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John chapter 11

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11:1-2 But it/there (continually) were a certain one being weak, Lazarus from Bethany, out of the village of Mary and her sister Martha. But/and it (continually/-) was Mary (P66, א,* א, A) who had smeared the Lord (with) ointment oil and wiped off His feet (with) her hairs/hair, whose brother Lazaros (continually) was weak.

Word for word: 11:1 (17 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus) (It)-(continually)-was but a-certain-(one) being-weak, Lazarus from Bethany, out-of the village (of)-the (of)-Mary and (of)-Martha (of)-the (of)-sister her. 11:2 (21 words in the Greek text) was-(continually) but Mary the-(one) having-smeared the lord (with)-ointment-oil and wiped-off the feet his (with)-the hairs her, whose the brother Lazarus (continually)-was-weak.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The Lord said to Moses:) “You shall make (the mixture of the sweet spices to) a holy olive-oil ointment, an ointment oil ... . And it will be a holy olive-oil ointment. And out of it you shall anoint the tent of the testimony and (other things; see Ex 30:25-28) and you shall make them holy and it will be a holy of the holies. 'Every the'/everyone touching them will be made holy.” (Ex 30:25-29, Greek OT)

... Cozbi, a daughter of a leader of Midian, a sister of (the Midianites). (Num 25:18a, Greek OT)

A man (continually) was ... out of the mountain of Ephraim and a name to him (was) Elkanah. ... And two women (were) to this one. (1 Sam 1:1a,2a, Greek OT)

A certain man (continually) was … a name to him (was) Job. (Job 1:1a, Greek OT)

(The father said to Tobias: “My daughter) is given to you according to the judgment of the book of Moses, and she has been judged (and is judged) out of the heaven to be given to you. Carry off your sister. From the now you are her brother and she your sister. She has been (and is) given to you from to-day and into the (coming) age. ... (Tobit 7:11b or 7:12b, S)

(Judith) anointed herself (with) thick ointment oil and plaited her hairs/hair. ... (Judith 10:3b)

(Judith) smeared her face in/with salve, and she bound her hairs/hair in a head-dress and took a linen dress ‘into the cheating of’/’for the purpose of cheating’ (the leader of the enemies). ... (and) the sabre came/went through his neck. (Judith 16:7b-9)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “On your fasting, smear your head.” (Matt 6:17a)

(Jesus said:) “Whoever – according to the circumstances – may make/do the will of My Father, the One in heavens, he is My brother and sister and mother.” (Matt 12:50)

On His/Jesus' being in Bethany in the habitation of Simon the leper, on His lying down (at the table), a woman came having an alabaster of fragrance oil of expensive nard, connected with faith. Having crushed the alabaster, she poured (the oil) down (upon) His head. (Mark 14:3)

On the sabbath's having ‘become through’/elapsed Mary of Magdala and Mary of James and Salome bought spices, in order to having come they might smear (Jesus). (Mark 16:1)

Having stood herself weeping behind to/by the side of the feet of (Jesus), (the woman who was a misser of the mark of God) began to wet His feet (with) the teardrops and she * (P3, א*, A) wiped off (with) the hairs/hair of her head and ‘was entirely friends with’/’kissed ... tenderly’ (continually/repeatedly) His feet and smeared (them continually with) the ointment oil. (Luke 7:38)

(Jesus said to the Pharisee:) “You did not smear My head (with) olive-oil, but she has smeared My feet (with) ointment oil.” (Luke 7:46)

'In the to go them'/'on their going' (Jesus) came into, into a certain village. But/och a certain woman ‘(with) name’/named Martha received Him underneath/familiarly into the habitation (P3, א,* א). And ‘this is what’/here (continually) was a sister being called Mariam. (Luke 10:38-39a)

(The Lord said:) “Martha, Martha, you care (about) and are distracted around/’in relation to’ many things. But it is (a matter) of few things or one thing (א*), for Mary has chosen the good portion, whichever/which shall not be taken off/from her." (Luke 10:41b-42)

A certain beggarly one (with) name Lazarus, having been (and being) caused sores, had been (and was) thrown towards the gateway (of a rich man). (Luke 16:20)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

These things became/’came about’ in Bethany on the other side of the Jordan, whereat/where John (continually) was baptizing. (John 1:28)

It/there (continually) was a certain man * (א,* א), having (been) in his weakness thirty and eight years. (John 5:5)

Having so taken a pound of a much honoured ointment oil of nard, connected with faith, Mary (P66,א,*א) smeared the feet of Jesus and wiped off His feet (with) her hairs/hair. (John 12:3a)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

John points forward to the incident which he describes in 12:1-8; but it seems clear that he is able to presuppose that his readers were already familiar with it; this implies that they were Christians, and knew the synoptic tradition (or a tradition closely akin to it). (C.K. Barrett "The Gospel according to St John" p 390)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: UllaBritt Berglund, Fredrik Nielsen, Einar Rimmerfors, Eric Schiller, Rabindranath Tagore.


My own comments and speculations:

John here speaks about something which will happen (12:2), as if it already had happened, something which is not unusual in the Gospel of John. Compare for instance John 13:31.

In the book of Tobit the word “adelfê/syster” is used about a wife in relation to her husband. Cf. Tobit 5:21(22); 6:19; 7:9,11,15; 8:4,11,21; 10:6,12(13). Consequently the husband of the wife is her brother (cf. Tobit 7:11), who in his turn is a brother to a messenger (Tobit 5:13,17; 6:6,10,14; 7:1,3). Cf. also Num 4:18, where Cozbi as a fellow-countrywoman is said to be a sister of the Midianites.

Concerning the meaning of the two names Mary and Martha, see My own comments and speculations to John 11:17-20.


Greek words:

adelfê (sister) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Tobit 7:11(12); Matt 12:50; Luke 10:39; John 11:1 – Tobit 5:21(22); 6:18(19); 7:9,15; 8:4,7,21; 10:6,12(13); Matt 13:56; 19:29; Mark 3:35; 6:3; 10:29-30; Luke 10:40; 14:26; John 11:3,5,28,39; 19:25; Acts 23:16; Rom 16:1,15; 1 Cor 7:15; 9:5; 1 Tim 5:2; Philemon v 2; Jas 2:15; 2 John v 13.

aleifô (smear) (in the NT + one example in the Apocrypha) Judith 16:7; Matt 6:17; Mark 16:1; Luke 7:38,46; John 11:2 – Mark 6:13; John 12:3; Jas 5:14.

ekmassô (wipe off) Luke 7:38; John 11:2 – Sir 12:11; Epistle of Jeremiah v 11(12),23; Luke 7:44; John 12:3; 13:5.

thrix (hair) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Judith 10:3; Luke 7:38; John 11:2 – Judith 16:8; Esther 4:17k(C13); 2 Macc 7:7; Sir 27:14; Bel and the Dragon v 27; Matt 3:4; 5:36; 10:30; Mark 1:6; Luke 7:44; 12:7; 21:18; John 12:3; Acts 27:34; 1 Pet 3:3; Rev 1:14; 9:8.

Lazaros (Lazarus) Luke 16:20; John 11:1-2 – Luke 16:23,24,25; John 11:1-2,5,11,14,43; 12:1-2,9-10,17.

Martha (Martha) Luke 10:38; John 11:1 – Luke 10:40-41; John 11:5,19-21,24,30,39; 12:2.

Maria (Mary) Luke 10:42; John 11:1-2 – Matt 1:16,18; 2:11; 27:56,61; 28:1; Mark 6:3; 15:40,47; 16:1; Luke 1:41; 2:19(א*,B); 8:2; 24:10; John 11:19-20,28,31-32,45; 12:3; Acts 1:14(א,*א,A); 12:12.

myron (ointment oil) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Judith 10:3; Luke 7:38; John 11:2 – Wisdom of Solomon 2:7; Matt 26:7,9,12; Mark 14:3-5; Luke 7:37,46; 23:56; John 12:3,5; Rev 18:13.

pous (foot) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Luke 7:38; John 11:2 – Esther 8:3; Tobit 6:2(3); Judith 2:7; 10:4; 14:7; 1 Macc 5:48; Wisdom of Solomon 14:11; 15:15; Sir 6:24,36; 21:19; 25:20; 26:18; 38:29-30; Epistle of Jeremiah v 16,25; Matt 4:6; 5:35; 7:6; 10:14; 15:30; 18:8; 22:13,44; 28:9; Mark 5:22; 6:11; 7:25; 9:45; 12:36; Luke 1:79; 4:11; 7:44-46; 8:35,41; 9:5; 10:11,39; 15:22; 17:16; 20:43; 24:39-40; John 11:32,44; 12:3; 13:5-6,8-9,12,14; 20:12. Acts 2:35; 4:35,37; 5:2,9-10; 7:5,33,49,58; 10:25; 13:25,51; 14:8,10; 16:24; 21:11; 22:3; 26:16; Rom 3:15; 10:15; 16:20; 1 Cor 12:15,21; 15:25,27; Eph 1:22; 6:15; 1 Tim 5:10; Heb 1:13; 2:8; 10:13; 12:13; Rev 1:15,17; 2:18; 3:9; 10:1-2; 11:11; 12:1; 13:2; 19:10; 22:8.


Additional studies: Matt 21:17; 26:6-7; Mark 11:1,11-12; Luke 7:13; 19:29; 24:50-51; John 11:18-19,21; 13:13; Rev 7:17.

Roderick Dunkerley "Lazarus"; New Testament Studies 5 (1959): 321-327.

James P. Martin "History and Eschatology in the Lazarus Narrative, John 11:1-44"; Scottish Journal of Theology 17 (1964): 332-343.

H. Sahlin "Lasarus-gestalten"; Svensk Exegetisk Årsbok 37/38 (1972/1973): 167-174

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(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-04-06; 2011-08-19; 2014-05-07)

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11:3-5 The sisters so dispatched away (men) towards Him saying: “Lord, behold, the one whom you are friends with is weak.” But having heard (it) Jesus spoke: “This weakness is not towards/’in regard to’ death, however/but in favour of the glory of God, in order that the Son of God may be glorified through it.” But Jesus (continually) welcomed Martha and her sister and Lazarus.

Word for word: 11:3 (12 words in the Greek text) dispatched-away so the sisters towards him saying: lord, behold (the-one)-whom (you)-are-friends-with is-weak. 11:44 (26 words in the Greek text) having-heard but the Jesus spoke: this the weakness not is towards death however in-favour-of the glory (of)-the (of)-god, in-order-that may-be-glorified the son (of)-the (of)-god through it. 11:5 (13 ord i den grekiska texten) welcomed but the Jesus the Martha and the sister her and the Lazarus.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

Jacob ‘was friends with’/kissed Rachel and having cried/raised his voice he wept. (Gen 29:11, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Moses:) "I will be glorified in, in Pharaoh and in every/all his army and in the wagons and in his horses." (Ex 14:17b, Greek OT)

(Moses said to the commanders of the tribes of Israel and to their council of elders:) "You (continually/repeatedly) said: 'Behold, the Lord our God has shown us His glory.'" (Deut 5:24a, Greek OT)

(Moses said to Israel:) "The Lord took/chose beforehand your fathers to welcome them and chose their see, you to the side of all the nations ‘according to’/’as it is’ this day." (Deut 10:15, Greek OT)

(The Lord) spoke to me: "You are My slave, Israel, and in you I will be glorified." (Is 49:3, Greek OT)

"My ways are not just as your ways", the Lord says. "However, as the heaven holds off from the earth, in this way My way holds off from your ways." (Is 55:8b-9a, Greek OT)

The Lord was beheld to (Israel) from afar (and He said): “I have welcomed you to an agelong welcoming. Because of this I have drawn you into sympathy. Still I will build you, and you shall be built, virgin Israel!” (Jer 31:3-4a, Greek OT)

Tobias welcomed (his future wife, who was as a sister to him) exceedingly, and his heart attached itself into her. (Tobit 6:18b or 6:19b, S)

Tobias was friends with (his future wife), and his soul attached itself extremely to her. (Tobit 6:18b or 6:19b, BA)

(Solomon said to the Lord: “You welcome all the things being and abominate nothing that You have made.. … Master, (You who) ‘is friends with’/like a soul, You may spare all things, because it is Yours.” (Wisdom of Solomon 11:24a,26b)

(Baruch said to Jerusalem:) “Behold, your sons come … having been (and being) led together … (in) the word of the holy One rejoicing (in) the glory of God.” (Baruch 4:37)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said:) “Whoever – according to the circumstances – may make/do the will of My Father, the One in heavens, he is My brother and sister and mother.” (Matt 12:50)

Jesus ... welcomed (the man having watched/kept the commandments ‘out of’/since his youth). (Mark 10:21a)

‘Having badly’/’being bad’ a certain slave of the “leader of a hundred men” (continually) was about to come to an end, (a slave) who (continually)was noble/honoured (for) him. Having heard ‘on account of’/about Jesus he dispatched away elders of the Jews towards Him asking Him in what way having come He might save his slave through.” (Luke 7:2-3)

Peter and the ones (being) together with him (continually) were being (and having been) weighted (with) sleep/sleepiness. But having been awake throughout, they beheld (Jesus') glory." (Luke 9:32a)

Having gazed into the heaven (Stephen) beheld a glory of God, and Jesus standing out of the right (parts) of God. (Acts 7:55b)

(Paul said to the elders in Ephesos:) “In this way you must bothering take ‘in stead’/’part with’ the ones being weak, to both/also recollect the sayings of the Lord Jesus, that He Himself spoke: 'It is happy to give rather than to take.'” (Acts 20:35b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Jesus) made His glory visible, and His disciples believed into Him. (John 2:11b)

(Jesus said to the Jews:) “You have dispatched (and dispatch) away (men) towards John.” (John 5:33a)

(Jesus') disciples asked Him saying: “Rabbi, who missed (the mark of God), this one or his parents, in order that he might have been begotten/born blind?” Jesus answered: “’And not’/neither this one missed (the mark of God), ‘and not’/nor his parents, however/but (it was) in order that the works of God might be made visible in him.” (John 9:2-3)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

It is true that Jesus had special friends. The young John calls himself "the disciple whom Jesus loved". It is also right that he favoured a special family consisting of two sisters Martha and Mary, and one brother, Lazarus. He also had a special and familiar friendship with the little group of men and women, boys and girls following him everywhere he advanced. But so it must be, for he was a true and genuine man. (Edin Lövås "Gud har ett ansikte" p 54; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Lazarus, the one whom Jesus loves, is probably being held up as the representative of all those whom Jesus loves, namely the Christians. (Raymon E. Brown "The Gospel according to John" p 431)

Eleonora (to the pupil of upper secondary school Benjamin): "Do you know that when I was ill, I had to take a drug of henbane having the quality to make the eye big as a magnifying glass. . . . Now I can see longer than others, and I can see the stars in daylight! . . . Poor (my brother) Elis! Poor all of us! But it is Easter, and we shall suffer. It is, you know, concert tomorrow? And they play Haydn's Seven words on the cross! 'Mother, see your son!'" (She is weeping in her hands.) Benjamin: "What disease have you had?" Eleonora: "This sickness is not unto death, but for the glory of God! 'I expected good, and evil came; I waited for light, and darkness came.' (Job 30:26)" (August Strindberg "Påsk" p 30,32; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Elisabeth Beskow, Dick Harrison, Karin Landgren, Carl Henrik Martling, Vilhem Moberg, Josef Rydén, P. Waldenström, Elin Wägner.


My own comments and speculations:

The Lord is friends with and welcomes His own people - Martha and her sister and Lazarus and all other believers - with an agelong welcome. And in a special way God also welcomed the adornment/’adorned world’ (the ones who do not believe into Him), "that He gave the Son, the only descendant, in order that 'every the'/everyone believing into Him may not perish however/but have agelong life." (John 3:16).

In a restoration perspective we can compare "Lazarus ... Mary and her sister" in John 11:1 with "Martha and her sister and Lazarus" here in John 11:5.

Concerning Tobias as a type of Jesus, compare My own comments and speculations to John 4:16-18.


Paul said to the believing husbands in Ephesos: "Christ welcomed the (assembly) of called out and gave Himself ‘to the side of’/over in favour of her." (Eph 5:25b)

Every unrighteousness is a miss (of the mark of God), and/but it/there is a miss (of the mark of God) (which is) not towards death. (1 John 5:17)


Additional studies:

Deut 4:37; 7:8; 23:5; 1 Kings 10:9; 2 Chron 2:11; 9:8; Is 63:9; Mal 1:2; John 10:38; 11:5,11,21,32,36,40; 13:13,31; Acts 3:13; 1 John 5:16; Rev 1:18; 3:9.


Charles H. Giblin "Suggestion, Negative Response and Positive Action in St. John's Portrayal of Jesus (John 2:1-11; 4:46-54; 7:2-14; 11:1-44)"; New Testament Studies 26 (1980): 197-211.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-04-06; 2011-08-20; 2014-05-08; 2014-11-07)

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11:6-10 As He so heard, that he was weak, then He indeed stayed two days in the place where He (continually) was. Thereupon, after this, He says to the disciples: “We may lead into Judea again.” The disciples say to Him: “Rabbi, the Jews now (continually/repeatedly) sought to stone You, and again You withdraw there?” Jesus answered: “Are they/there by no means twelve hours of/in the day? If anyone – according to the circumstances – may walk about in the day, he does not ‘cut ... towards’/hurt himself, because he sees the light of this adornment/’adorned world’. But if anyone – according to the circumstances – may walk about in the night, he ‘cuts ... towards’/hurts himself, because the light is not in him.”

Word for word: 11:6 (14 words in the Greek text) as so (he)-heard that (he)-was-weak, then indeed (he)-stayed in which (he)-(continually)-was (the)-place two days. 11:7 (11 words in the Greek text) thereupon after this (he)-says (to)-the disciples: (we)-may-lead into the Judea again. 11:8 (15 words in the Greek text) say (to)-him the disciples: rabbi, now sought-(continually) you stone the Jews, and again (you)-withdraw there? 11:9 (23 words in the Greek text) answered Jesus: by-no-means twelve hours (they)-are (of)-the (of)-day? if-according-to-the-circumstances anyone may-walk-about in the day not (he)-cuts-towards, because the light (of)-the (of)-adornment this (he)-sees. 11:10 (15 words in the Greek text) if-according-to-the-circumstances but anyone may-walk-around in the night, (he)-cuts-towards, because the light not is in him.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

The Lord indeed (continually) led (Israel) in/’by means of’ a pillar of cloud (by) day to show them the way, but/and in/’by means of’ a pillar of fire (by) night. (Ex 13:21, Greek OT)

The rest of the Jews in the kingdom were led together (on the thirteenth day) and they (continually) succoured themselves and ‘were brought’/came to rest from the enemies ... (on) the fourteenth (day) of the month (Adar) and (continually) led/kept the same day (with) rest in company with joy and cheerfulness. But the Jews in the city Susa ... 'were not brought'/'did not come' to rest (this day). But they led/kept the fifteenth (day). (Esther 9:16-18a, Greek OT)

(Solomon said to his son:) "The ways of the wicked ones (are) dark. They do not know, how they ‘cut ... towards’/hurt themselves." (Prov 4:19, Greek OT)

(Isaiah said to Israel: " ... The Lord) will be for you into a holy place, and you will not be met together (with) Him as ‘a stone cutting towards’/’an offence’, nor as a rock to fall." (Is 8:14a, Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) "Give glory to the Lord, your God, before 'the thing to grow'/'it grows' dark and before 'the thing to cut towards your feet'/'your feet hurt themselves'." (Jer 13:16a, Greek OT)

(The blind) Tobit ... ‘cut ... towards’/'hurt himself'. (Tobit 11:10a, BA)

(Solomon said:) “A hope of a wicked one (is) ... as (the) mention of a ‘loosener up (of luggage)’/guest (who) went from the side of a way only one day.” (Wisdom of Solomon 5:14)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “Do not go in a way ‘of fall’/falling to pieces and you may not 'cut towards'/'hurt yourself' in/on (anything) similar stone. You may not/neither believe in an unhurt way.” (Sir 32:20-21)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “Happy the soul fearing the Lord. Whom does he hold on/fast? And who (is) his support? The eyes of the Lord (are) against/over the ones welcoming Him. (He is) a protection, a sovereignty and a support of stability, a shelter from heat and a shelter from midday, a watch from ‘cutting towards’ and a help from fall, heightening up a soul and giving eyes light, giving healing, life and blessing.” (Sir 34:15-17 or 34:17-20)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “Wisdom of a scribe (is) leisure in a good seasonable time, and the one lessening himself, it will practise/manage him to ‘be made’/become wise. ... (But how can the one who) ‘leads through’/’moves throughout’, night as day, (become wise)?” (Sir 38:24,27a)


The Latter Revelation:

The slanderer takes (Jesus) to the side of (himself) into the holy city. And he caused Him to stand against the little wing of the sanctuary and he says to Him: "If You are a son of God throw Yourself down, for it has been (and is) written that/: 'He will enjoin His messengers on account of You' and 'Upon hands they will lift You, (so that) You not at any time may cut Your foot towards, towards a stone.'" (Matt 4:5-6)

(Jesus said to the crowd:) "No one having fastened/ignated a lamp puts it into a hiding-place, nor underneath the corn-measure (about 9 litres), however/but against the lampstand, in order that the ones going into/in may see the light. The lamp of your body is your eye. When – according to the circumstances – your eye may be plain, your whole body and/also is bright. But as soon as it – according to the circumstances – may be evil, your body and/also (may be) dark. Look so out (that) the light in you is not darkness. If so your whole body (is) bright, having not any dark part, it will be wholly bright, as when the lamp – according to the circumstances – may give you light (with) the ray of light." (Luke 11:33-36)

(Some Pharisees said to Jesus:) “Come out and go from here, because Herod wants to kill You.” And He spoke to them: “Having gone speak to this fox: ‘Behold, I throw out little demons, and healings I end off today and (the) following day, and the third (day) I am made perfect.’ ‘More than’/however I must go today and (the) following day and the coming (P75, א,* א) (day), because it is not possible for a prophet to perish outside Jerusalem. Jerusalem, Jerusalem, the one killing the prophets and throwing stones at the ones having been (and being) dispatched away towards/’in regard to’ it.” (Luke 13:31b-34a)

(Cleopas and the other disciple said to Jesus:) "Stay in company with us, because it is towards evening, and the day has already 'leaned (and leans)'/'drawn (and draws)' to an end." ... (Luke 24:29b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

Again Jesus so talked (with the Pharisees), saying: “I am the light of the adornment/’adorned world’. The one following Me may not/certainly not walk about in the gloom, however/but will have the light of the life.” (John 8:12)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “‘Us must’/’it is necessary to us to’ work (for) the works of the One having sent us (P66,P75,א*), till/’as long as’ it is day. Night comes, when no one is able to work. When I – according to the circumstances – may be in the adornment/’adorned world’, I am a light of the adornment/’adorned world’.” (John 9:4-5)

The Jews again bore stones, in order that they might stone (Jesus). (John 10:31)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

"The light of this world". This means the sun, but on the theological level is a reference to Jesus (8:12, 9:5). "He has no light in him". ... The Jews evidently thought that the light resided in the eye (Matt 6:22-23). (Raymond E. Brown "The Gospel according to John" p 423)

Saturday: 1 November (1896). . . . the evening. Verstimmung. Kerstin fell and hurt herself. When I switched off the light. (August Strindberg "Ockulta dagboken" p 14; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Albert Engström, Johannes Gossner, Lars Levi Laestadius, Selma Lagerström, Sven Stolpe.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning the "two days" and Esther 9:16-18a, see My own comments and speculations to John 11:17-20. Concerning “the light of this adornment/’adorned world’”, see also John 8:12.


Paul said to the believers in Thessalonica: "You are all sons of light and sons of day. We are not of night, nor of darkness." (1 Thess 5:5)

But if we – according to the circumstances – may walk about in the light, as He is in the light, we have communion in company with one another, and the blood of Jesus, His Son, makes us clean from every miss (of the mark of God). (1 John 1:7)

The one hating his brother is in the gloom and wanders about in the gloom and does not know where he withdraws, because the gloom has blinded his eyes. (1 John 2:11)


Greek words:

epeita (thereupon) John 11:7 – Is 16:2; Luke 16:7; 1 Cor 12:28; 15:5(א,*א,A),6-7,23,46; Gal 1:18,21; 2:1; 1 Thess 4:17; Heb 7:2,27; Jas 3:17; 4:14.

proskoptô (cut towards) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Tobit 11:10; Sir 32:20; Matt 4:6; John 11:9-10 – Sir 13:23; 30:13; 31:17; Matt 7:27; Luke 4:11; Rom 9:32; 14:21; 1 Pet 2:8.


Additional studies:

Ps 91:12; Prov 3:23; Matt 6:22-23; 20:1-16; 23:7-8; Mark 10:1; John 2:3-4,13; 3:22; 5:1; 7:3-9,14; 8:20,59; 9:39-41; 10:40; 12:35,46; Rom 14:13; 1 Cor 8:9; 2 Cor 6:3; 1 John 2:10; Rev 7:1.


Andreas J. Köstenberger "Jesus as Rabbi in the Fourth Gospel"; Bulletin for Biblical Research 8 (1998): 97-128.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-04-07; 2011-08-21; 2014-05-08; 2014-11-08)

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11:11-13 These things He spoke, and after this He says to them: “Our friend Lazarus is (and has) fallen asleep. However I go in order that I may rouse him out of sleep. The disciples so spoke to Him: “Lord, if he is (and has) fallen asleep, he will be saved.” But Jesus said/spoke (and had said/spoken) on account of his death, but those thought, that He says/speaks on account of the sleeping of the sleep.

Word for word: 11:11 (17 words in the Greek text) These-(things) (he)-spoke, and after this (he)-says (to)-them: Lazarus the friend our is-(and-has)-fallen-asleep. however (i/I)-go in-order-that (i/I)-may-rouse-out-of-sleep him. 11:12 (9 words in the Greek text; the sequence of the words according to Sinaiticus) spoke so (to)-him the disciples: lord, if (he)-is-(and-has)-fallen-asleep (he)-will-be-saved. 11:13 (18 words in the Greek text) said-(and-had-said) but the Jesus on-account-of the death his, that-(one) but thought that on-account-of the sleeping (of)-the (of)-sleep (he)-says.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

The Lord God spoke: "(It is) not fine (for) the man to be alone." . . . And (Adam) went to sleep, and (God) took one of the ribs (of the man) and 'completed ... upwards'/upcompleted flesh instead of it. . . . And the Lord God built the rib, which He had taken from (the man) Adam, into/to a woman. (Gen 2:18a,21b-22a, Greek OT)

(Israel said to Joseph:) "I will fall asleep in company with my fathers." (Gen 47:30a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Moses:) "... Lead towards, towards yourself both Aaron, your brother, and his sons out of the sons of Israel to be priests to Me, Aaron and Aaron's sons Nadab and Abihu och Eleazar and Ithamar." ... Now ... Nadab and Abihu ... carried to, opposite the Lord, alien fire, which the Lord had not commanded them. And fire came out from the the side of the Lord and ‘ate ... down’/devoured them. And they died opposite the Lord. ... And Moses ‘set out’/’stripped off’ Aaron his garments and set them in/on his son Eleazar. And Aaron died upon the top of the mountain. And Moses and Eleazar descended ‘out of’/from the mountain. (Ex 28:1; Lev 10:1-2; Num 20:28, Greek OT)

The Lord spoke towards Moses: "Behold, you may fall asleep in company with your fathers." (Deut 31:16a, Greek OT)

Solomon fell asleep in company with his fathers. (1 Kings 11:43a, Greek OT)

Nadab and Abihu died opposite their father, and sons (continually) were not to them. And (now) Eleazar and Ithamar were priests of Aaron. (1 Chron 24:2, Greek OT)

A man having fallen asleep may not/certainly not stand up. Till/’as long as’ – according to the circumstances - the heaven may not/certainly not clash together, they will and/namely not be roused out of sleep, out of their sleep. (Job 14:12, Greek OT)

(David said:) “I fell asleep and ‘went to sleep’/slept. I was aroused, because the Lord will take ‘me in stead’/’part with me’.” (Ps 3:5 or 3:6, Greek OT)

Many of the ones sleeping entirely/soundly in/on the breadth of the earth will stand up. (Dan 12:2a, Greek OT)

(Tobias and his wife/sister) fell asleep (for) the night. (Tobit 8:9a, S)

Seeing/’fixing his eyes’ in the ones ‘falling asleep’/deceasing in company with reverence (Judas) ... (2 Macc 12:45a)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “Weighty/unwholesome feebleness will be/become sober out of sleep.” (Sir 31:2b)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “Before a seasonable time of agelong sleeping (Samuel) was a witness ... opposite/before the Lord and His christ/'anointed one'.” (Sir 46:19a)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “’Every saying did not outdo’/’no saying outdid’ (Elisha) and in a sleeping his body prophesied. And in his life he made/spoke omens, and on/after his end his works (were) wondrous.” (Sir 48:13-14)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said:) "... The little eyeball/girl has not died, however/but she sleeps entirely/soundly." (Matt 9:24a)

The memorial tombs were opened, and many bodies of the holy ones, having been (and being) fallen asleep, were raised. (Matt 27:52)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "The Son of the Man is given ‘to the side of’/over into hands of men, and they will kill Him, and having been killed He will stand up after three days." But they had (continually) not knowledge of the word. (Mark 9:31b-32a)

Peter and the ones (being) together with him (continually) were being (and having been) weighted (with) sleep/sleepiness. But having been awake throughout, they beheld (Jesus') glory." (Luke 9:32a)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "... My friends." (Luke 12:4a)

It became/’came about’ (that) the beggarly (Lazarus with his sores) died and was carried away by the messengers into Abraham's bosom (where he was comforted). (Luke 16:22a)

And having stood up from the prayer (and) having come towards the disciples (Jesus) found them falling asleep from/’away from’ the sorrow, and He spoke to them: “What/why do you sleep?” (Luke 22:45-46a)

And (the people) (continually) threw stones at Stephen ‘calling against’/invoking and saying: "Lord Jesus, receive my spirit." ... (And) he fell asleep. (Acts 7:59,60b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

But there (continually) were six water-pots of stone * (א*) (made) ‘according to’/concerning the purification of the Jews, having room upwards for two or three firkin-measures. And (א,*א) Jesus says to them: "Fill the water-pots (of/containing) water." And they filled them till up/’the brim’. And He says to them: "Ladle now out and carry (it) to the threebedleader." But/and they carried (it). (John 2:6-8)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 - about 1500

Jesus includes Himself, the disciples and Lazarus in the same friendship by calling him "our" friend. This he does in spite of His knowing that Lazarus is dead. Jesus here teaches us much about the Christian hope having become a characteristic part of the Christian life. The bodily death does not break the community we have in Christ. Also in the rabbinic writings it is told about death as a sleep and the expression often is found in the NT. (Studiebibeln II:603; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

"How can it be allowed to be so ghastly", I asked, "how can it be allowed to be so ghastly that some must die, when they not even have been ten years old?" "Do you know, Skorpan, I do not think it is so ghastly", Jonatan said. "I think you will have it gloriously." "Gloriously", I said. "Is it glorious to lie down in the ground and be dead!" "Ah", Jonatan said, "it is only like the shell of you lying there. You yourself fly away somewhere quite else." (Astrid Lindgren "Bröderna Lejonhjärta" p 4; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

(The Greek word for "friend") is probably a technical term for "Christian" (see 3 John 15; Luke 12:4; Acts 27:3 and especially John 15:13-15). ... The language used suggests the resurrection of all Christians at the last day. ... "To recover from illness" is a common meaning of (the Greek word); but John himself means to suggest that Christians sleeping in death will be saved. (C.K. Barrett "The Gospel according to St John" p 392-393)

At last when it became silent in the room and the father said: mother is dead, then it was disconsolate. . . . Now the father was meek. He took the hands of the two sons saying: "God has visited us; now we shall hold together as friends. The men go in their self-sufficiency thinking be sufficient unto themselves, so the blow comes, and one see how much all need one another. Let us be sincere with one another and indulgent." The mourning of the boy decreased for a moment. He had got a friend, and a mighty, wise, male friend, who he admired. The house now was clothed with white sheets before the windows. "You must not go to school, if you do not want", the father said. If you do not want! It was an acknowledgement of his will. . . . At Sunday the father read a sermon of Wallin on the text: Our friend is not dead, but he sleeps. With what tremendous trust he received these words literally, and how much he knew to tear open wounds and at the same time heal them! She is not dead, but she sleeps, he cheerfully repeated. (August Strindberg "Tjänstekvinnans son" p 92-93; in the sixties of the 19th century; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


about 1500 and time before

This sign (that is, the cross) ... made a new entrance into Paradise. ... Because of this ... death is (not) death, but a sleep. (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers X:536)

The name Laazar, or Lazar, occurs frequently in Talmudic writings as an abbreviated form of Elazar or Eleazar. (Alfred Edersheim "The Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah Part II" p 146)

By a euphemism, ’to die’ was designated as ’going to rest,’ ’been completed:’ ’being gathered to the world’ or ’to the home of light;’ ’being withdrawn,’ or ’hidden.’ (Alfred Edersheim "The Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah Part II" p 316-317)

Moses had fallen asleep in the nearness of God on the mountain Nebo, as the rabbis used to say, "put to sleep at the kiss of God". (Karl Palmberg "Ur livskällan. Tredje årgången." p 315; comment to Matt 17:1-8; Karl Palmberg /1842-1920/ was from 1883 a Lutheran clergyman in Månsarp in the diocese of Växjö and president in Jönköpings Missionsförening (Missionary Society) 1886-1911; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Svetlana Aleksijevitj, Dan Andersson, Jakob Bonggren, Richard Chandler, Sven Danell, Sanna Ehdin, Peter Gillgren, Johannes Gossner, Paulus Mar Gregorios, Carl Grimberg, N.F.S. Grundtvig, Hjalmar Gullberg, Verner von Heidenstam, Alf Henrikson, Abraham Krok, Lars Levi Laestadius, Pär Lagerkvist, Hans Larsson, Carl Lidby, Axel Liffner, Martin Luther, Vilhelm Moberg, D.L. Moody, Fredrik Nielsen, Bertil Nilsson, Fritiof Nilsson Piraten, Efraim Palmqvist, Anna Maria Roos, Viktor Rydberg, Folke Rösiö, Sven Edvin Salje, Lina Sandell, Bo Setterlind, John Stott, Margareta Strömstedt, Anton Tjechov, Leo Tolstoj, Zacharias Topelius, Emile Zola.


My own comments and speculations:

The Hebrew name Eleazar has the same meaning - "God is helper" or "God has helped" - as the Greek name Lazarus. In a restoration perspective we see how the old, exalted Eleazar - the faithful slave-servant of the Lord - must be humbled and die in Lazarus - the friend of the Lord. Compare My own comments and speculations to John 11:43-44.

It is also possible to see the account of Lazarus in a "Paradise perspective". In Gen 1-3 it is told how the alone very first man went to sleep and how God then took a rib out of him and made a woman of it. The result first became community but at last a separation between on one hand Adam and Eve and on the other hand God. We can compare with how an alone sleeping Lazarus on the order of God comes out of a grave in order to then become anointed by the woman Mary. Observe the "rise" in the community between the male Lasaros and his two sisters. In John 11:1-3 they are described as living in the same village, in John 12.1-3 they are together in Lasaros' house in company with Jesus. Here we can perceive a restoration motive. The separation between male and female men and God has been replaced by a community between Jesus and his male and female friends. Compare also with Matt 18:20 where Jesus says that he is in the middle of those, two or three, who are assembled in his name.

The Greek word for "fall asleep" generally is used about the sleep of death. But the Synoptics could use it also literally, as we see in Luke 22:45. In Luke 22:46 and in Matthew and Mark another Greek word is used, which sometimes also is used with the meaning of "the sleep of death", see for instance Dan 12:2. So the misunderstanding of the disciples is comprehensible. And their use of the Greek word for "sleeping" increases the confusion. This word only occurs here in the NT, and in the OT we only have it in Sir 46:19 and 48:13, where it is used about the sleeping after death. To sum up we see that the disciples are confused and don't understand the words of Jesus (compare Mark 9:31-32).


Paul said to the believers in Corinth: "Many in/among you (are) weak and not forceful, and (the ones being) fit fall asleep. (1 Cor 11:30b)


Greek words:

exypnizô (rouse out of sleep) Job 14:12; John 11:11 – Judges 16:14(B),20(B); 1 Kings 3:15.

koimaomai (fall asleep) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Tobit 8:9; 2 Macc 12:45; Sir 48:13; Matt 27:52; Luke 22:45; John 11:11-12; Acts 7:60; 1 Cor 11:30 – Tobit 2:9; 8:1; 1 Macc 11:6; 16:4; Wisdom of Solomon 17:13(14); Matt 28:13; Acts 12:6; 13:36; 1 Cor 7:39; 15:6,18,20,51; 1 Thess 4:13-15; 2 Pet 3:4.

koimêsis (sleeping) Sir 46:19; 48:13; John 11:13.

(h)ypnos (sleep) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Sir 31:2; Luke 9:32; John 11:13 – Esther 6:1; Tobit 10:7; 1 Macc 6:10; Sir 22:9; 31:1,20; 40:6; 42:9; Matt 1:24; Acts 20:9; Rom 13:11.


Additional studies:

Jer 51:39,57; Matt 9:24; Mark 5:39; 9:26; Luke 8:52; 16:23; 18:34; John 11:3; 15:13-15; Acts 27:3; 1 Cor 15:19; 3 John 14(15); Rev 3:1-2; 7:1.


Thomas R. Edgar "The meaning of 'sleep' in First Thessalonians. Se Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 22.4 (Dec. 1979): 345-349.

E. Franck "Att översätta dubbeltydigheter - några iakttagelser"; Svensk Exegetisk Årsbok 48 (1983): 102-108.

James P. Martin "History and Eschatology in the Lazarus Narrative, John 11:1-44"; Scottish Journal of Theology 17 (1964): 332-343.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-04-07; 2011-08-23; 2014-05-09; 2014-11-08)

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11:14-16 Then Jesus so spoke to them in plain language: “Lazarus has died, and I rejoice ‘because of’/’with a view to’ you, in order that you may believe, because I (continually) was not there. However we may lead/move towards him. Thomas, being said/called Twofold, so spoke to the together-/fellow-disciples: “We may lead/move and/also we, in order that we may die in company with Him.”

Word for word: 11:14 (8 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus prima manus) then so spoke (to)-them Jesus in-plain-language: Lazarus died. 11:15 (14 words in the Greek text) and (i/I)-rejoice because-of you in-order-that (you)-may-believe because not (i/I)-(continually)-was there. however (we)-may-lead/move towards him. 11:16 (15 words in the Greek text) spoke so Thomas the-(one) being-said twofold (to)-the together-disciples: (we)-may-lead/move and we in-order-that (we)-may-die in-company-with him.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

The days of (Rebekah) to bring forth (a child) were completed and this is what (continually) were twofold/twins (Esau and Jacob) in her belly. (Gen 25:24, Greek OT)

At the time when it became, (Tamar) brought forth (a child), and this is what (continually) were twofold/twins (Perez and Zerah) in her womb. (Gen 38:27, Greek OT)

(Caleb said to Israel:) "We shall ascend and entirely inherit (the land), because we shall be able to (what is) able things towards them." ... (Jesus/Joshua and Caleb said to Israel:) "You may not fear the people of the earth/land, because it is entirely food to us, for the Lord stands aloof from them, but the Lord (is) in/with us. You may not fear them." (Num 13:30b or 13:31b; 14:9b, Greek OT)

(Solomon said to his bride:) “Your two nipples (are) as two young deer, twofold/twins of a roe.” (Song of Solomon 4:5, Greek OT)

(Solomon said to the Lord:) “You have arranged every thing throughout (with) measure and number and standing-place/balance.” (Wisdom of Solomon 11:20b)

(Solomon said to the Lord:) “You have a (judicial) authority of life and death, and You lead down into gates of Hades and You lead up.” (Wisdom of Solomon 16:13)


The Latter Revelation:

Judas begot Perez and Zarah/Zerah out of Tamar. (Matt 1:3a)

(Jesus) began to teach (His disciples), that the Son of the Man must be ... killed and after three days stand up. And He (continually) talked the saying (in) plain language. (Mark 8:31-32a)

(Peter said to Jesus): "If I – according to the circumstances – may must/'have to' die together with You, I may (א,*א) not/certainly not deny away You!" But/and in the same manner all (the disciples) (continually) said. (Mark 14:31b)

(Jesus chose from the disciples) twelve, whom He and/also named apostles. … (One of them was) Thomas. (Luke 6:13b,15a)

(On Jesus' and the disciples') going in/on the way someone spoke towards Him: “I will follow You whereat - if according to the circumstances – You may go away.” (Luke 9:57)

… The Lord ‘showed up’/appointed and/also (א,* א, A) seventy others and dispatched them away ‘upwards two’/’two by two’ * (א,* א, A) before His face/person into every city and place where He Himself (continually) was about to come. (Luke 10:1)

(Simon) spoke (to Jesus): "Lord, in company with You I am ready to go and/both into watch/custody and into death!" (Luke 22:33)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

If Jesus had been present Lazarus (it is presumed) would not have died, and the disciples' faith would not have been quickened and confirmed by his resurrection. (C.K. Barrett "The Gospel according to St John" p 393)

In (Thomas') words you can not see an expression of discouragement but in stead of submissiveness and of courage. (P. Waldenström "Nya Testamentet" p 487; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

In September (1844) a lifelong friendship and collaboration was born when Frederick Engels met (Karl) Marx in Paris. (David McLellan "Marx" p 13-14)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Svetlana Aleksijevitj, Oloph Bexell, Ragnar Blomqvist, Ingmar Brohed, Aug. N. Bäckström, Runar Eldebo, Linné Eriksson, Bernice Gladh, Carl Grimberg, Gustav Haag, Krister Hanell, Märta Hedfors, Verner von Heidenstam, Folke Holmér, Marija Ivanovna Morozova, David Johansson, Ad. Kolmodin, Thomas Lindkvist, Carl Henrik Martling, Mo Yan, Vilhelm Moberg, Petrus M. Nicander, Fredrik Nielsen, Martin P:n Nilsson, Salvadore Qvasimodo, Johan Ludvig Runeberg, Solveig von Schoultz, Åke Steinwall, Svend Erik Stybe, Otto Sylwan, P. Waldenström, Arwid Wickström, Gustaf Wikner.


My own comments and speculations:

Here in John 11:16 Thomas Twofold (Didymus) has his type in the two spies Jesus/Joshua and Caleb. In a restoration perspective we see, how these persons, who wanted to go to live with the Lord, now want to go to die with Him in the only person Thomas, he who is Twofold. Cf. also the marking of “the two” in the Sinaiticus reading of Rev 11:10.

Thomas can also be compared with Isac's twins, the first one Esau and the second one Jacob. Here we can see Jacob, welcomed by the Lord (Mal 1:2), appear as the first one, and then in John 20:24-25 Esau, hated by the Lord (Mal 1:3), appear as the second one. Jacob shows his positive relation to the Lord by wanting to die with Him, while Esau shows his negative relation by not believing in Him. See also My own comments and speculations to John 20:24-25.

In a restoration perspective we can also see how the male Lazarus must die, while his sisters, the two women, are allowed to live.


Greek words:

Didymos/didymos (Twofold) (in the NT + examples in the OT) Gen 25:24; John 11:16 – Joshua 8:29; John 20:24; 21:2.

symmathêtês (together-disciple) John 11:16. This word does not occur in the rest of the Bible. On the other side the word “mathêtês” is usual in the NT. The word “symmathêtês” can have a background in the word “syndoulos” (together-/fellow-slave, cf. Matt 18:28-29,31,33; 24:49; Rev 6:11; 19:10; 22:9) and “synapothnêskô” (die together with; Mark 14:31). Perhaps the word “symmathêtês” is a first step to describe a situation, where the disciples rather are friends than slaves of Jesus (cf. John 15:15).

Thômas (Thomas) Luke 6:15; John 11:16 – Matt 10:3; Mark 3:18; John 14:5; 20:24,26-28; 21:2; Acts 1:13.


But if we – according to the circumstances – may walk about in the light, as He is in the light, we have communion in company with one another, and the blood of Jesus, His Son, makes us clean from every miss (of the mark of God). (1 John 1:7)


Additional studies: Song of Solomon 7:3(4); Mark 3:14; 10:32-33; John 2:11; 10:42; 11:8,42,45,48; 13:37-38; Rev 11:10; 20:4.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-04-08; 2011-08-26; 2014-05-11)

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11:17-20 Having so come Jesus found him already having (been) four days in the memorial tomb. But Bethany (continually) was near the (disgraced) Jerosolyma/Jerusalem, ‘as from’/about fifteen stadia. But many out of the Jews had come (and came) towards Martha and Mary (P66, א,* א, A), in order that they might encourage them on account of the brother. So Martha, as she heard that/: “Jesus comes”, went to meet Him. But Mary (P45, P66, P75, א,* א, A, B) (continually) sat still in the house.

Word for word: 11:17 (13 words in the Greek text; the sequence of the words according to Sinaiticus) Having-come so the Jesus found him four days already having in the memorial-tomb. 11:18 (10 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus prima manus) was-(continually) but Bethany near the Jerosolymas/Jerosolyma as from stadia fifteen. 11:19 (17 words in the Greek text) many but out-of the Jews had-come-(and-came) towards the Martha and Mary, in-order-that (they)-might-encourage them on-account-of the brother. 11:20 (16 words in the Greek text) the so Martha as (she)-heard that Jesus comes went-to-meet him. Mary but in the house (continually)-sat-still.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Lot said to the two messengers:) "Behold, this city (is) near to flee down to ... which is small/little ... and my soul will live." (Gen 19:20, Greek OT)

The rest of the Jews in the kingdom were led together (on the thirteenth day) and they (continually) succoured themselves and ‘were brought’/came to rest from the enemies ... (on) the fourteenth (day) of the month (Adar) and (continually) led/kept the same day (with) rest in company with joy and cheerfulness. But the Jews in the city Susa ... 'were not brought'/'did not come' to rest (this day). But they led/kept the fifteenth (day). (Esther 9:16-18a, Greek OT)

Having heard all the bad things having come on (Job) his three friends became/came to the side of (him) ... (to) the thing to ‘call to the side of’/encourage and inspect/’take care of’ him. (Job 2:11, Greek OT)

Bet-sur … ‘as if’/about five stadia (from) (a disgraced) Jerosolyma/Jerusalem. ... (2 Macc 11:5b)

(Maccabaeus) encouraged (the Jews) out of the law and the prophets. (2 Macc 15:9a)

(Solomon said to the Lord:) “You have arranged every thing throughout (with) measure and number and standing-place/balance.” (Wisdom of Solomon 11:20b)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “Flee from miss (of the mark of God) as from a face of a serpent.” (Sir 21:2a)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said to his child:) “Bitter (may your) weeping (be) and warm (your) mourning and make the grief according to the worth (of the dead body) one day and/or two ‘in grace’/’for the sake’ of slander and (let yourself) be ‘called to the side of’/consoled with respect to sorrow.” (Sir 38:17)


The Latter Revelation:

Martha received (Jesus) underneath/familiarly into the habitation (P3, א,* א). And ‘this is what’/here (continually) was a sister being called Mariam, and having sat still by the side of towards the feet of the Lord she (continually) had heard His saying. But Martha (continually) had pulled/bustled round about, around/’with regard to’ much service. But having stood on/near (Him) she had spoken: “Lord, do You not care for, that my sister entirely has left to me alone to render service?" (Luke 10:38b-40a)

(Some Pharisees said to Jesus:) “Come out and go from here, because Herod wants to kill You.” And He spoke to them: “Having gone speak to this fox: ‘Behold, I throw out little demons, and healings I end off today and (the) following day, and the third (day) I am made perfect.’ ‘More than’/however I must go today and (the) following day and the coming (P75, א,* א) (day), because it is not possible for a prophet to perish outside Jerusalem.” (Luke 13:31b-33)

(Jesus is) near Jerusalem, and it seems to (the disciples), that the kingdom of God immediately is about to light up. (Luke 19:11b)

In this day two out of (the disciples) (continually) were going into a village (with) the name Emmaus, ‘holding off’/lying a hundred (א,*א) sixty stadia from Jerusalem. (Luke 24:13)

Having again thrown the lead (the shipmen/seamen) found (the deep to be) fifteen fathoms. But (P74, א,* א) fearing not (knowing) where we might fall out of (the boat) ‘according to’/downwards rough places (and) having tossed four anchors out of stern we (continually) had a prayer (that it might) become day. (Acts 27:28b-29)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

The sisters ... dispatched away (men) towards (Jesus), saying: "Lord, behold, the one whom you are friends with is weak." (John 11:3)

The great city (a disgraced Jerosolyma/Jerusalem) which is allegorically called Sodom and Egypt ... (Rev 11:8b).


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

In the course of the fourth day (Jesus) arrived. (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers XIV:228)

Though on terms of close friendship with Jesus, (Lazarus) was evidently not regarded as an apostate from the Synagogue. For, every indignity was shown at the burial of an apostate; people were even to array themselves in white festive garments to make demonstration of joy (Semach.2). Here, on contrary ... every mark of sympathy, respect, and sorrow had been shown by the people in the district and by friends in the neighbouring Jerusalem. ... They may have repeated words like those quoted as the conclusion of ... a consolatory speech (Kethub. 8b): ‘May the Lord of consolations comfört you! Blessed be He Who comforteth the mourners!’ (Alfred Edersheim "The Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah Part II" p 317,321)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Ann-Charlotte Alverfors, Gunnar E. Sandgren, Bo Setterlind.


My own comments and speculations:

In a restoration perspective we can compare Lot - who in the little city Zoar near the great city Sodom was saved - with Lazarus, who dies in the village Bethany near the great disgraced city Jerosolyma/Jerusalem. Compare John 19:19-22 with My own comments and speculations.

In a restoration perspective we also can compare the situation in Susa with the situation in Bethany-Jerosolyma/Jerusalem. That the apostle was well-known with Ester 9 we can have a feeling of, when we study Rev 11:10 in the light of Esther 9:19.

After the Jews had received a message from a fellow countryman, they killed for two days their enemies in the great city Susa. It was days of sorrow and weeping for the enemies of the Jews. On the following day they had a rest in the great cities. (This was the fifteenth day. Observe a possible connection with the fifteen stadia from Jerosolyma/Jerusalem, possible with regard to all other number symbolism in the Gospel of John).

After Jesus and His disciples hade received a message from a friend, they are in rest/sleeps for two days (cf. John 11:6). The following day will be a day of sorrow and weeping for the Jews in Bethany and for the Jews who are coming from the great disgraced city Jerosolyma/Jerusalem. (John 11:19,33-34)

Mary - her name can mean "bitterness" - lives in Bethany, a name which can mean "house of distress". Martha - her name can mean "mistress of the household" - is the active sister who goes to meet Jesus, while the "bitter" Mary stays in the "distressed" house, where the Jews are to encourage her. Kohlenberger III (Greek-English Concordance p 1084) proposes “beloved” as a possible meaning of the name “Mary/Mariam” and “female lord” as a possible meaning of “Martha”. In that case we can – in a restoration perspective – see Martha as the one being humilated and Mary as the one being restored.

Concerning "four days", compare My own comments and speculations to John 11:39.


Greek words:

dekapente (fifteen) (in the NT) John 11:18; Acts 27:28 – Gal 1:18. Concerning the words “deka” (ten) and “pente” (five), see Rev 2:10ab resp John 4:16-18.

paramytheomai (encourage) 2 Macc 15:9; John 11:19 – John 11:31; 1 Thess 2:12; 5:14.

tessares (four) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) John 11:17; Acts 27:29 – Tobit 2:10; 8:19; 9:2,5; Judith 8:4; 1 Macc 11:57; 13:28; 2 Macc 10:33; Sir 37:17(18); Matt 24:31; Mark 2:3, 13:27; Luke 2:37; John 19:23; Acts 10:11; 11:5; 12:4; 21:9,23; Rev 4:4,6,8,10; 5:6,8,14; 6:1,6; 7:1-2,4,11; 9:14-15; 11:16; 14:1,3; 15:7; 19:4; 20:8; 21:17.


Additional studies: Job 2:8,13; Ezek 8:14; John 1:19; 11:1,39.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-04-08; 2011-08-27; 2014-05-11)

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11:21-22 Martha so spoke towards Jesus: “Lord, if You (continually) had been here, my brother had – according to the circumstances – not died. * (P75, א*) And now I know, that as many things as You – according to the circumstances – may demand (of) God, God will give You.”

Word for word: 11:21 (16 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus) spoke so the Martha towards Jesus: lord, if (you)-(continually)-were here not according-to-the-circumstances died the brother my. 11:22 (13 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus prima manus) and now (i/I)-'know-(and-have-known)'/know that so/as-many-(things)-as according-to-the-circumstances (you)-may-demand the god will-give you the god.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

The Lord spoke towards Moses: “And this the saying to you, which I have spoken (and speak), I will make/do, for you have found (and find) joybringing (grace) in the very eyes of Me, and I know you ‘to the side of’/’in comparison with’ all." (Ex 33:17, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Israel:) "At the time when it became, I (continually) was there. ... " (Is 48:16b, Greek OT)

(Solomon said: “The Lord) ‘hears on’/’listens to’ the vows/prayers of the righteous ones.” (Prov 15:29b, Greek OT)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "Demand and it will be given you. ... For 'every the'/everyone demanding takes. ... Your Father, the One in the heavens, will give good things to the ones demanding (of) Him." (Matt 7:7a,8a,11b)

Having beheld (that Jesus had healed the paralytic) the crowds feared and glorified God, the One having given (judicial) authority of such kind to the men. (Matt 9:8)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “All things as many as you – according to the circumstances – may demand in the prayer, believing, you shall take.” (Matt 21:22)

(The “leadership of a hundred men” said about Jesus:) "Certainly this Man (continually) was righteous." (Luke 23:47b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

The mother (of Jesus) says to the servants that/: (א,* א) "What He – according to the circumstances – may say to you, make/do (it)!" (John 2:5)

(The man who had been blind said to the Jews:) “We know, that God does not hear missers (of His mark), however/but if – according to the circumstances – anyone may be godfearing and may make/do His will, He hears this one.” (John 9:31)


This is the ‘plain language’/confidence, which we have towards/’in regard to’ Him, that – if according to the circumstances – we may demand anything according to His will, He hears us. And if we – according to the circumstances – know, that He hear us, what we – if according to the circumstances – may demand, we know that we have the demands/requests which we have demanded (and demand) from Him. (1 John 5:14-15)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: Lars Levi Laestadius, Harry Sjöman, Johanna Spyri, Knut Svensson.


Additional studies: John 3:2; 11:3-6,32,37; 16:30; Hebr 5:7; 1 John 3:22.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-04-09; 2011-08-28; 2014-05-11)

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11:23-24 Jesus says to her: “Your brother will stand up.” Martha says to Him: “I know, that he will stand up in the resurrection in/at the last day.”

Word for word: 11:23 (8 words in the Greek text) says (to)-her the Jesus: will-stand-up the brother your. 11:24 (13 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus) says (to)-him Martha: (i/I)-'know-(and-have-known)'/know that (he)-will-stand-up in the resurrection in the last day.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The Lord said:) "There is not a god more than Me. I shall kill, and I shall make alive. ... " (Deut 32:39b, Greek OT)

(Isaiah said:) "It will be/happen in the last days." (Is 2:2a, Greek OT)

(This song will be sung upon the earth/land of Judas: "Lord), Your dead (bodies) will stand up, and the ones in the memorial tombs will rise. And the ones in the earth will be cheerful." (Is 26:19a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Israel:) "Behold, I open your tombs and I shall lead you up out of your tombs, and I shall lead you into the earth/land of Israel." (Ezek 37:12b, Greek OT)

Many of the ones sleeping entirely/soundly in/on the breadth of the earth will stand up, ‘the ones’/these indeed into agelong life, but the ones/others into asunderspread sowing and agelong shame. (Dan 12:2, Greek OT)

(Judas practised) townlike/polite (things) ‘counting throughout’/reflecting in favour of a resurrection. (2 Macc 12:43b)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to some Pharisees:) “In the resurrection ... (the seven brothers) are as the messengers of God (א,* א) in the heaven. (Matt 22:30)

(Jesus said to His disciples: "The cursed ones who have not done anything to the least of My brothers) will go away into an agelong chastisement, but the righteous ones (who have done something to the least of My brothers) into an agelong life." (Matt 25:46)

(Jesus said to the one who had called/invited Him:) “It will in stead be given back to you in/at the resurrection of the righteous ones.” (Luke 14:14b)

(Paul said: "I have) a hope towards (א,* א) God ... that it/there will be a resurrection of both righteous ones and unrighteous ones." (Acts 24:15)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Jesus said to the crowd:) “This is the will of My Father, in order that 'every the'/everyone looking at the Son and believing into Him may have agelong life. And I Myself may cause him to stand up in/on the last day.” (John 6:40)


My own comments and speculations:

Isaiah spoke about "the last days" (Is 2:2) and "new heavens" (Is 65:17). For John there is an absolute terminal point in "the last day" (John 11:24) and in "a new heaven" (Rev 21:1).


Additional studies:

Ezek 38:16; Hos 3:5; Micah 4:1; 2 Macc 7:9-14; Matt 22:31-32; John 5:28-29; 6:33,39,44,54; 12:48; Acts 23:8; 1 Cor 15:52; 1 Thess 4:16; Rev 20:5-6.


Werner Georg Kümmel "Futurisk och presentisk eskatologi i den äldsta urkristendomen"; Svensk Exegetisk Årsbok 24 (1959): 54-71.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-04-09; 2011-08-28; 2014-05-12)

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11:25-27 But (א*) Jesus spoke to her: “I am the resurrection and the life. The one believing into Me, and/also if he – according to the circumstances – may die, he will live. And 'every the'/everyone living and believing into Me may not/certainly not die into the (coming) age. Do you believe (into) this?” She says to Him: “Yes, Lord. I believe (and have believed), that You are the christ/'anointed one', the Son of God, the One coming into the adornment/’adorned world’.”

Word for word: 11:25 (19 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus prima manus) spoke but (to)-her the Jesus: i/I (i/I)-am the resurrection and the life. the-(one) believing into me and-if-according-to-the-circumstances (he)-may-die (he)-will-live. 11:26 (16 words in the Greek text) and every the-(one) living and believing into me not/certainly not may-die into the age. believe-(you) (into)-this? 11:27 (20 words in the Greek text) (she)-says (to)-him: yes lord, i/I believe-(and-have-believed) that you are the christ/'anointed-one' the son (of)-the (of)-god the-(one) into the adornment coming.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

Abraham spoke (directed) towards God: “Let this Ishmael live opposite You.” But/and God spoke to Abraham: “Yes.” (Gen 17:18-19a, Greek OT)

God spoke towards Moses: "I am the One who is." And He spoke: "In this way you shall speak to the sons of Israel: 'The One who is has dispatched (and dispatches) me away towards you.'" (Ex 3:14, Greek OT)

(Tobit said to the messenger of God:) “Living I am in/among dead (bodies). ... “ (Tobit 5:10b, S)

(Eleazarus left) entirely/behind to his death (of a martyr) a prototype of nobleness and a remembrance of virtue, not only to the young ones, ‘however and’/’but also’ to the most of the nations. ... (Another martyr said to the king who was responsible for his torment and death:) "Exchanging/’undergoing a change’ by men, we wait for by God hopes to again be ‘stood up’/risen by Him, For, indeed, to you it will not be a resurrection into life." (2 Macc 6:31b; 7:14b)

(Solomon said:) “And/also righteous ones were touched by a trial of death.” (Wisdom of Solomon 18:20a)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “A spirit of the ones fearing the Lord will live, for their hope (is) against/to the One saving them.” (Sir 34:13 or 34:14-15)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) "Happy the ones having beheld (Eliah) and the ones having (and being) fallen asleep in a welcome (א*), for we will and/also live (in) life." (Sir 48:11)

All the ones ‘getting power over’/keeping (the book of the commands of God) (come) into life. ... (Baruch 4:1b)


The Latter Revelation:

The disciples of John the Baptist said to Jesus:) " Are You the One coming/’who is to come’, or wait/'are ... to wait' we for ‘the other’/another?" (Matt 11:3)

(Jesus said to the disciples:) “Have you ‘let together’/perceived all these things?” They say to Him: “Yes.” (Matt 13:51)

Peter spoke to (Jesus): “Lord, if You are, exhort me to come towards You against the waters.” But/and He spoke: "Come!" (Matt 14:28b-29a)

Simon Peter 'having answered'/'answered and' spoke (to Jesus:) "You are the christ/'anointed one', the Son of the living God." (Matt 16:16)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Amen I say to you that/: ‘(There) are some of the ones standing here, whoever/who may not/certainly not taste death till – according to the circumstances – they may behold the Son of the Man coming in/with His kingdom.’” (Matt 16:28)

‘Having answered’/’Jesus answered and’ spoke to (the disciples): “Amen, I say to you, if you – according to the circumstances – may have faith and may not doubt, you will not only make/do the thing (which was done) of/to the fig tree, ‘however and’/’but also’ – according to the circumstances – you may speak to this mountain: ’’Be lifted’/rise and ‘be thrown’/’throw yourself’ into the sea’, (and) it will become/’come about’.” (Matt 21:21)

(Jesus said to some Sadducees:) “On account of the resurrection of the dead (bodies), have you not read the thing having been spoken by God to you, saying: ‘I am the God of Abraham and a (א,* א) God of Isaac and a (א,* א) God of Jacob?’ He is not a God of dead (bodies) however/but of living ones.” (Matt 22:31-32)

Peter says to (Jesus): “And if – according to the circumstances – I may have to die together with You, I will not/certainly not deny away You.” Likewise and/also all the disciples spoke. (Matt 26:35)

(Jesus) (continually/repeatedly) said: "Abba, the Father." (Mark 14:36a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(The light) (continually) was the true light, which gives light to every man coming into the adornment/'adorned world'. (John 1:9)

(Andrew) says to (Simon): “We have found (and find) the Messiah", which ‘is being’/is translated christ/anointed.” (John 1:41b)

(Jesus said to the Jews:) "... The ones who have made/done the good things (will go out) into a resurrection of life." (John 5:29a)

Having so beheld the sign (Jesus) had made/done the men (continually) said that/: “This is truly the prophet coming/’who is to come’ into the adornment/’adorned world’!” (John 6:14)

(Jesus said to the Jews:) “Your fathers ate the manna in the desolate (district), and they died. This One is the bread, the one descending out of the heaven, in order that a certain one may eat out of it and not die. I am the living bread, the one having descended out of the heaven. If – according to the circumstances – anyone may eat out of My (א,*א) bread, He will live into the (coming) age.” (John 6:49-51a)

(Jesus said to the Jews:) "Amen, amen I say to you, if – according to the circumstances – anyone may keep My saying, He will (א,* א) not/certainly not look at death into the (coming) age." (John 8:51)

(Jesus said to the Jews:) "I am a son of God". (John 10:36b)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

Martha gives the complete confession, the one John wants his readers to give. In the Gospel of John a woman gives this confession, in the Synoptics it is spoken by Peter. (LarsOlov Eriksson "För att ni skall tro. Johannesevangeliet" p 219; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

This (v 26) is the only place in this Gospel where "pisteuô" is followed by accusative. (Leon Morris "The Gospel according to John" p 489)

For John "eternal life" is qualitatively different from natural life, for it is a life that death cannot destroy (John 11:26). Indeed the real enemy of eternal life is not death but sin (1 John 3:15, 5:16). (Raymond E. Brown "The Gospel according to John" p 507)

Jesus is the resurrection and the life; apart from him there is no resurrection and no life, and where he is, resurrection and life must be. (C.K. Barrett "The Gospel according to St John" p 396)

If I some time would get a great religious experience, so perhaps I would know, where I have my home. But all faith is dear and venerable for me, only the disbelief seems fatal for me. If I would join any new religious society, then I know, that I would loathe it after a week. But you understand that I understand, that this is a lack with me and not with the societies. Principally it seems to me to be so that men maintain two things. Faith in God and faith in immortality. This is our most valuable property, and this I do. Furthermore I perhaps should say, that Christianity is for me the most dear of all religions, although I certainly not is faithful, but it is so beautiful. Yes, now you have got a proper confession of my faith. (Selma Lagerlöf "Brev 2 - 1903-1940" p 206; letter 1923-09-17 to Stella Rydholm)

The dissonances of life increase with time, and with the increased material of life, which soon becomes immense. In this way one lives more in the memory than in the present time, and along the whole line; sometimes in the childhood, sometimes in the mankind, but it is peculiar that the old age does not feel as a beginning end but as a beginning to something new, that is the certainty of a life on the other side. Then one feels as reading for an examination with preparing practices and one literally regains one's youth; some exam nerves accompany but also great expectations mixed with dreams of the future reminding of Christmas spirits, summer vacations, family parties with reconciliations, having one's wishes, but there is also a scent as broken birchleaf and seashore, it sounds of Sunday bells and organ, it attracts as new clothes and clean linen, a bathe in sea-water coloured of aquamarine, evening prayers and a good conscience, the wife, the home and the child after a journey, the fire in snowstorm, the first ball and the person one by preference danced with, the opening of the money-box and from first to last the examination with the summer vacation. (August Strindberg "En blå bok I" p 263)

Both You and I have the future before us, even if we die. (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev XV april 1904-april 1907 p 328; letter 1906-12-12 to Karl Otto Bonnier; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Axel and Rich. B. were here the day before yesterday; we cultivated the 7th Symphony with "Waves of the sounds". Also the 9th which is played next week. It is pleasant to see that Beethoven lasts, otherwise everything is so perishable. (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev XV april 1904-april 1907" p 238; letter 1906-03-22 to Harriet Bosse; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

I take it as a calling to enlighten the men partly that they are not in the best of worlds, partly that another better exists, which waits us. It is the gospel of hope, and this I proclaim. As a thank they beat me in my face, those fools. And this I have proclaimed in all my writings, not at least in the last one. (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev XV april 1904-april 1907" p 33; letter 1904-06-(02-06) to Harriet Bosse; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

"Upp emot Solen" (Up towards the Sun) out of Tryckt och Otryckt (Printed and Unprinted) . . . states I can say the whole equation on which my life can be solved: my estrangement here on earth, where my whole life has been a temporary arrangement, a special performance, where I never felt at home, and my faith in a life after this, also during the short atheist period (a psychical experiment which at once was failed). (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev XII dec 1896-aug 1898" p 324; letter 1898-06-19 to Emil Schering; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

"It is not a weather in which we can pick wild strawberries", the wife said. "No, my pet, summer is over and it is autumn", (her husband said). "Yes it is autumn", she answered, "but it is not winter for it, always a consolation." "A consolation! A poor consolation, when we only live once!" "Twice when we have children, thrice when we see our grandchildren!" But then it is really all over." "Unless there is a life after this." "It is no certainty! However, who knows? I believe in it, but my faith is no proof!" "Yes, but it is nice to believe it, let us believe it, let us believe that it can become spring once more for us! Let us believe it!" "Yes, we shall believe it", he said and lay his arm round her waist. (August Strindberg "Giftas II" p 166; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Faith has confidence in the words of love, which have been spoken from the lips of the love having been made personal: "I am the resurrection and the life. Whoever believes in me, he will live, even if he became dead, and everyone who lives and believes in me, he will not die eternally." (Viktor Rydberg "Tal vid Callas grav" p 182; words of remembrance 1880-09-09 when Rydberg's sister-in-law was put down in the grave)

The breath is temporal, but the Spirit eternal. The breath, too, increases (in strength) for a short period, and continues for a certain time; after that it takes its departure, leaving its former abode destitute of breath. But when the Spirit pervades the man within and without, inasmuch as it continues there, it never leaves him. (Irenaeus, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol I, p 537-538)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Carl Jonas Love Almqvist, Ann-Charlotte Alverkrans, Ester Aronsson, Elisabeth Beskow, Elizabeth Charles, Sven Danell, Charles Dickens, E.J. Ekman, Amy Ellis Nutt, Gunno Eurelius Dahlstierna, Bo Frid, Röl Gording, Lars Hartman, Gustaf Hellström, S. Henriks, Ragnar Järhult, Sven Lidman, Lars Lindberg, Martin Luther, Vilhelm Moberg, Leon Morris, Agne Nordlander, Gunnar Peterson, Platon, Yngve Rudberg, Johan Ludvig Runeberg, Gunnar E. Sandgren, Bo Setterlind, Harry Sjöman, Erik Sollerman, John Stott, Jesper Svartvik, Knut Svensson, Anton Tjechov, P. Waldenström.


My own comments and speculations:

In the Gospel of John it is Martha, a woman, who first confesses Jesus as the Christ and the Son of God. In the Synoptics it is Simon Peter who first gives this confession (compare My own comments and speculations to John 6:69). The confession of Peter in John 6:69 "You are the holy one of God" has not value enough as a true confession to Jesus as "the Christ, the Son of God". Concerning “the Son of God”, see also John 20:30-31.


Paul said to the believers in Corinth: "The Son of God, Christ Jesus ... (has) been proclaimed in/among you through us." (2 Cor 1:19a)

Paul said to the believers in Philippi: “To me, the thing to live (is) Christ and the thing to die a gain.” (Phil 1:21)

The one who – if according to the circumstances – may confess that/: “Jesus is the Son of God”, in him God stays, and he himself in God. (1 John 4:15)

Who is the one conquering the world, if not the one believing that Jesus is the Son of God. (1 John 5:5)


Greek words:

nai (yes) (in the NT + one example in the Apocrypha) Matt 13:51; John 11:27 – Judith 9:12; Matt 5:37; 9:28; 11:9,26; 15:27; 17:25; 21:16; Mark 7:28(א,*א,A,B); Luke 7:26; 10:21; 11:51; 12:5; John 21:15-16. Acts 5:8; 22:27; Rom 3:29; 2 Cor 1:17-20; Phil 4:3; Philemon v 20; Jas 5:12; Rev 1:7; 7:9; 16:7; 22:20.


Additional studies:

Ex 4:22; Ps 2:2,7b; Dan 3:25; Wisdom of Solomon 2:18,20; Matt 3:11; 4:3; 21:9; 22:23-32; 23:39; 26:63; 27:54; Mark 1:1; 8:29; 11:9; 12:18-27; 14:61; Luke 1:32,35; 2:11,26; 4:41; 7:19-20; 9:20; 14:14; 19:38; 20:27-38; John 1:4,9,49; 3:16,31; 4:42; 5:24,26; 6:27,35,39-40,47,54,58,69; 8:24,51; 10:36; 12:13; 16:28; 18:37; 20:31; Acts 17:18; 23:6; 24:15,21; 26:23; 1 Cor 15:12,55-56; Kol 2:14; Heb 6:2; 10:5; 11:35; 1 John 3:23; 5:20; Rev 1:8,18; 2:8; 16:7.


H.C. Cavallin "Jesus gör de döda levande. Jn 11:25 jämfört med sadukeerperikopen och paulinska texter om de dödas uppståndelse som bidrag till johanneisk kristologi"; Svensk Exegetisk Årsbok 51 (1986): 40-49.

Robert J. Kepple "Hope of Israel, the resurrection of the dead, and Jesus: a study of their relationship in Acts"; Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 20.3 (Sept. 1977): 231-241.

Werner Georg Kümmel "Futurisk och presentisk eskatologi i den äldsta urkristendomen"; Svensk Exegetisk Årsbok 24 (1959): 54-71.

James P. Martin "History and Eschatology in the Lazarus Narrative, John 11:1-44"; Scottish Journal of Theology 17 (1964): 332-343.

Charles F.D. Moule "The Meaning of 'Life' in the Gospel and the Epistles of St. John: A Study in the Story of Lazarus, John 11:1-44"; Theology 78 (1975): 114-125.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-04-09; 2011-08-31; 2014-05-12; 2014-11-11)

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11:28-31 And having spoken this, she went away and raised her voice (towards) Mary (P45,P66,א,*א) her sister, speaking secretly: “The Teacher is by the side of and raises His voice (towards) you.” But as that one heard, she quickly rose and (continually) came towards Him. But Jesus had not yet come (and did not come) into the village, however/but (continually) was still in the place, whereat Martha had gone to meet Him. So the Jews, the ones being in company with her in the habitation and encouraging her, having beheld Mary (P66,א,*א,A), that she quickly had stood up and come out, they followed her, having thought that/: “She withdraws into/to the memorial tomb, in order that she may weep there.”

Word for word: 11:28 (18 words in the Greek text) And this having-spoken (she)-went-away and raised-(her)-voice Mary the sister her secretly 'having-spoken'/speaking: the teacher is-by-the-side-of and raises-(his)-voice (towards)-you. 11:29 (10 words in the Greek text) that-(one) but as heard rose quickly and (continually)-came towards him. 11:30 (19 words in the Greek text) (19 words in the Greek text) not-yet but had-come-(and-came) the Jesus into the village, however was-(continually) still in the place whereat went-to-meet him the Martha. 11:31 (32 words in the Greek text) the so Jews the-(ones) being in-company-with her in the habitation and encouraging her, having-beheld the Mary that quickly (she)-stood-up and came-out, (they)-followed her having-thought that (she)-withdraws into the memorial-tomb in-order-that (she)-may-weep there.


The Gospel of John and the Revelation: The one who in the Gospel of John is the one of the Jews who comes last to Mary (John 11:30-31) is in the Revelation named "(The First One and) the Last (One)" (Rev 1:17b; 22:13). Jesus is the one who "must increase" (John 3:30).


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Moses said to Israel:) “If – according to the circumstances – your brother ... (may say) secretly: “'We may'/'let us' advance and serve other gods ... you shall not listen to him.” (Deut 13:6-8a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) “My people will have knowledge of My name in that day, that I am the One talking: ’I am by the side of.’” (Is 52:6, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Israel:) “Then you may cry, and God will listen to you ... and will speak: “Behold, I am by the side of.” (Is 58:9a, Greek OT)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “Every thing is swift opposite the Lord.” (Sir 18:26b)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said to his child:) “Bitter (may your) weeping (be) and warm (your) mourning and make the grief according to the worth (of the dead body) one day and/or two ‘in grace’/’for the sake’ of slander and (let yourself) be ‘called to the side of’/consoled with respect to sorrow.” (Sir 38:17)


The Latter Revelation:

The male (of Mary) ... wished to ‘loosen from’/divorce her in secret. (Matt 1:19b)

(The Pharisees) dispatch away their disciples, in company with the Herodians, to (Jesus), saying: "Teacher, we know that You are truthful and teach the way of God in truth." (Matt 22:16a)

(Jesus) spoke (to His disciples): “Withdraw into the city towards a so-and-so and speak to him: The Teacher says: ‘My seasonable time is near.’” (Matt 26:18a)

(Mariam (א,*א) from Magdala and the another/other Mary had quickly gone) away from the memorial tomb in company with fear and great joy. (Matt 28:8a)

(Jesus said to Levi:) ”Follow Me!” And having stood up he followed Him. (Mark 2:14b)

Jesus spoke: “Raise your voices (towards the blind one).” And they raise their voices (towards) the blind one, saying to him: “Be confident, raise, He raises His voice (towards) you.” (Mark 10:49b)

(Jesus sat still) in a middle of the teachers and (heard) them and (questioned) them. But/and all hearing Him (continually) ‘stood out of’/’were beside’ themselves on/’for the sake of’ (His) understanding and His answers. (Luke 2:46b-47)

It became/’came about’ after these sayings, ‘as if ‘/about eight days, on Jesus' having taken Peter and John and James to the side of, (that) He ascended into/to the mountain to pray. (Luke 9:28)

‘This is what’/here (continually) was a sister being called Mariam, and having sat still by the side of towards the feet of the Lord she (continually) had heard His saying. (Luke 10:39)

(The lord) spoke to his slave: “Come quickly out into the streets and (the) lanes of the city. ... “ (Luke 14:21b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(The two disciples) spoke to (Jesus): "Rabbi" - which being interpreted (א*) ‘is said’/means teacher - "where do you stay?" (John 1:38b)

But as it became evening, His disciples descended against the sea and having stepped in, into a boat, they came/went on/to the other side of the sea into/to Capharnaum. But the gloom took them down (א,*א), and Jesus had not yet come (and did not come) towards them. (John 6:16-17)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

The society, it is true, looks like a certain orden fraternity where the lower grades paid and the higher grades drank away what the lower ones backed up. This was the secret of the Orden, and it seemed to be the secret of the Society! One knows the secret first in the Highest grade, but then one has sworn to never reveal it. (August Strindberg "En arbetets relief. Ö.K." p 178; Social-Demokraten 1911-10-28; Ö.K. = Överklassen - The upper class; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Emil Frommel, Swening Johansson, Carl Larsson.


My own comments and speculations:

Martha knows, that Jesus not only is a teacher but the Teacher. Concerning "weep", see also John 11.33-38a.


Greek words:

klaiô (weep) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) John 11:31 – Tobit 2:6(7); 3:1,10; 5:18; 5:23(6:1); 7:6-7(6-8); 9:6; 10:4,7; 11:9,13(14); 1 Macc 7:36; 9:20; Wisdom of Solomon 7:3; Sir 7:34; 22:11; Baruch 1:5; Susanna v 33,35; Matt 2:18; 26:75; Mark 5:38-39; 14:72; Luke 6:21,25; 7:13,32,38; 8:52; 19:41; 22:62; 23:28; John 11:33; 16:20; 20:11,13,15. Acts 9:39; 21:13; Rom 12:15; 1 Cor 7:30; Phil 3:18; Jas 4:9; 5:1; Rev 5:4-5; 18:9,11,15,19.

lathra (secretly) (in the NT + one example in the Apocrypha) Matt 1:19; John 11:28 – 1 Macc 9:60; Matt 2:7; Acts 16:37.

tacheôs (quickly) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Luke 14:21; John 11:31 – 1 Macc 2:40; 2 Macc 6:23; 14:44; Wisdom of Solomon 6:5; 13:9; 14:15,28; Sir 11:21; Luke 16:6; John 13:27; 20:4; Acts 17:15; 1 Cor 4:19; Gal 1:6; Phil 2:19,24; 2 Thess 2:2; I Tim 3:14(א,*א); I Tim 5:22; 2 Tim 4:9; Heb 13:19,23.

tachys (quick-quickly) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Sir 18:26; Matt 28:8; John 11:29 – 2 Macc 3:31; Sir 5:11; 6:19; 19:4; 21:22; Matt 5:25; 28:7; Mark 9:39; Luke 15:22; Jas 1:19; Rev 2:16; 3:11; 11:14; 22:7,12,20.


Additional studies: Deut 9:12; Job 36:22; Matt 9:9; 12:38; Mark 14:14; Luke 5:28; 18:18; 22:11; John 3:2,10; 11:19-20,33; 13:13-1; 20:16; Rev 17:8; 21:4.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-04-10; 2011-09-02; 2014-05-12; 2014-11-12)

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11:32 So Mary (P45,P66,א,*א), as she came whereat/where Jesus (continually) was, having beheld Him she fell/’fell down’ towards His feet, saying to Him: “Lord, if You (continually) had been here, my brother had – according to the circumstances - not died.”

Word for word (27 words in the Greek text): the so Mary as (she)-came whereat was-(continually) Jesus having-beheld him (she)-fell his towards the feet saying (to)-him: lord, if (you)-(continually)-were here not according-to-the-circumstances my died the brother.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Israel) (continually) went three days in the desolate (district) and (continually) did not find water so that (they would be able to) drink. But they came into Marah, and (the people) were not able to drink (the water) out of Marah, for it (continually) was bitter. Because of this the name of that place was 'named on'/'given the name' Bitter. ... But (Moses) cried towards the Lord, and the Lord showed him a wood. And he threw it in, into the water, and the water was made sweet. (Ex 15:22b-23,25a, Greek OT)


The Latter Revelation:

One of the leaders of the synagogue comes ... and having beheld (Jesus), he falls/’falls down’ towards His feet, and he calls Him many (times) to the side of, saying that/: "My little daughter has the last (hour), in order that having come You may put/lay the hands on her, in order that she may be saved and live." (Mark 5:22b-23)

Having beheld Jesus a male ’filled with’/’full of’ leprosy having fallen/’fallen down’ against (the) face he ‘strove after’/asked Him saying: “Lord, if – according to the circumstances – You may want, You are able to make me clean.” (Luke 5:12b)

‘This is what’/here (continually) was a sister being called Mariam, and having sat still by the side of towards the feet of the Lord (Mariam) (continually) had heard His saying. (Luke 10:39)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

Martha so spoke towards Jesus: “Lord, if You (continually) had been here, my brother had – according to the circumstances – not died. * (P75, א*) And now I know, that as many things as You – according to the circumstances – may demand (of) God, God will give You.” (John 11:21-22)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: Ester Aronsson, Martin Luther.


My own comments and speculations:

Marah means “bitter”. In Marah the bitter waters became sweet, when Israel came there after three days' wandering. Now - in a restoration perspective - we see how Mary (a name which can mean "bitterness") comes to Jesus (Israel in the restoration time) after His coming on the fourth day (John 11:39). Mary was welcomed by Jesus (John 11:5) and liked to listen to His sayings (Luke 10:39). Now – also in a restoration perspective – we see how the sweetness of His words is changed to the bitterness of her words after her brother's death. A relation characterized by sweetness has changed to a relation of bitterness.

Observe also that the word Martha in itself almost sounds like Marah (cf. John 11:21).


Additional studies: Mark 7:25; Luke 8:41-42; Acts 22:3; Rev 1:17; 4:10; 5:14; 8:11; 21:4.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-04-10; 2011-09-03; 2014-05-13)

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11:33-38a As so Jesus beheld her weeping and the Jews having come together with her weeping, He was indignant in/with the spirit and troubled Himself and spoke: “Where have you put/laid (and puts/lays) him?” They say to Him: “Lord, come and behold.” And (א*) Jesus shed tears. The Jews (continually/repeatedly) so said: “Behold, how He (continually) ‘was friends with’/liked him.” But some out of them spoke: “Was not this One, the One having opened the eyes of the blind, (continually) able to make/do ‘in order’/so that and/also this one might not die?” Jesus, again being indignant in Himself, comes so into/to the memorial tomb.

Word for word: 11:33 (18 words in the Greek text) Jesus so as beheld her weeping and the-(ones) having-come-together (with)-her Jews weeping (he)-was-indignant (in)-the spirit and troubled himself. 11:34 (11 words in the Greek text) and (he)-spoke: where have-(you)-put-(and-put) him? (they)-say (to)-him: lord, come and behold. 11:35 (4 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus prima manus) and shed-tears the Jesus. 11:36 (8 words in the Greek text) said-(continually) so the Jews: behold how (he)-(continually)-was-friends-with him. 11:37 (20 ord i den grekiska texten) some but out-of them spoke: not was-(continually)-able-to this-(one) the-(one) having-opened the eyes (of)-the (of)-blind make in-order-that and this-(one) not might-die? 11:38a (10 words in the Greek text) Jesus so again being-indignant in himself comes into the memorial-tomb.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

Jacob ‘was friends with’/kissed Rachel and having cried/raised his voice he wept. (Gen 29:11, Greek OT)

Israel spoke to (Joseph): ”Go (and) behold if your brothers and the sheep are healthy.” (Gen 37:14a, Greek OT)

Moses heard (the people's) weeping ‘according to’/after their ‘popular assemblies’/families, everyone upon/at his door. And the Lord was extremely passionate (in) wrath, and Moses (continually) was evil/distressed opposite (God), and Moses spoke towards the Lord: "’In order that what’/why have You treated Your attendant/servant badly?" (Num 11:10-11a, Greek OT)

(The king in Aram said to his slave:) "’Come here’/’go there’, behold where (Elisha is), and having dispatched away I will take him." And it was brought up a message to him, saying: "Behold, (he is) in Dothan." (2 Kings 6:13, Greek OT)

In every district where the letters (of the alphabet) were put out, (there were) scream and mourning and great grief (among) the Jews. ... And (the queen, the Jewish woman Esther,) was troubled. (Esther 4:3a,4a, Greek OT)

(Job lamented:) "I shed tears ... ." (Job 3:24b, Greek OT)

(David said to the Lord:) "My soul is extremely troubled." (Ps 6:3a or 6:4a, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said:) “Come here, behold the works of the Lord.” (Ps 46:8a or Ps 46:9a, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said:) “Come and behold the works of God.” (Ps 66:5a, Greek OT)

(God) (Himself) will arrive and save (the ones being faint in the soul with/’and in’ the mind), then the eyes of the blind ones shall be opened. (Is 35:4b-5a, Greek OT)

Weeping (Jerusalem) wept in a night, and her teardrops (were) upon her cheeks. From all the ones welcoming her, ‘it does not begin under’/’there is not’ (any) 'calling ... to the side of'/consoling her. All the ones being friends with her ... have become into/to enemies for her. (Lam 1:2, Greek OT)

(In) indignation of His wrath (the Lord) has provoked king and priest and leader. (Lam 2:6b, Greek OT)

(Tobias, his father and mother, father-in-law and mother-in-law, his future wife and a friend of his father, all) were troubled and/or wept. (cf. Tobit 2:6b or 2:7a; 3:1a,10a; 5:18a; 7:6b,7(8); 9:6; 10:4b,7; 11:9b,14a)

... Antiochus ... (shed) tears because of (the good qualities of the dead). (2 Macc 4:37a)

(Solomon said: “The Egyptians) ... having griefs and lamenting towards graves of the dead (bodies). (Wisdom of Solomon 19:3a)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “Weep on/’for the sake of’ a dead (body), for a light has ‘left out’/disappeared.” (Sir 22:11a)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “Child, ‘lead down’/shed tears on/’for the sake of’ a dead (body). ... Bitter (may your) weeping (be) and warm (your) mourning and make the grief according to the worth (of the dead body) one day and/or two ‘in grace’/’for the sake’ of slander and (let yourself) be ‘called to the side of’/consoled with respect to sorrow.” (Sir 38:16a,17)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Happy the ones grieving, because they will be called to the side of.” (Matt 5:4)

The eyes (of the two blind men) were opened. And Jesus was indignant (with) them, saying: "Behold, do not let anyone gain knowledge." (Matt 9:30)

Having taken Peter and the two sons of Zebedee to the side of (Jesus) began to be sorrowful and uneasy. Then He says to them: "My soul is ‘sorrowful around’/'exceedingly sorrowful', till death." (Matt 26:37-38a)

The ones going by the side of (continually) blasphemed (Jesus), stiring/shaking their heads, and saying: "The One loosening down/up the temple and in three days building (it), save Yourself, if You are a son of God, and descend from the cross." Likewise * (א,* א, A) 'jesting with'/mocking him the priest leaders, in company with the scribes of (א,* א) (the) elders, (continually/repeatedly) said: "He saved others. He is not able to save Himself. He is (a) king of Israel! Let Him now descend from the cross and we may (א,* א) believe against Him. He 'is (and has been) persuaded'/'trusts (and has trust)' against God. Let Him deliver now, if He wants Him, for He spoke that/: 'I am a son of God.'" (Matt 27:39-43)

(Jesus) comes into a house, and a crowd comes together again. (Mark 3:20a)

(Jesus looks at the men) weeping and shouting much loudly. And having come into (the house) He says to them: "What/why do you make a noise and weep? The little girl has not died, however/but she sleeps." (Mark 5:38b-39)

Jesus says to (His disciples): “How many loaves do you have? Withdraw, behold!” (Mark 6:38a)

As (Jesus) drew near having beheld (a disgraced Jerosolyma/Jerusalem), He wept against/over (the city). (Luke 19:41)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Jesus) says to (the two disciples): "Come and behold (א,* א, A)!" (John 1:39a)

Philip said to him: "Come and behold!" (John 1:46b)

(Jesus said to the blind man): “Withdraw, wash into the pond of Siloam” – which is interpreted ‘Having been (and being) dispatched away’. He so went away and washed and came seeing. (John 9:7)

The sisters dispatched away (men) towards (Jesus), saying: "Lord, behold, the one whom you are friends with is weak." (John 11:3)

Many out of the Jews had come (and came) towards Martha and Mary (P66, א,* א, A), in order that they might encourage them on account of the brother. ... They followed (Mary), having thought that/: “She withdraws into/to the memorial tomb, in order that she may weep there.” (John 11:19,31b)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

"Jesus wept." ... Here we have one more proof that the Jesus of the Gospel of John is not an unfeeling logos. (Ad. Kolmodin "Johannesevangeliet - En verklighetsskildring" p 215; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Annika had walked about with a lump in her throat the whole morning. And when she saw Pippi lift the horse on board (to go away), the lump came loose. She began weeping, where she stood pressed against a packing-case on the quay, first quite still but little by little more and more violently. "Do not howl", Tommy said angrily. "You disgrace us before all men here." The result of his warning became that Annika broke out in a real torrent of tears. She wept so that she shook. . . . That miserable boat, which was going to bring Pippi away from them! Indeed - if no one had seen it, also Tommy would have felt inclined to weep a little. But it was of course not all right. . . . "Good-bye, Annika, good-bye", (Pippi) whispered. "Do not weep!" . . . Then Pippi took Tommy's hand embracing it hardly. So she run over the gangway. Then a big tear trickled down the nose of Tommy. He clenched his teeth, but it had no effect. There came one more tear. He gave Annika his hand, and so they stood there staring after Pippi. (Astrid Lindgren "Pippi Långstrump går ombord" p 142-144,147; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

The wine which according to the legend is born out of the tears of Vergil, the young man with the golden curls, still grows on Vesuvius and is called tears of Christ - "lacrymae Christi". (Viktor Rydberg "Paulus i Neapel" p 19; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Now we have no mother more. . . . We are very sorry, but Dad has calmed us by speaking with us, that it so was the will of God. Schoolmaster Bohman also said the same thing to me. . . . The verse on Mother's coffin is 484 verse 5. Oscar Selander sends his best regards, he wept when he heard that Mother was dead, also Anton. Do not weep to much and do not give up hope, for God wanted it, but don't get excited and console yourself with the word of God, which we have done. (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev I 1858-1876" p 13; letter 1862-03-22 to August's brother Oscar; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

"Adolf, our friendship is eternal", (Göran said). . . . "An imperishable band of brothers joins our souls. . . . The memory of the past and the hope of the future they have common, and in a far distance a harbour at last signs to them, a place where a separation no more will call forth the tears of regret, where related souls are united in an eternal sworn brotherhood, witnessed by God and sworn at the fountain-head of love." . . . The upper-school scholars embraced each other, Göran tried to prove strong and glad, but nevertheless his tears were flowing, when Adolf weeping pressed himself to his breast. So they were standing for a long time, but at last Adolf nerved himself, whispered farewell and hurried away. (Viktor Rydberg "De vandrande djäknarne" p 144-145; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Lisa Alm, Carl Jonas Love Almqvist, Laura A. Barter Snow, Elisabeth Beskow, Marcus Birro, Rudolf Björkman, E.M. Blaiclock, Stig Dagerman, Nils Ferlin, Adolphine Fogtmann, Jan Fridegård, Folke Fridell, Nikolaj Gogol, Johannes Gossner, Hillis Grane, Carl Grimberg, Alf Henrikson, C.G. Hjelm, Homeros, Anders Jarlert, Amy Le Feuvre, Lars Levi Laestadius, Arnold Lindman, H.M. Melin, Fredrik Nielsen, Folke Nordangård, Olle Nystedt, Pansy, Lewi Pethrus, Nina Pleijel, Eleanor H. Porter, Gunnar E. Sandgren, Martha Sandwall-Bergström, Kristiina Savin, Bo Setterlind, Isaac Bashevis Singer, Margareta Strömstedt, G.E. Söderholm, Kate Thompson Sizer, Anton Tjechov, Leo Tolstoj, John Wahlborg, O.F. Walton, Andreas Önnerfors.


My own comments and speculations:

"Was not this One, the One having opened the eyes of the blind, (continually) able to make/do 'in order'/so that and/also this one might not die?" In this expression John can associate to the people, the priest leaders and the scribes who mocked Jesus at the cross (Matt 27:39-43; Mark 15:29-32). Compare in the context especially "three days" (Matt 27:40; Mark 15:29), "a son of God" (Matt 27:40,43) and "christ/'the anointed one'" (Mark 15:32) with "the fourth day" (John 11:39) and "the christ/'anointed one', the Son of God" (John 11:27).


Paul said to the believers in Rome: "Rejoice in company with (the) ones rejoicing. Weep in company with (the) ones weeping." (Rom 12:15)


Greek words:

dakryô (shed tears) (in the NT + examples in the Apokrypha) 2 Macc 4:37; John 11:35 – 2 Macc 11:6; Sir 31:13.

embrimaomai (be indignant) Matt 9:30; John 11:33,38 – Dan 11:30; Mark 1:43; 14:5.

synerchomai (come together) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Mark 3:20; John 11:33 – Judith 1:11; 1 Macc 9:14; 12:47; 2 Macc 3:24; Matt 1:18; Mark 14:53; Luke 5:15; 8:51(א,*א); Luke 23:55; John 18:20. Acts 1:6,21; 2:6; 5:16; 9:39; 10:23,27,45; 11:12; 15:38; 16:13; 19:32; 21:16,22(P74,א,*א,A); 22:30; 25:17; 28:17; 1 Cor 11:17-18,20,33-34; 14:23,26.


Additional studies: Esther 10:3; Mark 3:5; 6:29; 15:29-32; John 1:39,46; 12:27; 13:21; Heb 5:7; Rev 5:4-5; 6:1-3,5,7; 7:17; 21:4.

Cullen I.K. Story "The Mental Attitude of Jesus at Bethany: John 11:33,38"; New Testament Studies 37 (1991): 51-66.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-04-11; 2011-09-06; 2014-05-16; 2014-11-12)

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11:38b-39 But it (continually/-) was a cave and on it a stone (continually) lay on. Jesus says: “Lift the stone.” Martha, the sister of the one having come (and came) to an end, says to Him: “Lord, he already smells, for it is on the fourth day.”

Word for word: 11:38b (8 words in the Greek text) was-(continually) but (a)-cave and (a)-stone (continually)-lay-on on it. 11:39 (19 words in the Greek text) says the Jesus: lift the stone. says (to)-him the sister (of)-the-(one) having-come-(and-coming)-to-an-end Martha: lord, already (he)-smells, on-the-fourth-day for (it)-is.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(On the fourth day) God made the two great luminaries … and/also the stars … so that (they would) ‘bring to’/give light upon the earth. (Gen 1:16,17b, Greek OT)

As much as, if – according to the circumstances – it may be upon the earth, it will come to an end. (Gen 6:17b, Greek OT)

Lot ascended out of Zoar and was (continually) seated in/on the mountain and his two daughters in company with him, for he feared to dwell in Zoar. And he inhabited in the cave, he and his two daughters in company with him. (Gen 19:30, Greek OT)

(Abraham's) sons Isaac and Ishmael buried him in the double hole. ... There Abraham and his wife Sarah were buried. (Gen 25:9-10, Greek OT)

(The Egyptians) led (the dead frogs) together ‘pile pile’/’in piles’, and the earth smelt. (Ex 8:14, Greek OT)

It became a darkness, a dusky whirlwind, against every/’the whole’ earth/land of Egypt (for) three days. And no one ‘did not behold’/beheld his brother (for) three days, and no one ‘did not stand up out of’/rose out of his sleeping-place (for) three days. But (among) all the sons of Israel it (continually) was in/among all light, ‘(among) whom’/where they (continually) ‘wholly became’/dwelt. (Ex 10:22b-23, Greek OT)

(Israel) arranged (their men) side by side against Midian, according as the Lord enjoined Moses, and they killed every/all of male sex. ... (Moses said to the officers of the army:) "Kill every/everyone ‘connected with the manluy’/’of the males of the little ones’ ... and kill every woman, whoever has (and has had) knowledge of the male. (But) catch alive ... the women, whoever does not know a/any male sleeping-place." (Num 31:7,17-18, Greek OT)

(Isaiah said to Israel: "The Lord) will be for you into a holy place, and you will not be met together (with) Him as ‘a stone cutting towards’/’an offence’, nor as a rock to fall. But the house of Jacob (will be as) in ice and being seated in a hollowing out in Jerusalem." (Is 8:14b, Greek OT)

(The prophet said: “The righteous one) will inhabit a high/’highly situated’ cave of a stable rock. Bread will be given to him, and his water (is) faithful.” (Is 33:16a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said about the temple: “Is) not this house, on/in which My name is (and has been) called/invoked there on/in it, a cave of robbers in the very eyes of you?" (Jer 7:11a, Greek OT)

They carried a stone and put/laid it against, against the mouth of the den (into which Daniel had been thrown), and the king sealed (it). (Dan 6:17a, Greek OT, Theod)

It will be one (unique) day, and that day (is) known to the Lord, and (it is) not day and not night, and towards evening it/there will be light. (Zech 14:7, Greek OT)

They buried (Judith) in the cave of her male Manasseh. (Judith 16:23b)

(Solomon said:) “A righteous, if – according to the circumstances – he may ‘be in advance of come/coming to an end’/’die to early’, he will be in rest.” (Wisdom of Solomon 4:7)

(Solomon said to the Lord:) “You have arranged every thing throughout (with) measure and number and standing-place/balance.” (Wisdom of Solomon 11:20b)

(Solomon said:) “Alone/only on those (Egyptians) a weighty night (continually) lay.” (Wisdom of Solomon 17:20a or 17:21a, S)


The Latter Revelation:

(A leader said to Jesus): "My daughter has just now come to an end. However, having come put/lay Your hand against, against her, and she will live." ... (Jesus) (continually/repeatedly) said (to the crowd in the habitation): "Retire, for the little eyeball has not died, however/but she sleeps." (Matt 9:18b,24a)

(Jesus said to the moneychangers and the ones selling pigeons:) “You make (My house) a cave of robbers.” (Matt 21:13b)

(Some Sadducees said:) "But they/there (continually) were seven brothers by the side of us. And having taken to wife the first ‘came to an end’/died. ... Likewise and/also (with) the second and the third till the seventh." (Matt 22:25a,26)

From a sixth hour it became darkness * (א*) till a ninth hour. (Matt 27:45)

Having beheld (His disciples) being tormented in the driving, for it/there (continually) was a wind opposite them, around the fourth watch of the night (Jesus) comes towards them.” (Mark 6:48a)

(Jesus said to His disciples: ”The crowd) have already abode (with) Me three days and have not (knowledge) what they may eat.” (Mark 8:2b)

(Joseph) put/laid Jesus in a tomb (B, א,* א) which (continually) was having been (and being) hewn out of a rock. And he rolled a stone ‘to against’/against the door/entrance of the memorial tomb. (Mark 15:46b)

‘Having badly’/’being bad’ a certain slave of the “leader of a hundred men” (continually) was about to come to an end, (a slave) who (continually)was noble/honoured (for) him. (Luke 7:2)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

It/there (continually) were a certain one being weak, Lazarus from Bethany, out of the village of Mary and her sister Martha. (John 11:1)

(Mary's) brother Lazarus was weak. The sisters so dispatched away (men) towards (Jesus). (John 11:2b-3a)

Jesus (continually) welcomed Martha and her sister and Lazarus. (John 11:5)

Having so come Jesus found (Lazarus) already having (been) four days in the memorial tomb. (John 11:17)

Martha so spoke towards Jesus: “Lord, if You (continually) had been here, my brother had – according to the circumstances – not died. ... Jesus says to her: "Your brother will stand up." (John 11:21,23)

(Mary) said to Jesus: “Lord, if You (continually) had been here, my brother had – according to the circumstances - not died.” (John 11:32b)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

Sturkas had surgical fever for three days. He was very ill and lay in trance. But Lovis could many arts of healing and tended him as a mother with herbs and compresses, and for the surprise of all he rose from bed in the fourth day, weak in his legs but otherwise rather well. (Astrid Lindgren "Ronja Rövardotter" p 116; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

(1906 October) 6th. (The author) August Bondeson is stinking towards me out of his tomb as Levertin did, when his review against my new Svenska öden was printed after his dead in Sv(enska) D(agbladet). Bondeson mocked his father when the latter died one or two years ago, because he had "won back his childhood's faith". Bondeson went mad, was shut up and died. If he before this won back his childhood's faith, one does not get to know; such information they are on their guard to mention. (August Strindberg "Ockulta dagboken" p 245; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Three days Tekla has reception (for her dead mother) in the little room for the corpse, and after that the doors are opened and people come pouring in from the street to see the corpse. And then the doorway and the street are strewn with spruce-twigs; it's ringing in all Saint Gertrud's clocks; the priest comes, the bearers come; Rhine out of green glasses; six gevaldiger take the coffin on black harnesses and carry it out on the black bier. (August Strindberg "Svenska öden och äventyr 2" p 161; the short story "En häxa" from 1890)

(Bengt Skytte) passed away in the year 1683, and as one for the man characteristic trait may be stated, that his servants thought his death be a dissimulation, until they began to feel the smell of death. (Viktor Rydberg "Fribytaren på Östersjön II" p 510; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

A burying-place is not mentioned among the requisites for every full-organised Jewish community. These were: a law court, provision for the poor, a synagogue, a public bath, a “secessus”, a doctor, a surgeon, a scribe, a butcher, and a schoolmaster. ... Lazarus was ... not laid in a cemetery, but in his own private tomb in a cave – probably in a garden, the favourite place of interment. (Alfred Edersheim "The Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah Part II" p 316-317)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Nils Arvid Bringéus, John Dyson, Emilia Fogelklou, Folke Fridell, Gabriel Garcia Marquez, Peter Gillgren, Nikolaj Gogol, Carl Grimberg, Dick Harrison, Marianne Herrlin, Ragnar Järhult, Sven Lidman, Mo Yan, Laurence Rees, Enock H. Skooglund, Sven Stolpe, Anton Tjechov, Leo Tolstoj, Johan Turi, Nils Erik Villstrand, P. Waldenström, Wilhelm Åkerblom.


My own comments and speculations:

In a restoration perspective we see how like the Egytians was in darkness for three days, so will God's friends now be in darkness.

Like Abraham (who was called a "friend of God", Jas 2:23) was buried in a hole (together with his wife Sarah, Gen 25:9-10), so also Lazarus, a friend of Jesus (John 11:3), was buried in a hole.

In the wilderness sisters, who had not "had knowledge of the male ", lost their brothers. Now in a restoration perspective they will get them back.

Compare also My own comments and speculations to John 12:1-3 and John 20:21-23.


Paul said: "(Christ) has been (and is) raised (on) the third day according to the writings." (1 Cor 15:4b)


Greek words:

epikeimai (lie on) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Wisdom of Solomon 17:20(21)(S); Luke 23:23; John 11:38 – 1 Macc 6:57; 2 Macc 1:21; Luke 5:1; John 21:9; Acts 27:20; 1 Cor 9:16; Heb 9:10.

ozô (smell) Ex 8:14; John 11:39.

spêlaion (cave) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Judith 16:23; Matt 21:13; John 11:38 – 2 Macc 6:11; 10:6; Mark 11:17; Luke 19:46; Heb 11:38; Rev 6:15.

teleutaô (come to an end) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Wisdom of Solomon 4:7; Matt 9:18; 22:25; Luke 7:2; John 11:39 – Judith 8:3; 1 Macc 9:29; 2 Macc 6:30; 7:5,14,41; Wisdom of Solomon 3:18; Sir 8:7; 10:10; 11:28; 14:13,18; 23:17; 30:4; 37:31; Matt 2:19; 15:4; Mark 7:10; 9:48; Acts 2:29; 7:15; Heb 11:22.

tetartaios (on the fourth day) John 11:39. This word does not occur in the rest of the Bible. This can mean, that John wants to emphasize that this day is a quite special day, perhaps comparable with the unique day, which is mentioned in Zech 14:7.


Additional studies: Matt 14:25; 27:60; Mark 15:33; Luke 23:44; John 20:1; Rev 6:8; 8:1.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-04-11; 2011-09-07; 2014-05-18; 2014-11-13)

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11:40 Jesus says to her: “Did I not speak to you, that if – according to the circumstances – you may believe, you will behold the glory of God?”

Word for word (15 words in the Greek text): says (to)-her the Jesus: not (i/I)-spoke (to)-you that if-according-to-the-circumstances (you)-may-believe (you)-will-behold the glory (of)-the (of)-god?


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

Moses spoke towards the people: “Be confident! Stand and behold the saving, the one from the side of God, which He will make for you today.” (Ex 14:13a, Greek OT)

(Moses said to the commanders of the tribes of Israel and to their council of elders:) "You (continually/repeatedly) said: 'Behold, the Lord our God has shown us His glory.'" (Deut 5:24a, Greek OT)

(Job said to the Lord:) “Indeed (my) ears formerly (continually) heard a hearsay of You, but now, now my eye has beheld (and beholds) You.” (Job 42:5, Greek OT)

(David said to the Lord God:) “By the side of You (is) a spring of life. In Your light we will behold light.” (Ps 36:9 or 36:10, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) “If you – according to the circumstances – may not believe, not/certainly nor you may ‘let together’/perceive.” (Is 7:9b, Greek OT)

(The Lord) spoke to me: "You are My slave, Israel, and in you I will be glorified." (Is 49:3, Greek OT)

(Solomon said:) “(The Lord) is made conspicuous for the ones ‘do not not believing’/believing (in) Him.” (Wisdom of Solomon 1:2b)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) "Happy the ones having beheld (Eliah) and the ones having (and being) fallen asleep in a welcome (א*), for we will and/also live (in) life." (Sir 48:11)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to the father of the speechless:) ”All things (are) able for the believing one.” (Mark 9:23b)

Peter and the ones (being) together with him (continually) were being (and having been) weighted (with) sleep/sleepiness. But having been awake throughout, they beheld (Jesus') glory." (Luke 9:32a)

Having gazed into the heaven (Stephen) beheld a glory of God, and Jesus standing out of the right (parts) of God. (Acts 7:55b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

Jesus spoke to (Nathanael): "Because I spoke to you that I beheld you below the fig tree, you believe. You will behold greater things than these." (John 1:50)

(Jesus) made His glory visible, and His disciples believed into Him. (John 2:11b)

(The Jews) so spoke to Him: “What sign do You so make/do, in order that we may behold and may believe (in) You? What do You work?” (John 6:30)

Jesus spoke (to the sisters): " This weakness is not towards/’in regard to’ death, however/but in favour of the glory of God, in order that the Son of God may be glorified through it." ... (Jesus said to Martha:) "The one believing into Me, and/also if he – according to the circumstances – may die, he will live." (John 11:4b,25b)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

When the light from the other world illuminate the soul the man knows that he rests in God, even if he forces himself to answer all questions with words as "I don't know". In the divine darkness the knowing of the none-knowing has illuminated his heart. He now orients himself with the help of the inner seeing, wholly independent of the outer sight. This sight needed to be beaten out in order that he would be seeing. (Peter Halldorf "Andens folk" p 369 in comment to Acts 22; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

I went up to the precipice and looked down. It was already dark. One barely saw the meadow longer. But it was such a depth that one felt dizzy. If we jumped there, it was at least sure that we both came to Nangilima. No one needed to be left alone and lie grieving, weeping and be afraid. . . . "Skorpan/'the crust' Lejonhjärta", Jonathan said, "are you afraid?" "No . . . yes, I am afraid! But I nevertheless do it, Jonatan, I do it now . . . now . . . and then I never more become afraid. Never more afra . . . " . . . "Oh, Nangilima! Yes, Jonatan, I see the light! I see the light!" (Astrid Lindgren "Bröderna Lejonhjärta" p 227-228; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

If God has spoken, why is the world not convinced? . . . If you want to get to know the invisible, observe with open eye the visible. (August Strindberg "Ockulta dagboken" p 'Förord'; February 1896, quotation "Shelley" resp. "Talmud")


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Augustinus, Th. Brieger, Chas. E. Cowman, Ylva Eggehorn, Runar Eldebo, Hillis Grane, C.G. Hjelm, Thomas Mann, Sinikka Neuhaus, Fredrik Nielsen, Efraim Palmqvist, Lewi Pethrus, Torgny Segerstedt, Erik Sonesson, Sven Stolpe, Owe Wikström.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “the glory of God”, see also John 11:3-5.


Paul said to the believers in Corinth: (The faithless do) not ray the enlightening of the good little message of the glory of Christ, who is the image of God. (2 Cor 4:4b)

In faith (Moses) entirely left Egypt … for he was patient as (if) beholding the One (being) impossible to behold. (Heb 11:27)


Additional studies: John 20:29; Rom 6:4.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-04-12; 2011-09-08; 2014-05-19; 2014-11-14)

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11:41-42 They so lifted the stone. But Jesus lifted up the eyes and spoke: “Father, I am thankful to You, that You have heard Me. But I knew that You always hear Me. However, because of the crowd, the one standing (and having stood) round about, I spoke, in order that they may believe, that You has dispatched Me away.”

Word for word: 11:41 (19 words in the Greek text) (they)-lifted so the stone. the but Jesus lifted the eyes up and spoke: father, (i/I)-am-thankful (to)-you that (you)-heard me. 11:42 (20 words in the Greek text) i/I but 'knew-(and-have-known)'/knew that always me (you)-hear, however because-of the crowd the-(one) standing-(and-having-stood)-round-about (i/I)-spoke, in-order-that (they)-may-believe that you me have-dispatched-away.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The Lord said to Jesus/Joshua:) “You shall stand round about (Jericho), the warlike ones in a circle.” (Joshua 6:3a, Greek OT)

All the ‘boys and girls’/slaves of (David), the ones standing (and having stood) round about him, broke/tore through/asunder their garments in/to pieces. (2 Sam 13:31b, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said to the Lord:) ”I shall ‘confess out’/thank You, that You have ‘heard upon’/’listened to’ me.” (Ps 118:21a, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said to the Lord:) "Towards You I have lifted my eyes, (to You) dwelling in the heaven!" (Ps 123:1, Greek OT)

(Solomon said: ”Lord,) to be greatly stable is always ’by the side of’/’at hand’ for You.” (Wisdom of Solomon 11:21a)


The Latter Revelation:

Having taken the five breads/loaves and the two fishes/fish (and) having seen/looked up into the heaven (Jesus) blessed. (Mark 6:41a)

(Jesus) spoke to (His disciples): "When – according to the circumstances - you may pray, say: 'Father.'" (Luke 11:2a)

(Jesus) (continually/repeatedly) said/told a parable to (His disciples) towards/’in regard to’ that they always must pray. (Luke 18:1a)

Having stood/stopped the Pharisee (continually/repeatedly) prayed these things * (א*): “God, I am thankful to You that I am not just as … adulterers or as and/also this one, the tax collector. … The tax collector, standing ‘from afar’/far, did not (continually) want nor/even to lift against/up the eyes into/to the heaven. (Luke 18:11,13a)

(The women) found the stone being (and having been) rolled off from the memorial tomb. (Luke 24:2)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

Jesus took the loaves and gave thanks. (John 6:11a)

(The crowd) so spoke to (Jesus): “What sign do You so make/do, in order that we may behold and may believe (in) You? What do You work?” (John 6:30)

Then Jesus so spoke to them in plain language: “Lazarus has died, and I rejoice ‘because of’/’with a view to’ you, in order that you may believe, because I (continually) was not there. (John 11:14-15a)


Greek words:

periistêmi (stand round about) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) John 11:42 – Judith 5:22; 2 Macc 3:26; 14:9; Acts 25:7; 2 Tim 2:16; Tit 3:9.


Additional studies: Ps 121:1; Matt 11:25-26; Mark 14:36; Luke 3:21; 9:28; John 5:34; 6:23; 12:30; 17:1,8,21; 20:29; Acts 7:55.

W. Bingham Hunter "Contextual and genre implications for the historicity of John 11:41b-42"; Journal of Evangelical Theological Society 28.1 (March 1985): 53-70.

Max Wilcox "The 'Prayer' of Jesus in John XI:41b-42"; New Testament Studies 24 (1977): 128-132.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-04-12; 2011-09-09; 2014-05-19)

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11:43-44 And having spoken these things, He screamed (with) a great/loud voice: ”Lazarus, come here outside.” And (א,* א, A) the one being (and having been) deceased came out, being (and having been) bound to the feet and the hands (with) bandages and his sight/face being (and having been) bound around (with) a kerchief. Jesus says to them: “Loosen him and let (him) (א,* א, A) be to withdraw.”

Word for word: 11:43 (9 words in the Greek text) and these-(things) having-spoken (with)-(a)-voice great (he)-screamed: Lazarus, come-here outside. 11:44 (26 words in the Greek text) and came-out the-(one) being-(and-having-been)-deceased being-(and-having-been)-bound (to)-the feet and the hands (with)-bandages and the sight his (with)-(a)-kerchief was-(and-had-been)-bound-around. says (to)-them the Jesus: loosen him and let-be (to)-withdraw.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(On the fourth day) God made the two great luminaries … and/also the stars … so that (they would) ‘bring to’/give light upon the earth. (Gen 1:16,17b, Greek OT)

(Lot's) woman saw against (Sodom), into the things behind, and she became a pillar of salt. (Gen 19:26, Greek OT)

(The first-born daughter of Lot said to the younger:) ”Come here and 'we may'/'let us' give our father wine to drink.” (Gen 19:32a, Greek OT)

(Seeing Isaac coming Rebekah) spoke to the boy/servant: "Who is that man, going in the plain into our meeting?" But/and the boy/servant spoke: "This is my lord." But having taken the harvest tool she (continually) wrapped up herself. (Gen 24:65, Greek OT)

(Jacob) ... was (and had been) deceased. (Gen 50:15a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Moses:) “Now come here, I will dispatch you away towards Pharaoh.” (Ex 3:10a, Greek OT)

It became a darkness, a dusky whirlwind, against every/’the whole’ earth/land of Egypt (for) three days. And no one ‘did not behold’/beheld his brother (for) three days, and no one ‘did not stand up out of’/rose out of his sleeping-place (for) three days. But (among) all the sons of Israel it (continually) was in/among all light, ‘(among) whom’/where they (continually) ‘wholly became’/dwelt. (Ex 10:22b-23, Greek OT)

(The bound Samson) was aroused out of his sleep and spoke: "I will go out and make/do entirely as always/before and shake off (the ropes)." And he had not knowledge that the Lord stood aloof from him. And the ones of another/’the other’ tribe took upon/’hold of’ him and dug/gouged out his eyes, and they ... bound him (with) copper fetters, and he (continually) was grinding at the mill in a house of the watch. (Judges 16:20b-21, Greek OT, A)

(Nathan said to Bathsheba:) “Come here, come into towards the king David.” (1 Kings 1:13a, Greek OT)

(Many of the ones) who had beheld the first house/temple in/with its base and this house/temple in/with their eyes (continually) wept (with) a great/loud voice ... (and) the people screamed (in) a great/loud voice, and the voice (continually) was heard till from from afar. (Ezra 3:12b-13)

(The Lord) bound a girdle around hips of (kings). (Job 12:18b, Greek OT)

(God said to Job:) “Who is the One having let a rural/wild ass (be) free, but/and who has loosened its bands?” (Job 39:5 or 39:8, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said:) “The Lord loosens the ones being (and having been) bound.” (Ps 146:7b, Greek OT)

(The inhabitants in Jerusalem will say:) “We may bind the righteous one, because he is not beneficial to us.” (Is 3:10a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to His Servant:) “Open eyes of blind ones, lead out, out of bands (the ones) being (and having been) bound and out of a house of watch the ones being seated in darkness.” (Is 42:7, Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) “A spirit took me up, and I heard entirely from behind me a voice/sound of a great shaking.” (Ezek 3:12a, Greek OT)

(Eleazarus left) entirely/behind to his death (of a martyr) a prototype of nobleness and a remembrance of virtue, not only to the young ones, ‘however and’/’but also’ to the most of the nations. ... (Another martyr said to the king who was responsible for his torment and death:) "Exchanging/’undergoing a change’ by men, we wait for by God hopes to again be ‘stood up’/risen by Him, For, indeed, to you it will not be a resurrection into life." (2 Macc 6:31b; 7:14b)

(Judas) made/performed on account of the ones being (and having been) deceased the ‘propitiation out’/propitiation to loosen from the misses (of the mark of God). (2 Macc 12:45b)

(Solomon said:) “Souls of righteous ones (are) in a hand of God ... In eyes of the thoughtless ones (they are and have been) deceased ... but they are in peace.” (Wisdom of Solomon 3:1a,2a,3b)

(Solomon said to the Lord:) “You have a (judicial) authority of life and death, and You lead down into gates of Hades and You lead up.” (Wisdom of Solomon 16:13)

(Solomon said to the Lord: “The enemies of Israel were) worthy to be deprived of light and be thrown into a watch/custody (in) darkness, the ones having ‘entirely shut/’shut in’ and watched Your sons, through whom a light of an immortal law (continually) was about to be given (in) the age.” (Wisdom of Solomon 18:4)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said: “Eliah) raised a dead (body) out of death and out of Hades in/with a saying of (the) Highest One.” (Sir 48:5)


The Latter Revelation:

Jesus spoke to the “leadership of a hundred (men)”: ”Withdraw.” (Matt 8:13a)

(Jesus) will not quarrel, but/and He will not scream, but/and ‘anyone ... not’/noone will hear His voice in/on the streets. (Matt 12:19b)

(Jesus said to the youth:) “Come here, follow Me.” (Matt 19:21b)

(Jesus said to two of His disciples:) “You will find an ass being (and having been) bound and a foal in company with her. Having loosened them, lead (them) to Me.” ... Some of the ones standing there (continually/repeatedly) said to (the disciples): “What/why do you make/do loosening/’so that you loosen’ the foal?” But they spoke to them: “(We do) entirely as Jesus has spoken.” And they let them be. (Matt 21:2b; Mark 11:5-6)

(Jesus said:) "(In) a middle of a night it becomes (and has become) a scream: 'Behold, the bridegroom! Come out into a meeting (א,* א, B).'" (Matt 25:6a)

Having again shouted (with) a great/loud voice Jesus ‘let ... be’/left the spirit. ... And the memorial tombs were opened, and many bodies of the holy ones, having been (and being) fallen asleep, were raised. (Matt 27:50,52)

(Jesus said:) “What is more without bothers to speak to the paralytic: “Your misses (of the mark of God) are let be (alone)” or to speak: “Raise and lift your couch and withdraw (P88,א,*א).” (Mark 2:9)

(Pilate) (continually) (א,*א) wondered, if (it is so that Jesus) already is (and has been) deceased. (Mark 15:44a)

Someone from the side of the leader of the synagogue said that/: ”Your daughter is (and has been) deceased. ... “ (Luke 8:49b)

(The Lord said:) "This (woman), being a daughter of Abraham, whom the adversary had bound (for), behold, eighteen years, had she not to be loosened from this band (on) the sabbath day?" (Luke 13:16)

... (With) great/loud voices (the people) demanded, that Jesus should be crucified. (Luke 23:23a)

(For) three days (Saul) (continually) was not seeing, and he did not eat, nor he drank. ... Having put the hands against, against (Saul) (Ananias) spoke: “... The Lord has dispatched (and dispatches) me away ... in that way (that) you may see up and be fulfilled of holy spirit.” And straightaway as scales fell from, from his eyes. (Acts 9:9,17b-18a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Jesus said to the Jews:) " Amen, amen, I say to you, that an hour comes * (א*), when the dead (bodies) may (P66, א,* א) hear the voice of the Son of God, and * (P66, א*) having heard they will live." (John 5:25)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 - about 1500

When (Jesus) some time gave life back to a dead person, it happened because of mercy and as a sign that the kingdom of God was near and that the messianic time had come. (Bo Giertz "Evangelium enligt Lukas" p 89 in comment to Luk 7:11-19; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

The pattern of the life of all Christians is determined by the movement from death to life experienced by Lazarus. Christians have already risen with Christ (Rom 6:4f; Col 2:12; 3:1). This movement, to be completed only at the last day, has already taken place in regard to sin; the resurrection of Lazarus therefore is an acted parable of Christian conversion and life. (C.K. Barrett "The Gospel according to St John" p 395)


about 1500 and time before

(Jesus) said not “Arise” but “Come forth”, conversing with the dead man as though living. (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers XIV:238)

Lot's wife, who became a pillar of salt, is the type of the church. (Irenaeus, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol I, p 508)

The ordinary covering of the head was the so-called Sudar (or Sudarim), a kerchief twisted into a turban, and which might also be worn round the neck. (Alfred Edersheim "The Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah Part I" p 622)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Eric S. Alexandersson, Gottfried Arnold, Annica Dahlström, Charles Dickens, Carl Grimberg, Edwin Hodder, Viktor Johansson, Karl Knutsson, Valborg Lindgärde, Lars-Arne Norborg, Saint-John Perse, Lewi Pethrus, Sven Edvin Salje, Solveig von Schoultz, Hugh Silvester, Anfin Skaaheim, Margareta Strömstedt, Tomas Tranströmer, Morris West.


My own comments and speculations:

In Soar - in the nearness of Sodom - Lot's wife became a pillar of salt. In Bethany - in the nearness of (a disgraced) Jerosolyma/Jerusalem, the spiritual Sodom (Rev 11:8) - the bound Lazarus, Jesus' wife (cf. Rev 21:9), can move. In a restoration perspective we see how the immovable wife of Lot moves in the person of Lazarus. Compare also the Targum (Jerusalem) which says that Lot's wife will be a pillar of salt until the resurrection of the dead (bodies).

In a restoration perspective we also see how Rebekah (the name means "binding" or "tied up"), covered with a veil and future wife of the son and the man Isaac, now leaves her cave (or hide-out) (cf. John 11:38) and become loosened in the person of Lazarus, future wife of the Son and the Man Jesus.

We see how Israel in Egypt was spared from the thick darkness. No one of the Egyptians could see his brother for three days or see him rise from his place for three days. Now - in a restoration perspective - we see how the disciples - "Israel" - is struck in the person of Lazarus in the same way as in times of old Egypt. And as the brothers in Egypt saw the light and could move after the three days, so the brother Lazarus now experiences the same thing.

A comparison with Samson is also possible. The Greek word for "rouse out of sleep" in John 11:11 only occurs there in the NT. Four times it occurs in the OT, twice in connection with the sleeping and bound Samson, who at last couldn't be free. But now he is free in the person of Lazarus.

And Jesus is the Lord, who loosen the bound ones (Ps 146:7). And Judith (and Manasseh) leaves her cave (Judith 16:23).

In Matt 12:19 we meet a humilated Jesus, who does not scream. In John 11:43 we have a feeling of a glorified Jesus, who on the fourth day (or on the fiftieth day, the day of the Spirit) screams. Cf. My own comments and speculations to John 20:20.

Concerning the wonder as a sign, see My own comments and speculations to John 21:4-7a.


Greek words:

deuro (plural of deute, see John 4:27-30) (come here) (in the NT + examples in the OT) Ex 3:10; 1 Kings 1:13; Matt 19:21; John 11:43 – Gen 24:31; 31:44; 37:13; Num 10:29; Judges 18:19(B); 1 Sam 17:44; 2 Sam 13:11; 1 Kings 1:53; 2 Kings 10:16; 14:8; 1 Macc 12:45; Mark 10:21; Luke 18:22; Acts 7:3,34; Rom 1:13; Rev 17:1; 21:9.

deô (bind) (in the NT + examples in the OT) Is 3:10; Luke 13:16; John 11:44 – Gen 38:28; Judges 16:5,7-8; 2 Kings 7:10; 17:4; Ezek 27:24; 37:17; Tobit 8:3(BA); Judith 6:13; 16:8; Wisdom of Solomon 17:16(18); Sir 28:19; Matt 12:29; 13:30; 14:3; 16:19; 18:18; 21:2; 22:13; 27:2; Mark 3:27; 5:3-4; 6:17; 11:2,4; 15:1,7; Luke 19:30; John 18:12,24; 19:40; Acts 9:2,14,21; 12:6; 20:22; 21:11,13,33; 22:5,29; 24:27; Rom 7:2; 1 Cor 7:27,39; Col 4:3; 2 Tim 2:9; Rev 9:14; 20:2.

thnêskô (decease) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) 2 Macc 12:45; Wisdom of Solomon 3:2; Mark 15:44; Luke 8:49; John 11:44 – Tobit 1:17; 8:12; 1 Macc 6:17; 2 Macc 12:40; Baruch 2:17; 3:4; Matt 2:20; Luke 7:12; John 19:33; Acts 14:19; 25:19; 1 Tim 5:6.

keiria (bandage) John 11:44 – Prov 7:16.

kraugazô (scream) Ezra 3:13; Matt 12:19; John 11:43 – John 12:13; 18:40; 19:6; Acts 22:23.

perideô (bind around) Job 12:18; John 11:44.

soudarion (kerchief) John 11:44 – Luke 19:20; John 20:7; Acts 19:12.


Additional studies:

Gen 24:31; 31:44; 37:13; 2 Sam 13:11; 2 Kings 14:8; Matt 27:46; Mark 10:21; John 5:21,28; Acts 7:3,34; Rom 4:17; 6:4-5; Col 2:12; 3:1; Rev 1:10,15; 4:1,5; 5:2; 6:10; 7:2,10; 8:12-13; 10:3; 11:7,12; 12:10; 14:7,9,15,18; 16:1,17; 17:1; 19:1,17; 21:3,9.


Delbert Burkett "Two Accounts of Lazarus' Resurrection in John 11"; Novum Testamentum 36 (1994): 209-232.

Roderick Dunkerley "Lazarus"; New Testament Studies 5 (1959): 321-327.

Charles H. Giblin "Suggestion, Negative Response and Positive Action in St. John's Portrayal of Jesus (John 2:1-11; 4:46-54; 7:2-14; 11:1-44)"; New Testament Studies 26 (1980): 197-211.

Anthony T. Hanson "The Old Testament Background to the Raising of Lazarus"; Texte und Untersuchungen 112 (1973): 252-255.

Barnabas Lindars "Rebuking the Spirit: A New Analysis of the Lazarus Story of John 11"; New Testament Studies 38 (1992): 89-104.

James P. Martin "History and Eschatology in the Lazarus Narrative"; Scottish Journal of Theology 17 (1964): 332-343.

Basil Osborne "A Folded Napkin in an Empty Tomb: John 11:44 and 20:7 Again"; Heythrop Journal 14 (1973): 437-440.

T.E. Pollard "The Raising of Lazarus (John XI)" Texte und Untersuchungen 112 (1973): 434-443.

William E. Reiser "The case of the Tidy Tomb: The Place of the Napkins in John 11:44 and 20:7"; Heythrop Journal 14 (1973): 47-57.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-04-13; 2011-09-11; 2014-05-20)

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11:45-46 So many out of the Jews, the ones having come towards Mary (P45, P66, א,* א, A) and having viewed the things which He had made/done, believed into Him. But some out of them went away towards the Pharisees and spoke to them the things which Jesus had made/done.

Word for word: 11:45 (17 words in the Greek text) Many so out-of the Jews the-(ones) having-come towards the Mary and having-viewed (the-things)-which (he)-made, believed into him. 11:46 (15 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus) some but out-of them went-away towards the Pharisees and spoke (to)-them (the-things)-which made the Jesus.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

Israel beheld the great hand, (the things) which the Lord had made/done (with) the Egyptians. But/and the people feared the Lord, and they believed (in) the Lord and (in) His attendant Moses. (Ex 14:31, Greek OT)

(The Lord) blamed the Red Sea, and it was dried. And He showed (His people) the way in an abyss as in a desolate (district). ... And they believed in His sayings, and they sang His praise. (Ps 106:9,12, Greek OT)


The Latter Revelation:

(Abraham said to the rich man:) "If (your five brothers) do not hear Moses and the prophets, nor they will be persuaded, if - according to the circumstances - someone may stand up out of dead (bodies)." (Luke 16:31)

A much/many-headed crowd of the Jews (א*) (continually) hearkened the faith. (Acts 6:7b)

Many out of the (Jews in Berea) believed. (Acts 17:12a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

As (Jesus) (continually) was in/with (the people) in the (disgraced) Jerosolyma/Jerusalem in/at the ‘paschal lamb’/Passover in/during the feast, many believed into His name looking at His signs which He (continually) made. (John 2:23)

Many out of the crowd believed into Him and (continually) said: “When the christ/'anointed one' – according to the circumstances – may come, not will He make/do more signs than this One makes/does (א*)?” But (P66,א,*א) the Pharisees heard the crowd grumbling these things on account of Him. (John 7:31-32a)


Additional studies: Matt 22:34; John 7:45; 8:30; 10:42; 11:19,57.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-04-13; 2011-09-11; 2014-05-21)

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11:47-48 The priest leaders and the Pharisees so led a council together, and they (continually) said: “What do we make/do, because this One, the Man, makes many signs? If – according to the circumstances – we may let him be in this way, all believe (א*) into Him, and the Romans will come and lift/’take away’ and/both our place and our nation.”

Word for word: 11:47 (19 words in the Greek text) Led-together so the priest-leaders and the Pharisees (a)-council and (they)-(continually)-said: what make-(we) because this the man many signs makes. 11:48 (21 words in the Greek text) if-according-to-the-circumstances (we)-may-let-be him in-this-way, all believe into him, and will-come the Romans and will-lift our and/both the place and the nation.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The man) spoke to (Jacob): "What is your name?" But/and he spoke: "Jacob." But/and (the man) spoke to him: "Your name shall not any longer be called Jacob, however/but Israel shall be your name, because you have been stable in, in company with God and able in company with men." (Gen 32:27-28, Greek OT)

(Aaron) made the signs opposite (Israel). And the people believed. (Ex 4:30b-31a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Moses:) “I will harden Pharaoh's heart and make My signs and omens full in earth/'the land' Egypt.” (Ex 7:3, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Moses:) “’Till what’/’how long’ will (this people) not believe (in) Me in/’by means of’ all the signs, which I have made in/among them?” (Num 14:11b, Greek OT)

A prophet as Moses has not yet stood up in Israel ... in/with all the signs and omens which the Lord dispatched away him to make them in earth/'the land' Egypt, to Pharaoh and to all his attendants/servants and to every/all his earth/land. (Deut 34:10a,11, Greek OT)

(The people in Ekron said to leaders of the Philistines:) “Dispatch out the chest/ark of the God of Israel, and make it ‘sit down’/’be placed’ into its place, and it may not/certainly not put us and our people to death.” ... (1 Sam 5:11b, Greek OT)

(Haman) talked towards the king Artaxerxes saying: “A nation ‘begins under’/exists being (and having been) sown asunder in/among the nations in every/all your kingdom. But/and their laws are different ‘to the side of’/’in comparison with’ all the nations, but/and they ‘hear ... from the side of’/ignore the laws of the king, and it ‘does not carry together’/’is not profitable’ for the king to allow them. If it seems the king, let it be subject to statutes to perish them.” (Esther 3:8-9a, Greek OT)

(David said:) “I have not sat down in company with a council of vanity/folly.” (Ps 26:4a, Greek OT)

(Solomon said: "The ones who) count/consider in councils, (such a man) meets together with uneducated/'rude ones' death. He dies thoughtless in misses (of the mark of God)." (Prov 24:8-9a, Greek OT)

(King Darius wrote: "The God of Daniel) takes ‘in stead’/’part with’ and delivers and makes/performs signs and omens in heaven and upon the earth." (Dan 6:27a, Greek OT, Theod)

Seeds out of (the despicable person) shall stand up and profane the holy place of the sovereignty and change the place of the uninterrupted continuation (of the burnt offering). And having ‘made unseen’/disfigured they will give/allow an abomination. (Dan 11:31, Greek OT, Theod)

(The sons of Israel) feared extremely, extremely from/’owing to’ the face/presence of the (Assyrian leader of the officers) and were troubled on account of Jerusalem and the temple of the Lord their God. (Judith 4:2)

(Lysias would) ‘lift out’/’take away’ the stability of Israel and the remnant of Jerusalem and lift/’take away’ their recollection from the place. (1 Macc 3:35b)

(The roman people promised the Jews:) "If – according to the circumstances – a war former/first may 'step together with'/happen a nation of Jews, the Romans ... will combat together with (them). ... " (1 Macc 8:27b)

(The king) heard, that the Jews were spoken to (as) friends ... and brothers by Romans. (1 Macc 14:40a)

The Lord did not choose the nation because of the place, however/but the place because of the nation. (2 Macc 5:19)


The Latter Revelation:

(Herod) was troubled and every/all (a disgraced) Jerosolyma/Jerusalem in company with him. And (he led) together every/all the priest leaders and scribes of the people. (Matt 2:3b-4a)

The priest leaders and the elders of the people were led together. (Matt 26:3a)

The priest leaders and the Pharisees were ‘led together’/assembled towards Pilate saying: "Lord, we remember that that One, the One leading astray, still living spoke: "After three days I am raised." (Matt 27:62b-63)

Early in the day having made ready (א,*א) a council meeting the priest leaders in company with the elders and the (א,*א) scribes and the whole council and having bound Jesus they straight off carried Him away and gave Him by the side of to Pilate. (Mark 15:1)

(The scribes and the Pharisees) talked throughout/continually towards/with one another (over) what they – according to the circumstances – ‘oh, that may’/could make/do to Jesus. (Luke 6:11b)

(Some of the elders of the Jews said about the “leader of a hundred men”:) “He welcomes/’treats ... kindly’ our nation.” (Luke 7:5a)

(The multitude) began to accuse (Jesus before Pilate) saying: "We have found this One turning throughout/asunder our nation and hindering us to give Caesar tributes and saying Himself be 'a christ'/'an anointed one', a king." (Luke 23:2)

(The leaders and the elders of the people said about the apostles:) "What shall we do (with) these men? For that indeed a known sign has become/’come about’ (and becomes/’comes about’) through them (is) visible to all the ones dwelling in Jerusalem, and we are not able to deny (it)." (Acts 4:16)

Through the hands of the apostles it (continually) became many signs and omens in/among the people. (Acts 5:12a)

(False witnesses said to the Jews:) “We have heard (Stephen) saying/say, that Jesus, this Nazorean, will loosen down this (holy) place.“ (Acts 6:14a)

(The Jews from Asia said to males of Israel:) “This (Paul) is the man, the one teaching all everywhere ‘down from’/against the people and the law and this place. Still/furthermore he both/moreover and/also has led Greeks into, into the sanctuary, and he has made (and makes) this holy place common.” (Acts 21:28b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

The Jews so answered and spoke to (Jesus): "What sign do You show us, because You make/do these things?" ... But as (Jesus) (continually) was in/with (the people) in the (disgraced) Jerosolyma/Jerusalem in/at the ‘paschal lamb’/Passover in/during the feast, many believed into His name looking at His signs which He (continually) made. (John 2:18b,23)

The priest leaders and the Pharisees dispatched away rowers/servants, in order that they might seize (Jesus). ... The rowers/servants came so towards the priest leaders and Pharisees, and those say (P66, א,* א) to them: “Because of what did you not lead/bring Him?” The rowers/servants answered: “’Nor at any time’/never has a man talked in this way as this One, the Man, talks (P66,א*)!” (John 7:32b,45-46)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

The council consisted of seventy members and the chief priest. It answered to the elders Moses had chosen to together with him lead the people in the wilderness. (Peter Halldorf "Andens folk" p 60; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Sofia Andersson, Håkan Bengtsson, Anton Blanck, Henry Daniel-Rops, LarsOlov Eriksson, Jan Fridegård, Krister Hanell, Alf Henrikson, Lars Levi Laestadius, Dieter Mitternacht, Ingun Montgomery, Fredrik Nielsen, Boris Pasternak, Martin P:n Nilsson, Anders Runesson, Adolf Schück, Bo Setterlind, Isaac Bashevis Singer, Mikael Tellbe, Kerry Usher, P. Waldenström, Cecilia Wassén.


My own comments and speculations:

In a restoration perspective we can see, how the friendly relation between Jews and Romans in 1 Macc now has been changed to a relation of fear for the Jews.

Concerning “led ... together”, see also John 4:35-36.


Paul said to the believers in Corinth: "Jews demand signs." (1 Cor 1:22a)


Greek words:

ethnos (nation) (in the NT; frequent in the OT) Luke 7:5; 23:2; John 11:48 - Matt 4:15; 6:32; 10:5,18; 12:18,21; 20:19,25; 21:43; 24:7,9,14; 25:32; 28:19; Mark 10:33,42; 11:17; 13:8,10; Luke 2:32; 12:30; 18:32; 21:10,24-25; 22:25; 24:47; John 11:50-52; 18:35. Acts 2:5; 4:25,27; 7:7,45; 8:9; 9:15; 10:22,35,45; 11:1,18; 13:19,46-48; 14:2,5,16,27; 15:3,7,12,14,17,19,23; 17:26; 18:6; 21:11,19,21,25; 22:21; 24:2(3),10,17; 26:4,17,20,23; 28:19,28. Rom 1:5,13; 2:14,24; 3:29; 4:17-18; 9:24,30; 10:19; 11:11-13,25; 15:9-12,16,18,27; 16:4,26; 1 Cor 1:23; 5:1; 10:20(P66,א,*א,A); 12:2; 2 Cor 11:26; Gal 1:16; 2:2,8-9,12,14-15; 3:8,14; Eph 2:11; 3:1,6,8; 4:17; Col 1:27; 1 Thess 2:16; 4:5; 1 Tim 2:7; 3:16; 2 Tim 4:17; 1 Pet 2:9,12; 4:3; Rev 2:26; 5:9; 7:9; 10:11; 11,2,9,18; 12:5; 13:7; 14:6,8; 15:4; 16:19; 17:15; 18:3,23, 19:15; 20:3,8; 21:24,26; 22:2.

Rômaios (Roman) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) 1 Macc 8:27; 14:40; John 11:48 – 1 Macc 8:1,23,29; 12:16; 15:16; 2 Macc 4:11; 8:10,36; 11:34; Acts 2:10; 16:21,37-38; 22:25-27,29; 23:27; 25:16; 28:17.

synedrion (council) (in the NT + one example in the Apocrypha) Mark 15:1; John 11:47 – 2 Macc 14:5; Matt 5:22; 10:17; 26:59; Mark 13:9; 14:55; Luke 22:66; Acts 4:15; 5:21,27,34,41; 6:12,15; 22:30; 23:1,6,15,20,28; 24:20.


Additional studies: Jer 7:14; Judith 8:21; 1 Macc 2:7; 7:26; 13:6; Wisdom of Solomon 10:16; Matt 24:15; Mark 13:14; 14:1-2; 15:29; Luke 22:2; John 2:11,20; 3:26; 4:20; 11:57; 12:19,37; Acts 6:12-15; Rev 11:2; 20:9.

Johannes Beutler "The Ways of Gathering: The Plot to Kill Jesus in John 11:47-50"; New Testament Studies 40 (1994): 399-406


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-04-14; 2011-09-15; 2014-05-27)

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11:49-50 But one, a certain one out of them, Caiaphas, being a priest leader of that period of time, spoke to them: “You do not know nothing/anything, nor you count that it 'carries/brings together'/'is profitable' * (א,*א) 'in order that'/that one man may die in favour of the people, and (that) not the whole nation may perish.”

Word for word: 11:49 (17 words in the Greek text) one but (a)-certain-(one) out-of them, Caiaphas, (a)-priest-leader being (of)-the period-of-time (of)-that, spoke (to)-them: you not 'know-(and-have-known'/know nothing, 11:50 (17 words in the Greek text) nor (you)-count that (it)-carries-together in-order-that one man may-die in-favour-of the people and not whole the nation may-perish.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The father-in-law Jethro said to Moses:) "You will be entirely ruined ... you and every/all this people, who are in company with you. This word (to judge between a man and his neighbour) is weighty to you. You will not be able to make/do it alone. So now hear Me and I will give you counsel, and God will be in company with you. Become you to the people the things towards God. ... And you will be able to stand by the side of, and every/all this people also will arrive into their place in company with peace. ... And Moses ‘said at’/named able males from every/all Israel and made them ... leaders of a thousand (men) and of a hundred (men) and of fifty (men) and of ten (men)." (Ex 18:18b-19a,23b,25a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Moses:) “Aaron shall ‘propitiate out’/propitiate ... once 'of the'/every period of time.” (Ex 30:10a, Greek OT)

(The Lord spoke to Moses about "this evil synagogue/gathering":) "They will be utterly used up in this desolate (district) and they will die there." ... And/but Jesus/Joshua ... and Caleb ... lived. (Num 14:35b,38a, Greek OT)

The Lord spoke to Moses: "Take all the rulers of the people and expose them to shame by the side of the Lord over against the sun, and the wrath of the passion of the Lord may turn away from Israel." (Num 25:4, Greek OT)

(Haman) talked towards the king Artaxerxes saying: “A nation ‘begins under’/exists being (and having been) sown asunder in/among the nations in every/all your kingdom. But/and their laws are different ‘to the side of’/’in comparison with’ all the nations, but/and they ‘hear ... from the side of’/ignore the laws of the king, and it ‘does not carry together’/’is not profitable’ for the king to allow them. If it seems the king, let it be subject to statutes to perish them.” ... And Haman was hung up upon the wood/’piece of wood’, which he had made ready for (the righteous) Mordecai, and then 'the king grew weary of the passion'/'the passion of the king abated'. (Esther 3:8-9a; 7:10a, Greek OT)

(Mordecai said:) “The nations having/had been led together 'against to perish-/'in quest of perishing' the name of the Jews. But my nation, this is Israel, the ones having cried towards God and having been saved.” (Esther 10:3e-fa/F5-6a, Greek OT)

(Solomon said: "The ones who) count/consider in councils, (such a man) meets together with uneducated/'rude ones' death. He dies thoughtless in misses (of the mark of God)." (Prov 24:8-9a, Greek OT)

The soul (of the boy/servant of the Lord) was given ‘to the side of’/over into death and He was counted in/among the lawless ones. And He Himself carried up misses (of the mark of God) of many and because of their misses (of the mark of God) He was given ‘to the side of’/over. (Is 53:12b, Greek OT)

(The Romans) believe (in that) one man (shall) begin/lead them ‘according to’/every period of time and be lord of/over every/all their earth/land. (1 Macc 8:16a)

I so call the ones ‘this is what’/here entreating/getting the book to the side of, not to ‘draw together’/’be discouraged’ because of the profits/misfortunes, but count the vengeances, not towards destruction however/but to be towards education of our descent. (2 Macc 6:12)

Maccabaeus nodded on/at all things which Lysias ‘called to the side of’/’put forward’, reflecting the thing carrying/bringing together. (2 Macc 11:15a)

“We may ‘administer justice entirely’/’give judgment against’ (the righteous one) (to) an indecent death.” … These things (the wicked men) counted, and/but they were led astray, for their badness blinded them away/entirely.” (Wisdom of Solomon 2:20a,21)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “All things it ‘does not carry together’/’is not profitable’ for all.” (Sir 37:28a)

In that period of time two elders out of the people were ‘shown from’/appointed (as) judges. (Susanna v 5a, Theod)


The Latter Revelation: (Jesus said to His disciples:) “It ‘carries together’/’is profitable’ for you, ‘in order that’/that one of your limbs may perish, and (that) your whole body may not be thrown into hell.” (Matt 5:29b)

Having come out the Pharisees took a council meeting ‘down from’/against (Jesus), in what way they might perish Him. (Matt 12:14)

The priest leaders and the elders of the people were led together into the court of the priest leader, the one being said/called Caiafas. (Matt 26:3)

(Jesus was dispatched away) to proclaim an agreeable period of time of the Lord. (Luke 4:19)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “I say to you that this, the thing having been (and being) written must be ended in Me, the/this: ‘And He was counted in company with lawless.’ For and/also the thing on account of Me has an end.” (Luke 22:37)

One, a certain one out of (the ones standing around) hit the slave of the priest leader and took off his right ear. (Luke 22:50)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

For in this way God welcomed the adornment/’adorned world’, so that He gave the Son, the only descendant, in order that 'every the'/everyone believing into Him may not perish however/but have agelong life. (John 3:16)

(Jesus said to the Pharisees:) "I am the fine shepherd. The fine shepherd gives (P45,א*) His soul in favour of the sheep." (John 10:11)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 - about 1500

Caiaphas could hardly realize the full meaning of his own words (18:14). He was simply expressing the thought of a political collaborator with Rome; and yet those words express the central doctrine of the Christian faith, the substitutionary atonement of Christ. (C.C. Ryrie "The Ryrie Study Bible" p 1624)

The Jewish martyrs who suffered in the time of the Maccabees were said to have offered themselves as a sacrifice for the nation. (C.H. Dodd “The Founder of Christianity” p 118)

In Uppsala, at the same time as Röda Rummet was published, a student had risen with a rapture, which was unexpected in such a sceptic period, and he had spoken for the suffering mankind, with consequence that all the persons celebrating an anniversary got the food in their throats. It was a new terrible outcry - and a new reaction. I thought and worked. Perhaps the fruit was not ripe when I shook the tree 1879, I thought. Perhaps it has riped now! Autumn 1883 Det Nya Riket was published. I shook hard that time and now the apples fell down, so that it clattered in the ground; wormeaten, wholly riped, yes some altogether rotten! And that many struck me on my head, I need not add. It was satire! Personal? Yes! And no! The institutions were so protected by the bodies of the persons, that I could not reach the former without striking the latter, and I had come to the conviction that the situation was so extreme that here one had to die for the people, die with the reputation of an author, with social respect, status, future! And I died! It was a corpse of joy! Bäckström wrote in joy funeral verse and the artistes of the dramatic theatre acted a memorial play and uncle Jolin played the penitent robber and Hedberg repented his old sins and committed a new, and the enemies expressed their condolences and the friends repudiated. And so a crowd of corpse plunderers crept up, and then undertakers! And the corpse was interviewed by a co-opted member of the lower courtiers and was inspected and see, it was found dead - and so they shouted: Alls todt. (August Strindberg "Den litterära reaktionen i Sverige" p 349; deleted section; Alls todt = All's todt or Alles tot, 'All is dead', term of hunters being used to inform the hunting-party that the quarry has been brought down; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

I want to follow (Ibsen's) example becoming Moses on the mountain! This is my decision! But to become this I must become a man of reputation! Well! I suppose I must learn also this! What the devil if my soul goes to hell, if I with that can save 10,000; and this I only can, if I get the people to listen to me! And that they will do! All means are allowed, without the dishonest ones, as to accept a ribbon of an order or to sell one's opinion! (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev IV 1884" p 146; letter 1884-05-04 to Björnstjerne Björnson; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

(Sweden's) people has perhaps more than any other an inclination to forget itself, in order to live in the weal and woe of mankind. . . . A small people with a glorious historical object and therefore with a great responsibility to God may be able to see the truth in its face, acknowledge the law of decay which rules over all temporal, and say loudly, that it can die, but with honour, in the fulfilling of its task. China's long life is not to prefer to Hellas' short and beautiful. Everybody feeling in this way is warmed by the vision of the poet, in which the last Swede dies on Sweden's last banner, for it is a death, which secures immortality to a deceased people. . . . Modest as (Carl Wilhelm August Strandberg) was, he wanted in clothing foreign poems in Swedish attire see his calling much more than in the creating of independent pieces of poetry. But whichever domain he moved he was the master of the word. . . . The pious patriarch (Jesper Svedberg) hoped that the Swedish language, such as he could admire it in his bible, would survive judgment day and sound in the eternal Jerusalem before the face of the Lord. Then he says, every people without any learning will understand the languages of the others and agree with them, when they sing the song of Moses, the servant of God, and the lamb, but when Sweden's angel begins to sing, all the other peoples will sing with us Swedes in Swedish: Nu tacker Gud, allt folk, med hjärtats fröjd och gamman/Now, all peoples, thank God merrily with all your heart! (Viktor Rydberg "Minnestal över C.W.A. Strandberg - Inträdestal i Svenska Akademien 1878" p 124,131,145,147-148; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

I suppose . . . in my upset frame of mind that the whole world is oppressed. Then my suffering becomes doubled one thousand times - I take the sufferings of everybody within me - I become a kind of Christ - I become the representative of the mankind - I no longer get angry - but wrathful like Moses on a certain occasion, I do not remember! (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev I 1858-1876" p 198; letter 1875-06-28 to wife and husband Siri von Essen and the baron and the captain at Svea Livgarde Carl Gustaf Wrangel; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

(Rector Suenonius) again (lifted) his voice: "I come in order to in presence of this servant of the law interrogate you, Ingrid, about the state of your soul and your earthly conduct, about which much evil is said. You are one of the sheep in my flock, and it is the duty of the shepherd to search for the plague-stricken and separate them from the others, in order that the whole flock may not run aground. First of all answer me: Why have I not since a long time seen you in the temple, where the word is preached through my mouth?" (Viktor Rydberg "Fribytaren på Östersjön I" p 75; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


about 1500 and time before

There is in Rabbinic writings frequent reference to the sufferings, and even the death of the Messiah, and these are brought into connection with our sins ... and in one most remarkable comment (Yalkut on Is. ix.1) the Messiah is represented as willingly taking upon Himself all these sufferings, on condition that all Israel – the living, the dead, and those yet unborn – should be saved, and that, in consequence of His work, God and Israel should be reconciled, and Satan cast into hell. But there is only the most indistinct reference to the removal of sin by Messiah, in the sense of vicarious sufferings. (Alfred Edersheim "The Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah Part I" p 165)

In Gen. Rab. XCIV.9 there is a discussion of whether one man should be given up to save the lives of others, based on the incident in 2 Sam. 20 in which Sheba was slain and the city of Abel spared. Most agreed that one man should die and thus save others. (Leon Morris "The Gospel according to John" p 503)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Carl Jonas Love Almqvist, Ingmar Brohed, George Carey, Sven Danell, Jan Fridegård, Dag Hammarskjöld, Alf Henrikson, Johannes V. Jensen, Sven Lidman, Martin Luther, Sven Edvin Salje, Ragnar Thoursie, Göran Åberg.


My own comments and speculations:

Cf. Gen Rabbah 94.9 concerning Israel and his descendants:: “If the nations said to a group of the people: ‘Give us one of you and we shall kill him, and if not we shall kill you all’ – let them all be killed and not hand over a single son of Israel. But if they specified a single individual … they should hand him over and not permit all of them to be killed.”

In this period of time Israel had two priest leaders, Caiaphas and Annas (cf. Luke 3:2). Cf. the two judges in Susanna v 5.

Se also My own comments and speculations to John 18:12-14.


Paul said to the believers in Corinth: “For the welcome of Christ holds us together, having judged this, that/: ‘One has died in favour of all; consequently all have died.’” (2 Cor 5:14)


Greek words:

eniautos (period of time) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) 1 Macc 8:16; Susanna v 5; Luke 4:19; John 11:49 – 1 Macc 3:28; 4:28,59; 7:49; 8:4; 10:40,42; 11:34; 13:52; 2 Macc 10:8; Wisdom of Solomon 7:19; Sir 33:7; John 11:51; 18:13; Acts 11:26; 18:11; Gal 4:10; Heb 9:7,25; 10:1,3; Jas 4:13; 5:17; Rev 9:15.

Kaiafas (Caiaphas) Matt 26:3; John 11:49 – Matt 26:57; Luke 3:2; John 18:13-14,24,28; Acts 4:6.

laos (people) (in the NT) Matt 26:3; John 11:50 – Matt 1:21; 2:4,6; 4:16,23; 9:35(א*); Matt 13:15; 15:8; 21:23; 26:3,5,47; 27:1,25,64; Mark 7:6; 13:10(א*); Mark 14:2; Luke 1:10,17,21,68,77; 2:10,31-32; 3:15,18,21; 6:17; 7:1,16,29; 8:47; 9:13; 18:43; 19:47-48; 20:1,6,9,19,26,45; 21:23,38; 22:2,66; 23:5,13-14,27,35; 24:19; John (8:2); 18:14. Acts 2:47; 3:9,11-12,23; 4:1-2,8,10,17,21,25,27; 5:12-13,20,25-26,34,37; 6:8,12; 7:17,34; 10:2,41-42; 12:4,11; 13:15,17,24,31; 15:14; 18:10; 19:4; 21:28,30,36,39-40; 23:5; 26:17,23; 28:17,26-27. Rom 9:25-26; 10:21; 11:1-2; 15:10-11; 1 Cor 10:7; 14:21; 2 Cor 6:16; Tit 2:14; Heb 2:17; 4:9; 5:3; 7:5,11,27; 8:10; 9:7,19; 10:30; 11:25; 13:12; 1 Pet 2:9-10; 2 Pet 2:1; Jude v 5; Rev 5:9; 7:9; 10:11; 11:9; 14:6; 17:15; 18:4; 21:3.

logizomai (count) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) 2 Macc 6:12; Luke 22:37; John 11:50 – Tobit 3:10; 10:1; 1 Macc 2:52; 3:52; 6:9,19; 10:38; 2 Macc 11:2; Wisdom of Solomon 2:1,16,21; 3:17; 5:4; 7:9; 9:6; 15:2,12; 17:12(13); Sir 26:22,25; Baruch 3:36; Acts 19:27; Rom 2:3,26; 3:28; 4:3-6,8-11,22-24; 6:11; 8:18,36; 9:8; 14:14; 1 Cor 4:1; 13:5,11; 2 Cor 3:5; 5:19; 10:2,7,11; 11:5; 12:6; Gal 3:6; Phil 3:13; 4:8; 2 Tim 4:16; Heb 11:19; Jas 2:23; 1 Pet 5:12.

symferô (carry together) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Esther 3:8; 2 Macc 11:15; Sir 37:28; Matt 5:29; John 11:50 – 2 Macc 4:5; Sir 30:19; Baruch 4:3; Matt 5:30; 18:6; 19:10; John 16:7; 18:14; Acts 19:19; 20:20; 1 Cor 6:12; 10:23; 12:7; 2 Cor 8:10; 12:1; Heb 12:10.


Additional studies:

2 Sam 20:21-22; 1 Macc 3:58; John 6:12; 19:13,18; Rom 5:15; 6:6-7; Gal 2:20.


Johannes Beutler "The Ways of Gathering: The Plot to Kill Jesus in John 11:47-50"; New Testament Studies 40 (1994): 399-406.

Leon Morris "The Atonement in John's Gospel"; Criswell Theological Review 3.1 (1988) 49-64.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-04-14; 2011-09-18; 2014-05-29; 2014-11-14)

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11:51-52 But this he did not speak from Himself, however/but being a priest leader of that period of time, he prophesied, that Jesus (continually) was about to die in favour of the nation and not in favour of the nation only, however/but in order that He might lead together into one and/also the children of God, the ones being (and having been) scattered asunder.

Word for word: 11:51 (20 words in the Greek text) this but from himself not (he)-spoke, however (a)-priest-leader being (of)-the (of)-period-of-time (of)-that (he)-prophesied that was-(continually)-about-to Jesus die in-favour-of the nation 11:52 (18 words in the Greek text) and not in-favour-of the nation only however in-order-that and the children (of)-the (of)-god the-(ones) being-(and-having-been)-scattered-asunder (he)-might-lead-together into one.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The men) spoke: “Come here, 'we may'/'let us' build for ourselves a city and a tower, which head/top shall be till the heaven, and 'we may'/'let us' make a name for ourselves, before the 'thing to sow asunder'/'sowing asunder' upon the face of ‘all the’/’the whole’ earth.” ... And/but the Lord sowed them asunder from (Confusion/Babel) against/’extending over’ (the) face of ‘every the’/’the whole’ earth. (Gen 11:4,8a, Greek OT)

(Joseph said to His brothers:) “You took counsel ‘down from’/against Me into/’for the purpose of’ evil things, but God took counsel on account of me into/’for the purpose of’ good things ... in order that a people throughout/continually might be supported much.” (Gen 50:20, Greek OT)

(Moses said:) “When the Highest One divided asunder nations, as He sowed asunder sons of Adam, He ‘caused ... to stand’/set frontiers of nations according to a number of messengers of God.” (Deut 32:8, Greek OT)

(Haman) talked towards the king Artaxerxes saying: “A nation ‘begins under’/exists being (and having been) sown asunder in/among the nations in every/all your kingdom.” (Esther 3:8a, Greek OT)

The soul (of the boy/servant of the Lord) was given ‘to the side of’/over into death and He was counted in/among the lawless ones. And He Himself carried up misses (of the mark of God) of many and because of their misses (of the mark of God) He was given ‘to the side of’/over. (Is 53:12b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) “I come to lead together all the nations and the tongues. And they will arrive and behold My glory” (Is 66:18b, Greek OT)

Nations, hear the saying of the Lord and bring up a message into/to the islands longer/’far away’. Speak: "The One having winnowed Israel will lead him together and watch him as the one tending his little flock." (Jer 31:10, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) "I will give (My people) the other way and the other heart to fear Me all the days into/’for the purpose of’ good to them and to their children in company with them." (Jer 32:39, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) "Being led together Jacob will be led together, together with every/all (peoples). Being received out of (the peoples) I will receive out of (the men) the entirely/whole of Israel. I will put/give against it their 'turning away'/refuge. As sheep in oppression, as a little flock in a middle of their sleeping-place they will spring out of men." (Micah 2:12, Greek OT)

(Tobit said to the Lord:) “You have given (Your people) into ... death ... in/among all the nations, in which You have scattered asunder (Your people). (Tobit 3:4b, S)

(Tobit said to the sons of Israel: “God) will whip you on/’for the sake of’ your unrighteousnesses and/but have/show mercy on/to you all (and lead you back) out of all the nations, whereat you – according to the circumstances – may have been scattered asunder in/among them.” (Tobit 13:5, S)

(Tobit said:) “Our brothers dwelling in the earth/land Israel will all be scattered asunder. ... “ (Tobit 14:4b, S)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “After 'the thing to go him'/'his going' to sleep Samuel prophesied and showed underneath/secretly to a king his end. And he heightened up his voice out of earth in a prophecy to wipe out lawlessness of a people.” (Sir 46:20)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said: “The people of God) they were scattered asunder in every/all the earth, and the people left entirely/behind only a few persons and a leader in the house of David.” (Sir 48:15b or 48:15b-16a)


The Latter Revelation:

(John the Baptist said:) "The winnowing-shovel (of the One who comes behind me is) in His hand ... and He will lead together His bread-stuff into the granary." (Matt 3:12a)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “The Son of the Man is about to suffer by/under (the scribes).” (Matt 17:12b)

Having come out into the ways those slaves (of the king) led together all whom they found, both evil and good. And the bridechamber (א,* א, B*) was fulfilled with (the) ones lying up/’down to table’. (Matt 22:10)

(Jesus said to the blessed:) “I (continually) was a foreigner, and you led Me together.” (Matt 25:35b)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "It is (and has been) written: 'I will hit the shepherd, and the sheep of the flock will be scattered asunder.'" (Matt 26:31b)

A certain priest (with) name Zacharias ... was fulfilled of/with holy spirit and he prophesied, saying: “... (The child will) give to the people (of God) knowledge of saving in/through a ‘letting be’/’leaving alone’ of their misses (of the mark of God).” (Luke 1:5b,67,77)

(The Emmaus disciples said:) “We hope (א,* א), that (Jesus) is the One being about to redeem Israel.” (Luke 24:21a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

As many as took him, to them He gave (judicial) authority to become children of God, to the ones believing into His name. (John 1:12)

(Jesus said:) " However, I have and/also sheep, which is/are not out of this court. And/also those ones I must lead, and they may (א,* א, A) hear My voice, and it (P66,א,*A) will become one flock, one shepherd." (John 10:16)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

It is God, who has atoned us with himself. It has happened in and through Christ. And the atonement includes everyone. ... In vicarious act and in atoning aim Jesu took responsibility for the fallen mankind and set his mind upon leading the men back to God. ... This was the only way out for God, who is holy love, to be able to forgive men their sins. (Knut Svensson "En för alla" s 11,17-18; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

My idea is this: more buyers now come to (the) B(lue) B(ook). These want to have completely, as much as has been published! Should You not sew of old and new, volumes to 800 pages? Gather the divided thing! (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev 16, maj 1907-12 juli 1908" p 201; letter 1908-02-19 to Karl Börjesson; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

The West became godless and the black Gentiles so obtained power to pain us. If God and the cross come back, maybe the punishment is removed but maybe it is too late. Maybe we will be exterminated as the Jewish people and be spread, and the black ones will rule - their time! (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev XI maj 1895-nov 1896 p 264; letter 1896-07-13 to Torsten Hedlund; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

The old woman (Flod) took the almanac and opened the text of the day, which today, on the second Sunday after Easter, turned out to be about the good shepherd. Carlsson got Luther's collection of sermons down from the set of shelves . . . beginning in a loud voice . . . to preach up the text. . . . A queer feeling of personal responsibility took possession of the reader, when he pronounced the words: I am the good shepherd, and he looked out of the window, significantly, as if he sought the two engaged fugitives Rundqvist and Norman. . . . And with a glorified smile, prophetically, hopefully, trustfully, he whispered: And it will be one fold, and one shepherd." "And one shepherd!" echoed the old woman, who had her thoughts to entirely other quartiers than Carlsson. . . . (According to) Carlsson's unconditional claims, according to the original text and the saviour's own words . . . it was not all right with less than it would one fold and one shepherd! One exclusively, one for all, one, one, one! (August Strindberg "Hemsöborna" s 27-28; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Ingmar Brohed, Folke Holmér, Johannes V. Jensen, Ragnar Järhult, Harry Lenhammar, Martin Luther, J. Nyrén, Gunnar E. Sandgren, Harry Sjöman, P. Waldenström, Paul Wern.


My own comments and speculations: In times of old the Lord scattered the united men. Now - in a restoration perspective - Jesus leads together the scattered children of God that they may all be one.


Paul said to the believers in Thessalonia: "But we ask you, brothers, in favour of the being from the side of our Lord Jesus Christ and our leading together against, against Him." (2 Thess 2:1)

(James rejoiced over) the twelve tribes, the ones (being) in the asunderspread sowing". (Jas 1:1b)

(Jesus Christ) is a propitiation on account of our misses (of the mark of God), but not on account of ours only, however/but and/also on account of the whole adornment/’adorned world’. (1 John 2:2)

In this it is visible, (who are) the children of God and the children of the slanderer. 'Every the'/everyone not making/practising righteousness is not out of God, and/nor the one not welcoming his brother. (1 John 3:10)


Greek words:

diaskorpizô (scatter asunder) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Tobit 3:4; 14:4; Sir 48:15; Matt 26:31; John 11:52 – Matt 25:24,26; Mark 14:27; Luke 1:51; 15:13; 16:1; Acts 5:37.

profêteuô (prophesy) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Sir 46:20; Luke 1:67; John 11:51 – Judith 6:2; Wisdom of Solomon 14:28; Sir 48:13; Matt 7:22; 11:13; 15:7; 26:68; Mark 7:6; 14:65; Luke 22:64; Acts 2:17-18; 19:6; 21:9; 1 Cor 11:4-5; 13:9; 14:1,3-5,24,31,39; 1 Pet 1:10; Jude v 14; Rev 10:11; 11:3.


Additional studies:

Ex 28:30; Num 27:21; 1 Sam 23:9; 30:7; Ezra 2:63; Is 2:2-3; 43:5; 49:5; 56:7; 60:6; Jer 23:2; Ezek 5:10; 34:12; 37:21; Zech 13:7; 14:16; 2 Macc 2:18; John 5:19; 6:12-13; 7:35; 8:42; 10:12; 11:49; 14:10; 17:21; 18:13; Acts 5:36; Eph 2:13; 4:4; Heb 2:9; 1 Pet 1:1; 1 John 3:1-2; Rev 7:9; 10:11; 20:8.


Anton Fridrichsen "Missionstanken i Fjärde evangeliet"; Svensk Exegetisk Årsbok 2 (1937): 137-148.

Birger Olsson "Mission a la Lukas, Johannes och Petrus"; Svensk Exegetisk Årsbok 51 (1986): 180-191.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-04-14; 2011-09-20; 2014-05-30; 2014-11-03)

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11:53-54 So from that day they took counsel, in order that they might kill Him. So Jesus no longer (continually) walked about (in) plain language in/among the Jews, however/but went away from there into the district near the desolate (district) into a city being said/called Ephraim, and there He stayed in company with the disciples.

Word for word: 11:53 (9 words in the Greek text) from that so the day (they)-took-counsel in-order-that (they)-might-kill him. 11:54 (27 words in the Greek text) the so Jesus no-longer (in)-plain-language (continually)-wandered-about in/among the Jews, however went-away from-there into the district near the desolate-(district), into Ephraim being-said (a)-city, and-there (he)-stayed in-company-with the disciples.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

Lot ascended out of Zoar and was (continually) seated in/on the mountain and his two daughters in company with him, for he feared to dwell in Zoar. And he inhabited in the cave, he and his two daughters in company with him. ... (And) the two daughters of Lot ‘took together’/conceived out of their father. (Gen 19:30,36, Greek OT)

(Joseph's brothers) (continually) did evil to kill him. (Gen 37:18b, Greek OT)

(Israel) put Ephraim before Manasseh. (Gen 48:20b, Greek OT)

(Joseph said to His brothers:) “You took counsel ‘down from’/against Me into/’for the purpose of’ evil things, but God took counsel on account of me into/’for the purpose of’ good things ... in order that a people throughout/continually might be supported much.” (Gen 50:20, Greek OT)

(In Rephidim) Moses cried towards the Lord saying: "What shall I do (with) this people? Still a small/little (while) and they will throw stones down (against) me." (Ex 17:4, Greek OT)

(Moses and Aaron registered the people) … from twenty years old and above/upward, every of male sex ‘according to their’/’after his’ head. ... Their inspection out of the tribe of Ephraim (was) 40 of the number of one thousand and 500 ... of the tribe of Manasseh, were 32 of the number of one thousand and 200 ... of the tribe of Benjamin, were 35 of the number of one thousand and 400. (Num 1:18b;33,35b,37b, Greek OT)

A detachment of the (walled) camp of Ephraim together with their ability/army (shall be) to ‘the side of sea’/west... the sons of Ephraim ... of Manasseh ... and ... of Benjamin ... 100 of the number of one thousand and 8100. (Num 2:18-24, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Moses and Eleazar:) “Take the beginning/census of every/all the synagogue of the sons of Israel from twenty years old and above/upward ... (The ones who were numbered of Manasseh) were 52 of the number of one thousand and 700 ... of (Ephraim) 32 of the number of one thousand and 500 ... of (Benjamin) 45 of the number of one thousand and 600.” (Num 26:2a,34b-37, Greek OT)

(The eunuchs) (continually) sought to kill the king … (Esther 2:21b, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said:) "The kings of the earth stood ‘by the side of’/near and the leaders were led together ... ‘down from’/against the Lord and ‘down from’/against His Anointed (Christ)." (Ps 2:2a, Greek OT)

(The Lord rejected) the dwelling-tent of Joseph and did not choose the tribe of Ephraim. And/but he chose the tribe of Judas, the mountain Zion, which He welcomed. (Ps 78:67-68, Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) “Woe to/over the soul (of Jerusalem and Judas), for the reason that they have taken (and take) counsel, an evil counsel, ‘down from’/against themselves.” (Is 3:9b, Greek OT)

(The males) spoke to the king: "’Let presently ‘be taken up for yourself’/’you ... get rid of’ that man (Jeremiah)." (Jer 38:4a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) "I had knowledge of Ephraim, and Israel is not away from Me. ... Their thoughts did not give them the thing to turn next to, towards their God, because a spirit of fornication is in them, but they had not (any) additional knowledge of the Lord. (Hos 5:3a,4, Greek OT)

(Judith said to the Lord: “The enemies) took counsel to profane Your holy things. ... “ (Judith 9:8b)

(The priest Mattatias) and his sons fled (from Jerusalem) into/to the mountains. (1 Macc 2:28a)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said: “It became) an absolute monarchy divided in two (parts) and out of Ephraim a kingdom 'to begin'/began to disobey. ... Jeroboam ... gave to Ephraim a way of miss (of the mark of God).” (Sir 47:21,23b or 47:21,24a)


The Latter Revelation:

(What was spoken through the prophet Isaiah might be completed, saying:) "... The people being seated in darkness beheld a great light. And to the ones being seated in a district and a shadow of death, to them a light stuck up." (Matt 4:16)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Into which city or village you – according to the circumstances – may come into, search out who is worthy in it and stay there till you – according to the circumstances – may go out.” (Matt 10:11)

(The priest leaders and the elders of the people) took counsel together, in order that they might get power over Jesus (with) deceit and kill Him. (Matt 26:4)

(Jesus) went away into a desolate place and there He (continually) prayed. (Mark 1:35b)

(Jesus) said to (His disciples): “Come here you yourselves 'according to the own thing'/'by yourselves' into a desolate place and ‘be brought’/come to rest few/’a little’.” (Mark 6:31a)

(The members of the council) (continually) were ‘sawed through’/furious and they (continually) took counsel (א,*א) to ‘take up ... for themselves’/‘get rid of’ (the apostles). (Acts 5:33)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

* (P66, א*) After these things Jesus (continually) walked about in Galilee. For (continually) He did not want to walk about in Judea, because the Jews (continually) sought to kill Him. (John 7:1)

They so lifted stones, in order that they might throw against Him. But Jesus was hidden and He came out, out of the sanctuary. (John 8:59)

But (the memorial tomb) was a cave and on it a stone (continually) lay on. (John 11:38b)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

Read Isaiah Chapter 54, opened at random and it was as written to me, I thought. The Lord says: " . . . Behold, they shall not end to counsel against you, but it shall not be I; and the one giving evil counsels shall fall." Wonderfully consoled I sat in the chair and meditated. (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev XI maj 1895-nov 1896" p 274; letter 1896-07-19 to Torsten Hedlund; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

(Samaria) occupied the ancient territories of Manasseh and Ephraim. (Alfred Edersheim "The Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah Part I" p 399)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Gösta Knutsson.


My own comments and speculations:

In the first census the tribe of Joseph was the greatest one after the tribe of Judas. And of the two sons of Joseph, Ephraim was the greatest tribe and the son who also was honoured by being allowed to give the name to the camp consisting of the tribes of Ephraim, Manasseh and Benjamin. And already when Ephraim and Manasseh were born, Israel had put Ephraim before Manasseh. The tribe of Judas was honoured - above being the greatest one - by being allowed to give the name to the greatest camp.

In the second census the tribe of Manasseh had become greater than the tribe of Ephraim, which now had been changed from having been the greatest tribe in the camp of Ephraim to being the least one. The tribe of Judas had increased in number and his camp still was the greatest one. There were no other camp, in which all the tribes had increased in number.

In a restoration perspective we see how Jesus honours the dishonoured Ephraim by coming to him, and dishonours the honoured Judas by leaving him (= the Jews). In times of old the harlot Ephraim had not been allowed to come to the Lord. Now the Lord Jesus, his bridegroom, comes to him. Compare also the restoration of the Samarian woman, who lived in the district of Ephraim.

Lot was afraid to stay in Zoar. He went to a cave together with his two daughters. There they gave him two children. We can say that Lot got "double fruit". The priest leaders and the Pharisees planned to kill Jesus, why He - "the bridegroom" - left Bethany and came to Ephraim, a name which means "double fruit". This comparison is far-fetched in the eyes of a modern man. But I mean it is quite possible in the thought of John, bearing in mind the context to this bible passage. Compare Irenaeus ( The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol I, p 505): "(Lot's) two daughters - that is, the two churches." Here the two churches are Israel and the nations.

And perhaps we can say that the two churches are the children of the apostle John (compare for instance 1 John 2:1,12,18; 3:7,18), just as Ephraim and Manasseh were the children of Joseph. Concerning Joseph as a type of John, see My own comments and speculations to John 13:23-25 and 20:3-10.

Compare also My own comments and speculations to John 11:17-18 and John 11:43-44.


Greek words:

bouleuomai (take counsel) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Judith 9:8; John 11:53; Acts 5:33 – Esther 1:1l(A11); 3:6; Judith 9:6; 11:12; 12:4; 1 Macc 2:41; 3:31; 4:44; 5:2,16; 8:9,15,30; 9:58,69; 12:35; 14:35; 16:13; 2 Macc 13:13; 15:1; Wisdom of Solomon 4:17; 18:5; Sir 37:10; Epistle of Jeremiah v 48; Luke 14:31; John 12:10; Acts 27:39; 2 Cor 1:17.

Ephraim (Efraim) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Sir 47:21,23(24); John 11:54 – Judith 6:2.

kakei (and there) (in the NT) Matt 10:11; Mark 1:35; John 11:54 – (3 Macc 7:19); Matt 5:23; 28:10; Acts 14:7; 17:13; 22:10; 25:20; 27:6.


Additional studies: Jer 31:20; Matt 2:13,22; 12:14; 21:38; Mark 3:6; 9:30; 11:18; 14:1-2; Luke 20:14; John 5:18; 7:4,25,30; 8:37-40; Acts 9:23; Rev 7:6-8.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-04-15; 2011-09-21; 2014-05-30; 2014-11-15)

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11:55-57 But the ‘paschal lamb’/Passover of the Jews (continually) was near, and many ascended into (a disgraced) Jerosolyma/Jerusalem ‘out of’/from the district/country before the ‘paschal lamb’/Passover in order that they might purify themselves. They so (continually) sought Jesus and (continually) said in company with one another, standing in the sanctuary: “What does it seem to You? That He not/certainly not may come into/to the feast?” But the priest leaders and the Pharisees had given (and gave) commandments/orders, in order that if – according to the circumstances – anyone might gain knowledge of where He is, he might inform, in that way (that) they might seize Him.

Word for word: 11:55 (21 words in the Greek text) (Continually)-was but near the paschal-lamb (of)-the (of)-Jews, and ascended many into (a-disgraced)-Jerosolyma out-of the district before the paschal-lamb in-order-that (they)-might-purify (them)selves. 11:56 (22 words in the Greek text) (they)-(continually)-sought so the Jesus and (continually)-said in-company-with one-another in the sanctuary 'standing-(and-having-stood)'/standing: what seem-(it) (to)-you? that not/certainly not (he)-may-come into the feast? 11:57 (18 words in the Greek text) had-given-(and-gave) but the priest-leaders and the Pharisees commandments in-order-that if-according-to-the-circumstances anyone might-gain-knowledge-of where (he)-is might-inform, in-that-way-(that) (they)-might-seize him.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

The Lord spoke towards Moses: “Descend to throughout be a witness to the people and purify them to-day and following day and 'they may'/'let them' cleanse the garments.” (Ex 19:10, Greek OT)

The Lord talked towards Moses, saying: "Talk (with) the sons of Israel, saying: ‘A man, a man, who – if according to the circumstances – may become unclean ... he shall (still) make/keep the ‘paschal lamb’/Passover to the Lord. In the second/next month … they shall make/keep it.’” (Num 9:9-11a, Greek OT)

A multitude of the assembly (of called out) did not purify themselves. And the Levites (continually/repeatedly) was/had the thing to sacrifice the "fasek"/'passover lamb' for every/all being not able to be purified to the Lord. (2 Chron 30:17, Greek OT)

(Tobit said:) ” … many times I went into (a disgraced) Jerosolyma/Jerusalem in/at the feasts.” (Tobit 1:6a, S)

Having purified themselves (the Jews) ‘led through the sabbath’/’tarried on the sabbath’ (in the city). (2 Macc 12:38b)

Rasis, a certain one of the elders from (a disgraced) Jerosolyma/Jerusalem was informed to Nikanor. (2 Macc 14:37a)


The Latter Revelation:

(Herod said to the soothsayers:) “As soon as you – according to the circumstances – may have found (the king) bring away a message to me, in that way (that) having come and/also I may prostrate before Him (in honour of Him, cf. Rev 13:8).” (Matt 2:8b)

Having come out the Pharisees took a council meeting ‘down from’/against (Jesus), in what way they might perish Him. (Matt 12:14)

The priest leaders and the whole council (continually) sought a false witness ‘down from’/against Jesus, in that way (that) they might put Him to death. (Matt 26:59)

(The priest leader said to the members of the council:) “What does it seem to you?” But/and ‘having answered’/answering they spoke: “He is liable to death!” (Matt 26:66)

But the Feast of the unleavened things, the one being said/called the ‘paschal lamb’/Passover, (continually) drew near. (Luke 22:1)

(The Jews) (continually) kept/watched to the side of the gates both day and night, (in order that) they in that way might ‘take up ... for themselves’/’get rid of’ (Saul). (Acts 9:24b)

Having taken (the four males who were under a vow) to the side of (him), and ... having been purified together with them Paul (continually/repeatedly) entered into the sanctuary. (Acts 21:26a)

(Paul said:) “They found me having been (and being) purified in the sanctuary.” (Acts 24:18a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

But (א,* א) the ‘paschal lamb’/Passover of the Jews (continually) was near, and Jesus ascended into/to the (disgraced) Jerosolyma/Jerusalem. (John 2:13)

But the ‘paschal lamb’/Passover, the feast of the Jews, (continually/-) was near. (John 6:4)

The Jews so (continually) sought (Jesus) in/at the feast and said (continually/repeatedly): "Where is that One?" … Nevertheless no one (continually) talked plain language on account of (Jesus) because of the fear of the Jews. (John 7:11,13)

The priest leaders and the Pharisees dispatched away rowers/servants, in order that they might seize (Jesus). (John 7:32b)


Greek words:

(h)agnizô (purify) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) 2 Macc 12:38; John 11:55; Acts 21:26; 24:18 – 2 Macc 1:33; Acts 21:24; Jas 4:8; 1 Pet 1:22; 1 John 3:3.

mênyô (inform) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) 2 Macc 14:37; John 11:57 – 2 Macc 3:7; 6:11; Luke 20:37; Acts 23:30; 1 Cor 10:28.

(h)opôs (in what/that way) (in the NT + one example in the Apocrypha) Matt 2:8; 12:14; 26:59; John 11:57; Acts 9:24 – Epistle of Jeremiah v 17; Matt 2:23; 5:16,45; 6:2,4-5,16,18; 8:17,34; 9:38; 13:35; 22:15; 23:35; Mark 3:6; Luke 2:35; 7:3; 10:2; 11:37; 16:26,28; 24:20. Acts 3:20; 8:15,24; 9:2,12,17; 15:17; 20:16; 23:15,20,23; 25:3,26; Rom 3:4; 9:17; 1 Cor 1:29; 2 Cor 8:11,14; Gal 1:4; 2 Thess 1:12; Philemon v 6; Heb 2:9; 9:15; Jas 5:16; 1 Pet 2:9.


Additional studies: Gen 35:2; Ex 19:11; Num 9:6-12; Matt 26:1-2; Mark 14:1; John 7:30,44; 8:20; 9:12; 10:39; 11:47; 12:1,9; 13:1; 18:28.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-04-15; 2011-09-22; 2014-05-30)

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