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Chapter 12
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12:1-3 So ‘before six days of’/’six/seven days before’ the ‘paschal lamb’/Passover Jesus came into Bethany, whereat Lazarus (continually) was, whom Jesus had raised out of dead (bodies). They so made to Him a chief meal there, and Martha (continually) rendered service, but/and Lazarus (continually) was one out of the ones lying up/’down to table’ together with Him. Having so taken a pound of a much honoured ointment oil of nard, connected with faith, Mary (P66,א,*א) smeared the feet of Jesus and wiped off His feet (with) her hairs/hair. But/and the habitation was completed out of the scent of the ointment oil.

Word for word: 12:1 (19 words in the Greek text) The so Jesus before six days (of)-the (of)-paschal-lamb came into Bethany, whereat (continually)-was Lazarus, whom raised out-of dead Jesus. 12:2 (19 words in the Greek text) (they)-did so (to)-him (a)-chief-meal there, and the Martha (continually)-rendered-service, the but Lazarus one (continually)-was out-of the-(ones) lying-up together-with him. 12:3 (31 words in the Greek text) The so Mary having-taken (a)-pound (of)-ointment-oil (of)-nard (connected)-with-faith much-honoured (she)-smeared the feet (of)-the (of)-Jesus and wiped-off (with)-the hairs/hair her the feet his. the but habitation was-completed out-of the scent (of)-the (of)-ointment-oil.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

Noah built a sacrificial altar to the Lord … and carried up wholly offerings of fruits against the sacrificial altar. And the Lord God smelled a scent of fragrance. (Gen 8:20-21a, Greek OT)

Before the thing God turn/turned down/over Sodom and Gomorrah (the valley of Jordan was) as the 'place of God by the side of apprehension'/'Paradise of God' and as the earth/land of Egypt till come/'it comes' into Zoar. (Gen 13:10b, Greek OT)

The fishes/fish in the river ‘came to an end’/died, and the river 'smelt on'/tainted. (Ex 7:21a, Greek OT)

(The Egyptians) led (the dead frogs) together ‘pile pile’/’in piles’, and the earth smelt. (Ex 8:14, Greek OT)

(The priests) will cleanse the entrails and the feet (of the sheep and the rams and the he-goats with) water. And (the priest) shall ‘carry ... to’/offer all the things and put/lay (them) against, against the sacrificial altar. It is a fruit offering, a sacrifice, a scent of fragrance to the Lord. (Lev 1:13, Greek OT)

… They carried off (the dead Asa) upon the bed, and they fulfilled (it) of/with spices and ... ointment oils. (2 Chron 16:14a, Greek OT)

(David sang:) "Behold 'however or'/however presently/already, what fine or what amusing (it is) the thing 'to dwell brothers'/'that brothers dwell' 'against themselves'/together! (It is) as an ointment oil upon a head, the one descending against a beard, the beard (of) Aaron. ... because (in the place where they dwell together) there the Lord has enjoined the blessing and life till the (coming) age." (Ps 133:1-2a,3b, Greek OT)

(The woman sang: "While) the king (Solomon was) ‘in his leaning up’/’at his table’, my nard gave its scent." (Song of Solomon 1:12, Greek OT)

(The bridegroom said to his bride:) ”A garden being (and having been) shut (is) my sister, (my) bride. … a flower from Cyprus in company with nard (plant)s, (with) nard … (and) all woods of olibanum/frankincense.” (Song of Solomon 4:12a,13-14a, Greek OT)

The house was completed/filled of/with smoke. (Is 6:4b, Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) “The Lord of hosts will make (a feast) for all the nations against/over this mountain (Zion). They will drink cheerfulness. They will drink wine. They will anoint ointment oil.” (Is 25:6b, Greek OT)

Daniel pondered in the heart, in what way he might not be polluted in/at the chief meal of the king. (Dan 1:8a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) “All the nations ... will arrive (with) all the chosen things of the nations. And I will fulfil this house (with) glory. … “ (Haggai 2:7b or 2:8b, Greek OT)

(The messenger said to Tobias:) “When you – according to the circumstances – may come into the bride-chamber, take (a bit) out of the liver of the fish and the heart and put/lay against the ashes of the incenses, and the scent will go/’go out’ ... and (the little demon) will flee and no longer not/- may ‘be brought to light’/appear around her (for) every/’the whole’ age.” (Tobit 6:17 or 6:17-18a, S)

(Judith) anointed herself (with) thick ointment oil and plaited her hairs/hair. ... (Judith 10:3b)

(Judith) smeared her face in/with salve, and she bound her hairs/hair in a head-dress and took a linen dress ‘into the cheating of’/’for the purpose of cheating’ (the leader of the enemies). ... (and) the sabre came/went through his neck. (Judith 16:7b-9)

(Solomon said: “The) Spirit of the Lord has completed (and completes) the (inhabited) world.” (Wisdom of Solomon 1:7a)

(Wisdom said:) “As cinnamon … I give (and have given) scent, and as chosen myrrh I 'gave asunder'/distributed fragrance … and as of olibanum/frankincense a haze in a tent.” (Sir 24:15)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “An offering of a righteous lubricates a sacrificial altar and its fragrance (is) opposite (the) Highest One.” (Sir 35:5 or 35:8)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “Glorify the Lord in/with a good eye and you may not make the ’from a beginning’/first-fruit of your hands little.” (Sir 35:7 or 35:10)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said: “Eliah) raised a dead (body) out of death and out of Hades in/with a saying of (the) Highest One.” (Sir 48:5)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “On your fasting, smear your head.” (Matt 6:17a)

(Jesus said to the crowds: “Others) fell against the fine earth, and it (continually) gave fruit, 'which one'/some indeed 'a hundred'/hundredfold.” (Matt 13:8a)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "The kingdom of the heavens is like * (א*, B) a trader seeking fine pearls, but/and having find one much valuable pearl (and) having gone away he has disposed (and disposes) all things as many as he (continually) had, and he bought it." (Matt 13:45-46)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "Where two or three having been (and being) led together into My name, there I am in their middle." (Matt 18:20)

Having come out into the ways those slaves (of the king) led together all whom they found, both evil and good. And the bridechamber (א,* א, B*) was fulfilled with (the) ones lying up/’down to table’. (Matt 22:10)

On Jesus' having become/appeared in Bethany, in (the) habitation of Simon, the leprous, a woman came to Him having an alabaster of a much honoured (א,* א, A) ointment oil and poured it down upon His head on His lying up/’down to table’. ... (Jesus said to His disciples:) ”Amen I say to you, whereat – if according to the circumstances – this good little message may be proclaimed in the whole adornment/’adorned world’, what this (woman) has made/done will also be talked of into/in a remembrance of her.” (Matt 26:6-7,13)

On His/Jesus' being in Bethany in the habitation of Simon the leper, on His lying down (at the table), a woman came having an alabaster of fragrance oil of expensive nard, connected with faith. Having crushed the alabaster, she poured (the oil) down (upon) His head. (Mark 14:3)

On the sabbath's having ‘become through’/elapsed Mary of Magdala and Mary of James and Salome bought spices, in order to having come they might smear (Jesus). (Mark 16:1)

Having stood herself weeping behind to/by the side of the feet of (Jesus), (the woman who was a misser of the mark of God) began to wet His feet (with) the teardrops and she * (P3, א*, A) wiped off (with) the hairs/hair of her head and ‘was entirely friends with’/’kissed ... tenderly’ (continually/repeatedly) His feet and smeared (them continually with) the ointment oil. (Luke 7:38)

(Jesus said to the Pharisee:) “You did not smear My head (with) olive-oil, but she has smeared My feet (with) ointment oil.” (Luke 7:46)

‘This is what’/here (continually) was a sister being called Mariam, and having sat still by the side of towards the feet of the Lord she (continually) had heard His saying. But Martha (continually) had pulled/bustled round about, around/’with regard to’ much service. (Luke 10:39-40a)

Having heard these things a certain one of the ones lying up/’down to table’ together with (Jesus) spoke to Him: “Happy whoever will eat bread in the kingdom of God!” But 'the One'/He spoke to him: “A certain man (continually) made a great chief meal, and he called many.” (Luke 14:15-16)

A certain beggarly one (with) name Lazarus, having been (and being) caused sores, had been (and was) thrown towards the gateway (of a rich man), and desiring/desired to be fed from (the things) falling from the table of the rich. (Luke 16:20-21a)

(Jesus said to the Pharisees:) “Having lifted against/up his eyes in the Hades and ‘beginning under’/being in torments (the rich man) beheld Abraham from from afar and Lazarus in his bosoms/bosom.” (Luke 16:23)

Having returned (the women) made ready spices and ointment oils. (Luke 23:56a)

A violent breath/puff ... completed/filled the whole house. ... (Acts 2:2b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

It (continually/-) was Mary (P66, א,* א, A) who had smeared the Lord (with) ointment oil and wiped off His feet (with) her hairs/hair. (John 11:2a)

(In Bethany) Martha … said to (Jesus): "Lord, (Lazarus) already smells, for it is on the fourth day." (John 11:39b)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 - about 1500

The repetition (from John 11:2) of "feet" may be a way of stressing Mary's willing acceptance of the lowliest place. Lightfoot reminds us that Jesus' words to Peter in connection with the feet washing imply that the washing of the feet "is equivalent to a complete washing" (13:9-10). He adds, "possibly the same principle may hold good here. If so, the reader is invited to see in Mary's action a symbolical embalming of His body for burial, as though He were already dead." ... In Num. 5:18 the priest loosed the hair of the woman suspected of adultery; cf. also Sot. 8a where the priest undoes the hair of the adulteress. J. Lightfoot cites a rabbinic passage: "Kamitha had seven sons, who all performed the office of high-priests: they ask of her, how she came to this honour? She answered, The rafters of my house never saw the hairs of my head". A respectable woman always kept her hair covered. (Leon Morris "The Gospel according to John" p 512)

In the New Testament we read about Mary, the sister of Martha and Lazarus. She bought a bottle of expensive nard and anointed the feet of Jesus. Here (in the Song of Solomon) it is also spoken about nard. Mary's devotion expressed itself sensually, smelling. Was she inspired by the Song of Solomon? (Ylva Eggehorn "En lovsång till kärleken" p 26; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

The disciple went on: During my most intimate life together with a woman, it, like Gustav Jäger, occurred to me to "discover the soul". . . . When she thought benevolently of me, I experienced like the fragrance of incense, at times jasmin, but these fragrances could be changed to impressions of taste. (August Strindberg "En blå bok I" p 198; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Dagson drove the men in front of him in this way, through fire and smoke and despair. Fire they had in front of themselves, fire behind themselves and fire on all sides. They saw nothing else than that they had to perish. But through all this terror he brought them up to a green place in the wood, where everything was calmness and coolness and safety. In the middle of the flowering woodland meadow Jesus sat, he stretched out his arms over the fleeing and hurried men, and they lay down at his feet, and all danger was gone, and there was not more defeat or pursuit. Dagson spoke as he himself felt it. If he only was allowed to lie down at Jesus' feet, he experienced peace and calmness and feared none of all dangers of life. (Selma Lagerlöf "Jerusalem I" p 106; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


about 1500 and time before

(God) had in Himself all the odour of kindness and every perfume of sweet-smelling savours, even before Moses existed. (Irenaeus, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol I, p 479)

Raymond E. Brown (The Gospel according to John p 453) quotes Midrash Rabbah on Eccles VII 1: "The fragrance of a good perfume spreads from the bedroom to the dining room; so does a good name spread from one end of the world to the other" and compares with Mark 14:9: "Wherever the good little message is preached in the whole world, what (Mary of Bethany) has done will be told in memory of her."

After dinner ... frequently aromatic spices (were) burnt, over which a special benediction was pronounced. (Alfred Edersheim "The Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah Part II" p 210)

On Exod. xl. 9,11 there is in the Targum Pseudo-Jon, distinct reference to the King Messiah, on whose account the anointing oil was to be used. (Alfred Edersheim "The Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah Part II" p 714)

On Cant. vii. 13. the Targum has it: ‘When it shall please God to deliver His people from captivity, then shall it be said to the Messiah: The time of captivity is past, and the merit of the just shall be sweet before Me like the odour of balsam.’ (Alfred Edersheim "The Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah Part II" p 722)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Ann-Charlotte Alverfors, Stefan Andhé, Tage Aurell, Elisabeth Beskow, Oloph Bexell, Nils-Arvid Bringéus, Carolina Brown, Sven Danell, E.J. Ekman, Hjalmar Ekström, Harald Elovson, Hjalmar Fernström, Erik Gustaf Geijer, Johannes Gossner, Carl Grimberg, Lennart Gustavsson, Alf Henrikson, Homeros, Emma Sofie Eun-Hei Johansson, K.W. Johansson, Viktor Johansson, Yasunari Kawabata, Lars Levi Laestadius, C.S. Lewis, Olof David Lindwall, Carl Henrik Martling, Watchman Nee, Elvy Nilbratt, John Ongman, Karl Palmberg, Efraim Palmqvist, Abraham Rundbäck, Göran Sahlberg, John Samuelson, Karin Sarja, Karin Sennefelt, Isaac Basjevis Singer, Gunnar Stenvall, Helmut Thielicke, Thomas a Kempis, Anton Tjechov, P. Waldenström, Torgny Wirén, Emil Zilliacus, Emile Zola.


My own comments and speculations:

Egypt - and Sodom in the direction of Zoar - was as the garden of the Lord. Now (a disgraced) Jerosolyma/Jerusalem is compared with Sodom and Egypt in Rev 11:8. And we have earlier compared Bethany with Zoar (compare My own comments and speculations to John 11:17-18). Compare also Ginzberg (Ginzberg, Louis: The legends of the Jews, Philadelphia 1947, p 82), who says, that nard was a spice which Adam brought out of Eden.

In a restoration perspective we can see how the stench from the dead fish and frogs in Egypt - and from the dead body in Bethany - is changed to a fragrance of nard in the nearness of the dead man who had got life. In the house of Lazaros we can see how Egypt, Sodom and Zoar are restored to a place as the garden of the Lord. It is remarkable that the Greek word for "smell" in John 11:39 only occurs here in the NT and in the OT only in Ex 8:10 (Greek OT).

Now the precious oil running from the head of Aaron down upon his beard has reached the feet of Jesus!? The unity of brothers has reached its fullness in the work of Jesus and in His new commandment to welcome one another (cf. John 13:34). Jesus is the Christ, the anointed One. And the hungry Lazarus (Luke 16:21) is fed at a feast.

“Before six days” is the seventh day, a day of completion. Cf. “the habitation was completed” in verse 3.

Concerning possible restoration and Paradise perspectives, see also My own comments and speculations to John 11:11-13.


Paul said to the believers in Corinth: "’Joybringing (grace)’/thanks to God, ’triumphing us’/’causing us to triumph’ always in the christ'anointed one' and through us in every place making the scent of His knowledge visible." (2 Cor 2:14)


Greek words:

deipnon (chief meal) Dan 1:8; Luke 14:16; John 12:2 – Dan 1:13,15-16; 5:1(Theod.); Matt 23:6; Mark 6:21; 12:39; Luke 14:12,17,24; 20:46; John 13:2,4; 21:20; 1 Cor 11:20-21; Rev 19:9,17.

diakoneô (render service) Luke 10:40; John 12:2 – Matt 4:11; 8:15; 20:28; 25:44; 27:55; Mark 1:13,31; 10:45; 15:41; Luke 4:39; 8:3; 17:8; 22:26-27; John 12:26; Acts 6:2; 19:22; Rom 15:25; 2 Cor 3:3; 8:19-20; 1 Tim 3:10,13; 2 Tim 1:18; Philemon v 13; Heb 6:10; 1 Pet 1:12; 4:10-11.

litra (pound) John 12:3 – John 19:39. This word does not occur in the non-Johannine books of the Bible. The only pound here in John 12:3 has grown hundredfold in John 19:39 (cf. Matt 13:8).

nardos (nard) Song of Solomon 1:12; 4:13-14; Mark 14:3; John 12:3.

osmê (scent) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Tobit 6:17; John 12:3; 2 Cor 2:14 – Tobit 8:3; 2 Macc 9:9-10,12; 2 Cor 2:16; Eph 5:2; Phil 4:18.

pistikos (connected with faith) Mark 14:3; John 12:3. Concerning the translation “connected with faith”, cf. probatikos (connected with sheep) in John 5:2. The nard belongs to a faith, which can bear hundredfold fruit (cf. John 19:39). The faith of Mary is directed to Jesus, a condition to be able to bear fruit. Observe also the connection between fruit, offer and scent of fragrance of the Lord in Lev 1:13. Cf. furthermore with Sir 35:7(10).

polytimos (much honoured) Matt 13:46; 26:7; John 12:3 – 1 Pet 1:7.


Additional studies:

Ex 29:18; Lev 1:9; Num 5:18; Song of Solomon 1:3-4; Matt 9:26,31; 14:1; 21:17; 26:6-7,12; Mark 11:11; 14:4-5; Luke 4:37; 7:17,36-37,46; 14:33; 22:27; 23:56; John 2:13; 11:1-2,43-44,55; 12:20; Rom 1:8; Rev 1:5; 3:20; 7:17; 9:2-4,8; 15:8; 18:13; 19:3; 21:11.


Henry Joel Cadbury "The odor of the spirit at Pentecost"; Journal of Biblical Literature 47:3-4 (1928): 237-256.

James F. Coakley "The Anointing at Bethany and the Priority of John"; Journal of Biblical Literature 107 (1988): 241-256.

Charles H. Giblin "Mary's Anointing for Jesus' Burial-Resurrection (John 12:1-8)"; Biblica 73 (1992): 560-564.

Kiyoshi Tsuchido "Tradition and Redaction in John 12:1-43"; New Testament Studies 30 (1984): 609-619.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-04-15; 2011-09-26; 2014-06-03; 2014-11-16)

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12:4-5 But Judas Iscariot, one out of His disciples, the one being about to give Him ‘to the side of’/over, says: “Because of what was this ointment oil not disposed (for) three hundred denarii and given to beggarly ones?”

Word for word: 12:4 (14 words in the Greek text) says but Judas the Iscariot one out-of the disciples his, the-(one) being-about-to him give-to-the-side-of. 12:5 (12 words in the Greek text) because-of what this the ointment-oil not was-disposed (of/for)-three-hundred denarii and was-given (to)-beggarly-(ones)?


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Moses said to Israel:) "Opening you shall open your hands to your brother, to the needy one and to the one being in want upon your earth/land." (Deut 15:11b, Greek OT)

The king of Assyrians ’put against’/’imposed on’, against/on Hezekiah, king of Judas, three hundred talents of silvermetal and thirty talents of goldmetal. And Hezekiah gave him every/all the silvermetal to be found in (the) house of the Lord, and in heaps/treasuries of the king's house. … And he gave (goldmetal) to (the) king of Assyrians. (2 Kings 18:14b-15,16b, Greek OT)

(Solomon said:) "The one giving to beggarly ones will not be in want." (Prov 28:27a, Greek OT)

The Lord gave (Jerusalem) ‘to the side of’/over into (the) hands (of the king of Babylon). (Dan 1:2a, Greek OT)

(Tobit said to Tobias:) “To all the ones making/practising the righteousness, make/give alm/alms out of ‘the things beginning/being under to you’/'your properties'. ... Let not your eye envy/refuse 'in the thing to make'/'that you make/give' alm/alms.” (Tobit 4:6b-7a or 4:7a, BA)

(Tobit said to his son:) “Alm/alms deliver out of death and do not allow to come into, into the darkness. Alm/alms is a good gift for all the ones making/giving it before the eyes of the Highest One.” (Tobit 4:10-11, BA)

(The false priest leader Jason dispatched away) ... three hundred drachmas of silvermetal into/’purposed for’ the sacrifice of Heracles. (2 Macc 4:19a)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said: “The Highest One brings away a message about) the things having been (and being) taken to the side of and the things which will be and revealing/'He reveals' hidden away footsteps.” (Sir 42:19)


The Latter Revelation:

The names of the twelve apostles are these: “ ... Judas Iscariot, the one having given (Jesus) ‘to the side of’/over.” (Matt 10:2a,4b)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "The kingdom of the heavens is like * (א*, B) a trader seeking fine pearls, but/and having find one much valuable pearl (and) having gone away he ‘has disposed’/disposed (and disposes) all as much as he (continually) had and bought it." (Matt 13:45-46)

(There) (continually) were some being vexed towards/’in regard to’ themselves: “What/why has this ointment oil become/come (and becomes/comes) into the perdition? For this ointment oil (continually) ‘was able to’/could be disposed for above/over three hundred denarii and be given to the beggarly ones?” (Mark 14:4-5a)

(Jesus) found a (א,*א) place where it (continually/-) was (and had been) written: “A spirit of the Lord … has anointed me to bring a good little message to beggarly ones.” (Luke 4:17b-18a)

(One of the disciples was) about to (give ‘to the side of’/over Jesus). (Luke 22:23b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

Jesus answered and spoke to (א,*א) them: “Did I not choose you, the twelve? And out of you it/there is a slanderer.” But He (continually) said/meant Judas of Simon from Karuoth (א*), for this one, being (א,*א) one out of the twelve, was (continually) about to give Him ‘to the side of’/over. (John 6:70-71)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

The Greek "ptochos" ... does not intend the one having limited money, but the one being so absolutely beggarly that only begging is left. (Bo Frid-Jesper Svartvik "Thomasevangeliet" p 211; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

In Greek ... “ptôchos” does not describe genteel poverty but real, acute destitution. ... In the NT the ‘poor’ are those who realize their own abject helplessness and the wealth of the riches of the grace of God. (William Barclay ”New Testament Words” p 248-249)

By the side of the perfume shop there was a shop selling women's wear. . . . They trudged in, first Pippi, then Tommy and then Annika. The first thing they saw was a very fine dummy, clothed in a blue silk dress. Pippi went up to the dummy taking her hearty in the hand. . . . Then the terrible accident happened, that the arm of the dummy came loose gliding out of its silk case, and there Pippi stood with a long, white dummy arm in her hand. . . . With a generous gesture (Pippi) drew up a couple of gold coins out of her apron pocket and tossed them up on the counter. The shop assistent was quite dumb with astonishment. "Does the woman cost more than this", Pippi wondered. "No, of course not, it does not by a long way cost so much", the shop assistant said bowing herself politely. . . . "I only want to have this arm, and this I take with me", Pippi said. "The rest you can distribute among the poor ones. Bye-bye!" (Astrid Lindgren "Pippi Långstrump går ombord" p 19-21; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

The costs of production for my manuscripts become heavy, when I had to live hotel-life, and travel, so . . . I asked for money from Stockholm, but this has not yet arrived. So today I let ask You for something, for I am entirely beggarly. (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev XII dec 1896-aug 1898" p 31-32; letter 1896-12-30 to Gustaf Gullberg, translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

You say that I seek gold and glory. . . . The gold I do not seek, for this I have found, and given away. . . . No, my lord, I have never lived for this life, which always has appeared to me to be a provisional arrangement, never gathered in cellar, been regarded as spendthrift - on others! (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev XI maj 1895-nov 1896" p 280-281; letter 1896-07-20 to Torsten Hedlund; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

It was a joy for me to receive a letter from a boy from Jönköping, who in dear memory has kept the old fortress with ramparts and "hollows", the scene for ball games and other sports. With sorrow I think of, surely not that the fortress was pulled down, but how it happened. Already before my time the proper authority had destroyed her most monumental part: a gate tower with sculptures and inscriptions, cupola-roof and spire, which tower, if it had been allowed to stand on its place in the still unbuilt and not for building up intended harbour park, would have been the foremost adornment of the town in a historical and architectural respect. . . . What the fortress itself is concerned, it was pulled down without, as far as I know, anything from the proper authorities was made to save to the memory how it looked and how it was arranged. . . . A friend of ancient monuments discovered, while the work of destruction was going on, stones with architectural details and inscriptions, which lay in the heaps of materials, and he called a "cultivated" proper authority attention to the thing that they should be saved or at least be drawn. When he some days later returned, these stones were lost and have not been found again. Any drawing of these was of course not made. Our worst vandals are not the farmers. When they sin they surely most often do it because of ignorance. There is another class, the "intelligent" ones of the small town, sinning against its better judgment in order to save the cash, and being thorough afraid of every beginning to a collection of archaeological relics, because it can end with the thing that they have to pay for a repository to the "rubbish". (Viktor Rydbergs brev III "Brev från Viktor Rydberg 1882-1895" p 34-37; letter 1884-12-04 to Axel Ramm; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

(General Löwensköld) had got the ring by the king - there was only one king for him, and the ring had got into the portrait to show, that Bengt Löwensköld was faithful to him. . . . King Karl was a man, who the world never had seen the like, and the one having lived in his nearness, had experienced, that there were more beautiful and higher thing to struggle for than the glory and prosperity of this world. . . . When (Löwensköld's) coffin was put down in the walled sepulchral chamber, which he had got ready in Bro cemetery, the king's ring remained sitting on the forefinger of his left hand. There were many of those present, who complained about the thing that such a jewel would follow dead man in the grave, for the ring of the general almost was as known and famous as he himself. People told that there was so much gold in it, that it could have been enough to buy a farm for it, and that the red cornelian, where the monogram of the king was engraved, had not smaller worth. . . . People almost thought, that it was an injustice, that it lay there. It could of course have been sold in foreign countries for expensive money and given bread to many persons, who had not other things to feed on than on straw and bark. . . . The ring lay in a screwed up coffin, in a walled up sepulchral cellar, under heavy stone slaps, inaccessible to the boldest thief, and in this way people thought it had to remain to the last day of the world. (Selma Lagerlöf "Löwensköldska ringen" p 8-9; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Sven Danell, Henry Daniel-Rops, Dick Harrison, Sigurd Lindgren, Anders Nohrborg, Lewi Pethrus, Milton Steinberg, Margareta Strömstedt.


My own comments and speculations:

In a restoration perspective it is not impossible to see how the king of Judas had to give three hundred talents of silvermetal (and thirty talents of goldmetal) to the king of Assyria and how now Jesus, the king of the Jews (John 19:19), is given ointment oil for three hundred denarii of silver. In the relation to all what the king of Judas gave, this is a little sum. But this "little" sum is only a preparation for the large quantity, which on the day of Jesus burial (John 12:7; 19:39) will be given not only His feet but His whole body. See also My own comments and speculations to John 12:6.


Paul said to the believers in Galatia: "(James and Cephas and John asked us) only 'in order that'/to recollect the beggarly ones – which I 'the same'/just this and/also made haste to make/do." (Gal 2:10)


Greek words:

Iskariôth/Iskariotês (Iscariot) Matt 10:4; John 12:4 – Matt 26:14; Mark 3:19; 14:10; Luke 6:16; 22:3; John 13:2,26; 14:22.

pipraskô (dispose) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Matt 13:46; Mark 14:5; John 12:5 – Esther 7:4; Judith 7:25; 1 Macc 1:15; 2 Macc 5:14; 8:14; 10:21; Wisdom of Solomon 10:13; Baruch 4:6; Matt 18:25; 26:9; Acts 2:45; 4:34; 5:4; Rom 7:14.

ptôchos (beggarly) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Tobit 4:7; Mark 14:5; Luke 4:18; John 12:5; Gal 2:10 – Esther 1:20; 9:22; Tobit 2:2-3; Sir 4:1,4,8; 7:32; 10:22-23,30; 13:3,19-20,23; 21:5; 25:2; 26:4; 29:22; 30:14; 31:4; 34:21(25); 35:13(16); 38:19; Epistle of Jeremiah v 27; Matt 5:3; 11:5; 19:21; 26:9,11; Mark 10:21; 12:42-43; 14:7; Luke 6:20; 7:22; 14:13,21; 16.20,22; 18:22; 19:8; 21:3; John 12:6,8; 13:29; Rom 15:26; 2 Cor 6:10; Gal 4:9; Jas 2:2-3,5-6; Rev 3:17; 13:16.

triakosioi (three hundred) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) 2 Macc 4:19; Mark 14:5; John 12:5 – Esther 9:15; 1 Macc 8:15; 11:28; 2 Macc 4:8,24; 13:2.


Additional studies: Matt 26:8,15,21,25,47-48; Mark 14:18,20,43; Luke 12:15; 22:4,21-23,47-48; John 6:64.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-04-16; 2011-09-27; 2014-06-04; 2014-11-16)

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12:6 But he spoke this, not because he (continually) cared for on account of the beggarly ones, however/but because he (continually) was a thief and having the container/’case for money’ he (continually) bore the things being thrown (in it).

Word for word (21 words in the Greek text): (he)-spoke but this not because around/'on-account-of the beggarly-(ones) (continually) cared-for '(to)-him'/he, however because (a)-thief (he)-(continually)-was and the container having the-(things) being-thrown (he)-(continually)-bore.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The Lord said to Israel:) "You shall not steal." (Ex 20:15, Greek OT)

(Hezekiah let say to the king of Assyria:) “What – if according to the circumstances - you may ‘put against’/’impose on’, against/on me, I will bear”. The king of (the) Assyrians ’put against’/’imposed on’, against/on Hezekiah, king of Judas, three hundred talents of silvermetal and thirty talents of goldmetal. And Hezekiah gave him every/all the silvermetal to be found in (the) house of the Lord, and in heaps/treasuries of the king's house. (2 Kings 18:14b-15, Greek OT)

The king spoke (to the leader of the priests): “Let become/make a container and put it outside in a gate of (the) house of the Lord. And let us proclaim in Judas and in Jerusalem to carry into/forth to the Lord, entirely as Moses, the boy/servant of God, spoke against Israel in the desolate (district). (2 Chron 24:8-9, Greek OT)

(Some of the sons of Israel) paired/joined (with) the nations and disposed themselves to the thing to make/do the evil thing. (1 Macc 1:15b)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “A thief (is) takable/preferable or/’more than’ the one persisting (in) a lie, but both will inherit perdition.” (Sir 20:25)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) ”Many have been given (over) into fall in grace/favour of goldmetal, and it has been their perdition.” (Sir 31:6a)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “Every counsellor ‘lifts out’/praises a/his counsel. However he is giving counsel into/’purposed for’ himself. Watch your soul from a counsel and gain first knowledge what his need (is) – for he will and/also counsel himself – not at any time he may throw a share on you.” (Sir 37:7-8)


The Latter Revelation:

… (The priest leaders) promised to give (Judas) silvermetal/money. (Mark 14:11a)

(The twelve being together with Jesus and many others) (continually) rendered service to Him (א,* א, A) out of their ‘things beginning under’/properties. (Luke 8:3b)

(Jesus said to the seventy disciples:) “Do not bear a purse.” (Luke 10:4a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Jesus said to the Pharisees): "All as many as have come * (P45,P75,א*) are thieves and robbers. However, the sheep did not hear them. ... He is a wage-earner and does not take care for on account of the sheep.” (John 10:8,13b)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

(The Greek word for "container") denotes a small box or case, originally one for the mouthpiece of a flute. ... What is clear is that (the word) referred to a box made of wood or other rigid material, not a "bag" or "purse". (Leon Morris "The Gospel according to John" p 514)

(Love of money) made Gehazi a leper instead of a disciple and a prophet; this destroyed Ananias and her with him; this made Judas a traitor. (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers XIV:243)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Ann-Charlotte Alverkrans, John Bunyan, Lena Einhorn, Verner von Heidenstam, Martin Luther, John Steinbeck.


My own comments and speculations:

It is remarkable that we in 2 Kings 18:14 (Greek OT) have both the words for “three hundred … silvermetal” and the rare word for “bear”, words which we also find in John 12:5-6. Judas bore money given to the Lord and His house.

In the NT the Greek word for "container" only occurs in John 12:6 and John 13:29. In the OT we have this word only in 2 Chron 24:8-11 (four times; in a variant reading also in 2 Sam 6:11). The money brought in for Jesus is money to the Lord and His house.


Paul said to the believers in Corinth: "Do you not know that unrighteous ones will not inherit a kingdom of God? Do not ‘be led’/go astray! ... Thieves ... will not inherit a kingdom of God." (1 Cor 6:9-10)

‘Every the thing’/everything in the adornment/’adorned world’, the desire of the flesh and the desire of the eyes and the swaggering of the subsistence, is not out of the Father however/but is out of the adornment/’adorned world’. (1 John 2:16)


Greek words:

glôssokomon (container) 2 Chron 24:8; John 12:6 – 2 Chron 24:10-11; John 13:29.


Additional studies: 2 Kings 5:19-27; Mark 4:18-19; Luke 12:15; 16:12; John 13:29; Acts 5:1-11; Rev 9:21.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-04-16; 2011-09-28; 2014-06-04)

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12:7-8 Jesus so spoke: “Let her be in order that she may keep/’take care of’ it into/’for the purpose of’ the day of My embalming. For the beggarly ones you have always in company with yourselves, but you do not always have Me.”

Word for word: 12:7 (15 words in the Greek text) spoke so the Jesus: let-be her, in-order-that into the day (of)-the (of)-embalming my (she)-may-hold it. 12:8 (12 words in the Greek text) the beggarly-(ones) for always (you)-have in-company-with (your)selves, me but not always (you)-have.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

Joseph commanded his boys/slaves, the embalmers, to embalm his father (Israel), and the embalmers embalmed Israel. (Gen 50:2, Greek OT)

(Moses said to the people of Israel:) "One lacking may not/certainly not ‘leave out’/disappear from the earth/land. Because of this I enjoin you make/do this word saying: "Opening you shall open your hands to your brother, to the needy one and to the one being in want upon your earth/land." (Deut 15:11, Greek OT)


The Latter Revelation:

The disciples of John come to (Jesus), saying: "Because of what do we and the Pharisees fast * (א,* B), but Your disciples do not fast?" And Jesus spoke to them: "The sons of the bride chamber are not able to grieve against/’up to’ as long (time) as the bridegroom is in company with them, (are they)? But days will come, when – according to the circumstances - the bridegroom may be lifted away from them, and then they will fast." (Matt 9:14-15)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "The beggarly ones you have always in company with yourselves, but you do not always have Me, for having throwing/pouring this ointment oil upon My body (the woman) made/did it ‘towards embalm Me’/’in regard to lay Me in a grave’." (Matt 26:11-12)

Jesus spoke (to some who were there): "Let (the woman) be. What/why do you offer/make her bothers? She has worked/done a fine work in/with Me. For the beggarly you always have in company with yourselves, and when – according to the circumstances - you may want, you are able to make/do well * (א*). But Me you have not always. Which/what she had, she made/used. She has beforehand taken/undertaken to perfume My body with ointment oil into/’for the purpose of’ the embalment. (Mark 14:6-8)

On the sabbath's having ‘become through’/elapsed Mary of Magdala and Mary of James and Salome bought spices, in order to having come they might smear (Jesus). … (But they were unsuccessful.) And having come out they fled from the memorial tomb. (Mark 16:1,8a)

(Jesus answered the Pharisees and spoke:) "The kingdom of God is within you/'the limits of you'." (Luke 17:21b)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 - about 1500

The first thing in all piety is love to God. It must express itself spontaneously. It can be seemed foolish and irrational. Fundamentally all love to God is folly for the world. ... She anointed him, as one did with a dead person who would be buried. (Bo Giertz "Evangelium enligt Matteus" in comment to Matt 26:6-13; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

The news of this moment in the history of British racial tension is that Notting Hill, once Britain's hot spot, has cooled it - despite still substandard living conditions and despite (the controversial Conservative Member of the Parliament) Enoch Powell. An unlikely spot for peaceful co-existence, Notting Hill has long been a battleground and a haunt of the oppressed. ... Fifteen years ago the first wave of Commonwealth immigrants, mostly West Indians, broke on Notting Hill. ... Notting Hill is still no paradise. ... Yet for all its squalor, apathy and conflict, Notting Hill has charged since 1958. ... Social agencies have helped. A group of Methodist ministers has been getting people together throug the Notting Hill Social Council. Volunteers led by George Clark, a crusading Scot, set up the Notting Hill Project and Community Workshop and have worked to find jobs for immigrants, close off streets for children's play, reduce rents and force landlords to improve housing. But mostly the people did it. (Robin Espinosa "Cool news from Notting Hill" p 36-39)

(In rabbinic theology) there were two classifications of “good works” …: those that pertain to mercy, e.g., burial; those that pertain to justice, e.g., almsgiving. The former were looked upon as more perfect than the latter. (Raymond E. Brown, "The Gospel according to John" p 449, refers to J Jeremias)

One of the minor reasons why people of the lower classes (in India) have become Christians before people from the higher classes, we may mention the freedom from religion and social restraint enjoyed by these people and the ease with which they could accept new truths. They have had nothing to loose but everything to gain by becoming Christians. Many have become Christians from love of truth and to satisfy the spiritual instincts and yearnings of their souls. But some have simply to raise themselves in social status and to enjoy the advantages of education offered to their children by the mission and others, without thinking of any special object, joined their friends without any special aim. Thus they have been influenced by various motives. In spite of all the different motives by which they may have become in contact with Christianity we have seen many of them transformed into new creatures in Christ Jesus. (Frank B. Rehnstrom "An Outline of Missionary Enterprise in India, Nepal & Pakistan" p 16)

For ten years I have been cheated out of money by pretended distressed ones. People warned me; told that they had betted on pretending me so and so much. But I considered it a duty to continue and to shut my eyes. . . . Has one to be punished when letting one's better feelings speak? And has one right to think nothing but good of men? This latter is certainly not my usual way. . . . Well! - To be in need of forgiving a good deed! - It is of course terrible! - But what is not terrible in this terrible life, which Swedenborg describes as Hell. (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev XIX juni 1910-maj 1911" p 225-226; letter 1910-12-30 to Harald Salomon; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

When the works manager (in Malmberget) heard, that fifty miners would accompany to the tomb a twelve years old boy, who after all, what he knew, was no one else than a strolling beggar, he thought, that it sounded mad. And song and music and coffee party it would be, and the tomb arrayed with spruce-twigs, and assorted sweets and chocolates from Luleå! . . . (He) asked the nurse to call off the song and the music and the long procession. It was of course enough, if nine, ten persons accompanied to the tomb. . . . (But the sister of the boy) Åsa went to the office building, where the works manager used to sit at his work. . . . (He) understood what it wanted to say, that she had come to speak with him. She probably had loved that brother more than everything else. It was not all right to meet such a love with a refusal. "You are then allowed to have it as you want, I suppose", the manager said. (Selma Lagerlöf "Nils Holgerssons underbara resa genom Sverige" p 518-523; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

(Mr. Jensson read the following:) "I, the undersigned, ordinary manager, report with this to the highly well-disposed direction (for Stapelvik's Charitable Workhouse), that this week great cause to complaints about the moral conduct of the paupers has be found. . . . One morning - it was last Thursday - I made my round somewhat earlier than what is prescribed in the regulation, for it was half past three in the morning. I went to the room number 1 to see, if the female paupers had got ready for the work, which is to be running at four o'clock sharp. . . . When I had entered in number 1, what do I see then? On the fire-place there sparkled a log-fire, and over it was a kind of apparatus, which had a palpable similarity to a coffee maker. . . . I lifted it from the fire in spite of the really respect-repulsive protests and insulting uttering of the paupers, especially old Kajsa. . . . Thus the following facts are demonstrated with regard to the conduct of the paupers during the week: 1) that they without permission, secretly and during forbidden time have lit a fire in the fireplace number 1; 2) that they have consumed a within the workhouse unwillingly seen affluent article; 3) that when they have proved to have been able to procure this affluent article, that is coffee with the ensuing expensive ingredients of sugar and calfskin, and also the fuel, which for its boiling has been necessary, this only has been able to occur by for the direction secret supplies of money or by begging outside the workhouse, which begging is strictly forbidden; and at last 4) that the paupers in number 1 against the manager have shown a disrespectful conduct, when he pursuant of his duty deprived them of this coffee maker with its contents in order to show it before the highly well-disposed direction." With this the reading of the report was ended. (Viktor Rydberg "Benoni Strand" p 152-156; Jönköping year 1839?; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

In the period 1700-60, before capitalism had come to maturity or opportunities of investment were fully open, large number of people (in Great Britain) had no regular means of employment. The beggars and vagrants, thieves and highwaymen, prostitutes and parasites of various kinds formed a much larger section of the population than to-day (1948-62). (T.S. Ashton "The Industrial Revolution 1760-1830" p 56)


about 1500 and time before

A tenth part (in the city) is of rich, and a tenth of the poor that have nothing at all, and the rest of the middle sort. ... Nevertheless, although there are so many that are able to feed the hungry, many go to sleep in their hunger, not because those that have are not able with ease to succor them, but because of their great barbarity and inhumanity. ... Consider how many widows (the church) succors every day, how many virgins; for indeed the list of them hath already reached unto the number of three thousand. Together with these, she succors them that dwell in the prison, the sick in the caravansera, the healthy, those that are absent from their home, those that are maimed in their bodies, those that wait upon the altar; and with respect to food and raiment, them that casually come every day; and her substance is in no respect diminished. (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers X:407)

If thou shouldest see any one provide sacred vessels and offer them, and loving to labor upon any other ornament of the church, about its walls or floor; do not command what has been made to be sold, or overthrown, lest thou spoil his zeal. But if, before he had provided them, he were to tell thee of it, command it to be given to the poor; forasmuch as (Jesus) also did this not to spoil the spirit of the woman, and as many things as He says, He speaks for her comfort. ... For in truth the deed came of a reverential mind, and fervent faith, and a contrite soul. (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers X:482 in comment to Matt 26:6-7)

For this end did the Lord suffer the ointment to be poured upon His head, that His Church might breathe forth immortality. For saith (the Scripture): “Thy name is as ointment poured forth; therefore have the virgins loved You: They have drawn You; at the odour of Your ointments we will run after You.” (cf. Song of Sol. 1:3-4) (Ignatius, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol I p 56)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Gunnar Adolfsson, Alf Ahlberg, Eric S. Alexandersson, Eric H. Anderek, Joel Andersson, Roland Andersson, Martin Andrén, Åke Andrén, August Berg, Karl-Erik Bergh, Carl-Martin Bergstrand, Elisabeth Bergstrand-Poulsen, Carin Bergström, Per Beskow, Oloph Bexell, Hjalmar Bjurulf, Rudolf Björkman, Ingmar Brohed, Gustaf Bång, Fredrik Böök, Barthold Carlson, Enok Carlsson, Sten Carlsson, P.T. Chandapilla, Winston Churchill, Anna-Maria Claesson, Kent Cramnell, Fjodor Dostojevski, Ylva Eggehorn, Carl-Johan Elg, Per Ericsson, Samuel Escobar, Robin Espinosa, Hannus Finnasson, Axel Forsström, Jan Fridegård, Raymond Fung, Gunnar Granberg, Carl Grimberg, Berndt Gustafsson, Lennart Gustavsson, Torsten Gårdlund, Björn Hallström, Dick Harrison, Alf Henrikson, Brita Hermansson, Gunnar Hillerdal, Victor Hugo, Karl J. Höjer, Johannes V. Jensen, Aina Johansson, Edvard Johansson, Herbert Johansson, Lennart Johansson, Andrew Kirk, Ruth Klüger, Inge Kvarnström, Thorvald Källstad, Lars Levi Laestadius, Pär Lagerkvist, Lars Lindberg, Enar Lindén, Sigurd Lindgren, Arnold Lindman, Daniel Lindmark, Gunnar Lindqvist, Ola Lindqvist, Thomas Lindqvist, Martin Luther, Vishal Mangalwadi, Moa Martinson, Roy Medvedev, Margareta Melin, John Mitchell, Vilhelm Moberg, Gunnar Myrdal, Fabian Månsson, Jeanette Nbouka, Petrus M. Nicander, Fredrik Nielsen, Elvy Nilbratt, Bertil Nilsson, J.P. Norberg, J. Nyrén, Peter Oscarsson, Nathan Odenvik, Efraim Palmqvist, Lewi Pethrus, Hilding Pleijel, Nina Pleijel, Mia Rosander, Waldemar Rudin, Abraham Rundbäck, Klaas Runia, Josef Rydén, Emanuel Sandmark, Martha Sandwall-Bergström, Sven-Åke Selander, Rutger von Seth, Harry Sjöman, Olof Sjöstrand, Anfin Skaaheim, Alexander Solsjenitzyn, Lars Gösta Stensson, Rune Storck, Nathan Söderblom, Ernst Söderlund, Yvonne Teiffel, Ragnar Thoursie, Leo Tolstoj, Karl-Erik Tysk, P.G. Vejde, P. Waldenström, Kallistos Ware, Gunnar Westin, Peter Wieselgren, Carl Wilson, Paul Wilstadius, Yngve Ydreborg, Emile Zola, Alf Åberg, Göran Åberg.


My own comments and speculations:

"the beggarly ones you have always in company with yourselves" (John 12:8; Matt 26:11; Mark 14:7). The beggarly ones Jesus here speaking about are not all the beggarly ones of this world but such beggarly ones being numbered as brothers and sisters in Christ. The Gospel is "a good little message to beggarly ones" (Luke 4:18) in this way that these ones are invited to enter a fellowship and a company aiming to more levelling relations between rich and beggarly ones (cf. 2 Cor 8:13-14). This levelling can in this age be more or less realized, because the giving neither can or ought to be forced upon the rich one. The giving in its character is voluntary and can nearest be compared with what earlier in the temple was given as offers of thanksgiving, which could be more or less perfect.

So the beggarly ones are invited firstly to a levelling "brotherly" mutual fellowship in the Christian assembly, a fellowship where also the beggarly one can have possibility to give what he can by using another gift than money. The one who does not want or dare to accept this invitation will nevertheless be met with respect. Every person will have his honour (cf. 1 Pet 2:17) and Christians are - together with all who do not share the Christian belief - incorporated in universal social connection belonging to God. God is not only the God of glory but also the Goc of honour (cf. Rev 4:9,11; 5:12-13; 7:12), and what belonging to the honour will also one day have its place in the new Jerusalem (Rev 21:26).


Paul said to the believers in Galatia: "(James and Cephas and John asked us) only 'in order that'/to recollect the beggarly ones – which I 'the same'/just this and/also made haste to make/do." (Gal 2:10)


Greek words:

entafiasmos (embalming) Mark 14:8; John 12:7.


Additional studies:

Matt 26:10; Luke 24:1; John 19:40.


Charles H. Giblin "Mary's Anointing for Jesus' Burial-Resurrection (John 12:1-8)"; Biblica 73 (1992): 560-564.

Bruce W. Winter "'Seek the Welfare of the City': Social Ethics According to 1 Peter." Themelios 13.3 (April/May 1988): 91-94.

A. Skevington Wood "Social Involvement in the Apostolic Church"; The Evangelical Quarterly 42.4 (Oct.-Dec. 1970): 194-212.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-04-16; 2011-09-30; 2014-06-08; 2014-11-16)

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12:9-11 So the much/many-headed crowd out of the Jews gained knowledge, that He is there, and they came, not because of Jesus only, however/but in order that they and/also might behold Lazarus, whom He had raised out of dead (bodies). But the priest leaders took counsel, in order that they and/also might kill Lazarus, because many of the Jews, because of him, (continually) withdrew and (continually) believed into Jesus.

Word for word: 12:9 (28 words in the Greek text) Gained-knowledge so the crowd much out-of the Jews that there (he)-is and (they)-came not because-of the Jesus only, however in-order-that and the Lazarus (they)-might-behold whom (he)-raised out-of dead. 12:10 (9 words in the Greek text) took-counsel but the priest-leaders in-order-that and the Lazarus (they)-might-kill. 12:11 (12 words in the Greek text) because many because-of him (continually)-withdrew (of)-the (of)-Jews and (continually)-believed into the Jesus.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Joseph said to His brothers:) “You took counsel ‘down from’/against Me into/’for the purpose of’ evil things, but God took counsel on account of me into/’for the purpose of’ good things ... in order that a people throughout/continually might be supported much.” (Gen 50:20, Greek OT)

Moses stretched out the hand against the sea. And the Lord withdrew the sea in/with a violent south wind the whole night, and He made the sea dried out, and the water was split/divided. And the sons of Israel came into, into a middle of the sea ‘according to’/over the dried out thing. … But Israel beheld the great hand, (the things) which the Lord had made/done (with) the Egyptians. But/and the people feared the Lord, and they believed (in) the Lord and (in) His attendant/servant Moses. (Ex 14:21-22a,31, Greek OT)

(Haman) took counsel to ‘make ... unseen’/annihilate all the Jews. ... (Esther 3:6a or 3:6b, Greek OT)

(The Lord) blamed the Red Sea, and it was dried. And He showed (His people) the way in an abyss as in a desolate (district). ... And they believed in His sayings, and they sang His praise. (Ps 106:9,12, Greek OT)

(Jerusalem and Judas) have taken (and take) counsel, an evil counsel, ‘down from’/against themselves. (Is 3:9b, Greek OT)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said: “Eliah) raised a dead (body) out of death and out of Hades in/with a saying of (the) Highest One.” (Sir 48:5)


The Latter Revelation:

A (א,*א) much/many-headed crowd heard (Jesus) gladly. ... The priest leaders and the scribes (continually) sought (for) how, having got power over (Jesus) in/with deceit, (how) they might kill Him. (Mark 12:37b; 14:1b)

All in the synagogue were fulfilled (with) passion ... But having come through, through their middle, (Jesus) '(continually) went'/'went His way'. (Luke 4:28a,30)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

Many out of the crowd believed into Him and (continually) said: “When the christ/'anointed one' – according to the circumstances – may come, not will He make/do more signs than this One makes/does (א*)?” (John 7:31)

Many out of the Jews, the ones having come towards Mary (P45, P66, א,* א, A) and having viewed the things which (Jesus) had made/done, believed into Him. (John 11:45)

From that day (the priest leaders and the Pharisees) took counsel, in order that they might kill (Jesus). (John 11:53)


My own comments and speculations:

The Greek word for ”withdraw” only occurs seven times in the OT, the first time in Ex 14:21. As the Lord withdrew the waters in the Red Sea with the result that the sons of Israel believed in the Lord and in His attendant/servant Moses, so many Jews now withdrew, such as before the great wonder with Lazarus had been as impenetrable waters (observe that the Greek word for “withdraw” also is used about Lazarus in John 11:44), now withdrew and they believed in Jesus, the Lord. So they opened the way for Jesus to come into (a disgraced) Jerosolyma/Jerusalem.


Additional studies: John 2:23; 7:32,45; 11:42-44; 12:1,12,17-18; 16:2; Rev 12:17.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-04-17; 2011-09-30; 2014-06-08)

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12:12-13 On the following day a (P2,א,*א,A) much/many-headed crowd, the one having come into/to the feast (and) heard that/: “Jesus comes into (a disgraced) Jerosolyma/Jerusalem”, took the palm-twigs of the dates and came out into a ‘going to meet’/meeting (with) Him. And they (continually) screamed saying (P66,א,*א,A): “Hosanna! Being (and having been) blessed the one coming in (the) name of a lord, and/namely the king of Israel.”

Word for word: 12:12 (15 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus) (On)-the on-following-day (a)-crowd much the-(one) having-come into the feast, having-heard that comes Jesus into (a-disgraced)-Jerosolyma/Jerusalem 12:13 (25 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus) (they)-took the palm-twigs of the dates and came-out into (a)-going-to-meet (with)-him and (they)-(continually)-screamed saying: being-(and-having-been)-blessed the-(one) coming in name (of)-(a)-lord and the king (of)-the (of)-Israel.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

It became a great scream in every/’the whole’ earth/land Egypt, for it/there (continually) was not a habitation, in which it/there (continually) was not in it (one) having been (and being) deceased. (Ex 12:30b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Moses and Israel:) “(On) the first day (of the Pitching/Feast of Tents) you shall take fruit of wood of seasonable hour ... of date-twigs ... to be cheerful opposite the Lord your God (for) seven days.” (Lev 23:40, Greek OT)

(Jephthah said to the Lord:) “It will be, (that) the one going out, who – if according to the circumstances – may come out from the doors of my house into/to my meeting together with (him) ... him I will open/uncover (to) a burnt offering to the Lord ... And his daughter went out into/to a ‘going to meet’/meeting. (Judges 11:31,34a, B, Greek OT)

(A woman said to David:) ”Save (= Hôsanna), king, save.” (2 Sam 14:4b, Greek OT)

(The worshipers in the procession to the Temple sang:) "O Lord, save (= Hôsanna) presently ... blessed the one coming in (the) name of the Lord." (Ps 118:25a,26b, Greek OT)

(The prophet said to Jerusalem:) "Rejoice extremely, daughter of Zion! Proclaim, daughter of Jerusalem: ' ... (A) King of Israel, the Lord, (is) in a middle (of Israel). (The people) will no longer behold bad things.'" (Zeph 3:14a,15b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Jerusalem:) "Rejoice extremely, daughter of Zion! Proclaim, daughter of Jerusalem: 'Behold, your king comes to you.'" (Zech 9:9a, Greek OT)

(Tobit said to God:) “Blessed is You, God, and blessed (is) Your name.” ... And Tobit came rejoicing out into/to a meeting together with ‘his bride’/’the bride of his son’. (Tobit 11:14a,16a, BA)

(From) the doors of Jerusalem lays of gladness will be spoken/sung and all its habitations will speak: “Hallelujah, blessed (is) the God of Israel.” And blessed they will bless the holy name into the (coming) age and yet longer. (Tobit 13:18, S)

The bridegroom and his friends and his brothers came out into/to their ‘going to meet’/meeting (S) ‘in company’/with drums and musicians. … (1 Macc 9:39b)

(Simon) threw out (the males from the border/castle) and made (it) clean from the abominations. (Simon's people) came into, into it ... in company with ... palm-twigs ... A great enemy had been crushed (and driven) out of Israel. ... It stood/’was fixed’ ‘according to’/after a period of time, the thing to lead/keep this day in company with cheerfulness. (1 Macc 13:50b-52a)

(Maccabaeus and his men took) … date-twigs having hymns (to the Lord). (2 Macc 10:7a)

(Solomon said: “The aliens) having been ‘received into’/admitted in company/connection with festivities, the ones already having ‘in company with’/’a share of’ their ‘righteous things’/rights, treated (the missers of the mark of God) badly (with) terrible hardships.” (Wisdom of Solomon 19:16)

(The prophet said to the Jews going into Babylon:) "Having beheld a crowd in front of and ‘from behind’/behind (the idols) prostrating itself before them (in adoration of them), but/then speak to (your) mind: 'We must prostrate ourselves before You (in honour of You), Master.'" (Epistle of Jeremiah v 5)


The Latter Revelation:

‘Every the’/’the whole’ city came out into a going to meet Jesus. (Matt 8:34a)

The most/’very great’ crowd (continually) extended/’spread out’ their garments in/on the way, but/and others cut (continually) branches from the trees and * (א*) extended/’spread out’ in/on the way. And the crowds going before Him and the ones following Him (continually/repeatedly) shouted saying: "Hosanna to the Son of David. Being (and having been) blessed the one coming in a name of a lord. Hosannah in the highest things!" (Matt 21:8-9)

(Jesus said to the people in Jerusalem:) “You may not/certainly not behold Me from just now till you - according to the circumstances - may speak: ''Being (and having been)'/'be (and have been)' blessed the one coming in a name of a lord.'” (Matt 23:39b)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “The kingdom of the heavens will be likened to ten virgins, whoever/who having taken their torches came out into/to a going of the bridegroom to meet.” (Matt 25:1)

(The priest leaders, the scribes and the elders ‘jested with’/mocked Jesus and said:) "He saved others. He is not able to save Himself. He is the King of Israel!" (Matt 27:42a)

(The messenger said to Mary: “Jesus) will be king against/’extending over’ the house of Jacob into the (coming) ages.” (Luke 1:33a)

Having stood up (the son) came towards his father. But on his still holding far off, his father beheld him and was moved in his inward vital parts. And having run he ‘fell against, against’/embraced his neck and ‘was entirely friends with’/’kissed ... tenderly’ him. (Luke 15:20)

Date/Date-twig/Phoenix, a harbour of Crete. ... (Acts 27:12b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Nathanael said to Jesus): "Rabbi, You are the Son of God. You are the King of Israel." (John 1:49b)

A much/many-headed crowd (continually) followed (Jesus), because they (continually/repeatedly) beheld (P66, א,* א) the signs which He (continually/repeatedly) made upon/’with regard to’ the weak. (John 6:2)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

John - alone - speaks about the palm-twigs. ... They were a symbol of the freedom of the Jews. They had been carried by the Mackabees at their great feasts of victory two hundred years earlier. A hundred year later, at the last great rebellion, they would be put as a symbol on the money which were coined by the rebells. (Bo Giertz "Evangelium enligt Johannes" p 131; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

According to 2 Macc 1:9; 10:6 the Feast of Dedication was celebrated in a manner similar to Tabernacles; and for a suggestion that the entry of Jesus into Jerusalem had the significance of a new Dedication, see F.C. Burkitt … (C.K. Barrett "The Gospel according to St John" p 417)

My daughter, fourteen years old, already writes impertinent, heartless, rude letters to me requesting payment, and rejoices when it is written something evil about me in the newspaper. And this child I have loved more than me, and she has adored me. Hosianna! (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev X febr 1894-april 1895" p 151; letter 1894-07-22 to Leopold Littmansson; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Gustaf II Adolf's daughter has in Rome left many memories behind. . . . The very city gate, Porta del Popolo, through which the crowds of strangers before the period of railways used to make their entrance into the eternal city and at which sight Goethe exclaimed: "Now I have Rome!" has the Swedish queen to thank - if it is worth the thank - for the gewgaws, with which Bernini has decorated its side facing Piazza del Popolo, for these came about as festive decoration at her solemn entry in Rome in the year 1655. (Viktor Rydberg "Drottning Kristina och de båda guldmakarne" p 291-292; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Sten Abrahamsson, Samuel Josef Agnon, Ingvar Andersson, Stefan Andhé, Hugo Ankarcrona, Margit Assarsson, August Berg, Elisabeth Bergstrand-Poulsen, Per Beskow, Anders Blomquist, Carl Boberg, Nils Bolander, Barthold Carlson, Winston Churchill, William Dalrymple, A. van Deursen, Sven Gabriel Fovelin, Agneta Fältskog, Erik Gustaf Geijer, Hillis Grane, Carl Grimberg, Dick Harrison, Lars Hartman, Verner von Heidenstam, Beth Hennings, S. Henriks, Alf Henrikson, Carl Vilhelm Jakobowsky, Ragnar Järhult, Erik Axel Karlfeldt, Bo E. Karlson, Ad. Kolmodin, Lars Levi Laestadius, Lars O. Lagerqvist, John Landquist, Marshall Lindholm, Barbro Lindqvist, Martin Luther, Carl Henrik Martling, Elvy Nilbratt, Lewi Pethrus, Gustaf Pontén, Anna Maria Roos, Sigrid Rosell, Bo Setterlind, Enar Skillius, Ethelbert Stauffer, Olof Thulin, Anton Tjechov, Mark Twain, P.G. Vejde, P. Waldenström, Morris West, Magnus Widell.


My own comments and speculations:

In the NT the Greek word for "date" only occurs here and in Rev 7:9. In the OT (Greek OT) we have it for instance in Lev 23:40, and in Deut 34:3 Jericho is called “the city of dates” (Greek OT).

A word with the same stem as "scream" occurs in Ex 12:30 (Greek OT). In a restoration perspective we see how the “screaming” of wail in Egypt now has been changed to a “screaming” of joy. Compare the joy in Lev 23:40 and 1 Macc 13:52.

The crowd blesses the one coming "in (the) name of a lord" (Greek: en onomati kyriou). The confession does not reach up to the confession which we for example meet in Jas 5:14 "in the name of the Lord" (Greek: en tô onomati tou kyriou). Compare also my own comments and speculations to John 1:22-25.


Greek words:

baion (palm-twig) 1 Macc 13:51; John 12:13.

eulogeô (bless) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Tobit 11:14,16; 13:18; Matt 21:9; 23:39; John 12:13 – Tobit 3:11; 4:12(BA),19(BA); 8:5,15; 9:6; 10:13(14); 11:14-17; 12:6,17-18,22; 13:6(7),10(11)(BA),13(14)(BA),15; 14:2,8-9,15; Judith 13:18; 15:9-10,12; 1 Macc 2:69; 4:24,55; 13:47; 2 Macc 3:30; 8:27; 10:38; 11:9; 12:41; 15:29,34; Wisdom of Solomon 14:7; Sir 1:13; 31:23; 32:13; 33:12; 39:14,35; 43:11; 45:15; 50:22; 51:12; Epistle of Jeremiah v 65; Susanna v 60(Theod); The Prayer of Azariah v 1(Theod); The Song of Praise of the Three Men v 28-65(Theod),67. Matt 14:19; 25:34; 26:26; Mark 6:41; 8:7; 11:9-10; 14:22; Luke 1:42,64; 2:28,34; 6:28; 9:16; 13:35; 19:38; 24:30,50-51,53; Acts 3:26; Rom 12:14; 1 Cor 4:12; 10:16; 14:16; Gal 3:9; Eph 1:3; Heb 6:14; 7:1,6-7; 11:20-21; Jas 3:9; 1 Pet 3:9.

(h)ypantêsis (a going to meet) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) 1 Macc 9:39(S); Matt 8:34; 25:1; John 12:13 – Judith 2:6(S).

foinix (date/date-twig) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) 2 Macc 10:7; John 12:13; Acts 27:12 – 2 Macc 14:4; Sir 24:14; 50:12; Rev 7:9.

(h)ôsanna (hosanna) Matt 21:9; John 12:13 – Matt 21:15; Mark 11:9-10.


Additional studies:

Deut 34:3; 2 Sam 6:18; Neh 8:15; Is 40:9; Judith 15:13; Matt 11:3; Mark 11:8; 15:32; Luke 19:36-37; John 1:27; 6:14-15; 11:27; 12:1; 18:33,37,39; 19:3,12; Rev 16:10; 17:3-5; 21:26.


James F. Coakley "Jesus' Messianic Entry into Jerusalem (John 12:12-19 par.)"; Journal of Theological Studies 46 (1995): 461-482.

William R. Farmer "The Palm Branches in John 12:13"; Journal of Theological Studies 3 (1952): 62-66.

Edwin D. Freed "The Entry Into Jerusalem in the Gospel of John"; Journal of Biblical Literature 80 (1964): 329 -338.

R. Gyllenberg "Intåget i Jerusalem och Johannesevangeliets uppbyggnad"; Svensk Exegetisk Årsbok 41/41 (1976/1977): 81-86.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-04-17; 2011-10-03; 2014-06-09; 2014-11-16)

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12:14-15 But/and having found a little ass Jesus sat down against it, entirely as it is (and has been) written: “Do not fear, daughter Zion. Behold, your King comes, being seated against a foal of an ass.”

Word for word: 12:14 (11 words in the Greek text) having-found but the Jesus (a)-little-ass (he)-sat-down against it, entirely-as (it)-is '(it)-is-(and-has-been)'/'(and has been)'-written: 12:15 (13 words in the Greek text): not fear, daughter Zion. behold the king your comes, sitting against (a)-foal (of)-(an)-ass.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The Lord said to Moses: “Come/go into Pharaoh and speak to him:) 'If you so indeed do not wish to dispatch out (My people), however/but still get/have power in/over it, behold, a hand of the Lord will stand on/near (with) an extremely great death in/among your domestic animals in the plains, both/and in/among the horses and in/among the “beasts of burden”/asses and the camels and the cattles/cattle and the sheep.’” (Ex 9:2-3, Greek OT)

(Moses said to Israel:) "Every ass opening a womb throughout you shall change (with/for) a sheep, but if you – according to the circumstances – may not change (it), you may redeem it." (Ex 13:13a, Greek OT)

(Moses said to Israel:) “Every first offspring of a donkey you shall redeem with a lamb, but if you do not redeem (it), then you shall break its neck.” (Ex 13:13a, New American Standard)

(David said:) “Cause my son Solomon to mount against my mule and lead him down into Gihon. And let Zadok, the priest, and Nathan, the prophet, anoint him there into/to king against/over Israel, and let the trumpet of horn sound and speak: ‘Let the king Solomon live!” An he shall be seated upon my throne.” (1 Kings 1:33b-35a, Greek OT)

‘Call ... to the side of’/summon the ones (in Zion) (being) little/faint in the soul, (in) the mind: "Be stable, fear not! Behold, our God gives back a judgment in stead, and He will give back in stead. (God) (Himself) will arrive and save you." (Is 35:4, Greek OT)

(The prophet said to Jerusalem:) "Rejoice extremely, daughter of Zion! Proclaim, daughter of Jerusalem: '... (A) King of Israel, the Lord, (is) in a middle (of Israel). (The people) will no longer behold bad things.' In that seasonable time the Lord shall speak to Jerusalem: ‘Be confident, Zion.’" (Zeph 3:14a,15b-16a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Jerusalem:) “Rejoice extremely, daughter of Zion! Proclaim, daughter o Jerusalem: 'Behold, your king comes to you, righteous and He Himself saving/saves, (the One being) meek and stepping (and having stepped) against, against a beast of burden, and/namely a young foal.'” (Zech 9:9, Greek OT)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to two of His disciples:) “You will find an ass being (and having been) bound and a foal in company with her. Having loosened them, lead (them) to Me.” (Matt 21:2b)

This has become/’come about’ (and became/’came about’) in order that it might be completed what having been spoken through the prophet saying: “Speak to the daughter Zion: ‘Behold, your king comes to you, meek and having stepped (and steps) against an ass, and/namely against a foal, a son/foal of a beast of burden.’” ... (And the disciples) led the ass and the foal and put/laid the garments upon, upon them, and Jesus sat down upon above them. (Matt 21:4-5,7)

(The disciples) will find a foal being (and having been) bound, against which no one of men ‘not yet’/yet has sat down. ... (Mark 11:2b)

(Two of Jesus' disciples) lead (א*) the foal towards (Him) and throw their garments on it. And they are seated (א*) against it. (Mark 11:7)

(Jesus said to the lawyers and Pharisees:) ”Who of you, (if) an ass (א,*א) or a cattle/’cow or an ox’ will fall into a well, will he not straightaway pull him up in/on a sabbath day?” (Luke 14:5b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(The disciples) feared. But (Jesus) says to them: “I am. Do not fear.” (John 6:19b-20a)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

Here was this ass, the most stupid of all beasts, and there was (Balaam) the wisest of all wise men. ... Balaam was the wisest of the wise men; yet, he was not as wise as his (ass). That is why God made animals without human speech, according to the rabbis. If they could speak our language, they would never have settled for being beasts of burden. In addition, they would have proven themselves far wiser than humans. For proof of this, just look at Balaam, who could not hold his own against the least intelligent of animals, the (ass). (Michael E. Williams “Exodus-Joshua” p 149,152; Numbers Rabbah 20:14-15 concerning Numbers 22)

Behold, your king comes. The word “come” is used both in Ps 118:26 and Zech 9:9. Therefore these two quotations are associated according to the rabbinical principle of interpretation gezerâ shâwâ, that is they drew their conclusions by combining two Bible passages, which used the same word. (René Kieffer "Johannesevangeliet" p 295, translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Queen Sofia av Nassau, coming to (Sweden) 1857, never has managed to naturalize herself. Haughty and pious they accuse her of protecting the fanatic sectarians, as they also ascribe all kinds of reactionary interferences to her high will. She is sickly and exiled, transplanted in a foreign country, whose forefathers, history and memories she now must accept as her own, and she looks ill-pained by the mental adjustment they have forced upon her. She amuses herself with appearing as a missionary having as riding-animal chosen the biblical ass, belonging to a family which for the rest is not found in Sweden. She subscribes for publications published by the big union of the evangelists. (August Strindberg "Societeten i Stockholm" p 242; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

There are many traditions about this ass on which the Messiah is to ride; and so firm was the belief in it, that, according to the Talmud, ’if anyone saw an ass in his dreams, he will see salvation’ (Ber. 56b). (Alfred Edersheim "The Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah Part II" p 736)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: UllaBritt Berglund, Fuad Esh-Shaib, Lars Hartman, Victor Hugo, Lars Levi Laestadius, Sven Lidman, Martin Luther, Eva Rydberg, Gösta Sandberg, Lothar Schmalfuss, Eva Spångberg, Birger Thureson, Michael E. Williams, Birgitta Yavari.


My own comments and speculations:

In a restoration perspective we can see, how the unclean asses (cf. Lev 11:2-7) now are restored in an ass, which is honoured by being allowed to be in Jesus' nearness.


Greek words:

thygatêr (daughter) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Matt 21:5; John 12:15 – Esther 2:7,15; 9:29; Tobit 3:7(BA),9-10; 4:13(BA); 6:11-13; 7:7(8),10,12(13),17; 8:20; 10:7(8),12; 11:15,17; Judith 8:1; 9:4; 12:13; 13:18; 16:6; 1 Macc 5:8,65; 9:37; 10:54,57,58(59); 11:9-10,12; Wisdom of Solomon 9:7; Sir 7:24-25; 22:3-4; 26:10,24; 36:21(23); 42:9,11; Baruch 2:3; 4:10,14,16; Susanna v 2-3(Theod),29,48,57,63(Theod). Matt 9:18,22; 10:35,37; 14:6; 15:22,28; Mark 5:34-35; 6:22; 7:26,29; Luke 1:5; 2:36; 8:42,48-49; 12:53; 13:16; 23:28; Acts 2:17; 7:21; 21:9; 2 Cor 6:18; Heb 11:24.

kathizô (make sit down/sit down) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Mark 11:2; John 12:14 – Tobit 2:10; 1 Macc 2:1,7; 10:55,63; 11:52; 14:12; Sir 10:14; 11:1,5; 12:12; 31:12,18; 32:1; Susanna v 50(Theod); Matt 5:1; 13:48; 19:28; 20:21,23; 23:2; 25:31; 26:36; Mark 9:35; 10:37,40; 12:41; 14:32; Luke 4:20; 5:3; 14:28,31; 16:6; 19:30; 24:49; John (8:2;) 19:13. Acts 2:3,30; 8:31; 12:21; 13:14; 16:13; 18:11; 25:6,17; 1 Cor 6:4; 10:7; Eph 1:20; 2 Thess 2:4; Heb 1:3; 8:1; 10:12; 12:2; Rev 3:21; 20:4.

onarion (little ass) John 12:14. This word combines in one the two words “onos” (ass) and “pôlos” (foal). Jesus seeks and finds and restores what is little and despised, even if it so would be a little ass.

onos (ass) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Matt 21:2,5,7; Luke 14:5; John 12:15 – Tobit 10:10; Judith 2:17; Sir 33:25; Luke 13:15.

pôlos (foal) (in the NT) Matt 21:2,5,7; John 12:15 – Mark 11:2,4-5,7; Luke 19:30,33,35.

Siôn (Zion) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Matt 21:5; John 12:15 – Judith 9:13; 1 Macc 4:37,60; 5:54; 6:48,62; 7:33; 10:11(12); 14:26; Sir 24:10; 36:13(16); 48:18,24; Baruch 4:9,14,24; Rom 9:33; 11:26; Heb 12:22; 1 Pet 2:6; Rev 14:1.


Additional studies:

Is 40:9; 44:2; 62:11; Matt 21:1-3; 11:2-7; Luke 19:30-35; John 6:31; Rev 2:10; 11:17; 17:3-5; 19:11.

James F. Coakley "Jesus' Messianic Entry into Jerusalem (John 12:12-19 par.)"; Journal of Theological Studies 46 (1995): 461-482.

Edwin D. Freed "The Entry Into Jerusalem in the Gospel of John"; Journal of Biblical Literature 80 (1964): 329 -338.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-04-18; 2011-10-04; 2014-06-10; 2014-11-16)

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12:16 His disciples had (at) the first not knowledge of these things. However when Jesus was glorified, then they remembered that these things (continually/repeatedly) were (and had been) written on/’for the sake of’ Him, and (that) they made/did these things (with) Him.

Word for word (24 words in the Greek text): these-(things) not had-knowledge-of his the disciples (at)-the first, however when was-glorified Jesus (they)-remembered that these-(things) (continually-was on/'for-the-sake-of ' him was-(and-had-been)-written and these-(things) (they)-made (with)-him.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(God said to the man:) "From the wood of the thing to have knowledge of fine and evil, from it you shall not eat. But/and (in) which day you – according to the circumstances – may eat from it, you will die (in) death." (Gen 2:17, Greek OT)

The serpent spoke to the woman: "You will not die (in) death! For God has known that in the day you – according to the circumstances – may eat from (the wood of the thing to know/'have knowledge of') your eyes will be opened throughout, and you will be as gods, having knowledge of fine and evil." (Gen 3:4-5, Greek OT)

(Moses said to Israel:) “You shall remember that you (continually) were ‘member of a household’/servant in earth/'the land' Egypt, and the Lord your God led you out from there in/with a powerful hand and in/with a high/outstretched arm.” (Deut 5:15a, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said to the people of God:) “In company with cheerfulness you will ladle out water, out of the springs of the saving. And in that day you will speak: ‘Sing hymns to the Lord, cry His name.’ Bring up a message in/among the nations (about) His glorious things: ‘Remember that His name is heightened. … Exult and be cheerful, (you) dwelling in Zion, because the holy One of Israel is heightened in a middle of her.’” (Is 12:3-4,6, Greek OT)

(Tobit) remembered the word of the prophet … saying: “… (Tobit 2:6a, S)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) ”When the grass sprouted and made/bore fruit, then the darnels and/also ‘were brought to’/came to light.” (Matt 13:26)

Peter remembered the word of Jesus having spoken (and speaking) that/: ”Before a rooster ‘raise its voice’/crows, you will three times deny away Me.” (Matt 26:75a)

(Zacharias said: “The Lord God of Israel) has raised a horn of saving for us in a house of His boy David, entirely as He talked through (the) mouth of His holy prophets from an age … to remember His holy covenant.” (Luke 1:69-70,72b)

(The disciples) (continually) had not knowledge of (Jesus') word, and it (continually) was (and had been) veiled from/for them by the side of, in order that they might not notice it. (Luke 9:45a)

(The twelve said:) “We will be patient to the prayer and the service of the saying.” (Acts 6:4)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

When (Jesus) so was raised out of dead (bodies), His disciples remembered that He (continually/repeatedly) had said this; and they believed (in) the writing and (in) the saying which Jesus had spoken. (John 2:22)

This (Jesus) (continually/repeatedly) said (P66, א,* א) on account of the Spirit, of (P66, א,* א) which the ones believing (א,*א) into Him (continually) were about to take. For spirit was not yet (continually), because Jesus was not * (א,* א, B) yet glorified. (John 7:39)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

The understanding (of Jesus' closest followers) is described as a "remembering" which concerned both the Scriptures and what actually happened. (Birger Olsson "Structure and Meaning in the Fourth Gospel" p 263)

This theological insight was not gained at the time of the entry but only after the resurrection. (C.K. Barrett "The Gospel according to St John" p 463)

That it was written (the disciples) knew, that it was written of (Jesus) they knew not. (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers XIV:245)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Bo Giertz, Tomas Sjödin.


My own comments and speculations:

In Eden the serpent deceived the woman by saying that the tree of knowledge (Greek OT: wood of the thing to know/'have knowledge of') would make man as a god and give knowledge of fine and evil. And surely man would not die! Now a special, spiritual knowledge is given those who believe in Jesus and who so receive agelong life with knowledge of God (cf. John 17:3).

Now the slanderer deceives by saying: "You surely shall not receive life the day you eat of Jesus, the wine (John 15:1). Surely your eyes will not be opened. Therefore, do not eat of Jesus! You have life everywhere, but not in him!" But "there is no truth in (the slanderer). When he – according to the circumstances – may talk the lie, he talks out of the own things, because he is a liar and ‘its father’/’the father of the lie’." (John 8:44b)


Paul said to the believers in Corinth: "No one has knowledge of the things of God ‘if not’/except the Spirit of God. But we have taken not the spirit of the adornment/’adorned world’ however/but the Spirit, the One (being) out of God. ... If and/also we have (and have had) knowledge of Christ according to flesh, however, now we have not any longer knowledge of Him (thus)." (1 Cor 2:11b-12a; 2 Cor 5:16b)


Additional studies:

Deut 26:42,45; Mark 9:12-13,32; Luke 18:34; 24:6-8; John 2:17; 10:6; 12:23; 14:26; 20:9; Acts 11:16; 2 Pet 3:1-2; Rev 17:3-5.


James F. Coakley "Jesus' Messianic Entry into Jerusalem (John 12:12-19 par.)"; Journal of Theological Studies 46 (1995): 461-482.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-04-18; 2011-10-05; 2014-06-11)

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12:17-19 So the crowd, the one (being) in company with Him when He raised His voice to Lazarus (and called him) out of the memorial tomb and raised him out of dead (bodies), (continually) was a witness. Because of this a (P75, א,* א) crowd and/namely went to meet Him, because they heard Him having made (and made) this sign. The Pharisees so spoke towards/among themselves: “Look at that you do not help/profit nothing/anything. Behold, the adornment/’adorned world’ has gone away behind Him.”

Word for word: 12:17 (20 words in the Greek text) was-a-witness so the crowd the-(one) being in-company-with him when (to)-the Lazarus (he)-raised-his-voice out-of the memorial-tomb and raised him out-of dead. 12:18 (13 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus) because-of this and went-to-meet him (a)-crowd, because (they)-heard him this to-make-(and-to-have-made) the sign. 12:19 (17 words in the Greek text) the so Pharisees spoke towards themselves: look-at that not (you)-help/profit nothing/anything. behold the adornment behind him went-away.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Aaron) made the signs opposite (Israel). And the people believed. (Ex 4:30b-31a, Greek OT)

(In spite of the signs which Aaron made) the heart of Pharaoh was entirely stable. (Ex 7:13a, Greek OT)

Israel beheld the great hand, (the things) which the Lord had made/done (with) the Egyptians. But/and the people feared the Lord, and they believed (in) the Lord and (in) His attendant Moses. (Ex 14:31, Greek OT)

(Job said:) ”Every man will go away behind (the evil man). … .” (Job 21:33b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Jeremiah:) “My people have changed its glory out/’on the basis’ of which they will not be helped.” (Jer 2:11b, Greek OT)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said: “Eliah) raised a dead (body) out of death and out of Hades (with) a saying of (the) Highest One.” (Sir 48:5)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "Whoever has, to him it will be given, and it will be ‘over and above’/’more than enough’. But whoever has not, and/also what he has will be lifted/’taken away’ from him.” (Matt 13:12)

(The priest leaders and the Pharisees) feared the crowds, since they (continually) had/held (Jesus) into/for a prophet. (Matt 21:46b)

(Pilate had beheld) that nothing helps, however/but rather it becomes a noise. (Matt 27:24a)

Having let their father Zebedee be in the boat in company with the wage-earners (James and John) went away behind (Jesus). (Mark 1:20b)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “What does * (א*) a man help to gain the whole adornment/’adorned world’ and to be damaged (with regard to) his soul?” (Mark 8:36)

It became in the (day) (א*) next to (that Jesus) went into a city being called Nain and His disciples and a much/many-headed crowd (continually) went together with Him. As (Jesus) drew near the gate of the city, and behold, one being (and having been) deceased was (continually) carried off out of (the city), an only descendant, a son to his mother, and she (continually) was a widow. And a fit/customary crowd of/from the city (continually) was together with her. (Luke 7:11-12)

(On Jesus') coming into a certain village ten leprous males went to meet (א,*א) Him. (Luke 17:12a)

All ’of them’/together of the multitude of the disciples began rejoicing to praise God (with) a great/loud voice on account of all the (works of) ability which they beheld. (Luke 19:37b)

(The priest leaders and the scribes and the first ones of the people) did not (continually) find the thing what/which they might make/do, for the people, all of them, (continually) hung upon hearing Him. (Luke 19:48)

(The priest leader said to the apostles:) "You have (P74,א,*א,A) completed/filled Jerusalem of/with your teaching ..." (Acts 5:28b)

A much/many-headed crowd of the Jews (א*) (continually) hearkened the faith. (Acts 6:7b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(The disciples of John) came towards John and spoke to him: “Rabbi, the One who (continually) was in company with you on the other side of the Jordan, to whom you have been (and are) a witness, behold, this One baptizes and all come towards Him.” (John 3:26)

Many more believed because of His saying. Both/furthermore they (continually/repeatedly) said to the woman that/: “We do not any longer believe because of your evidence (א*), for ourselves we have heard (and hear) and we know, that this One truly is the Saviour of the adornment/’adorned world’.” (John 4:41-42)

The Jews encircled (Jesus) and said to Him: "Till when do You lift/’take away’ our soul?” (John 10:24a)

(Jesus said to His Father:) “Because of the crowd, the one standing (and having stood) round about, I spoke, in order that they may believe, that You has dispatched Me away.” (John 11:42b)

The priest leaders and the Pharisees so led a council together, and they (continually) said: “What do we make/do, because this One, the Man, makes many signs? If – according to the circumstances – we may let him be in this way, all believe (א*) into Him. (John 11:47-48a)

(The Jews) came, not because of Jesus only, however/but in order that they and/also might behold Lazarus, whom He had raised out of dead (bodies). But the priest leaders took counsel, in order that they and/also might kill Lazarus, because many of the Jews, because of him, (continually) withdrew and (continually) believed into Jesus. (John 12:9b-11)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: Per Rickardsson, August Strindberg.


My own comments and speculations:

We can see this Bible passage in a restoration perspective. In times of old Israel believed in the Lord, and the people in Egypt pursued Israel. Now the adornment/’adorned world’ believes in the Lord, and the people in (a disgraced) Jerosolyma/Jerusalem (allegorically called Egypt in Rev 11:8) go away to bless (the King of) Israel. But the teachers of Israel do not understand who Jesus is (cf. John 3:10). In stead of believing Him they pursue Him, who they mean is an evil man (cf. Job 21:33).


Additional studies:

Matt 16:26; Mark 4:25; Luke 8:18; 9:25; 16:16; 19:39; John 2:11; 3:16-17,26; 5:36; 11:45; 12:12; 13:3.


James F. Coakley "Jesus' Messianic Entry into Jerusalem (John 12:12-19 par.)"; Journal of Theological Studies 46 (1995): 461-482.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-04-18; 2011-10-07; 2014-06-11)

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12:20-22 But (there) (continually) were some Greeks out of the ones ascending in order that they might prostrate themselves in/at the feast. So these came to Philip, the one (being) from Bethsaida of Galilee, and they (continually/repeatedly) asked him, saying: “Lord, we want to behold Jesus.” Philip comes, and he says to Andrew. And again (א,*א) Andrew comes and Philip, and they say (it) to Jesus.

Word for word: 12:20 (12 words in the Greek text) (They/there)-(continually)-were but Greeks some out-of the-(ones) ascending in-order-that (they)-might-'(kiss-towards)'/'prostrate-themselves' in/at the feast. 12:21 (18 words in the Greek text) these so came-to Philip the-(one) from Bethsaida (of)-the (of)-Galilee and (they)-(continually)-asked him saying: lord, (we)-want the Jesus behold. 12:22 (16 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus) comes Philip and (he)-says (to)-the Andrew. and again come Andrew and Philip and (they)-say (to)-the Jesus.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

A much/many-headed mixed on/up (multitude) and/also ascended together with (the sons of Israel). ... The mixed on/up (multitude) (being) in/among them desired a desire. (Ex 12:38a; Num 11:4a, Greek OT)

(Solomon said to the Lord:) "And the alien one, who is not from this Your people, and/also they will arrive and pray in this place, and You shall listen to (him) out of the heaven, out of Your ready dwelling, and You shall make/do according to all things, as many as the alien one – according to the circumstances – may call against You, in that way (that) all the peoples may have knowledge of Your name and fear You entirely as Your people Israel, and You may have knowledge, that Your name has been (and is) called against, against this house, which I have built.” (1 Kings 8:41-43, Greek OT)

(Solomon said to the Lord:) “Every alien, who is not himself out of Your people Israel, may and/also come out of ‘an earth’/’a country’ from afar because of Your great name and Your powerful hand and Your high/outstretched arm, and they may come and pray into this place, and You will listen to (them) out of the heaven, out of Your ready/prepared dwelling, and You will make/do according to all things as many as the alien calls against/to You, in that way (that) all the peoples of the earth may gain knowledge of Your name and the thing fear You as (do) Your people Israel.” (2 Chron 6:32-33a, Greek OT)

(God) will make a district ... on the other side of the Jordan, Galilee of the nations, the parts of Judea. (Is 8:23b or 9:1b, Greek OT)

The glory of the Lord will be beheld, and every/all flesh will behold God's means of saving. (Is 40:5, Greek OT)

(Tobit said:) ” … many times I went into (a disgraced) Jerosolyma/Jerusalem in/at the feasts.” (Tobit 1:6a, S)

(Tobit said: “We) went together into Jerusalem and (continually/repeatedly) prostrated. ... “ (Tobit 5:14b, S)

(The Greeks) came ... into (the city) in order that they might offer sacrifice. And many from Israel came to/forward towards them. (1 Macc 2:15-16a)

Lord, listen to our prayer ... in order that ‘every the’/’the whole’ earth may gain knowledge, that You (are) the Lord, our God. (Baruch 2:14a,15a)


The Latter Revelation:

Soothsayers from upstickings/east became to the side of into (a disgraced) Jerosolyma/Jerusalem, saying: ”Where is the One having been brought forth, a King of the Jews? For we have beheld His star in the upsticking/east, and we have come to prostrate ourselves before Him (in honour of Him).” (Matt 2:1b-2)

The ones taking the two-drachma (coins) came to Peter and spoke: “Does not your teacher end/pay * (א*) two-drachma (coins)?” He says: “Yes”. (Matt 17:24b-25a)

... (Jesus) went away into the frontiers of Tyre and Sidon (א,* א, A, B). ... (A Greek woman) fell towards, towards His feet. (Mark 7:24a,25b)

Every/all flesh will behold the means of saving of God. (Luke 3:6)

A message was brought away from (people outside) to (Jesus) that/: (א,* א) "The (P75, א,* א) mother and Your brothers stand outside, wanting to behold You." But ‘having answered’/’He answered’ and spoke towards them: "My mother and My brothers, these are the ones hearing the saying of God and making/doing (it)." (Luke 8:20-21)

(Zacchaeus) (continually) sought to behold Jesus. (Luke 19:3a)

Having beheld Jesus (Herod) rejoiced exceedingly, for (continually) ‘out of fit/enough times’/’for a long time’ he was/’had been’ wanting to behold Him, because of ‘to hear’/’what He had heard’ on account of Him, and he (continually) hoped to behold a certain sign becoming/’coming about’ by Him. (Luke 23:8)

(The Ethiopian eunuch) had come (and came) into Jerusalem to prostrate himself. (Acts 8:27b)

Peter uttered towards (the ones having come together in the habitation of Cornelius): “You have insight in as/’in what way’ it is illicit for a Jewish male to attach himself to or come to (anyone) of another tribe. And to me God has shown to not say/call anyone/any man common (people) or unclean. (Acts 10:28)

(Luke said:) “Having come to (א,*א,A,B*) (Troas some Greeks) stayed (there) to (wait for) us. But/and we went out by sea from Philippi after the days of the unleavened (bread) and came towards them.” (Acts 20:5b-6a)

(The Jews from Asia said to males of Israel:) “This (Paul) is the man, the one teaching all everywhere ‘down from’/against the people and the law and this place. Still/furthermore he both/moreover and/also has led Greeks into, into the sanctuary, and he has made (and makes) this holy place common.” (Acts 21:28b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

Andrew, Simon Peter's brother, (continually/-) was one out of the two having heard from the side of John and followed Him/Jesus. This first one (א*) finds his own brother Simon and says to him: "We have found (and find) the Messiah", which ‘is being’/is translated christ/anointed. (Andrew) led (Simon) towards Jesus. (John 1:40-42a)

Philip finds Nathanael and says to him: "We have found (and find) the One of whom Moses in the law and/’and also’ the prophets wrote, Jesus from Nazareth, a son of Joseph." * (א,*א) Nathanael spoke to him: "Is it able to be any good thing out of Nazareth?" Philip says to him: "Come and behold!" (John 1:45-46)

(Jesus) finds Philip. And Jesus says to him: "Follow Me!" But/and Philip (continually/-) was from Bethsaida, out of the city of Andrew and Peter. (John 1:43b-44)

Every (nation?) which the Father gives Me will arrive towards Me, and the one coming towards Me I may not/certainly not throw out * (א*), because I have descended (and descend) out of (א,*א) the heaven, not in order that I might make/do My will, however/but the will of the One having sent Me, *(א*) in order that every (nation?) which He has given (and gives) Me, (that) I may not perish out/’in consequence’ of it, however/but (that) I may cause it to stand up in/on the last day. For this is the will of My Father, in order that 'every the'/everyone looking at the Son and believing into Him may have agelong life. And I Myself will cause him to stand up in/on the last day. (John 6:37-40)

The Jews so spoke towards/among themselves: “Where is this One about to go, because we will not find Him? He is not about to go into the asunderspread sowing of/among the Greeks and teach the Greeks, (is He)? What is this saying that He spoke: “You will seek Me and will not find * (א,*א), and whereat/where I am, you are not able to come?” (Joh 7:35-36)

Jesus says to her: “Did I not speak to you, that if – according to the circumstances – you may believe, you will behold the glory of God?” (John 11:40)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

April 7th Maundy Thursday. I shall be in the monastery of Maredsous (in Belgium) to celebrate Easter. I want to see who Christ is and experience if I belong to his flock of sheep. . . . Now I again stand as a wretch. . . . It was namely somewhere written that I would not see the monastery. The friend who I would meet was prevented coming and with this the project fell. (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev XII dec 1896-aug 1898" p 280,290; letters 1898-03-17 and 1898-04-07 to Gustaf af Geijerstam; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Fjodor Dostojevskij, G. Kurze, Viktor Rydberg, Knut Svensson, Virginia Woolf.


My own comments and speculations:

The Greeks can be compared with Jesus' german mother and brothers in the Synoptics. It is true that they wish to see Jesus, but it is also true that seeing without faith has a negative nuance in the Gospels. Compare John 11:40 and 20:29. Compare also John 7:5 concerning Jesus' brother's lack of faith. And in John 2:11 we see how, while Jesus' disciples believe in Jesus, nothing is said about any faith associated with Mary, His mother german. Cf. also 1 Macc 2:15-16 in a restoration perspective.

Nevertheless it is something positive in the Greeks' wish to behold Jesus. He is not in need of going to them (cf. John 7:35-36). And the nation coming to Him, He will not throw out (cf. John 6:37-40).

On Andrew and Philip from Bethsaida, see My own comments and speculations to John 1:40-41 and John 1:43-44.

Concerning “Philip”, see also Rev 6:2a (“hippos”).


Greek words:

proserchomai (come to) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) 1 Macc 2:16; Matt 17:24; John 12:21; Acts 20:5(א,*א,A,B*); 10:28 – Esther 5:1f(D11); Judith 7:8; 10:15; 12:15; 13:6; 1 Macc 2:23; 2 Macc 1:15; 2:6; 6:20; 13:26; Sir 1:28,30; 2:1; 6:19,26; 9:13; 21:2. Matt 4:3,11; 5:1; 8:2,5,19,25; 9:14,18(א*),20,28; 13:10,27,36; 14:12,15; 15:1,12,23,30; 16:1; 17:7,14,19; 18:1,21; 19:3,16; 20:20; 21:14,23,28,30; 22:23; 24:1,3; 25:20,22,24; 26:7,17,39(P53,א,*א,A),49-50,60,69,73; 27:58; 28:2,9,18. Mark 1:31; 6:35; 10:2; 12:28; 14:45; Luke 7:14; 8:24,44; 9:12,42; 10:34; 13:31; 20:27; 23:36,52; Acts 7:31; 8:29; 9:1; 18:2; 22:26-27; 23:14; 28:9; Heb 4:16; 7:25; 10:1,22; 11:6; 12:18,22; 1 Pet 2:4.


Additional studies:

Matt 11:21; Mark 7:26; Luke 9:9; 11:31; John 6:5,8; 7:35; 12:1; 20:29; Acts 11:20; 17:4; Rev 1:4; 3:9; 11:1; 22:4,8.


Johannes Beutler "Greeks Come to See Jesus (John 12:20f)"; Biblica 71 (1990): 333-347.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-04-18; 2011-10-09; 2014-06-12; 2014-11-17)

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12:23 And Jesus answers them, saying: "The hour has come (and comes), in order that the Son of the Man may be glorified."

Word for word (15 words in the Greek text): the but Jesus answers them saying: has-come-(and-comes) the hour in-order-that may-be-glorified the son (of)-the (of)-man.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Eliphaz said: “The man whom God convicts) may come in the grave just as bread-stuff being harvested in a seasonable hour ‘according to’/during a seasonable time. (Job 5:26, Greek OT)

(Solomon said: "There is) a seasonable time for every concern underneath the heaven." (Eccl 3:1b, Greek OT)

To (one as a son of man) was given the beginning and the honour and the kingdom, and all the peoples, tribes, tongues will be slaves to Him. His (judicial) authority (is) an agelong (judicial) authority, and His kingdom will not be ruined throughout. (Dan 7:14, Greek OT, Theod)

(Judith said to the Lord:) “See/look in this hour against, against the works of my hands into/’for the purpose of’ an elevation of Jerusalem.” (Judith 13:4b)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to Peter and James and John:) "The hour has come. Behold, the Son of the Man is given ‘to the side of’/over into the hands of the missers (of the mark of God)." (Mark 14:41b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven: (Some of the people of a disgraced Jerosolyma/Jerusalem) (continually) sought to seize (Jesus), and/but no one threw/laid the hand against, against Him, because His hour had not yet come. (John 7:30)

Spirit was not yet (continually), because Jesus was not * (א,* א, B) yet glorified. (John 7:39b)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

We admire (Jesus Christ) not only on account of the miracles, but also by reason of the sufferings; as that He was nailed upon the Cross, that He was scourged, that He was buffeted, that He was spit upon, that He received blows on the cheek from those to whom He had done good. For even of those very things which seem to be shameful, it is proper to repeat the same expression, since He Himself called (the crucifixion) “glory”. (Chrysostom commenting John 1:14 “We beheld His glory”, p 42)


Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: Anfin Skaaheim.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning "The Son of the Man", see My own comments and speculations to John 1:51b.


Additional studies: Is 52:13; Matt 10:19; 26:45; Mark 13:11; 14:35; Luke 19:38; John 1:51; 2:4; 4:21,23; 8:20; 12:27; 13:1,31-32; 12:16; 17:1; Rev 17:12.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-04-19; 2011-10-10; 2014-06-12)

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12:24 Amen, amen, I say to you, if – according to the circumstances – the scarlet kernel of the bread-stuff having fallen into the earth may not die, it stays alone. But if – according to the circumstances – it may die, it carries/produces much fruit.

Word for word (24 words in the Greek text): amen amen (i/I)-say (to)-you, if-according-to-the-circumstances not the scarlet-kernel (of)-the (of)-bread-stuff having-fallen into the earth may-die, it alone stays. if-according-to-the-circumstances but (it)-may-die, much fruit (it)-carries.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

The Lord God spoke: “(It is) not fine (for) the man to be alone.” (Gen 2:18a, Greek OT)

Before the thing God turn/turned down/over Sodom and Gomorrah (the valley of Jordan was) as the 'place of God by the side of apprehension'/'Paradise of God' and as the earth/land of Egypt till come/'it comes' into Zoar. And Lot chose for himself every/all the district round about the Jordan. ... (But the Lord said to Abram:) "Count up the stars ... In this way your seed will be." And Abram believed (in) God. And it was counted to him into righteousness. (Gen 13:10b-11a; 15:5b-6, Greek OT)

(When Tamar who was with child by harlotry) brought forth … the suckle, having taken (the child), bound a scarlet (thing) against its hand, saying: “This one will come out first.” (Gen 38:28b, Greek OT)

The linen/flax and the barley were struck, for the barley was (and had been) standing ‘by the side of’/near and the linen/flax seeding/'had been seeded'. But the wheat and the spelt were not struck, for they (continually) were to late time. (Ex 9:31-32, Greek OT)

(Eliphaz said: “The man whom God convicts) may come in the grave just as bread-stuff being harvested in a seasonable hour ‘according to’/during a seasonable time. (Job 5:26, Greek OT)

(Solomon said:) “The two (are) good over/’more than’ the one. To them themselves are good wages in their toil.” (Eccl 4:9, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to His people:) “Come here and we may ‘count throughout’/consider … if – according to the circumstances – your misses (of My mark) may be as crimson, I shall whiten (them) as snow, but/and if – according to the circumstances – they may be as scarlet, I shall whiten (them) as wool.” (Is 1:18, Greek OT)

The ones (in Jerusalem) being nursed upon scarletkernels/scarlet were wrapped up in dung. (Lam 4:5b, Greek OT)

(Solomon said:) “Of good hardships (comes) a noble fruit.” (Wisdom of Solomon 3:15a)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said: “Wisdom) makes (the ones fearing the Lord) drunk from its fruits.” (Sir 1:16b)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “Wisdom of a scribe (is) leisure in a good seasonable time, and the one lessening himself, it will practise/manage him to ‘be made’/become wise.” (Sir 38:24)

(The yarn of Aaron's breastpiece of judgment) was (and had been) spun (with) scarlet kernel. ... (Sir 45:10b or 45:11a)


The Latter Revelation:

(John the Baptist said to the Pharisees and the Sadducees:) "Make/give so fruit worthy the change of mind." (Matt 3:8)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “The one who does not take his cross and follow behind Me is not worthy of Me.” (Matt 10:38)

(Some seeds) fell against the thorns, and the thorns ascended and choked them. (Matt 13:7, cf. the bread-stuff in Matt 13:25,29-30)

(Jesus said to the crowds:) “The kingdom of the heavens is like a scarlet kernel of mustard … . It is indeed smaller than all seeds but ... it becomes a tree.” (Matt 13:31b-32a)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “The One sowing the fine seed is the Son of the Man. But/and the field is the adornment/’the adorned world, but/and the fine seed, these are the sons of the kingdom.” (Matt 13:37b-38a)

Having ‘set out’/’stripped off’ (Jesus) (the soldiers) put a scarlet upper garment round about Him. (Matt 27:28)

(Jesus said to the crowd:) “Other (sowings) fell into the fine earth ... and carried/produced into/’up to’ (א,* א) thirty/thirtyfold and into/’up to’ (א,* א) sixty/sixtyfold and into/’up to’ (א,* א) hundred/hundredfold.” (Mark 4:8)

(Jesus said:) “By itself the earth carries/bears fruit; first grass, next (א,*B*) an ear of corn, next (א,*B*) filled with bread-stuff in the ear of corn.” (Mark 4:28)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “The one sowing came out to sow his sowing. … (Some sowing) fell into the good earth, and having produced it made/gave a hundredfold fruit. … The sowing is the saying of God. … The (sowing) in the fine earth, these are whoever having heard the saying, ‘keep it down’/’keep it’ in a fine and good heart, and carry fruit in endurance.” (Luke 8:5a,8a,11b,15)

(Jesus said: “The kingdom of God) is like a scarlet kernel of mustard, which having taken a man threw/sowed into his garden. And it increased and became into/to a tree.” (Luke 13:19a)

(Jesus) spoke this parable towards some being (and having been) persuaded that they are righteous on/in themselves and despising the rest. ... (He said:) ”The one humbling himself will be heightened.” (Luke 18:9,14b)

The Lord spoke (א,*א,A): "Simon, Simon, behold, the adversary has demanded ‘out you’/’your surrender’ to sift (you) as the bread-stuff." (Luke 22:31)

It became ... a great pursuit against (the members of the assembly) of called out in (a disgraced) Jerosolyma/Jerusalem. * (א*) All, ‘more than’/except the apostles, were sown asunder ‘according to’/downwards the districts of Judea and Samaria. (Acts 8:1b)

Throwing out the bread-stuff into the sea they (continually) lightened the boat, (so that they could be saved). (Acts 27:38b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Jesus said to the disciples:) “Do you not say that/: ‘It/there is yet a space of four months, and/’and so’ the harvest comes?’ Behold, I say to you, lift your eyes against and view the districts/fields, that they are white towards a harvest. (John 4:35)

Jesus so answered and (continually) said to them: “Amen, amen, I say to you: The Son is not able to make (anything) (away) from Himself, ‘nothing anything’/nothing (which) He – * (א,*א,B) according to the circumstances – may not see the Father making/make, for the things that One – according to the circumstances - may make, these things the Son and/also makes likewise. (John 5:19)

(The disciples) filled twelve large baskets of/with fragments out of the five breads/loaves of barley which was/were (א,* א, A) over and above for the ones ‘having eaten down (and eating down)’/’having eaten (and eating)’. (John 6:13b)

(Jesus said to the Jews:) "The One having sent Me is in company with Me. He has not let Me be alone, because I always make/do the pleasing things to Him." (John 8:29)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 - 1500

Sin leads to estrangement before God. The word sin in the Swedish language has connection with the German word for sound, which is the water separating land from land. The word sin is about what separating and dividing. The consequenses of sin are above all social. It makes man alone. We lost the contact with God both here in life and in eternity. Hell is aloneness, heaven is company and friendship. (Niklas Piensoho "En för alla - alla för en" p 55-56; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

The rabbis suggest that the parting of Abram and Lot (Gen 13:8-13), with Lot having the first choice of grazing land, might be compared to two people, one who has wheat and one barley. The one says: “If I get the wheat, then you get the barley. Or if you get the barley, then I take the wheat.” Are they suggesting, since the outcome is already set between Lot an Abram, that Abram was not really taking a chance by allowing Lot the first choice? (Michael E. Williams “Genesis” p 75; Genesis Rabbah 41.6)

When they Midsummer Eve sat at Jansson's creek in the evening, (Malin) had told (Krister) how much he liked to sit quite silent being quite alone - "Not always, goodness gracious, and not just now", she had hurried to assure, but in all cases . . . sometimes she felt that she had to be alone, she had said. "I can also be alone", Krister had assured, "but it depends entirely on with whom. With you I would be able to be alone any length of time. (Astrid Lindgren "Vi på Saltkråkan" p 134; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

The grain which dies and bears fruit is Christ. (C.K. Barrett "The Gospel according to St John" p 423)

One chokes! I wish, that he (Hitler) might be allowed to die alone! I am glad to hear, that he is said to be sleepless and was going to die because of too much sleeping-drug the other night. German ravagings Europe around. Oh, Lord, how long? And all food they take, where they go on. The locusts of Egypt out on the rampage. (Astrid Lindgren "Krigsdagböcker 1939-1945" p 103; 1941-09-06; translation from the Swedish text)

An old woman went uphill the mountain path with small mincing steps. . . . She felt hard to be so long away from men. - Old Agneta, she said loudly to herself, as it had become her habit there in the waist, you are sitting in your cottage and spins and spins. You must toil and moil the hours of all day to not be passed by hunger. But is it anyone finding pleasure in the thing that you live? Is it anyone, old Agneta? Had you one in life of the ones being yours, it could be so. If you lived longer downward the settled country, you would be a joy to someone. As poor as you are, you could neither take a dog ora cat to yourself, but you could surely sometimes lend your house to a beggar. You should not live so long out of the highroad, old Agneta. If you only once found an opportunity of giving a thirsty wanderer a glass of water, you still knew that you was of some help. (Selma Lagerlöf "Gamla Agneta" p 21-22; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

(1908 June 13th) Friends! They belonged to the compromises of life! Of course one cannot be alone! Because all men own conflicting interests, of course one cannot be friends! must not! Always it clashes in some interest. Nils Andersson was my most faithful, and I his: Perhaps most because we did not go in the same course! (August Strindberg "Ockulta dagboken" p 299; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

It is not amusing here, but it goes! More alone I become more and more, because I prefer nothing before bad company. (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev XV april 1904-april 1907" p 274; letter 1906-06-27 to Harriet Bosse and Anne-Marie Strindberg)

Because I still know that I will become alone this summer, so it is less painful that I prepare myself for it than I sit waiting for what I feel in advance that it does not come. . . . The customary horrors of the summer stand waiting; company probably is an illusion, but loneliness is worse; The middle way, I suppose, would be the better thing. (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev XV april 1904-april 1907" p 245; letter 1906-04-08 to Harriet Bosse; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

(1901 August) 23rd. Alone. Tiresome. Wept much. Thought life was a cruel play, particularly with our best feelings. Life is a humbug! 24th. Alone. In the morning fit of crying. . . . 25th. Sunday. Alone. Wept much. Was comforted in a devotional manual. . . . 26th. Monday. Wept all the day. . . . 27th. Wept all the morning. . . . (1st - 3rd September). Horrible to live, alone. . . . (16th - 20th September). Days of horror! So many tears! Alas! (August Strindberg "Ockulta dagboken" s 145,150; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Captain (Edgar) (to quarantine master Kurt): "Do you not think that life in any case is strange?" . . . And to be old; amusing it is not, but it is interesting! Yes, I have no age, it begins to be noticed! All one's acquainted die off, and one becomes so alone!" . . . Kurt (to Edgar and his wife Alice): "Why are you so alone?" Alice: Because he isolates me! First he eradicated all my brothers and sisters out of the house - he calls it himself "to eradicate" - then my lady friends and others. . . . Kurt! You must not get tired of us, for we certainly are the most unhappy men who are in the whole world!" (August Strindberg "Dödsdansen" p 46,52-54; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

The unknown: "Now they come again! I do not know why the ones (in the funeral procession) have to march round about in the streets!" The lady: "Is it these ones you fear?" The unknown: "No, but it irritates me, for it is as if everything is going wrong . . . Not death, but loneliness I fear, for in loneliness one meets someone. I do not know if it is anyone else or myself I notice, but in loneliness one is not alone. The air becomes closer, the air germinates and it begins grow beings who are invisible but are noticed and they own life. (August Strindberg "Till Damaskus I" p 17; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Probable is that I become more remarkable after my death, than I was in life, and from that you will benefit. (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev XI maj 1895-nov 1896" p 204; letter 1896-05-30 to the children Karin, Greta and Hans Strindberg; translation from the swedish text: BG Ask)

Was going to be perished but found in the loneliness an older acquaintance, who now and then still conceals himself, and who is the personal God having kept watch over me, beaten me like Job, still worse, but certainly has had his intentions. . . . The larva of the butterfly creeps round about and eats as we animals. One fine day he gets ill, his strength is failing, his body is eaten up, but in a last effort he weaves his shroud and build his grave. He is decomposed - nekrobios! Deathlife! Lifedeath! Because it is not any distinction between life and death! I have opened pupas, microscoped them! There are only a white, formless, unstarted substance resembling the saponification of the corpse smelling corpse. Out of this slime the butterfly germinates out of "adventivebuds" and leaves the grave. It is more than symbol, is it so, then the creator is an artist amusing himself with speaking in beautiful signs to foolish men understanding in part. . . . Nevertheless disconsolately for me that no one of the lasting religions can satisfy me, least Christianity - The God of the Old Testament I am nearer, for he can also hate and strike, but also forgive me, and he consoles in the sorrows, when he lets understand the purpose with the evil thing happening us. I have been systematically visited last months; I first fumed and lifted my hand towards heaven. But so I read Hiob and bent, to God, not to men, and I submitted to my fate with more calm without expecting other reward than that sublimation of mind which sorrow gives. Crying waters as a spring rain, so that it grows afterwards. . . . The thing which is, in particular evil, is with the will (of God), either as punishment or to repentance. He himself rules and no one is right to worry about the reign. (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev XI maj 1895-nov 1896" p 128-129,133-134; letters 1896-01-24 and 1896-02-22, both to Torsten Hedlund; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

The solitude, having surrounded my inner life ever since childhood, probably has placed such deep marks in me, that it never disappear. I also often with horror have observed that what amuses me most to write, no one wants to read. . . . I have realized, that I did not want to be alone in Kreutznach. I would die because of sorrow. I can never be alone in unknown places. (Selma Lagerlöf "Du lär mig att bli fri - Selma Lagerlöf skriver till Sophie Elkan" p 49,54; letter in the beginning of May 1895 and letter 1895-06-08; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

I have disharmonies behind me being able to tempt to suicide, without needing to commit a crime! I must as Abraham offer my Isak to be able to spring from the twigs till I reach the green one. (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev X febr 1894-april 1895" p 177; letter 1894-07-31 to Leopold Littmansson; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

My salvation is only with: my children! Or - one more woman! If it also would be the devil himself! - or a company! I think I am more alone than - Ibsen! (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev VIII jan 1890-dec 1891" p 267; letter 1891-05-12 to Ola Hansson; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

I think it surely is with love as with the hyacinth, which must strike roots in darkness before it can sprout a strong flower. (August Strindberg "Fröken Julie" p 108; the preface of the author; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

In Sweden literature goes backwards to parish registers and eunuch poems. Bonnier and Looström have given up, demand now absolutely moral things! On that I die! I work in a book-shop or paint pictures! Become a waiter, or a night-man! Everything, save to fail my art, which now has become all, after my race' "downdescent" is destroyed and I die with myself, only living in my works. (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev VII febr 1888-dec 1889" p 55; letter 1888-03-30 to Edvard Brandes; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Tomorrow it is Whitsun Eve, and the day after tomorrow Whitsunday. Alone - at a hotel! . . . . . . Go now (Whitsun Eve) to Café Bernina (in Skodsborg) to have dinner. Then home! Tiresome! Terrible! Bad news! Can I meet you today only to talk? Otherwise I am taken bad! No letters from home! (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev VI aug 1886-jan 1888" p 208,210; letter 1887-05-27 to Carl Larsson and letter 1887-05-28 to Edvard Brandes; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

To do this (of which I now have given an account), which is the resurrection, I must first be really dead. (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev VI aug 1886-jan 1888" p 68; letter 1886-09-22 to Albert Bonnier; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

A piece of advice! Be on your guard against loneliness. (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev V 1885-juli 1886" p 197; letter 1885-10-27 to Verner von Heidenstam; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

It is unhappy to be man in our times. This is not a letter as you see. It is idle talk! I am absolutely alone, so I assault the first coming one with my idle talk! When one, as I do, thinks differently with most people, it becomes desolate to live. Devilishly creepy! (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev XXI Supplement 1857-1893" p 194-195; letter 1885-06-02 to Oscar Levertin; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Below the big highway, out in the big fairway now the steamships returned from the pleasure-trips with flags and music, and it was hurrahed and was played and was sung so that it was heard right upwards in the hills of Djurgården. The magister never in his life had felt so alone as in this throng of people, and he thought, that the men looked with sympathy at him, who alone walked there as a solitary, and he also himself thought that he felt sorry for himself. He would have wanted to get into touch with the first one, only to be able to speak and hear his voice again, for he thought in his solitude, that he had a stranger beside him. . . . He would wish that anybody came towards him and showed his joy at seeing him. But no one came. Well, when he sat on the steam cutter a partridge dog, having lost his master, came and lay the head in his knee. But when they went ashore at Nybron, the dog ran his way. He does not need me any longer, the magister thought, and so he went home going to bed. (August Strindberg "Giftas I" p 81-82; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Now I stand so alone in my struggle, which neither you or Ibsen has done, although you have made boast of it, when you nevertheless have surrounded you with female adorers, I am so alone as someone can be, for I have my wife against. - But out on "vidderne" (the expanses). There one meets the great spirit of nature, and then one can turn one's back upon all men! (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev IV 1884" p 355; letter 14 okt 1884-10-14 to Björnstjerne Björnson; the expression "vidderne" alludes ro Ibsens poem "Vidderne")

I cannot travel alone (to Rome, Greece, Palestine and Egypt). Then I come to nothing in melancholy and perhaps return. Who would I travel together with? Not a theologian or another odd fish! A quick, resolute and experienced traveller would attract me most. (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev IV 1884 p 278-279; letter 1884-07-27 to Karl Otto Bonnier; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


about 1500 and time before

A big building is raised, which foundation is the earth, which spire reaches into heaven. . . . In time . . . God only lives in clean hearts of men, and every such one opening itself to him is a strengthening of his might in time. Do you want (so the old man spoke to the boy) become God's confederate? Do you want to carry your stone to this building? It is not easy, for it demands an act of self-denial of all own earthly things. Have you strength to give up the rose of life for God and to have the thorn of life for yourself? More I now cannot say. So pater Henrik spoke, and Erland, who, I suppose, did not rightly understand his words, still felt them in his heart and expressed his good will to be God's confederate. Then the old man placed his hand blessing on his head. (Viktor Rydberg "Singoalla" p 30-31; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

When the entire city in which (the harlot Rahab) lived fell to the ruins at the sounding of the seven trumpets, (she) was preserved, when all was over, together with all her house, through faith of the scarlet sign. (Irenaeus, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol I, p 492)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Eskil Albertsson, Svetlana Aleksijevitj, Karin Alvtegen, Werner Aspenström, Benkt-Erik Benktson, Ingmar Bergman, Marcus Birro, Manfred Björkquist, Erik Blomberg, Carl Boberg, Thomas Bodsdtröm, Torsten Bohlin, Torgny Brehmer, John Bunyan, Chas. E. Cowman, Stig Dagerman, Annica Dahlström, Bob Dylan, Ylva Eggehorn, Stefan Einhorn, Fatih El-Mudarris, Runar Eldebo, Linné Eriksson, Bo Frid, Bertil Gedda, Erik Gustaf Geijer, Olle Gellerman, Einar Genitz, Gillis Gerleman, Phil G. Goulding, Hillis Grane, Bertel Gripenberg, Dick Harrison, Verner von Heidenstam, Alf Henrikson, Carl-Einar Häckner, Alf Härdelin, Henrik Ibsen, William James, Anders Jarlert, Johannes V. Jensen, Liselotte Johansson, Eyvind Johnson, Stanley Jones, Ulrik Josefsson, Ragnar Järhult, Christofer Klasson, Ad. Kolmodin, Hans Larsson, Lars Levi Laestadius, Pär Lagerkvist, Hans Larsson, Amy Le Feuvre, C.S. Lewis, Sven Lidman, Sigurd Lindgren, Sten Lindroth, Ivar Lo-Johansson, Eva Londos, Martin Luther, Martin Lönnebo, Olaus Magnus, Bertil Malmberg, Bernhard Elis Malmström, Rodrigo Martinez, Carl Henrik Martling, Vilhelm Moberg, Ewert Mårtensson, Arvid Mörne, Stephen Neill, Gösta Nicklasson, Folke Nordangård, Olle Nystedt, Bruce E. Olson, Martin P:son Nilsson, Lewi Pethrus, Bengt Pleijel, Aleksandr Porfirevitj Sjarpilo, Efraim Rang, Harald Rasmussen, Otty Rudhammar, Salman Rushdie, Eva Rydberg, Robert Sabath, Nelly Sachs, Sven Edvin Salje, Vinay Samuel, Gösta Sandberg, Gunnar E. Sandgren, Jean Paul Sartre, Joh Heinrich Schmid, Catharina Segerbank, Sten Selander, Vikram Seth, Bo Setterlind, William Shakespeare, Frans Eemil Sillanpää, Erik Sollerman, Alexander Solsjenitsyn, John Stott, Margareta Strömstedt, Chris Sugden, Jesper Svartvik, Mats Svegfors, Alf B. Svensson, Nathan Söderblom, Rabindranath Tagore, Thomas a Kempis, Einar Thomassen, Marija Tichonovna Isajtjik, John Tigwell, Anton Tjechov, Leo Tolstoj, Lars Tornstam, Morris West, N.P. Wetterlund, Michael E. Williams, Tennessee Williams, Torgny Wirén, Per Wirtén, Carl Fr. Wislöff, Virginia Woolf, Birgitta Yavari, Tore Zetterholm.


My own comments and speculations:

In a restoration perspective we see how the spared wheat in Egypt now must die in Jesus and His disciples to bear fruit. But the dead barley is multiplied (John 6:13). Compare also the words of the apostolic father Ignatius before his death as a martyr: "I am the wheat of God and am ground by the teeth of the wild beasts, that I may be found the pure bread of God."

The Greek word for kernel – “kokkos” – is rare in the OT and only occurs twice there, and then with the meaning of kernels from “the scarlet berry”, that is the dried body of a scale insect. These bodies were used by the ancients to prepare dye. I think we in John 12:24 can have a background in a combination of the priest leader Aaron and his scarlet breastpiece of judgment in Sir 45:10(11) and Simon, the bread-stuff, in Luke 22:31. Simon – and all who like their scarlet life, cf. John 12:25 - must die to be able to carry/produce much fruit. Compare My own comments and speculations to John 13:36-37a.

Concerning "amen, amen", see John 1:51a with My own comments and speculations.


Paul said to the believers in Rome: ”... Considering not the high things, however/but being lead/go away together with the humble ones, do not become sensible ‘by the side of themselves’/’in the presence of them’.” (Rom 12:16a)

Paul said to the believers in Corinth: "What you sow does not make life, if – according to the circumstances – it may not die. And what you sow, you do not sow the body which will become, however/but a naked scarlet kernel, if it happens to be bread-stuff or any one of the rest (of the kernels). (1 Cor 15:36b-37)


Greek words:

kokkos (scarlet kernel) Lam 4:5; Sir 45:10(11); Matt 13:31; Luke 13:19; John 12:24; 1 Cor 15:37 – Matt 17:20; Mark 4:31; Luke 17:6.

sitos (bread-stuff) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Mark 4:28; Luke 22:31; John 12:24; Acts 27:38; 1 Cor 15:37 – Tobit 1:7; Judith 11:13; 1 Macc 8:26,28; Matt 3:12; 13:25,29-30; Luke 3:17; 16:7; Rev 6:6; 18:13.


Additional studies:

2 Sam 1:24; Prov 31:21; Jer 4:30; Matt 3:3,8; 13:24-28; Mark 4:3,8,14,20,32; John 8:16; 15:4-6; Rom 14:9; 1 Cor 15:38,44; Rev 6:6; 17:3-4; 18:16.


James A. Draper "Holy seed and the return of the Diaspora in John 12:24"; Neotestamentica 34.2 (2000): 347-360.

Peter W. Ensor "The Authencity of John 12:24"; The Evangelical Quarterly 74.2 (Apr.-June 2002): 99-107.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-04-19; 2011-10-13; 2014-06-13; 2014-11-17)

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12:25 The one being friends with his soul perish it. And the one hating his soul in this adornment/’adorned world’ will watch it into an agelong life.

Word for word (22 words in the Greek text): the-(one) being-friends-with the soul his perish it, and the-(one) hating the soul his in the adornment this into (a)-life agelong will-watch it.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The Lord God) put (the man) in the ‘place by the side of apprehension’/Paradise to work it and to watch (it). (Gen 2:15b, Greek OT)

(The messengers, dispatched out by the Lord, said to Lot:) "Saving save your soul. You may not see round about into the things behind ... (that) you not at any time may be taken by the side of together with (the ones dwelling in Sodom)." But Lot spoke towards them: "... Behold, this city (is) near to flee down to ... which is small/ little ... and my soul will live." ... But (Lot's) woman saw against (Sodom), into the things behind, and she became a pillar of salt. (Gen 19:17b,18a,20,26, Greek OT)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “Watch/’keep yourself’ from evil and you may not put a shame to (anyone) ‘on account’/’for the sake’ of your soul.” (Sir 4:20b)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said: “A male) ‘being made wise in’/devising sayings is hated. This one will entirely ‘be in want of’/miss every nourishment/maintenance.” (Sir 37:20)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to the twelve:) “* (א*) The one having perished his soul ‘with respect to’/’for the sake of’ Me will find it.” (Matt 10:39)

(Jesus said to the crowd:) “ ... ‘Watch yourselves from’/be on your guard against’ every urge to have.” (Luke 12:15a)

(Jesus said to the crowds:) "If anyone comes towards Me and does not hate his father and the mother and the woman/wife and the children and the brothers and the sisters, but/and (P45, א,* א, A) still/furthermore and/also his own soul, he is not able to be My disciple." (Luke 14:26)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "Recollect the woman of Lot. (The one) who – if according to the circumstances – may seek to save (א,* א, A) his soul will perish it. But (the one) who – according to the circumstances – may perish (it) will produce living beings/things." (Luke 17:32-33)

(Paul said to the elders in Ephesos:) “I do not make the soul of any saying valuable for myself, as/’in order that’ I may (א,* א, B) make my course perfect and the service which I have taken from the side of the Lord Jesus.” (Acts 20:24a)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 - 1500

For the one who does not seriously reckon with God the own life becomes the most important thing, the thing one first of all must think of. But to follow Jesus means receiving life as a present and a task, of which one has not oneself control. For the old egoist in us this feels as to "take ones cross on oneself", as the one sentenced to death had to do, when he was forced to carry the cross beam to the execution place. For the own self, which wants to keep the right to decide, it means a death sentence to follow Jesus. (Bo Giertz "Evangelium enligt Markus" p 72; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

(“He who hates his life”), that is, regards his life as of secondary desirability and importance. This use of “hate” is Semitic. … The man will keep his (life) not indeed for physical life, which he may well surrender, but for eternal life, of which he can never be robbed. (C.K. Barrett "The Gospel according to St John" p 424)

The soul is the eternal hungerer. With vanity and game he cannot live. If he does not get any other nourishment, he will as a wild animal tear to pieces first others and at last himself. (Selma Lagerlöf "Gösta Berlings saga" p 255; translation from the Sedish text: BG Ask)


about 1500 and time before

If we wish to attain glory, let us flee from human glory, and desire that only which cometh from God; so shall we obtain both the one and the other. (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers XIV:99)

If any one look to heaven and see the beauteous things there, he will soon despise this life and make no account of it. Just as the beauty of an object is admired while none more beautiful is seen, but when a better appears, the former is despised. (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers XIV:248)

Let us think lightly of golden raiment, let us think lightly of money, that we may not think lighly of our salvation. Let us think lightly of money and not think lightly of the soul. For ... those things remain here, but the soul departeth yonder. ... Tell me now, if thou hadst had a husband, a great and admirable man, who thoroughly loved thee and cared for thee, and then knewest that he would live always, and not die before thee, and would give thee all things to enjoy in security, as thine own: wouldst thou then have wished to possess anything? (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers XIV:459)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Stig Abrahamsson, Sven Danell, Ylva Eggehorn, Ulf Ekman, Gustaf Fröding, Nils Ferlin, Bo Frid, Dag Hammarskjöld, Pär Lagerkvist, C.S. Lewis, Frank Mangs, Vilhelm Moberg, Henrik Schartau, Bo Setterlind, Anfin Skaaheim, August Strindberg, Jesper Svartvik, Thomas a Kempis, Karl Vennberg, Carl Fr. Wislöff.


My own comments and speculations:

Compare John 12:24 and My own comments and speculations to this verse.


Paul said to the believers in Corinth: "Let not anyone seek ‘the thing of himself’/’his own’, however/but ‘the thing of the other’/’the other's." (1 Cor 10:24)

Paul said to the believers in Corinth: "We are rather pleased with being abroad out of the body and to be at home towards/’in regard to’ the Lord.” (2 Cor 5:8b)

In/by this we have knowledge, that we have (and have had) knowledge of Him, if we – according to the circumstances – may watch/’stand up for’ (א*) His commandments. (1 John 2:3)


Greek words:

fylassô (watch) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Sir 4:20; Luke 12:15; John 12:25; 1 John 2:3(א*); – Esther 1:1m(A12); 6:2; Judith 7:5; 13:11; 1 Macc 2:53; 8:26,28; 10:32; 12:34; Wisdom of Solomon 1:11; 6:4,10; 9:11; 14:16,24; 18:4; 19:6; Sir 4:20; 19:9; 21:11; 22:13,26; 23:7; 26:11; 32:22; 37:8; 40:29; Matt 19:20; Mark 10:20; Luke 2:8; 8:29; 11:21,28; 18:21; John 12:47; 17:12; Acts 7:53; 12:4; 16:4; 21:24-25; 22:20; 23:35; 28:16; Rom 2:26; Gal 6:13; 2 Thess 3:3; 1 Tim 5:21; 6:20; 2 Tim 1:12,14; 4:15; 2 Pet 2:5; 3:17; 1 John 5:21; Jude v 24.


Additional studies: Gen 29:31,33; Deut 21:15; Matt 6:24-25; 10:28; 16:25; Mark 8:35; 10:30; Luke 6:9; 9:24; 16:13; John 3:15; 12:43; 15:4-6; Phil 2:4; Col 1:24; 1 John 4:17; Rev 12:11.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-04-19; 2011-10-14; 2014-06-15; 2014-11-21)

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12:26 If – according to the circumstances – anyone may render service to Me, let him follow Me. And whereat/where I am, there will and/also My servant be. If – according to the circumstances – anyone may render service to Me, the Father will honour him.

Word for word (25 words in the Greek text): if-according-to-the-circumstances (to)-me anyone may-render-service me let-(him)-follow. and whereat (i/I)-am i/I there and the servant the my will-be. if-according-to-the-circumstances anyone (to)-me may-render-service will-honour him the father.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Moses said to Israel:) “The Lord has to-day taken you for Himself ‘to become you’/’that you shall become’ a people being around Him … to watch/keep all His commandments and ‘be you’/’in order that He will set’ you ‘over high’/’high above’ all the nations, as (a people) He has made ‘to be named’/renowned, and/both an object of boasting and glorious.” (Deut 26:18-19a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) "The ones glorifying Me I will give glorify, and the one despising Me will be unhonoured." (1 Sam 2:30b, Greek OT)

(Elisha) stood up and went behind Elijah and performed public duties to him. (1 Kings 19:21b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) "I will glorify (the one hoping for Me)." (Ps 91:15b, Greek OT)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Whereat/where your heap/treasure is, there and/also your heart will be.” (Matt 6:21)

Jesus spoke to His disciples: "If anyone wants to come behind Me, let him deny away himself and lift his cross and follow Me.” (Matt 16:24)

Peter 'having answered'/'answered and' spoke to (Jesus): “Behold, we have let all things be and followed You. What will consequently be to us?” But/and Jesus spoke to (His disciples): ”Amen I say to you that/: 'You, the ones having followed Me in the regeneration, when the Son of the Man may – according to the circumstances – sit down upon His throne of glory, and/also you yourselves (א,*א) will be seated against twelve thrones, judging the twelve tribes of Israel. And every/everyone whoever has let the woman (א*) be with respect to My name, will take a hundredfold, and inherit agelong life.'” (Matt 19:27-29)

(Jesus said to the twelve:) “The one who – if according to the circumstances – may want to become great in/among you, he will be your servant.” (Matt 20:26b)

(Jesus said: “The king says to his slaves:) ‘Having come in to view the ones lying up/’down to table’, (the king) beheld there a man having not been (and being not) set/clothed in clothes of wedding banquet. And he says to him: ‘Comrade, how did you come in here not having clothes of wedding banquet?’ But 'the one'/he was gagged/nonplussed. Then the king spoke to the servants: ‘Having bind his feet and hands, throw him out into the outer darkness.’” (Matt 22:11-13a)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Whereat – if according to the circumstances - the fall/corpse may be, there the eagles will led together.” (Matt 24:28)

Many women ... followed Jesus ... rendering service to Him. (Matt 27:55)

(Mary from Magdala and Mary the mother of James the younger and Joses, and Salome) (continually) followed Jesus and (continually) rendered service to Him. (Mark 15:41a)

(Jesus said to the apostles:) “When you – according to the circumstances – may have made/done all the things having been throughout arranged to you, say that/: “We are useless slaves. We have made/done (and makes/does) what we (continually) were indebted to make/do.” (Luke 17:10b)

(Jesus said to the apostles:) “Let the one being in command (become) as the one rendering service. Who is greater, the one lying up/’down to table’ or the one rendering service? Definitely not the one lying up/’down to table’? But I am in your middle as the One rendering service.” (Luke 22:26b-27)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

The mother (of Jesus) said to the servants that/: (א,* א) "What He – according to the circumstances – may say to you, make/do (it)!" (John 2:5)

Again Jesus so talked (with the Pharisees), saying: “I am the light of the adornment/’adorned world’. The one following Me may not/certainly not walk about in the gloom, however/but will have the light of the life.” (John 8:12)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

There are synoptical parallels to this verse, especially Mark 8:34 par, but it is formulated in a typically johannine way. For John 12:25 one can in a similar way refer to Mark 8:35f par. It seems as if the Evangelist had Mark 8:34-36 in front of him but changed it from out of other material and his own style. (René Kieffer "Johannesevangeliet" p 298, translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Johannes Gossner, Dag Hammarskjöld.


My own comments and speculations:

John has changed Mark 9:34 (a) to be John 12:26 (b) and Mark 8:35-36 (b) to be John 12:25 (a). We here have one for John typical contrasting effect. a + b in Mark becomes b + a in John (cf. Exegetes, evangelists and others above). In this way John completes and accomplishes the synoptical version (cf. Sir 33:15).

The heart of the servant will be where the treasure Jesus is (cf. John 2:26 with Matt 6:21).

A Christian who has done all that is commanded deserves the honour but not the glory (Luke 17:10).


Peter said: To you (is) the honour, to the ones believing. (1 Pet 2:7a)


Additional studies: Matt 9:9; 19:21; 23:11; 25:44-46; Mark 2:14; 8:34; 9:35; 10:28-30,39,43; Luke 5:11, 27-28; 9:23; 12:37; 18:28-30; John 14:3; 17:24; Rom 2:10; 8:17; 2 Cor 5:8; 11:23; Phil 1:23; Col 1:7; 1 Thess 4:17; Rev 12:6,14; 22:3.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-04-19; 2011-01-17; 2014-06-15)

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12:27 Now My soul is (and has been) troubled, and what may I speak? ‘Father, save Me out of this hour?’ However because of this I came into this hour.”

Word for word (23 words in the Greek text): Now the soul my is-(and-has-been)-troubled and what may-(i/I)-speak? father, save me out-of the hour this? however because-of this (i/I)-came into the hour this.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Eliphaz said: “The man whom God convicts) may come in the grave just as bread-stuff being harvested in a seasonable hour ‘according to’/during a seasonable time. (Job 5:26, Greek OT)

(David said to the Lord:) "My soul is extremely troubled. And You, Lord, till when? Turn next to (me), Lord. Deliver my soul, save me ‘with respect to’/’for the sake of’ Your mercy." (Ps 6:3-4 or 6:4-5, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said:) “In order that what’/why are you, soul, ‘sorrowful around’/’exceedingly sorrowful’? And ‘in order that what’/why do you 'trouble together'/vex me? Hope against/for God, because I shall confess Him out/frankly, a means of saving of my face, my God. My soul was troubled towards myself.” (Ps 42:5-6a or 42:6-7a, Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) “My heart leads me astray, and the lawlessness baptizes/surrounds me. My soul stands against/near into/’for the purpose of’’ (inspiring to) fear.” (Is 21:4, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to His people:) "You shall call Me ‘Father’ and shall not turn away from Me." (Jer 3:19b, Greek OT)

(Judith said to the Lord:) “See/look in this hour against, against the works of my hands into/’for the purpose of’ an elevation of Jerusalem.” (Judith 13:4b)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “My belly was troubled of 'to seek'/seeking out (wisdom).” (Sir 51:21a)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples: "Pray in this way: 'Our Father,) let Your kingdom come, become/'be ... done' Your will, as in heaven and/also upon earth.'" (Matt 6:10)

Having taken Peter and the two sons of Zebedee to the side of (Jesus) began to be sorrowful and uneasy. Then He says to them: "My soul is ‘sorrowful around’/'exceedingly sorrowful', till death." ... (And He prayed:) "My Father, if it is able, let this cup come from the side of, from/’away from’ Me. ‘More than’/but not as I want, however/but as You (want)." (Matt 26:37-38a,39b)

It was beheld to (Zacharias) a messenger of a lord ... and Zacharias was troubled. (Luke 1:11a,12a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

Jesus says to (His disciples): “My food is ‘in order that’/that I might make/do the will of the One having sent Me and make His work perfect.” (John 4:34)

Jesus answers (Andrew and Philip), saying: "The hour has come (and comes), in order that the Son of the Man may be glorified." (John 12:23)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

Since John does not record Jesus' agony in the Gethsemane, this may well be his equivalent of the Synoptic prayer in the Garden: "not what I will, but what you will" (Mark 14:36). (Leon Morris "The Gospel according to John" p 529)

Emil's father . . . was lost in thought of his son and his future. "That he would become president in the local government committé, Emil, this I doubt", he said at last. "But probably he surely will become a fairly honest man. If he may live and have health and if God so wants." Emil's mother nodded agreeing. "Yes, yes! If God so wants!" "And if Emil wants", little Ida said. Emil smiled a mild smiling. "It becomes this one may see", he said. (Astrid Lindgren "Än lever Emil i Lönneberga" p 170; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Before the inevitable thing I become dumb and petrified. . . . When I today met the north storm, which can do that the journey comes to nothing, I thought for a moment: Is it possible that this cup can escape me? That the inevitable is not inevitable? (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev XIV 1901-mars 1904" p 195-196; letter 1902-07-03 to Harriet Bosse; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

(1901 February) 12th. I only live with (Harriet Bosse) in my thoughts. . . . What I now go through is frightful and wonderful - I am sitting waiting for a death sentence. . . . God's will be done! If I only got to know it. . . . Will also the love, the great high one, come again? And has the marriage of the political economy of the former century come to an end? (August Strindberg "Ockulta dagboken" p 134-135; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

I have for a long time asked the Lord if I would leave Paris, but have not got any plain answer. . . . Last night when I came down in the new room, I opened the window, looked out and found the Plough with the North Star. Wondered is it northwards You shall go! I yet do not know what God intends with me! Shal I go to Ystad where the Asylum stands waiting. Perhaps this Golgatha also must be passed? To be taught still more. (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev XI maj 1895-nov 1896" p 276; letter 1896-07-19 to Torsten Hedlund; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

(Tekla) prays to God that her mother will be allowed to live, prays to God that she will want her mother to live. But she cannot want it. Why would she wish her mother a long agonizing life? . . . (She) lays inquiring her hand on the wrinkled forehead (of her mother). It is lukewarm but not more warm. . . . "Lord Jesus, is it ended?" (the new door-keeper) exclaims. " "It is ended", Tekla answers. God's will be done", the old woman says, stepping in to find certainty. You are after all glad now, you getting the place (as door-keeper after mother), Tekla's unruly brain thinks, and she feel good, noble, when laying restraint upon her cruelty and does not say it loudly. (August Strindberg "Svenska öden och äventyr 2" p 157-160; the short story "En häxa" from 1890; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Now we have no mother more. . . . We are very sorry, but Dad has calmed us by speaking with us, that it so was the will of God. Schoolmaster Bohman also said the same thing to me. . . . The verse on Mother's coffin is 484 verse 5. Oscar Selander sends his best regards, he wept when he heard that Mother was dead, also Anton. Do not weep to much and do not give up hope, for God wanted it, but don't get excited and console yourself with the word of God, which we have done. (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev I 1858-1876" p 13; letter 1862-03-22 to August's brother Oscar; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

(The harp-player) prayed or thought: "Lord, my God! I thank you for the joy you in ample measure have given me, unworthy, and for the sorrow you let flow through my breast. . . . We so often grumble at your counsel. We wanted to have it so comfortable, and when the fire burns our houses, when the waters rises and floods our strips of tilled land, when the lightning does not make a distinction between the righteous one and the unrighteous one and the plague snatches away the pious one, but spares the hard-hearted one, when death reaps our dear ones, and when our prayers are not able to manage to break the eternal order, which is instituted by your infinite reason; then your foolish children are so inclined to say: "We are fatherless, we have no God. They do not consider, that their prayers . . . most often are rebellious to your order, unmindful of the humble custom of the prayer of your first-born Son, when he said: "Not my will, but yours!" . . . I thank you for death, who, when it separates us from the ones we love, exhorts us to not bind our felicity only to the fleeting earthly phenomena." (Viktor Rydberg "Vapensmeden" p 10-13; evening prayers of the harp-player)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Johann Albrecht Bengel, Hjalmar Bergman, Elisabeth Beskow, Fredrika Bremer, George W. Bush, Linné Eriksson, Emilie Flygare-Carlén, Carl Grimberg, Sten Hagliden, Verner von Heidenstam, Alf Henrikson, Viktor Johansson, Bengt Kummel, Pär Lagerkvist, Hans Larsson, Sven Lidman, Martin Luther, Isaac Magagula, Vilhelm Moberg, Stephen Neill, Fritiof Nilsson Piraten, Oscar II, Efraim Palmqvist, Abraham Rundbäck, August Strindberg, Håkan Sjögren, Thomas a Kempis, Anton Tjechov, Leo Tolstoj, Lars Vitus, P. Waldenström, Johan Olof Wallin.


Paul said to the believers in Rome: "It is for me great sorrow and incessant pain (in) my heart." (Rom 9:2)


Additional studies: Ps 3:7(8); 7:1(2); 31:9(10); 42:11(12); 43:5; Matt 11:25; 26:45; Mark 14:33-34; Luke 12:50; 22:44; John 11:33; Rom 1:10; Heb 5:7; Rev 3:10; 17:12; 18:10,17,19.

William O. Walker Jr "The Lord's Prayer in Matthew and John"; New Testament Studies 28 (1982): 237-256.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-04-19; 2011-10-18; 2014-06-16; 2014-11-13)

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12:28-30 “Father, glorify Your name.” A voice so came out of the heaven: “I and/both have glorified and will again glorify (it). So the crowd, the one standing (by), * (א,* א) having heard (it), (continually) said: “It has become (and becomes) thunder.” Others (continually) said: “A messenger has talked (and talks) (with) Him.” Jesus answered * (א,*א): “This voice has not become/come (and does not become/come) because of Me, however/but because of You.”

Word for word: 12:28 (16 words in the Greek text) father, glorify your the name. came so (a)-voice out-of the heaven: and (i/I)-glorified and again (i/I)-will-glorify. 12:29 (15 words in the Greek text) the so crowd the-(one) 'standing-(and-having-stood)'/standing and having-heard (continually)-said: (a)-thunder (to)-have-(it)-become-(and-to-become): others (continually)-said: (a)-messenger (to)-him has-talked-(and-talks). 12:30 (12 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus) answered Jesus: not because-of me the voice this has-become-(and-becomes) however because-of you.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

God listened to the voice of the little boy out of the place, where he (continually) was. And the messenger of God 'called against'/invoked Hagar out of the heaven and spoke to her: "What is it, Hagar? Fear not, for God has heard (and hears) upon the voice of the little boy out of the place, where he is. Stand up, take the little boy, and ‘get power over’/seize him (with) your hand. For I will make him into a great nation." (Gen 21:17-18, Greek OT)

It became/’came about’ (by Sinai), (on) the third day, having become towards early morning, and voices and rays of light (continually) became ... Moses (continually) talked but/and God answered him (with) a voice. (Ex 19:16a,19b, Greek OT)

Samuel 'called against'/invoked the Lord, and the Lord gave voices and rain in that day. (1 Sam 12:18a, Greek OT)

… And behold, voices and noise, peals of thunder and a shaking; trouble upon the earth. (Esther 1:1d/A4, Greek OT)

The stable One will thunder in/with His wondrous voice. (Job 37:5a, Greek OT)

(David said:) “Carry to the Lord glory of His name. … The voice of the Lord (was) upon the waters. The God of the glory has thundered. … In His temple ‘every some’/everyone says: ‘Glory!’” (Ps 29:2a,3a,9b, Greek OT)

(David said: ”All the nations ..., Lord) will glorify Your name.” (Ps 86:9b, Greek OT)

The glory of the Lord will be beheld, and every/all flesh will behold God's means of saving. (Is 40:5, Greek OT)

Alexander, the king, heard these sayings, and he ‘put to’/’associated himself’ yet longer to glorify Jonathan. (1 Macc 10:88b)

(Solomon said:) “The vengeances came on the missers (of the mark of God), (but) not without the proofs of the thunderbolts having before become (and becoming) (in) the substinence, for righteously they (continually) suffered their own evils/’evil works’, for they had and/also ardently prosecuted ‘more severe’/’the most abominable’ hatred of foreigners.” (Salomos Vishet 19:13)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said: “God) ‘caused to’/let (Moses) hear His voice.” (Sir 45:5a)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “The Lord thundered from heaven, and in/with a great/loud echo He made His voice audible.” (Sir 46:17)

(Azariah said: “Lord), Your name is (and has been) glorified into the (coming) ages.” (The Prayer of Azariah v 3b)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Pray you so in this way: ‘Our Father, the One in the heavens. Let your name be made holy.’” (Matt 6:9)

(When Jesus had been baptized) a voice (came) out of the heavens saying: "This One is My welcomed Son, in/with whom I have been pleased." (Matt 3:17)

(When Jesus had been baptized) a voice * (א*) out of the heavens: "You are My welcomed Son. In/with You I was pleased." (Mark 1:11)

On (Jacob and John) (Jesus) put names/’the name’ Boanerges, which is/means Sons of Thunder. (Mark 3:17b)

It was beheld to (Zacharias) a messenger of a lord ... and Zacharias was troubled. (Luke 1:11a,12a)

(When Jesus was glorified) it became/came a voice out of the cloud, saying: "This is My Son, the One having been (and being) chosen, hear Him!" (Luke 9:35)

A messenger from heaven ‘was beheld’/appeared (to Jesus, a messenger) being stable in Him. (א*) (Luke 22:43)

It became/came all at once out of the heaven a sound just as (a sound) being carried/produced (by) a violent breath/puff. (Acts 2:2a)

The males, the ones travelling together with (Saul), stood speechless, hearing indeed the voice but not looking at anyone. (Acts 9:7)

The popular assembly (continually) raised their voices against (king Herod): “(It is) a voice of God and not of men (א*).” But immediately a messenger of a lord hit him ’instead of’/’in return for’ which things he did not give the glory to God. (Acts 12:22-23a)

Paul said: "The ones being together with me viewed indeed the light but did not heard the voice of the One talking (with) me." (Acts 22:9)

(Some of the scribes of the Pharisaic party said:) "We find nothing bad in/with this (Paul). But (think) if a spirit or a messenger has talked (with) him?" (Acts 23:9b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

Jesus answered (the Jews): “If – according to the circumstances – I may glorify Myself, My glory is nothing. My Father is the One glorifying Me, of whom you say, that He is your (א,* א, B*) God.” (John 8:54)

(Jesus said to His Father:) I knew that You always hear Me. However, because of the crowd, the one standing (and having stood) round about, I spoke, in order that they may believe, that You has dispatched Me away.” (John 11:42)

But (there) (continually) were some Greeks out of the ones ascending in order that they might prostrate themselves in/at the feast. (John 12:20)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

The use of tenses in 12:28 and in 13:31f marks two phases or periods in Jesus' glorification ... It seems most natural to ... (interpret) the aorist ("glorified") as referring to Jesus' earthly ministry as a whole and the future ("will glorify") to the work of the risen Christ, when he draws "all" to him, 12:32. ... The manifestations during the first phase are ... given only in the form of "signs" ... whereas they are concentrated on the hour of elevation and the period thereafter ... in the form of the Paraclete. (Birger Olsson "Structure and Meaning in the Fourth Gospel" p 71f)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Valerij Brjusov, Aleksis Kivi, Sigurd Lindgren, H.M. Melin, R.H. Moncrieff, Efraim Palmqvist, Anna Maria Roos, A.M. Strinnholm, P. Waldenström, Montgomery Watt.


My own comments and speculations:

The name Hagar means "flight" or "wandering". As Hagar fled and wandered, so also Jesus was fleeing (John 6:15 א*) and wandering (John 11:54). And both were troubled and both heard a voice out of heaven, a voice with a great promise. But while Hagar heard a messenger's voice, Jesus now hears His Father's. But the voice was not for Jesus (cf. Mark 1:11; Luke 3:22) but for the people (Matt 3:17). Nevertheless they didn't understand, that it was God who spoke. They thought it thundered or that it was a voice of a messenger.

We can also read these verses in the light of Wisdom of Solomon 19:13 and John 12:20.


Greek words:

brontê (thunder, plural: peals of thunder) (in the NT + examples in the OT) Esther 1:1d(A4); Mark 3:17; John 12:29 – Ps 77:18(19); 104:7; Sir 32:10; 40:13; 43:17; Rev 4:5; 6:1; 8:5; 10:3-4; 11:19; 14:2; 16:18; 19:6.


Additional studies:

Gen 22:11; Ex 3:14; Job 37:4; Matt 11:25; 17:5; 21:8; 26:39; Mark 9:7; 14:36; Luke 3:22; 11:2; 22:42; John 5:37; 7:39; 13:31-32; 17:4-5; 1 Cor 15:28; Phil 2:11; Rev 4:5; 5:11; 6:1; 7:1-2; 8:2,5; 10:3-4; 11:12,15; 12:10; 14:2,13; 15:4; 16:18; 18:4; 19:1,5-6.


Craig A. Evans "The Voice From Heaven: A Note on John 12:28"; Catholic Biblical Quarterly 43 (1981): 405-408.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-04-20; 2011-10-19; 2014-06-17)

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12:31 Now a judgment is of/upon this adornment/’adorned world’. Now the leader of this adornment/’adorned world’ will be thrown out outside.

Word for word (14 words in the Greek text): now (a)-judgment is (of)-the (of)-adornment this. now the leader (of)-the (of)-adorment this will-be-thrown outside.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

The Lord spoke towards Moses: “You shall already behold (the things) which I will make/do (with) Pharaoh, for in/with a powerful hand he shall dispatch them out, and in/with a high arm he shall throw them out, out of his earth/land.” (Ex 6:1, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said to the Lord:) “From/’owing to’ Your ‘honour on’/blame (the waters) will fly. From/’owing to’ the voice of Your thunder they will be cowardly.” (Ps 104:7, Greek OT)

(Israel) will take/'take up' this wailing against the king of Babylon and speak in that day: "... How fell/'(did not) ... fall' the Morningstar, the one sticking up early in the day, fall out of, out of the heaven! The one dispatching away (men) towards all the nations may be crushed into/against the earth!" (Is 14:4a,12, Greek OT)


The Latter Revelation:

(The slanderer showed Jesus) all the kingdoms of the adornment/’adorned world’ and their glory. And he spoke to Him: "All these things I will give You, if – according to the circumstances – on having fallen/’sunk down’ You may prostrate Yourself before me (in honour of me)." Then Jesus says to him: "Withdraw, adversary, for it has been (and is) written: 'You shall prostrate yourself (towards) the Lord your God (in adoration of Him) and Him alone you shall serve.'" (Matt 4:8b-10)

The Pharisees (continually/repeatedly) said: "(Jesus) throws out the little demons in/with the leader of the little demons." (Matt 9:34)

(Jesus said: “The king says to his slaves:) ‘Having come in to view the ones lying up/’down to table’, (the king) beheld there a man having not been (and being not) set/clothed in clothes of wedding banquet. And he says to him: ‘Comrade, how did you come in here not having clothes of wedding banquet?’ But 'the one'/he was gagged/nonplussed. Then the king spoke to the servants: ‘Having bind his feet and hands, throw him out into the outer darkness.’” (Matt 22:11-13a)

(Jesus said to the seventy:) "I (continually) looked at the adversary, having fallen out of the heaven as a ray of light." (Luke 10:18)

(Jesus said:) "If I throw out the little demons in/with Beelzebul, in/with whom do your sons throw (them) out? Because of this they will themselves be your judges. But if I throw out the little demons in/with (the) finger of God, the kingdom of God consequently has been in advance against/over you. When – according to the circumstances - the stable one, having been (and being) armed, may watch the 'of himself'/own court, his ‘things beginning under’/properties are in peace. But since – according to the circumstances – a more stable than he is (א*) having come against (him), may conquer him, he lifts/takes away’ from him his full armour on/in which he ‘was (and had been) persuaded’/’relied (and had relied)’ and ‘gives asunder’/distributes his spoils.” (Luke 11:19-22)

(Jesus said to the crowd:) “You (may) behold Abraham and Isaac and Jacob and all the prophets in the kingdom of God but you being thrown out outside.” (Luke 13:28b)

The popular assembly (continually) raised their voices against (king Herod): “(It is) a voice of God and not of men (א*).” But immediately a messenger of a lord hit him ’instead of’/’in return for’ which things he did not give the glory to God. (Acts 12:22-23a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Jesus said to the crowd:) "Every (nation?) which the Father gives Me will arrive towards Me, and the one coming towards Me I may not/certainly not throw out * (א*).(John 6:37)

(Jesus said to the man who had been blind:) “Into/’for the purpose of’ a judicial verdict I came into this adornment/’adorned world’.” (John 9:39a)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

In rabbinical scriptures “the ruler of this world” is … the ruler of the angels who rules over the whole creation. (René Kieffer "Johannesevangeliet" p 299; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Here in Sweden we cannot get any other apprehension than that Hitler wants the war, or that he in any case does not regard himself to be able to avoid it with kept up reputation. That Chamberlain has done his very utmost to keep peace is rather certain; in München he only gave way for the sake. "Danzig and the Corridor" Hitler demanded this time, but his inmost wish surely is to be the master of the whole world. How will Italy and Russia behave themselves? According to Polish reports the two first days of the war have cost 1.500 victims in Poland. . . . . . . The lord of the world - the wild beast in the Revelation - once a little unknown German craftsman, the one restoring his people and (according to the opinion of mine and many) his people's destroyer and its maker of culture twilight - what will his end become? Will people some time have reason to say: Sic transit gloria mundi. (Astrid Lindgren "Krigsdagböcker 1939-1945" p 20-21,57; 1939-09-03 and 1940-07-21, translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Struggle is legitimate, as much loyal as it can be struggled towards the wild beast, who is Överklassen (the upper class). Ö.K., it is the subjects of this Prince of the World, who rewards laziness and punishes work with disrespect and bad wages, who protects the great crime but brings an action against the little misdemeanour. It is therefore Swedenborg describes the Hells just as life of earth, perhaps because he did not want to say directly that we were in Hell. (August Strindberg "'Allt tjänar.'" p 176; Svenska Morgonbladet 1911-10-18; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

I don't want to see (Axel) Herrlin, for he has sold his soul, literally, to Satan. This Prince of the world! Let him understand it! (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev XIX juni 1910-maj 1911" p 71; letter 1910-07-23 to Nils Andersson; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Alf Ahlberg, Carl Grimberg, Oscar Krook, Vilhelm Moberg, Henrietta Mullens, Fredrik Nielsen, G.H. Pember, Olaus Petri, P. Waldenström, Emile Zola.


My own comments and speculations:

Pharaoh, the leader of Egypt, represented the adornment/’adorned world’ in the time of Moses. Then the Lord let the leader of this adornment/’adorned world’ throw out Israel. In a restoration perspective we now see how the Lord will let Jesus (that is “Israel”) throw out the leader of this adornment/’adorned world’.

The expression ”the leader of the adornment/’adorned world’” occurs in the NT only in the Gospel of John (cf. John 14:30; 16:11).

Concerning "throw out” cf. John 6:31-32 and My own comments and speculations to these verses.


Paul said to the believers in Ephesos: "And you being/were dead (bodies) (in) your falls from the side of (God) and misses (of the mark of God), in which you once walked about according to the age of this adornment/’adorned world’, according to the leader of the (judicial) authority of the air, of the spirit now being active in the sons of the disobedience." (Eph 2:1-2)

The one making/practising the miss (of the mark of God) is out of the slanderer, because the slanderer misses (the mark of God) from a beginning. Into/’for the purpose of’ this the Son of Man was made visible, in order that He might loosen/’pull apart’ the works of the slanderer. (1 John 3:8)


Additional studies:

Matt 9:34; 12:24,27,29; Mark 3:22; Luke 4:6-7; 11:15; John 3:19; 7:24; 8:16; 14:30; 16:11; Rom 16:20; 1 Cor 1:20-21; 2:6-8; 2 Cor 4:4; 6:12; Eph 6:12; Col 2:15; Heb 2:14; 1 Pet 5:8-9; 1 John 4:4; 5:19; Rev 2:13; 5:5; 8:10; 12:7-12.


J.C. Coetzee "Christ and the prince of this world in the Gospel and the Epistles of St. John"; Neotestamentica 2.1 (1968): 104-121.

A. Corell "Det historiska och det homiletiska nu. Till Joh 12:31."; Svensk Exegetisk Årsbok 10 (1945) 186-191.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-04-20; 2011-10-20; 2014-06-18; 2014-11-24)

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12:32-33 And, if – according to the circumstances – I may be heightened out of the earth, I will draw all (nations) (P66,א*) towards Myself. But/and He (continually) said this giving (so) a sign (with) what kind of death He (continually) was about to die.

Word for word: 12:32 (10 words in the Greek text) and-i/I if-according-to-the-circumstances (i/I)-may-be-heightened out-of the earth, all (i/I)-will-draw towards myself. 12:33 (8 words in the Greek text): this but (he)-(continually)-said giving-a-sign (with)-what-kind-(of) death (he)-(continually)-was-about (to)-die.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

The chest/ark ... was heightened from the earth. (Gen 7:17b, Greek OT)

(Moses' father-in-law said to him:) “You may throughout be a witness for (the people) to the commands of God and to His law and give them signs of the ways, in which they will go in them, and to the works, which they will make/do.” (Ex 18:20, Greek OT)

Moses made a serpent of copper and caused it to stand upon a sign. And it became, when – according to the circumstances – a serpent bit a man, he saw against, against the serpent of copper and lived. (Num 21:9, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Job:) ”Will you (be able to) bind a yoke of (a unicorn) in/with thongs, or will it draw furrows to you in a plain?” (Job 39:10 or 39:13, Greek OT)

(David said to the Lord:) "All the nations as many as You have made will arrive and prostrate themselves before, in the very eyes of You, Lord." (Ps 86:9a, Greek OT)

(The woman said about Solomon:) “Draw (me to) you. Let us run behind you into your scent of ointment oils.” (Song of Solomon 1:4a, Greek OT)

… (The prophet) beheld the Lord being seated upon a throne, high and being lifted upon/up. (Is 6:1a, Greek OT)

The root of Jesse will be in that day and the One standing up to begin/lead nations. On Him nations will hope, and His rest will be an honour. (Is 11:10, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) "Behold, my boy will be together (with Me), and he will be heightened and extremely glorified." (Is 52:13, Greek OT)

The Lord was beheld to (Israel) from afar (and He said): “I have welcomed you to an agelong welcoming. Because of this I have drawn you into sympathy." (Jer 31:3, Greek OT)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to the priest leaders and the elders of the people:) “The kingdom of God will be lifted from you and be given to a nation making/giving its fruits.” (Matt 21:43b)

Having come to/forward Jesus talked (with the eleven disciples) saying: "Every/all (judicial) authority in heaven and upon earth has been given to Me. Having gone * (א,* א, A) be/make disciples (of) all the nations." (Matt 28:18-19a; BG Ask-comment: Walter Bauer says in his Greek-English lexicon - p 485 - that the Greek word for "be or become a disciple" - as a transitive verb has the meaning of "make a disciple". Perhaps no translator has another meaning. But I am not sure that this is the johannine view. To be disciples in a company of all nations can cause the crowd of disciples to increase. Cf. John 17:21-23.)

(The messenger said to the shepherds:) “This (will be) the sign for you. * (א*) In a manger you will find a suckling being (and having been) swaddled.” (Luke 2:12)

(Jesus said:) “(Men) will arrive from upstickings/east and settings/west and * (א,*א,A) ‘north wind’/north and ‘south wind’/south and lean up/back in the kingdom of God.” (Luke 13:29)

(Cleopas said to Jesus:) “You alone inhabit by the side of Jerusalem and has not gained knowledge of the things having become/’come about’ in (the city) in these days?” And He spoke to them: “Of what kinds?” (Luke 24:18b-19a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

Entirely as Moses heightened the serpent in the desolate (district), in this way must the Son of the Man be heightened, in order that 'every the'/everyone believing into (P63, א,* א, A) Him may have agelong life. (John 3:14-15)

(Jesus said:) “Every (nation?) which the Father gives Me will arrive towards Me, and the one coming towards Me I may not/certainly not throw out * (א*).” (John 6:37)

(Jesus said to the Jews): "No one is able to come towards Me, if – according to the circumstances – not the Father having sent Me may draw him." (John 6:44a)

Jesus so spoke to (the Jews) again (א,*א): “When you – according to the circumstances – may heighten the Son of the Man, then you will gain knowledge, that I am, and (that) I do not make/do anything from Myself, however/but I talk these things entirely as the Father has taught Me.” (John 8:28)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

Again we meet a word with double meaning, such a one as John loves. Jesus would literally be lifted up on his cross and hang above the ground, mocked and tormented. But it would be a part of the work by which God and his Son became glorified. The crossed one in his turn would be heightened to heaven to as the Reconciler and the Saviour draw everyone to himself. (Bo Giertz "Evangelium enligt Johannes" p 135; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Even words may be signs, e.g. in 12:33. (Raymond E. Brown "The Gospel according to John" p 528)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: H.M. Melin, Fabian Månsson, P. Waldenström.


My own comments and speculations:

According to "draw all (nations)" cf. My own comments and speculations to John 6:37-40 and the nearness of this passage to "draw" in John 6:44. Compare also “throw out” in John 6:37 and in John 12:31.


Greek words:

(h)elkyô (draw; cf. (h)elkô John 6:41-44) Job 39:10(13); John 12:32.

sêmainô (give a sign) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) John 12:33 – Esther 3:13f(B6); 2 Macc 11:17; John 18:32; 21:19; Acts 11:28; 25:27; Rev 1:1.


Additional studies: John 12:23,34; 17:5; 20:30-31; Acts 2:33; 11:4.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-04-20; 2011-10-21; 2014-06-19)

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12:34 The crowd so answered Him: “We have heard out of the law, that the christ/'anointed one' stays into the (coming) age, and ‘how do’/’how's that’ You say, that the Son of the Man must be heightened? Who is this, the Son of the Man?”

Word for word (35 words in the Greek text, the sequence of the words according to Sinaiticus): Answered so him the crowd: we heard out-of the law that the christ/'anointed-one' stays into the age and how say you that must be-heightened the son (of)-the (of)-man? who is this the son (of)-the (of)-man?

The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

The chest/ark ... was heightened from the earth. (Gen 7:17b, Greek OT)

Moses made a serpent of copper and caused it to stand upon a sign. And it became, when – according to the circumstances – a serpent bit a man, he saw against, against the serpent of copper and lived. (Num 21:9, Greek OT)

The Lord spoke to Moses: "Take all the rulers of the people and expose them to shame by the side of the Lord over against the sun, and the wrath of the passion of the Lord may turn away from Israel." (Num 25:4, Greek OT)

(Moses said to Israel:) "If – according to the circumstances – it may become in anyone a miss (of the mark of God) (deserving) a judicial verdict of death, and he may die, you may hang him up upon a (piece of) wood. His body shall not ‘fall asleep’/die upon, upon the (piece of) wood, however/but you shall bury him (in) a grave in that day, because every/everyone being hanged up upon a (piece of) wood is (and has been) cursed by God." (Deut 21:22-23a, Greek OT)

(The evil) Haman was hung up upon the wood/’piece of wood’, which he had made ready for (the righteous) Mordecai, and then 'the king grew weary of the passion'/'the passion of the king abated'. (Esther 7:10a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to His pious ones:) "(David's) seed shall stay into the (coming) age." (Ps 89:36a or 89:37a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to David's Lord:) "You are a priest into the (coming) age according to the arrangement of Mechizedek." (Ps 110:4b, Greek OT)

… (The prophet) beheld the Lord being seated upon a throne, high and being lifted upon/up. (Is 6:1a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) "David, My slave, shall be a leader of (Judas and Israel) into the (coming) age." (Ezek 37:25, Greek OT)

To (one as a son of man) was given the beginning and the honour and the kingdom, and all the peoples, tribes, tongues will be slaves to Him. His (judicial) authority (is) an agelong (judicial) authority, and His kingdom will not be ruined throughout. (Dan 7:14, Greek OT, Theod)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to the priest leaders and the elders of the people:) “The kingdom of God will be lifted from you and be given to a nation making/giving its fruits.” (Matt 21:43b)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “They will behold the Son of the Man coming in clouds in company with much ability and glory.” (Mark 13:26)

(The two males said to the women: “Jesus talked with us) saying that/: ‘The Son of the Man must … be crucified.” (Luke 24:7a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

Entirely as Moses heightened the serpent in the desolate (district), in this way must the Son of the Man be heightened, in order that 'every the'/everyone believing into (P63, א,* א, A) Him may have agelong life. (John 3:14-15)

Jesus so spoke to (the Jews) again (א,*א): “When you – according to the circumstances – may heighten the Son of the Man, then you will gain knowledge, that I am, and (that) I do not make/do anything from Myself, however/but I talk these things entirely as the Father has taught Me.” (John 8:28)

(Jesus said to the crowd:) "And, if – according to the circumstances – I may be heightened out of the earth, I will draw all (nations) (P66,א*) towards Myself. " (John 12:32)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

(The people) was right so far as the Messiah, according to the Scripture, would stay for ever, but they was wrong in that they thought the Messiah would stay here on the earth for ever. (H.M. Melin "Nya Testamentet" p 181; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Ps 110 is throughout applied to Messiah (in rabbinic writings). ... In the Midrash on Ps. 110:36 (35 in our A.V.) Ps 110 verse 1 'Sit thou at My right hand' is specifically applied to the Messiah, while Abraham is said to be seated at the left. (Alfred Edersheim "The Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah Part I" p 720-721)


My own comments and speculations:

In a restoration perspective we see how the guilty non-Jew Haman was hanged up, while the innocent Jew Mordecai escaped this death. Now Jesus, the innocent King of Israel and the innocent (Son of Man), must be heightened to die like the guilty chiefs of Israel and like the guilty man Haman, while the guilty adornment/’adorned world’ will be saved and have agelong life through faith in Jesus Christ.

According to "the Son of the Man", see My own comments and speculations to John 1:51b.


Peter said: "Christ died (P72,א,*א,A) on account of misses (of the mark of God), in favour of us (א,*א), once/’once for all’, righteous in favour of unrighteous." (1 Pet 3:18a)


Additional studies: 2 Sam 7:13; Ps 89:3-4(4-5),29(30); Is 9:6-7; Dan 2:44; 7:27; Matt 8:20; 15:24; 17:22-23; 24:30; 26:2; Luke 9:22; 18:33; 21:27; John 1:51: 8:35; 10:34; Acts 2:34-36.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-04-21; 2011-10-22; 2014-06-20)

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12:35-36 Jesus so spoke to them: “Still a small/little time the light is in/among you. Walk about till/’as long as’ (P66, א,* א) you have the light, in order that gloom may not take you down/up. The one walking about in the gloom does not and/namely know, where he withdraws. As you have the light, believe into the light, in order that you may become sons of a light.” These things Jesus talked (about), and having gone away He was hidden from them.

Word for word: 12:35 (33 words in the Greek text) spoke so (to)-them the Jesus: still (a)-small time the light in you is. walk-about till the light (you)-have, in-order-that not gloom you may-take-down. and the-(one) walking-about in the gloom not 'knows-(and-have-known)'/knows where (he)-withdraws. (21 ord i den grekiska texten Sinaiticus) as the light (you)-have, believe into the light, in-order-that sons (of)-(a)-light (you)-may-become. these-(things) talked the Jesus, and having-went-away (he)-was-hidden from them.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

God beheld the light, that (it was) fine. And God separated throughout ‘upwards middle’/between the light ‘and upwards middle’/and the darkness. (Gen 1:4, Greek OT)

(Adam and Eve) heard the voice/sound of the Lord God walking about in the afternoon in the ‘place by the side of apprehension’/paradise. And both Adam and his woman hid themselves from/’away from’ the face of the Lord God in (the) middle of the wood/trees of the ‘place by the side of apprehension’/paradise. (Gen 3:8, Greek OT)

(Lot said to the messengers:) “I will not be able to be saved throughout into/to the mountain, (so that) the bad things may not take me down/up and I may die.” (Gen 19:19b, Greek OT)

(Moses said to Israel: "The Lord) goes forward former/before you in the way to choose a place to you showing you the way in a fire (by) night ... and in a cloud (by) day." (Deut 1:33, Greek OT)

(David said: “The Lord) hid me in a tent in a day of my bad ones.” (Ps 27:5a, Greek OT)

(Solomon said to his son:) "The ways of the wicked ones (are) dark. They do not know, how they ‘cut ... towards’/hurt themselves." (Prov 4:19, Greek OT)

(Solomon said: “Be cheerful, youth, and) walk about in ways of your heart and in a beholding of your eyes. And have knowledge that God will lead you in a judgment on/’for the sake of’ all these things.” (Eccl 11:9b, Greek OT)

(Isaiah said:) “The ones going in darkness, light is not (in) them, (is it)? Be (and have been) persuaded on/in the name of the Lord and ‘set ... fast on’/’have ... a footing in’ in stead God.” (Is 50:10b, Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) "Give glory to the Lord, your God, before 'the thing to grow'/'it grows' dark." (Jer 13:16a, Greek OT)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “Do not make/do bad things, and a bad thing may not/certainly not take you down/up.” (Sir 7:1)


The Latter Revelation:

… (People) carried to (Jesus) many being demon-possessed, and He threw out the spirits (with) a saying. (Matt 8:16a)

(Jesus said to the disciples of John:) “Days will come, when – according to the circumstances - the bridegroom may be lifted away from (the disciples) …” (Matt 9:15b)

(Jesus said to the scribes and the Pharisees:) “When – according to the circumstances – the unclean spirit may come out from the man, it 'comes through'/passes through waterless places, seeking rest, and does not find. Then it says: ‘I will turn myself next to, into my house, from which I came out.’ And having come it finds (it) being at leisure and (א,*א) being (and having been) swept and being (and having been) adorned. Then it goes and takes in company with itself by its side seven other spirits more evil than itself. And (on) their having come in it dwells there. And the last things of that man become worse than the first things." (Matt 12:43-45a)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "The kingdom of the heavens is like a heap/treasure having been (and being) hidden in the field." (Matt 13:44a)

(Jesus) was transformed in front of (Peter, James and John), and His face shone as the sun, but/and His garments became white as the light. (Matt 17:2)

(Jesus) said to (His disciples): “Come here you yourselves 'according to the own thing'/'by yourselves' into a desolate place and ‘be brought’/come to rest few/’a little’.” … And they went away in the boat into a desolate place 'according to the own thing'/'to be by themselves'. (Mark 6:31a,32)

(One out of the crowd said to Jesus:) “Whereat/where * (א*) (the spirit) may take down/up (my son), he breaks ‘in pieces’/down * (א,* א) and foams.” (Mark 9:18a)

The multitude of the district round about ... , all of them, asked Jesus to go away from them. (Luke 8:37a)

(Jesus said: "The kingdom of God) is like a leaven, which having took a woman hid in into three corn-measures (about 13 litres each) of flour, till (the time in) which it was wholly leavened." (Luke 13:21)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "The sons of this age are more sensible over/than the sons of light are into/’for the purpose of’ the generation of themselves." (Luke 16:8b)

(Jesus said to a disgraced Jerosolyma/Jerusalem:) “Now (the things towards/’in regard to’ peace) (were) hidden from your eyes.” (Luke 19:42b)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “’Give heed from’/’be on your guard against’ the scribes, the ones wanting to walk about in dresses.” (Luke 20:46a)

(Paul, the apostle of the nations, said:) "I beheld ‘according to’/downwards the way a light from heaven, over/’more than’ the lustre of the sun, having shone round about me and the ones going together with me." ... But/and (he) spoke: "Who are You, Lord? But/and the Lord spoke: "I am Jesus whom you pursue." (Acts 26:13b,15)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

The light ‘brings to’/gives light in the gloom, and the gloom has not taken it down/up. (John 1:5)

But as it became evening, His disciples descended against the sea and having stepped in, into a boat, they came/went on/to the other side of the sea into/to Capharnaum. But the gloom took them down (א,*א), and Jesus had not yet come (and did not come) towards them. (John 6:16-17)

(Jesus' brothers said to Him:) “No one makes/does anything in the hidden. One seeks and/also oneself be/’express oneself’ in plain language. If You make/do these things, make Yourself visible to the adornment/’adorned world’.” (John 7:4)

Jesus spoke: “Still a small/little time I am in company with you. And I withdraw towards the One having sent Me.” (John 7:33)

Again Jesus so talked (with the Pharisees), saying: “I am the light of the adornment/’adorned world’. The one following Me may not/certainly not walk about in the gloom, however/but will have the light of the life.” (John 8:12)

They so lifted stones, in order that they might throw against Him. But Jesus was hidden and He came out, out of the sanctuary. (John 8:59)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) ‘Us must’/’it is necessary to us to’ work (for) the works of the One having sent us (P66,P75,א*), till/’as long as’ it is day. Night comes, when no one is able to work. When I – according to the circumstances – may be in the adornment/’adorned world’, I am a light of the adornment/’adorned world’.” (John 9:4-5)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

(The Greek word for "hidden") is passive, but most expositors take it as equivalent to the middle. See 8:59. If it is passive, the meaning will be that he was hidden by God. (Leon Morris "The Gospel according to John" p 535)

Does this (that Jesus is the light of the world) mean, that with his arrival the night has given way to the day? Or at least that dawn has come, the duskylight change-over from night to day? This is not the picture the NT-texts give us. ... The light lights. But "the light lights in the darkness", John says. The night still goes on. ... The day has not come with Jesus. But a light in the night, a light which the darkness has not obtained power over. And with this a gift, an invitation to men. You need not let yourselves be determined by the darkness, and what this stands for, you can have a share in the light, become the children of the light. (Evald Lövestam "Axplock - Nytestamentliga studier" p 116; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: Bo Brander, Bo Frid, Carl Grimberg, Martin Luther, Arthur O. Roberts, M. Basilea Schlink, Jesper Svartvik.


My own comments and speculations:

In a restoration perspective we see how Jesus as the true Man is hidden from God's enemies. Jesus is Himself the kingdom and the treasure hidden in the field, which is the adornment/’adorned world’ (Matt 13:44).

Concerning “a small/little time longer”, see also John 7:32-34.


Paul said to the believers in Ephesos: "Once you (continually) were darkness, but now (you are) light in the Lord. Walk about as children of a light!" (Eph 5:8)

Paul said to the believers in Thessalonica: "You are all sons of light and sons of day. We are not of night, nor of darkness." (1 Thess 5:5)

And this is the message which we have heard (and hear) from Him and (which) we bring up a message to you, that God is light and (that) gloom is not ‘not anything’/’at all’ in Him. If we – according to the circumstances – may speak, that we have communion in company with Him, and we may walk about in the darkness, we lie and do not make/do the truth. (1 John 1:5-6)

The one hating his brother is in the gloom and wanders about in the gloom and does not know where he withdraws, because the gloom has blinded his eyes. (1 John 2:11)


Additional studies: Jer 51:33; Matt 4:24; Mark 1:32; 2:20; 12:38; Luke 5:35; 7:21; 11:24-26; John 1:9; 7:10; 11:9-10; 12:46; 13:33; 14:19; 16:16-19; 2 Cor 4:6; Gal 6:10; 1 John 2:10; Rev 2:1,17; 3:4-5; 6:11,15; 10:6; 21:24.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-04-21; 2011-10-23; 2014-06-22)

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12:37-38 But on His having made/done (and making/doing) so many signs in front of them they (continually) did not believe into Him, in order that the saying of Isaiah, the prophet, might be completed, which he spoke: “Lord, who has believed our hearsay? And to whom has the arm of a lord been revealed?”

Word for word: 12:37 (11 words in the Greek text) So-many but his signs having-made-(and-making) in-front-of them not (they)-(continually)-believed into him 12:38 (21 words in the Greek text) in-order-that the saying (of)-Isaiah (of)-the (of)-prophet might-be-completed which (he)-spoke: lord, who believed the hearsay our? and the arm (of)-(a)-lord (to)-whom was-revealed?


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The Lord said to Moses:) “I will harden Pharaoh's heart and make My signs and omens full in earth/'the land' Egypt.” (Ex 7:3, Greek OT)

(The Lord talked towards Moses: “Talk with the sons of Israel and speak towards them:) ‘You shall make the fiftieth period of time holy and cry throughout/out a ‘letting be’/’leaving alone’ upon the earth to all the ones dwelling/inhabiting it, a period of time of ‘letting be’/’leaving alone’, (a period) furnished with signs it shall be for you, and ‘one everyone’/’every single one’ shall go away into/to his acquisition, and everyone shall go away into his fatherland.’” (Lev 25:10, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Moses:) “’Till what’/’how long’ will (this people) not believe (in) Me in/’by means of’ all the signs, which I have made in/among them?” (Num 14:11b, Greek OT)

(Moses said:) “Lord, Lord, You have begun to show to Your attendant/servant Your stability and Your ability and the powerful hand and the high arm. For who is a god in the heaven or upon the earth, whoever will make/do according as You have made/done and according to Your stability.”(Deut 3:24, Greek OT)

(Moses said to Israel:) “You shall remember that you (continually) were ‘member of a household’/servant in earth/'the land' Egypt, and the Lord your God led you out from there in/with a powerful hand and in/with a high/outstretched arm.” (Deut 5:15a, Greek OT)

(Moses said to Israel:) "When the Lord dispatched you out, out of Kadesh-barnea, saying: 'Ascend and inherit the earth which I give you', and/but you disobeyed the word of the Lord your God, and you did not believed (in) Him, and you did not listen to His voice." (Deut 9:23, Greek OT)

Moses called all the sons of Israel and spoke towards them: "You have beheld (and behold) all things, as many as the Lord made/did in (the) earth/land Egypt before the very eyes of you, Pharaoh and the ones attending him and every/all his earth/land, the great tests which your eyes have beheld (and behold), the signs and those great omens. And till this day the Lord has not given you a heart to know and eyes to see and ears to hear." (Deut 29:2-4, Greek OT)

(Isaiah said:) "Lord, who has believed our hearsay? And to whom has the arm of a lord been revealed?" (Is 53:1, Greek OT)

(The son of Tobit said:) “ … What sign may I give (Gabael), and/that he may gain additional knowledge of me and believe me?” (Tobit 5:2a, S)

Having beheld all things as many as the God of Israel had made/done Achior believed extremely (in) God. (Judith 14:10a)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “To whom has root of wisdom been revealed?” (Sir 1:6a)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said to the Lord:) “Renew signs and change (to) wondrous things, glorify (Your) hand and (Your) right arm.” (Sir 36:5 or 36:6-7)

(Baruch said:) “… The Lord … has led out (His) people out of 'an earth'/'a land' of Egypt in/with a powerful hand and in/with signs and in/with omens and in/with great ability and in/with high arm.” (Baruch 2:11a)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "In this way let your light shine in front of the men in that way (that) they may behold your fine works and glorify your Father in the heavens." (Matt 5:16)

(Jesus) began to reproach the cities in which most of His (works of) ability had become/’come about’, because they had not changed their minds: “… If the (works of) ability having become/’come about’ in you had become/’come about’ in Tyre and Sidon, they had – according to the circumstances - changed their minds long ago being seated (א,* א) in sack and ashes.” (Matt 11:20,21b)

(Jesus said to His Father:) "You have hidden these things from wise ones and intelligent ones and revealed them to infants." (Matt 11:25b)

(Jesus said to His disciples: “With the people) the prophecy of Isaiah is ‘completed upwards’/upcompleted, the one saying: ‘You will hear (by) a hearsay and you may not/certainly not perceive, ... for ... (with) their (א,* א) ears they have heard weightily/painfully and ... (nor) at any time they may ... hear (with) the ears.” (Matt 13:14a,15a)

The disciples say to (Jesus): "From where in a desert (are) so many breads/loaves to us, so that (they can) feed a so much/many-headed crowd?” (Jesus said to His disciples:) “Do you not yet understand? Nor you recollect the five loaves of the five thousand?” (Matt 15:33; 16:9a)

(Mary said: “The Lord) has made/shown power in/with His arm.” (Luke 1:51a)

(Jesus said to the male from whom the little demons had been /and were/ come out:) “Return into your house and describe as many things as God has made/done for you.” And he went away ‘according to’/throughout the whole city proclaiming as many things as Jesus had made/done for him. (Luke 8:39)

It became/came a fear (in) every soul, but (א,* א, B) but many omens and signs became/’came about’ through the apostles. (Acts 2:43a)

Through the hands of the apostles it (continually) became many signs and omens in/among the people. (Acts 5:12a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Jesus said to the Jews:) “If you believed (in) Moses, you believed – according to the circumstances – (in) Me, for that one wrote on account of Me. But if you do not believe (in) the letters (of the alphabet) of that one, how will you believe (in) My words?” (John 5:46-47)

(Jesus said to the Jews:) "(If) you – according to the circumstances – do (א,* א, A) not believe Me, believe the works, in order that you may have knowledge and may believe (א,* א), that the Father (is) in Me and I in the Father." (John 10:38b)

The priest leaders and the Pharisees so led a council together, and they (continually) said: “What do we make/do, because this One, the Man, makes many signs? (John 11:47)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

Jesus' hearers did not believe in him in spite of the great signs. (Rudolf Schnackenburg ”The Gospel according to St John 1” p 261)

Even if there were another god above (the Lord), we should say, upon (instituting) a comparison of the quantity (of the work done by each) that the latter is superior to the former. For by deeds the better man appears. (Irenaeus, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol I, p 434)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Werner Aspenström, Jakob Christensson, Sven Danell, Alf Henrikson, Vilhelm Moberg, P. Waldenström, Carl Fr. Wislöff.


My own comments and speculations:

Rudolf Schnackenburg comments John 12:37 by speaking of “the great signs”. It is easy to think, that it is the great sign rather than the many signs that will lead to faith. But for John it is above all the many signs that have weight. Compare with John 20:30 (“many other signs”) and John 21:25 even if this latter verse is not supported by Sinaiticus. Furthermore I suppose that the word “sêmeion” (sign) is diminutive of “sêma” (sign), why “sêmeion” very well could be translated by “little sign”. However, because “sêma” does not occur in the Bible, I have kept the conventional translation.

Concerning the verb “complete”, see My own comments and speculations to John 19:33-37.


Greek words:

akoê (hearsay) (in the NT + one example in the Apocrypha) Matt 13:14; John 12:38 – Sir 41:26(42:1); Matt 4:24; 14:1; 24:6; Mark 1:28; 7:35; 13:7; Luke 7:1; Acts 17:20; 28:26; Rom 10:16-17; 1 Cor 12:17; Gal 3:2,5; 1 Thess 2:13; 2 Tim 4:3-4; Heb 4:2; 5:11; 2 Pet 2:8.

apokalyptô (reveal) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Sir 1:6; Matt 11:25; John 12:38 – 1 Macc 7:31; Sir 1:30; 4:18; 6:9; 19:8; 27:16-17,21; Matt 10:26; 11:27; 16:17; Luke 2:35; 10:21-22; 12:2; 17:30; Rom 1:17-18; 8:18; 1 Cor 2:10; 3:13; 14:30; Gal 1:16; 3:23; Eph 3:5; Phil 3:15; 2 Thess 2:3,6,8; 1 Pet 1:5,12; 5:1.

brachiôn (arm) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Sir 36:5(7); Baruch 2:11; Luke 1:51; John 12:38 – 2 Macc 15:24; Wisdom of Solomon 5:16; 11:21; 16:16; Sir 7:31; 21:21; Acts 13:17.


Additional studies:

Ex 6:1; 32:11; Matt 12:24; Luke 10:13; John 2:11,23; 1 John 1:1; Rev 16:14.


A. Ekenberg "'Det var om honom han talade' Jes 53, Jes 6 och Joh 12." Svensk Exegetisk Årsbok 59 (1994): 119-126.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-04-21; 2011-10-24; 2014-06-22)

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12:39-41 Because of this they (continually) were not able to believe, because Isaiah again spoke: “He has blinded (and blinds) their eyes and maimed (P66, P75, א,* א) their heart, in order that they may not behold (with) the eyes and understand (with) the heart and turn, and/’so that’ I will heal them." Isaiah spoke these things, because he beheld His glory, and he talked on account of Him.

Word for word: 12:39 (9 words in the Greek text) because-of this not (they)-(continually)-were-able-to believe, because again spoke Isaiah: 12:40 (23 words in the Greek text) (he)-(has)-blinded-(and-blinds) their the eyes and maimed their the heart, in-order-that not (they)-may-behold (with)-the eyes and may-understand (with)-the heart and may-turn and (i/I)-will-heal them. 12:41 (12 words in the Greek text) these-(things) spoke Isaiah because (he)-beheld the glory his, and (he)-talked on-account-of him.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

The Lord spoke towards Moses, saying: "Come into, towards Pharaoh, for I have hardened the heart of him and his attendants/servants, in order that it may come next to against, these signs against them." (Ex 10:1, Greek OT)

(Job said:) “My eyes are (and have been) maimed (A Ss) from wrath.” (Job 17:7a, Greek OT)

(The prophet) beheld the Lord being seated upon a throne, high and being lifted upon/up, and the house (was) filled with His glory. ... (The Lord said to the prophet:) “Go and speak to this people: ‘You will hear (in) a hearsay and you may not/certainly not 'let together'/perceive, and seeing you will see and you may not/certainly not behold, for the heart of this people has been thickened/hardened and (with) their ears they have heard weightily/painfully and their eyes have been closed, (so that) they not at any time may behold (with) the eyes and hear (with) the ears and 'let together'/perceive (with) the heart and turn themselves next to (Me) and/’so that’ I will heal them." (Is 6:1b,9-10, Greek OT)

The slaves of God has been blinded. (Is 42:19b, Greek OT)

(The ones making idols) have been tarnished/darkened from the thing to see (with) their eyes and the thing to understand (with) their heart. (Is 44:18b, Greek OT)

(Tobit said to the sons of Israel:) “When you – according to the circumstances – may turn yourselves next to (God) towards Him in/with ‘your whole’/’all your’ heart and in/with ‘your whole’/’all your’ soul to make/do (the) truth in the very eyes of Him, then He will turn Himself next to (you) towards you and He may ‘not not’/certainly not any longer hide His face from you. And now … heighten the King of the ages.” (Tobit 13:6a or 6-7, S)

“We may ‘administer justice entirely’/’give judgment against’ (the righteous one) (to) an indecent death.” … These things (the wicked men) counted, and/but they were led astray, for their badness blinded them away/entirely.” (Wisdom of Solomon 2:20a,21)

(The Lord said:) “I will give (My people) a heart and a hearing ear.” (Baruch 2:31b)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples: “With the people) the prophecy of Isaiah is ‘completed upwards’/upcompleted, the one saying: ‘ ... The heart of this people has been thickened/hard and (with) their (א,* א) ears they have heard weightily/painfully and their eyes have been closed, (so that) they not at any time may behold (with) the eyes and hear (with) the ears and perceive (with) the heart and turn themselves next to (Me) and/’so that’ I will heal them.’” (Matt 13:14a,15)

The disciples say to (Jesus): "From where in a desert (are) so many breads/loaves to us, so that (they can) feed a so much/many-headed crowd?” ... (Jesus said to His disciples:) “Do you not yet understand? Nor you recollect the five loaves of the five thousand?” (Matt 15:33; 16:9a)

(Jesus saw) round about in company with wrath, together with being sorrowful, (at the men in the synagogue), on/’for the sake of’ the hardening of their heart. (Mark 3:5a)

Having begun from Moses and from all the prophets (Jesus) and/also (went on) to throughout/carefully interpret (א*) for (the Emmaus disciples) what (continually) was(א,* א) in * (א,* א) the writings, the things on account of Himself.” (Luke 24:27)

Peter spoke: "Ananias, because of what has the adversary maimed (א*) your heart, 'to lie you'/'that you lie to' the Holy Spirit?" (Acts 5:3a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

And we viewed His glory, a glory as of an only descendant from the side of a father, filled with joybringing (grace) and truth. (John 1:14b)

(Jesus said to those Jews who to begin with believed Him:) “Because of what have you not knowledge of My talking? Because you are not able to hear My saying.” (John 8:43)

(Jesus said to the Jews:) "Your father Abraham exulted, in order that he might/would know (א,* א, A, B*) My day, and He beheld and rejoiced." The Jews so spoke towards (Jesus): "You have/'do ... reach' not yet fifty years, and Abraham has beheld (and behold) You (P75,א*)?" (John 8:56-57)

* (P75,א*) Into/’for the purpose of’ a judicial verdict I came into this adornment/’adorned world’, in order that the ones not seeing may see and the ones seeing may become blind.” The ones out of the Pharisees being in company with Him heard * (א*) and spoke to Him: “Not are and/also we blind?” Jesus spoke to them: “If you may be blind, you (continually) had – according to the circumstances – not (any) miss (of the mark of God). But now you say that/: ‘We see.’ Your miss (of the mark of God) stays.” (John 9:39-41)

(Jesus said to the Jews:) "You do not believe, because you are not out of My sheep." (John 10:26)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

The evangelist emphasizes the function of seeing and omits that which in Is 6:9f (and in the Synoptics) is said about hearing with their ears. (René Kieffer "Johannesevangeliet" p 315; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Augustinus, Sven Danell, Bo Frid, Einar Genitz, Alf Henrikson, Lars Levi Laestadius, C.S. Lewis, Sven Lidman, Jonas Lie, Martin Luther, H.M. Melin, Hedvig Charlotta Nordenflycht, Jeanna Oterdahl, Harry Sjöman, Jesper Svartvik, Thomas a Kempis, Anton Tjechov.


My own comments and speculations:

In Matthew the people have closed their eyes. In Isaiah the prophet closed them by the order of the Lord. In John the Lord Himself has closed their eyes. So John in this respect is nearer Isaiah than Matthew. John - more than the Synoptics - sees Jesus and His works in the light of the OT. But the OT doesn't deny the responsibility of man, see for instance Ex 8:15,32. Compare also Paul (see below 2 Cor 4:4) and My own comments and speculations to John 9:6-7.


Paul said to the believers in Rome: ” (God) has mercy on whom He wants, and whom He wants He hardens.” (Rom 9:18b)

Paul said to the believers in Corinth: “The God of this age has blinded the notions/understandings of the faithless into/’for the purpose of' not ray the enlightening of the good little message of the glory of Christ, who is the image of God. (2 Cor 4:4b)

The one hating his brother is in the gloom and wanders about in the gloom and does not know where he withdraws, because the gloom has blinded his eyes. (1 John 2:11)


Greek words:

kardia (heart) (in the Synoptics, John, the Acts; 1-3 John, Rev + examples in the Apocrypha) Baruch 2:31; Matt 13:15; Mark 3:5; John 12:40; Acts 5:3 – Esther 1:1l(A11); 5:1b(D5); Tobit 2:2; 4:19; 6:5(4-5),7-8,17; 8:2; 13:6; Judith 8:14,27; 11:10; 13:19; 1 Macc 6:10; 9:14; 2 Macc 1:3-4; 2:3; 3:17; 15:27; Wisdom of Solomon 1:1,6; 2:2; 15:10. Sir 1:12,28,30; 2:12-13; 4:3; 6:37; 7:27; 8:2; 10:12; 13:25-26; 14:21; 16:20; 17:6,8; 21:26; 22:16-19; 23:2; 25:7,13,23; 26:4; 30:22,25; 31:26,28; 34:6; 36:19(21); 37:17; 38:10,18-20,26-28,30; 39:5,35; 40:2,20; 42:18; 43:18; 45:26; 46:11; 47:8; 48:10; 49:3; 50:23,27-28; Baruch 2:8; 3:7; Epistle of Jeremiah v 19; Susanna v 35; The Song of Praise of the Three Men v 64; Manasseh v 11. Matt 5:8,28; 6:21; 9.4; 11:29; 12:34,40; 13:19; 15:8,18; 18:35; 22:37; 24:48; Mark 2:6,8; 6:52; 7:6,19,21; 8:17; 11:23; 12:30,33; Luke 1:17,51,66; 2:19,35,51; 3:15; 5:22; 6:45; 8:12,15; 9:47; 10:27; 12:34,45; 16:15; 21:14,34; 24:25,32,38; John 13:2; 14:1,27; 16:6,22. Acts 2:26,37,46; 4:32; 5:4; 7:23,39,51,54; 8:21-22; 11:23; 13:22; 14:17; 15:9; 16:14; 21:13; 28:27; 1 John 3:19-21; Rev 2:23; 17:17; 18:7.

noeô (understand) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Matt 16:9; John 12:40 – 2 Macc 14:30; Wisdom of Solomon 4:14,17; 13:4; Sir 11:7; 31:15; Epistle of Jeremiah v 41; Matt 15:17; 16:11; 24:15; Mark 7:18; 8:17; 13:14; Rom 1:20; Eph 3:4,20; 1 Tim 1:7; 2 Tim 2:7; Heb 11:3.

pêroô (maim) Job 17:7(A Ss); John 12:40; Acts 5:3(א*) – (IV Macc 18:21)

tyfloô (blind) Is 42:19; Wisdom of Solomon 2:21(S); John 12:40; 2 Cor 4:4; 1 John 2:11 – Tobit 7:6(7)(S)


Additional studies:

Is 29:10; Jer 5:21; Mark 3:5; 4:12; Luke 8:10, John 5:44; 8:56; Acts 7:55; 28:26; Rom 11:7-8; 1 Pet 1:10; Rev 3:15-17; 9:20-21.


A. Ekenberg "'Det var om honom han talade' Jes 53, Jes 6 och Joh 12." Svensk Exegetisk Årsbok 59 (1994): 119-126.

Jey J. Kanagaraj "Jesus, the King, Merkabah Mysticism and the Gospel of John"; Tyndale Bulletin 47.2 (1996): 349-366.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-04-21; 2011-10-25; 2014-06-23)

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12:42-43 All the same many out of the leaders nevertheless believed into Him. However because of the Pharisees they did not (continually) confessed, in order that they might not become led away from the synagogue. For they welcomed the glory of the men rather, over/’more than’ (P66, א,* א) the glory of God.

Word for word: 12:42 (20 words in the Greek text) all-the-same nevertheless and out-of the leaders many believed into him, however because-of the Pharisees not (they)-(continually)-confessed in-order-that not led-away-from-the-synagogue (they)-might-become. 12:43 (12 words in the Greek text) (they)-welcomed for the glory (of)-the (of)-men rather over the glory (of)-the (of)-god.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

... Before the thing God turn/turned down/over Sodom and Gomorrah (the valley of Jordan was) as the 'place of God by the side of apprehension'/'Paradise of God'. ... (The messengers, dispatched out by the Lord, said to Lot:) "Saving save your soul. You may not see round about into the things behind ‘but not’/nor you may stand/stop in every/any district round about. ... ." ... But (Lot's) woman saw against (Sodom), into the things behind, and she became a pillar of salt. (Gen 13:10a; 19:17b,26, Greek OT)

(Mordecai said:) “I made/did this, in order that I might not put glory of a man up over glory of God.” (Esther 4:17ea/C7a, Greek OT)

Many of the nations (continually) were ‘cut round’/circumcised and (continually) lived in Jewish fashion because of the fear of the Jews. (Esther 8:17b, Greek OT)

(Solomon said:) “Nevertheless you will afterwards find (the harlot) more bitter (than) gall (Hebrew: wormwood).” (Prov 5:4a, Greek OT)

(Solomon said:) “The ones having feared ... men are tripped up, but the one having been (and being) persuaded against the Lord is cheerful.” (Prov 29:25, Greek OT)

(Solomon said:) “If having been ‘struck out’/overwhelmed (with) ability and activity of (the created things but having not knowledge of how much more good the Master is than these) ... all the same on/’for the sake of’ these (men) it/there is a few discontent, for themselves they and/also quickly go astray, seeking God and wanting to find (Him). … But nor (these men are) ‘knowledge together with’/excused.” (Wisdom of Solomon 13:4a,6,8a)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "Happy the ones having been (and being) pursued with respect to righteousness, because the kingdom of the heavens is theirs." (Matt 5:10)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Give heed to not make/practise your righteousness in front of the men towards/’in regard to’ be viewed (among) them. … When you so – according to the circumstances – you may make/give alm/alms, you may not sound the trumpet in front of you, just as the hypocrites make/do in the synagogues and in the lanes, in that way (that) they may be glorified by the men. … And when you (א* sing.) – according to the circumstances – may pray, you (א* sing.) shall not be as the hypocrites, because they ‘are friends with’/like to pray in the synagogues and in the corners of the streets, in that way (that) they may ‘be brought to light’/’shine forth’ (among) the men. … But/and when – according to the circumstances – you may fast, do not become sullen as the hypocrites, for they ‘make ... unseen’/disfigure their faces, in that way (that) they may ‘be brought to light’/’shine forth’ fasting (among) the men. Amen, I say to you, they hold off their wage.” (Matt 6:1a,2a,5a,16)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Making/giving your alm/alms let not the left (hand) have knowledge of what your right (hand) makes/does, in that way (that) your alm/alms may be in the hidden. … When you – according to the circumstances – pray, come/go into your storehouse and shut your door and pray to your Father, 'the One'/who (is) in the hidden. … On your fasting smear your head and wash your face, in that way (that) you may not ‘be brought to light’/’shine forth’ fasting (among) the men, however/but (among/with) your Father, the One (being) in the concealed. And your Father, the One seeing in the concealed, will give you back.” (Matt 6:3-4a,6a,17-18)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "The one having been sown against the rocky (ground), this is the one hearing the saying and straight off taking it in company with joy, but has not a root in himself, however/but is transitory. But/and having become oppression or pursuit because of the saying, he is straight off caused to stumble." (Matt 13:20-21)

Having turned (Jesus) spoke to Peter: “Withdraw behind Me, adversary! You are a stumbling block to Me, because you do not consider the things of God however/but the things of the men.” (Matt 16:23)

(Jesus said to Peter:) “Withdraw behind Me, adversary, because you do not consider the things of God, however/but the things of the men.” (Mark 8:33b)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “(The one) who – if according to the circumstances – may be ashamed of Me and My sayings in this generation, the adulteress and a misser (of the mark of God), the Son of the Man will and/also be ashamed of him, when – according to the circumstances - He may come in the glory of His Father in company with the holy messengers.” (Mark 8:38)

(Jesus said:) “Woe when – according to the circumstances – all the men may speak finely of you. For ‘according to’/concerning the same things the false prophets, their fathers, (continually) made.” (Luke 6:26)

(Jesus said to the Pharisees:) “ … You come to the side of the judgment/justice and the welcome of God. … You welcome the first seats in the synagogues.” (Luke 11:42a,43a)

A much/many-headed crowd of the Jews (א*) (continually) hearkened the faith. (Acts 6:7b)

Immediately a messenger of a lord hit (Herod), ’instead of’/’in return for’ which things he did not give God the glory. (Acts 12:23a)

Many out of the (Jews in Berea) believed. (Acts 17:12a)

(Luke said: “The barbarians/foreigners) honoured us (with) many honours, and ... they put/lay against (us) the things towards/’in regard to’ the needs.” (Acts 28:10)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

This is the judgment, that the light has come (and comes) into the adornment/’adorned world’ and the men welcomed the darkness rather than the light. (John 3:19a)

(Jesus said to the Jews:) “I do not take glory from the side of men. … How are you able to believe taking glory from the side of)one another and do not seek the glory from the side of the alone/only God?” (John 5:41,44)

Many out of the crowd believed into (Jesus). ... (The Pharisees answered the soldiers): "Anyone out of the leaders or Pharisees has believed into (Jesus) or out of the Pharisees, (has anyone)?" (John 7:31a,48)

(The parents of the man who had seen up) spoke (these things), because they (continually) feared the Jews, for the Jews had already put (and put) together in order that if – according to the circumstances – anyone may confess Him (to be) christ/anointed, he might become led away from the synagogue. (John 9:22)

(Jesus) spoke: “This weakness is not towards/’in regard to’ death, however/but in favour of the glory of God, in order that the Son of God may be glorified through it.” (John 11:4b)

(Jesus said:) "The one being friends with his soul perish it. And the one hating his soul in this adornment/’adorned world’ will watch it into an agelong life." (John 12:25)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 - about 1500

These sayings (John 9:22-23; 12:42-43; 16:2-3) can be interpreted so that the johannine Christians lived within the public Jewish synagogue, even if they formed union synagogues of their own. As Jews they were delivered from Roman military service, they were not forced to worship the emperor and they could have their religious customs and feasts. Shut out from the synagogue they no longer had this protection. ... The johannine Christians began to be dispersed at the same time as the Scriptures of John had their final editing and were used outside the johannine community. (Birger Olsson "Messiasbekännare i Johannesskrifterna" p 360; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Love of the world is misdirected love (1 John 2:15). It was because Demas loved the world that he forsook Paul (2 Tim 4:10). A man can so love time, that he forgets eternity. A man can so love the world's prizes that he forgets the ultimate prizes. A man can so love the world that he accepts the world's standards and abandons the standards of Christ. (William Barclay “New Testament Words” p 29)

Do You think I fear to openly confess my God when I at last have found him? No! . . . It storms terribly! The evil ones hate and pursue, but so it must probably be! . . . . . . You say Karma! Why not frankly: God. It is demanded courage for this, for it is not modern. . . . . . . I suffer rather the pangs of loneliness than scrub myself towards men. But now I am ill and must take a cure among the men. (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev XI maj 1895-nov 1896" p 128-129,133,152; letters 1896-01-24, 1896-02-22 and 1896-03-28, all to Torsten Hedlund)

Sweat of agony on the forehead of the bailiff! The bailiff is Grotte's thrall. Remember: for him the choice concerns: the highest honour of the state or to be forced to draw the day long, like his victims. Grotte's rod, until he sinks down and is trampled to death under the heels of the other thralls. Therefore hurry, hurry, hurry! Only the rest of one single hour the troll demands every year: when the great festival of mammon is at hand, when for the great god of gold and for Frode, the guest of honour, Grotte is clothed in festival attire, the top of the shoulder is decorated with flags, roses are flattered on bloody shore, and round pole and beam golden chain and garland are wound, the thrall is dressed up as Harlekin, the thrall virgin as Kolumbin, a dress in green and crimson covers their wounds and rags, and in features reflecting horrors a merry grin is conjured forth by means of brush and carmine - by means of strokes making that the mouth seems to be lengthened to laughter. Then, how magnificent Grotte dances, adorned with banners, finery and garlands! Do you see the joyful expression of the victims? Then, how merrily Grotte grinds, like inspired by music! A thousand kettledrums and cymbals shout louder than the cries of the pains. Roars of voices, which curse, are drowned in the course of proud tones, in the hosannah of fanfares, are drowned in an ode for thousand voices to God mammon and king Frode, a song of joy of holy choirs. (Viktor Rydberg "Den nya Grottesången" p 245; 1891; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

When (innkeeper mother) passes (us), she says as for herself: "Yes, it will after all become so cherished to hear Paulus Andersson from Sandarne." We are sitting quiet, we, and we only listen. Innkeeper mother is now standing behind us picking up logs out of the firewood bin. "Thank heavens that Paulus Andersson will hold a Bible interpretation in my house at four o'clock this afternoon", she says for herself, while she rattles the logs. "All the ones wanting to stay and listen are so welcome", she goes on. "The one coming, the one I do not throw out, I say as Jesus. But the one fearing men more than God, he shall go his way." (Selma Lagerlöf "Ett barns memoarer" p 16; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


about 1500 and time before

A man who looks for honor from men, will soon enough desist from the acts which virtue enjoins. ... To one thing alone let us look, to the praise which is from God, to the being accepted of Him, to the commendation from our own Master; that, having passed through our present life virtuously, we may obtains the promised blessings together with them that love Him. (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers XI:181)

A dreadful thing is the love of glory, dreadful and full of many evils; it is a thorn hard to be extracted, a wild beast untamable and many headed. (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers XIV:103)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Eskil Albertsson, Eric S. Alexandersson, Arvid Almquist, Augustinus, Bo Brander, Olof von Dalin, E.J. Ekman, Bo Frid, Otto Funcke, Johannes Gossner, John Hedlund, C.G. Hjelm, Majken Johansson, Lars Levi Laestadius, Severin Larsen, Sven Lidman, Martin Luther, Emil Malm, Magnus Malm, Carl Henrik Martling, Vilhelm Moberg, Olle Nystedt, Gunnar Olén, Ulf Peder Olrog, John Ongman, John Ortberg, Roland Oscarsson, Blaise Pascal, L.C. Retzius, M. Basilea Schlink, Bo Setterlind, Göran Skytte, Erik Sonesson, John Stott, Jesper Svartvik, P. Waldenström, Torgny Wirén, Yngve Ydreborg.


My own comments and speculations:

As for the seed on the rocky ground, see also John 9:18-23. As for the seed to the side of the way (Matt 13:19), see John 6:66-69; 8:31-47. As for the seed among thorns (Matt 13:22), see John 15:6. As for the seed against the fine earth (Matt 13:23), see John 15:1-8.

The Greek words “homôs” for “all the same” and “mentoi” for “nevertheless” are unusual in the Bible. “Homôs” occurs in the OT six times and in the NT three times, “mentoi” six times in the OT and eight times in the NT.

It is a difference between receiving glory (John 12:43) and honours (Acts 28:10).

Concerning “the glory of God”, see also John 11:3-5.


Paul said to the believers in Rome: "The one (being) a Jew in the hidden ... (has) the ‘praise on’/praisefulness not out of men however/but out of God. (Rom 2:29)

Paul said to the believers in Rome: “All have missed (the mark of God) and are in want of the glory of God.” (Rom 3:23)

Do not welcome the adornment/’adorned world’, but/and not the things in the adornment/’adorned world’. If – according to the circumstances – anyone may welcome the adornment/’adorned world’, the welcome of the Father is not in him. (1 John 2:15)


Greek words:

(h)omôs (all the same) (in the NT + one example in the Apocrypha) Wisdom of Solomon 13:6; John 12:42 – 1 Cor 14:7; Gal 3:15.


Additional studies: Jer 38:19; Matt 10:32-33; 13:5-6; 23:5; Luke 6:22; 12:8-9; 23:13; John 2:23; 7:13,18,48; 12:11,41; Rom 10:10; 1 Tim 1:17; 1 Pet 3:14.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-04-22; 2011-10-26; 2014-06-26; 2014-11-24)

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12:44-45 But Jesus shouted and spoke: “The one believing into Me does not believe into Me however/but into the One having sent Me. And the one looking at Me looks at the One having sent Me.”

Word for word: 12:44 (18 words in the Greek text) Jesus but shouted and spoke: the-(one) believing into me not believes into me however into the-(one) having-sent me. 12:45 (8 words in the Greek text) and the-(one) looking-at me looks-at the-(one) having-sent me.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

A thousand of a number of one thousand (continually) performed public duties to (the Old of Days), and ten thousand of a number of ten thousand stood (and had stood) by the side of Him. And a court of justice sat down, and books were opened. ... And to (one as a son of man) was given the beginning and the honour and the kingdom, and all the peoples, tribes, tongues will be slaves to Him. His (judicial) authority (is) an agelong (judicial) authority, and His kingdom will not be ruined throughout. (Dan 7:10b,14, Greek OT, Theod)

(Solomon said: “The wisdom) is easy to be ‘looked at’/perceived by the ones welcoming her and (easy) to be find by the ones seeking her.” (Wisdom of Solomon 6:12b)


The Latter Revelation:

Having again shouted (with) a great/loud voice Jesus ‘let ... be’/left the spirit. And behold, the curtain of the temple was split/torn into two from, from above till down. (Matt 27:50-51a)

When – according to the circumstances – the unclean spirits (continually/repeatedly) looked at (Jesus), they (continually/repeatedly) fell towards Him and they (continually/repeatedly) shouted saying that/: “You are the Son of God.” (Mark 3:11)

(Jesus said to the twelve:) "The one who – according to the circumstances – may receive Me does not receive Me however/but the One having dispatched Me away." (Mark 9:37b)

The Lord of the vineyard spoke: “What shall I make/do? I will send my welcomed son. Perhaps they will ‘turn in themselves’/’be ashamed’ (towards) this one.” (Luke 20:13)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Jesus said to the Jews:) "All may honour the Son entirely as they may honour the Father. The one not honouring the Son does not honour the Father having sent Him. Amen, amen I say to you, that the one hearing My saying and believing (in) the One having sent Me has agelong life." (John 5:23-24a)

(Jesus said to the crowd:) "This is the will of My Father, in order that 'every the'/everyone looking at the Son and believing into Him may have agelong life." (John 6:40a)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

(“theôreô” is) a verb that often implies sight with spiritual depth. (Raymond E. Brown "The Gospel according to John" p 489)

Faith in Jesus is not faith in a particular man, however holy. It is faith in God directed by a particular revelation. Otherwise it is not faith at all. (C.K. Barrett "The Gospel according to St John" p 433)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: P. Waldenström.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “shout”, see My own comments and speculations to John 7:28-29.


Upon/’with regard to’ these last days (God) has talked (with) us in/’by means of’ a Son ... being a reflection of His glory and a stamp of His steadfastness, carrying both/moreover all the things (with) the word of His ability. (Heb 1:2a,3a)


Additional studies: Matt 10:40; Luke 4:41; 9:48; John 1:18; 7:28; 8:19; 10:30,38; 13:20; 14:1,9; 1 Pet 1:21.

Peder Borgen "The Use of Tradition in John 12:44-50"; New Testament Studies 26 (1979): 18-35.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-04-22; 2011-10-27; 2014-06-27)

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12:46 I, a light, have come (and come) into the adornment/’adorned world’, in order that 'every the'/everyone believing into Me may not stay in the gloom.

Word for word (17 words in the Greek text): i/I (a)-light into the adornment have-come-(and-comes), in-order-that every the believing into me in the gloom not may-stay.


The Latter Revelation:

(Simeon said: "My eyes have beheld) a light into a revelation of nations and a glory of Your people Israel." (Luke 2:32)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) ”What I say you in the gloom, speak in the light.” (Matt 10:27a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

But this is the judgment that the light has come (and comes) into the adornment/’adorned world’ and the men welcomed the darkness rather than the light, for their works (continually) were evil. (John 3:19)

Again Jesus so talked (with the Pharisees), saying: “I am the light of the adornment/’adorned world’. The one following Me may not/certainly not walk about in the gloom, however/but will have the light of the life.” (John 8:12)

Jesus so spoke to (the crowd): “Still a small/little time the light is in/among you. Walk about till/’as long as’ (P66, א,* א) you have the light, in order that gloom may not take you down/up. ... As you have the light, believe into the light, in order that you may become sons of a light.” (John 12:35a,36a)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: P. Waldenström.


My own comments and speculations:

See Bible passages and comments to John 8:12.


Paul said to the believers in Thessalonica: "You are all sons of light and sons of day. We are not of night, nor of darkness." (1 Thess 5:5)

And this is the message which we have heard (and hear) from Him and (which) we bring up a message to you, that God is light and (that) gloom is not ‘not anything’/’at all’ in Him. (1 John 1:5)

The one saying (himself) be in the light and hating his brother is a liar (א,* א) and is in the gloom till just now. (1 John 2:9)


Additional studies: John 1:4-5; 6:39; 9:5,39; 11:26-27.

Peder Borgen "The Use of Tradition in John 12:44-50"; New Testament Studies 26 (1979): 18-35.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-04-22; 2011-10-27; 2014-06-27)

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12:47-48 And if – according to the circumstances – anyone may hear My words and may not watch/keep (them), I do not judge him. For I did not come in order that I might judge the adornment/’adorned world’, however/but in order that I might save the adornment/’adorned world’. The one not adopting Me and not taking My words has the one judging him; that saying, which I have talked, will judge him in/at the last day.

Word for word: 12:47 (26 words in the Greek text) and if-according-to-the-circumstances anyone my may-hear the words and not may-watch, i/I not judge him. not for (i/I)-came in-order-that (i/I)-might-judge the adornment, however in-order-that (i/I)-might-save the adornment. 12:48 (24 words in the Greek text) the-(one) not-adopting me and not taking the words my has the-(one) judging him. the saying which (i/I)-talked that-(one) will-judge him in the last day.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Balaam said to Balak:) “I will give counsel together with you what the people of (Israel) will make/do to your people upon/’with regard to’ (the) last of the days. (Num 24:14b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Moses about Israel:) "I will cause a prophet to stand up to them out of their brothers just as you, and I will give My word in his mouth, and he shall talk (with) them, in so far as I - according to the circumstances - may enjoin him.” And the man who – if according to the circumstances – may not hear as many things as – if according to the circumstances - the prophet may talk on/’for the sake of’ My name, I will procure justice ‘out of’/for him." (Deut 18:18-19, Greek OT)

(Solomon said: “The one who) ‘considers down’/downgrades ‘a concern’/’an occurence’ will be ‘considered down’/downgraded by it.” (Prov 13:13a, Greek OT)

(The people in Egypt said to the prophet:) “We will not hear your saying, which you in the name of the Lord have talked towards us.” (Jer 44:16, Greek OT)

(Solomon said:) “The ones having watched/kept the pious things piously they will be pious, and the ones having been taught them will find defence.” (Wisdom of Solomon 6:10)

(Solomon prayed:) "God of fathers and a lord of the mercy, the One having made all the things in/with Your saying and entirely preparing a man (with) Your wisdom. … Give me the wisdom sitting by the side of Your thrones." (Wisdom of Solomon 9:1-2a,4a)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said:) “'Every the'/everyone hearing these My sayings and not making/doing them will be like a foolish male, whoever built his habitation against the sand. And the wet descended, and the rivers came and * (א*) cut/struck towards that habitation, and it fell in, and its falling (continually) was great. (Matt 7:26-27)

(Jesus said to the Pharisees:) “The one being not in company with Me is ‘down from’/against Me, and the one not leading together with in company with Me, he scatters Me (א,* א). (Matt 12:30)

(Jesus) (continually/repeatedly) said to (the Pharisees and the scribes:) “Finely/”in a fine way’ you do not adopt the commandment of God, in order that you may keep (א,*א,A,B) your tradition.” (Mark 7:9)

Not having been baptized by (John the Baptist) the Pharisees and the lawyers did not adopt the counsel of God * (א,* א). (Luke 7:30)

(Jesus said the seventy:) "The one not adopting you does not adopt Me, but the one not adopting Me does not adopt the One having dispatched Me away." (Luke 10:16b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

God did not dispatch away the Son into the adornment/’adorned world’, in order that He might judge the adornment/’adorned world’, however/but in order that the adornment/’adorned world’ might be saved through Him. The one believing into Him is not judged. * (א,* א, B) The one not believing has already been (and is) judged, because he has not believed (and does not believe) into the name of (the) Son of God, the only descendant. (John 3:17-18)

(Jesus said to the Jews:) “Nor the Father judges ‘no one’/anyone, however/but has given (and gives) every/all judgment to the Son.” (John 5:22)

(Jesus said to the Pharisees:) "You judge according to the flesh. I do not judge ‘no one’/anyone. But and/also if I – according to the circumstances – may judge, My judgment is truthful (P66, א,* א), because I am not alone, however/but I and the One having sent Me * (א*). (John 8:15-16)


(The saying of God) is able to judge designs and thoughts of a heart. (Heb 4:12b)

We have viewed (and view) and are witnesses, that the Father has dispatched (and dispatches) away the Son, a Saviour of the adornment/’adorned world’. (1 John 4:14)


Greek words:

atheteô (not adopt) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Mark 7:9; Luke 7:30; 10:16, John 12:48 – Esther 2:15; Judith 16:5; 1 Macc 13:19; 14:44-45; 2 Macc 13:25; Wisdom of Solomon 5:1; Matt 6:26; 1 Cor 1:19; Gal 2:21; 3:15; 1 Thess 4:8; 1 Tim 5:12; Heb 10:28; Jude v 8.


Additional studies: Matt 7:24-25; 10:14-15; Mark 8:38; Luke 6:46-49; John 4:42; 5:27,30,45-47; 6:39; 8:26,47; 9:39; Rom 1:5; 2 Cor 5:10; Rev 20:12.

Peder Borgen "The Use of Tradition in John 12:44-50"; New Testament Studies 26 (1979): 18-35.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-04-22; 2011-10-28; 2014-06-27)

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12:49-50 ... because I have not talked out of Myself, however/but the One having sent Me, a Father, He has given (and gives) Me a commandment, what I may speak and what I may talk. And I know, that His commandment is agelong life. The things I so talk, I talk entirely in this way as the Father has spoken (and speaks) to Me.

Word for word: 12:49 (20 words in the Greek text) because i/I out-of myself not talked, however the-(one) having-sent me (a)-father he me (a)-commandment has-given-(and-gives) what (i/I)-may-speak and what (i/I)-may-talk. 12:50 (20 words in the Greek text) and (i/I)-'know-(and-have-known) that the commandment his life agelong is. what/the-(things) so i/I talk, entirely-as has-spoken-(and-speaks) (to)-me the father, in-this-way (i/I)-talk.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Moses said to the synagogue/gathering:) "... You will gain knowledge that the Lord has dispatched me away to make/do all these works, because (these are) not from Myself." (Num 16:28, Greek OT)

(Moses said to Israel:) “You shall watch/keep all the commandments (of the Lord), as many as I enjoin you today, in order that you may live.” (Deut 11:8a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Moses about Israel:) "I will cause a prophet to stand up to them out of their brothers just as you, and I will give My word in his mouth, and he shall talk (with) them, in so far as I - according to the circumstances - may enjoin him.” (Deut 18:18, Greek OT)

(Moses said to Israel:) “This saying is by no means empty for you, because this (is) your life. And with respect to this saying you shall live long upon the earth/land, into which you there shall step through/across the Jordan to inherit it.” (Deut 32:47, Greek OT)

(Baruch said:) “Hear, Israel, a commandment of life, give ear to gain knowledge of a frame of mind.” (Baruch 3:9)


The Latter Revelation:

The crowds (continually) were ‘struck out’/overwhelmed on/’for the sake of’ (Jesus') teaching, for He (continually) was teaching them as (one) having (judicial) authority, and not as their scribes. (Matt 7:28b-29)

(Jesus said to a rich man:) “If you want to come into, into the life, keep the commandments.” (Matt 19:17b)

(A lawyer said to Jesus:) “Teacher, having made/done what shall I/’what shall I do to’ inherit agelong life?” … (When the lawyer had read the law, Jesus) spoke to him: “You have answered uprightly, make/do this, and you will live.” (Luke 10:25b,28)

The Lord of the vineyard spoke: “What shall I make/do? I will send my welcomed son. Perhaps they will ‘turn in themselves’/’be ashamed’ (towards) this one.” (Luke 20:13)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

The woman says to (Jesus): “I know that Messiah comes, the One being said/called christ/anointed. When that One – according to the circumstances – may come, He will bring up a message to us (about) all things of it.” Jesus says to her: “I am the One talking (with) you.” (John 4:25-26)

Simon Peter answered (Jesus): “Lord, towards whom shall we go away? You have words of agelong life.” (John 6:68)

Jesus so answered them and spoke: “My teaching is not Mine, however/but The One's having sent Me. If – according to the circumstances – anyone may want to make/do His will, he will gain knowledge on account of the teaching, whether it is out of God or I talk from Myself.” (John 7:16-17)

(Jesus said to the Jews:) “I have many things to talk and judge on account of you. However, the One having sent Me is truthful. And the things which I have heard from the side of Him, these I talk into the adornment/’adorned world’. They had not gained knowledge, that He (continually) said/spoke to them (towards) the Father, (towards) God (א*). Jesus so spoke to them again (א,*א): “When you – according to the circumstances – may heighten the Son of the Man, then you will gain knowledge, that I am, and (that) I do not make/do anything from Myself, however/but I talk these things entirely as the Father has taught Me.” (John 8:26-28)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

The Johannine formulation (in John 12:50a) is especially close to Deut 11:8. (M-È Boismard "Moses or Jesus – An Essay in Johannine Christology" p 14)

In the first part of the gospel, which here closes, Jesus lives in complete obedience to the Father; in the second part he will die in the same obedience. (C.K. Barrett "The Gospel according to St John" p 435)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: John Ongman.


My own comments and speculations:

Compare Psalms of Solomon 17:32: “(The son of David) will be a righteous king against/over (Israel), taught by God. (There) is not unrighteousness in days of him, in their middle, because all (are) holy and the Christ of the Lord (is) their king.”


Upon/’with regard to’ these last days (God) has talked (with) us in/’by means of’ a Son ... being a reflection of His glory and a stamp of His steadfastness, carrying both/moreover all the things (with) the word of His ability. (Heb 1:2a,3a)


Additional studies: Mark 10:17-21; John 3:11,34; 5:19,23,37,39; 6:44; 8:16,18; 10:18; 13:34; 14:10,24,31; 15:10; 17:8; 1 Pet 4:11; Rev 1:1; 14:6.

Peder Borgen "The Use of Tradition in John 12:44-50"; New Testament Studies 26 (1979): 18-35.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-04-23; 2011-10-29; 2014-06-27)

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