israel. ... Behold, I have dispatched you out.” And Gideon spoke towards him: “... Behold, my ‘number of one thousand’/family has been weak in Manasseh, and I am the less/least one in the house of my father.” And the messenger of the Lord spoke towards him: “The Lord will be in company with you.” (Judges 6:14b-16a, Greek OT, B)

David spoke towards (Goliath): “You come towards me in/with a large sword and in/with a spear and in/with a shield, and I go towards you in name of the Lord of hosts, of God of arranging Israel side by side, (the God) whom you to-day have reproached.” (1 Sam 17:45, Greek OT)

(David said:) “Come here, children, hear me. I will teach you fear of the Lord.” (Ps 34:11 or 34:12, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said:) “Upon/by the rivers of Babylon, there (the exiled and tormented people) sat down and wept. ... Daughter of the wretched Babylon ... Happy (the one) who will ‘get power (over)’/seize and dash your infants to the ground towards the rock.” (Ps 137:1a,8a,9, Greek OT)

(David said:) “I (continually) was small in/among my brothers and younger/youngest in the house of my father. I was a shepherd for the sheep of my father.” (Ps 151:1b, Greek OT)

(Daniel said to the king: “The Highest One) will cause the one despising of men stand up against/over (the kingdom of men).” (Dan 4:14b or 4:17b, Greek OT Theod)

(The Lord said:) “For the reason that Israel (was) an infant, I and/also loved him.” (Hos 11:1a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) "Being led together Jacob will be led together, together with every/all (peoples). Being received out of (the peoples) I will receive out of (the men) the entirely/whole of Israel. I will put/give against it their 'turning away'/refuge. As sheep in oppression, as a little flock in a middle of their sleeping-place they will spring out of men." (Micah 2:12, Greek OT)

(The messenger said to Tobias: “Your woman/wife) has been (and is) ‘divided into portions’/attributed you before the age, and you will save her, and she will go in company with you, and I ‘take from below’/conceive, because little boys and girls will be to you out of her, and they will be to you as brothers. ... “ (Tobit 6:18b, S)

(Solomon said:) “The least one is ‘knowledge together with’/excused (on account) of mercy, but able ones are arranged to the best of ability.” (Wisdom of Solomon 6:6)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “Wisdom of a scribe (is) leisure in a good seasonable time, and the one lessening himself, it will practise/manage him to ‘be made’/become wise.” (Sir 38:24)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Pray you so in this way: ‘Our Father, the One in the heavens.’” (Matt 6:9a)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “The one who – according to the circumstances – may give to one of these small ones (following Me) only a cup of cold (water) to drink, into/’for the purpose of’ a name of a disciple, amen, I say to you, he may not/certainly not perish/lose his wage.” (Matt 10:42)

(Jesus said to His Father:) "You have hidden these things from wise ones and intelligent ones and revealed them to infants." (Matt 11:25b)

Having called a little boy (or girl) to (Himself) (Jesus) caused him (or her) to stand in a middle of (the disciples) and He spoke: "Amen, I say to you, if – according to the circumstances – you may not turn and become as the little boys and girls, you may not/certainly not come into, into the kingdom of the heavens." (Matt 18:2-3)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “The one who – according to the circumstances – may cause one of these small/little ones believing into Me to stumble, it ‘carries together’/’is profitable’ to him ‘in order that’/that an upper millstone may be hung around his neck and he may be drowned in the ‘pelago of the sea’/’open sea’.” (Matt 18:6)

(Jesus said to the twelve:) “Indeed,the Son of the Man withdraws entirely as it has been (and is) written on account of Him.” (Matt 26:24a)

(Jesus) said to (His disciples): “Come here you yourselves 'according to the own thing'/'by yourselves' into a desolate place and ‘be brought’/come to rest few/’a little’.” … And they went away in the boat into a desolate place 'according to the own thing'/'to be by themselves'. (Mark 6:31a,32)

(Jesus) (continually) entirely/’without reservation’ blessed (the little boys and girls) ... (Mark 10:16b)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "Children, how troublesome it is to come into, into the kingdom of God!" (Mark 10:24b)

Saul … and/also (called) Paul (= the little one). (Acts 13:9a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

As many as took him, to them He gave (judicial) authority to become children of God, to the ones believing into His name. (John 1:12)

Jesus answered and spoke to (the leader): "Amen, amen, I say to you: 'If – according to the circumstances – a certain (person) may not be begotten from above, he is not able to behold the kingdom of God." (John 3:3)

Jesus so spoke (to the Jews): “Still a small/little time I am in company with you. And I withdraw towards the One having sent Me. You will seek Me, and you will not find * (P66,א,*א), and whereat/where I am, you are not able to come.” (John 7:33-34)

(Jesus) said to (the Pharisees): “I withdraw, and you will seek Me, and/but you will die in your miss (of the mark of God). Whereat/where I withdraw, you are not able to come.” (John 8:21)

Jesus so spoke to (the crowd): “Still a small/little time the light is in/among you.” (John 12:35a)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 - about 1500

With "these little ones" (in Luke 17:2) Jesus means men believing in him. This we see in the parallell passages (Matt 18:6; Mark 9:42). It can be men in all ages. "Little" they are after the way of the world to value and measure. They are in some way dependent. Just therefore it is a great sin to abuse one's authority and influence to take their faith from them. (Bo Giertz "Evangelium enligt Lukas" p 185 in comment to Luke 17:1-3; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Einar had stowed away the revolver. . . . (Kalle) slipped through the wood paling with a speed as a soaped rabbit. "Care for me who little is", he whispered. He felt like a man having just been saved out of hard distress. . . . Coming into his room he sank down on the bed only panting. "Care for me who little is", he whispered over again. (Astrid Lindgren "Mästerdetektiven Blomkvist" s 65-66; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

At work we today got a piece of alarming news by a letter from the little Jesuschild Sven Stolpe to a woman in Finland. There was written, that the Germans censor the post from Finland. . . . . . . If this is true - and we have got a hint of this earlier - it is of course obviously, that all the Nordic countries totally are led by the nose by the Germans, to this being forced and compelled. And of course we do so. It comes out in so many letters, that practically the whole Swedish people is aware of this fact. . . . Little Greece fights bravely and succeeds in some cases. (Astrid Lindgren "Krigsdagböcker 1939-1945" p 66-67; 1940-11-06; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Before the common occurences one must have something left of the wonder, surprise and curiosity of the child in order to artistically and scientifically be able to utilize them. This is in a higher meaning naivité. And this naivité Leonardo da Vinci had. He kept it all his life, like he all his life kept something of the beauty which fascinated in the boy and the young man Leonardo. (Viktor Rydberg "En underbar man - Leonardo da Vinci" p 66; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Think myself be suppressed because I was suspected to be a strength! Was suppressed for ten years by Hedberg Wijkander Edholm (who were in possession of leading positions at the Royal Theatre in the seventies and eighties of the 19th century), all little ones; was threatened by the little newspaper writers and the little women. Became at last rancorous towards the little ones down there and the little ones up there! It is Christ, the little degenerated, asexualized sophist, who has made a mess in the world, that the little ones sit both up there and down there. If Christ is the democrat that is the little tyrant, nauseating nowadays, then I see the ideal of liberty be liberty to tyrannize. . . . Do not confuse the ones sitting up there with the great and strong ones, and therefore legitimated; and do not confuse the ones down there with the ones unrighteously suppressed! (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev VII febr 1888-dec 1889" p 92; letter 1888-05-25 to Verner von Heidenstam; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


about 1500 and time before

“And whoso shall receive such a little child in my name, receiveth me.” ... By “a little child” (Christ) here means the men that are thus simple and lowly, and abject and contemptible in the judgment of the common sort. ... With Jews and with Greeks we sometimes become friends, rather than with the children of the church. ... Art thou not ashamed, neither dost thou blush, at exposing thy brother, thy fellow member, him that hath shared in the same birth with thee, that hath partaken of the same table? ... Teaching (His disciples) to be lowly, and to trample under foot worldly pride, He doth receive (the little children), and takes them in His arms. (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers X:360,369,385)

Look not to this; that in appearance the Saints that lodge with thee are but poor, and as beggars, and in rags many times, but be mindful of that voice which says, “Inasmuch as ye have done it to the least of these, ye have done it unto me.” (Matt. xxv. 40.) And “Despise not one of these little ones, because their angels do always behold the face of My Father which is in heaven.” (Matt. xviii. 10.). (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers XI:552)

(The early Christians) called those who practised a godly guilelessness, children. (Papias, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol I, p 153)

Who are they that are saved now and receive life eternal? Is it not those who love God, and who believe His promises, and who “in malice have become as little children?” (Irenaeus, The Ante-Nicene Fathers vol I, p 502; cf. 1 Cor 14:20)

These ‘little ones’ (concerning Matt 10:42) were ‘the children,’ who were still learning the elements of knowledge, and who would by-and-by grow into ‘disciples.’ For, as the Midrash (Ber. R. on Gen. xiv. 1) has it: ‘Where there are no little ones, there are no disciples; and where no disciples, no sages: where no sages, there no elders; where no elders, there no prophets; and where no prophets, there does God not cause His Shekhinah (Presence) to rest.’ (Alfred Edersheim "The Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah Part I" p 652)

Not to strive who was to be greatest, but to be utterly without self-consciousness, like a child – thus, to be become turned and entirely changed in mind: ‘converted,’ was the condition for entering into the Kingdom of Heaven. (Alfred Edersheim "The Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah Part II" p 119)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Stig Abrahamsson, Eric S. Alexandersson, Johann Arndt, Augustinus, Enid Blyton, Anna-Maria Claesson, Sven Danell, Alexander Dumas d.y., Kerstin Ekman, Bo Frid, Göran Greider, Phil. G. Goulding, Christina Halldorf, Britt G. Hallqvist, Dag Hammarskjöld, C.G. Hjelm, Åke H. Huldt, Lennart Jansson, Lars Levi Laestadius, Lars-Olof Larsson, C.S. Lewis, Sven Lidman, V. Liljeberg, Martin Luther, Vilhelm Moberg, Kaj Munk, Fred Myhreskog, Olle Nystedt, Ivan Oljelund, Lewi Pethrus, Anders Runesson, Bo Setterlind, William Shakespeare, Lynn Sherr, Erik Sollerman, Jesper Svartvik, Bertil Svensson, Nathan Söderblom, Gunnar Söderström, Alf Tergel, Adolf Thomander, Thomas a Kempis, Leo Tolstoj, P. Waldenström, Einar Westling, Pontus Wikner, Fredrik Wislöff, Birgitta Yavari, Göran Åberg.


My own comments and speculations:

In times of old the elders were near Moses, even if they couldn't come God so near as he was allowed to do. The infants in Babylon were considered to be of so slight worth in themselves, that they could be dashed towards the rock. In a restoration perspective we now see how little children could be near Jesus, worthy to be His disciples, even if they cannot come God so near as Jesus.

In the Gospels the children are restored, while the elders humiliated. The “good” elders disappear, when Jesus appears. Simeon asks to be released (Luke 2:29) and the old Anna refers to the child Jesus. And the young wine is better than the old. In the (assembly) of called out after Jesus' ascension it is however not more a question of priority for old or young. The works of welcome are directed after the need of the individual.

Concerning “a small/little time longer”, see also John 7:32-34.


Paul said: “I am the least of the apostles, (one) who is not fit to be called an apostle. … (I am) less than the least of all holy ones. … (Of missers of the mark of God) I am first.” (1 Cor 15:9a; Eph 3:8a; 1 Tim 1:15b)

Paul said to the believers in Galatia: “My children!” (Gal 4:19a)

Peter said: "As just now begotten sucklings, 'long for against'/'yearn for' the deceitless/guileless milk belonging to the saying!" (1 Pet 2:2a)

My little children, these things I write to you in order that you may not miss (the mark of God). And if – according to the circumstances – anyone may miss (the mark of God), we have One being called to the side of, towards the Father, Jesus Christ, (One being) righteous. (1 John 2:1)

I write to you, little children, because the misses (of the mark of God) have been (and are) left (alone) to you because of His name. (1 John 2:12)

Little children, let no one lead you astray. The one making/practising the righteousness is righteous, entirely as that One is righteous. (1 John 3:7)

Little children, we may not welcome (with) saying and (א,*א) tongue however/but in/with work and truth. (1 John 3:18)

You are out of God, little children, and you have conquered (and conquer) them, because the One in you is greater than the one in the adornment/’adorned world’. (1 John 4:4)

Little children, watch/'keep ... away' yourselves from the idols. (1 John 5:21)


Greek words:

teknion (little child) John 13:33; 1 John 2:1,12; 3:7,18; 5:21. Cf. teknon (child) John 1:12-13.


Additional studies: Jer 51:33; Matt 19:14; Mark 10:15; 14:21; Luke 18:17; 1 Tim 4:12; Rev 3:8; 6:11.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-04-28; 2011-11-22; 2014-07-26; 2014-11-27)

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13:34-35 A new commandment I give you, in order that you may welcome one another, entirely as I have welcomed you, in order that and/also you may welcome one another. In/’by means of’ this all will gain knowledge that you are disciples to Me, if you – according to the circumstances – may have a welcome in company with (א,*א) one another.

Word for word: 13:34 (15 words in the Greek text) (a)-commandment new (i/I)-give you, in-order-that (you)-may-welcome one-another, entirely-as (i/I)-welcomed you in-order-that and you may-welcome one-another. 13:35 (13 words in the Greek text) in this will-gain-knowledge all that (to)-me disciples (you)-are, if-according-to-the-circumstances (a)-welcome (you)-may-have in-company-with one-another.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

Noah built a sacrificial altar to the Lord … and carried up wholly offerings of fruits against the sacrificial altar. And the Lord God smelled a scent of fragrance. (Gen 8:20-21a, Greek OT)

(Aaron) made the signs opposite (Israel). And the people believed. (Ex 4:30b-31a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Israel:) "Your hand shall not avenge and you shall not take offence at the sons of your people, and you shall welcome your neighbour as yourself. I am the Lord." (Lev 19:18, Greek OT)

(David said:) “One thing I have demanded from the side of the Lord. This I shall seek out, the thing 'to dwell me'/'that I shall dwell' in a house of the Lord all the days of my life, the thing 'to look me'/'that I shall look' at the amusement of the Lord and inspect His temple.” (Ps 27:4, Greek OT)

(David sang:) "Behold 'however or'/however presently/already, what fine or what amusing (it is) the thing 'to dwell brothers'/'that brothers dwell' 'against themselves'/together ... because (in the place where they dwell together) there the Lord has enjoined the blessing and life till the (coming) age." (Ps 133:1,3b, Greek OT)

(The prophet said: “It will be) a saying bringing to a consummation and ‘using the knife with’/abridging in/’by means of’ righteousness, because God will make a saying being (and having been) ‘used the knife with’/abridged in the whole (inhabited) world. (Is 10:22b-23a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to His people: “I have not) chosen a fasting of such kind, however/but (this is the fasting I want) loosen every unrighteous united band (and) loosen throughout violent/difficult entanglements of treaties (and) having quaked/crushed (and quaking/crushing) dispatch and/also away in a ‘letting be’/’setting free’ (and) pull asunder every unrighteous writing down. ‘Grind asunder’/’break ... in pieces’ your bread to a hungering one and lead into, into your house beggarly ones ‘without roof’/homeless. If – according to the circumstances – you may behold a naked one, wrap (him) up in (clothes), and you may not behold over/away from the ones belonging to your household of your seed. (Is 58:6b-7, Greek OT)

”Behold, days come,” utters the Lord, “and I will put asunder/’in order’ a new covenant to the house of Israel and to the house of Judas.” (Jer 31:31, Greek OT)

(The Lord/the prophet said:) “Make a fasting holy, proclaim ‘an attendance’/’a service’.” (Joel 1:14a, Greek OT)

Many nations will go and speak: "Come here, let us ascend into/to the mountain of the Lord. ... For out of Zion law will come out and a saying of the Lord out of Jerusalem.” (Micah 4:2, Greek OT)

(Tobit said to his son:) “And now, little boy, welcome your brothers.” (Tobit 4:13a, BA)

(Solomon said:) “God created the man on/’for the sake of’ immortality, and He made him an image of the own eternity.” (Wisdom of Solomon 2:23)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “The ones fearing the Lord will not disobey His words, and the ones welcoming Him will together keep/observe His ways. The ones fearing the Lord will seek His satisfication and the ones welcoming Him will be fulfilled in/with the law.” (Sir 2:15-16)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “If you – according to the circumstances – may make/do well, have knowledge of to whom you make/do (it) ... Make well to a reverent one and you will find requital and if not from the side of him, however from the side of the Highest One. (Sir 12:1a,2)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) ”Give to the reverent one and you may not take ‘in stead of’/part with the misser one (of the mark of God). Make/do well to a humble one, and you may not give to a wicked one. ... that/because and/also the highest One has hated missers (of His mark) ... Give to the good one and you may not take ’in stead of’/part with the misser one (of the mark of God).” (Sir 12:4-7)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “Every living being welcomes the one (being) like him and every man his neighbour.” (Sir 13:15)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) "Mercy of a man (is) against his neighbour, but mercy of the Lord (is) against every flesh.” (Sir 18:13a)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “Perish silvermetal/money ‘because of’/’with a view to’ a brother and friend.” (Sir 29:10)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “Be continually in company with a reverent male, who – according to the circumstances – may have additional knowledge of ‘keeping together’/’helping in protecting’ commandments, who in his soul (is) according to your soul and (who) will feel pain together with you, if – according to the circumstances – you may offend/’make a mistake’.” (Sir 37:12)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said: “The Lord is) the Great One ‘to the side of’/’in comparison with’ all His works. ... Wondrous (is) His sovereignity. Glorifying heighten Him. ... Who makes Him great entirely as He is?” (Sir 43:28b,29b,30a,31b)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said: “God) chose (Aaron) from every living thing to ‘lead towards’/bring a sacrifice of fruit offering to the Lord, an incense and a fragrance into a remembrance to ‘propitiate out’/propitiate on account of Your/His people." (Sir 45:16; to offer first fruits belonged to the voluntary sacrifices)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "It was spoken/said: 'You shall welcome your neighbour and hate your enemy.' But I say to you: 'Welcome your enemies.'" (Matt 5:43b-44a)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "All things as many as you – if according to the circumstances – may want in order that the men may make/do to you, make/do and/also you in this way to them, for this is the law and the prophets." (Matt 7:12)

The disciples of John come to (Jesus), saying: "Because of what do we and the Pharisees fast * (א*, B), but Your disciples do not fast?" And Jesus spoke to them: "The sons of the bride chamber are not able to grieve against/’up to’ as long (time) as the bridegroom is in company with them, (are they)? But days will come, when – according to the circumstances - the bridegroom may be lifted away from them, and then they will fast." (Matt 9:14-15)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “The one who – according to the circumstances – may give to one of these small ones (following Me) only a cup of cold (water) to drink, into/’for the purpose of’ a name of a disciple, amen, I say to you, he may not/certainly not perish/lose his wage.” (Matt 10:42)

(Jesus said:) "Come here towards Me, all being bothered and being (and having been) burdened, and I will bring you to rest. Lift My yoke against you, and learn * (א*), that I am mild and humble (in) the heart. And you will find rest (in) your souls. For My yoke (is) beneficial, and My load is light." (Matt 11:28-30)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "Where two or three having been (and being) led together into My name, there I am in their middle." (Matt 18:20)

(Jesus said to a rich man:) ”Keep the commandments.” “Of what kind?” he utters (א,* א). But/and Jesus spoke: “You shall not murder. You shall not commit adultery. You shall not steal. You shall not be a false witness. Honour the father and the mother, and you shall welcome your neighbour as yourself. ... If you want to be perfect, withdraw, sell your ‘things beginning under’/properties and give to * (א,* א) beggarly ones, and you have a heap/treasure in a * (א,* א) heaven, and come here, follow Me.” (Matt 19:17b-19,21b; observe “a treasure in heaven”, not “entrance into heaven”)

One out of (the Pharisees), a lawyer, questioned (Jesus) trying Him: “Teacher, of what kind (is) a great commandment in the law?” But/and He uttered to him: “You shall welcome your lord God in/with your whole heart and in/with your whole soul and in/with your whole mind. This is the great and first commandment. * (א*,B) A second one (is) like this. You shall welcome your neighbour as yourself. (Matt 22:35-39)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Many will ‘be caused to stumble’/stumble and they will give one another ‘to the side of’/over into oppression (א,*א).” (Matt 24:10b)

(Jesus said to the blessed ones:) "As much as you have made/done against one of the least of these My brothers, you have made/done Me." (Matt 25:40b)

(The people in the synagogue) were all of them amazed, so that seek/'they sought' themselves together with * (א,* א, B) themselves, saying: “What is this? A new teaching!” (Mark 1:27a)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “The one who – according to the circumstances – may give you a cup of water to drink in My (א*) name, because you are of Christ, amen I say to you that/: 'He may not/certainly not perish/lose his wage.'” (Mark 9:41)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Have salt in yourselves and live in peace in/with one another.” (Mark 9:50b)

(Jesus said to a rich man:) “You know the commandments: ‘You may not murder. * (א*). You may not steal. You may not be a false witness. You may not deprive away (men). Honour your father and your (א*) mother.’” (Mark 10:19)

(One of the scribes questioned Jesus:) "Of what kind is a first commandment of all?" Jesus answered that/: "First is 'Hear, Israel! The Lord our God is one Lord. And you shall welcome the Lord your God out of whole/all your heart and out of whole/all your soul and out of whole/all your mind and out of whole/all your stability.' A second oneis (א,* א) this: 'You shall welcome your neighbour as yourself.' Greater than these ones is not another commandment." (Mark 12:28b-31)

(Jesus said to the ones hearing Him:) “Welcome your enemies, make/do finely to the ones hating you. ... And if you welcome the ones welcoming you, what kind ‘joybringing (grace)’/boon is it to you? For and/also the missers (of the mark of God) welcome the ones welcoming them.” (Luke 6:27b,32)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Give and it will be given to you.” (Luke 6:38a)

(Jesus) said to the one having called/invited (and calling/inviting) Him: “When you – according to the circumstances – may make/give a breakfast or a chief meal, do not raise your voice (against) your friends, ‘but not’/nor (against) your brothers, ‘but not’/nor (against) your relatives, ‘but not’/nor (against) rich neighbourings, 'not at any time'/'in order that ... not' they may and/also call/invite you instead/’in turn’, and it may become a requital instead/’in turn’ to you. However/but when you – according to the circumstances – may make/give a banquet, call/invite beggarly ones, cripple ones, lame ones, blind ones. And you will be happy, because they have not (anything) to give back instead for you, but (א*) it will in stead be given back to you in/at the resurrection of the righteous ones.” (Luke 14:12-14)

(Jesus said to the crowds:) "If anyone comes towards Me and does not hate his father and the mother and the woman/wife and the children and the brothers and the sisters, but/and (P45, א,* א, A) still/furthermore and/also his own soul, he is not able to be My disciple." (Luke 14:26)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Make friends for yourselves out of the mammon of the unrighteousness, in order that when – according to the circumstances – it may ‘leave out’/disappear, they may receive you into the agelong tents.” (Luke 16:9b)

(Jesus said:) "Were they not found having returned to give glory to God, ‘if not’/except this one, the one of other descent?" (Luke 17:18)

(Jesus answered the Pharisees and spoke:) "The kingdom of God is within you/’the limits of’ you’." (Luke 17:21b)

(Jesus said to a rich man:) “You know the commandments: ‘You may not commit adultery. You may not murder. You may not steal. You may not be a false witness. Honour your father and your (א*) mother.’” But 'the one'/he spoke: “All these things I have watched ‘out of’/since my (א,* א, A) youth.” (Luke 18:20-21)

(The ones having received Peter's saying continually) ‘were being patient’/adhered to the teaching of the apostles and the communion, to the fragmenting/breaking of the bread and the prayers. ... All the ones having (א,*א,B) believed (continually) were ‘against the same (place)’/together and had (continually) ‘all of it’/’all things’ common. And they (continually) disposed the possessions and the estates/properties and (continually) ‘divided asunder’/distributed them to every/everyone in so far as anyone – according to the circumstances – (continually) had need. (Acts 2:42,44-45)

The disciples, everyone of them, ‘marked out by boundaries’/determined entirely as someone (continually) found a way, to send (a contribution) into a service/support to the brothers dwelling in Judea. (Acts 11:29)

(Lydia said to Paul and the ones being with him:) “If you have judged (and judge) me be faithful to the Lord, having come in, into my house, stay.” ... (Acts 16:15b)

(The people in Athen said to Paul:) “’Are we able to’/’can we’ gain knowledge of what this new teaching (is), the one being talked by you?” (Acts 17:19b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

In a beginning the Saying (continually) was, and the Saying (continually) was towards God. (John 1:1a)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Already the one harvesting takes wage and leads together fruit into/for agelong life, in order that and/both (א,* א, A) the one sowing and the one harvesting may rejoice together.” (John 4:36)

(Jesus said:) “Because of this the Father welcomes Me, because I put/inter My soul, in order that I may take it again. No one lifted (P45,א*,B) it from Me, however/but I put/inter it from Myself. I have (judicial) authority to put/inter it, and I have (judicial) authority to take it again. This commandment I have taken from the side of My Father.” (John 10:17-18)

(Jesus said:) "The one being friends with his soul perish it. And the one hating his soul in this adornment/’adorned world’ will watch it into an agelong life." (John 12:25)

(Jesus said to the crowd:) "I have not talked out of Myself, however/but the One having sent Me, a Father, He has given (and gives) Me a commandment, what I may speak and what I may talk. And I know, that His commandment is agelong life.” (John 12:49-50a)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "If so I, the Lord and the Teacher, have washed your feet, and/also you are indebted to wash the feet of one another." (John 13:14)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 - about 1500

When Jesus speaks to his disciples about love, it is the mutual love between them he speaks about. It is not the love to what in the Gospel of John is called the world. The mutual love between Christians is to be a reflecton of the love between Jesus and God. (LarsOlov Eriksson "För att ni skall tro. Johannesevangeliet" p 264; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Jesus is not speaking here of love to all people but of love within the community of believers. ... Love itself is not a new commandment, but an old one (Lev. 19:18). The new thing appears to be the mutual affection that Christians have for one another on account of Christ's great love for them. (Leon Morris "The Gospel according to John" p 562)

The Babylonian Talmud says that one cannot enjoy anything from the hand of God without offering a blessing in return. (Michael E. Williams “Exodus-Joshua” p 161; Marwin Wilson: Our Father Abraham p 156)

This commandment of love has early been apprehended as the characteristic of the johannine scriptures, which is clear of a narrative in Hieronymus. The apostle John repeated as an old man i Ephesos the words: “My children, love one another.” When the disciples got tired of this, they got the answer: “This is the commandment of the law. If this alone is followed, it is enough.” (René Kieffer "Johannesevangeliet" p 339; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Mutual help is the hallmark of the community of faith. (F.F. Bruce "The Epistle to the Galatians" p 259)

Who are the brothers of Jesus? He already has said it (Matt 12:49f), when he gave his hand and pointed at his disciples: Here are my brothers! . . . The brothers of Jesus are those belonging to the family of God having God as their Father. . . . So here (in Matt 25:31-46) it is not a question of philantrophy in the ordinary sense. It is a question of the love to Jesus, which makes his kingdom and his works so dear to us, that we as a matter of course engage ourselves in helping and supporting all those being our brothers and sisters in faith. (Bo Giertz "Evangelium enligt Matteus" p 190-191; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

When we came home, Jonatan unpacked Sofia's basket on the kitchen table. There was a piece of bread in it and a bottle of milk and a little pot with honey and a couple of pancakes. "Does Sofia keep us with food", I said surprised. "I had not in detail thought of how we would get something to eat." "Sometimes she does so", Jonatan said. "Quite free", I asked. "Free, yes, perhaps one can call it so", Jonatan said. "Here in Cherry Valley (in Nangijala) everything is free. We give to one another and help one another as it is needed." (Astrid Lindgren "Bröderna Lejonhjärta" p 35-36; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

True love must be mutual. ... Responsibility towards other Christians is greater than towards other people generally. (Donald Guthrie "Galatians" p 134,148; comment to Gal 5:13-6:10)

That the affluent should supply the deficiences of the needy was as desirable between churches as it was between members in any one local church. (F.F. Bruce "1 and 2 Corinthians" p 223; comment to 2 Cor 8:14)

In the earliest Church the offering of one's belongings was absolutely voluntary (Acts 5:4). Consequently no one could consider it to be a collective economy which centrally administered the regular income. (Leonhard Goppelt "Apostolic and Post-Apostolic Times" p 50)

Jesus lays a ‘yoke’ on his followers; but it is his yoke, and unlike the ‘yoke oth the commandments’ of which the rabbis spoke, it is a ‘kindly’ yoke. Paradoxically, the yoke and the load bring ‘relief’ to burdened souls. (C.H. Dodd “The Founder of Christianity” p 135)

Fraternal love expressed in action is ... the unmistakable sign of our union with God. (Rudolf Schnackenburg “The Moral Teaching of the New Testament” p 327)

The church is a new social phenomen in India. Islam and Hinduism have a powerful community but the community spirit is totally different from the spirit of a Christian church. The Christian church contains that very social principle and that social dynamic force of which India is in need. ... The fact is that neither Hinduism nor Islam contains anything really equivalent to the church. They have nothing corresponding to congregational worship. We certainly see a great throng at a festival and crowded temples, but they are crowded with individual worshippers. The Christian idea of spiritual fellowship, imbued with a common life, expressed in ordinary social intercourse, in the worship of God, and in the Holy Communion which is the supreme manifestation of brotherhood, is a purely Christian conception and it goes back to the very essentials of the Christian doctrine of God. (Frank B. Rehnstrom "An Outline of Missionary Enterprise in India, Nepal & Pakistan" p 198-199)

The command to love the neighbour (the fellow-Israelite) becomes the requirement of mutual love within the church. … The mutual love is modelled upon, and in some measure reveals, the mutual love of the Father and the Son. … Mutual love is the proof of Christian discipleship and its evident token. (C.K. Barrett "The Gospel according to St John" p 30, 452-53)

These early Christians had an intense feeling of responsibility for each other. ... A real Christian cannot bear to have too much when others have too little. (William Barclay “The Acts of the Apostles” p 30 commenting Acts 2:42-47)

Two things are to be noted about (these early Christians). (i) They had an intense sense of responsibility for each other. (ii) This awoke in them a real desire to share all they had. We must note one thing above all – this sharing was not the result of legislation; it was utterly spontaneous. It is not when the law compels us to share but when the heart moves us to share that society is really Christian. (William Barclay “The Acts of the Apostles” p 43 commenting Acts 4:32-37)

No nation has ever had a greater sense of responsibility for the less fortunate brethren than the Jews. In the synagogue there was a routine custom. Two collectors went round the market and the private houses every Friday morning and made a collection for the needy partly in money and partly in goods. Later in the day this was distributed. Those who were temporarily in need received enough to enable them to carry on; and those who were permanently unable to support themselves received enough for fourteen meals, that is, enough for two meals a day for the ensuing week. The fund from which this distribution was made was called the Kuppah or Basket. In addition to this a house-to house collection was made daily for those in pressing need. This was called the Tamhui, or Tray. It is clear that the Christian Church had taken over this custom. ... It is extremely interesting to note that the first office-bearers to be appointed were chosen not to talk but for practical service. (William Barclay “The Acts of the Apostles” p 51-52 commenting Acts 6:1-7)

On the return journey Paul set apart elders in all the little groups of newly-made Christians. He showed that it was his conviction that Christianity must be lived in a fellowship. As one of the great fathers put it, “No man can have God for his father unless he has the Church for his mother.” ... From the very beginning it was Paul's aim not only to make individual Christians but to build these individuals into a Christian fellowship. (William Barclay “The Acts of the Apostles” p 111 commenting Acts 14:21-28)

They drew nearer to one another. Without a word they seized the hands of one another and stood quiet in front of the death's head. It was most certainly sent to them by God. . . . God had taken care of them and wanted to save them from coming to hate one another. . . . They forgot not only their wrath against one another, they also forgot their poverty, their worries of future. They felt the greatest happiness men can experience. (Selma Lagerlöf "Dödskallen" p 537-538; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

The while when husband and wife understand their love relation as a struggle for power, when it just is the contrast, then hell is in the house. (August Strindberg "En blå bok II" p 757; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Any felicity she could not give, for to that the love of both parts is demanded, devotion, sacrifice. This no one of the godless ones understood, but they sought in zoology and in physiology the explanation of the simple problem, over which so many have cogitated within married alliances. And it is nevertheless so simple and beautiful: in hate and scepticism no felicity is born, only disappointment; and from this the permanent complaint about disappointment. (August Strindberg "En blå bok II" p 770; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

I am old and tired, am right to be so; therefore I work in the daytime to have time to build and plant in those sites, where I have pulled down. Must therefore sleep at night and thus go without the pleasant things of life: to keep company with the men one meets in harmonies and beauty. (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev 16, maj 1907-12 juli 1908" p 154; letter 1908-01-20 to Tor Aulin; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

I had in (H.C.) Andersen's world of fairy-tales found out the existence of another world for certain, a world of a golden age, where justice and mercy existed; where the parents really caressed their children and not only fringed them, where something for me absolutely unknown threw a rose-shimmer even over poverty and humilation, it was called with a now useless word: love. (August Strindberg "Andersen" s 75; Politiken 1905-04-02; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Religion wants to bring about sympathy and community between the men with reference to their deepest presentiments of human purpose. . . . The future of mankind depends on the awakening and the spreading of sympathy in wider and wider circles. More apposite and, one can say, more beautiful and artistic the nature of this feeling has never become expressed than in Jesus' parable of the vine and its branches. (Viktor Rydberg "Konstnären och konstverket" p 55; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Thank you for the charming letter doing my heart good! Such a letter I have always regarded as a gift from above sharing the thankfulness between him having written it and Him whose wisdom presents itself in the growth of the flower and the child as in the life of the star systems and whose goodness is the spring of all good things, which the men give one another. (Viktor Rydbergs brev III "Brev från Viktor Rydberg 1882-1895" p 58; letter 1887-11-12 to R. Malling-Hansen; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

"It is this which is the seventeenth of August (here in Mårbacka, the birthday of lieutenant Lagerlöf)", (engineer Noreen) says. "It is not the song, not the scene, not the dance, not the crowd of men, but it this what we now feel, the quiet, solemn bliss having now penetrated into our hearts, the love and the love back flowing through the night. It is this we longed for, when we travelled here. It is this we will return back for to search next year. Dear brother Erik Gustav . . . every year you succeed in giving us a little blessedness, a little Paradise, a little of what we in our language here in Östra Ämtervik call the seventeenth of August." (Selma Lagerlöf "Mårbacka" p 240; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Our upper-school scholor felt seized by a feeling, which he never before had experienced. In the circle of these by undissembled piety and mutual love ennobled nature men it was as if a more fresh but more serious life had flown through him. . . . "Mother", (the corporal Brant said to his wife), "we have, you know, so long lived happy with each other! We have from the youth wandered at the side of each other, mutually helping and consolating the one the other in the difficult whiles of life!" (Viktor Rydberg "De vandrande djäknarne" p 28; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

(The disciples) were to love each other for Christ's sake and according to his example seeking what might benefit others. … But this commandment still appears new to many professors. Men in general notice any of Christ's words rather than these. By this it appears, that if the followers of Christ do not show love one to another, they give cause to suspect their sincerity. (Matthew Henry "Concise Commentary on the Whole Bible" p 795)


about 1500 and time before

Rome's conversion to Christianity did not prevent the amphitheatre (Colosseum's) bloody displays to go on for a long time. One day about year 450 (BG Ask-comment: other noted down and more probable years 391 and 404, the year when gladiatorial displays were forbidden) there was among the spectators a foreigner, a monk from Syria, named Telemachus. He had wanted to see the one of the amphitheatre so mentioned magnificence and see the amusements, to which his Christian brothers there surrendered. The good monk, who in the oriental monastery lived more in pious dreams than in reality, cannot believe his eyes, when gladiators march into the arena to amuse the people with a fight life and death, but when the stage is rinsed by their blood and the spectators rejoice, when a "secutor" with a sword stabs a fallen "net combatant" in his chest, the monk springs to his feet from his chair and downstairs, rushes, in spite of the attempts of the custodians to prevent him, into the arena in the middle of corpses and conquerors, lifts his hands towards the senators, the knights and the people, bursts into tears but sudues the tears crying in a voice which is heard by everybody: "Brothers, Christians! Has so John in vain exhorted us: children, love one another mutually! Has so Jesus in vain suffered for us on the cross!" His words were drowned by a raging scream. Eighty thousand men seize upon all, which can be used as missiles, and sling it down on him, until he, a corpse, lies by the side of the fallen gladiator. Some years after that the gladitorial displays were forbidden by caesar Honorius. (Viktor Rydberg "Kolosseum - Vilka voro barbarerna? - Kolosseums ättlingar - Skådespelen - Rövarstycket Laureolus - Munken Telemak - Signor Rosas grävningar" p 270-271; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Love (is) above all things the mother of every good, and the badge of the disciples (of Christ), and the bond which holds together our whole condition. (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers X:111)

As men could not sail on the sea, if harbors and roadsteads were blocked up; so neither could this life hold together, if thou take away mercy, and compassion, and love to man. (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers X:325)

(God invites) to brotherhood, the unknown, the contemptible, not meaning by these the monks only, and them that have occupied the mountains, but every believer; though he be a secular person. ... For baptism renders a man a brother, and the partaking of the divine mysteries. (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers X:475)

The fellowship (among the believers) was not only in prayers, nor in doctrine alone, but also in social relations. (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers XI:45 commenting Acts 2:44)

Nothing so marks to us the stamp of human nature as the showing pity, as the being kind to our fellow-men. (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers XI:266)

How much the brother may be least, so much the more does Christ come to thee through him. For he who receives the great, often does it from vainglory also; but he that receives the small, does it purely for Christ's sake. ... If it be a believer and a brother, although the least, Christ cometh to thee through him. Open your hourse, take Him in. ... Be inquisitive, sit before the doors, receive those who come yourselves; though you may not wish to take them into your house, at any rate in some other way (receive them), by supplying them with necessaries. “Why, has not the Church means” you will say? She has: but what is that to you? that they should be fed from the common funds of the Church, can that benefit you? If another man prays, does it follow that you are not bound to pray? Wherefore do you not say, “Do not the priests pray? then why should I pray?” ... Make for yourself a guest-chamber in your own house: set up a bed there, set up a table there and a candlestick. ... Gain a victory over the Church. Would you put us to shame? This do: surpass us in liberality: have a room, to which Christ may come; say, “This is Chirst's cell; this building is set apart for Him.” Be it but an underground chamber, and mean, He disdains it not. ... Ye ought indeed to receive (the homeless) in the upper part of your house; but if ye will not do this, then though it be below, though but where thy mules are housed, and thy servants, there receive Christ. ... But now a place is set apart for a chariot, and for litters another; but for Christ Who is wandering, not even one! (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers XI:275-277)

Where thorns are, there are wild beasts: where hospitality is, there are no thorns: for almsgiving having entered in, more keenly than any sickle it destroys the thorns, more violently than any fire. (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers XI:319)

Do not wait to be loved by another but ... be the first to begin it. For so wilt thou reap the wages of his love also. ... There is nothing that makes men beloved so much as honor and forethought. For to love is not enough, but there must be this also. ... There are many that love in mind, yet reach not forth the hand. (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers XI:503)

Let no one say, “such a person is no friend of mine, nor relation, nor neighbor, I have nought to do with him, how shall I approach, how address him?” Though he be neither relation nor friend, yet he is a man, who shares the same nature with thee, owns the same Lord, is thy fellow-servant, and “tent-fellow”, for he is born in the same world. And, if besides he partakes of the same faith, behold he hath also become a member of thee: for what friendship could work such union, as the relationship of faith? (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers XIV:53-54)

In this ... we differ from beasts ... (that) we have built cities, and markets, and houses, that we may be united one with another ... by the bond of love. For since our nature ... is not self-sufficient, God, for our advantage, ordained that the want ... should be corrected by the assistance arising from mutual intercourse; so that what was lacking in one should be supplied by another. (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers XIV:67)

Let us hold fast to real works, I mean to brotherly-kindness and hospitality. … There is nothing else that causes the Greeks to stumble, except there is no love. “But”, saith some one, “they also urge against us the absence of miracles.” But not in the same way. … Miracles do not so much attract the Greeks as the mode of life, and nothing so much causes a right life as love. For those who wrought miracles they often even called deceivers, but they could have no hold upon a pure life. (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers XIV:247,266)

Have thou seen the gift (charity)? Covet earnestly this gift. This is greater than raising the dead. This is far better than all the rest. And that it is so, hear what Christ Himself saith, discoursing with His disciples, “By this shall all men know that ye are My disciples.” (John xiii. 35.) And showing how, He mentioned not the miracles, but what? “If ye have love one with another.” And again He saith to the Father, “hereby shall they know that Thou hast sent Me, if they be one.” (John xvii. 21.) And He said to His disciples, “A new commandment I give to you, that ye love one another.” (John xiii.34.) ... Without this, not even martyrdom can profit. (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers XIV:381)

We who formerly ... valued above all things the acquisition of wealth and possessions, now bring what we have into a common stock, and communicate to every one in need; we who hated and destroyed one another, and on account of their different manners would not live with men of a different tribe, now, since the coming of Christ, live familiarly with them, and pray for our enemies. (Justin Martyr, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol I, p 167)

The wealthy among us help the needy; and we always keep together. ... They who are well to do, and willing, give what each thinks fit; and what is collected is deposited with the president, who succours the orphans and widows, and those who, through sickness or any other cause, are in want, and those who are in bonds, and the strangers sojouring among us, and in a word takes care of all who are in need. (Justin Martyr, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol I, p 185-186)

The new law of our Lord Jesus Christ is without the yoke of necessity. (Epistle of Barnabas, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol I, p 138)

In a variety of ways (God) adjusted the human race to an agreement with salvation. On this account also does John declare in the Apocalypse: “And His voice as the sound of many waters.” For the Spirit (of God) is truly (like) many waters, since the Father is both rich and great. And the Word, passing through all those (men), did liberally confer benefits upon His subjects, by drawing up in writing a law adapted and applicable to every class (among them).” (Irenaeus, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol I, p 479)

The Lord Himself did speak in His own person to all alike the words of the Decalogue; and therefore, in like manner, do they remain permanently with us, receiving by means of His advent in the flesh, extension and increase, but not abrogation. The laws of bondage, however, were one by one promulgated to the people by Moses, suited for their instruction or for their punishment, as Moses himself declared: “And the Lord commanded me at that time to teach you statutes and judgments.” These things, therefore, which were given for bondage, and for a sign to them, He cancelled by the new covenant of liberty. But He has increased and widened those laws which are natural, and noble, and common to all, granting to men largely and without grudging, by means of adoption, to know God the Father, and to love Him with the whole heart, and to follow His word unswervingly, while they abstain not only from evil deeds, but even from the desire of them. (Irenaeus, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol I, p 479)

Who did not proclaim the magnificence of your habitual hospitality? ... The commandments and ordinances of the Lord were written upon the tablets of your hearts. (Clement of Rome to the Corinthians, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol I, p 5)

On account of his faith and hospitality, a son was given to (Abram) in his old age. ... On account of his hospitality and godliness Lot was saved out of Sodom. ... On account of her faith and hospitality Rahab the harlot was saved. ... Let us be kind one to another after the pattern of the tender mercy and benignity of our Creator. (Clement of Rome to the Corinthians, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol I, p 7-8)

Let the rich man provide for the wants of the poor; and let the poor man bless God, because He hath given him one by whom his need may be supplied. (Clement of Rome to the Corinthians, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol I, p 15)

Israel was always distinguished for hospitality; and not only the Bible, but the Rabbis, enjoin this in the strongest terms. ... The Rabbis declared that hospitality involved as great, and greater merit than early attendance in an academy of learning. They could scarcely have gone farther, considering the value they attached to study. Of course, here also the Rabbinical order had the preference; and hospitably to entertain a sage, and to send him away with presents, was declared as meritorious as to have offered the daily sacrifices (Ber. 10, b). ... So far as the duty of hospitality is concerned, or the loving care for poor and sick, it were impossible to take a higher tone than that of Rabbinism. ... One of the oldest Rabbinical commentaries has a very beautiful gloss on Ps. cix. 31: “He shall stand at the right hand of the poor.” “Whenever,” we read, “a poor man stands at thy door, the Holy One, blessed be His Name, stands at his right hand. If thou givest him alms, know that thou shalt receive a reward from Him who standeth at his right hand.” (Alfred Edersheim “Jewish Social Life” p 47-48)

Private peace-offerings (could be) ‘voluntary offerings’ (Lev vii. 16) ... the free gift of loving hearts, as even the use of the same term in Ex. xxv. 2, xxxv. 29 implies. Exceptionally in this case an animal that had anything either ‘defective’ or ‘superfluous’ might be offered (Lev 22:23). (Alfred Edersheim “The Temple” p 135; cf. Dieter Mitternacht-Anders Runesson "Jesus och de första kristna, inledning till Nya Testamentet" p 93-94 “(The Roman) sacrifice had to be wholly faultless to fit as a gift to the gods. ... The Romans could have an almost juridical attitude to the gods: do ut des ‘I give in order that yoy shall give in return’” – my translation; cf. also Heb 10:12 speaking about the sacrifice of Jesus as a sacrifice in favour of sins.)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Stig Abrahamsson, Eskil Albertsson, Svetlana Aleksijevitj, Inger Alestig, Martin Allwood, Carl Jonas Love Almqvist, Ad. Anderberg, Anders Andersson, Karl-Erik Andersson, Åke Andrén, Gottfried Arnold, Gunnar Aspelin, Werner Aspenström, Augustinus, Robert Banks, Ulla Bardh, Samuel Beckett, Victoria Benedictsson, Johann Albrecht Bengel, Sven Bengtsson, August Berg, UllaBritt Berglund, Ingmar Bergman, E. Bergström, Erik Bernspång, Elisabeth Beskow, Natanael Beskow, Per Beskow, Olof Bingmark, Marcus Birro, Rudolf Björkman, Amanda M. Blankenstein, Harry Blomberg, Jacob Blomdahl, Torsten Bohlin, Gordon Bridger, Sven-Erik Brodd, Göran Burenhult, Gustav Bühlund, O. Carling, Leif Carlsson, Sven-Olov Carlsson, Carl Cederblad, Önver Cetrez, G.A. Chadwick, Elizabeth Charles, Anna-Maria Claesson, A. Conrady, Eva Cronsioe Ihlar, Stig Dagerman, Ann Margret Dahlqvist-Ljungberg, Sven Danell, Henry Daniel-Rops, Sigfrid Deminger, H. Dermot McDonald, Simon Diankoumi, Charles Dickens, Jiri Dienstbier, Olof Djurfeldt, Stefan Edman, Ylva Eggehorn, Christoph Ehricht, E.J. Ekman, Ulf Ekman, Runar Eldebo, Donald English, Lars Englund, Per-Olov Enquist, Linné Eriksson, Per-Gustaf Eriksson, Björne Erixon, Erik Ewalds, Emilia Fogelklou, Lars Forssell, Bert Franzén, Otto Funcke, Bo Frid, Ulla Gabay, Einar Genitz, Karl Gerhard, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Nikolaj Gogol, Johannes Gossner, Billy Graham, Hillis Grane, Carl Grimberg, N.F.S. Grundtvig, Nils Gruvberger, Hjalmar Gullberg, Torsten Gunnarsson, Guo Moruo, Sergej Gurin, Gustaf V, Astrid Gustafsson, Axel Gustafsson, Berndt Gustafsson, Lennart Gustavsson, Stefan Gustavsson, Gustav Haag, Jürgen Habermas, Sture Hallbjörner, Peter Halldorf, Jonas Hallgrimsson, Dag Hammarskjöld, Keith Harder, Vaclav Havel, Annelie Hedlund, Tommy Hellsten, Jan Arvid Hellström, C.G. Hjelm, Victor Hugo, Lars Hult, Bengt Hägglund, Henrik Ibsen, Anders Jarlert, Anders Johansson, K.W. Johansson, Swening Johansson, Viktor Johansson, Liselotte J. Andersson, Stanley Jones, Ulrik Josefsson, Gunlög Järhult, Ingemar Karlsson, Adolf Kloo, Ad. Kolmodin, Konfucius, Thorvald Källstad, Lars Levi Laestadius, David Lagergren, Pär Lagerkvist, Hans Larsson, Anne Marie Leander, Harry Lenhammar, Curt Levin, C.S. Lewis, Sven Lidman, Jonas Lie, Axel Liffner, Lars Lindberg, Robert Linder, Olof Lindström, Carl von Linné, Eva Londos, Lars-Martin Lund, Gösta Lundberg, Ulf Lundell, Ivar Lundgren, Karl-Erik Lundin, Martin Luther, Martin Lönnebo, Olaus Magnus, Agneta Magnusson, John Magnusson, Magnus Malm, Howard Marshall, Carl Henrik Martling, H. Dermot McDonald, Philip McNair, Karl Midnäs, John Mitchell, Mo Yan, Vilhelm Moberg, D.L. Moody, Harry Månsus, Wilhelm Möller, Axel Mörne, B. Neil, Stephen Neill, Gösta Nicklasson, Fredrik Nielsen, Karl Nilenius, Bertil Nilsson, Gert Nilsson, Nils Henrik Nilsson, Sven Nilsson, Torsten Nilsson, Anders Nohrborg, J.P. Norberg, Agne Nordlander, Julian av Norwich, J. Nyrén, Olle Nystedt, David Nyvall, Sigurd Ohlsson, Vibeke Olsson, John Ongman, John Ortberg, Gunne Oscarsson, J.I. Packer, Karl Palmberg, Efraim Palmqvist, Blaise Pascal, G.H. Pember, Thure Peterson, Lewi Pethrus, Birgitta Petri, Olof Petersson, K.J. Pettersson, Niklas Piensoho, Anders Piltz, Bengt Pleijel, Robert von Poehlmann, Erik Pontoppidan, Qin Zhaoyang, Inga-Britt Ranemark, Harald Rasmussen, Elis G. Regnér, Sven Reichman, Einar Rimmerfors, Carl Olof Rosenius, Värner Rydén, Carl-Erik Sahlberg, Sven-Edvin Salje, Vinay Samuel, Britt Sandberg, Gösta Sandberg, Elisabeth Sandlund, Henrik Schartau, M. Basilea Schlink, Bo Setterlind, Isaac Bashevis Singer, Anders Sjöberg, Tomas Sjödin, Wilh. Sjöholm, Harry Sjöman, Michael A. Smith, Erik Sollerman, Kekke Stadin, Erik Johan Stagnelius, Milton Steinberg, Wilfrid Stinissen, Herman Stolpe, Sven Stolpe, John Stott, Karin Strandberg, Margareta Strömstedt, Chris Sugden, Viktor Sund, Magnus Sundell, Bengt Sundström, Victor Svanberg, Jesper Svartvik, Knut Svensson, Per-Axel Sverker, Kari Syreeni, Hjalmar Söderberg, Nathan Söderblom, G.E. Söderholm, Mikael Tellbe, Alf Tergel, Anthony C. Thiselton, Thomas a Kempis, Einar Thomassen, Birger Thureson, Carl-Herman Tillhagen, Anton Tjechov, Leo Tolstoj, Bertil Torekull, Nils Tägt, Robert von Poehlmann, Jean Vanier, B. Wadström, Herbert Wagemaker, Ruben Wagnsson, P. Waldenström, Johan Olof Wallin, Amy Catherine Walton, Anders Wejryd, Morris West, Nils Peter Wetterlund, Arwid Wickström, David Wilkerson, Carl Wilson, Marvin Wilson, Per Wirtén, Carl Fr. Wislöff, Fredrik Wislöff, Christopher Wright, Birgitta Yavari, Göran Åberg, Torsten Åhman.


My own comments and speculations:

The Father welcomes the Son (John 3:35) and the Son welcomes the Father (John 14:31). The heavenly welcome is mutual, and the Christians are called to reveal this glory between themselves. For John it is extremely important that the beggarly ones are an integral and natural part in this mutuality. Compare John 12:7-8 where Jesus says to his disciples, that they always will have the beggarly ones "in company with themselves". A Christian church which is a church of rich men, where no one needs the help of the other one, has lost and perhaps forgotten its task to on earth reflect the mutual heavenly welcome.

The new commandment means that believers in Christ - from different nations and families - shall welcome one another. Before this men in reality can be said to have hated one another. Cf. Tit 3:3. Compare also the Targum to Gen 11 where it is said that men began to kill one another, when God scattered the united people in Babel. So in a restoration perspective we see how men, who once hated one another in the adornment/’adorned world’, now welcome one another in Christ. A Christian welcomes another Christian, because Christ has welcomed him and not because of the welcome of his brother or sister (cf. the mutually welcome of the tax collectors in Matt 5:46). See also my own comments and speculations to John 14:12-14.

But all men (not only “father and mother”) must be honoured (cf. 1 Pet 2:17). Cf. Sir 38:1 ”Honour the physician towards/concerning his needs (with) his honours, for and/also him the Lord created.” John (and Peter) seem to value welcome/love more than honour. Against this we can compare with Luther's opposite valuation: ”To honour has a higher meaning than to love.” (Luther's great cathechism in commenting the fourth commandment, my translation)

In the Gospel of Matthew Jesus mentions seven commandments to the rich youth (Matt 19:16-21). The seventh commandment is the perfect one. The sixth and the imperfect commandment is to welcome/love ones neighbour as oneself. After these seven commandments Matthew mentions two more commandments (Matt 22:34-40), which Luke unites to one commandment (Luke 10:25-28). These commandments can in Matthew been comprehended as the eighth commandment of Jesus, a commandment coming after the seven mentioned in Matt 19:16-21 (and in Mark 10:17-22). So the commandment about welcoming/loving can be said to be both the eighth and “one of the seven”. In Luke this commandment comes before “the seven” and therefore is the first one. And what is the first in a new age can also be seen as the eighth in an old age. Cf. my own comments and speculations to Rev 17:9b-11.

The commandment of Jesus in the Gospel of John coresponds to the commandment/commandments about welcoming/loving God and the neighbour. The one welcoming/loving his neighbour in Christ also welcomes/loves Jesus who is God (cf. Matt 25:40; John 14:15; 20:28; 1 John 4:20-21).

Compare also that the coming glory is in a city, a new Jerusalem, with many people and not in a desolate place or next to a sea.


Paul said to the believers in Rome: "I call you, brothers, to the side of through the ‘compassionate things’/compassion of God, to cause your bodies to stand by the side of (as) a living sacrifice, holy to God, well-pleasing, your divine service belonging to the saying." (Rom 12:1)

Paul said to the believers in Rome: "In this way we, the many, are one body in Christ, but 'according to one'/'one by one' limbs of one another." (Rom 12:5)

Paul said to the believers in Rome: “Being/be (א*) indebted nothing to no/any one, ‘if not’/except to welcome one another. ... The welcome so (is) a complement of law.” (Rom 13:8a,10b)

Paul said to the believers in Rome: “Macedonia and Achaia were pleased to make some/a communion/contribution into/’purposed for’ the beggarly ones of the holy ones, the ones in Jerusalem.” (Rom 15:26)

Paul said to the believers in Corinth: “All things are permitted, however, all things do not carry/bring together. All things are permitted, however, not all things build/’build a house’. Let not anyone seek ‘the thing of himself’/’his own’, however/but ‘the thing of the other’/’the other's.” (1 Cor 10:23-24)

Paul said to the believers in Corinth: “The one sowing sparingly and/also will harvest sparingly, and the one sowing on/’for the sake of’ blessings/praises he will and/also harvest on/’for the sake of’ blessings/praises.” (2 Cor 9:6b)

Paul said to the believers in Galatia: "Bear one another's weights and in this way you will ’complete ... upwards’/upcomplete the law of the Christ/'anointed One'. ... We may work the good thing towards all, but ‘most rather’/’in particular’ towards the ones belonging to the households of the faith." (Gal 6:2,10b)

Paul said to the believers in Ephesos: “Blessed (be) the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, the One having blessed us in/with every spiritual blessing in the heavenly (places) in Christ.” (Eph 1:3)

Paul said to the believers in Colossae: “If you so have been raised together with the Christ/'anointed One' seek the things upwards, where the Christ/'anointed One' is. ... Consider the things up (there), not the things upon the earth. ... Your life is (and has been) hidden together with the Christ/'anoited One' in God.” (Col 3:1-3)

Paul said to the believers in Thessalonica: “You yourselves are taught by God into the thing to welcome one another." (1 Thess 4:9b)

Paul said to the believers in Thessalonica: “’Call ... to the side of’/invite one another and build/edify one '(to) the one'/another.” (1Thess 5:11a)

Paul said to Timothy: “Keep ... the commandment! “(1 Tim 6:14a)

Paul said to Titus: "We (continually) were once ... horrid, hating one another." (Tit 3:3)

We may ‘understand ... entirely’/’take ... to heart’ one another into/’for the purpose of’ ‘a sharp disagreement’/’an inciting’ of welcome and fine works. (Heb 10:24)

Become makers/doers of a saying and not only hearers ‘counting ... by the side of’/deceiving themselves. ... The one having bent to the side of into a perfect law, the one of the freedom, and having stayed by the side of, having not become a forgetful hearer however/but a maker/doer of a work, this one will be happy in his making/doing. (Jas 1:22,25b)

Peter said: "Honour all ones, welcome the brotherhood." (1 Pet 2:17a)

Peter said: “Before all things having the zealous welcome into yourselves, because welcome will (P72,א,*א) veil a multitude of misses (of the mark of God). (Be) hospitable to friends into/’for the purpose of’ one another without grumbling.” (1 Pet 4:8-9)

Peter said to his welcomed: “Remember the words having been (and being) spoken beforehand by the holy prophets and the commandment of the Lord and Saviour, (having been and being spoken by) your apostles.” (2 Pet 3:2)

What we have beheld (and behold) and have heard (and hear) we bring away a message and/also to you, in order that and/also you may have communion in company with us. And but/further (we have) our communion in company with the Father and in company with His Son, Jesus Christ. (1 John 1:3)

Welcomed, I do not write a new commandment to you however/but an old commandment, which you (continually) had from a beginning; the old commandment is the saying, which you have heard. (1 John 2:7)

In this it is visible, (who are) the children of God and the children of the slanderer. 'Every the'/everyone not making/practising righteousness is not out of God, and/nor the one not welcoming his brother. (1 John 3:10)

This is the promise (א,*א) (about being begotten out of God) which you have heard from a beginning, in order that you may welcome one another. (1 John 3:11)

We know, that we have stepped (and step) over out of the death into the life, because we welcome our (א,* א) brothers. The one not welcoming stays in the death. (1 John 3:14)

But the one who – according to the circumstances – may have the subsistence of the adornment/’adorned world’ and (who) may look at his brother having need and (who) may shut his inward vital parts from/for him, how does the welcome of God stay in him? (1 John 3:17)

This is His commandment, ‘in order that’/that we may (א,*א,A) believe (in) the name of His Son, Jesus Christ, and welcome one another, entirely as He ‘gave us a commandment’/’commanded us’. (1 John 3:23)

Welcomed, let us welcome one another, because the welcome is out of God, and 'every the'/everyone welcoming is (and has been) begotten out of God and has knowledge of God. The one not welcoming has not gained knowledge of God, that God is a welcome. (1 John 4:7-8; notice that John says that it is God - and not the Father or the Son or the Spirit - who is a welcome)

Welcomed, if God welcomed us in this way, we and/also are indebted to welcome one another. (1 John 4:11)

We have gained (and gain) knowledge and we have believed/’confided in’ (and believe/’confide in’) the welcome which God has in us. God is welcome, and the one staying in the welcome stays in God, and God stays in him. (1 John 4:16)

If – according to the circumstances – anyone may speak that/: ”I welcome God” and (if) he may hate his brother, he is a liar. For the one not welcoming his brother, whom he beholds (and has beheld), the one is not able to welcome God, whom he does not behold (and has not beheld). And this commandment we have from Him, in order that the one welcoming God and/also may welcome his brother. (1 John 4:20-21)


Greek words:

kainos (new) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Mark 1:27; John 13:34; Acts 17:19; 1 John 2:7 – Judith 16:13; 1 Macc 4:47,49; 2 Macc 2:29; Matt 9:17; 13:52; 26:29; 27:60; Mark 2:21-22; 14:25; Luke 5:36,38; 22:20; John 19:41; Acts 17:21; 1 Cor 11:25; 2 Cor 3:6; 5:17; Gal 6:15; Eph 2:15; 4:24; Heb 8:8,13; 9:15; 2 Pet 3:13; 1 John 2:8; 2 John v 5; Rev 2:17; 3:12; 5:9; 14:3; 21:1-2,5.


Additional studies:

Prov 18:24; Matt 10:37; 19:19; 22:39; 25:37-39; Luke 4:18; 16:1-8; John 3:35; 14:31; 15:12,17; 17:21; Acts 4:32; Rom 12:9-10; 1 Cor 12:25; Gal 5:14; Eph 4:25; 5:2; Col 3:13; 1 Thess 5:15; Heb 13:1; Jas 13:34; 1 Pet 1:22; 2 Pet 2:21; 1 John 2:9-11; 4:10; 3 John v 2,6,11; Rev 2:2,19; 3:7,9; 6:4; 12:17; 22:17.


F.C. Fensham "Love in the writings of Qumran and John"; Neotestamentica 6.1 (1972): 67-77.

J.A. du Rand "Perspectives on Johannine discipleship according to the farewell discourses"; Neotestamentica 25.2 (1991): 311-326.

David Wenham "The Enigma of the Fourth Gospel: Another Look."; Tyndale Bulletin 48.1 (1997): 149-178.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-04-28; 2011-12-02; 2014-07-28; 2014-11-27)

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13:36-37a Simon Peter says to Him: “Lord, where do You withdraw?” Jesus answered: “Whereat/where I withdraw, you are not able to follow Me now, but you will follow afterwards.” Peter says to Him: “* (א*) Because of what am I not able to follow You just now?”

Word for word: 13:36 (22 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus) Says (to)-him Simon Peter: lord, where withdraw-(you)? answered him the Jesus: whereat i/I withdraw not (you)-are-able-to me now follow, (you)-will-follow but afterwards. 13:37a (10 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus prima manus) says (to)-him Peter: because-of what not am-(i/I)-able-to you follow just-now?


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The Lord) spoke to Moses: "Ascend towards the Lord, you and Aaron and Nadab and Abihu and seventy of the elders of Israel, and you shall prostrate yourselves from afar before the Lord (in honour of Him). And Moses alone shall draw near towards the Lord, but they shall not draw near." (Ex 24:1-2a, Greek OT)

Moses and Aaron and Nadab and Abihu and seventy of the council of elders of Israel ascended (to the mountain). And they beheld the place, where the God of Israel stood there. (Ex 24:9-10a, Greek OT)

Having stood up Moses and Jesus/Joshua, the one standing by the side of him, ascended into the mountain of God. And he spoke to the elders: "Be quiet ... till we will turn back towards you. And behold, Aaron and Hur (are) in company with you." ... And Moses and Jesus/Joshua ascended into/to the mountain. (Ex 24:13-14a,15a, Greek OT)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said:) ”A man (continually) had two children. * (א*) Having come to the first he spoke: ‘Child, withdraw (and) work today in the vineyard.’ But ‘having answered’/answering (the child) spoke: ‘I do not want.’. * (א*) Afterward having repented (the child) went away (and did the will of his father). (Matt 21:28b-29)

Afterwards (when the seven brothers had died) the woman died. (Matt 22:27)

(Jesus said to the twelve:) “Indeed,the Son of the Man withdraws entirely as it has been (and is) written on account of Him.” (Matt 26:24a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Jesus said:) “If – according to the circumstances – anyone may render service to Me, let him follow Me. And whereat/where I am, there will and/also My servant be.” (John 12:26a)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "Entirely as I said to the Jews: 'Whereat/where I withdraw, you are not able to come', I and/also say (it) to you just now. " (John 13:33b)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

"I accompany you", (Jum-Jum) said (to Mio). He was my friend, Jum-Jum, he really was my friend. I became so glad, when he said that he wanted to accompany me. But I didn't want, that he would meet with something evil. "No, Jum-Jum", I said. "You cannot accompany me where I now go." (Astrid Lindgren "Mio, min Mio" p 85; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


My own comments and speculations:

Aaron is a type of Peter. Compare for instance John 6:68-69; 12:24; 18:25-27; 21:7,18. Sometimes Aaron was allowed to follow Moses. Sometimes he had to stay with the people. So it is with Peter. Afterwards he shall follow Jesus but not now.


Greek words:

(h)ysteron (afterwards) (in the NT + one example in the OT) Matt 21:29; 22:27; John 13:36 – Prov 5:4; Matt 4:2; 21:32,37; 25:11; 26:60; Luke 20:32; Heb 12:11.


Additional studies: Mark 14:21; John 7:34-36; 8:21; 14:2,5; 16:5; 21:18; Rev 13:10; 14:4.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-04-28; 2011-12-02; 2014-07-28)

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13:37b-38 My soul I will put/inter in favour of You. Jesus answers: “Will you put/inter your soul in favour of Me? Amen, amen, I say to you: ‘A rooster may not/certainly not ‘raise its voice’/crow, till (the time in) which you will deny away (א,* א, A) Me three times.’”

Word for word: 13:37b (6 words in the Greek text; the sequence of the words according-to Sinaiticus) in-favour-of you the soul my (i/I)-will-put. 13:38 (21 words in the Greek text) answered Jesus: the soul your in-favour-of me (you)-will-put? not/certainly not (a)-rooster may-raise-its-voice till (the-time-in)-which (you)-will-deny-away me three-times.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

... (Aaron) built a sacrificial altar entirely opposite (the molten young bull). (Ex 32:5a, Greek OT)

Mariam and Aaron talked ‘according to’/concerning Moses. ... They spoke: "Not has the Lord talked (and talks) alone/only (with) Moses? Has He by no means and/also talked (with) us?" (Num 12:1a,2a, Greek OT)

The Lord talked towards Moses, saying: "Take the rod and assemble the synagogue of called out, you and your brother Aaron, and you shall talk towards the rock opposite them, and it will give its waters." ... And Moses and Aaron assembled out the synagogue of called out opposite from the rock ... And having lifted against/up his hand Moses hit the rock (with) his rod twice. And it came out much water. ... And the Lord spoke towards Moses and Aaron: "Because you did not believe Me ... you shall not lead this synagogue into the earth/land which I have given (and give) them." (Num 20:7,8a,10a,11a,12, Greek OT)

The messenger of God spoke to (Balaam): "Because of what have you this third time hit your ass?" ... And Balaam spoke to the messenger of the Lord: "I have missed (and miss) (the mark of God), for I did not/certainly not believe, that You have stood (and stand) against me in the way." (Num 22:32a,34a, Greek OT)

(The prophet said: “In) that day the men will deny away their things made by hand.“ (Is 31:7a, Greek OT)

(Solomon said: “The wisdom has knowledge beforehand of) outsteps/outcomes of seasonable times and times/’spaces of time’.” (Wisdom of Solomon 8:8b)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “Three times (Eliah) led down fire.” (Sir 48:3b)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to Simon Peter:) "I and/also say to you, that you are Peter (= rocking-stone), and on this rock I will build My (assembly) of called out, and the gates of Hades shall not be entirely stable (with regard to) it." (Matt 16:18)

Jesus spoke to His disciples: "If anyone wants to come behind Me, let him deny away himself and lift his cross and follow Me.” (Matt 16:24)

Jesus uttered to (Peter): “Amen, I say to you, that in this night before a rooster ‘raise/raises its voice’/crows, you shall three times deny away Me.” Peter says to Him: “And if – according to the circumstances – I may have to die together with You, I will not/certainly not deny away You.” (Matt 26:34-35a)

(The apostles and the elders said: “Paul and Barnabas have given and give) their souls to the side of in favour/defence of the name of our Lord Jesus Christ.” (Acts 15:26b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(John) confessed and did not deny * (א,*א) that/: "I am not the christ/'anointed one'." And they asked him again (א,*א): "What so? Are you Elijah? * (א,*א) He says: "I am not." "Are you the prophet?" And he answered: ”Not/no.” (John 1:20-21)

(Jesus said to the Pharisees:) "I am the fine shepherd. The fine shepherd gives (P45,א*) His soul in favour of the sheep." (John 10:11)

(Jesus said to the Pharisees:) “Because of this the Father welcomes Me, because I put/inter My soul, in order that I may take it again. No one lifted (P45,א*,B) it from Me, however/but I put/inter it from Myself. I have (judicial) authority to put/inter it, and I have (judicial) authority to take it again.” (John 10:17-18a)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

(1906 March) 20th. Axel and Richard Bergh at home. I spoke with Axel about G. af G. who wants to place me under a guardian. . . . Axel played the first movement in Beethoven's ninth symphony: I thought me hear a cock crow. After finished play Rich. B. explains that in this ninth he hears an awakening in the country, "the crowing of the cock" et cetera. What was this? A thought-transference? But from where did I get the crowing? (August Strindberg "Ockulta dagboken" p 237; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Now when I go up to Jerusalem, perhaps my Golgatha, to celebrate Easter, alone, without disciples - perhaps a Peter being not able to hold himself when the cock crows for the first time, I entrust you this letter with the sympathy of understanding and suffering! (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev VII febr 1888-dec 1889" p 37; letter 1888-03-15 to Edvard Brandes; Jerusalem is here the same thing as Stockholm; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Sven Alverlin, Samira Azzam, Anis Freiha, Nikolaj Gogol, Alf Henrikson, Hans-Eric Holger, Barbro Jern, G. Kurze, Sven Lidman, Jonas Lie, Frederi Mistral, Lewi Pethrus, Nelly Sachs, Gunnar E. Sandgren, August Strindberg, Anton Tjechov, Leo Tolstoj.


My own comments and speculations:

As the type Aaron "denied" the Lord three times, so Peter will deny Him three times. Compare My own comments and speculations to John 13:36-37a.

Observe also the contrast between John's threefold confession (John 1:20-21) and Peter's threefold denial. Even though John here is John the Baptist, his name and his words can have some importance with regard to the (continually) welcomed disciple. Also in John 1:6-8 we can have a feeling of the presence of the apostle John (cf. Matt 17:1-9). Compare My own comments and speculations to John 1:42 and John 6:66-69.

On "amen, amen", see John 1:51a with My own comments and speculations.


In this we have (and have had) knowledge of the welcome, because that One put/intered His soul in favour of us. And/also we are indebted to put/inter the souls in favour of the brothers. (1 John 3:16)


Greek words:

alektôr (rooster) Matt 26:34; John 13:38 – Prov 30:31; Matt 26:74-75; Mark 14:30,72; Luke 22:34,60-61; John 18:27.

aparneomai (deny away) Is 31:7; Matt 16:24; 26:34-35; John 13:38 – Matt 26:75; Mark 8:34; 14:30-31,72; Luke 22:34; 22:61.

tris (three times) (in the NT + one example in the Apocrypha) Sir 48:3; Matt 26:34; John 13:38 – Matt 26:75; Mark 14:30,72; Luke 22:34,61; Acts 10:16; 11:10; 2 Cor 11:25; 12:8.


Additional studies: Mark 14:29,31; Luke 22:33; John 10:15; 11:16; 15:13; 18:25-26; Rev 8:13; 9:18.

Maurits Sabbe "The Denial of Peter in the Gospel of John"; Louvain Studies 20 (1995): 219-240.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-04-28; 2011-12-03; 2014-07-29; 2014-11-28)

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