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John chapter 10

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10:1 Amen, amen, I say to you, the one not coming into, into the court of the sheep through the door, however/but ascending from another place, that one is a thief and a robber.

Word for word (23 words in the Greek text): Amen amen (i/I)-say (to)-you, the-(one) not coming-into through the door into the court (of)-the (of)-sheep however ascending from-another-place that-(one) (a)-thief is and (a)-robber.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(God said to Noah:) “The door of the chest/ark you will make out of ‘slanting things’/’the side’. ... (Gen 6:16b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Moses:) "You shall make a court to the tent." (Ex 27:9a, Greek OT)

(Joel prophecied: "A much/many-headed and stable people) will ascend against the habitations (in Jerusalem), and they will come into (them) through windows as thieves." (Joel 2:9b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Edom:) "If thieves came into/in towards you or robbers (by) night, where/how may you (not) - according to the circumstances - be tossed away?" (Obadiah v 5a, Greek OT)

(Tobit) came out (through) the door of the court. (Tobit 11:10b)

Another (enemy had been) tossed half-dead to another place. (Wisdom of Solomon 18:18a)

The priests fortifies the portals (of the courts), both (with) locks and bars, in that way (that) they may not be plundered by robbers. ... And not from thieves and not from robbers silver- and gold-plated gods of wood may not/certainly not save throughout. (Epistle of Jeremiah v 17b,56b or 57a)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "Upon the earth ... thieves dig through and steal." (Matt 6:19b)

Having rolled a great stone (in/to) the door of the memorial tomb (Joseph) went away. (Matt 27:60b)

(Jesus said to Simon and the ones in company with him:) “Let us lead/move to another place into the having/neighbouring village-cities/’country towns’, in order that I and/also there may proclaim, for into/’for the purpose of’ this I have come out.” (Mark 1:38)

(Jesus) (continually) did not let (anyone) be (alone), in order that anyone might carry a vessel through, through the (court of) the sanctuary. ... (He said:) “You have made (א,* א) (My house) a cave of robbers.” (Mark 11:16,17b)

(Jesus said:) “Fight to come into/in through the narrow door.” (Luke 13:24a)

They (continually/repeatedly) ‘according to’/’day by’ day put (the male who had been lame out of his mothers belly/womb) towards the door of the sanctuary, the (one) being said/called ‘Seasonable hour’. … Having beheld Peter and John being about to enter into the sanctuary, he (continually/repeatedly) asked to take alm/alms. (Acts 3:2b-3)

(God) had opened a door of faith to the nations. (Acts 14:27b)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

The Greek aulê represents normally an enclosed court in connection with a house. … The Greek word thyra means door, gate … The main point lies in the entrance itself. (René Kieffer "Johannesevangeliet" p 232; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

The court of the sheep was in Palestine usually constituted so, that there was an on the pasture arranged, of low walls surrounded place, common to several flocks. To this place the sheep were led for the night, in order to not be scattered and to be protected from thieves and beasts of prey. Most important was the gate or the door with its door-keeper, who was enjoined to look after that no unauthorized pressed in. When the shepherds in the evening had led in their sheep, they went away but came back next morning and were let in. Every shepherd now called his sheep after their names, at which these willingly gathered around him. . . . Jesus repeats no less than four times in the text, that he is the door. The first twice he says that he himself is the door for the shepherds and the last twice for the sheep. That Jesus is the door, through which every true shepherd goes in and goes out, is a sweet but also a very serious truth. (Karl Palmberg "Ur livskällan. Andra årgången." p 243-244; comment to John 10:1-10; Karl Palmberg /1842-1920/ was from 1883 a Lutheran clergyman in Månsarp in the diocese of Växjö and president in Jönköpings Missionsförening (Missionary Society) 1886-1911; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Lars Ahlberg, John Bunyan, Dick Harrison, John Hedlund, Ingun Montgomery, Anton Tjechov.


My own comments and speculations:

On "amen, amen", see John 1:51a with My own comments and speculations.


Greek words:

allachothen (from another place) John 10:1 – (4 Macc 1:7). Contrast allachê/allachou (to another place) 2 Macc 12:22; Wisdom of Solomon 18:18 resp. Mark 1:38.

aulê (court) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Tobit 11:10; Epistle of Jeremiah v 17; John 10:1 – Esther 1:1b(A2),1m(A12),q(A16),5; 2:19; 3:2-3; 4:2,11; 5:9,13; 6:4-5,10,12; 7:4; Tobit 2:9; 3:17; 7:1; 1 Macc 4:38,48; 9:54; 11:46; Matt 26:3,58,69; Mark 14:54,66; 15:16; Luke 11:21; 22:55; John 10:16; 18:15; Rev 11:2.

thyra (door) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Tobit 11:10; Luke 13:24; John 10:1; Acts 3:2; 14:27 – Esther 5:1c(D6); Tobit 7:1; 8:4,13; 13:16(17),18; 1 Macc 4:38; 12:38; 2 Macc 2:5; 14:41; Wisdom of Solomon 19:17; Sir 21:23-24; Epistle of Jeremiah v 58; Susanna v 17-18,20,25-26,39; Bel and the Dragon v 11,14,18; Matt 6:6; 24:33; 25:10; 27:60; Mark 2:2; 11:4; 13:29; 15:46; 16:3; Luke 11:7; 13:25; John 10:2,7,9; 18:16; 20:19,26. Acts 5:9,19,23; 12:6,13; 16:26-27; 21:30; 1 Cor 16:9; 2 Cor 2:12; Col 4:3; Jas 5:9; Rev 3:8,20; 4:1.

kleptês (thief) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Epistle of Jeremiah v 56(57); Matt 6:19; John 10:1 – Sir 5:14; 20:25; Matt 6:20; 24:43; Luke 12:33,39; John 10:8,10; 12:6; 1 Cor 6:10; 1 Thess 5:2,4; 1 Pet 4:15; 2 Pet 3:10; Rev 3:3; 16:15.

lêstês (robber) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Epistle of Jeremiah v 17,56(57); Mark 11:17; John 10:1 – Sir 36:26(28); Epistle of Jeremiah v 13(14); Matt 21:13; 26:55; 27:38,44; Mark 14:48; 15:27; Luke 10:30,36; 19:46; 22:52; John 10:8; 18:40; 2 Cor 11:26.


Additional studies:

Rev 9:21.


Kenneth E. Bailey "The Shepherd Poems of John 10. Their Culture and Style"; Near East School of Theology Theological Review 14 (1993): 3-21. See also Irish Biblical Studies 15.1 (1993): 2-17.

Anton Fridrichsen "Herdekapitlet Joh 10"; Svensk Exegetisk Årsbok 8 (1943): 30-48.

David J, Hawkin "Orthodoxy and Heresy in John 10:1-21 and 15:1-17"; The Evangelical Quarterly 47.4 (Oct. - Dec. 1975): 208-213.

John AT Robinson "The Parable of the Shepherd"; Zeitschrift für die neutestamentliche Wissenschaft 46 (1955): 233-240.

J.L. de Villers "The Shepherd and his flock"; Neotestamentica 2.1 (1968): 89-103.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-03-31; 2011-07-09; 2014-04-30; 2014-10-31)

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10:2-4 But the one coming into/in through the door is (the) shepherd of the sheep. To this one the doorkeeper opens, and the sheep hear his voice, and he raises his voice (towards) his own sheep ‘according to name’/’after their names’, and he leads them out. When he – according to the circumstances – may throw/bring the own ones * (א*) out, he goes in front of them, and the sheep follow him, because they know his voice.

Word for word: 10:2 (10 words in the Greek text) the-(one) but coming-into through the door shepherd is (of)-the (of)-sheep. 10:3 (21 words in the Greek text) (to)-this-(one) the doorkeeper opens and the sheep (of)-the (of)-voice his hear and the own sheep (he)-raises-(his)-voice according-to name and (he)-leads-out them. 10:4 (17 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus prima manus) when-according-to-the-circumstances the own-(ones) (he)-may-throw-out in-front-of them (he)-goes and the sheep him follow, because (they)-'know-(and-have-known)'/know the voice his.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The Lord God) threw out Adam ... and arranged the cherubim and the flaming large sword, turning itself to watch the way of/to the wood of the life. (Gen 3:24, Greek OT)

The Lord said to Abram:) "Count up the stars ... In this way your seed will be." And Abra, believed (in) God. And it was counted to him into righteousness. (Gen 15:5b-6, Greek OT; cf. Is 40:26)

(In Rephidim) the people thirsted (in/for) water, and the people grumbled there towards Moses saying: "’In order of what this’/'why ... for this' did You cause us to go up out of Egypt to kill us and our children and the domestic animals (with) thirst?" But/and Moses cried towards the Lord saying: "What shall I do (with) this people? Still a small/little (while) and they will throw stones down (against) me." (Ex 17:3-4, Greek OT)

(The people said to Aaron:) “Moses, this man. who led us out, out of Egypt. ... “ (Ex 32:1b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Moses:) "You have found (and find) joybringing (grace) in the very eyes of Me, and I know you ‘to the side of’/’in comparison with’ all." (Ex 33:17b, Greek OT)

Moses spoke towards the Lord: "Let the Lord, the God of the spirits and every flesh, inspect a man upon/’with regard to’ this synagogue, whosover/who will come out before their face and whoever/who will come into before their face and whoever/who will lead them out and whoever/who will lead them into/in, and the synagogue of the Lord will not be as if (they were) sheep, for which it is not a shepherd." And the Lord talked towards Moses, saying: "Take Jesus/Joshua towards yourself." (Num 27:15-18a, Greek OT)

(Moses said to Israel: “The Lord) Himself led you out in/with His great stability, out of Egypt.” (Deut 4:37b, Greek OT)

(Moses said to Israel:) "When the Lord dispatched you out, out of Kadesh-barnea, saying: 'Ascend and inherit the earth which I give you', and/but you disobeyed the word of the Lord your God, and you did not believed (in) Him, and you did not listen to His voice." (Deut 9:23, Greek OT)

And behold, the doorkeeper of the house cleaned/cleansed the wheats/wheat. (2 Sam 4:6a, Greek OT)

The gate-keepers stood against the gates of the house of the Lord, and/’so that’ an unclean will not come into every/any concern. (2 Chron 23:19a, Greek OT)

(David said:) "The Lord is a shepherd to me." (Ps 23:1a)

(The psalmist said to the Lord:) "’The One’/You being a shepherd to Israel, pour (Your sovereignty) towards (us), ‘the One’/You showing Joseph the way as if (he was) sheep." (Ps 80:1a or 80:2a, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said:) “I have chosen to ‘toss by the side of’/’run the risk’ in the house of God rather than inhabit in the dwelling-tents of missers (of the mark of God).” (Ps 84:10b or 84:11b, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said to Israel: "The Lord) is our God, and we a people of His pasture and sheep of His hand. Today, if you – according to the circumstances – may hear His voice, you may not harden your hearts as in the ‘embitterment by the side of’/challenge, ‘according to’/during the day of test in the desolate (district)." (Ps 95:7-8, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said:) “The Lord will watch your way in and your way out from the now and till the (coming) age. (Ps 121:8, Greek OT)

(David said to the Lord:) “Lead my soul out, out of a watch/custody ... and righteous ones will stay behind me.” (Ps 142:7a or 142:8a, Greek OT)

Carrying out His adornment/’adorned world’ ‘according to’/after number (the Lord) will call every/all on/’for the sake of’ name. From/’owing to’ much glory and in/with a power of stability not anyone is in obscurity for You. (Is 40:26b, Greek OT, cf. Gen 15:5-6)

(The Lord said to His Servant:) “Open eyes of blind ones, lead out, out of bands (the ones) being (and having been) bound and out of a house of watch the ones being seated in darkness.” (Is 42:7, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to His people Israel:) “Do not fear, because I have redeemed you. I have called you (by) your name, you are Mine.” (Is 43:1b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) "Being led together Jacob will be led together, together with every/all (peoples). Being received out of (the peoples) I will receive out of (the men) the entirely/whole of Israel. I will put/give against it their 'turning away'/refuge. As sheep in oppression, as a little flock in a middle of their sleeping-place they will spring out of men." ... They came through a gate and they came out through it, and their king came out before their face, but/and the Lord will be in command of them. (Micah 2:12,13b, Greek OT)

Having come into/in (Tobias) spoke to the father: “Behold, I have found (and find) the one who will go together with me.” But/and (Tobit) spoke: “Raise your voice (towards) him (that he may come) towards me, in order that I may gain additional knowledge (from) what kind of tribe he is and if (he is) faithful to go in company with you.” (Tobit 5:9, BA)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “Wisdom is ‘according to’/after its name, and she is not visible for many.” (Sir 6:22)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “Lord, have mercy on a people being (and having been) called on/’for the sake of’ Your name.” (Sir 36:11a or 36:14a)


The Latter Revelation:

Having come out (Jesus) beheld a much/many-headed crowd, and He was moved in His inward vital parts against them, because they (continually) were * (א*) (as if) not having a shepherd. (Mark 6:34a)

Jesus spoke: “Raise your voices (towards the blind one).” And they raise their voices (towards) the blind one, saying to him: “Be confident, raise, He raises His voice (towards) you.” (Mark 10:49b)

(Jesus said to His disciples: "When the Son of the Man is coming it is) as a man having let his habitation be (to go) abroad and having given his slaves the (judicial) authority to everyone his work, and he enjoined the doorkeeper ‘in order that’/that he may be awake." (Mark 13:34)

(The shepherds) watching/'kept watch' (by) night against/over their flock. (Luke 2:8b)

(John the Baptist said:) "The winnowing shovel (of Jesus is) in His hand to thoroughly clean His threshing floor and lead together the bread-stuff." (Luke 3:17a)

(Jesus said to the seventy:) “Rejoice because your names are (and have been) written in, in the heavens.” (Luke 10:20b)

As (Jesus) came against/’up to’ the place, having seen up (He) spoke towards (Zaccheus): “Zaccheus, 'having hasted'/'haste and' descend, for today I must stay in your house.” (Luke 19:5)

Ascending into (a disgraced) Jerosolyma/Jerusalem (Jesus) went in front of (His disciples). (Luke 19:28b)

Having raised His voice (with) a great/loud voice Jesus spoke: "Father, into Your hands I put/lay My spirit to the side of (You)." (Luke 23:46a)

(Jesus) led (His disciples) out * (P75,א,*א,B) till towards Bethany and having lifted His hands against (them) He blessed them. (Luke 24:50)

They (continually/repeatedly) ‘according to’/’day by’ day put (the male who had been lame out of his mothers belly/womb) towards the door of the sanctuary, the (one) being said/called ‘Seasonable hour’. … Having beheld Peter and John being about to enter into the sanctuary, he (continually/repeatedly) asked to take alm/alms. (Acts 3:2b-3)

Having opened the doors of the watch/custody (and) led out ... (the apostles) through/in (the) night, a messenger of the Lord spoke: “Go and having stood/’placed yourselves’ talk in the sanctuary to the people all the words of this life.” (Acts 5:19-20)

(God) had opened a door of faith to the nations. (Acts 14:27b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

Having made a scourge out of little ropes (Jesus) threw all out, out of the sanctuary, both the sheep and the cattles/cattle. (John 2:15a)

The one having the bride is the bridegroom, but the friend of the bridegroom standing and hearing Him, rejoices (with) joy because of the voice of the bridegroom. (John 3:29a)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 - about 1500

(The evangelist) Luke does not even imply how Jesus could discover Zaccheus and how he could know his name. Jesus, as we know, acted on behalf of God and knows all and sees them, when they think they go their own ways. (Bo Giertz "Evangelium enligt Lukas" s 203 in comment to Luke 19:1-10; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

The water bearer lay his hand on Jesus' head with its fair curly hair asking him about his birds, and Jesus told him, that they had names and that they could sing. All his little birds were come to him from foreign countries and told about things, of which only they and he had knowledge. (Selma Lagerlöf "I Nasaret" p 51; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Mr Lundstedt was standing on the organ stairs waiting with a swarm of school children for the arrival of the professor, because nobody was admitted coming into the gallery before the caretaker of the holy of holies of the musical of the sanctuary himself arrived. The church clocks had rung the second time, when the steps of the master were heard on the stairs, and the youth respectfully opened the rows, while the professor, nodding greetings right and left, reached the door, where he stayed looking over the crowd, as if he would be the saviour and bid the storm to lie down; then he took up a key pouch with bedwork, opened it with a self-important facial expression, as if he would be Peter and had the kingdom of heaven on the other side of the door, put the key in the hole, but then quickly turned out to the eager crowd hungering for grace to see if he could reject some of them. And that's right! There were some worldly-minded, who did not give themselves time to await the order of grace but wanted to break in and therefore were seized in their collars and were sent out. Now the door was opened and slowly the choir of singers was admitted to pass the scrutinizing door-keeper, who with lifted finger and stern look was ready to precipitate disobedient spirits out of the Paradise, that they would experience the truth, that many were called but few chosen. When Lundstedt passed the severe door-keeper, the face of the latter became brighter, and he took him out of the row, placed him on his right hand showing him a good pleasure. (August Strindberg "Skärkarlsliv" p 44; Den romantiske klockaren på Rånö; 1850-1859; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


about 1500 and time before

Deep in the Christian time among Scandinavians the idea lived that their heathen fathers believed in the existence of an Eden, from which sorrow, pain, defects, old age, illness and death were shut out. This Eden was called . . . "Not field of dead ones . . . earth of living men". It was situated not in heaven, but down there, neither on the surface of the earth, nor in the nether world, but separated from the built-up countries of men in a way, which did it not impossible, but nevertheless extremely venturesome to come there. A fairy-tale from the fourteenth century, taken up in the Flatö-book, and with some corrections in "Fornald. Sag. III", tells: Erik, the son of a Norwegian king of a little country, one Christmas Eve gave the promise to visit Odains-aker, and this rumour became known over all Norway. In company with a Danish prince, who also was called Erik, they set off. . . . At a distance they saw a tower. In that direction they continued to go, and they found, when they had come nearer, that the tower stood free in the air without foundation or posts. A ladder brought up to it. In the tower there was a room, arrayed with velvet, and there was a beautiful table with delicious dishes on silver plates and wine in golden drinking-vessels. There also were excellently made beds. The two men now were convinced that they had come to Odains-aker and they thanked God that they had achieved their goal. They refreshed themselves and went to sleep. In the sleep a beautiful boy came to Erik. The boy mentioned him by name, said himself be one of the angels watching the gate-way of Paradise, and also Erik's guardian angel, who was at his side, when he gave the promise to seek out Odains-aker. . . . The angel informed him that Odains-aker . . . where he now stayed was not the same place as Paradise, for to this only spirits are allowed to come, and this is the kingdom of spirits, Paradise, so glorious, that Odains-aker, in comparison with it, is as a waste. Nevertheless these two different districts border next to each other, and the river, which Erik had seen, has in Paradise its spring. (Viktor Rydberg "Mythen om underjorden" p 235-237; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

In many instances there is a Providence in the giving of names, as we have often told you. (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers XI:137)

It is possible even from bare names to find a great treasure. If, for instance, you were shown why Sarah, why Israel, why Samuel, you would find even from this a great many real subjects of research. (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers XI:553)

If thou shouldest be minded to examine the parable word by word, there is nothing to hinder thee from supposing Moses to be the doorkeeper, for to him were entrusted the oracles of God. (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers XIV:214)

Very early (a Jewish) child must have been taught what might be called his birthday-text – some verse of Scripture beginning, or ending with, or at least containing, the same letters as his Hebrew name. This guardian-promise the child would insert in its daily prayers. (Alfred Edersheim "The Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah Part I" p 230)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: David Alexander, Eric S. Alexandersson, Carl Jonas Love Almqvist, Chas. E. Cowman, Amadeus Creutzberg, Nils Dahlberg, Annica Dahlström, Sven Danell, Henry Daniel-Rops, Charles Dickens, Johannes Edfelt, Hjalmar Ekblad, Runar Eldebo, Erik Floderus, Per Anders Fogelström, Folke Fridell, Harry Frödin, Carl Grimberg, Gunnar Hallingberg, Solveig Hanson, Alf Henrikson, Homeros, Liselotte Johansson, Majken Johansson, Viktor Johansson, Lars Levi Laestadius, Edvin Larsson, Astrid Lindgren, Ivar Lo-Johansson, Sven Lidman, Matin Luther, Olaus Magnus, Wayan Mastra, Olaf Moe, D.L. Moody, Janken Myrdal, Fritiof Nilsson Piraten, Bengt Pleijel, Nelly Sachs, Vinay Samuel, Gunnar E. Sandgren, Fredrik Segerståhl, Tomas Sjödin, John Sjögren, Harry Sjöman, John Stott, Margareta Strömstedt, Svante Ståhl, Chris Sugden, Marian Ullén, Magnus Widell, Carl Fr. Wislöff, Birgitta Yavari, Anna Ölander.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning the great importance of the names in John, compare 3 John v 14(15) : “Greet the friends ‘according to name’/’after their names’.” In the NT the expression ‘according to name’ (kat´ onoma) only occurs in the Johannine books. In the Apocrypha I have found it in Sir 6:22 and then for the purpose of Wisdom.


(Peter said to the believers:) "You (continually) were as sheep being led astray however/but have now turned yourselves next to, against/to the Shepherd and Inspector of your souls." (1 Pet 2:25)


Greek words:

exagô (lead out) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Luke 24:50; John 10:3; Acts 5:19 – Baruch 1:19-20; 2:11; Mark 15:20; Acts 7:36,40; 12:17; 13:17; 16:37,39; 21:38; Heb 8:9.

thyrôros (doorkeeper) (in the NT) Mark 13:34; John 10:3 – John 18:16-17.

poimên (shepherd) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Sir 18:13; Mark 6:34; Luke 2:8; John 10:2; 1 Pet 2:25 – Judith 11:19; Wisdom of Solomon 17:16(17); Matt 9:36; 25:32; 26:31; Mark 14:27; Luke 2:15,18,20; John 10:11-12,14,16; Eph 4:11; Heb 13:20.


Additional studies: Gen 19:17; Ex 16:3; 19:17; 32:7-11; Deut 9:12; Is 40:11; Jer 31:32; Ezek 34:12-13; Luke 11:21-22; John 5:28; 10:1,5,9,27; 18:37; 20:15; 21:15-17; Acts 16:26-27; Heb 3:7-8; 1 John 4:6; 3 John v 14(15); Rev 2:13,17; 3:1,4,12,14,20; 4:1; 7:17; 13:8; 14:4; 17:8; 20:15; 21:27.

J.L. de Villers "The Shepherd and his flock"; Neotestamentica 2.1 (1968): 89-103.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-03-31; 2011-07-15; 2014-05-03; 2014-11-01)

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10:5 But an alien they may (P6,66,75,א,*א) not/certainly not follow, however/but they will flee from him, because they do not know the voice of the aliens.

Word for word (16 words in the Greek text): (an)-alien but not/certainly not (they)-may-'know-(and-have-known)'/know, however (they)-will-flee from him, because not (they)-'know-(and-have-known)'/know (of)-the (of)-aliens the voice.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The females) (continually) were/caused the sons of Israel, according to the word of Balaam, the thing to stand aloof from and ‘behold over’/overlook the word of the Lord. (Num 31:16a, Greek OT)

(Israel said to the Lord:) "I have welcomed (and welcome) aliens, and behind them I (continually) went." (Jer 2:25b, Greek OT)

The ones dwelling in Jerusalem fled because of (the invaders) and (the city) became a habitation-place of/for aliens. And she became an alien of/for its produces/children. And her children entirely left her in (her loneliness). Her holy place was desolated as a desolate (district). (1 Macc 1:38-39a)

The (foreign) king dispatched away scrolls in ‘a hand’/hands of messengers into Jerusalem and the cities of Judas to ‘go behind’/follow lawful things (which were) alien of/to the earth/land. (1 Macc 1:44)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “Flee from miss (of the mark of God) as from a face of a serpent.” (Sir 21:2a)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said:) “What does it seem to you, Simon? From whom do the kings of the earth take ends/toll or tax, from their sons or from the aliens?” … Jesus uttered to him: “Consequently the sons at any rate are free.” (Matt 17:25b,26b)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "If – according to the circumstances - anyone may speak to you: 'Behold, here (is) the christ/'anointed one''; 'Behold, (He is) there'; do not believe (it). But (א,* א) false Christs and false prophets will rise. (Mark 13:21-22a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

So having knowledge that they are about to come and rape Him and show up (א*) a king, Jesus, He (Himself) alone, flees (א*) again into/to the mountain. (John 6:15)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

(The sheep) do not know the voice of strangers, and therefore they run away. Travelers in modern Palestine have sometimes been able to document this. It appears that strangers, even when dressed in the shepherd's clothing and attempting to imitate his call, succeed only in making the sheep run away. (Leon Morris "The Gospel according to John" p 448)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Ronny Ambjörnsson, Sven Danell, Lars Gustafsson, Hans Larsson, Martin Luther, Olof von Dalin.


My own comments and speculations:

The name Balaam (Num 31:16a) can mean "stranger". In a restoration perspective the people of God who in the wilderness had welcomed and followed strangers now will welcome and follow their shepherd.


We are out of God. The one having knowledge of God hears us. The one who is not out of God does not hear us. Out of this we have knowledge of the spirit of the truth and the spirit of the going astray. (1 John 4:6)


Greek words:

allotrios (alien; a more literal translation is “belonging to others”) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) 1 Macc 1:38,44; Matt 17:25; John 10:5 – Tobit 4.12; 1 Macc 2:7; 6:13; 15:33; Wisdom of Solomon 19:15; Sir 8:18; 11:34; 26:19; 32:18; 36:2(3); 39:4; 49:5; Baruch 3:10; 4:3; Matt 17:26; Luke 16:12; Acts 7:6; Rom 14:4; 15:20; 2 Cor 10:15-16; 1 Tim 5:22; Heb 9:25; 11:9,34.


Additional studies: Matt 24:23-24; Luke 17:23; 1 John 3:6-10.

J.L. de Villers "The Shepherd and his flock"; Neotestamentica 2.1 (1968): 89-103.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-03-31; 2011-07-16; 2014-05-03)

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10:6 This proverb Jesus spoke to them, but those ones had not knowledge of what things it (continually) was which He (continually) talked (with) them.

Word for word (16 words in the Greek text): This the proverb spoke (to)-them the Jesus, those-(ones) but not had-knowledge-of what-(things) it-(continually)-was which (he)-(continually)-talked (with)-them.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

Moses called all the sons of Israel and spoke towards them: "You have beheld (and behold) all things, as many as the Lord made/did in (the) earth/land Egypt before the very eyes of you, Pharaoh and the ones attending him and every/all his earth/land, the great tests which your eyes have beheld (and behold), the signs and those great omens. And till this day the Lord has not given you a heart to know and eyes to see and ears to hear." (Deut 29:2-4, Greek OT)

Proverbs of Solomon, son of David, who was king in Israel. (Prov 1:1, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to the prophet:) “Go and speak to this people: ‘You will hear (in) a hearsay and you may not/certainly not 'let together'/perceive, and seeing you will see and you may not/certainly not behold, for the heart of this people has been thickened/hardened and (with) their ears they have heard weightily/painfully and their eyes have been closed, (so that) they not at any time may behold (with) the eyes and hear (with) the ears and 'let together'/perceive (with) the heart and turn themselves next to (Me) and/’so that’ I will heal them.’” (Is 6:9-10, Greek OT)

(The one studying what the prophets have said) will seek out things hidden away of/in proverbs. (Sir 39:3a)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said about Solomon:) “In/with (your) lays and proverbs and parables and in/with (your) interpretations districts/countries wondered from/at you.” (Sir 47:17)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus) (continually/repeatedly) said to (the ones being around Him together with twelve): "To you has been (and is) given the mystery of the kingdom of God, but for those, the ones outside, all things become in parables, in order that seeing they may see and not behold, and hearing, they may hear and not perceive, (in order that) they may not at any time turn themselves next to (God) and it may be ‘let be’/’left alone’ to them.” (Mark 4:11-12)

(Jesus said:) "No one has knowledge of who the Son is ‘if not’/except the Father and who the Father is ‘if not’/except the Son and to the one whom the Son – if according to the circumstances – may wish to reveal (it)." (Luke 10:22b)

(The Athenians said about Paul:) “Some things being 'like a foreigner'/foreign he (א*) carries into, into our hearsays. We so wish to gain knowledge of what these things ‘want to be’/are?” (Acts 17:20b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Jesus said to the Jews:) "If you do not believe (Moses') letters (of the alphabet), how will you believe My words?" (John 5:47)

(Jesus said to the man who had been blind:) “Into/’for the purpose of’ a judicial verdict I came into this adornment/’adorned world’, in order that the ones not seeing may see and the ones seeing may become blind.” The ones out of the Pharisees being in company with Him heard * (א*) and spoke to Him: “Not are and/also we blind?” Jesus spoke to them: “If you may be blind, you (continually) had – according to the circumstances – not (any) miss (of the mark of God). But now you say that/: ‘We see.’ Your miss (of the mark of God) stays.” (John 9:39-41)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

The ones listening do not understand the parable. It is the same experience the Synoptics so often tell about. Consequently Jesus explains it. First he speaks about the door, then about the shepherd and at last about the sheep. The interpretation does not become precisely the same one in the first and the second case. Among the Jews it was nothing astonishing. They could interpret a text in several different ways, which all were regarded legitimate. (Bo Giertz "Evangelium enligt Johannes" p 111; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Miguel de Cervantes, Johannes Gossner, Ernst Schrill.


My own comments and speculations:

In the NT the expression “ginôskô tina” (have knowledge of what) only occurs in Acts 17:20 (“gnônai tina”) and here in John 10:6 (“egnôsan tina”). Cf. “ginôskô tis” in Luke 7:39; 10:22; Acts 17:19 and “ginôskô ti” in Matt 6:3; 12:7; Luke 16:4; 19:5; John 2:25; 7:51; 13:12.


Greek words:

paroimia (proverb) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Sir 39:3; 47:17; John 10:6 – Sir 6:35; 8:8; 18:29; John 16:25,29; 2 Pet 2:22.


Additional studies:

Matt 13:10-15; Mark 4:13,34; Luke 8:9-10; John 13:12.


Kim E. Dewey "Paroimiai in the Gospel of John"; Semeia 17 (1980): 81-99.

Alfred Shenington Geden "Simile and Metaphor in the Fourth Gospel"; Journal of the Transactions of the Victoria Institute 52 (1920): 99-124.

J.L. de Villers "The Shepherd and his flock"; Neotestamentica 2.1 (1968): 89-103.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-03-31; 2011-07-16; 2014-05-03)

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10:7-9 Jesus * (P66,א*) spoke to them * (P45,P66,א*): “Amen, amen, I say to you that I am the door of the sheep. All as many as have come * (P45,P75,א*) are thieves and robbers. However, the sheep did not hear them. I am the door. If – according to the circumstances – anyone may come into/in through Me, he will be saved and he will come into/in and come out and find pasture.”

Word for word: 10:7 (15 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus prima manus) spoke (to)-them the Jesus: amen amen (i/I)-say (to)-you that i/I (i/I)-am the door (of)-the (of)-sheep. 10:8 (13 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus prima manus) all as-many-as came thieves are and robbers. however not heard them the sheep. 10:9 (17 words in the Greek text) i/I (i/I)-am the door. through me if-according-to-the-circumstances anyone may-come-into (he)-will-be-saved and (he)-will-come-into and (he)-will-come-out-(of) and pasture (he)-will-find.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

Pharaoh spoke to the brothers of Joseph: "What (is) your work?" But/and they spoke to Pharaoh: "Your boys (are) shepherds of sheep, and/both we and our fathers." And they spoke to Pharaoh: "We have arrived (and arrive) to inhabit ‘by the side of’/’as strangers’ in the earth/land, for it/there is not pasture for the domestic animals of your boys, for the famine has been stable in earth/’the land’ Canaan. So your boys have now dwelt in earth/’the land’ Gesem." ... But/and Israel dwelt in earth/’the land’ Egypt, upon the earth/land Gesem, and they inherited upon/'with regard to' it and they were increased and were made extremely full. (Gen 47:3-4a,27, Greek OT)

God spoke towards Moses: "I am the One who is." And He spoke: "In this way you shall speak to the sons of Israel: 'The One who is has dispatched (and dispatches) me away towards you.'" (Ex 3:14, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Moses: "Israel) shall take from the blood and put (it) upon the two standing-places/doorposts and against the lintel in the houses in which they – if according to the circumstances – may eat (the sheep) in them. ... And I shall shelter you, and it will not be a blow ot the thing to 'rub out of'/'destroy by rubbing' in/among you, when I – according to the circumstances – hurt in earth/'the land' Egypt.” (Ex 12:7,13b, Greek OT)

Moses spoke towards the Lord: "Let the Lord, the God of the spirits and every flesh, inspect a man upon/’with regard to’ this synagogue, whosover/who will come out before their face and whoever/who will come into before their face and whoever/who will lead them out and whoever/who will lead them into/in, and the synagogue of the Lord will not be as if (they were) sheep, for which it is not a shepherd." And the Lord talked towards Moses, saying: "Take Jesus/Joshua towards yourself." (Num 27:15-18a, Greek OT)

(Moses said to Israel:) “I am a hundred and twenty years old to-day. I am not any longer able to go into/in and go out.” (Deut 31:2, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said to the Lord:) “We, Your people and sheep of Your pasture.” (Ps 79:13a, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said to Israel: "The Lord) is our God, and we a people of His pasture and sheep of His hand." (Ps 95:7a, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said: “We are a people of the Lord) and sheep of His pasture.” (Ps 100:3b, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said:) "This (is) the gate of the Lord. Righteous ones will come into, in it. I shall ‘confess out’/thank You, that You have ‘heard upon’/’listened to’ me and have become to me into saving." (Ps 118:20-21, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said:) “The Lord will watch your way in and your way out from the now and till the (coming) age. (Ps 121:8, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) "O, shepherds of Israel, not shall shepherds tend themselves, (shall they)? Shall not the shepherds tend the sheep? ... I shall tend (My sheep) in good pasture." (Ezek 34:2b,14a, Greek OT)

(Tobit's wife said to him: “Our son Tobias) goes into/in and he goes out in the very eyes of us.” (Tobit 5:18b, S)

Jerusalem (continually) was uninhabited as a desolate (district). It/there (continually) was not (one) out of her products/children going into/in and going out. (1 Macc 3:45a)

(The friends of Judas said to Jonathan: “Since) your brother Judas came (and had come) to an end, it/there is not a male like him to come out and come into/in towards the enemies.”(1 Macc 9:29a)

(The foreign men) (continually) were hindered to go out and go into, out of the border/castle in Jerusalem into the district to buy and sell. (1 Macc 13:49a)

(Antiochus) oppressed the city from the earth/land and the sea, and he did not allow ‘not anyone’/anyone to go out, nor to go into (the city). (1 Macc 15:14b)

Antiochus, the king, ... shut together/in Tryphon (so that he could not) go out and go into/in. (1 Macc 15:25)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Come into/in through the narrow gate, because broad * (א*) and spacious (is) the way leading away into perdition, and many (are) (א*) the ones coming into/in through it, because (א*) narrow (is) the gate and being (and having been) oppressed the way leading away into life, and few are the ones finding it.” (Matt 7:13-14)

Peter spoke to (Jesus): “Lord, if You are, exhort me to come towards You against the waters.” But/and He spoke: "Come!" (Matt 14:28b-29a)

(Jesus said:) “Fight to come into/in through the narrow door, because many, I say you, will seek to come into/in and will not be stable (enough).” (Luke 13:24)

(Peter said to the brothers:) "One of the males having come together with us in every/all time (in) which the Lord Jesus came into/in and came out against/’up to’ us – having begun from the baptism of John, until (א,* א, A) the day which He was taken up from us – one of these must so become a witness together with us of His resurrection." (Acts 1:21-22)

(Saul) (continually) was in company with (the apostles) going into/in and going out into/in Jerusalem. (Acts 9:28a)

(Paul said to the elders of the assembly of called out in Ephesos:) "I know that after my departure weighty/burdensome wolves will come into, into you, not sparing the little flock." (Acts 20:29)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Jesus said to the Pharisees:) "Amen, amen, I say to you, the one not coming into, into the court of the sheep through the door, however/but ascending from another place, that one is a thief and a robber." (John 10:1)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 - about 1500

Represented the door in the first parable (John 10:1-2) the right way of the shepherd to the sheep, it (here) represents the only right way for the sheep. The pen then is a picture of God's safe salvation. (Gösta Sandberg "Glädjens budskap" p 206 in comment to John 10:1-10; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

This ("I am" in John 10:7) contrasts sharply with the common synoptic formula 'The kingdom of God is like ...', and the contrast is significant. John finds in the person of Jesus himself that which the synoptists find in the kingdom of God. (C.K. Barrett "The Gospel according to St John" p 370)


about 1500 and time before

“For I am,” (Christ) says, “the door,” which we who desire to understand God must discover, that He may throw heaven's gates wide open to us. For the gates of the Word being intellectual, are opened by the key of faith. No one knows God but the Son, and he to whom the Son shall reveal Him. And I know well that He who has opened the door hitherto shut, will afterwards reveal what is within; and will show what we could not have known before, had we not entered in by Christ, through whom alone God is beheld. (Clement of Alexandria, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol II p 174)

(The Word) is the Door of knowledge, through which have entered Abraham and Isaac and Jacob, Moses and all the company of the prophets, and these pillars of the world, the apostles, and the spouse of Christ. (Ignatius, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol I p 84)

In popular opinion (the Mezuzah attached to the door-post) was the symbol of the Divine guard over Israel's homes; the visible emblem of this joyous hymn: ‘The Lord shall preserve thy going out och coming in, from this time forth, and even for evermore.’ (Alfred Edersheim "The Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah Part I" p 228)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Margit Assarsson, LarsOlov Eriksson, Emilia Fogelklou, Sven Gabriel Fovelin, Carl Grimberg, Lennart Gustavsson, Dick Harrison, Sam A Johansson, Erik Axel Karlfeldt, Lars Levi Laestadius, Harry Lenhammar, C.S. Lewis, Karl Lundblad, Harry Martinson, Fabian Månsson, Petrus M. Nicander, Birger Olsson, Karl Palmberg, Henric Schartau, Bo Setterlind, Harry Sjöman, Knut Svensson, Tomas Tranströmer, Kerry Usher, P. Waldenström, John Westlin.


My own comments and speculations:

In the Gospels the Greek word for "pasture" only occurs here. In the OT we have it for instance in Gen 47:4. Israel and his sons left Canaan and found pasture in Egypt.

Concerning "amen, amen", see John 1:51a with My own comments and speculations.

Concerning "thieves and robbers", see John 10:1.


Greek words:

nomê (pasture) (in the NT + one example in the Apocrypha) John 10:9 – Sir 13:19; 2 Tim 2:17.


Additional studies: Gen 28:17; 2 Sam 7:8-10; 1 Chron 4:39-41; Job 39:8(11); Ps 78:23; Is 26:2; 49:9; Jer 23:1-4; 31:10; Lam 1:6; Joel 1:18; Matt 7:7; 18:8-9; Mark 9:43-47; Luke 11:9; 13:24; John 14:6; 20:25; Eph 2:18; Heb 10:9; Rev 1:8; 3:3,7,20; 4:1.

Eric FF Bishop "The Door of the Sheep - John X:7-9"; Expository Times 71 (1960): 307-309.

J.L. de Villers "The Shepherd and his flock"; Neotestamentica 2.1 (1968): 89-103.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-03-31; 2011-07-18; 2014-05-04)

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10:10 The thief does not come, if not in order that he may steal and sacrifice and perish. I have come, in order that they may have life and may have ‘over and above’/’more than enough’.

Word for word (20 words in the Greek text): the thief not comes if not in-order-that (he)-may-steal and (he)-may-sacrifice and (he)-may-perish. i/I came in-order-that life (they)-may-have and over-and-above (they)-may-have.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Jacob said to Laban:) “My righteousness will ‘hear on’/’listen to’ me in/on the following day, because my wage is in the very eyes of you. Everyone that – according to the circumstances - is not ... throughout white in/among the goats and blackish in/among the rams, (if found) by the side of me, it will be (considered) having been (and being) stolen.” (Gen 30:33, Greek OT)

(The locusts) ... shall eat down/up every/everything (which is) over and above of the earth/land, the thing having been ‘left entirely’/spared. (Ex 10:5a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) "O, the shepherds scattering asunder and perishing the sheep of My pasture! ... I shall ‘cause ... to stand’/set them down into their pasture, and they will be increased and made full." (Jer 23:1,3b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Edom:) "If thieves came into/in towards you or robbers (by) night, where/how may you (not) - according to the circumstances - be tossed away? They had – according to the circumstances – not stolen the fit/sufficient things (only) for themselves, (had they)?" (Obadiah v 5a)

(The commander of the enemies) sacrificed (many) into the great well. (1 Macc 7:19b)

My delicate ones ... were lifted/'taken away' as a little flock having been raped by enemies. (Baruch 4:26)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “If you – according to the circumstances – may greet your brothers only, what over and above (the usual) do you make/do?” (Matt 5:47a)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "Upon the earth ... thieves dig through and steal." (Matt 6:19b)

(Jesus said to the twelve:) “Go rather towards the sheep being (and having been) perished of a house of Israel.” (Matt 10:6)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "Whoever has, to him it will be given, and it will be ‘over and above’/’more than enough’." (Matt 13:12a)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) ”I have not been dispatched away ‘if not’/except into the sheep, the ones having been (and being) perished of the house of Israel.” (Matt 15:24b)

(Jesus taught the crowd:) “Hear! Behold, the one sowing came out to sow.” (Mark 4:3)

(Jesus said to the much/many-headed crowd: “See from/’away from’ the scribes) eating down/up the habitations of the widows and (for) a pretence praying long. These will take a judicial verdict more than ‘over and above’/enough.” (Mark 12:40)

(On) the first day of the unleavened (days) ... they (continurally) sacrificed the paschal lamb. (Mark 14:12a)

(Jesus) spoke this parable towards (the Pharisees), saying: “What man out of you having a hundred sheep and having perished/lost one out of them, does he not entirely leave the ninety-nine in the desolate (district) and goes against the perished one till (the place) where (א,*א,A) he may find it? And having find it he put/lay (it) against, against his shoulders, rejoicing.” (Luke 15:3-5)

(The younger son) uttered: "How many of (the) wage-earners of my father have over and above of breads/bread, but I perish here (in/with) famine!" (Luke 15:17b)

Having beheld what Paul had made/done the crowds ... (said): “The gods having been/become like men have descended towards us.” ... The priests of ‘the brilliant one’/Zeus ... (continually) wanted to sacrifice together with the crowds. (Acts 14:11,13)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Jesus) found in the sanctuary the ones selling cattles/cattle and sheep and pigeons, and the smallcoin-changers being seated. And having made a scourge out of little ropes He threw all out, out of the sanctuary, both the sheep and the cattles/cattle. (John 2:14-15a)

(Jesus said to the Pharisees:) "Amen, amen, I say to you, the one not coming into, into the court of the sheep through the door, however/but ascending from another place, that one is a thief and a robber." (John 10:1)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

The thief. The definite article begins the parable as well as the the account of the sower in Mark 4:3. … (The thief) gets a new function in v 10 as a contrast figure to Jesus. (René Kieffer "Johannesevangeliet" p 233; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Carl Jonas Love Almqvist, Lars Grip, Ulrik Josefsson, Karl Kilsmo, Lars Levi Laestadius, Selma Lagerlöf, Sven Lidman, Torsten Nilsson, Birger Olsson, Roland Oscarsson, Haralan Popoff, L.C. Retzius, Bo Setterlind, Stanley Sjöberg, Anfin Skaaheim, AT Strömberg, Bengt Sundkler.


My own comments and speculations:

When the scribes meditated upon Cain's killing of Abel, they compared Cain to a thief grabbing a lamb out of a flock (Midrash Rabbah XXII:IX). In a restoration perspective Jesus has not come as a thief to kill Abel (his name means "breath of wind") but to give life (wind, spirit) and give it over and above. The agelong life is a life, which exceeds the natural life given in the creation.


Greek words:

thyô (sacrifice) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) 1 Macc 7:19; Mark 14:12; John 10:10; Acts 14:13 – Tobit 7:8(9); 1 Macc 1:43,47; 2:25; 4:56; Sir 34:20(24); Baruch 4:7; Matt 22:4; Luke 15:23,27,30; 22:7; Acts 10:13; 11:7; 14:18; 1 Cor 5:7; 10:20.

kleptô (steal) (in the NT + one example in the Apocrypha) Matt 6:19; John 10:10 – Tobit 1:18; Matt 6:20; 19:18; 27:64; 28:13; Mark 10:19; Luke 18:20; Rom 2:21; 13:9; Eph 4:28.

perissos (over and above) (in the NT + one example in the Apocrypha) Matt 5:47; John 10:10 – 2 Macc 12:44; Matt 5:37; Rom 3:1; 2 Cor 9:1.


Additional studies:

Ex 22:1; 2 Sam 4:6-11; 7:8-10; Ps 23; Matt 13:24-30,38-39; 25:29; Luke 16:14; John 5:20-21,40; 10:8; Acts 5:36-37; 20:29; 1 Pet 5:8; Rev 3:3; 6:9; 9:21.


Douglas James Davies "An Interpretation of Sacrifice in Leviticus"; Zeitschrift für de alttestamentliche Wissenschaft 89 (1977): 387-399.

J.L. de Villers "The Shepherd and his flock"; Neotestamentica 2.1 (1968): 89-103.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-03-31; 2011-07-20; 2014-05-04)

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10:11 I am the fine shepherd. The fine shepherd gives (P45,א*) His soul in favour of the sheep.

Word for word (17 words in the Greek text): I (i/I)-am the shepherd the fine. the shepherd the fine the soul his gives in-favour-of the sheep.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(God said to Noah and his sons:) “You shall not eat meat in/with blood of (its) soul.” (Gen 9:4, Greek OT)

God spoke towards Moses: "I am the One who is." And He spoke: "In this way you shall speak to the sons of Israel: 'The One who is has dispatched (and dispatches) me away towards you.'" (Ex 3:14, Greek OT)

(David said:) "The Lord is a shepherd to me." (Ps 23:1a)

(Asaph said: “God) showed (His) people the way as sheep in a hand of Moses and Aaron. (Ps 77:20 or 77:21, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said to the Lord:) "’The One’/You being a shepherd to Israel, pour (Your sovereignty) towards (us), ‘the One’/You showing Joseph the way as if (he was) sheep." (Ps 80:1a or 80:2a, Greek OT)

(David said:) “My bothers (are) fine and great, and the Lord is not pleased in/with them.” (Ps 151:5, Greek OT)

As a shepherd (the Lord God) will be a shepherd tending His little flock. (Is 40:11a, Greek OT)

The soul (of the boy/servant of the Lord) was given ‘to the side of’/over into death and He was counted in/among the lawless ones. And He Himself carried up misses (of the mark of God) of many and because of their misses (of the mark of God) He was given ‘to the side of’/over. (Is 53:12b, Greek OT)

(The Lord) will watch (Israel) as the one who tends his little flock. (Jer 31:10b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) "My slave David (is) a leader in a middle of (My people), and one shepherd will be (a shepherd) of all." (Ezek 37:24a, Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) “In that day the Lord will save them, His people, as sheep.” (Zech 9:16a, Greek OT)

(Ussia said to Judith: “You) do not spared your soul because of the humilation of our descent/people. However/but you came out on/’for the sake of’ our fall having gone ‘against straight’/’straight off’ in the very eyes of our God.” And every/all the people spoke: “Oh, that it may become, oh, that it may become.” (Judith 13:20b)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus) was moved in His inward vital parts on account of (the crowds), because they (continually) were (and had been) rent and tossed, as if (they were) sheep not having a shepherd. (Matt 9:36b)

Peter spoke to (Jesus): “Lord, if You are, exhort me to come towards You against the waters.” But/and He spoke: "Come!" (Matt 14:28b-29a)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “What does it seem to you? If – according to the circumstances – it may become a hundred sheep to a certain man and one out of them may be led astray, having (א *, א) let the ninety-nine be * (א*) having gone he by no means seeks the one being led astray?” (Matt 18:12)

(Jesus said to His disciples: "The Son of the Man came) to give His soul (as) a ransom instead/’for the sake’ of many." (Matt 20:28b)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "You will all ‘be caused to stumble’/stumble in/at Me in this night, for it is (and has been) written: 'I will hit the shepherd, and the sheep of the flock will be scattered asunder.'" (Matt 26:31)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "Do not fear, small/little, little flock, because your Father has been pleased with giving you the kingdom." (Luke 12:32)

(Some said) on account of the sanctuary, that it was (and had been) adorned (with) fine stones and consecrated gifts. (Luke 21:5a)

(Paul said to the elders in Ephesos:) “I do not make the soul of any saying valuable for myself, as/’in order that’ I may (א,* א, B) make my course perfect and the service which I have taken from the side of the Lord Jesus.” (Acts 20:24a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

The Jews (continually) said: “Surely He will not kill Himself, because He says: ‘Whereat/where I withdraw, you are not able to come’?” (John 8:22)

The one coming into/in through the door is (the) shepherd of the sheep. (John 10:2)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

Richard Zanuck insists that "all this is a tie-in with the world condition. The world is ugly. These kids come into a world where eveything is real and as a result they are very bold and daring. In their clothes, in everything, it's part of the whole protest: 'We're not getting the truth, tell us the truth. We don't give a damn about the pretty faces. We want that soul behind.'" (John Hallowell "'In my day we all had faces'" p 56)

In the Midrash Rabbah II 2 on Exod iii 1, David who was the great shepherd of the OT is described as ... literally "the handsome shepherd" (see 1 Sam 16:12). (Raymond E. Brown "The Gospel according to John" p 386)

(In Ex. R. 2.2) it is said that Moses was first tested as a shepherd of sheep before being allowed to act as shepherd of God's people. (C.K. Barrett "The Gospel according to St John" p 374)

The expression "anguish of the soul" has not been heard for a long time, but I know many who begin to sleep troubled by nights and begin to be aware that the body has a soul. (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev XI maj 1895-nov 1896" p 359; letter 1896-10-12 to Torsten Hedlund; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

The cavalry captain (to another): "It is not enough for me to have given the child life, I also want to give it my soul." (August Strindberg "Fadren" p 36; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

I want to follow (Ibsen's) example becoming Moses on the mountain! This is my decision! But to become this I must become a man of reputation! Well! I suppose I must learn also this! What the devil if my soul goes to hell, if I with that can save 10,000; and this I only can, if I get the people to listen to me! And that they will do! All means are allowed, without the dishonest ones, as to accept a ribbon of an order or to sell one's opinion! (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev IV 1884" p 146; letter 1884-05-04 to Björnstjerne Björnson; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

(I) pondered upon giving a verdict at the strife between Aristotle, Cartesius and Leibniz concerning the seat and connection of the soul with the body, a thing with which these in vain had puzzled their heads without even come to the same result as the blessed Fool, who declared that the soul "sits where it sits". (Viktor Rydberg "Positivspelarne" p 18; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

In a letter (Viktor Rydberg) among other things writes the following words to his mother: "I do not think, that I was three years old, when my mother said to me, that man is an inmortal soul, which in this life is surrounded by a body, the one he in death lays aside. My mother inculcated this thought in me, because she wanted, that I would know, that if she died and her body was buried and she for ever was away from my sight, her soul still could be in my nearness and see me and love me. (Arnold Lindman "Hedvig Christina Rydberg" p 31; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

The health of our bodies is a great thing, but that of our souls is as much greater as the soul is better than the body. And not on this account only, but because our bodily nature follows withersoever the Creator will lead it, and there is nothing to resist, but the soul being its own mistress, and possessing power over its acts, does not in all things obey God, unless it will do so. (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers XIV:42)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Svetlana Aleksijevitj, Martin Allwood, Ann-Charlotte Alverfors, H.C. Andersen, Stefan Andhé, Carl-Julius Anrick, Werner Aspenström, Anita Bartholomew, Samuel Beckett, Sven-Erik Brodd, Joseph Brodsky, S Bruchfeld, Martin Buber, Sven Danell, T.S. Eliot, Emilia Fogelklou, Axel Forsström, Einar Genitz, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Johannes Gossner, Carl Grimberg, Sergej Gurin, Dick Harrison, Sten-Gunnar Hedin, Alf Henrikson, C.G. Hjelm, Victor Hugo, Zinaida Jevdokimovna Kovalenka, Gabriel Jönsson, Adolf Kloo, Hans Larsson, PA Levine, Sven Lidman, Arnold Lindman, Väinö Linna, Harald Lundberg, Martin Luther, Martin Lönnebo, Vilhelm Moberg, Kaj Munk, J.G. Oxenstierna, Efraim Palmqvist, G.H. Pember, Romaine Rolland, Carl Olof Rosenius, Gunnar E. Sandgren, Isaac Basjevis Singer, Sven Stolpe, August Strindberg, Margareta Strömstedt, Svend Erik Stybe, Bengt Söderberg, Edith Södergran, Valentina Timofejevna Panasevitj, Anton Tjechov, Maria Voltjok, Alfred Russel Wallace, Anna Ölander.


My own comments and speculations:

Notice that Jesus speaks about himself as "fine" (Greek: kalos) and not as divinely "good" (Greek: agathos) (jfr Mark 10:17-18). However the divinity is there in a hidden way as a kind of sign in the expression "I am". But the hour will come when Jesus speaks about his origin in plain language. See John 16:28-30.


The God of the peace ... (led) up the great Shepherd of the sheep out of dead (bodies). (Heb 13:20a)

In this we have (and have had) knowledge of the welcome, because that One put/intered His soul in favour of us. And/also we are indebted to put/inter the souls in favour of the brothers. (1 John 3:16)


Greek words:

psychê (soul) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Judith 13:20; Matt 20:28; John 10:11; Acts 20:24; 1 John 3:16 – Esther 7:3; Tobit 1:12; 13:6,15(16); Judith 7:27; 8:24; 10:15; 11:7; 12:16; 16:9; 1 Macc 1:48; 2:38,40; 3:21; 9:9,44; 10:33; 12:51; 13:5; 2 Macc 6:30; 7:12,37; 11:9; 15:30; Wisdom of Solomon 1:4; 2:22; 3:1,13; 4:11,14; 7:27; 8:19; 9:15; 10:7,16; 14:5,11,26; 15:8,11; 16:9,14; 17:1,8; Sir 4:6; 7:26,29; 9:2,6; 14:9,16; 16:30; 18:31; 19:16; 21:27; 23:16(17); 26:14-15; 29:15; 31:20,28-29; 33:31(32); 34:17(20); 37:12; 38:34(39:1); 40:29; 51:3,20,24,26; Baruch 2:18; 3:1; Epistle of Jeremiah v 6; The Prayer of Azariah v 16; The Song of Praise of the Three Men v 63. Matt 2:20; 6:25; 10:28,39; 11:29; 12:18; 16:25-26; 22:37; 26:38; Mark 3:4; 8:35-37; 10:45; 12:30; 14:34; Luke 1:46; 2:35; 6:9; 9:24; 10:27; 12:19-20,22-23; 14:26; 17:33; 21:19; John 10:15,17,24; 12:25,27; 13:37-38; 15:13. Acts 2:27,41,43; 3:23; 4:32; 7:14; 14:2,22; 15:24,26; 20:10; 27:10,22,37; Rom 2:9; 11:3; 13:1; 16:4; 1 Cor 15:45; 2 Cor 1:23; 12:15; Eph 6:6; Phil 1:27; 2:30; Col 3:23; 1 Thess 2:8; 5:23; Heb 4:12; 6:19; 10:38-39; 12:3; 13:17; Jas 1:21; 5:20; 1 Pet 1:9,22; 2:11,25; 3:20; 4:19; 2 Pet 2:8,14; 3 John v 2; Jude v 15; Rev 6:9; 8:9; 12:11, 16:3; 18:13-14; 20:4.


Additional studies:

Gen 48:15; 1 Sam 17:34-36; 2 Sam 7:8,10; Ps 74:1; 78:70-72; 79:13; 95:7; 100:3; Is 63:11; Jer 2:8; 10:20-21; 12:10; Ezek 34:11,16,23; Micah 5:4; Zech 11:4-9; Matt 25:32; Mark 6:34; 14:24,27; Luke 15:4; 22:19-20; John 5:2; 6:51; 10:14,18; 11:50-52; 18:14; Rom 5:6-8; 1 Cor 15:3; 2 Cor 5:15; Gal 1:4; 2:20; 3:13; 1 Pet 5:4; Rev 1:8; 7:17.


Lars Hartman "Psychae - 'själ'. Att läsa Septuaginta som grekisk text"; Svensk Exegetisk Årsbok 70 (2005): 89-100.

John F. O'Grady "The Good Shepherd and the Vine and the Branches"; Biblical Theological Bulletin 8 (1978): 86-89.

J.L. de Villers "The Shepherd and his flock"; Neotestamentica 2.1 (1968): 89-103.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-04-01; 2011-07-29; 2014-05-05; 2014-11-01)

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10:12-13 But (P66,א,*א) the wage-earner, and not (the one) being a shepherd, whose own the sheep are not, looks at the wolf coming and lets the sheep be and flees. And the wolf rapes them and scatters (them), because he is a wage-earner and does not care for on account of the sheep.

Word for word: 10:12 (30 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus) the but wage-earner and not being shepherd 'of whom'/whose not are the sheep own, looks-at the wolf coming and lets-be the sheep and flees - and the wolf rapes them and scatters. 10:13 (10 words in the Greek text) because wage-earner (he)-is and not '(it)-cares-for (for)-him'/'he-cares-for' on-account-of the sheep.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Jacob said:) "An evil little wild animal ... has raped Joseph." (Gen 37:33b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Moses and Aaron:) "An outsider or a wage-earner shall not eat from (the paschal lamb). (Ex 12:45, Greek OT)

David spoke towards Saul: "(When) your slave (continually) was a shepherd (to) his father in/with the little flock, and when – according to the circumstances - the lion and the bear (continually/repeatedly) came and took a sheep out of the herd, I (continually/repeatedly) and/also went out behind it and hit it and pulled it/'the sheep' out, out of his mouth. And if it stood against, against me, I ‘got power over’/seized its throat and hit and put it to death. Your slave has slapped/beaten and/both the bear and the lion. And the uncircumcised one of another tribe will be as one of these." (1 Sam 17:34-36a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) "The leaders (of Israel) in its middle (are) as wolves raping the preys (for) the thing to ‘pour out’/shed blood, in this way that they (in) urge to have may urge to have more. ... O, shepherds of Israel, not shall shepherds tend themselves, (shall they)? Shall not the shepherds tend the sheep?" (Ezek 22:27; 34:2, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) "O, the ones being shepherds (over) the vain things and the ones having entirely left (and leaving) the sheep!" (Zech 11:17a, Greek OT)

(The foreign king gave) a commandment ... to scatter the ones (being) together with (Judas). (2 Macc 14:13a)

(Solomon said to God:) ”It/there is not a god more than You, who cares for ‘on account’/’the sake’ of all.” (Wisdom of Solomon 12:13a)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “What will a wolf have in common (with) a lamb? In this way (is) a misser (of the mark of God) towards a reverent one.” (Sir 13:17)

My delicate ones went rough ways. They were lifted/'taken away' as a little flock having been raped by enemies. (Baruch 4:26)

(When it burns in a habitation of gods with idols) their priests will flee. (Epistle of Jeremiah v 54a)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "Give heed from/to the false prophets, whoever/who come towards you in clothes of sheep but from inside are rapacious wolves." (Matt 7:15)

(The demons) went away into the pigs, and behold, ‘every the’/’the whole’ herd stormed ‘down from’/over the steep precipice into the sea and they died in the waters. But/and the ones tending (them) fled. (Matt 8:32b-33a)

(Jesus said to His apostles:) ”Behold, I dispatch you away as sheep in a middle of wolves. So become sensible as the serpent (א*) and unblended/innocent as the pigeons.” (Matt 10:16)

(Jesus said to the Pharisees:) “The one not leading together in company with Me, he scatters Me (א,* א). (Matt 12:30b)

(Jesus said to His disciples: “From) every/everyone hearing the saying of the kingdom and not perceiving it, the evil one comes and rapes the thing having been (and being) sown in his heart. This is the one having been sown to the side of the way.” (Matt 13:19)

(The disciples of the Pharisees with the Herodians said to Jesus:) "Teacher, we know that You are truthful and teach the way of God in truth, and You do not care for on account of ‘no one’/anyone, for You do not see into/to a face/look of men." (Matt 22:16b)

Having let their father Zebedee be in the boat in company with the wage-earners (James and John) went away behind (Jesus). (Mark 1:20b)

(Paul said to the elders of the assembly of called out in Ephesos:) "I know that after my departure weighty/burdensome wolves will come into, into you, not sparing the little flock." (Acts 20:29)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

The hired hand runs away not fortuitously, but because he is what he is, hired. His interest is in wages, not sheep. He is not deeply concerned for the sheep. He is not involved in their situation. His passions are not aroused. The interests of the sheep are not a lively concern with him. (Leon Morris "The Gospel according to John" p 454)

While Jacob put one stone under his head for a pillow (Gen 28:11) he placed the rest so that they formed a wall around him, since he was afraid of wild beasts. (Michael E. Williams “Genesis” p 143; Genesis Rabbah 69.2)

Often it is said that the priest must keep abreast of the times, not so often it is said that they must follow Jesus. In a few hours it can be happened that our little country is occupied and that it becomes dangerous to preach Christ. Perhaps it then will appear, that many who before kept abreast of the times, then follow the occupying power. Let us pray God about such shepherds who do not behave as the hired ones, but as shepherds ready for giving their lifes. (Sven Danell "Dagpostilla" s 146 in comment to John 10:11-16; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Now I saw (the wolves). Now they drew nearer, ghastly gray figures coming roaming out in the moonshine howling by hunger. Then also I howled. I cried to the skies. Never I had raised such a cry, and it probably frightened them a little. But not long, Soon I had them there again. Still more near now. Their howling made (the horse) Fjalar quite wild. And me also. I knew that now we would die both Fjalar and I. . . . They were so near now, the wolves. One of them was bigger than the others and more daring. Perhaps it was the leader-wolf. It was he who would bite me, this I noted. He circled around me howling, howling as the blood was covered with ice in me. I threw a burning branch on him and cried loudly but it only provoked him. I saw his jaws and his terrible tusks wanting to get hold of my throat. (Astrid Lindgren "Bröderna Lejonhjärta" p 71-72; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Allan (to Judith): "Sometimes you are a good child, sometimes an evil woman! Me you seem to have chosen as your lamb." Judith: "You are a sheep, and therefore I shall protect you!" Allan (rises): "The wolf is after all a bad sheep-keeper! . . . You want to eat me . . . this probably is the secret." You want to pledge your beautiful eyes to be able to release my head for you." . . . Kurt (the son of Allan): "There are wolfs and there are sheep, it is not any human honour to be the sheep! But I still want to be it, rather than be the wolf!" (August Strindberg "Dödsdansen" p 148-149,219; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Just as the vicar sat there, the schoolmaster turned to him and said very gaily: "Now I shall tell the vicar, that I will build a mission-hall." The vicar was quite pale, he really broke down in the armchair, which mother Stina had brought up for him. "What does Storm say?" he asked. "Will it be built a mission-hall. What is then the advantage of the church and me? Are we to go away?" "No doubt the church and the vicar nevertheless are needed," the schoolmaster said, absolutely sure. "The mission church will support the church, this is my opinion. So many false teachers are hanging around in the country, that the church certainly needs help." . . . (The schoolmaster) went on speaking about everything which had to be done to shield the flock, before the wolves fell over it. "But I have not seen any wolves", the vicar said. "I know, they are on their way", Storm said. "And it is you, Storm, who opens the door for them." . . . (But at last he) said with his usual kind voice and with a quite new clearness in his eyes: "I am no longer angry with you, Storm. You surely do what you have to do. I have in all my days thought much of how God is reigning, although I cannot get any clear idea of it. Nor I understand this, but I understand, that you do what you must do." (Selma Lagerlöf "Jerusalem I" p 44-48; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

I think man becomes tamer by (eating) plants, although there are wild bulls, apes and so on, but I do not want that my children will become lambs, because they must out in the world to fight with wolfs, where the strongest one rules! (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev IV 1884" p 69; letter 1884-03-12 to his cousin Thérèse and his sisters Elisabeth and Nora; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

In the demonical fauna of the Middle Ages the werewolf matters too much in order to be passed over in silence. He was the horror of the countryside. Werewolfs are men, who for a time transform themselves into wolfs and then rove about hunting for children. The faith in the werewolf is extremely old, ancient authors tell it as one among Scytians and shepherds and farmers in the eastern provinces prevalent superstition. Then the transformation was regarded to be brought about by the use of certain herbs growing in Pontus; in the Middle Ages it was the devil, which covered the witch or the bewitched one with a skin of a wolf. Also this false belief became by (the Father of the Church) Augustinus embraced and preached. (Viktor Rydberg "Medeltidens magi" p 141-142; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Carl Jonas Love Almqvist, Ebba Anderson, UllaBritt Berglund, Hjalmar Bjurulf, Carl Boberg, Sven Carlsson, John Dyson, Sven Gabriel Fovelin, Johannes Gossner, Carl Grimberg, Lennart Gustavsson, J.G. Hazén, Per-Olof Jern, Lennart Johansson, Lars Levi Laestadius, C.S. Lewis, Sven Lidman, Lu Xun, Martin Luther, Kaj Munk, Axel Munthe, Ragnar Ohlsson, Per-Olof Palm, Efraim Palmqvist, Levi Pethrus, Allan Rydén, Harry Sjöman, John Steinbeck, John Stott, J.R.R. Tolkien, Johan Turi, Greta Westerlund, Carl Wilson, Thecla Wrangel, Ernst Zahn, Anna Ölander.


Greek words:

lykos (wolf) (in the NT + one example in the Apocrypha) Sir 13:17; Matt 7:15; 10:16; John 10:12; Acts 20:29 – Luke 10:3.

melei (care for) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Wisdom of Solomon 12:13; Matt 22:16; John 10:13 – Tobit 10:5(BA); 1 Macc 14.42-43; Mark 4:38; 12:14; Luke 10:40; John 12:6; Acts 18:17; 1 Cor 7:21; 9:9; 1 Pet 5:7.

misthôtos (wage-earner) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Mark 1:20; John 10:12-13 – Judith 4:10; 6:2.

skorpizô (scatter) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) 2 Macc 14:13; John 10:12; Matt 12:30 – Tobit 13:5(BA); Judith 7:32; 1 Macc 4:4; 6:54; 10:83; Wisdom of Solomon 17:3; Luke 11:23; John 16:32; 2 Cor 9:9.


Additional studies: 1 Kings 22:17; Ezek 34:5; Matt 12:30; 23:16,24; Mark 5:13-14; 14:27; Luke 8:33-34; John 10:1; 11:52; Gal 6:12; Phil 3:18; Rev 12:5.

J.L. de Villers "The Shepherd and his flock"; Neotestamentica 2.1 (1968): 89-103.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-04-01; 2011-08-01; 2014-05-05; 2014-11-02)

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10:14-15 I am the fine Shepherd and I have knowledge of the ones (being) Mine, and the ones (being) Mine have knowledge of Me, entirely as the Father has knowledge of Me, and I have knowledge of the Father. And I give (P45,P66,א*) My soul in favour of the sheep.

Word for word: 10:14 (15 words in the Greek text) I (i/I)-am the shepherd the fine and (i/I)-have-knowledge-of the-(ones) mine and have-knowledge-of me the-(ones) mine. 10:15 (17 words in the Greek text) entirely-as has-knowledge-of me the father and-i/I have-knowledge-of the father, and the soul my (i/I)-give in-favour-of the sheep.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Moses) talked towards Korah and towards every/all his synagogue, saying: “God inspected and had knowledge of the ones being His.” (Num 16:5a, Greek OT)

The Lord has knowledge of a way of righteous ones. (Ps 1:6a, Greek OT)

(David said to the Lord:) “Save Your people and bless Your inheritance and be a shepherd for them and lift against/up them till the (coming) age.” (Ps 28:9, Greek OT)

The Lord utters: “Giving I shall give My laws into the mind of (My people) ... And everyone may not/certainly not teach his fellow-citizen and everyone his brother, saying: 'Gain knowledge of the Lord', because all will know Me, from a small/little one of them and till great one of them, because I shall be propitious to their unrighteousnesses, and I may not/certainly not any longer remember their misses (of My mark).” (Jer 31:33b-34, Greek OT)

(The Lord has) knowledge of the ones standing in awe of Him. (Nahum 1:7b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) "Hit the shepherds”, and the sheep pulled out. “And I will lead My hand against, against the shepherds." (Zech 13:7b, Greek OT)

(The messenger said to Tobias:) “You have knowledge of how we let your father be.” (Tobit 11:2, S)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said:) "All things have been given to the side of Me by the (א*) Father, and no one has additional knowledge of the Son ‘if not’/except the Father. Nor anyone has additional knowledge of the Father ‘if not’/except the Son, and (the one) to whom the Son – if according to the circumstances – may wish to reveal." (Matt 11:27)

(Jesus said to His disciples: "The Son of the Man came) to give His soul (as) a ransom instead/’for the sake’ of many." (Matt 20:28b)

(The father) spoke to (his older son): ”Child, you are always in company with me, and all my things it is your things.” (Luke 15:31)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Jesus said:) "I know Him (who dispatched Me away), because I am from the side of Him, and that One has dispatched (and dispatches) (P66,א,*א) Me away.” (John 7:29)

(Jesus said:) "I am the fine shepherd. The fine shepherd gives (P45,א*) His soul in favour of the sheep." (John 10:11)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

In the johannine world of ideas the shepherd does not seek out a lost sheep but he keeps the flock from dangers. (René Kieffer "Johannesevangeliet" p 237; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: George Carey, Anna Maria Claesson, Sven Danell, Ylva Eggehorn, Bo Frid, Gabriel Mützenberg, L.C. Retzius, Anton Tjechov, Viktor Rydberg, Jesper Svartvik.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning the knowledge of the believer, see John 15:1 with My own comments and speculations.

In the NT the expression “(have) knowledge of the (Father)” only occurs in the johannine books. See John 14:7; 16:3; 17:25; 1 John 2:14. Cf. also John 10:38.

Concerning "the fine Shepherd who gives His soul in favour of the sheep", see also John 10:11.


Paul said to Timothy: "Nevertheless God's firm base stands (and has stood) having this seal: 'The Lord has knowledge of all (א*) the ones being His.'" (2 Tim 2:19a)

I have written to you, little boys (and girls), because you have (and have gained) knowledge of the Father. I have written to you, fathers, because you have (and have gained) knowledge of Him from a beginning. (1 John 2:14a)

You have ointment from the Holy One, and 'you know all ones'/'all of you have knowledge'. (1 John 2:20)

In this we have (and have had) knowledge of the welcome, because that One put/intered His soul in favour of us. And/also we are indebted to put/inter the souls in favour of the brothers. (1 John 3:16)


Additional studies: Ex 3:14; 1 Sam 17:34-36; Ps 37:18; Is 53:5-8,12; 63:11, Jer 23:4; Matt 26:31; Luke 1:54-55; 10:22; 15:5; John 8:22; 10:4,17-18,27,38; 15:13; 17:25; Rom 5:6-8; 1 Cor 13:12; 1 John 3:1.

J.L. de Villers "The Shepherd and his flock"; Neotestamentica 2.1 (1968): 89-103.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-04-01; 2011-08-03; 2014-05-05)

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10:16 However, I have and/also sheep, which is/are not out of this court. And/also those ones I must lead, and they may (א,* א, A) hear My voice, and it (P66,א*,A) will become one flock, one shepherd.

Word for word (26 words in the Greek text): and however sheep (i/I)-have which not is/are out-of the court this. and-those 'it-is-necessary (for)-me'/'I must' and the voice my (they)-may-hear and (it)-will-become one flock, one shepherd.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

The Lord, the One leading together the ones having been (and being) sown asunder of Israel, spoke that/: "I will lead together a synagogue against/’up to’ (My people)." (Is 56:8, Greek OT)

Nations, hear the saying of the Lord and bring up a message into/to the islands longer/’far away’. Speak: "The One having winnowed Israel will lead him together and watch him as the one who tending his little flock." (Jer 31:10, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) "My slave David (is) a leader in a middle of (My people), and one shepherd will be (a shepherd) of all." (Ezek 37:24a, Greek OT)

(Judith said to Holophernes:) “… I will put your chariot in a middle of (Jerusalem), and you will lead (the Jews) as sheep, to whom it/there is not a shepherd.” (Judith 11:19a)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said: “The Lord) convicts and educates and teaches, and as a shepherd He turns Himself next to His little flock.” (Sir 18:13b)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said to the Lord:) “Lead together all tribes of Jacob.” (Sir 36:10a or 36:13a)

(The people in Juda and Jerusalem have) not heard the voice of (the Lord). (Baruch 1:18,21; 2:5,10,24; the words are a part in these verses)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to the twelve:) “You may not go away into a way of/to (the) nations and you may not come into, into a city of Samaritans, but go rather towards the sheep being (and having been) perished of a house of Israel.” (Matt 10:5b-6)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "It is (and has been) written: 'I will hit the shepherd, and the sheep of the flock will be scattered asunder.'" (Matt 26:31b)

(Simeon said:) "My eyes have beheld Your saving, which You have made ready ‘according to’/after a face/figure of all peoples, a light into a revelation of nations and a glory of Your people Israel." (Luke 2:30-32)

(Jesus said to the eleven:) "A change of mind into/’purposed for’ a ‘letting be’/’leaving alone’ of misses (of the mark of God) to/will be proclaimed on/in (Christ's) name into all the nations, having begun from Jerusalem." (Luke 24:47)

(Peter said to the Jews:) “The promise is to you and to your children and to all those ‘into far’/’far off’, as many as our lord God – according to the circumstances – may call to.” (Acts 2:39)

(The Lord said to Paul about the city Corinth) "'It is a much/many-headed people to Me in this city." (Acts 18:10b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

To (the shepherd of the sheep) the doorkeeper opens, and the sheep hear his voice, and he raises his voice (towards) his own sheep ‘according to name’/’after their names’, and he leads them out. (John 10:3)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 - about 1500

"I have" shows that these sheep already belong to Christ, even though they have not yet been "brought" (cf. Acts 18:10). (Leon Morris "The Gospel according to John" p 455)

John's thought ("one flock") is not identical with that of the Stoic view of the unity of mankind. ... For John, the unity of the one flock is not a given unity naturally existing, but a unity created in and by Jesus. (C.K. Barrett "The Gospel according to St John" p 376)

The 7th of April Maundy Thursday I shall be in the monastery of Maredsous (in Belgium) to celebrate Easter. I want to see who Christ is and experience if I belong to his flock of sheep. . . . . . . Now I again stand out as a pitiable creature. . . . For it was somewhere written that I would not see the monastery. The friend who would meet me in Namur was prevented and with that the project dropped. (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev XII dec 1896-aug 1898" p 280,290; letters 1898-03-17 and 1898-04-07 to Gustaf af Geijerstam; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

The old woman (Flod) took the almanac and opened the text of the day, which today, on the second Sunday after Easter, turned out to be about the good shepherd. Carlsson got Luther's collection of sermons down from the set of shelves . . . beginning in a loud voice . . . to preach up the text. . . . A queer feeling of personal responsibility took possession of the reader, when he pronounced the words: I am the good shepherd, and he looked out of the window, significantly, as if he sought the two engaged fugitives Rundqvist and Norman. . . . And with a glorified smile, prophetically, hopefully, trustfully, he whispered: And it will be one fold, and one shepherd." "And one shepherd!" echoed the old woman, who had her thoughts to entirely other quartiers than Carlsson. . . . (According to) Carlsson's unconditional claims, according to the original text and the saviour's own words . . . it was not all right with less than it would one fold and one shepherd! One exclusively, one for all, one, one, one! (August Strindberg "Hemsöborna" s 27-28; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

"No doubt You think as I, and Fredrik too, although he wants to go too far", (the queen Ulrika said to count Arvid Horn), "that with this way to govern no proper rule is brought about in this country. The Scripture says as we know: one fold and one shepherd, and here, as we know, there are as many shepherds as sheep, yes, no one wants to be sheep but all try to become shepherds, . . . Now I think like this, and this count Arvid shall not oppose, that this muddle, which now rules, when no one really knows, who the authority has, ought to come to an end." (August Strindberg "Svenska öden och äventyr 2" p 420; the short story "Stråmannen" from 1891; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


about 1500 and time before

(Jesus Christ) has gathered into one, and united those that were far off and those that were near; that is, the circumcision and the uncircumcision, enlarging Japhet, and placing him in the dwelling of Shem. ... For it is truly “one God who” directed the patriarchs towards His dispensations, and “has justified the circumcision by faith, and the uncircumcision through faith.” For as in the first we were prefigured, so, on the other hand, are they represented in us, that is, in the Church, and receive the recompense for those things which they accomplished. (Irenaeus, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol 1, p 418,494)

The two daughters (of Lot) (that is the two churches – the Jews and Gentiles) gave birth to children begotten of one and the same father. ... There is no other who can confer upon the elder and younger church the (power of) giving birth to children, besides our Father. ... The two testaments ... were truly from one and the same God. ... The first testament ... foreshadowed the images of those things which (now actually) exist in the Church, in order that our faith might be firmly established; and contained a prophesy of things to come, in order that man might learn that God has foreknowledge of all things. (Irenaeus, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol 1, p 505-506)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Per Olof Ekström, Runar Eldebo, Levi ben Gershom, Agne Hamrin, C.G. Hjelm, Martin Luther, Efraim Palmqvist, Bo Setterlind, Bernhard Toftgård, Carl Wilson, Birgitta Yavari.


Paul said to the believers in Ephesos: “(Christ Jesus) is our peace, the One having made the both (Israel and the nations) one, and having loosened the partition wall of the enclosure.” (Eph 2:14)


Greek words:

poimnê (flock) Matt 26:31; John 10:16 – Gen 32:17; Zech 13:7(A); Luke 2:8; 1 Cor 9:7.


Additional studies:

Ezek 34:6,12,22-23; Matt 15:21-28; 28:19; John 3:29; 5:28; 8:47; 11:52; 17:20; 18:37; Acts 10:35; Rom 11:25-26; Gal 3:28; Eph 2:11-22; 4:3-6; Col 3:11; 1 Pet 2:25; Rev 7:9; 10:11.


Anton Fridrichsen "Missionstanken i Fjärde evangeliet"; Svensk Exegetisk Årsbok 2 (1937): 137-148.

Andreas J. Köstenberger "Jesus the Good Shepherd Who Will Also Bring Other Sheep (John 10:16). The Old Testament background of a Familiar Metaphor."; Bulletin for Biblical Research 2.1 (2002): 67-96.

Birger Olsson "Mission a la Lukas, Johannes och Petrus"; Svensk Exegetisk Årsbok 51 (1986): 180-191.

Arthur M. Ross "A Critical Note on John 10:16: Fold or Flock?"; Bulletin of the Evangelical Theological Society 4.3 (Nov. 1961): 99-100.

J.L. de Villers "The Shepherd and his flock"; Neotestamentica 2.1 (1968): 89-103.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-04-01; 2011-08-04; 2014-05-05; 2014-11-03)

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10:17-18 Because of this the Father welcomes Me, because I put/inter My soul, in order that I may take it again. No one lifted (P45,א*,B) it from Me, however/but I put/inter it from Myself. I have (judicial) authority to put/inter it, and I have (judicial) authority to take it again. This commandment I have taken from the side of My Father.

Word for word: 10:17 (16 words in the Greek text) Because-of this me the father welcomes because i/I put/inter the soul my in-order-that again (i/I)-may-take it. 10:18 (29 words in the Greek text) no-one lifted it from me, however i/I put/inter it from myself. (judicial)-authority (i/I)-have (to)-put/inter it, and (judicial)-authority (i/I)-have again (to)-take it. this the commandment (i/I)-took from-the-side-of the father my.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The father Abraham and the son Isaac) went the two together ... both together (to the slaughter place). (Gen 22:6b,8b, Greek OT)

(Wisdom said: "When the Lord) (continually) made the bases of the earth stable, I (continually) was betrothed by the side of Him. I (continually) was towards (the place) where He rejoiced." (Prov 8:29b-30a, Greek OT)

To (one as a son of man) was given the beginning and the honour and the kingdom, and all the peoples, tribes, tongues will be slaves to Him. His (judicial) authority (is) an agelong (judicial) authority, and His kingdom will not be ruined throughout. (Dan 7:14, Greek OT, Theod)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said: “God) gave ... commandments to (Moses), a law of life and insight. ... (Sir 45:5b)


The Latter Revelation:

Behold, a voice out of the heavens saying (about Jesus): "This One is My welcomed Son, in/with whom I have been pleased." (Matt 3:17)

(Jesus said to His disciples: "The Son of the Man came) to give His soul (as) a ransom instead/’for the sake’ of many." (Matt 20:28b)

Jesus says to (the priest leaders and the elders): “Did you nor at any time read in the writings: ‘A stone which the ones building rejected, this has become into a head/beginning of a corner, from the side of the Lord this became, and it is wondrous in our eyes?’” (Matt 21:42)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Of the one not having and/also what he has will be lifted from him.” (Matt 25:29b)

(Jesus said to His disciple:) "Do you think that I am not able call to the side of My Father, and He here (א*) will just now cause to stand by the side of Me more than twelve legions of messengers?" (Matt 26:53)

Having come to/forward Jesus talked (with the eleven disciples) saying: “Every/all (judicial) authority in heaven and upon earth has been given to Me.” (Matt 28:18)

(Jesus said to the hypocrites:) "What/why do you not and/also judge the righteous thing (away) from yourselves?" (Luke 12:57)

(Peter said to the Jews:) "Having so been heightened (at) the right (hand) of God both/and having taken from the side of the Father the promise of the Holy Spirit, (Jesus) poured out this which you see and hear." (Acts 2:33)

The life of (Jesus) is lifted from the earth. (Acts 8:33b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

And we viewed His glory, a glory as of an only descendant from the side of a father, filled with joybringing (grace) and truth. (John 1:14b)

Jesus said (to the Jews): Loosen this temple, and in three days I will raise it." (John 2:19)

The Father welcomes the Son and has given (and gives) all things in His hand. (John 3:35)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

Genesis Rabbah comments Gen 22:6a,8a: "This one went to tie up and the other to be tied up, this one went to slaughter and the other to be slaughtered." Neusner, p 280-281 Vol II, comments: "Isaac gained merit from his agreement, as much as Abraham did. Isaac knew just what was going to happen. ... Though troubled, (he) accepted the decision (to be slaughtered)."

Jesus himself found complete freedom of action in obedience (v 18a); so will the disciples (in the mutual love of Christians in the church). (C.K. Barrett "The Gospel according to St John" p 377)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Johan Hagner, Martin Luther, Margareta Melin, Anders Nohrborg, Karl Palmberg, Richard Wurmbrand.


Paul said to the believers in Philippi: "Having been found (in) bearing as a man (Christ Jesus) humbled Himself becoming obedient ‘as long as to’/until death, but/even a death of a cross." (Phil 2:7b-8)

Christ has through an agelong Spirit carried Himself unblemished to God. … (Heb 9:14b)

In this we have (and have had) knowledge of the welcome, because that One put/intered His soul in favour of us. And/also we are indebted to put/inter the souls in favour of the brothers. (1 John 3:16)


Greek words:

entolê (commandment) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Sir 45:5; John 10:18 – Tobit 1:8; 3:4-5; 4:5,19; 6:16; 1 Macc 2:19,31,53; 11:2; 2 Macc 3:13; 4:25; Wisdom of Solomon 9:9; Sir 1:26; 6:37; 10:19; 15:15; 23:27; 28:6-7; 29:1,9,11; 32:23-24; 35:1(2),4(7); 37:12; 39:31; 45:17; Baruch 3:9; 4:13. Matt 5:19; 15:3; 19:17; 22:36,38,40; Mark 7:8-9; 10:5,19; 12:28,31; Luke 1:6; 15:29; 18:20; 23:56; John 11:57; 12:49-50; 13:34; 14:15,21; 15:10,12; Acts 17:15; Rom 7:8-13; 13:9; 1 Cor 7:19; 14:37; Eph 2:15; 6:2; Col 4:10; 1 Tim 6:14; Tit 1:14; Heb 7:5,16,18; 9:19; 2 Pet 2:21; 3:2; 1 John 2:3-4,7-8; 3:22-24; 4:21; 5:2-3; 2 John v 4-6; Rev 12:17; 14:12.


Additional studies: Matt 12:17-19; Mark 1:11; 12:6; Luke 3:22; 20:13; John 5:20,26; 10:11,15; 14:31; 15:13; Heb 5:8; Rev 2:27(28).

J.L. de Villers "The Shepherd and his flock"; Neotestamentica 2.1 (1968): 89-103.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-04-02; 2011-08-05; 2014-05-05)

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10:19-21 It became again a split in/among the Jews because of these sayings. Many out of them so (א*) (continually) said: “He has a little demon and he is mad. Why do you hear Him?” But (P66,א,*א) others (continually) said: “These words, not is it of one being demon-possessed? A little demon is not able to open eyes of blind ones, (is it)?”

Word for word: 10:19 (10 words in the Greek text) (A)-split again (it)-became in/among the Jews because-of the sayings these. 10:20 (12 words in the Greek text) said-(continually) so many out-of them: "(a)-little-demon (he)-has and (he)-is-mad. What/why him (you)-hear? 10:21 (15 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus) others but (continually)-said: these the words not (it)-is (of)-(one)-being-demon-possessed? not (a)-little-demon is-able-to (of)-blind-(ones) eyes open?


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

The Lord spoke towards Moses: "Who gave mouth to man, and who made ... seeing and blind? (Was it) not I, God?" (Ex 4:11, Greek OT)

(Korah, Dathan, Abiram and On) and males of the sons of Israel stood up opposite Moses. (Num 16:2a, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said:) “The Lord (makes) blind ones wise.” (Ps 146:8a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to the priest Zephaniah:) "The Lord has given/consecrated you into/to a priest ... in the house of the Lord (over) every man prophesying, and/'that is' every man being mad, and you shall give/put him into the watch-house and into the waterfall." (Jer 29:26, Greek OT)

(Changing their minds the unrighteous will say about the righteous: “We counted) his subsistence (as) a madness and his end (as) unhonoured." (Wisdom of Solomon 5:4b)

(Solomon said:) “The worship of idols without names (is) a beginning and a cause and a goal of every/all bad. ... Being cheerful they were (and had been) mad.” (Wisdom of Solomon 14:27-28a)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to the crowds about John the Baptist:) "They say: 'He has a little demon.'" (Matt 11:18b)

One being demon-possessed, blind and dumb, was carried to (Jesus). And He attended him, so that the dumb (began) to talk and see. (Matt 12:22)

(Jesus' mother and brothers) came out to ‘get power (over)’/seize Him, for they (continually/repeatedly) said that/: "He has ‘stood out of Himself’/’lost His senses’." ... (The scribes said:) "He throws out the little demons in/by the leader of the little demons. ... He has an unclean spirit." (Mark 3:21b,22b,30b)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "Do you think that I have become/come to your side to give peace in/on the earth? by no means I say to you, 'however or'/’on the other side’ division. For it will be from the now, (that) five in one house having been (and being) divided asunder, three on/’for the sake of’ two and two on/’for the sake of’ three, they will be divided asunder." (Luke 12:51-53a)

(The governor Festus said:) "Paul, you are mad. ..." (Acts 26:24b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

It/there (continually) was much grumbling on account of (Jesus) in the crowd (P66,א,*א). They/some indeed (continually/repeatedly) said that/: “He is good.” Others (continually/repeatedly) said: “Not, however/but He leads the crowd astray.” (John 7:12)

The Jews said to (Jesus): "Now we have gained (and gain) knowledge, that you have a little demon." (John 8:52a)

Some out of the Pharisees so (continually/repeatedly) said (about Jesus): “This One is not from the side of God, the Man, because He does not keep the sabbath.” But others (continually/repeatedly) said: “How is a man ‘being a misser’/missing (the mark of God) able to make/do signs of such kind?” And there (continually) was a split in/among them. (John 9:16)

(The man who had been blind said to the Jews:) “Out/’on the basis’ of the age it has not been heard, that anyone opened eyes of one being (and having been) begotten/born blind. If not this One (continually) was from the side of God, He (continually) was not able to make/do nothing/anything.” (John 9:32-33)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

The ones being possessed sometimes in their words and deeds give expression, not to what is in their own spirit and personality, but to what is characteristic for the foreign personality living in them and having taken power over them. (Studiebibeln V:295; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: Sven Danell.


Greek words:

daimonizomai (be demon-possessed) Matt 12:22; John 10:21 – Matt 4:24; 8:16,28,33; 9:32; 15:22; Mark 5:15-16,18; Luke 8:36.

mainomai (be mad) (in the NT + one example in the Apocrypha) Wisdom of Solomon 14:28; John 10:20; Acts 26:24 – Acts 12:15; 26:25; 1 Cor 14:23.


Additional studies: Is 8:14; Matt 9:34; 12:24; Luke 2:34; 7:33; 11:15,18; John 6:52; 7:20,43; 8:48; 9:6-7; 1 Cor 1:10-11; 11:18; 12:25; Rev 2:16.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-04-02; 2011-08-06; 2014-05-05)

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10:22-23 But (P66, א,* א, A) it became (the Feast of) the renewed things in * (P45,א,*א) (a disgraced) Jerosolyma/Jerusalem. It (continually) was tempest, and Jesus (continually) walked about in the sanctuary in the portico of Solomon.

Word for word: 10:22 (8 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus) (It)-became but the renewed-(things) in (a-disgraced)-Jerosolyma/Jerusalem; tempest (it)-(continually)-was. 10:23 (11 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus) and (continually)-walked-about the Jesus in the portico (of)-Solomon.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

The Lord spoke towards Moses: “'One leader according to a day a leader according to a day'/'one leader for every day' shall carry their gifts to ... into/for the renewal of the sacrificial altar." (Num 7:11, Greek OT)

(Solomon) made the gateways of the temple ... porticos fourfold/four-sided. (1 Kings 6:33b, Greek OT)

The king (Solomon) and all the sons of Israel sacrificed a sacrifice in the very eyes of the Lord. ... And the king and all the sons of Israel renewed the house of the Lord. (1 Kings 8:62,63b, Greek OT)

The sons of Israel, the priests and the Levites and the entirely/whole rest of ‘from home’/returned sons made/celebrated renewed things of the house of God in/with cheerfulness. (Ezra 6:16, Greek OT)

(Solomon said:) “Behold, the tempest ‘has come by the side of’/’is past’.” (Song of Solomon 2:11a, Greek OT)

(It was decided) ... that the days of the renewal of the sacrificial altar might be led/kept eight days period of time ‘according to’/after period of time in/at their seasonable times ... in company with cheerfulness and joy. (1 Macc 4:59a)

The glory of the Lord was beheld and the cloud, as it was manifested on/’for the sake of’ Moses, as it and/also was thought worthy to Solomon, in order that the place/sanctuary might greatly be entirely made holy. (2 Macc 2:8b)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to the scribes and Pharisees:) "A queen of 'south wind'/south will rise in company with this generation in/at the judgment and will ‘judge ... down’/condemn it, because she came out of the goals/boundaries of the earth to hear the wisdom of Solomon, and behold, (something) more (than) Solomon (is) here. " (Matt 12:42a)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "Pray in order that your flight may not become (of/in) a tempest but/and not (on) a sabbath." (Matt 24:20)

All of (the believers?, the apostles?) (continually/repeatedly) were unanimously in the portico of Solomon. (Acts 5:12b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

It/there is in the (disgraced) Jerosolyma/Jerusalem a (א*) pond, connected with sheep, which is said/called (א*) in Hebrew Bethzatha, having five porticoes. (John 5:2)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

"Hanukkah" (Hebrew: "consecration" (of the Temple)) is holiday commemorating the restoration of the worship in the Temple of Jerusalem after it had been restored by the Maccabees in 165 BC. It begins on the 25th kislev (November/December) and continues for eight days. The illumination of the Temple and Jerusalem which accompanied this historic event is recalled by lighting candles in candelabrums and olive lamps during eight successive evenings of the festival. Apocryphal legend has it that when the Maccabees entered the Temple, they discovered that the Greeks had contaminated the oil except for a portion sufficient for the lighting of a synagogue candelabrum for one day. Miraculously the oil lasted for eight days, and to commemorate this miracle an eight-day holiday was established for generations to come. One light is alight on the first evening, the another one is added on each following day until eight lights are lit on the eighth day. Hanukkah lights should not serve any practical purpose. Therefore they are not lit from one another but from an additional, ninth light called "shammash" (helper). After the lights are lit, the hymn "Maoz Tsur Yeshuati" (Rock of my salvation) is sung. During Hanukkah meals milk dishes are mainly served. Since the late Middle Ages playing cards has been a favourite entertainment. Children played the top (dreidel, svivon), and received gifts of small change and sweets. (Eugeniusz Duda "The Old Synagogue at Cracow's Kazimierz" p 17)

The background to chanukka (the Feast of Dedication) is above all hate to the Jewish religion. It meant that they wanted that the Jews would disappear as an own national group with its particular specific nature, culture and religion. (Göran Larsson "Tid för Gud, Judiska och kristna perspektiv på de judiska högtiderna" p 131; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

The term ("renewed things") is somewhat evocative of the consecration of all the houses of God in Israel's history. (Raymond E. Brown "The Gospel according to John" p 402)

In mid-winter there was the festive illumination in each home. In most houses, the first night only one candle was lit, the next two, and so on to the eighth day; and (the children) would learn that this was symbolic, and commemorative of the Dedication of the Temple, its purgation, and the restoration of its services by the lion-hearted Judas the Maccabee. (Alfred Edersheim "The Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah Part I" p 229)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Alf Ahlberg, Elisabeth Beskow, Torsten Bohlin, David Hedegård, Bengt Hägglund, Sven Lidman, H.H. von Schwerin, Emile Zola.


Greek words:

engkainia (renewed things/the feast of the renewed things) Ezra 6:16; John 10:22 – Ezra 6:17; Neh 12:27; Dan 3:2(Theod).

Solomôn (Solomon) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) 2 Macc 2:8; Matt 12:42; John 10:23; Acts 5:12 – 2 Macc 2:10,12; Sir 47:13,23; Matt 1:6-7; 6:29; Luke 11:31; 12:27; Acts 3:11; 7:47.

cheimôn (tempest) (in the NT) Matt 24:20; John 9:22 – Mark 13:18; Acts 27:20; 2 Tim 4:21.


Additional studies:

1 Macc 4:36-59; 2 Macc 1:9,18; 10:1-8; Mark 11:27; John 10:36.


Timothy K. Hui "The Purpose of Israel's Annual Feasts"; Bibliotheca Sacra 147 (1990): 143-154.

Egil A. Wyller "In Solomon's Porch: A Henological Analysis of the Architectonic of the Fourth Gospel"; Studia Theologica 42 (1988): 151-167.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-04-02; 2011-08-07; 2014-05-05)

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10:24 The Jews so encircled Him and (continually) said to Him: “Till when do You lift/’take away’ our soul? If You are the christ/'anointed one', speak to us (in) plain language.”

Word for word (22 words in the Greek text): encircled so him the Jews and (continually)-said (to)-him: till when the soul our lift-(you)? if you are the christ/'anointed-(one)', speak (to)-us (in)-plain-language.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(David said:) "Many dogs encircled me, a synagogue of (the) ones doing evil surrounded me." (Ps 22:16a or 22:17a, Greek OT)

(In procession to the temple Israel sang:) "All the nations encircled me, and (in) the name of the Lord I resisted them. Having encircled they encircled me, and (in) the name of the Lord I resisted them." (Ps 118:10-11, Greek OT)

... Every/all the people encircling the tent grumbled. (Judith 5:22a)

(Some of the wicked Israelites said to the foreign king:) “Till when may you not make judgment and procure justice for our brothers?” (1 Macc 6:22b, Greek OT)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "Whoever has, to him it will be given, and it will be ‘over and above’/’more than enough’. But whoever has not, and/also what he has will be lifted/’taken away’ from him." (Matt 13:12)

(Jesus said:) “O generation, faithless and having been (and being) turned aside, till when shall I be in company with you, till when shall I hold up/’out with’ you? Carry (the son) to Me here.” (Matt 17:17)

(Jesus) (continually) talked the saying (in) plain language (with His disciples). (Mark 8:32a)

(Jesus and His disciples) come again into (a disgraced) Jerosolyma/Jerusalem. And on His walking about in the sanctuary the priest leaders and the scribes and the elders come towards Him, and they (continually/repeatedly) said to Him: "In/with what kind of (judicial) authority do You make/do these things, or who gave You this (judicial) authority, in order that You might make/do these things?" (Mark 11:27-28)

God spoke to (a rich man:) “Thoughtless (man)! This night they demand back your soul from you. But the things you have made ready, to whom will they be?” (Jesus said:) “In this way (is) the one heaping for himself and not being rich into/’for the purpose of’ God.” (Luke 12:20-21)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "When – according to the circumstances - you may behold Jerusalem being encircled by encampments, have then knowledge that its desolation has drawn (and draws) near." (Luke 21:20)

(The council of the elders of the people, both priest leaders and scribes said to Jesus:) "If You are the christ/'anointed one', speak to us." (Luke 22:67a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

And this is the evidence of John, when the Jews had dispatched away priests and Levites out of (a disgraced) Jerosolyma/Jerusalem, in order that they might fall/’fall down’ (א,*א) (towards) him (and ask): "Who are you?" And he confessed and did not deny * (א,*א) that/: "I am not the christ/'anointed one'." (John 1:19-20)

(Jesus said to the Pharisees:) "The thief does not come, if not in order that he may steal and sacrifice and perish. I have come, in order that they may have life and may have ‘over and above’/’more than enough’." (John 10:10)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

(If Hoskyns is right, which is not impossible,) the idea would be that, although Jesus lays down his own life for those who follow him (10:11,15), he also provokes judgment and thus takes away the life of those who reject him (9:48). (Raymond E. Brown "The Gospel according to John" p 403)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Bo Frid, Jesper Svartvik.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning the construction "Till when do You lift/’take away’ our soul?", compare Rev 6:10. Compare also with the words in Matt 13:12.


Greek words:

kykloô (encircle) (in the NT + examples in the OT) Ps 22:16(17); 118:10-12; Judith 5:22; Luke 21:20; John 10:24 – Gen 2:11; Deut 2:1,3; Ps 32:10; Judith 2:26; 7:19; 10:18; 13:10,13; 1 Macc 4:7; 10:80; 13:20,43; 15:14; Sir 45:9; Acts 14:20; Heb 11:30; Rev 20:9(א,* א).


Additional studies: Matt 16:16; 25;29; 26:63; Mark 4:25; 9:19; 14:61; Luke 8:18; 9:41; 19:26; John 10:31,33; 15:2; 16:25,29; Rev 6:10.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-04-03; 2011-08-08; 2014-05-05)

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10:25 Jesus answered * (P66,א*): “I have spoken to you, and you do not believe. The works which I make/do in the name of My Father, these are witnesses on account of Me.”

Word for word (23 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus prima manus): answered the Jesus: (i/I spoke (to)-you and not (you)-believe. the works which i/I make in the name (of)-the (of)-father my these-(things) are-witnesses on-account-of me.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

A prophet as Moses has not yet stood up in Israel ... in/with all the signs and omens which the Lord dispatched away him to make them in earth/'the land' Egypt, to Pharaoh and to all his attendants/servants and to every/all his earth/land. (Deut 34:10a,11, Greek OT)

(David said:) "Listen to my prayer, Lord ... I have remembered days of beginnings. I have ‘cared for in’/studied all Your works." (Ps 143:1a,5a, Greek OT)


The Latter Revelation:

The disciples of John the Baptist said to Jesus:) " Are You the One coming/’who is to come’, or wait/'are ... to wait' we for ‘the other’/another?" And ‘having answered Jesus’/’Jesus answered’ and spoke to them: "Having gone bring a message to John from (you) (about) the things you hear and see. Blind ones see/look up and lame ones walk about, leapers are made entirely clean and dumb ones hear, and dead (bodies) are raised, and beggarly ones are given a good little message." (Matt 11:3-5)

(The council of the elders of the people, both priest leaders and scribes said to Jesus:) "If You are the christ/'anointed one', speak to us." But He spoke to them: "If I – according to the circumstances – may speak to you, you may not/certainly not believe." (Luke 22:67)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Jesus said:) “The evidence I have (is) greater than (that) of John, for the works which the Father has given (and gives) Me, in order that I may make them perfect, the works themselves which I make/do are witnesses on account of Me, that the Father has dispatched (and dispatches) Me away.” (John 5:36)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: Bo Frid, Jesper Svartvik, P. Waldenström.


Paul said to the believers in Corinth: "Indeed, the signs of the apostle were entirely worked/accomplished in/among you in/with every/all endurance, both (with) signs and omens and abilities." (2 Cor 12:12)


Additional studies: John 2:11,23; 4:26,34; 5:19-23,43; 9:37; 10:38; 14:11; 15:24; 20:31.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-04-03; 2011-08-09; 2014-05-05)

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10:26-27 However, you do not believe, because you are not out of My sheep. My sheep hear My voice, and I have knowledge of them, and they follow Me.

Word for word: 10:26 (12 words in the Greek text) however you not believe, because not (you)-are out-of the sheep the my. 10:27 (14 words in the Greek text) the sheep the my the voice my hear, and-i/I have-knowledge-of them and (they)-follow me.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

The Lord has knowledge of a way of righteous ones. (Ps 1:6a, Greek OT)

(The Lord has) knowledge of the ones standing in awe of Him. (Nahum 1:7b, Greek OT)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said:) "All things have been given to the side of Me by the (א*) Father, and no one has additional knowledge of the Son ‘if not’/except the Father. Nor anyone has additional knowledge of the Father ‘if not’/except the Son, and (the one( to whom the Son – if according to the circumstances – may wish to reveal." (Matt 11:27)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Jesus said to those Jews who to begin with had believed Him:) "The one being out of God hears the words of God. Because of this you do not hear, because you are not out of God." (John 8:47)

(Jesus said to the Pharisees:) "(The shepherd) goes in front of (His sheep), and the sheep follow him, because they know his voice. ... I am the fine Shepherd and I have knowledge of the ones (being) Mine, and the ones (being) Mine have knowledge of Me." (John 10:4b,14)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

Either Jesus will be forced into my inborn and trained religious trains of thought and so become one as false Messiah as my forms of thought are false - and Jesus will never accept that - or I will fly from my false assumptions and have my whole salvation in that respect that the real Messiah is allowed to seize me and transform my expectations and ideas. (Gösta Sandberg "Glädjens budskap" p 419 in comment to John 10:22-30; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Sven Danell, Ad. Kolmodin, William Shakespeare, Carl Fr. Wislöff.


Paul said to Timothy: "Nevertheless God's firm base stands (and has stood) having this seal: 'The Lord has knowledge of all (א*) the ones being His.'" (2 Tim 2:19a)


Additional studies: Luke 10:22; John 5:24; 6:64; 8:19; 10:3,5,15; 12:39; Rev 3:20; 14:4.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-04-03; 2011-08-09; 2014-05-05)

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10:28-29 And I give them agelong life, and they may not/certainly not perish into the (coming) age, and anyone may not/certainly (א,*א) not rape them out of My hand. What the Father has given (and gives) Me is greater than all (א*). And no one is able to rape out of the hand of the Father.

Word for word: 10:28 (22 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus) and-i/I give them life agelong and not not (they)-may-perish into the age and not not may-rape anyone them out-of the hand my. 10:29 (17 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus prima manus) the father what (he)-has-given-(and-gives) me(than)-all greater is, and no-one is-able-to rape out-of the hand (of)-the (of)-father.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Jacob said:) "An evil little wild animal ... has raped Joseph." (Gen 37:33b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Moses): "I have descended to take (My people) out for Myself, out of the hand of Egyptians." (Ex 3:8a, Greek OT)

(Moses said to Israel about the Lord:) ”… All the ones having been (and being) made holy are underneath (His) hands. (Deut 33:3a, Greek OT)

(David said:) “I will presently fall in a hand of the Lord, because His many pities (are) extreme/great, but into the hands of a man I will not/certainly not fall in.” ... (2 Sam 24:14b, Greek OT)

(David said to the Lord: “In) “You, Lord, (is) the greatness and the ability.” (1 Chron 29:11a, Greek OT)

(David said:) "Lord my God, on/in You I have hoped. Save me out of all the ones pursuing me and deliver me, (that) they not at any time may as a lion rape my soul." (Ps 7:1-2a or 2-3a, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said: “The Lord) will deliver (the ones welcoming Him) out of a hand of missers (of His mark).” (Ps 97:10b, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said to the Lord:) "You have put Your hand against me." (Ps 139:5b)

(The Lord said:) "It/there is not ‘the one’/anyone 'taking out for himself'/'setting himself free' out of My hands. I will make/work and who will ‘turn away’/hinder it?" (Is 43:13b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) "I shall cause shepherds to stand up for (the whole rest of My people), (shepherds) who will be shepherds for them." (Jer 23:4a, Greek OT)

(Solomon said:) “Souls of righteous ones (are) in a hand of God and a torment may not/certainly not touch them.” (Wisdom of Solomon 3:1)

(Solomon said: “A whole nation came through (the sea), the ones being sheltered (with) Your hand.” (Wisdom of Solomon 19:8a)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “Let us fall in, into hands of the Lord and not into hands of men, for as His greatness (is) in this way and/also His mercy (is).” (Sir 2:18)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “A great man and a judge and a sovereign will be glorified, and/but not any of them is greater than the one fearing the Lord.” (Sir 10:24)

The One having led the bad things on you, He will take you out for Himself, out of the hand of your enemies. (Baruch 4:18)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to the crowds:) "Amen, I say to you, in/among begotten/born ones of women it/there has not been (and is not) risen (anyone) greater than John the Baptist; but the one (being) smaller in the kingdom of the heavens is greater than he. But from the days of John the Baptist till just now the kingdom of the heavens suffers violence, and men using violence rape it." (Matt 11:11-12)

Having come to/forward Jesus talked (with the eleven disciples) saying: “Every/all (judicial) authority in heaven and upon earth has been given to Me.” (Matt 28:18)

(The messenger said to Mary:) "A lord God will give (Jesus) the throne of His father David." (Luke 1:32b)

(The Lord God remembers) an oath which He swore towards Abraham, our father, to give/allow us, having been delivered out of a hand of enemies, to serve him without fear.” (Luke 1:73-74a)

(In/during) many times/’(spaces of) time’ (an unclean spirit) had raped (and raped) (a certain man) together with (it). ... He had (continually/repeatedly) been driven by the little demon into the desolate (places). (Luke 8:29b)

(The suborners) were not stable (enough) to take on/’hold of’ (Jesus) (by) His word opposite/’in the presence of’ the people. And having wondered on/at His answer, they were silent. (Luke 20:26)

A hand of a lord (continually) was in company with (the ones bringing the good little message of the Lord Jesus). (Acts 11:21a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

The light ‘brings to’/gives light in the gloom, and the gloom has not taken it down/up. (John 1:5)

The Father welcomes the Son and has given (and gives) all things in His hand. (John 3:35)

So having knowledge that they are about to come and rape Him and show up (א*) a king, Jesus, He (Himself) alone, flees (א*) again into/to the mountain. (John 6:15)

(Jesus said:) “I have descended (and descend) out of (א,*א) the heaven, not in order that I might make/do My will, however/but the will of the One having sent Me, *(א*) in order that every (nation?) which He has given (and gives) Me, (that) I may not perish out/’in consequence’ of it, however/but (that) I may cause it to stand up in/on the last day. For this is the will of My Father, in order that every/everyone looking at the Son and believing into Him may have agelong life.” (John 6:38-40a)

(Jesus said to the Pharisees:) " But (P66,א,*א) the wage-earner, and not (the one) being a shepherd, whose own the sheep are not, looks at the wolf coming and lets the sheep be and flees. And the wolf rapes them and scatters (them). (John 10:12)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

Once the papal envoye threatened Martin Luther with what would follow if he persisted in his course and warned him that in the end he would be deserted by all his supporters. “Where will you be then?” demanded the envoy. “Then as now,” Luther answered, “in the hands of God.” For the Christian, they that are for us are always more than they that are against us. (William Barclay “The Acts of the Apostles” p 42)

At last (Ingmar) folded his hands and prayed to God. "Now I ask you, God, that you let me follow your ways", he said. "I do not want to resist you, if you need the people from my parish here out (in Jerusalem)." Scarcely this was said, before Ingmar felt a peculiar peace within himself. But at the same time all will within him fell away altogether, and Ingmar began acting after a will being not his own but a will of somebody else. He perceived this so clearly, as if anyone had taken his hand and led him. "It is God, who leads me", he thought. (Selma Lagerlöf "Jerusalem II" p 410; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Service (rendered) to God does indeed profit God nothing, nor has God need of human obedience, but He grants to those who follow and serve Him life and incorruption and eternal glory, bestowing benefit upon those who serve (Him), because they do serve Him, and on His followers, because they do follow Him, but does not receive any benefit from them. (Irenaeus, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol I, p 478)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Ann-Charlotte Alverfors, Johann Arndt, Helena Bengtsson,Elisabeth Beskow, Bertil Bruce, Sven Danell, T.S. Eliot, Adolphine Fogtmann, Otto Funcke, Johannes Gossner, Hans Hallebo, C.G. Hjelm, Sven Lidman, Sigurd Lindgren, Martin Luther, Martin Lönnebo, Margareta Malmgren, Martin Martling, David Moller, Ingrid Petersson, Einar Rimmerfors, Lothar Schmalfuss, Bo Setterlind, Nathan Söderblom, Helmut Thielicke, Anton Tjechov, U.L. Ullman, P. Waldenström, Carl Wilson, Fredrik Wislöff.


My own comments and speculations:

The words/expressions "rape" and "greater than" in John 10:28-29 associate with Matt 11:11-12.


This is the promise which He Himself promised/made to us, the agelong life. (1 John 2:25)


Additional studies: Deut 32:39; Ezek 37:17-19; Dan 3:15; Wisdom of Solomon 16:15; Baruch 4:21; Matt 6:13; Luke 1:66; John 3:16; 5:24,26-27,36; 6:12,27,37; 14:28; 17:2,12; Acts 13:11; Heb 2:13; 8:9; 1 Pet 1:5; 1 John 1:2; Rev 1:16,20; 2:1; 3:7; 12:5; 13:8.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-04-03; 2011-08-10; 2014-05-06; 2014-11-04)

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10:30 I and the Father are one.

Word for word (6 words in the Greek text): i/I and the father one (we)-are.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Moses said to Israel:) "The Lord our God, the Lord is one." (Deut 6:4b, Greek OT)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said:) "All things have been given to the side of Me by the (א*) Father, and no one has additional knowledge of the Son ‘if not’/except the Father. Nor anyone has additional knowledge of the Father ‘if not’/except the Son, and (the one) to whom the Son – if according to the circumstances – may wish to reveal." (Matt 11:27)

Jesus spoke to (the rich man): ”Why do you ask Me on account of the good thing? One is the good One.” (Matt 19:17a)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "It will be from the now, (that) five in one house having been (and being) divided asunder, three on/'for the sake of' two and two on/'for the sake of' three, they will be divided asunder, a father on/’for the sake of’ a son and a son on/’for the sake of’ a father." (Luke 12:52-53a)

Having gazed into the heaven (Stephen) beheld a glory of God, and Jesus standing out of the right (parts) of God. (Acts 7:55b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

In a beginning the Saying (continually) was, and the Saying (continually) was towards God, and the Saying (continually) was God. This was in a beginning (continually) (directed) towards God. (John 1:1-2)

(John the Baptist said about Jesus) “He (continually) was my First (One).” (John 1:15b)

Because of this * (א,* א) rather/’all the more’ the Jews (continually) sought to kill (Jesus), because He not only (continually) loosened the sabbath, ‘however and’/’but also’ (continually) said/called God an own Father, making Himself equal (with) God. (John 5:18)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

The Father and Son are in perfect unity in their natures and actions, but the neuter form of “one” rules out the meaning that they are one person. (C.C. Ryrie "The Ryrie Study Bible" p 1621)

(Klara-Gulla) got so calm. She had entered a world of lovingness, now after being able to see (her father), as he was formerly. How could she think, that he hated her? He only wanted to forgive. Where she was going and where she was standing, he wanted to be around her protecting her. It was the only thing he wanted. Once more she felt the great tenderness rinse up out of her heart as a big wave filling her being. And at once she knew, that now all was well again. Now the father and she was one as before. Now, when she loved him, it was nothing more, which was in need to become reconciled. (Selma Lagerlöf "Kejsarn av Portugallien" p 183-184; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Torsten Bohlin, William Dalrymple, Bo Frid, David Hedegård, Rut Hermansson, Dan Johansson, Pär Lagerkvist, Fredrik Nielsen, Klaas Runia, Viktor Rydberg, Enock H. Skooglund, Jesper Svartvik, P. Waldenström, Brita Åkerman-Johansson.


Paul said to the believers in Colossae: "In (Christ) every/all the complement was pleased (with) to dwell. ... In Him every/all the complement of the Divinity dwells bodily." (Col 1:19; 2:9)

'Every the'/everyone denying the Son, nor has the Father. The one confessing the Son and/also has the Father. (1 John 2:23)

Three are the ones being witnesses, the Spirit and the water and the blood, and the three are into ’the one’/one. (1 John 5:7-8)


Additional studies:

Mark 10:18; Luke 10:22; John 5:30; 8:16; 17:11,21-22.


H. Conzelmann "Jesu självmedvetande"; Svensk Exegetisk Årsbok 28/29 (1963/1964): 39-53.

Aida Besançon Spencer "Father-Ruler: The Meaning of the Metaphor 'Father' for God in the Bible"; Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 39.3 (Sept. 1996): 433-442.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-04-04; 2011-08-11; 2014-05-06)

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10:31-33 The Jews again bore stones, in order that they might stone Him. Jesus answered them: “I have shown you many fine works out of the Father. Because of what kind work of them do you stone Me?” The Jews answered Him: “We do not stone You on account of a fine work however/but on account of a blasphemy, and because You, being a man, make Yourself God.”

Word for word: 10:31 (8 words in the Greek text) Bore again stones the Jews in-order-that (they)-might-stone him. 10:32 (18 words in the Greek text) answered them the Jesus: many works fine (i/I)-showed you out-of the father. because-of (of)-what-kind (of)-them work me (you)-stone? 10:33 (21 words in the Greek text) (21 words in the Greek text) answered him the Jews: on-account-of fine (a)-work not (we)-stone you however on-account-of (a)-blasphemy, and because you (a)-man being make yourself god.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(In Rephidim) Moses cried towards the Lord saying: "What shall I do (with) this people? Still a small/little (while) and they will throw stones down (against) me." (Ex 17:4, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Moses:) "Behold, you shall make (these things) according to the type having been (and being) shown to you in/on the mountain." (Ex 25:40, Greek OT)

A son of an Israelite woman came out in/among the sons of Israel, and this (continually) was a son of an Egyptian. And the one out of the Israelite woman and the man, the Israelite, combatted (with one another) in the camp. And having 'named on'/'called by name' the son of the Israelite woman cursed the name. And they led him towards Moses. And the name of his mother was Shelomith, a daughter of Dibri, out of the tribe of Dan. ... (The Lord said to Moses:) "Let the one ‘naming the name of the Lord’/’calling the Lord by name’ be put to death (with) death. Let every/’all the’ synagogue of Israel throw stones at him (with) stones." (Lev 24:10-11,16a, Greek OT)

A prophet as Moses has not yet stood up in Israel ... (bearing in mind) the wondrous things, the great things ... which (he) made opposite every/all Israel. (Deut 34:10a,12b, Greek OT)

David was extremely oppressed, because the people spoke to throw stones at him. (1 Sam 30:6a, Greek OT)

(Shimei stoned) in/with stones David and all the boys of king David. (2 Sam 16:6a, Greek OT)

(David said: "Unrighteous witnesses) (continually) gave me back evil things in stead of fine things. ... The ones hating me unrighteously have been made full. The ones giving me back bad things in stead of good things (continually) ‘threw ... thoughout in’/backbit me, since I (continually) ‘entirely pursued’/hunted righteousness. ... (They have given me back) hatred in stead of my welcoming/welcome." (Ps 35:12a; 38:19b-20 or 38:20b-21; 109:5b, Greek OT)

Jeremiah spoke to the king (Zedekiah): "What/how have I acted unrighteously (against) you and your boys and this people, because you give/put me into a habitation of a watch/custody?" (Jer 37:18, Greek OT)

(The Lord God said to the prophet:) “You, son of man, speak to the leader of Tyre: This is what the Lord says: ‘ ... Your heart was heightened/raised and you spoke: God, I am ... but you are a man and not a god. You have given/made your heart as a heart of a god.” (Ezek 28:2, Greek OT)

The great priest Jehoiakim and the council of elders of the sons of Israel, the ones dwelling in Jerusalem, came to view the good things, which the Lord had made/done (with) Israel. (Judith 15:8a)

(Antiochus said: “It is) righteous to arrange oneself under God and being mortal not consider oneself equal (with Him).” (2 Macc 9:12b)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “All the works of the Lord (are) good.” (Sir 39:33a)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus attended) every sickness and every decrepitude in/among the people. (Matt 4:23b)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "In this way let your light shine in front of the men in that way (that) they may behold your fine works and glorify your Father in the heavens." (Matt 5:16)

(Jesus said to a rich man:) ”Keep the commandments.” “Of what kind?” he utters (א,* א). (Matt 19:17b-18a)

(Jesus said:) "Jerusalem, Jerusalem, the (city) killing the prophets and throwing stones at the ones having been (and being) dispatched away towards her!" (Matt 23:37a)

(Jesus said to His disciples: “The woman) has worked a fine work into/’purposed for’ Me.” (Matt 26:10b)

(The priest leader said: “Jesus) blasphemed! What need have we yet of witnesses? Behold, you have now heard the blasphemy.” (Matt 26:65b)

(Some of the scribes ‘counted throughout’/considered in their hearts concerning Jesus:) "Why does this One talk in this way? He blasphemies. Who is able to let misses (of the mark of God) be, if not one, God?" (Mark 2:7)

… The scribes and the Pharisees (said at the meeting between Jesus and the paralysed man): “Who is this One who talks blasphemies?” (Luke 5:21a)

All (the elders of the people) spoke (to Jesus): "So You are the Son of God?" But 'the One'/He (continually/-) uttered towards them: "You say that I am." But/and they spoke: "(Of) what evidence have we yet need, for we have heard ourselves from His mouth." (Luke 22:70-71)

(Peter said: "You know) Jesus, the One (being) from Nazareth, as/how God anointed Him (with) holy spirit and (with) ability, who ‘came through’/’went about’ ‘treating well’/’showing kindness’ and healing all the ones being ‘had (under) sovereignity down’/tyrannized by the slanderer, because God (continually) was in company with Him." (Acts 10:38)

Having stoned Paul (the Jews) (continually) dragged him outside the city ... (Acts 14:19b)

(In Lystra there) (continually) was a certain disciple (with) name Timothy, a son of a faithful Jewish woman, but of a father of a Greek. (Acts 16:1b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

Jesus said to (the Jews): "Amen, amen, I say to you, before Abraham become/became, I am." They so lifted stones, in order that they might throw against Him. But Jesus was hidden and He came out, out of the sanctuary. (John 8:58-59)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

The basic meaning of “blasfêmia” is insult. (William Barclay ”New Testament Words” p 122)

To blaspheme is to purposely trample what holy is or to give out what absolutely is not divine to be so. (Lars Hartman "Ur Markusevangeliet" p 62 in comment to Mark 3:22-30; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Do I dare to trouble You on my behalf to write to Wiener Rundschau explaining that if I had had the right to it, I would have forbidden the printing of "Himmelrikets Nycklar" being written in the beginning of (the decade 1890-99) and whose mocking with religious things I now dislike. This explanation I demand that Wiener Rundschau prints in the next number. (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev XIII sept 1898-dec 1900" s 48; letter 1898-12-04 to Emil Schering; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

God means something with all! I did not obey his calling to go in his service. - You remember the newspaper pleading his cause - I wanted to do my sinful will. . . . I wanted to travel in my own matters. . . . He also spoke about sin against the holy Spirit, the man with the faith! . . . What are all Antwerpen's cathedrals and the art rubbish of the Louvre compared with a man suffering to his soul - I have risen in rebellion against God - I have blasphemed. . (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev I 1858-1876" s 237-238; letter 1875-10-07 to Carl Gustaf Wrangel; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Lars Adaktusson, Alf Ahlberg, Gunnar Aspelin, Elisabeth Beskow, Oloph Bexell, Marcus Birro, Lars-Ola Borglid, Mohamed Choukri, N. Danielsson, Muhammed el-Hamzawi, Albert Engström, Emilia Fogelklou, Bo Frid, Hillis Grane, Carl Grimberg, Björn Hallström, Fredrik Hammarsten, Hans-Eric Holger, J.P. Jacobsen, Oscar Johansson, Pär Lagerkvist, Anty Landherr, Jonas Liliequist, Mathilda Malmvall, Vilhelm Moberg, Thomas More, Sven Nilsson, Agne Nordlander, Einar Persson, Lewi Pethrus, Kristiina Savin, Karin Sennefelt, Alexander Solsjenitsyn, I. Strandh, Jesper Svartvik, Anton Tjechov, P. Waldenström, Gunnel Weidel Randver.


My own comments and speculations:

In a restoration perspective we see how the son of a father, who was not an Israelite man, and of a mother Shelomith, whose name means "peaceful", now is restored in Jesus Christ, He who was a son of an Israelite mother and of a Father who was not an Israelite man. Concerning a possible comparison between Jesus and the son of an Egyptian we can meditate upon John 4:44 (Jesus own country is Judea, where His Father's house is) and Rev 11:8 (a disgraced Jerosolyma/Jerusalem is allegorically called Sodom and Egypt).

The son who was accused of blaspheming the Name and who was stoned in Moses' days now escapes the stones. And the great and terrible works of Moses are changed for the fine, model works of Jesus.


Greek words:

bastazô (bear) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) John 10:31 – Sir 6:25; Bel and the Dragon v 36(Theod); Matt 3:11; 8:17; 20:12; Mark 14:13; Luke 7:14; 10:4; 11:27; 14:27; 22:10; John 12:6; 16:12; 19:17; 20:15. Acts 3:2; 9:15; 15:10; 21:35; Rom 11:18; 15:1; Gal 5:10; 6:2,5,17; Rev 2:2; 17:7.

blasfêmia (blasphemy) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Matt 26:65; Luke 5:21; John 10:33 – Tobit 1:18(S); 1 Macc 2:6; 2 Macc 8:4; 10:35; 15:24; Matt 12:31; 15:19; Mark 3:28; 7:22; 14:64; Eph 4:31; Col 3:8; 1 Tim 6:4; Jude v 9; Rev 2:9; 13:1,5-6; 17:3.

lithazô (stone) 2 Sam 16:6; John 10:31-33; Acts 14:19 – 2 Sam 16:13; John 11:8; Acts 5:26; 2 Cor 11:25; Heb 11:37.

poios (of what kind) (in the NT + one example in the Apocrypha) Matt 19:18; John 10:32 – Tobit 5:9; Matt 21:23-24,27; 22:36; 24:42-43; Mark 11:28-29,33; 12:28; Luke 5:19; 6:32-34; 12:39; 20:2,8; 24:19; John 12:33; 18:32; 21:19. Acts 4:7; 7:49; 23:34; Rom 3:27; 1 Cor 15:35; Jas 4:14; 1 Pet 1:11; 2:20; Rev 3:3.


Additional studies:

Deut 26:8; Matt 9:3; 26:66; John 5:18,36; 7:19,23; 9:3; 10:39; 11:8; 19:7; Acts 4:9; Eph 2:10; Phil 2:6; Rev 13:5; 16:9,21; 22:11.


Rodney R. Hutton "The Case of the Blasphemer Revisited (Lev. XXIV:10-23)" Vetus Testamentum 49.4 (1999): 532-541.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-04-04; 2011-08-14; 2014-11-06)

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10:34-36 Jesus answered them: “Has it not been (and is it not) written in * (P45,א*) the law that/: ‘I spoke, you are gods.’ If He ‘spoke to’/called those ‘gods’, towards whom the saying of God became/came (and the writing is not able to be loosened), do you say to the One whom the Father made holy and dispatched away into the adornment/’adorned world’ that/: ‘You blaspheme’, because I spoke: ‘I am a Son of God’?”

Word for word: 10:34 (15 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus prima manus) answered them the Jesus: not is-(it) having-been-(and-being)-written in the law that i/I spoke: gods (you)-are? 10:35 (17 words in the Greek text) if (to)-those (he)-spoke gods towards whom the saying (of)-the (of)-god became, and not is-able-to be-loosened the writing 10:36 (18 words in the Greek text) (to-the-one)-whom the father made-holy and dispatched-away into the adornment you say that (you)-blaspheme because (i/I)-spoke (a)-son (of)-god (i/I)-am.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

The Lord spoke towards Moses, saying: "Behold, I have given/consecrated (and give/consecrate) you (to) a god to Pharaoh." (Ex 7:1a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Moses:) "I will make the tent of the testimony and the sacrificial altar holy. And Aaron and his sons I will make holy to be priests to Me." (Ex 29:44, Greek OT)

They found (it) having been (and being) written in the Law, (in) which the Lord had enjoined Moses. (Neh 8:14a, Greek OT)

(God said in a synagogue of gods:) "I spoke: 'You are gods and all (are) sons of the Highest One.'" (Ps 82:6, Greek OT)

The word of our God stays into the (coming) age. (Is 40:8b, Greek OT)

(Jeremiah said:) "A saying of the Lord became/came towards me saying: ... 'Before the thing you come/came out, out of (the) womb I had made (and made) you holy, I had put (and put) you a prophet into nations.'" (Jer 1:4,5b, Greek OT)

The king spoke: “Behold, I behold four males being (and having been) loosened/released wandering about in the fire and no ruin/harm became in them, and the beholding of the fourth (has) a likeness of a messenger of God (Theod: ... with a son of God).” (Dan 3:25, Greek OT)

(The Lord) made (Moses) holy in faith and meekness. (Sir 45:4a)


The Latter Revelation:

Having come to/forward the one trying spoke to (Jesus): "If You are a son of God, speak in order that these stones may become breads/bread." (Matt 4:3)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “You may not adopt as a law that I came to loosen down/up the law or the prophets. I did not come to loosen down/up however/but to complete.” (Matt 5:17)

(Jesus said to His disciples: "A person) who – if according to the circumstances – so may loosen one of the least of these commandments (of the Law), and in this way may teach the men, will be called least in the kingdom of the heavens. * (א*) “ (Matt 5:19)

(Jesus said to the scribes and the Pharisees:) "Foolish and blind ones, for which is greater, the gold (of the temple) or the temple, the one having made the gold holy, ... the gift or the sacrificial altar, the thing making the gift holy?" (Matt 23:17,19b)

(The priest leader said: “Jesus) blasphemed! What need have we yet of witnesses? Behold, you have now heard the blasphemy.” (Matt 26:65b)

(The priest leaders, the scribes and the elders ‘jested with’/mocked Jesus and said:) "He saved others. He is not able to save Himself. He is the King of Israel! Let Him now descend from the cross and we may (א,* א) believe against Him. He ‘is (and has been) persuaded’/'trusts (and has trust)' against God. Let Him deliver now, if He wants Him, for He spoke that/: 'I am a son of God.'" (Matt 27:42-43)

(Some of the scribes ‘counted throughout’/considered in their hearts concerning Jesus:) "Why does this One talk in this way? He blasphemies. Who is able to let misses (of the mark of God) be, if not one, God?" (Mark 2:7)

‘Having answered the messenger’/’the messenger answered and’ spoke to (Mariam): "Holy spirit will come against, against you, and an ability of a highest One will overshadow you. Therefore the thing being begotten and/also will be called holy, a son of God." (Luke 1:35)

(Jesus was a son) of Adam (= man), of God. (Luke 3:38b)

It became/’came about’ in the crowd ‘to lie’/’that they pressed’ on (Jesus) and/to hear the saying of God. (Luke 5:1a)

Having beheld what Paul had made/done the crowds ... (said): “The gods having been/become like men have descended towards us.” (Acts 14:11)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Jesus spoke) on account of the temple of His body. (John 2:21)

God did not dispatch away the Son into the adornment/’adorned world’, in order that He might judge the adornment/’adorned world’, however/but in order that the adornment/’adorned world’ might be saved through Him. (John 3:17)

(Jesus said to the Jews:) “You do not have the saying (of the Father) staying in you, because that One whom He has dispatched away, (in) this One you do not believe. Investigate the writings, because you think, (that) you in them have agelong life. And those are the ones which are witnesses on account of Me. And/but you do not want to come towards Me, in order that you may have life.” (John 5:38-40)

(Jesus said to the crowd:) “If in/on a sabbath a man takes/undertakes a circumcision, in order that the law of Moses may not be loosened, are you bilious/ill-tempered at Me, because in/on a sabbath I have made a whole man healthy?” (John 7:23)

But (P66, א,* א, A) it became (the Feast of) the renewed things in * (P45,א,*א) (a disgraced) Jerosolyma/Jerusalem. It (continually) was tempest, and Jesus (continually) walked about in the sanctuary in the portico of Solomon. (John 10:22-23)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

In the time of Jesus Ps 82 was applied to the children of Israel at Sinai. (René Kieffer "Johannesevangeliet" p 246; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Yesterday we got another government. Sandler, Engberg, Strindlund and some persons more went - but I think, it "is the same shit in the jar as in the lid", in any case they are only old party men. But it probably was good to get Sandler away. It is said that a unit of 5.000 men has set out from Sweden today to help Finland. I hope it is true. Yesterday I was so depressed, so I took refuge with the Word of God receiving the following answer in the Bible: "Nothing prevents God to give victory by few just as well as by many." Oh, if it would be so! Finland gets on well up to now, but how will it go in the continuation. The League of Nations has had a meeting, but the result is lean. (Astrid Lindgren "Krigsdagböcker 1939-1945" p 28; 1939-12-13; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

To his son-in-law doctor Philip, who sat beside (August Strindberg's) deathbed, he uttered what would become his last words: "I have made up with the life. My balancing of the books is ready. Now all personal things are obliterated." Having said this, he took the Bible, pressed it to himself, pointed at it saying: "This is the only right thing." Then he broke down in the death doze. (Sven Danell "Sagt inför döden" p 41-42; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Now I read Genesis and Psalms and write vocables. I have reason to think that Genesis contains deep secrets, and that some time someone, more worthy than I, is allowed to find them, and that the Bible saves itself and mankind. (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev XVII 13 juli 1908-april 1909 p 357; letter 1909-03-28 to Albert Wickman; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

The Götterdämmerung of the Unknown One, it is the rubbish of Mamsell (Ellen) Key: with pantheism, Greekianism; . . . Beautytrang with pederasty, oil-paint pictures in stead of divine nature. No thanks! Then I have better in the Old and the New Testament, in the woods and at sea, in the work and family, in the bringing forth of new thoughts in my loneliness (momentan) and in pain! (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev XV april 1904-april 1907 p 136; letter 1905-06-14 to Emil Schering; an anonymous collection entitled Aus den Tagen der Götterdämmerung had in Germany been ascribed to Strindberg, as a matter of fact a person named C.L. Schleich was the author; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

In stead of the pope (Luther) placed the infallibility of the bible, and this was a greater adversity, for with that book one can prove everything and nothing. (August Strindberg "Världshistoriens Mystik" p 29; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

What books are you most fond of? Answer: The Bible; Chateaubriand: Genie Christianisme; Swedenborg: Arcana Coelestia; V. Hugo: Les Misérables; Dickens: Lilla Dorrit; Andersens fairy-tales; Bernadin de St. Pierre: Harmonies de la Nature; Kipling: sundries. (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs självbekännelse" p 206; year 1899; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Monday 22 November (1896). . . . Prayed to the Eternal one to enlighten me and opened the Bible. (August Strindberg "Ockulta dagboken" p 16; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Now I have my motion ready and shall in the plenary sitting on Wednesday recite it. It supposes the abolishing of all oaths upon the confession, which the church law prescribes and their replacement with promises so formulated, that the exclusive authority of Holy Writ in matters of faith and the subordinate status of the symbolic books obviously are declared. (Viktor Rydbergs brev I "Viktor Rydbergs och S.A. Hedlunds brevväxling" p 130; letter 1868-09-13 to S.A. Hedlund; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

The Reformation at last came and forced the cultivated ones of that time to cultivate the Swedish language. What Luther's bible translation worked for the German language has become investigated and been found practically immeasureable; what the Swedish bible translations worked perhaps has not become enough estimated. In any case they gave the first mighty thrust to a movement, which after that has continued and, while it at last developed a home classical literature, also striven to give the life of language a sappy and well root by the eradication out of our schools of the pedantry of the Middle Ages and the maintaining of the good right of the Swedish langugae in the schools at the teaching of the youth. (Viktor Rydberg "Modersmålets litteratur i skolorna" p 256; Göteborgs Handelstidning 1861-01-26 - 1861-02-06; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

(Corporal Brant's) conviction of the foster-son (Sven's) uprightness was as deeply rooted as his faith in the bible, and to attack Sven's honour was to attack his own. . . . (The upper-school scholar) saw (at the auction) an old woman draw away with a big bible under her arm. It was the family bible of corporal (Brant), the one he had inherited from his father, and on which cover the genealogical table of the whole family, its days of births and deaths, were noted . . . it was the book, out of which the old man had drawn nourishment to his faith in God and the saviour of mankind, got light in the dark hours of life and strength, when he felt be born down by the blows of fate. (Viktor Rydberg "De vandrande djäknarne" p 120,128-129; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Lars (Gudmundsson) spoke vastly and with a sharp logic for this important thing. That Luther himself did not want to be regarded as infallible, in this Lars saw a testimonial as to his being it - infallible namely in cathedra, otherwise of course not. It was incumbent on the synod to determine, when he had spoken in cathedra. . . . The general resistance he experienced in the Protestant Germany gave rise to an effect suspecting by noone, hardly by himself, before it had appeared. A building of dogmas had to rest on the foundation of infallibility, not only the one of the infallible Scriptures, but the one of the infallible interpretation of the Scriptures. Otherwise it is built upon shifting sand, and the weathers and the downpours come it to ruin. Whatever Lars now had to make objections to papism - the thing he regarded as the firm foundation for a church it had, namely a logical doctrine of infallibility, and its defects future could of course heal as soon as the tiara had crowned the crown of a courageous reformer. . . . Lars went to Rome, left Lutheranism and was introduced to the pope, who received him in a characteristic way. . . . He had the chance to a bishop's throne and received it after the course of ten years. . . . Whenever he was ready to start in order to at the first information about disturbances in Sweden hasten there and lead the way for a rising against king Gösta. . . . (Mother) Margareta experienced Lars Gudmundsson's exaltation to archbishop and his attendance at the Council of Trent. (Viktor Rydberg "Vapensmeden" p 266-272; translation from the Swedish text)

There are some even so low-minded, and empty, and unworthy of Heaven, as not to think that names only, but whole books of the Bible are of no use, as Leviticus, Joshua, and more besides. And in this way many of the simple ones have been for rejecting the Old Testament, and advancing on in the way, that results from this evil habit of mind, have likewise pruned away many parts of the New Testament also. But if any be a lover of wisdom, and a friend to spiritual entertainments, let him be told that even the things which seem to be unimportant in Scripture, are not placed there at random and to no purpose, and that even the old law have much to profit us. For it says, “All these things are types ... and are written for our instruction.” (1 Cor. x. 11.) (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers XI:553)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Alf Ahlberg, Lars Ahlberg, Eric S. Alexandersson, Ingvar Andersson, Sölve Anderzén, Åke Andrén, James Atkinson, Honoré de Balzac, Jerram Barrs, August Berg, Elisabeth Beskow, Oloph Bexell, Manfred Björkquist, Carl Boberg, Gerald Bray, Ingmar Brohed, George Carey, Johan Cederlund, Elisabeth Charles, Hyeong-Eun Chi, Rune W. Dahlén, Aug. Dahlhielm, Miguel de Cervantes, Charles Dickens, Olof Djurfeldt, E.J. Ekman, Valdemar Ekman, Paul Ellingworth, Harald Elovson, LarsOlov Eriksson, Björne Erixon, J. Fjellstedt, Emilia Fogelklou, Bruno Frandell, Bert Franzén, Gunnar Fur, Bo Giertz, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Paulus Mar Gregorios, Carl Grimberg, Jan Guillou, Berndt Gustafsson, Georg Gustafsson, Josef Gustafsson, Lennart Gustavsson, Oscar Haglund, Donald A. Hagner, Märtha Hallander, David Hedegård, Paul Helm, Bengt Hägglund, Anders Jarlert, Eyvind Johnson, Ulrik Josefsson, M. Karlgren, Isak Krook, Lars Levi Laestadius, Pär Lagerkvist, Tony Lane, Harry Lenhammar, Sven Lidman, Gustaf Linder, Sigurd Lindgren, Valborg Lindgärde, Arne Losman, John Magnusson, Howard Marshall, Carl Henrik Martling, Vilhelm Moberg, Walter Moberly, Ingun Montgomery, Leon Morris, Gabriel Mützenberg, Håkan Möller, Wilhelm Möller, Petrus M. Nicander, Gösta Nicklasson, Fredrik Nielsen, Bertil Nilsson, Torsten Nilsson, Runa Ohlander, Bernt Olsson, Birger Olsson, John Ongman, René Pache, James Innel Packer, Karl Palmberg, Efraim Palmqvist, Lewi Pethrus, Olaus Petri, Hilding Pleijel, Harald Rasmussen, Christopher Rice, Melanie Rice, Sigrid Rosell, Aug. Rosén, Gunnar Rudberg, Waldemar Rudin, Abraham Rundbäck, Gösta Sandberg, Karin Sarja, Wilh. Sarwe, Quentin J. Schultze, Waldron Byron Scott, Bo Setterlind, Håkan Sjögren, Martin Sjöstrand, Olof Sjöstrand, Erik Sollerman, Sigurd Stark, Gunnar Stenvall, John Stott, Svend Erik Stybe, Rune Söderlund, Anthony C. Thiselton, Einar Thomassen, T. Truvé, Tormod Vågen, P. Waldenström, Verner Vall, P.G. Vejde, Geoffrey Wainwright, Kallistos Ware, Gottlieb Weitbrecht, Hans Weichbrodt, Ernst Wigforss, Stig Wikström, Carl Wilson, Christy Wilson, Sven Wisborg, Carl Fr. Wislöff, Ingrid Ydén-Sandgren, Yngve Ydreborg.


My own comments and speculations:

Jesus is the new temple, which the Father has made holy. See also John 10:22-23 with My own comments and speculations.

Concerning “sent away into”, see also John 3:16-18.


We have a sacrificial altar (Christ). (Heb 13:10a)


Greek words:

(h)agiazô (make holy) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Sir 45:4; Matt 23:17,19; John 10:36 – Tobit 1:4; Judith 4:3; 6:19; 9:13; 11:13; 1 Macc 4:48; 2 Macc 1:25; Sir 33:9,12; 49:7; Matt 6:9; Luke 11:2; John 17:17,19; Acts 20:32; 26:18; Rom 15:16; 1 Cor 1:2; 6:11; 7:14; Eph 5:26; 1 Thess 5:23; 1 Tim 4.5; 2 Tim 2:21; Heb 2:11; 9:13; 10:10,14,29; 13:12; 1 Pet 3:15; Jude v 1; Rev 22:11.

blasphêmeô (blaspheme) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Matt 26:65; Mark 2:7; John 10:36 – Tobit 1:18(S); 2 Macc 10:34; 12:14; Matt 9:3; 27:39; Mark 3:28-29; 15:29; Luke 12:10; 22:65; 23:39; Acts 13:45; 18:6; 19:37; 26:11; Rom 2:24; 3:8; 14:16; 1 Cor 10:30; 1 Tim 1:20; 6:1; Tit 2:5; 3:2; Jas 2:7; 1 Pet 4:4; 2 Pet 2:2,10,12; Jude v 8,10; Rev 13:6; 16:9,11,21.


Additional studies:

Ex 29:27,37; Num 7:1; Jer 1:2; Hos 1:1; Matt 5:18-19; 27:54; Mark 15:39; Luke 3:2; 16:17; John 5:17-18; 6:27,69; 8:17; 10:30; 12:34; 15:25; 17:18-19,21; 19:7; Rom 3:19; 1 Cor 14:21; Rev 2:9; 22:18-19.


James S. Ackerman "The Rabbinic Interpretation of Psalm 82 and the Gospel of John (John 10:34)", Harvard Theological Review 59 (1966): 186-191.

Bodil Ejmaes "Den nye danske oversaettelse - dess modtagelse og anvendelse"; Svensk Exegetisk Årsbok 66 (2001).

John A. Emerton "Melchizadek and the Gods: Fresh Evidence for the Jewish background of John X:34-36"; Journal of Theological Studies 17 (1966): 399-401.

T. Fornberg "Bibeln och de många religionerna. Harmoni eller konflikt?" Svensk Exegetisk Årsbok 60 (1995): 39-48.

Anton Fridrichsen "Realistisk bibelutläggning. Ett vetenskapligt krav och ett praktiskt önskemål."; Svensk Exegetisk Årsbok 1 (1936): 20-30.

Anton Fridrichsen "Reviderade bibelöversättningar"; Svensk Exegetisk Årsbok 3 (1938): 169-172.

Michael D. Goulder "Translation and Exegesis. Some reflections on the Swedish NT Translations of 1917 and 1981"; Svensk Exegetisk Årsbok 57 (1992): 5-37.

Anthony T. Hanson "The Use of the Old Testament in the Pastoral Epistles"; Irish Biblical Studies 3.3 (1981): 203-219.

T. Harviainen "Finsk nyöversättning av Bibeln"; Svensk Exegetisk Årsbok 48 (1983): 109-117.

Stephen L. Homcy "'You are gods.' Spirituality and a difficult text."; Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 32.4 (Dec. 1989: 485-491).

N. Hyldahl "Nya testamentet 1981, eksegetisk betragtet"; Svensk Exegetisk Årsbok 47 (1982): 102-114.

H. Ljungvik "Randanmärkningar till 1963 års bibelkommittés översättningsförslag"; Svensk Exegetisk Årsbok 34 (1969): 147-169.

H. Ljungvik "Översättningsförslag och språkliga förklaringar till skilda ställen i Nya Testamentet I-III"; Svensk Exegetisk Årsbok 30 (1965): 102-120; 32 (1967): 121-147; 33 (1968): 149-174.

Jerome H. Neyrey "'I Have Said: You are Gods': Psalm 82:6 and John 10"; Journal of Biblical Literature 108 (1989): 647-663.

B. Noack "Arbejdet med Bibeloversaettelsen i Danmark i nyere Tid"; Svensk Exegetisk Årsbok 9 (1944): 35-48.

S. Olofsson "Septuaginta och äldre judisk tolkningstradition"; Svensk Exegetisk Årsbok 58 (1993): 15-32.

Birger Olsson "Moderna bibelkommentarer och omoderna"; Svensk Exegetisk Årsbok 46 (1981): 36-54.

H. Sahlin "Några randanmärkningar till NT -81"; Svensk Exegetisk Årsbok 49 (1984): 74-82.

C. van der Waal "The Gospel according to John and the Old Testament"; Neotestamentica 6.1 (1972): 28-47.

C. Åsberg "Om språk och stil i NT 1981"; Svensk Exegetisk Årsbok 47 (1982): 115-150.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-04-04; 2011-08-15; 2014-05-06; 2014-11-06)

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10:37-38 If I do not make/do the works of My Father, do not believe Me. But if I make/do, and you – according to the circumstances – do (א,* א, A) not believe Me, believe the works, in order that you may have knowledge and may believe (א,* א), that the Father (is) in Me and I in the Father.

Word for word: 10:37 (11 words in the Greek text) if not (i/I)-makes the works (of)-the (of)-father my, not believe me. 10:38 (23 words in the Greek text) if but (i/I)-make and-according-to-the-circumstances me not (you)-believe, the works believe, in-order-that (you)-may-have-knowledge and (you)-may-believe that in me the father and-i/I in the father.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

A prophet as Moses has not yet stood up in Israel ... in/with all the signs and omens which the Lord dispatched away him to make them in earth/'the land' Egypt, to Pharaoh and to all his attendants/servants and to every/all his earth/land. (Deut 34:10a,11, Greek OT)

(David said:) "Listen to my prayer, Lord ... I have remembered days of beginnings. I have ‘cared for in’/studied all Your works." (Ps 143:1a,5a, Greek OT)


The Latter Revelation:

The disciples of John the Baptist said to Jesus:) " Are You the One coming/’who is to come’, or wait/'are ... to wait' we for ‘the other’/another?" And ‘having answered Jesus’/’Jesus answered’ and spoke to them: "Having gone bring a message to John from (you) (about) the things you hear and see. Blind ones see/look up and lame ones walk about, leapers are made entirely clean and dumb ones hear, and dead (bodies) are raised, and beggarly ones are given a good little message." (Matt 11:3-5)

‘Having answered’/’Jesus answered and’ spoke to (the disciples): “Amen, I say to you, if you – according to the circumstances – may have faith and may not doubt, you will not only make/do the thing (which was done) of/to the fig tree, ‘however and’/’but also’ – according to the circumstances – you may speak to this mountain: ’’Be lifted’/rise and ‘be thrown’/’throw yourself’ into the sea’, (and) it will become/’come about’.” (Matt 21:21)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Jesus said to the Jews:) “The works which the Father has given (and gives) Me, in order that I may make them perfect, the works themselves which I make/do are witnesses on account of Me, that the Father has dispatched (and dispatches) Me away. ... The works which I make/do in the name of My Father, these are witnesses on account of Me.” (John 5:36b; 10:25b)

(Jesus said:) “I am the fine Shepherd and I have knowledge of the ones (being) Mine, and the ones (being) Mine have knowledge of Me, entirely as the Father has knowledge of Me, and I have knowledge of the Father.” (John 10:14-15a)

(Jesus said to the Jews:) "I and the Father are one." (John 10:30)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: Bo Frid, Jesper Svartvik.


Additional studies: John 14:10-11,20; 15:24; 17:21-23; 19:35; 20:31; 1 John 3:24.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-04-05; 2011-08-17; 2014-05-06)

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10:39 * (P45,א*) They so (continually) sought to seize Him, and/but He came out, out of their hand.

Word for word (10 words in the Greek text): (They)-(continually)-sought so him seize, and (he)-came-out out-of the hand their.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The Lord said to Moses): "I have descended to take (My people) out for Myself, out of the hand of Egyptians." (Ex 3:8a, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said: “The Lord) will deliver (the ones welcoming Him) out of a hand of missers (of His mark).” (Ps 97:10b, Greek OT)


The Latter Revelation: (The priest leaders and the scribes and the elders) (continually) sought to get power over (Jesus), and/but they feared the crowd. ... And having let Him be they went away. (Mark 12:12)

All in the synagogue were fulfilled (with) passion ... But having come through, through their middle, (Jesus) '(continually) went'/'went His way'. (Luke 4:28a,30)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Some of the people of a disgraced Jerosolyma/Jerusalem) (continually) sought to seize (Jesus), and/but no one threw/laid the hand against, against Him, because His hour had not yet come. (John 7:30)

Some out of (the crowd) (continually) wanted to seize (Jesus), however/but no one threw/laid the hands against, against Him. (John 7:44)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: P. Waldenström.


Additional studies: John 8:20,59.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-04-05; 2011-08-17; 2014-05-06)

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10:40-42 And He went again away on the other side of the Jordan * (א*), whereat John formerly (P45,א*) (continually) was baptizing, and He stayed there. And many came towards Him and they (continually) said * (א,* א): “John indeed made no sign, but all things, as many as John spoke on account of this One, (continually) was truthful.” And many believed into Him there.

Word for word: 10:40 (15 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus prima manus) And (he)-went-away again on-the-other-side (of)-the (of)-Jordan whereat was-(continually) John the formerly baptizing and (he)-stayed there. 10:41 (21 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus) and many came towards him and (they)-(continually)-said: John indeed sign made none/no, all-(things) but so-many-as spoke John on-account-of this-(one) truthful (continually)-was. 10:42 (6 words in the Greek text) and many believed into him there.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The Lord said to Moses:) "Jesus ... shall come into (the good land). ... He shall let Israel inherit it entirely." (Deut 1:38, Greek OT)

Moses said to the Lord: "Having so stepped through/across (the Jordan) I shall behold the good earth/land, the one being on the other side of the Jordan." ... (But the Lord said:) "Do not longer talk this saying (with Me)." (Deut 3:25a,26b, Greek OT)

(God) will make a district ... on the other side of the Jordan, Galilee of the nations, the parts of Judea. (Is 8:23b or 9:1b, Greek OT)


The Latter Revelation:

Many crowds followed (Jesus) from ... on the other side of the Jordan. (Matt 4:25)

(Paul said to the Jews:) "As/when John ‘(continually) completed’/’was completing’ the course, he (continually) said: 'What you conjecture me to be, I am not. However, behold, One comes after me.’” (Acts 13:25a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(John) came into/’for the purpose of’ an evidence, in order that he might be a witness on account of the light, in order that all might believe through him. (John 1:7)

These things became/’came about’ in Bethany on the other side of the Jordan, whereat/where John (continually) was baptizing. (John 1:28)

(John) said (about Jesus): "Behold, the Lamb of God, who lifts/’takes away’ the miss (of the mark of God) of the adornment/’adorned world’! ... He was before me. ... This One is the Chosen One (P5,א*) of God. ... I am not the christ/'anointed one'.’ … ‘However/but that/- I have been (and is) dispatched away in front of that One. ... That One must increase, but me/I be lessened." (John 1:29b,30b,34b; 3:28b,30)

After these things Jesus went away on the other side of the Sea of the Galilee of the Tiberias. (John 6:1)


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning "on the other side of the Jordan", see My own comments and speculations to John 1:28.


Additional studies: Gen 50:10-11; Joshua 3:17; 1 Macc 9:48; Matt 4:15-16,25; 19:1; Mark 3:8; 10:1; John 1:27-28; 2:11,23; 3:26; 8:30; 11:45.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-04-05; 2011-08-17; 2014-05-06)

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