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Chapter 9

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9:1-2 And ‘leading by the side of’/’passing by’, He beheld a man blind out of a birth. And His disciples asked Him saying: “Rabbi, who missed (the mark of God), this one or his parents, in order that he might have been begotten/born blind?”

Word for word: 9:1 (7 words in the Greek text) And leading-by-the-side-of (he)-beheld (a)-man blind out-of (a)-birth. 9:2 (18 words in the Greek text) and asked him the disciples his saying: rabbi, who missed-(the-mark-of-God), this-(one) or the parents his, in-order-that blind (he)-might-have-been-begotten?


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

The males of the city, the Sodomites, from a youth till an elder, the people all of them together, encircled (Lot's) habitation around. ... But the males being/standing against the door of the house were hit with ‘impossibility to behold’/blindness, from a little one till a great one. (Gen 19:4b,11a, Greek OT)

(God said to His people:) "I am the Lord your God, a zealous God, giving back misses (of My mark) of fathers against the children till third and fourth generation to the ones hating Me." (Ex 20:5b, Greek OT)

(If a son of Israel has sold himself) to an outsider by the side of (him), a proselyte out of birth ... one of his brothers shall redeem him. (Lev 25:47b,48b, Greek OT)

(The daughters of Zelophehad said: “Our father) died because of his miss (of the mark of God), and it did not become sons to him.” (Num 27:3b, Greek OT)

(Moses said to Israel:) "Sons shall not die ‘in favour’/’for the sake’ of fathers. Everyone shall die (in) his own miss (of the mark of God)." (Deut 24:16b, Greek OT)

(Esther said to God:) “Out of my birth I (continually/repeatedly) have heard ... that You, Lord, took Israel out of all the nations ... and now we have missed (Your mark) in the very eyes of You.” (Esther 4:17m-na/C16-17a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said: "If David's children) may not watch My commandments, I will inspect ... their lawlessnesses with/’by means of’ a rod." (Ps 89:31b-32a or 89:32b-33a, Greek OT)

(Solomon said:) “A boy having been led astray puts a shame to his parents.” (Prov 29:15b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Ezekiel:) "The soul having missed (the mark of God) will die. But the son will not take/overtake the unrighteousness of his father." (Ezek 18:20a, Greek OT)

(Tobit said to the Lord:) "You may not procure justice of me (with) my misses (of Your mark) and in/with my mistakes and the ones of my father', who missed (Your mark) opposite You." (Tobit 3:3b, S)

(Solomon said:) “Children being begotten out/’in consequence’ of lawless sleeps/sleepings are witnesses to an evil thing ‘down from’/against parents in/at their examination.” (Wisdom of Solomon 4:6)

(Solomon said: “The missers of the mark of God) were struck (with/by) ‘impossibility to behold’/blindness just as those on/at the doors of the righteous one, when they having been wrapped up in ... darkness.” (Wisdom of Solomon 19:17a)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “Children of missers (of the mark of God) it becomes abominated children ... and in company with their seeds outrage is continually. ... Woe you, wicked males. ... If – according to the circumstances – you may be begotten, you will be begotten into curse.” (Sir 41:5a,6b,8a,9a)

The parents (of Susanna were) righteous. (Susanna v 3a, Theod)


The Latter Revelation:

Two blind being seated to the side of the way … (heard) that Jesus leads/moves by the side of (them). (Matt 20:30a)

The (younger) son spoke to (his father): ”Father, I have missed (the mark of God) into/’with the purpose of’ the heaven and in the very eyes of you. I am not any longer worthy to be called your son.” (Luke 15:21a)

They (continually/repeatedly) ‘according to’/’day by’ day put (the male who had been lame out of his mothers belly/womb) towards the door of the sanctuary, the (one) being said/called ‘Seasonable hour’. … Having beheld Peter and John being about to enter into the sanctuary, he (continually/repeatedly) asked to take alm/alms. (Acts 3:2b-3)

A certain male ... (continually) was seated, lame out of (the) belly of his mother. (Acts 14:8a)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 - about 1500

The tale about the healing of the man born blind is ... built up around seven scenes with the fourth as a center. (LarsOlov Eriksson "För att ni skall tro. Johannesevangeliet" p 182; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

When a child is born in a civilized society, it is born with rights, because the society expects to be allowed to claim obligations from the newborn when the time has come. The child has right to food and elementary education, and the society is to feed and educate the children, whose parents through distress or carelessness are prevented from doing it, for even if the parents are careless fellows the child must not be punished for it. But because life is a stadium, where competition takes place, all should be prepared in the same way at the start. This occurs best in the comprehensive school, compulsary and a single one for all, where the elements are given tuition free. Learn reading, writing and arithmetic are called the keys to all knowledge, for with them one can then oneself learn the rest which are to be bought in the book-shop. The one having money and mind to learn more may do so, but with this any rank or other privileges must not follow than the one that everyone comes in one's place. (August Strindberg "Människans Rättigheter i ett civiliserat och kristet samhälle" p 181; Social-Demokraten 1912-01-22; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

The mother: "Where have you been this night?" The father: "I was in the club." . . . The mother: "Do you not know the deplorable fate of your daughter. . . . What men! Now go down and sleep yourself sober . . . !" The father: "The evil deeds of the fathers . . . " The mother: "You are delirious . . . " The father: "Yes, of course I do not mean my evil deeds but the ones of our fathers." (August Strindberg "Till Damaskus II" p 239-240; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

This poor man could not see Christ, but Christ saw him. And if we know or apprehend any thing of Christ, it is because we were first known of him. (Matthew Henry "Concise Commentary on the Whole Bible" p 707)


about 1500 and time before

Say, those who are blind from their infancy, why are they so? I will not tell you, until you promise me to receive baptism, and being baptized, to live aright. It is not right to give you the solution of these questions. The preaching is not meant just for amusement. For even if I solve this, on the back of this follows another question: of such questions there is a bottomless deep. Therefore do not get into a habit of looking to have them solved for you: else we shall never stop questioning. For look, if I solve this, I do but lead the way to question upon question, numberless as the snowflakes. So that this is what we learn, rather to raise questions, not to solve the questions that are raised. For even if we solve them, we have not solved them altogether, but (only) as far as man's reasoning goes. The proper solution of such questions is faith: the knowing that God does all things justly and mercifully and for the best: that to comprehend the reason of them is impossible. This is the one solution, and another better than this exists no. For say, what is the use of having a question solved? (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers XI:154)

Rabbinism loved to trace disease to moral causes. ‘No death without sin, and no pain without transgression;’ (Shabb.55a) ‘the sick is not healed, till all his sins are forgiven him.’ (Nedar.41a) ... It was a common Jewish view, that the merits or demerits of the parents would appear in the children. In fact, up to thirteen years of age a child was considered, as it were, part of his father, and as suffering for his guilt (Shabb.32b; 105b; Yalkut on Ruth, vol ii. par 600, p. 163c). More than that, the thoughts of a mother might affect the moral state of her unborn offspring, and the terrible apostasy of one of the greatest Rabbis had, in popular belief, been caused by the sinful delight his mother had taken when passing through an idol-grove (Midr. on Ruth. iii:13). Lastly, certain special sins in the parents would result in specific diseases in their offspring, and one is mentioned (Nedar.20a) as causing blindness in the children. (Alfred Edersheim "The Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah Part I" p 494; II:178-179)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Svetlana Aleksijevitj, Carl Jonas Love Almqvist, Ewert Amnefors, Önver Cetrez, Caryl Chessman, J.M. Coetzee, Stig Dagerman, Sven Danell, Gunnar Dinnetz, Christine Fisher Guy, Bo Frid, Bolette Margrethe Gjør, Matthew Henry, Lars Levi Laestadius, Selma Lagerlöf, Sigfrid Leifland, Sven Lidman, Sigurd Lindgren, Bertil Malmberg, Egon Melin, Vilhelm Moberg, Henrik Munktell, Alice Munro, J. Nyrén, Lewi Pethrus, Olaus Petri, William Shakespeare, John Stott, August Strindberg, Jesper Svartvik, Anton Tjechov, P. Waldenström, Paul Willstadius, Larisa Z.


My own comments and speculations:

We can read John 9:1-2 in a restoration perspective. Among all the men who were punished with blindness in Sodom, it is not impossible that there also was a man, who in the same moment became father to a son. Both were hit with blindness. It is also possible that none of them, consequently not only the son, had committed a personal sin (miss of the mark of God) in relation to the messengers. Cf. My own comments and speculations to John 9:6-7.

Concerning the discussion about who had sinned (missed the mark of God), compare My own comments and speculations to John 9:8-9 on account of Job 27:14.


Greek words:

genetê (birth) Lev 25:47; Esther 4:17m(C16); John 9:1.

goneus (parent) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Wisdom of Solomon 4:6; Susanna v 3; John 9:2 – Esther 2:7; Judith 5:8; 1 Macc 10:9; 2 Macc 12:24; Wisdom of Solomon 12:6; Matt 10:21; Mark 13:12; Luke 2:27,41,43; 8:56; 18:29; 21:16; John 9:3,18,20,22-23; Rom 1:30; 2 Cor 12:14; Eph 6:1; Col 3:20; 2 Tim 3:2.

paragô (lead by the side of) (in the NT + one example in the Apocrypha) Matt 20:30; John 9:1 – 2 Macc 8:25; Matt 9:9,27; Mark 1:16; 2:14; 15:21; 1 Cor 7:31; 1 John 2:8,17.


Additional studies:

Gen 25:22; Ex 34:7; Num 14:18; Deut 5:9; 2 Kings 14:6; Jer 31:30; Sir 19:4; Matt 23:7-8; Luke 13:2; John 9:34; Acts 28:4.


Andreas J. Köstenberger "Jesus as Rabbi in the Fourth Gospel"; Bulletin for Biblical Research 8 (1998): 97-128.

John Painter "John 9 and the Interpretation of the Fourth Gospel"; Journal for the Study of the New Testament 28 (1986): 31-61.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-03-26; 2011-06-16; 2014-04-20; 2014-10-25)

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9:3 Jesus answered: “’And not’/neither this one missed (the mark of God), ‘and not’/nor his parents, however/but in order that the works of God might be made visible in him.”

Word for word (18 words in the Greek text): answered Jesus: and-not this-(one) missed-(the-mark-of-God) and-not the parents his, however in-order-that might-be-made-visible the works (of)-the (of)-god in him.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Moses said to Pharaoh: "This is what the Lord says:) 'With respect to this you have been ‘kept throughout’/preserved, in order that I may show in, in you My stability, (that) in that way My name may be 'brought a message'/proclaimed throughout in every/all the earth.'" (Ex 9:16, Greek OT)

(The slanderer) hurt (the blameless) Job (with) an evil sore from feet till head. (Job 2:7b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to the prophet about Judas:) “Behold, … I will make visible/known to them to listen to (Me), and I will be a physician to her, and I will make peace and faith (with) them. (Jer 33:6, Greek OT)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) "Over against the bad one (stands) the good one, and over against the death the life. In this way a reverent (stands) over against a misser (of the mark of God). And see in this way in, into all the works of the Highest One, two (and) two, one entirely opposite 'the one'/another." (Sir 33:14-15)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to the Pharisees:) "If I throw out the little demons in/with a spirit of God, the kingdom of God has consequently ‘been in advance of’/’come before’ against you." (Matt 12:28)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “It/there is not anything (א,* א, A) hidden, if not – according to the circumstances – in order that it may be made visible, nor it became hidden away, however/but in order that it might come into (the) visible.” (Mark 4:22)

Some (continually) were by the side of (Jesus) in the same seasonable time bringing away a message to Him on account of the Galileans, whose blood Pilate had mixed ‘in company’/together with their sacrifices. And ‘having answered’/’Jesus answered and’ spoke to them: "Do you think that these Galileans became missers (of the mark of God) ‘to the side of’/’in comparison with’ all the Galileans, because they have suffered (and suffer) these things?" (Luke 13:1-2)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

"This is (the One) in favour of whom I spoke: 'Behind me comes a male who has become (and becomes) in front of me, because He was my First (One).' And I did not know (and I had not known) Him, however/but in order that He might be made visible to Israel, because of this I have come baptizing in water." (John 1:30-31)

(Jesus said to the Jews:) “The works which the Father has given (and gives) Me, in order that I may make them perfect, the works themselves which I make/do are witnesses on account of Me, that the Father has dispatched (and dispatches) Me away." (John 5:36b)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

The rabbis thought as a rule that there was no suffering except sin. But there was an exception: chastisement because of love. … A sign of such chastisement was that it did not prevented the person in question from studying the law and praying to God. … But it is hardly this exception which Jesus aims at here. (René Kieffer "Johannesevangeliet" p 218; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Jesus was asked about the cause of the man's blindness, but he answers in terms of its purpose. (Raymond E. Brown "The Gospel according to John" p 371)

The teacher spoke: The fates of men are obscure, therefore we should be most careful with our judgements. The tower in Siloam also was tumble-down and fell over both good and evil ones. The disciples asked Christ what evil the man born blind had done. Christ answered: neither he nor his parents have done any particular evil thing. If we see persons born cripple, blind, deaf and dumb ones, we may prefer to be silent. To be sorry for them can be insulting, for they seem to be protected in a mysterious way; are object of pity and seldom come in misery, good spirits accompany them, and they hardly seem to suffer from their defects. But woe the one mocking such a marked man; if such a man is dogged by systematic misfortune or is met with a gaudy accident, so it will be difficult to pass it off with the amulet called chance. (August Strindberg "En blå bok I" p 49; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Ann-Charlotte Alverfors, Karin Alvtegen, Gordon Bridger, Olov Hartman, John Hedlund, Alf Henrikson, Stanley Jones, Gösta Sandberg, P. Waldenström.


My own comments and speculations:

Compare My own comments and speculations to John 9:18-23.


Paul said to the believers in Rome: "The writing/Scripture says to Pharaoh that/: 'I have aroused you into/’for the purpose of’ self/just this, in that way (that) I may show My ability in, in you, and in that way (that) My name may be brought a message throughout in every/all the earth.'" (Rom 9:17)

Out of us they came out, however/but they (continually) were not out of us, for if they (continually) were out of us, they – according to the circumstances – had (and ‘had had’/’would have’) stayed in company with us. However (they came out), in order that it might be made visible, that all are not out of us. (1 John 2:19)


Additional studies:

Luke 13:3-5; John 11:4; 1 John 4:9.


I. Engnell "Work in the Old Testament"; Svensk Exegetisk Årsbok 26 (1961): 5-12.

John C. Poirier "'Day and Night' and the Punctuation of John 9:3"; New Testament Studies 42 (1996): 288-294.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-03-26; 2011-06-17; 2014-04-21; 2014-10-25)

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9:4-5 ‘Us must’/’it is necessary to us to’ work (for) the works of the One having sent us (P66,P75,א*), till/’as long as’ it is day. Night comes, when no one is able to work. When I – according to the circumstances – may be in the adornment/’adorned world’, I am a light of the adornment/’adorned world’.

Word for word: 9:4 (17 words in the Greek text) us must work the works (of)-the-(one) having-sent us till day (it)-is. comes night when no-one is-able-to work. 9:5 (9 words in the Greek text) when-according-to-the-circumstances in the adornment (i/I)-may-be, light (i/I)-am (of)-the (of)-adornment.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(God said to the people:) "Six days you shall work and make all your works." (2 Mos 20:9, Greek OT)

(Solomon said:) "As much as your hand – according to the circumstances – may find to make/do, make/do as your ability, because it/there is not a work of piece of workmanship and/or reasoning and/or knowledge and/or wisdom in Hades, whereat you may go there." (Eccl 9:10, Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) "Give glory to the Lord, your God, before 'the thing to grow'/'it grows' dark." (Jer 13:16a, Greek OT)

(Solomon said: “Wisdom) is more comely than sun and (has) a putting/placing over ‘every of’/all constellations. Being judged together with light it is found former, for night indeed receives/succeeds throughout to this one, but badness is not entirely stable (against) wisdom.” (Wisdom of Solomon 7:29-30)

(Solomon said:) “That night it was had/found knowledge beforehand to our fathers.” (Wisdom of Solomon 18:6a)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “Work your works before a seasonable time, and (the Lord) will give your wage in His seasonable time.” (Sir 51:30)


The Latter Revelation:

... The synagogue leader, being vexed because Jesus had attended (on) the sabbath, said to the crowd that/: "Six days are in/on which one must work." (Luke 13:14a)

(Jesus said to some Pharisees:) "Behold, I throw out little demons, and healings I end off today and (the) following day, and the third (day) I am made perfect." (Luke 13:32b)

(Cleopas and the other disciple said to Jesus:) "Stay in company with us, because it is towards evening, and the day has already 'leaned (and leans)'/'drawn (and draws)' to an end." ... (Luke 24:29b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Jesus said to the Jews:) "My Father works till just now, and I work." (John 5:17)

Again Jesus so talked (with the Pharisees), saying: “I am the light of the adornment/’adorned world’. The one following Me may not/certainly not walk about in the gloom, however/but will have the light of the life.” (John 8:12)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

The rabbis valued the work highly. A rabbi would have knowledge of a practical work. He was not allowed to be paid for his education. So also Paul fed himself on his tentmaking. ... The congregations also themselves have been able to see, that Paul works "day and night". (Gösta Sandberg "Om livets Ord tala vi" p 337 in comment to 2 Thess 3:10-13; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Only after a considerable period could full communism be attained. This communism Marx described in a famous passage which can serve as an apt summary of his ultimate goal: "In a higher phase of communist society, after the enslaving subordination of the individual to the division of labour, and therewith also the antithesis between mental and psysical labour, has vanished; after labour has become not only a means of life but life's prime want ... only then can the narrow horizon of bourgeois right be crossed in its entirety and society inscribe on its banners: From each according to his ability, to each according to his need!" (David McLellan "Marx" p 70; Capital Vol.III)

I am old and tired, am right to be it; therefore I work by day to have time to build and plant in the gardens, where I have pulled down. So I must sleep by night and thus deny myself the pleasant things of life: to keep company with the men with whom one meets in harmonies and beauty. (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev 16, maj 1907-12 juli 1908" p 154; letter 1908-01-20 to Tor Aulin; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

On the day of judgement it will happen me that our Lord drives me out of heaven, because I have been too hard-working. I am working incessantly, all the hours of the day and shall I then be able to be anything for my fellow-beings. (Selma Lagerlöf "Brev 1 - 1871-1902" p 161; letter in December 1894 to Helena Nyblom; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Sweat of agony on the forehead of the bailiff! The bailiff is Grotte's thrall. Remember: for him the choice concerns: the highest honour of the state or to be forced to draw the day long, like his victims. Grotte's rod, until he sinks down and is trampled to death under the heels of the other thralls. Therefore hurry, hurry, hurry! Only the rest of one single hour the troll demands every year: when the great festival of mammon is at hand, when for the great god of gold and for Frode, the guest of honour, Grotte is clothed in festival attire, the top of the shoulder is decorated with flags, roses are flattered on bloody shore, and round pole and beam golden chain and garland are wound, the thrall is dressed up as Harlekin, the thrall virgin as Kolumbin, a dress in green and crimson covers their wounds and rags, and in features reflecting horrors a merry grin is conjured forth by means of brush and carmine - by means of strokes making that the mouth seems to be lengthened to laughter. Then, how magnificent Grotte dances, adorned with banners, finery and garlands! Do you see the joyful expression of the victims? Then, how merrily Grotte grinds, like inspired by music! A thousand kettledrums and cymbals shout louder than the cries of the pains. Roars of voices, which curse, are drowned in the course of proud tones, in the hosannah of fanfares, are drowned in an ode for thousand voices to God mammon and king Frode, a song of joy of holy choirs. (Viktor Rydberg "Den nya Grottesången" p 245; 1891; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

What can be less pleasant than ... a man who has nothing to do; what more wretched and miserable? Is it not worse than all the fetters in the world, to be always gaping and yawning, as one sits in the market-place, looking at the passers by? For the soul, as its nature is to be always on the move, cannot endure to be at rest. God has made it a creature of action: to work is of its very nature; to be idle is against its nature. ... Nothing is more hurtful than leisure, and having nothing to do: indeed therefore hath God laid on us a necessity of working: for idleness hurts everything. (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers XI:222-223)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Arvid Almquist, Karl-Erik Andersson, Henrik Berg, Lars Berg, Elisabeth Bergstrand-Poulsen, Oloph Bexell, Marcus Birro, Hjalmar Bjurulf, Carl Boberg, Lars-Ola Borglid, Kurt Bronner, Anders Bylander, Barthold Carlson, Sten Carlsson, Jung Chang, Marcus Cheng, Joseph Alfred Conwell, Lennart Dahlqvist, Sven Danell, Henry Daniel-Rops, Carl Dymling, O. Ekblom, E.J. Ekman, Albert Engström, Hans-Olof Ericson, Per Ericsson, Samuel Escobar, H.J. Eysenck, Gunnar Fjellestad, Erik Folke, A.P. Franklin, Rolf Fredriksson, Karl Fries, Jan Garnert, Bengt Gierup, Phil G. Goulding, Hillis Grane, Berndt Gustafsson, Lennart Gustavsson, Torsten Gårdlund, J.A. Göth, Sive Hallgren, Jon Halliday, Dag Hammarskjöld, David Hedegård, Alf Henrikson, Otto Hermansson, C.G. Hjelm, Börje Hjorth, Victor Hugo, Anders Hultman, Bengt Hägglund, Tove Jansson, Barbro Jern, Gerhard Johansson, Lennart Johansson, Eyvind Johnson, Eskil Jonsson, Ulrik Josefsson, Kathryn Kuhlman, Inge Kvarnström, Lars Levi Laestadius, Annty Landherr, Olle Larsson, Amy Le Feuvre, Lennart Levi, Sven Lidman, Jonas Lie, Anders Lindahl, Nils Lindén, John Lindgren, Väinö Linna, Martin Luther, Egil Lönnberg, Horrace Marryat, A.J. Meadows, Vilhelm Moberg, Ingun Montgomery, Kaj Munk, Hilding Nordström, J. Nyrén, Runa Ohlander, Valfrid Palm, Efraim Palmqvist, Knut Per-Jönsson, Lewi Pethrus, Hilding Pleijel, Sigrid Rosell, Josef Rydén, Lina Sandell, Martin Schwarz Lausten, David Seecombe, Bo Setterlind, John Sjögren, Wilh. Sjöholm, Harry Sjöman, Eyvor Skantze, Enar Skillius, Enock H. Skooglund, Sven Stolpe, Rune Storck, Sven Storck, John Stott, Berndt Strandberg, Svend Erik Stybe, Bengt Sundström, Esaias Tegnér, E.H. Thörnberg, Anton Tjechov, Leo Tolstoj, John Törnquist, Gustaf Ullman, F. Voltaire, P. Waldenström, Sigrid Westberg, Albert Wiberg, Magnus Widell, Ernst Wigforss, Gustaf Wikner, David Wilkerson, Nicholas Wiseman, Göran Åberg.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning John 9:5, see Bible passages and comments to John 8:12.


Paul said to the believers in Galatia: "As we so consequently may (א,* א, B*) have seasonable time, we may work the good thing towards all, but ‘most rather’/’in particular’ towards the ones belonging to the households of the faith." (Gal 6:10)


Additional studies:

Matt 20:1-16; John 1:4-5; 3:2; 7:33; 11:9-10; 12:35-36,46; 13:30; 14:12; Rev 2:21; 14:11,13.


I. Engnell "Work in the Old Testament"; Svensk Exegetisk Årsbok 26 (1961): 5-12.

B.E. Gärtner "Work in the New Testament"; Svensk Exegetisk Årsbok 26 (1961): 13-18.

John C. Poirier "'Day and Night' and the Punctuation of John 9:3"; New Testament Studies 42 (1996): 288-294.

Kari Syreeni "Working in the Daylight: John 9:4-5 and the Question of Johannine 'Literary Archeology'"; Svensk Exegetisk Årsbok 70 (2005): 262-280.

Bruce W. Winter "'If a Man Does Not Wish to Work . . .' A Cultural and Historical Setting for 2 Thessalonians 3:6-16"; Tyndale Bulletin 44.1 (1993): 55-74.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-03-26; 2011-06-19; 2014-04-22; 2014-10-26)

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9:6-7 Having spoken these things, He spat on the ground and made clay out of the spittle and anointed the clay upon him against the eyes. And He spoke to him: “Withdraw, wash into the pond of Siloam” – which is interpreted ‘Having been (and being) dispatched away’. He so went away and washed and came seeing.

Word for word: 9:6 (18 words in the Greek text) these-(things) having-spoken (he)-spat on-the-ground and made clay out-of the spittle and anointed-upon him the clay against the eyes. 9:7 (20 words in the Greek text) and (he)-spoke (to)-him: withdraw wash into the pond (of)-the (of)-Siloam which is-interpreted having-been-(and-being)-dispatched-away. (he)-went-away so and washed and came seeing.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

A spring ascended out of the earth and gave ‘every the’/’the whole’ face of the earth to drink. And God formed the man of gravel from the earth and puffed in, into his face, a breath of life. And the man became into a living soul. (Gen 2:6-7, Greek OT)

(Jacob said:) "A leader will not 'leave out'/disappear out of Judas and (not one) being in command out of His thighs, till - according to the circumstances - he (Hebrew: Shiloh) may come, (and) the things lying from/apart (will come) to him, and he himself (will be) an expectation of nations." (ass="uline">Gen 49:10, Greek OT)

(Pharaoh) weighted/vexed his and his attendants’/servants’ heart. And the heart of Pharaoh was hardened. ... But the Lord hardened Pharaoh's heart. (Ex 9:34b-35a; 10:20a, Greek OT)

(King Jerobeam said to his wife:) “Go into Shiloh. Behold, Ahijah the prophet (is) there. He talked against me to be king against/over this people. And take into your hand breads/loaves to the man of God and eyesalve to his children.” (1 Kings 14:2b-3a, Greek OT)

Elisha dispatched away a messenger towards (the leper Naaman who had come from Aram), saying: "Go (and) bathe seven times in the Jordan and your flesh will turn next/back to you and you may be made clean. ... (But Naaman said: "Are) by no means ... the rivers of Damascus good over/’more than’ Jordan and all the waters of Israel. (Is it) by no means (so that) having gone I shall bathe in them and be made clean? ... (And at last) Naaman descended and baptized/dipped himself seven times in the Jordan, according to the word of (Elisha). And his flesh ‘turned next’/’was changed’ to as flesh of a small, very little boy, and he was made clean. And he turned ‘next to’/back towards Elisha. (2 Kings 5:10,12a,14-15a, Greek OT)

(Shallum built) the wall of a pond of the little sheep-skins ... of Siloam (at the place of) the shearing (of the sheep) of the king and till the ladders/steps descending from a city of David. (Neh 3:15b, Greek OT, S)

(Job said to God:) “Remember that You formed me to clay.” (Job 10:9a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Isaiah about His people:) "Because of this people not wish/wishing the water of Siloam the (water) going/flowing in a quiet way ... because of this, behold, the Lord leads up against you the stable and the much water of the river (Euphrates)." (Is 8:6a,7a, Greek OT)

(The lord of the Lord said:) “The education of the Lord opens my ears ... I did not turned away my face from/’owing to’ a shame of spittels in/at (it).” (Is 50:5a,6b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Israel:) “Behold, as the clay of the potter, (so) are you in my hands.” (Jer 18:6b, Greek OT)

(Tobit said:) “I went towards the physicians to be attended and as much as they anointed me in (with) the gifts, so much rather/more they (continually) made my eyes blind. …” (Tobit 2:10b, S)

(The messenger said to Tobias:) “Anoint in the gall in (the) eyes of a man ... (with) white things upon them, puff against, against them, upon the white things, and (the eyes) are healthy.” (Tobit 6:9, S)

(The messenger said to Tobias:) “The eyes of (your father) will be opened. Anoint you so in (BA) the gall of the fish into his eyes.” (Tobit 11:7b-8a)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “If – according to the circumstances - you so may carry your gift to, against the sacrificial altar and you there may remember that your brother has something ‘down from’/against you, let your gift be there in front of the sacrificial altar and withdraw. First ‘be different’/’reconcile yourself’ (with) your brother and having come carry then your gift to (the sacrificial altar).” (Matt 5:23-24)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “On your fasting, smear your head and wash your face.” (Matt 6:17)

(The prophet said:) “I will open my mouth in/with parables. I will belch/speak the things having been (and being) hidden from a foundation of an adornment/’adorned world’.” (Matt 13:35b)

Having taken on/’hold of’ the hand of the blind, (Jesus) carried him out of on the outside of the village, and having spit into his looks/eyes (and) having put/laid the hands on him ... He put/laid the hands against, against his eyes and he saw/looked through (him) and he was restored and in a quite manifest way he saw/’fixed his eyes’ in all of them. And He dispatched him away into his house. (Mark 8:23a,25-26a)

(Jesus said to some present:) "Do you think that those eighteen against whom the tower in Siloam fell and killed them, that (only) they became debtors/obliged ‘to the side of’/’in comparison with’ all the (other) men dwelling in (א,* א, A) Jerusalem?" (Luke 13:4)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

Because it is underlined that it is about one who is blind from the birth, it is not inconceivable that the author here wants to describe Jesus' recreating power by alluding to Gen 2:6f., where God forms the man from the earth after the mist has watered the whole ground. (René Kieffer "Johannesevangeliet" p 218; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

It is Madicken who receives the first question this Monday morning. She is able to tell how God created the world and made all birds and fishes and mammals and how she last of all took a lump of clay to himself and of this he kneaded the first man. "It was Adam that", Madicken says. (Astrid Lindgren "Madicken och Junibackens Pims" p 90; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

At Gen 49:10 the similar but not identical name ... (shiloh) appears and was, rightly or wrongly, interpreted messianically by both Jews and Christians. (C.K. Barrett "The Gospel according to St John" p 359)

Medicines are not all unjustifiable. Christ uses outer means, if now as a symbol or as an accumulator of power. He heals a blind man with a dough of earth; he sends another to bathe. With one word. When I have the Gospels, what shall I have to do with this thin decoction? It can of course be an opportunist way to beguile persons hating Christ back to Him, with a little free-thinking and with doubtful morals. The book probably has its mission, for Gentiles, but for us Christians it is superfluous! I have read the book with good intention, night and day, but I got worse and thought I would die, the night before yesterday, with the book beside me. And I think that my illness will be; as a thorn in the flesh, as a beneficial suffering. . (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev 16, maj 1907-12 juli 1908" p 338-339; letter 1908-06-14 to Gustaf Sabelfelt; the book which Sabelfelt had sent Strindberg is the Christian Science-work Science and Health with Key to the Scriptures; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

To that man who had been blind from his birth, (the Lord) gave sight … by an outward action … that He might show forth the hand of God, that which at the beginning had moulded man. (Irenaeus, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol I, p 543)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Henrik Berg, Oloph Bexell, Henry Daniel-Rops, Abd el-Halik Nouri, Anatole France, Carl Vilhelm Jakobowsky, Hans Larsson, Sven Lidman, H.M. Melin, Vilhelm Moberg, Per Rickardsson, Alf Sagnér, Gösta Sandberg, Anfin Skaaheim, John Steinbeck, P. Waldenström, Thecla Wrangel.


My own comments and speculations:

In a restoration perspective we see how the blind men in Sodom are restored by the healing of the man born blind (cf. My own comments and speculations to John 9:1-2). Perhaps we can also have a feeling of a restoration of the men killed by the tower in Siloam. Now a man is healed by the water in Siloam.

In a restoration perspective we also see how the event with Pharaoh, who first hardened his heart and then experienced how the Lord hardened his heart, now is contrasted with an event, where the Lord Jesus takes the initiative to open the eyes of the blind man and how then the man fulfills this initiative by going away and wash. In a restoration perspective it is now God who first softens the heart of man. And then it is man's turn to soften his heart by following the words of the Lord.

Concerning the wonder as a sign, see My own comments and speculations to John 21:4-7a.


Paul said to the believers in Corinth: “(The One having) anointed us (is) God." (2 Cor 1:21b)


Greek words:

epichriô (anoint upon/on/against) John 9:6 – John 9:11. Cf. the corresponding word “engchriô/chriô” (anoint in/anoint) in Tobit 2:10; 6:9; 11:8(BA); Rev 3:18 resp. Luke 4:18; Acts 4:27; 10:38; 2 Cor 1:21; Heb 1:9.

niptô (wash) (in the NT + one example in the Apocrypha) Matt 6:17; John 9:7 – Tobit 7:9; Matt 15:2; Mark 7:3; John 9:11,15; 13:5-6,8,10,12,14; 1 Tim 5:10.

pêlos (clay) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) John 9:6 – Wisdom of Solomon 7:9; 15:8,10; Sir 33:13; 38:30; Bel and the Dragon v 7; John 9:11,14-15; Rom 9:21.

ptysma (spittle) John 9:6. Cf. the corresponding word “emptysma” in Is 50:6, which is used about the spittle on the face of the Servant of the Lord. We can notice, that John does not choose the word “sielos” (spittle) in Is 40:15, where this word is used to describe the nations in a negative meaning. Neither he uses the corresponding word (“siela”) in 1 Sam 21:13(14), which speaks about the spittle in the beard of David, when he acted insanely.

ptyô (spit) Mark 8:23; John 9:6 – Num 12:14; Sir 28:12; Mark 7:33.

Silôam (Siloam) Neh 3:15; Is 8:6; Luke 13:4; John 9:7 – John 9:11.

chamai (on the ground) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) John 9:6 – Judith 12:15; 14:18; John 18:6.


Additional studies:

2 Kings 20:20; Tobit 11:12-13; Matt 9:29; 15:30; 21:14; Mark 7:33-35; John 5:2; 9:11; 11:37; Rev 3:18.


J. Duncan M. Derrett "John 9:6 read with Isaiah 6:10; 29:9"; The Evangelical Quarterly 66.3 (July-Sept. 1994): 251-254.

G. Forkman "Människans förändring - ett tema i Johannesevangeliet"; Svensk Exegetisk Årsbok 51 (1986): 57-64.

John Wilkinson "A Study of Healing in the Gospel according to John"; Scottish Journal of Theology 20 (1967): 442- .


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-03-26; 2011-06-21; 2014-04-23; 2014-10-27)

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9:8-9 So the neighbourings, and the ones formerly looking at him, that he (continually) was a beggar, they (continually/repeatedly) said: “Is not this the one being seated and begging?” Others (continually/repeatedly) said * (P66,א,*א): “This is he.” But (א,*א) others (continually/repeatedly) said: “By no means! However he is like him.” But (P66,א*) that one (continually/repeatedly) said that/: "I am."

Word for word: 9:8 (20 words in the Greek text) the so neighbourings and the-(ones) looking-at him 'the former'/formerly that beggar (he)-(continually)-was (continually)-said: not this-(one) is the-(one) being-seated and begging? 9:9 (18 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus prima manus) others (continually)-said: this-(one) is-(he); others but (continually)-said: by-no-means, however like him (he)-is. that-(one) but (continually)-said that i/I (i/I)-am.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

Descending ‘out of’/from the mountain Moses did not know that the sight of the colour of his face was (and had been) glorified, in/from the thing 'to talk him'/'that he had talked' (with) (the Lord). And Aaron and all the elders of Israel beheld Moses, and the sight of the colour of his face (continually) was being (and had being) glorified. (Ex 34:29-30a, Greek OT)

If – according to the circumstances - the sons (of the wicked man) may become many, they will ‘be into’/’go to’ slaughter; but/and if – according to the circumstancews - they may (become) males, they will beg. (Job 27:14, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said to God:) “You put/established (Your people) into/’for the purpose of’ a gainsaying (among) our neighbourings.” (Ps 80:6a or 80:7a, Greek OT)


The Latter Revelation:

The name (of Jesus) had become visible and (continually/repeatedly) (King Herod) said (א,* א, A) (about Jesus): “John, the one baptizing, has been (and is) raised out of (the) dead.(bodies). ...” Others (continually) said that/: “(Jesus) is Eliah.” But others (continually) said that/: “(He is) a prophet as one of the prophets. (Mark 6:14b-15)

Bartimaeus, a blind beggar ... (continually) was seated to the side of the way. ... He straight off saw/looked up and (continually) followed (Jesus) in/on the way. (Mark 10:46b,52b)

(The shepherds) watching/'kept watch' (by) night against/over their flock. And a messenger of the Lord stood near them, and a glory of the Lord shone round about them. (Luke 2:8b-9a)

(Having found his sheep the man) calls together the friends and the neighbourings, saying to them: “Rejoice together with me, because I have found my sheep, the one 'perishing (and having perished)'/'being (and having been) lost'.” (Luke 15:6b)

It became/’came about’ 'in the draw near Him'/'on (Jesus') drawing near' into/towards Jericho, (that) a certain blind (continually) was seated to the side of way, demanding/begging against (the passers-by). ... And immediately he saw/looked up, and (continually) followed Him, glorifying God. And having beheld (it) every/all the people gave praise to God. (Luke 18:35,43)

(When the leaders of the people and the elders looked) at ... that (Peter and John) are/were unlettered men and single citizens, they (continually) wondered both/and they (continually) gained additional knowledge, that they (continually) were together with Jesus. (Acts 4:13)

A certain male ... (continually) was seated, lame out of (the) belly of his mother. (Acts 14:8a)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

We here have example on a usual way to use egô eimi ‘I am’ which otherwise in John only is laid in Jesus' mouth. (René Kieffer "Johannesevangeliet" p 219; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Lightfoot's comment "Underlying these two verses (8 and 9) is the question, whether a man after baptism and rebirth is the same person as before, or not" is too sophisticated." (C.K. Barrett "The Gospel according to St John" p 359)

In my correspondence also such a lot of miserable begging letters arrive from Germany. Swedish begging letters can of course be hard enough, but there is nothing like the German ones. It seems as if a whole class of society was going to starve to death. (Selma Lagerlöf "Brev 2 - 1903-1940" p 310; letter 1932-11-02 to Henriette Coyet; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Finally - after 20 years! Ten first ones I was a beggar, because no one wanted to pay my work; The ten others I used to pay again, the poor ones first. Now it's your turn, but I can pay no interest, and You do not demand it, although you are a gentleman of independent means! Thank you for the loan, and for You never let me feel it heavy! (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev XVIII maj 1909-maj 1910" p 43; letter 1909-06-22 to Klas Fåhraeus; Strindberg had 1889 borrowed 1000 kr from Fåhraeus, who in a letter 1909-07-02 thanks: "I find it very kind of you, to whom all society is a debtor, to try to find this old debt to my humble person."; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Downwards the slopes, which lay below the Mount of Olives, Ingmar saw Gertrud come walking. The sunbeams followed her and also surrounded her. She walked softly, as if she was happy and glad, and Ingmar thought it looked as if the beaming light came from her. (Selma Lagerlöf "Jerusalem II" p 382; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

What cheats (here in Paris) in the market! The devil! When they do not steal, they beg! If you buy a poster at the theatre and do not give tips a tip, then that carcass informs you that it is coutume to give tips a tip here. She who opens the door of the theatre - but do not receive the clothes - she blows you up if you do not give tips a tip in order that she opens the door of the box. (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev III 1882-1883" p 338-339; letter 1883-10-27 to Pehr Staaff; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

It was not taken a long time, before I became acquainted with members of Rome's begging brotherhood. These have one by practice wonderfully procured ability to among strangers recognize the ones being "callow". . . . During the first days one is deeply moved by their sadly begging: "I die of hunger." . . . After the lapse of some days, however, strong doubts begin to wake about the threatening famine. . . . Also the sternest and most final "no" is for the Roman beggar nothing else than a declaration that one wants to negotiate and a promise, that one will yield, if he is persevering. . . . Your kindly host and hostess inform you, that there is a certain sign, which works with magical power on the most importunate one within the fraternity. The sign is this: you crook your right arm, that your hand comes on a level with your shoulder, stretches out your forefinger and your middle finger describing with your hand about an eighth of the circumference of a circle. . . . Whenever I made (the sign), the beggar instantly gave up his matter for lost. The usual promise, that I for a soldo would be spared from the pains of the purgatory, became silent on his lips, his face expressed complete hopelessness, and he turned away to go on the prowl elsewhere. . . . The most powerful hindrance to the checking on the beggary is the approval it meets with the priests. . . . They are not ashamed to dislike, that one now seeks to bring up the children of the poor class to diligence and a feeling of human dignity. During such circumstances and when the new order, only a few years old, must contend with an evil thing having roots of centuries, one may not wonder that Rome still (year 1874) abounds in beggars, but well that there are poor men in multitude who are ashamed of this occupation and love to work. (Viktor Rydberg "Tiggarne i Rom" p 286-290; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Those who are in light do not themselves illumine the light, but are illumined and revealed by it: they do certainly contribute nothing to it, but, receiving the benefit, they are illumined by the light. ... (The disciples) did not glorify (the Lord) when they followed Him; but that, in following the Son of God, they were glorified by Him. (Irenaeus, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol I, p 478)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Jean H. Andersson, Åke Andrén, Karl Bergstrand, Elisabeth Beskow, Hjalmar Bjurulf, Rudolf Björkman, Lars-Ola Borglid, Barthold Carlson, Sten Carlsson, Driss Chraibi, Sven Danell, Albert Engström, Linné Eriksson, Per-Anders Fogelström, Nikolaj Gogol, Johannes Gossner, Carl Grimberg, Yahya Haqui, Ingegerd Henschen Ingvar, Hjalmar Holmquist, Sven Ingvar, Hridoy Yanesh Janwe, E. Judah, Nikolaj Kljujev, Sigurd Lindgren, Inga-Lina Kuzmenko Lindqvist, Samuel Landtmanson, Lars-Olof Larsson, Sven Lidman, Arnold Lindman, Vilhelm Moberg, Fredrik Nielsen, Pälle Näver, Birgitta Odén, Pansy, Bengt Pleijel, Dag Sandahl, E. Sanders, Gunnar E. Sandgren, Bo Setterlind, Birger Sjöberg, John Sjögren, Axel Strindberg, Mats Svegfors, Per Johan Svensson, Nathan Söderblom, Anton Tjechov, Leo Tolstoj, Stig Tornehed, Mario Vargas Llosa, Bertil Waldén, P. Waldenström, N.P. Wetterlund, Fredrik Wislöff, Emile Zola, Göran Åberg.


My own comments and speculations:

Perhaps Lightfoot was not definitely wrong. Like Moses was glorified by his meeting with the Lord, so was the formerly blind man divinely impressed by his meeting with Jesus. His answer "I am" becomes a shining echo of his meeting with Him who is "I am". (cf. my own comments and speculations to John 9:28-30). Compare Mark 6:14, where it is said, that the name of Jesus had become visible. Compare also the man who had been blind and who glorified God after the healing (Luke 18:35,43) and the glory round about the watching shepherds (Luke 2:8-9).

Totally we have 24 “I am” in the Gospel of John. The number 24 is the number of the people of God in the OT and the NT. So the “I am” out of the mouth of the man having been blind seems to imply that he belongs to the people of God. Like Nathanael (1:47) he is an Israelite, in whom there is not any deceit. It is also interesting that it is the 12th time the expression ”I am” occurs in the gospel. Focus in the narrative of the gospel will from chapter 10 on be moved from the relation Jesu-the Jews to the relation Jesus-the disciples. Last time “I am” is used is in John 18:8, when Jesus asks that His disciples will be allowed to withdraw.

Observe also the contrast between meeting the Lord on the mountain and meeting Him at the pool. Compare My own comments and speculations to John 8:10-11.

The Greek verb for "beg" only occurs here in the NT (א*). In the OT it only occurs in Job 27:14 and then in connection with a son's begging depending on his father's wickedness (cf. John 9:2).

Concerning “seated”, see John 2:13-15a.


Paul said to the believers in Corinth: "But if the service of the death, having been (and being) engraved in letters (on) stones, ‘became in’/’came with’ glory so that the sons of Israel be/were not able to gaze into Moses' face because of the glory of his face ... how rather/’much more’ will 'by no means'/not the service of the Spirit be in glory. ... But we all ... are transformed from glory into glory." (2 Cor 3:7-8,18a)


Greek words:

geitôn (neighbouring) (in the NT + examples in the OT) Ps 80:6(7); Luke 15:6; John 9:8 – Ex 3:22; 12:4; 2 Kings 4:3; Ps 31:11(12); 44:14; 79:4,12; 89:41(42); Jer 12:14; 49:10; Luke 14:12; 15:9.

prosaiteô (beg) Job 27:14; John 9:8.

prosaitês (beggar) Mark 10:46; John 9:8.


Additional studies:

Ex 3:13-14; Mark 5:19-20; 8:28; Luke 8:35-36,39; 9:19; Acts 3:2,10.


S.L. Sanders "Old Light on Moses' Shining Face"; Vetus Testamentum 52.3 (2002): 400-406.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-03-26; 2011-06-22; 2014-04-23; 2014-10-28)

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9:10-15 They so (continually/repeatedly) said to him: “How were so your eyes opened?” That One answered: “The Man being said/called Jesus made clay and anointed against my eyes and spoke to me that/: ‘Withdraw into Siloam and wash!’ So having gone away and washed I saw up.” And they spoke to him: “Where is that One?” He says: “I do not know.”

They lead him towards the Pharisees, the one once (being) blind. But it (continually) was sabbath in/on the day Jesus made the clay and opened his eyes. So again and/also the Pharisees (continually/repeatedly) questioned him, how he saw up. But/and he spoke to them: “He put/laid clay against, against my eyes, and I washed and I see.”

Word for word: 9:10 (9 words in the Greek text) (they)-(continually)-said so (to)-him: how so were-opened your the eyes? 9:11 (29 words in the Greek text) answered that-(one): the man the-(one) being-said Jesus clay made and anointed-against my the eyes and spoke (to)-me that withdraw into the Siloam and wash. having-gone-away so and having-washed (i/I)-saw-up. 9:12 (9 ord i den grekiska texten) and (they)-spoke (to)-him: where is that-(one)? (he)-says: not (i/I)-'know-(and-have-known)'know. 9:13 (8 words in the Greek text) (They)-lead him towards the Pharisees the once blind. 9:14 (16 words in the Greek text) was-(continually) but sabbath in the day the clay made the Jesus and opened his the eyes. 9:15 (23 words in the Greek text) again so (continually)-questioned him and the Pharisees how (he)-saw-up. the/he but spoke (to)-them: clay (he)-put-against my against the eyes and (i/I)-washed and (i/I)-see.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Jacob said:) "A leader will not 'leave out'/disappear out of Judas and (not one) being in command out of His thighs, till - according to the circumstances - he (Hebrew: Shiloh) may come, (and) the things lying from/apart (will come) to him, and he himself (will be) an expectation of nations." (Gen 49:10, Greek OT)

(The Reubenites and the Gadites and the half-tribe of Manasseh said to Jesus/Joshua:) "All as much as you – according to the circumstances – may enjoin us we will make/do, and into every place, which you - if according to the circumstances – may dispatch us away, we will go." (Joshua 1:16b, Greek OT)

(God) (Himself) will arrive and save (the ones being faint in the soul with/’and in’ the mind), then the eyes of blind ones will be opened. (Is 35:4b-5a, Greek OT)

(The men dispatched away by the leaders in Jerusalem) questioned Baruch saying: "From where did you write all these sayings? Was it at (Jeremiah's) dictation?" And Baruch spoke: "From his mouth Jeremiah brought up a message to me (about) all these sayings." ... And (the men) said to Baruch: "Advance/go, hide yourself entirely, you and Jeremiah. And do not let a man gain knowledge where you (are)." (Jer 36:17-18a,19, Greek OT)

(Tobias) put/laid (the liver and the heart of the fish) against, against the ashes of the incense. (Tobit 8:2b, S)

(The messenger said to Tobias:) “Anoint in the gall in (the) eyes of a man ... (with) white things upon them, puff against, against them, upon the white things, and (the eyes) are healthy.” (Tobit 6:9, S)

After 'the thing to see up him'/'seeing up' (Tobit) lived in good things.. ... (Tobit 14:2b)


The Latter Revelation:

(A messenger of the Lord said to Joseph: "Mary) will bring forth a Son. And you will/shall call His name Jesus, for He will save His people from their misses (of the mark of God)." (Matt 1:21)

The eyes (of the two blind men) were opened. And Jesus was indignant (with) them, saying: "Behold, do not let anyone gain knowledge." (Matt 9:30)

Having seen up into the heaven Jesus blessed. ... (Matt 14:19b)

(Jesus said to the two blind:) “What do you want I may make/do for you?” They say to Him: “Lord, ‘in ordet that’/that (You may say): “May your (א*) eyes be opened.’” But/and having been moved in His inner parts Jesus touched ‘his eyes (א*)’/’the eyes of one of them’, and straightaway they saw up and followed Him. (Matt 20:32b-34)

Having taken on/’hold of’ the hand of the blind, (Jesus) carried him out of on the outside of the village, and having spit into his looks/eyes (and) having put/laid the hands on him ... (the blind saw/looked up) ... (And Jesus) put/laid the hands against, against his eyes and he saw/looked through (him) and he was restored and in a quite manifest way he saw/’fixed his eyes’ in all of them. (Mark 8:23-25)

(Jesus said to the disciples of John the Baptist): "Having gone bring away a message to John (about) what things you have beheld and heard: 'Blind see/look up.'" (Luke 7:22a)

(Jesus said to Simon:) "I have 'been in need of'/'strived after' on account of you, in order that your faith may not ‘leave out’/cease. And you, once having turned next to (Me), ‘set fast’/confirm your brothers." (Luke 22:32)

Having put the hands against, against (Saul) (Ananias) spoke: “... The Lord has dispatched (and dispatches) me away ... in that way (that) you may see up and be fulfilled of holy spirit.” (Acts 9:17b)

(Paul said to the people in the synagogue:) "From the seed of (David) (God) has according to a promise led to Israel a Saviour, Jesus." (Acts 13:23)

(The Lord said to Paul:) “I dispatch you away into (the nations) to open their eyes, to turn (them) next to (God) from darkness into light, and (from) the (judicial) authority of the adversary against/to God, to take a ‘letting be’/’leaving alone’ of misses (of the mark of God) to them.” (Acts 26:17b-18a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

The man became healthy, and he lifted his mattress and walked (continually) about. But it (continually/-) was the sabbath in that day. (John 5:9)

The Jews so (continually) sought (Jesus) in/at the feast and said (continually/repeatedly): “Where is that One?” (John 7:11)

Jesus was hidden and He came out, out of the sanctuary. (John 8:59b)

(Jesus) spat on the ground and made clay out of the spittle and anointed the clay upon him against the eyes. And He spoke to him: “Withdraw, wash into the pond of Siloam” – which is interpreted ‘Having been (and being) dispatched away’. He so went away and washed and came seeing. (John 9:6-7)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

The OT teaches that it is God himself who can "open the eyes of the blind ones", Ps 146:8, cfr. Ex 4:11. It was one of the signs which the Jews especially waited for in connection with the arrival of Messiah. (Studiebibeln II:599; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: Ragnar Järhult, Gösta Sandberg.


Greek words:

anablepô (see up) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Tobit 14:2; Matt 14:19; 20:34; Mark 8:24; Luke 7:22; John 9:11,15; Acts 9:17 – Tobit 3:12; 2 Macc 7:28; Matt 11:5; Mark 6:41; 7:34; 10:51-52; 16:4; Luke 9:16; 18:41-43; 19:5; 21:1; John 9:18; Acts 9:12,18; 22:13.

epitithêmi (put upon/on/against) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Tobit 8:2; Mark 8:23,25; John 9:15; Acts 9:17 – Esther 2:17; 5:2(D12); 8:12s(E20); Tobit 6:17; Judith 4:10; 9:1; 15:11; 16:6; 1 Macc 4:39; 11:54,71; Wisdom of Solomon 18:21; Susanna v 34; Matt 9:18; 19:13,15; 21:7; 23:4; 27:29,37; Mark 3:16-17; 5:23; 6:5; 7:32; Luke 4:40; 10:30; 13:13; 15:5; 23:26; John 19:2; Acts 6:6; 8:17,19; 9:12; 13:3; 15:10,28; 16:23; 18:10; 19:6; 28:3,8,10; 1 Tim 5:22; Rev 1:17(א,*א); Rev 22:18.

poté (once) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Luke 22:32; John 9:13 – 2 Macc 10:4; Wisdom of Solomon 16:18-19; Rom 1:10; 7:9; 11:30; 1 Cor 9:7; Gal 1:13,23; 2:6; Eph 2:2-3,11,13; 5:8,29; Col 1:21; 3:7; Phil 4:10; 1 Thess 2:5; Tit 3:3; Philemon v 11; Heb 1:5,13; 1 Pet 2:10; 3:5,20; 2 Pet 1:10,21.


Additional studies:

Matt 1:25; Luke 13:4; John 1:29; 5:16; 7:23; 9:6-7,19,21,26; Rev 3:7.


G. Forkman "Människans förändring - ett tema i Johannesevangeliet"; Svensk Exegetisk Årsbok 51 (1986): 57-64.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-03-27; 2011-06-25; 2014-04-24)

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9:16-17 Some out of the Pharisees so (continually/repeatedly) said: “This One is not from the side of God, the Man, because He does not keep the sabbath.” But others (continually/repeatedly) said: “How is a man ‘being a misser’/missing (the mark of God) able to make/do signs of such kind?” And there (continually) was a split in/among them. They so say to the blind again: “What do you say on account of Him, because He opened your eyes?” But/and he spoke that/: “He is a prophet.”

Word for word: 9:16 (33 words in the Greek text) said-(continually) so out-of the Pharisees some: not is this-(one) from-the-side-of god the man, because the sabbath not (he)-keeps. others but (continually)-said: how is-able-to (a)-man being-a-misser-(of-the-mark-of-God) of-such-kind signs make? and (a)-split (continually)-was in/among them. 9:17 (21 words in the Greek text) (they)-say so (to)-the blind again: What say you on-account-of him, because (he)-opened your the eyes? the/he but spoke that (a)-prophet (he)-is.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The Lord said Israel:) "Remember the day of the sabbaths to make it holy." (Ex 20:8, Greek OT)

(Balaam said:) "I shall show him and/but by no means now. I call him happy, and/but he does not draw near. A constellation shall stick up out of Jacob, and a man shall stand up out of Israel." (Num 24:17a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Israel:) “Behold, you have stood up in stead of your fathers, a togethersprain/monstrosity of men ‘being missers (of)’/missing (My mark) .” (Num 32:14a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Moses:) "If – according to the circumstances – a prophet or (one) dreaming dream/dreams may stand up in/among you and may give you a sign or an omen, and the sign or the omen may come, which he talked towards you, saying, 'Go and serve the other gods, which you do not know’, you shall not hear the sayings of that prophet or (the one) dreaming that dream." (Deut 13:1-3a, Greek OT)

Tobit confessed out/frankly in the very eyes of (the people in Nineveh), that God had had/shown mercy on/to him and that He had opened his eyes. (Tobit 11:16b or 11:17a, S)

(Judas) called the ones (being) together with him to the side of ... to wait for the conquest, which will be/come to them from the side of the All-powerful. (2 Macc 15:8)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “A man ‘being a misser (of)/missing (the mark of God) lies in ambush into/’for the purpose of’ blood/bloodshed.” (Sir 11:32b)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said: “The Lord) has created (and creates) good things to the good ones from a beginning. In this way (also) bad things to the missers (of the mark of God).” (Sir 39:25)


The Latter Revelation:

The Pharisees (continually/repeatedly) said: "(Jesus) throws out the little demons in/with the leader of the little demons." (Matt 9:34)

Jesus says to (the priest leaders and the elders): “Did you nor at any time read in the writings: ‘A stone which the ones building rejected, this has become into a head/beginning of a corner, from the side of the Lord this became, and it is wondrous in our eyes?’” (Matt 21:42)

(The priest leaders and the Pharisees) feared the crowds, since they (continually) had/held (Jesus) into/for a prophet. (Matt 21:46b)

(Many in the synagogue said about Jesus:) “From where (are) these things to this One, and what (is) the wisdom having been given to this One and the abilities of such kind becoming through His hands?” (Mark 6:2b)

Others (continually) said that/: “(Jesus is) a prophet, as one of the prophets.” (Mark 6:15b)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "Children, how troublesome it is to come into, into the kingdom of God! … By the side of men (it is) unable, however/but not by the side of God. For all things are able by the side of God." (Mark 10:24b,27b)

(The Pharisee said to himself:) "If (Jesus) (continually) was a prophet He had – according to the circumstances – (continually) had knowledge of who and of what nature the woman (is) whoever/who touches Him, because she is a misser (of the mark of God)." (Luke 7:39b)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "Do you think that I have become/come to your side to give peace in/on the earth? By no means I say to you, 'however or'/’on the other side’ division.” (Luke 12:51)

(The Lord said:) "This (woman), being a daughter of Abraham, whom the adversary had bound (for), behold, eighteen years, had she not to be loosened from this band (on) the sabbath day?" (Luke 13:16)

(The “leadership of a hundred men” said about Jesus:) "Certainly this Man (continually) was righteous." (Luke 23:47b)

(The two males said to the women: “Jesus talked with us) saying that/: ‘The Son of the Man must be given ‘to the side of’/over into hands of men ‘being missers (of)’/missing (the mark of God) and be crucified.” (Luke 24:7a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

And we viewed His glory, a glory as of an only descendant from the side of a father, filled with joybringing (grace) and truth. (John 1:14b)

The woman says to (Jesus): “* (א*) I look at, that You are a prophet.” (John 4:19)

It so became a split in the crowd because of Him. (John 7:43)

The rowers/servants answered: “’Nor at any time’/never has a man talked in this way as this One, the Man, talks (P66,א*)!” (John 7:46)

They (continually/repeatedly) said to (the man who formerly was blind): “How were so your eyes opened?” (John 9:10)


Paul said to the Colossian believers: "Let so not anyone judge you in/’by means of’ ... sabbaths." (Col 2:16)

Exegetes, evangelists and others: Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: Henrik Ibsen, D.L. Moody.


Greek words:

(h)amartôlos /be a misser (of the mark of God)/ (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Sir 11:32; 39:25; Luke 7:39; 24:7; John 9:16 – Tobit 4:17(BA); 13:6(8)(BA); 1 Macc 1:34; 2:44,48,62; Wisdom of Solomon 4:10; 19:13; Sir 1:25; 2:12; 3:27; 5:6,9; 5:15(6:1); 7:16; 8:10; 9:11; 10:23; 11:9,21; 12:4,6-7,14; 13:17; 15:7,9,12; 16:6,13; 19:22; 21:6,10; 23:8; 25:19; 27:30; 28:9; 29:16,19; 32:17; 33:14; 39:27; 40:8; 41:5-6,11; Prayer of Manasseh v 5,8. Matt 9:10-11,13; 11:19; 26:45; Mark 2:15-17; 8:38; 14:41; Luke 5:8,30,32; 6:32-34; 7:34,37; 13:2; 15:1-2,7,10; 18:13; 19:7; John 9:24-25,31; Rom 3:7; 5:8,19; 7:13; Gal 2:15,17; 1 Tim 1:9,15; Heb 7:26; 12:3; Jas 4:8; 5:20; 1 Pet 4:18; Jude v 15.


Additional studies: Ex 7:11; Matt 12:2,10,22-24; 16:14; 21:11; 24:24; Mark 3:22; Luke 6:2; 7:16; 11:15; 14:3; John 1:21,24-25; 2:11,18; 5:9-10,16; 6:46,52; 7:40; 9:33; 10:19; 19:5; Acts 14:4; 23:7.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-03-27; 2011-06-26; 2014-04-24)

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9:18-23 So the Jews did not believe on account of him, that he (continually) had been blind and had seen up, till (the time) whichever/’in which’ they raised their voices to the parents of him having seen up and asked them, saying: “Is this your son, who you say, that he was begotten/born blind? How (can it be) so (that) he just now sees?” His parents so answered and spoke: “We know that this is our son, and that he was begotten/born blind. But how he now sees, we do not know. Or who opened his eyes, we do not know. * (P75, א*) He ‘has bodily growth’/’is grown-up’. He will talk on account of himself.” These things his parents spoke, because they (continually) feared the Jews, for the Jews had already put (and put) together in order that if – according to the circumstances – anyone may confess Him (to be) christ/anointed, he might become led away from the synagogue. Because of this his parents spoke that/: “He ‘has bodily growth’/’is grown-up’. Question him!”

Word for word: (20 words in the Greek text) Not believed so the Jews on-account-of him that (he)-(continually)-was blind and (he)-saw-up till (the-time)-whichever/'in-which' (they)-raised-(their)-voices (to)-the parents 'his the-(one)'/'of him' having-seen-up 9:19 (19 words in the Greek text) and (they)-answered them saying: this-(one) is the son your, who you say that blind (he)-was-begotten? how so sees-(he) just-now? 9:20 (18 words in the Greek text) answered so the parents his and spoke: (we)-'know-(and-have-known)'/know that this-(one) is the son your and that blind (he)-was-begotten. 9:21 (21 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus prima manus) how but now (i/I)-see not (i/I)-'know-(and-have-known)'/know, or who opened his the eyes we not 'know-(and-have-known)'/know. he bodily-growth has. on-account-of himself (he)-will-talk. 9:22 (22 words in the Greek text) these-(things) spoke the parents his because (they)-(continually)-feared the Jews. already for had-put-(and-put)-together the Jews in-order-that if-according-to-the-circumstances anyone may-confess him christ/anointed (he)-might-become led-away-from-the-synagogue. 9:23 (11 words in the Greek text) because-of this the parents his spoke that bodily-growth (he)-has, him question.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The man) questioned (the virgin) and spoke: “Whose daughter are you?” (Gen 24:23a, Greek OT)

(Israel) arranged (their men) side by side against Midian, according as the Lord enjoined Moses, and they killed every/all of male sex. ... (And Moses said to the officers of the army:) "Kill every/everyone (of Midian) ‘connected with the manly’/’of the males of the little ones’ ... and every woman whoever has (and has had) knowledge of a male sleeping-place." (Num 31:7,17a, Greek OT)

(Moses said to Israel:) “Make the evil thing unseen out/’on the basis’ of yourselves.“ (Deut 13:5b, Greek OT)

(Moses said to Israel:) “Lift out the evil thing out of yourselves.“ (Deut 17:7b; 19:19b; 21:21b; 22:21b,24b; 24:7b, Greek OT)

(The young woman said to her female lord about the leprous Naaman:) “The prophet of God ... will lead him ... away from his leprosy.” (2 Kings 5:3b, Greek OT)

Many of the nations (continually) were ‘cut round’/circumcised and (continually) lived in Jewish fashion because of the fear of the Jews. (Esther 8:17b, Greek OT)

Tobit confessed out/frankly in the very eyes of (the people in Nineveh), that God had had/shown mercy on/to him and that He had opened his eyes. (Tobit 11:16b or 11:17a, S)

(One of the Jews could not) plainly confess (himself) to be a Jew. (2 Macc 6:6b)

(The mother said to her son:) “I have led you into this bodily growth ... “ (2 Macc 7:27b)

(The elders said to the people:) "Having 'taken upon'/brought (Susanna), we question (her) who the youth (continually/-) was." (Susanna v 40, Theod)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Which out of you caring is able to put to one cubit against/over his bodily growth?” (Matt 6:27)

The Pharisees (continually/repeatedly) said: "(Jesus) throws out the little demons in/with the leader of the little demons." (Matt 9:34)

(Jesus said to the twelve:) “’Give heed from’/’beware of’ the men, for they will give you ‘to the side of into’/’over to’ councils and whip you in their synagogues.” (Matt 10:17)

(Jesus said to the twelve:) "Every/everyone whoever will confess in/with Me in front of the men, I will and/also confess in/with him in front of My Father, the One (being) in * (P19, א,* א) heavens. But whoever may – according to the circumstances – deny Me in front of the men, I and/also will deny him in front of My Father, the One (being) in * (P19, א,* א) heavens.” (Matt 10:32-33)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "The one having been sown against the rocky (ground), this is the one hearing the saying and straight off taking it in company with joy, but has not a root in himself, however/but is transitory. But/and having become oppression or pursuit because of the saying, he is straight off caused to stumble." (Matt 13:20-21)

Having straight off shouted the father of the little boy (continually/repeatedly) said: “I believe. Succour my unbelief.” (Mark 9:24)

(The disciples) (continually) were in/on the way, ascending into (a disgraced) Jerosolyma/Jerusalem, and Jesus (continually) was leading/going before them. And they (continually) were amazed, but/and the ones following (continually) feared. (Mark 10:32a)

Jesus spoke: “Raise your voices (towards the blind one).” And they raise their voices (towards) the blind one, saying to him: “Be confident, raise, He raises His voice (towards) you.” (Mark 10:49b)

The priest leader questioned (Jesus) and says to Him: “Are You the christ/'anointed one', the Son of the Blessed (One)?” (Mark 14:61b)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "Happy are you when – according to the circumstances - the men may hate you, and when – according to the circumstances – they may divide (themselves from) you by a boundary-line and may reproach you and may throw out your name as evil with respect to the Son of the Man." (Luke 6:22)

(Jesus said to a daughter of a synagogue leader:) "The girl, rise!" And her spirit turned next to (her). ... And her parents stood/were ‘out of’/beside themselves, but (Jesus) brought a message by the side of them to speak (with) no one (about) the thing having ‘become (and became)’/’happened (and happened)’." (Luke 8:54b-55a,56)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “I say to you, every/everyone who may – according to the circumstances – confess in/with Me in front of the men, the Son of the Man will confess in/with him in front of * (א*) (the things) of God. But the one having denied Me in the very eyes of the men will be denied ‘in the very eyes of’/before * (א*) (the things) of God.” (Luke 12:8-9)

(The priest leaders and officers) rejoiced and put together for themselves to give (Judas Iscariot) silvermetal/money. (Luke 22:5)

(Paul) spoke: "Lord, (the people in Jerusalem) themselves have insight (in) that ‘according to’/concerning the synagogues I (continually/repeatedly) was throwing into watch/custody and flaying the ones believing against You." (Acts 22:19)

(The youth said to the leader of a thousand men:) “The Jews put together to ask you.” (Acts 23:20a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

No one (continually) talked plain language on account of (Jesus) because of the fear of the Jews. (John 7:13)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 - about 1500

That (the son) is old enough means that he is at least 13 years old; from the thirteenth anniversary he was seen as grown-up in judicial and religious sense. (LarsOlov Eriksson "För att ni skall tro. Johannesevangeliet" p 185; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

In the Old Testament the giving of sight is associated with God himself (Exod. 4:11; Ps. 146:8). It is also a messianic activity (Isa. 29:18; 35:5; 42:7), and this may be its significance in the New Testament. It is a divine function, a function for God's own Messiah, that Jesus fulfills when he gives sight to the blind. This chapter then has significance in John's plan for showing Jesus to be the Messiah. (Leon Morris "The Gospel according to John" p 422)


about 1500 and time before

The Lord, brethren, stands in need of nothing; and He desires nothing of anyone, except that confession be made to Him. (Clement of Rome to the Corinthians, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol I, p 19)

Talmudic writings speak of two, or rather, we would say, of three, kinds of ‘excommunication,’ of which the two first were chiefly disciplinary, while the third was the real ‘casting out,’ ‘un-Synagoguing,’ ‘cutting off from the congregation.’ ... The first and lightest degree was the so-called Neziphah or Neziphutah; properly, ‘a rebuke,’ an inveighing. Ordinarily, its duration extended over seven days; but, if pronounced by the Nasi, or Head of the Sanhedrin, it lasted for thirty days. In later times, however, it only rested for one day on the guilty person. (Moed K. 16a and b) ... The second degree of Jewish excommunication (was) the so-called Niddui (from the verb to thrust, thrust out, cast out). This lasted for thirty days at the least, although among the Babylonians only for seven days. (Moed K. 16a) At the end of that term there was ‘a second admonition, which lasted other thirty days. If still unrepentant, the third or real excommunication, was pronounced, which was called the Cerem, or ban, and of which the duration was indefinite. ... Henceforth (the banned) was like one dead. He was not allowed to study with others, no intercourse was to be held with him, he was not even to be shown the road. He might, indeed, buy the necessaries of life, but it was forbidden to eat or drink with such an one. (Comp. 1 Cor v.11) ... The Rabbinists enumerate twenty-four grounds for excommunication, of which more than one might serve the purpose of the Pharisees. But in general, to resist the authority of the Scribes, or any of their decrees, or to lead others either away from ‘the commandments,’ or to what was regarded as profanation of the Divine Name, was sufficient to incur the ban. (Alfred Edersheim "The Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah Part II" p 183-184)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Åke Andrén, Hjalmar Bjurulf, Lars-Ola Borglid, John Bunyan, Alfred Edersheim, Johannes Gossner, Harry Lenhammar, Kjell Åke Modéer, Fredrik Nielsen, Bertil Nilsson, Birger Olsson, Anders Runesson, Henric Schartau, Isaac Basjevis Singer, Joh. Sköld, Elin Wägner, Göran Åberg.


My own comments and speculations:

In a restoration perspective we can see how the killed parents and their killed sons in Midian are restored in the opening of the eyes of the blind son and in Jesus' words: “’And not’/neither this one missed (the mark of God), ‘and not’/nor his parents, however/but (it was) in order that the works of God might be made visible in him.” (John 9:3)

Observe the difference between Luke 8:56 and John 9:22-23. In Luke the synagogue official and his wife do not say anything about the healing of their girl because of Jesus' charge. In John the parents do not want to say much about the healing of their boy because of their fear of the Jews. The parents are like the seed on the rocky ground (Matt 13:20-21). They stumble, when persecution arises. Compare My own comments and speculations to John 6:66-69.

As for the seed on the rocky ground, see also John 12:42-43. As for the seed to the side of the way (Matt 13:19), see John 6:66-69; 8:31-47. As for the seed among thorns (Matt 13:22), see John 15:6. As for the seed on fine earth (Matt 13:23), see John 15:1-8.


Greek words:

aposynagôgos (led away from the synagogue) John 9:22 – John 12:42; 16:2. (Cf. aposynagô in 2 Kings 5:3,6-7,11 in the meaning of ‘lead away’/’set free’)

eperôtaô (question) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Susanna v 40; Mark 14:61; John 9:23 – Judith 6:16; 10:12; 2 Macc 3:37; 7:7; 14:5; 15:3; Matt 12:10; 16:1; 17:10; 22:23,35,41,46; 27:11; Mark 5:9; 7:5,17; 8:23,27,29; 9:11,16,21,28,32-33; 10:2,10,17; 11:29; 12:18,28,34; 13:3; 14:60; 15:2,4,44; Luke 2:46; 3:10,14; 6:9; 8:9,30; 9:18; 17:20; 18:18,40; 20:21,27(28),40; 21:7; 22:64; 23:6,9. John 18:7; Acts 5:27; 23:34; Rom 10:20; 1 Cor 14:35.

(h)êlikia (bodily growth) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) 2 Macc 7:27; Matt 6:27; John 9:21,23 – 2 Macc 4:40; 5:24; 6:18,24; 15:30; Sir 26:19; Luke 2:52; 12:25; 19:3; Eph 4:13; Heb 11:11.

syntithêmi (put together) (in the NT + one example in the Apocrypha) Luke 22:5; John 9:22; Acts 23:20 – 1 Macc 15:27.


Additional studies: Matt 10:28; 13:5-6; 23:34; Mark 3:22; 13:9; Luke 11:15; 12:11; 21:12; John 1:19; 7:13; 9:34; 12:42; 16:2; 19:38; 20:19; Rom 10:9; 1 Cor 5:12-13; Rev 2:9; 3:9.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-03-28; 2011-06-29; 2014-04-25)

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9:24-25 They so ‘out of’/’immediately after’, a second (time), raised their voices to the man who (continually) had been blind and spoke to him: “Give glory to God.” We know that this Man is a misser (of the mark of God).” That one so answered: “If He is a misser (of the mark of God), I do not know. One thing I know, that being blind I just now see.”

Word for word: 9:24 (24 words in the Greek text) (They)-raised-(their)-voices so (to)-the man out-of (a)-second who (continually)-was blind and spoke (to)-him: give glory (to)-the god. we 'know-(and-have-known)'/know that this-(one) the man (a)-misser-(of-the-mark-of-God) is. 9:25 (15 words in the Greek text) answered so that-(one): if (a)-misser-(of-the-mark-of-God) (he)-is not (i/I)-'know-(and-have-known)'/know, one-(thing) (i/I)-'know-(and-have-known)'/know that blind being just-now (i/I)-see.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

Jesus/Joshua spoke to Achan: "Give to-day glory to the Lord, the God of Israel, and give the ‘confession out’/’frank confession’ and bring up a message to me what you have made/done, and you may not hide (it) from me." So Achan answered Jesus/Joshua and spoke: "Truly, I have missed (the mark of God) in the very eyes of the Lord, the God of Israel." (Joshua 7:19-20a, Greek OT)

(Anna, the mother of Tobias, said about him:) “Woe me, child, that I let you be (alone) to go, the light of my eyes.” (Tobit 10:5, S)

(Tobit, who had been blind but now saw, wrote this prayer:) "A shining light will shine into all the goals/ends of the earth." (Tobit 13:11a or 13:13a, S)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “It is not proper to glorify a male ‘being a misser (of)’/missing (the mark of God).” (Sir 10:23b)


The Latter Revelation:

The Pharisees (continually/repeatedly) said: "(Jesus) throws out the little demons in/with the leader of the little demons." (Matt 9:34)

Having again, 'out of second'/'for the second time', gone away (Jesus) prayed. (Matt 26:42a)

(The Lord said:) “Martha, Martha, you care (about) and are distracted around/’in relation to’ many things. But it is (a matter) of few things or one thing (א*), for Mary has chosen the good portion, whichever/which shall not be taken off/from her." (Luke 10:41b-42)

Having behold that he had been healed, (the leper) returned (to Jesus) glorifying God in company with a great/loud voice. ... (Jesus said:) "Were they not found having returned to give glory to God, ‘if not’/except this one, the one of other descent?" (Luke 17:15,18)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Do not put/lay in your hearts to beforehand care (about) to defend yourselves, for I will give you a mouth and a wisdom which all * (א,* א, A) the ones opposing you will not be able to stand against or speak against.” (Luke 21:14-15)

(Peter said to the males of Israel:) “God ... glorified His boy Jesus, whom you indeed gave ‘to the side of’/over and denied.” (Acts 3:13a)

Immediately a messenger of a lord hit (Herod), ’instead of’/’in return for’ which things he did not give God the glory. (Acts 12:23a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

Some out of the Pharisees so (continually/repeatedly) said (about Jesus): “This One is not from the side of God, the Man, because He does not keep the sabbath.” (John 9:16a)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

The accused one need not in advance think of how to defend oneself. Luke uses in (21:14) a Greek word which just describe the careful learning of a speech perfect in form before the court. Jesus in stead promise to give his own ones - perhaps very simple - words reducing the adversaries to silence. It can be an answer of the type, which the man born blind gave, when he was pressed by the questions of the adversaries. (Bo Giertz "Evangelium Lukas" p 220-221 in comment to Luke 21:10-19; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

The formula ("Give glory to God") seems to be an exhortation to full and frank confession of the truth. Cf. Mishna San. 6.2 (when a man is to be stoned): When ten cubits from the stoning place they say to him: "Confess: for it is the custom of all about to be put to death to make confession; and every one who confesses has a share in the world to come; for so we find it in the case of Achan." (C.H. Dodd ”The Interpretation of the fourth Gospel” p 81)

Sometimes the eyes of man are opened, and then he sees the whole life as a boundless treachery and a bottomless misery. The men then say he is mentally ill, and that the devil has put a glass splinter in his eye, so that he sees the light life black. . . . A true brightening the one owns who in combination with God is living in duties and sacrifices. But it is his inner light lightening up in the darkness, and it is his goodness which throws a shimmer over the evil of men. . . . To always see lightly in the darkness, one probably has to be an owl or a cat, that is nocturnal animals; rotten fishes are luminous or phosphorescent, and they always have light around themselves, but they ar only jack-o'-lanterns in marsh! (August Strindberg "En blå bok III" p 874; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Only one thing I know: that Director Michaelson, while staying with me, excused that he could not play me the first year. The hope remains: that (the former Director of Dramaten Gustaf) Fredriksson and I get free tickets to the opening! (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev 16, maj 1907-12 juli 1908" s 61; letter 1907-08-23 to August Palme; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Seven years have gone after we buried Emil Kléen. . . . I, who was present at the great separation, saw how easy it was, when he, almost without body, fell asleep - or wake up, which is said to be the same thing. And for me it was a good learning to see how independently his spirit lived when the material substrate almost was consumed. His senses were extinguished, the hearing disappeared, the sight were weakened, and almost without nourishment there lay a skeleton of a child and spoke: beautifully, wisely, goodnaturedly, thankfully.When he no longer could speak, he took up a book pointing at a page: It was (H.C.) Andersen's fairy-tale "The stone of the wise", the stone which was found by the blind girl. Yes, lapis philosophorum, it was not only to make gold, and not to lengthen the life - it was something else! (August Strindberg "Förord till Emil Kléens Valda Dikter" p 93-94; October 1906; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Stig Abrahamsson, Eric S. Alexandersson, Elisabeth Beskow, Oloph Bexell, Atle Burman, Axel Gustafsson, Anders Jarlert, Majken Johansson, M. Karlgren, Lars Levi Laestadius, Sven Lidman, Jörgen Lundberg, Martin Luther, Karin Mandelstam, Vilhelm Moberg, Fritiof Nilsson Piraten, Viktor Rydberg, Bo Setterlind, Birgitta Yavari.


My own comments and speculations:

The man who had been blind knows, like Mary in Luke 10:41-42, the necessary thing.

Concerning “second time”, see John 3:4-5.


Additional studies:

1 Sam 6:5; Ezra 10:11; Jer 13:16; Matt 9:8; Mark 3:22; Luke 11:15; Rom 4:20; 11:36; 16:27; Phil 4:20; Rev 4:9; 11:13; 14:7; 16:9; 19:7.


G. Forkman "Människans förändring - ett tema i Johannesevangeliet"; Svensk Exegetisk Årsbok 51 (1986): 57-64.

Hisayasu Ito "Johannine irony demonstrated in John 9: Part 1-2"; Neotestamentica 361-388 (2000): 361-388.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-03-28; 2011-06-30; 2014-04-26; 2014-10-29)

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9:26-27 They so spoke (to) him: “What did He made/do (with) you? How did He open your eyes?” He answered them: “I have already spoken (to) you, and you did not hear. What do you want to hear again? You do not want, and/also you, to become His disciples(, do you)?”

Word for word: 9:26 (11 words in the Greek text) (they)-spoke so (to)-him: what made-(he) (with)-you? how opened-(he) your the eyes? 9:27 (19 words in the Greek text; the sequence of the words according to Sinaiticus) (he)-answered them: (i/I)-spoke (to)-you already and not (you)-heard. what again want-(you) hear? not and you want disciples his become?


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

Moses called all the sons of Israel and spoke towards them: "You have beheld (and behold) all things, as many as the Lord made/did in (the) earth/land Egypt before the very eyes of you, Pharaoh and the ones attending him and every/all his earth/land, the great tests which your eyes have beheld (and behold), the signs and those great omens. And till this day the Lord has not given you a heart to know and eyes to see and ears to hear." (Deut 29:2-4, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to the prophet:) “Go and speak to this people: ‘A hearsay you will hear and you may not/certainly not 'let together'/perceive, and seeing you will see and you may not/certainly not behold, for the heart of this people has been thickened/hardened and (with) their ears they have heard weightily/painfully and their eyes have been closed, (so that) they not at any time may behold (with) the eyes and hear (with) the ears and 'let together'/perceive (with) the heart and turn themselves next to (Me) and/’so that’ I will heal them.’” (Is 6:9-10, Greek OT)

A saying of the Lord became/came towards (the prophet), (a saying) saying: "(You), a son of a man, you dwell in a middle of the unrighteous ones (of Jerusalem), who have eyes to the thing to see and do not see and have ears to the thing to hear and do not hear, for the reason that it is a house 'making bitter by the side of'/embittering." (Ezek 12:1-2, Greek OT)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples: “With the people) the prophecy of Isaiah is ‘completed upwards’/upcompleted, the one saying: ‘You will hear (by) a hearsay and you may not/certainly perceive, and seeing you will see and you may not/certainly not behold, for the heart of this people has been thickened/hard and (with) their (א,*א) ears they have heard weightily/painfully and their eyes have been closed, (so that) they not at any time may behold (with) the eyes and hear (with) the ears and perceive (with) the heart and turn themselves next to (Me) and/’so that’ I will heal them.’ But happy your eyes, because they see, and your ears, because they hear.” (Matt 13:14-16)

(Paul said to the Jews in Rome:) "Finely the Holy Spirit talked towards your fathers through Isaiah the prophet, saying: ‘Go towards this people and speak: “You will hear (in) a hearsay and you may not/certainly not perceive ... for ... (with) the ears they have heard weightily/painfully ... (so that) they not at any time may ... hear (with) the ears ... and turn themselves next to (Me) and/’so that’ I will heal them.”’” (Acts 28:25b-27)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Jesus said to the Jews:) " Amen, amen, I say to you, that an hour comes * (א*), when the dead (bodies) may (P66, א,* א) hear the voice of the Son of God, and * (P66, א*) having heard they will live." (John 5:25)

(Jesus said to those Jews who to begin with believed Him:) "Because of what have you not knowledge of My talking? Because you are not able to hear My saying." (John 8:43)

(The neighbourings and the ones who saw the man who formerly was blind said:) "How were so your eyes opened?" (John 9:10)

So again and/also the Pharisees (continually/repeatedly) questioned him, how he saw up. (John 9:15a)

(The Jews) raised their voices to the parents of him having seen up and asked them, saying: “Is this your son, who you say, that he was begotten/born blind? How (can it be) so (that) he just now sees?” (John 9:18b-19)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: Lars Levi Laestadius.


Additional studies:

Matt 9:34; Mark 3:22; 4:11-12; Luke 8:10; 11:15; Rom 11:8; Rev 2:7.


Hisayasu Ito "Johannine irony demonstrated in John 9: Part 1-2"; Neotestamentica 361-388 (2000): 361-388.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-03-29; 2011-07-01; 2014-04-26)

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9:28-30 And they insulted him and spoke: “You are a disciple of that One, but we are disciples of Moses. We know, that God has talked (and talks) (with) Moses, but we do not know from where this One is.” The man answered and spoke to them: “For it is the wondrous thing in/with this, that you do not know from where He is, and He opened my eyes.”

Word for word: 9:28 (15 words in the Greek text) and (they)-insulted him and spoke: you disciple is (of)-that-(one)? we but (of)-the (of)-Moses are disciples? 9:29 (13 words in the Greek text) we 'know-(and-have-known)'/know that (with)-Moses has-talked-(and-talks) the god, this-(one) but not (we)-'know-(and-have-known)'/know from-where (he)-is. 9:30 (23 words in the Greek text) answered the man and spoke (to)-them: in/with this for the wondrous-(thing) is, that you not 'know-(and-have-known)'/know from-where (he)-is, and (he)-opened my the eyes.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Mariam and Moses) spoke: "Not has the Lord talked (and talks) alone/only (with) Moses?" ... (The Lord said to them: "With) him I will talk mouth ‘according to’/to mouth, in/with form/’a beholding’ and not through riddles. And he has beheld the glory of the Lord." (Num 12:2a,8a, Greek OT)

(David said:) “Lord, our Lord, as/how wondrous (is) Your name in every/all the earth.” (Ps 8:1a or 8:2a, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said:) “A stone which the ones building rejected … is wondrous in our eyes.” (Ps 118:22-23, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Jerusalem:) "All your sons (will be) taught of/by God." (Is 54:13a, Greek OT)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “If – according to the circumstances – one may be stiff-necked, this (is) wondrous, if he will be unpunished.” (Sir 16:11a)


The Latter Revelation:

Jesus says to (the priest leaders and the elders): “Did you nor at any time read in the writings: ‘A stone which the ones building rejected … is wondrous in our eyes?’” (Matt 21:42)

(Jesus said to the crowds and to His disciples:) "The scribes and the Pharisees have sat down upon the seat of Moses." (Matt 23:2)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven: (Jesus said to the Jews:) "It is (and) has been (and is) written in the prophets: 'And all will be taught of/by God.'" (John 6:45)

(Some of the inhabitants of a disgraced Jerosolyma/Jerusalem said about Jesus): “We know from where this One is.” (John 7:27a)

(Jesus said to the Pharisees:) "For I know from where I have come and where I withdraw. * (א,*א) You do not know from where I come and (א,*א) where I withdraw." (John 8:14b)

(Jesus said to the Jews): “When you – according to the circumstances – may heighten the Son of the Man, then you will gain knowledge, that I am, and (that) I do not make/do anything from Myself, however/but I talk these things entirely as the Father has taught Me.” (John 8:28)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

Novel tempts me most. Theatre I detest. Pose! Superficiality, calculation. I read "The Shrew" by Shakespeare. It was terrible. Circus; false, clumsy, untrue. Imagine this public letting dust be thrown in their eyes. . . . Most men might walk as sleeping blackguards, in whose heads you can put anything. The unhappy men who have opened eyes - they should depart this life. . . . . . . The self-deception probably is necessary to be able to live, for when the eyes sometimes are opened and you see the men in their terrible nakedness, you shudder and want to go away, even if you of them demand nothing whatever at all. (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev XV april 1904-april 1907" p 248-249; letters 1906-04-14 and 1906-04-18 to Harriet Bosse; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Johann Albrecht Bengel, Peter Halldorf.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning the expression ”The man”, cf. ”I am” in John 9:9 with my own comments and speculations to John 9:8-9.


Paul said to the believers in Thessalonica: "’On account of the brotherly friendship, you have not need (to have anyone) to write to you, for you yourselves are taught by God into the thing welcome one another." (1 Thess 4:9)


Greek words:

loidoreô (insult) (in the NT + one example in the Apocrypha) John 9:28 – 2 Macc 12:14; Acts 23:4; 1 Cor 4:12; 1 Pet 2:23.

thaumastos (wondrous) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Sir 16:11; Matt 21:42; John 9:30 – Tobit 12:22(BA); Judith 11:8; 16:13; 2 Macc 7:20; 15:13; Wisdom of Solomon 10:17; 19:8; Sir 11:4; 43:2,29; Mark 12:11; 1 Pet 2:9; Rev 15:1,3.


Additional studies: Ex 33:11; Matt 5:21-22; Mark 12:10-11; John 3:10; 5:45-46; 6:42; 19:9; Rom 2:17; Heb 1:1; Rev 15:1.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-03-29; 2011-07-02; 2014-04-26; 2014-10-30)

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9:31-33 We know, that God does not hear missers (of His mark), however/but if – according to the circumstances – anyone may be godfearing and may make/do His will, He hears this one. Out/’on the basis’ of the age it has not been heard, that anyone opened eyes of one being (and having been) begotten/born blind. If not this One (continually) was from the side of God, He (continually) was not able to make/do nothing/anything.”

Word for word: (19 words in the Greek text) (we)-'know-(and-have-known)'/know that missers-(of-the-mark-of-God) the god not hears, however if-according-to-the-circumstances anyone godfearing may-be and the will his may-make this-(one) (he)-hears. 9:32 (11 words in the Greek text) out-of the age not (it)-was-heard, that opened anyone eyes (of)-blind being-(and-having-been)-begotten. 9:33 (10 words in the Greek text)


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

The Lord spoke towards Moses: “And this the saying to you, which I have spoken (and speak), I will make/do, for you have found (and find) joybringing (grace) in the very eyes of Me, and I know you ‘to the side of’/’in comparison with’ all." (Ex 33:17, Greek OT)

(David said: "My enemies) will cry, and succour is not. (They cried) towards the Lord, and He did not hearken them." (2 Sam 22:42, Greek OT)

... Job ... (continually) was ... godfearing. (Job 1:1a, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said:) "If I (continually) looked at unrighteousness in my heart, let not the Lord listen to (me).” (Ps 66:18, Greek OT)

(Solomon said: “The Lord) ‘hears on’/’listens to’ the vows/prayers of the righteous ones.” (Prov 15:29b, Greek OT)

(Solomon said:) “The one ‘leaning out’/’turning away’ his ear to the thing to not listen to the law, (God) and/also abominates his prayer.” (Prov 28:9, Greek OT)

(Solomon said:) “From the side of the Lord (is) the help.” (Prov 21:31b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to His people:) "If – according to the circumstances – you may make the prayer full, I will not listen to your (prayers), for your hands (are) filled with blood." (Is 1:15b, Greek OT)

(Isaiah said:) “From/’ever since’ the age we have not heard, nor our eyes beheld a God more than You and Your works, which You make/do for the ones ‘staying behind’/’waiting for’ mercy.” (Is 64:4, Greek OT)

(Judas) called the ones (being) together with him to the side of ... to wait for the conquest, which will be/come to them from the side of the All-powerful. (2 Macc 15:8)


The Latter Revelation:

Having beheld (that Jesus had healed the paralytic) the crowds feared and glorified God, the One having given (judicial) authority of such kind to the men. (Matt 9:8)

Jesus says to (the priest leaders and the elders): “Did you nor at any time read in the writings: ‘A stone which the ones building rejected, this has become into a head/beginning of a corner, from the side of the Lord this became, and it is wondrous in our eyes?’” (Matt 21:42)

(Jesus said:) "(The one) who – according to the circumstances – may make/do the will of God, this one is my brother and sister and mother." (Mark 3:35)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "Children, how troublesome it is to come into, into the kingdom of God! … By the side of men (it is) unable, however/but not by the side of God. For all things are able by the side of God." (Mark 10:24b,27b)

(The messenger said to Mary:) “Every word will ‘not be unable’/’be possible’ from the side of God.” (Luke 1:37)

The missers (of the mark of God) (drew near Jesus) to hear Him. (Luke 15:1b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

And we viewed His glory, a glory as of an only descendant from the side of a father, filled with joybringing (grace) and truth. (John 1:14b)

(Nicodemus said to Jesus:) "Rabbi, we know that You have come (and come) (as) a teacher from God, for no one is able to make/do these signs, which You make/do, if - according to the circumstances - God may not be in company with him." (John 3:2b)

Some out of the Pharisees so (continually/repeatedly) said (about Jesus): “This One is not from the side of God, the Man, because He does not keep the sabbath.” But others (continually/repeatedly) said: “How is a man ‘being a misser’/missing (the mark of God) able to make/do signs of such kind?” (John 9:16a)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

It is of course not denied that the penitent prayer of a repenting sinner is heard; it is the hypocritical prayer of one who has no intention of offering obedience that is disregarded. (C.K. Barrett "The Gospel according to St John" p 363)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Johannes Gossner.


The adornment/’adorned world’ is led by the side of, and its desire, but the one making/doing the will of God stays/abides into the (coming) age. (1 John 2:17)

What we – if according to the circumstances – may demand, we take from Him, because we may (א,*א,A) keep His commandments and (because) we make/do the pleasing things in the very eyes of Him. (1 John 3:22)


Greek words:

theosebês (godfearing) (in the NT + examples in the OT) Job 1:1; John 9:31 – Ex 18:21; Judith 11:17.


Additional studies: Gen 18:23-32 (cf. Gen 15:6); 2 Chron 33:12-13; Job 27:8-9; 35:13; Ps 34:15-16(16-17); 109:7; 145:19; 146:8; Prov 15:8; Zech 7:13; John 5:36; 6:46; 9:16; 11:41; 16:23-27; Acts 7:56; 10:2-4; 2 Cor 5:21; Eph 1:15; 1 Tim 2:10; Heb 4:15; 5:7; 7:26; Jas 5:16-18; 1 John 3:21; Rev 2:27(28).


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-03-29; 2011-07-04; 2014-04-27)

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9:34-37(38) They answered and spoke (to) him: ”You were begotten/born wholly in misses (of the mark of God), and you teach us?” And they threw him out outside. Jesus heard that they had thrown him out outside and having found him He spoke: “Do you believe into the Son of the Man?” “Who is He, Lord?” that one answered, and he spoke: “In order that I may believe into Him!” (א*) Jesus spoke (to) him: “And you have beheld (and behold) Him and the One talking in company with you, that One it is.” * (P75,א*)

Word for word: 9:34 (17 words in the Greek text) (they)-answered and spoke (to)-him: in misses-(of-the-mark-of-God) you were-begotten wholly and you teach us? and (they)-threw-out him outside. 9:35 (17 words in the Greek text) heard Jesus that (they)-threw-out him outside and having-found him (he)-spoke: you believe into the son (of)-the (of)-man? 9:36 (11 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus prima manus) who is-(he) lord answered that-(one) and (he)-spoke: in-order-that (i/I)-may-believe into him? 9:37 (14 words in the Greek text) spoke (to)-him the Jesus: and (you)-have-beheld-(and-behold) him and the-(one) talking in-company with you that-(one) (it)-is.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The priest) shall throw out (the stones with leprosy) outside the city into an unclean place. (Lev 14:40b, Greek OT)

If – according to the circumstances - the sons (of the wicked man) may become many, they will ‘be into’/’go to’ slaughter; but/and if – according to the circumstancews - they may (become) males, they will beg. (Job 27:14, Greek OT)

(Daniel said:) “I (continually) looked at in a vision of the night. And behold, (One) as a son of a man (continually) came upon the clouds of the heaven. And He (continually) was by the side of (One) as an Old of Days and the ones standing by the side of (Him) (continually) were by the side of Him. And to Him was given (judicial) authority, and all the nations of the earth (served) Him ‘according to’/after descent and every glory.” (Dan 7:13-14a, Greek OT)

(Simon) threw out (the males from the border/castle) and made (it) clean from the abominations. (1 Macc 13:50b)

(The wisdom) goes herself about seeking the ones (being) her worthy.” (Wisdom of Solomon 6:16a)


The Latter Revelation:

Jesus says to (the blind men): ”Do you believe, that I am able to do this for you (א*)?” They say to Him: “Yes, Lord.” (Matt 9:28b)

(Jesus said to the Pharisees:) "The Son of the Man is a lord of the sabbath." (Matt 12:8)

All in the synagogue were fulfilled (with) passion hearing (Jesus say) these things. And having stood up they threw/hurried Him out, outside the city and led Him till the brow of the mountain upon which their city was (and had been) built, so that (they could) throw Him down a precipice. (Luke 4:28-29)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "Happy are you when – according to the circumstances - the men may hate you, and when – according to the circumstances – they may divide (themselves from) you by a boundary-line and may reproach you and may throw out your name as evil with respect to the Son of the Man." (Luke 6:22)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "Having come will the Son of the Man consequently find the faith upon the earth?" (Luke 18:8b)

Having thrown out (Stephen) outside the city (the Jews) (continually) threw stones (at him). (Acts 7:58a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

Entirely as Moses heightened the serpent in the desolate (district), in this way must the Son of the Man be heightened, in order that 'every the'/everyone believing into (P63, א,* א, A) Him may have agelong life. (John 3:14-15)

(Jesus said to the Samarian woman, who spoke about Messiah:) " I am the One talking (with) you." (John 4:26)

(Jesus) beheld a man blind out of a birth. And His disciples asked Him saying: “Rabbi, who missed (the mark of God), this one or his parents, in order that he might have been begotten/born blind?” (John 9:1b-2)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

Three times the man born blind confesses in all humility his ignorance, vv 12, 25,36. Against this we see the confidence of the Pharisees about who Jesus is: one who is not sent by God, v 16, a sinner, v 24, one who has not Moses' contact with God, v 29. (René Kieffer "Johannesevangeliet" p 224, translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Bo Setterlind.


My own comments and speculations:

The Pharisees said that Jesus was not from God, for He did not keep the sabbath (John 9:16). But as the Son of the Man Jesus was Lord of the sabbath.


Greek words:

exô (outside) (in the NT + examples in the OT) Lev 14:40; Luke 4:29; John 9:34-35; Acts 7:58 – Gen 15:5; 24:29,31; Ex 29:14; Lev 4:12; Num 31:13; 35:5,27; Deut 24:11; Joshua 2:19; Judges 19:25; 1 Sam 9:26; 2 Chron 29:16; Ps 41:6(7); Judith 10:18; 13:3; 2 Macc 1:16; Sir 21:23; Matt 5:13; 10:14; 12:46-47; 13:48; 21:17,39; 26:69,75; Mark 1:45; 3:31-32; 4:11; 5:10; 8:23; 11:4,19; 12:8; 14:68; Luke 1:10; 8:20; 13:28,33; 14:35; 20:15; 22:62; John 11:43; 12:31; 15:6; 18:16,29; 19:4-5,13; Acts 4:15; 5:34; 9:40; 14:19; 16:13,30; 21:5,30; 26:11; 1 Cor 5:12-13; 2 Cor 4:16; Col 4:5; 1 Thess 4:12; Heb 13:11-13; 1 John 4:18; Rev 3:12; 14:20(א,*א); Rev 22:15.


Additional studies:

Job 15:14; Ps 51:5(7); Matt 8:19-20; Luke 8:48; John 1:51; 3:13,36; 5:27; 6:27,37,53,62; 8:28; 9:22; 12:23,34; 13:31; Acts 7:57-58; Rom 10:14; Eph 2:3; 3 John v 10.


J. Duncan M. Derrett "'Dost Though Teach Us?' (John 9:34c)"; Downside Review 116 (1998): 183-194.

Mogens Müller "Have You Faith in the Son of Man? (John 9:35)"; New Testament Studies 37 (1991): 291-294.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-03-29; 2011-07-05; 2014-04-28)

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9:39-41 * (P75,א*) Into/’for the purpose of’ a judicial verdict I came into this adornment/’adorned world’, in order that the ones not seeing may see and the ones seeing may become blind.” The ones out of the Pharisees being in company with Him heard * (א*) and spoke to Him: “Not are and/also we blind?” Jesus spoke to them: “If you may be blind, you (continually) had – according to the circumstances – not (any) miss (of the mark of God). But now you say that/: ‘We see.’ Your miss (of the mark of God) stays.”

Word for word: 9:39 (18 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus prima manus) Into a judicial-verdict i/I into the adornment this came, in-order-that the-(ones) not seeing may-see and the-(ones) seeing blind may-become. 9:40 (16 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus prima manus) heard out-of the Pharisees the-(ones) in-company-with him being and spoke (to)-him: not and we blind are? 9:41 (20 words in the Greek text) spoke (to)-them the Jesus: if blind (you)-may-be, not according-to-the-circumstances (you)-(continually)-had (a/any)-miss-(of-the-mark-of-God). now but (you)-say that (we)-see; the miss-(of-the-mark-of-God) your stays.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

The woman beheld that the wood (of the thing to know/'have knowledge of') (is) fine into/’for the purpose of’ consumption and that (it is) pleasing to behold for the eyes, and that it is a seasonable hour of the thing to understand entirely, and having taken its fruit she ate. And she gave and/also to her male (being) in company with her, and he ate. And the eyes of the two were opened throughout, and they gained knowledge, that they (continually) were naked. (Gen 3:6-7a, Greek OT)

(Moses said to Israel: “If you will not obey the Lord) you will be feeling (at) midday as if (you were) the blind (one) feel/feeling in the darkness.” (Deut 28:29a, Greek OT)

Moses called all the sons of Israel and spoke towards them: "You have beheld (and behold) all things, as many as the Lord made/did in (the) earth/land Egypt before the very eyes of you, Pharaoh and the ones attending him and every/all his earth/land, the great tests which your eyes have beheld (and behold), the signs and those great omens. And till this day the Lord has not given you a heart to know and eyes to see and ears to hear." (Deut 29:2-4, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said:) “The Lord (makes) blind ones wise.” (Ps 146:8a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to the prophet:) “Go and speak to this people: ‘You will hear (in) a hearsay and you may not/certainly not 'let together'/perceive, and seeing you will see and you may not/certainly not behold, for the heart of this people has been thickened/hardened and (with) their ears they have heard weightily/painfully and their eyes have been closed, (so that) they not at any time may behold (with) the eyes and hear (with) the ears and 'let together'/perceive (with) the heart and turn themselves next to (Me) and/’so that’ I will heal them.’” (Is 6:9-10, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) “I became conspicuous for the ones not seeking Me. I was found/discovered to/by the ones not questioning Me. I spoke: “Behold, I am to the nation who/'whose citizens' that did not call/’call on’ My name.” (Is 65:1, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) “I will cause a righteous upsticking/rising to stand up for David ... and He will make/do a judicial verdict and righteousness upon the earth.” (Jer 23:5b, Greek OT)

A saying of the Lord became/came towards (the prophet), (a saying) saying: "(You), a son of a man, you dwell in a middle of the unrighteous ones (of Jerusalem), who have eyes to the thing to see and do not see and have ears to the thing to hear and do not hear, for the reason that it is a house 'making bitter by the side of'/embittering." (Ezek 12:1-2, Greek OT)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “Wisdom is ‘according to’/after its name, and she is not visible for many.” (Sir 6:22)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “If – according to the circumstances – your eye may be evil, your whole body will be dark. If so the light, the one (being) in you, is darkness, how much/great (is) the darkness.” (Matt 6:23)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “In/with what judicial verdict you judge, you will be judged. … Why do you see the straw, the one in the eye of your brother, but do not ‘understand ... entirely’/observe the wooden beam in your eye? … First throw/take the wooden beam out of your eye. Then you will and/namely see through to (be able to) throw/take out the straw out of the eye of your brother.” (Matt 7:2a,3,5b)

(Jesus said to His Father:) "You have hidden these things from wise ones and intelligent ones and revealed them to infants." (Matt 11:25b)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "Whoever has, to him it will be given, and it will be ‘over and above’/’more than enough’. But whoever has not, and/also what he has will be lifted/’taken away’ from him. Because of this I talk (with the people) in parables, because seeing they do not see, and hearing they do not hear, nor do they perceive. (With) them the prophecy of Isaiah is ‘completed upwards’/upcompleted, the one saying: ‘You will hear (by) a hearsay and you may not/certainly perceive, and seeing you will see and you may not/certainly not behold, for the heart of this people has been thickened/hard and (with) their (א,*א) ears they have heard weightily/painfully and their eyes have been closed, (so that) they not at any time may behold (with) the eyes and hear (with) the ears and perceive (with) the heart and turn themselves next to (Me) and/’so that’ I will heal them.’” (Matt 13:12-15)

(Jesus said to His disciples about the Pharisees:) "Let them be. Guides are blind. (א*)." (Matt 15:14a)

(Jesus said:) "Blind Pharisee." (Matt 23:26a)

The ones being stable have not need of a physician, however/but the ones having badly. I did not come to call righteous ones, however/but missers (of the mark of God). (Mark 2:17b)

(Jesus said to the scribes:) "The one who – according to the circumstances – may blaspheme into/’for the purpose of’ the Holy Spirit has not a ‘letting be’/’leaving alone’ into the (coming) age, however/but will be (א,*א) liable to an agelong misdeed." (Mark 3:29)

(Jesus said to the much/many-headed crowd:) "’See from’/’beware of’ the scribes, the ones wanting to walk about in dresses and (get) greetings in the market places and first seats in the synagogues and first companies of guests in/at the chief meals, the ones eating down/up the habitations of the widows and (for) a pretence praying long. These will take a judicial verdict more than ‘over and above’/enough." (Mark 12:38b-40)

(Simeon said to Mary:) “Behold, (Jesus) lies/’lies still’ into/’for the purpose of’ a fall and a resurrection of many in Israel, and into/’for the purpose of’ a sign being gainsaid.” (Luke 2:34b)

(John the Baptist said:) "Make the way of (a) lord ready, make His paths straight. Every ravine will be completed/fulfilled, and every mountain and hill will be humbled/’made low’." (Luke 3:4b-5a)

(Jesus said to the crowd:) "The lamp of your body is your eye. When – according to the circumstances – your eye may be plain, your whole body and/also is bright. But as soon as it – according to the circumstances – may be evil, your body and/also (may be) dark. Look so out (that) the light in you is not darkness. If so your whole body (is) bright, having not any dark part, it will be wholly bright, as when the lamp – according to the circumstances – may give you light (with) the ray of light." (Luke 11:34-36)

(Jesus said to the apostles:) “When you – according to the circumstances – may have made/done all the things having been throughout arranged to you, say that/: “We are useless slaves. We have made/done (and makes/does) what we (continually) were indebted to make/do.” (Luke 17:10b)

(Jesus said to a disgraced Jerosolyma/Jerusalem:) “Now (the things towards/’in regard to’ peace) (were) hidden from your eyes.” (Luke 19:42b)

The eyes (of the two disciples) (continually) ‘did not get power of the to gain’/’were prevented from gaining’ additional knowledge of (Jesus). (Luke 24:16)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

But this is the judgment, that the light has come (and comes) into the adornment/’adorned world’ and the men welcomed the darkness rather than the light, for their works (continually) were evil. For every/everyone practising the worthless hates the light and does not come towards the light, in order that his works may not be convicted. But the one making/doing the truth comes towards the light, in order that it may be made visible, that it is in God his works having been (and being) worked. (John 3:19-21)

(Jesus said to the blind man): “Withdraw, wash into the pond of Siloam” – which is interpreted ‘Having been (and being) dispatched away’. He so went away and washed and came seeing.” (John 9:7)

(The man who had been blind) answered (the Jews): “I have already spoken (to) you, and you did not hear. What do you want to hear again?” (John 9:27a)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 - about 1500

(The Pharisees) claim to see. They claim spiritual knowledge. They know the law. And it is sin for people who have spiritual knowledge to act as they do. Jesus does not say that they really do see, but that they claim to see. If they really had spiritual sight they would act differently toward him. Yet they are not completely blind. His meaning is that they have enough spiritual knowledge to be responsible. Had they acted on the best knowledge they had they would have welcomed the Son of God. But they did not act on their best knowledge. The claimed to have sight and acted like the blind. Therefore their sin is not taken away. It remains with them. (Leon Morris "The Gospel according to John" p 442)

When (the Pharisees) say themselves being the disciples of Moses and clearly see what has happened with the man born blind, so in fact they are men who don't want to see the apparent which has happened. They are captive in their spiritual blindness. (René Kieffer "Johannesevangeliet" p 230; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Precious angel, under the sun How was I to know you'd be the one To show me I was blinded, to show me I was gone How weak was the foundation I was standing upon? ... ... Shine your light, shine your light on me Ya know I just couldn't make it by myself I'm a little too blind to see. (Bob Dylan "Precious Angel" p 403; 1979)

It should be noted that in some sense men 'predestinate' themselves by their confidence, or lack of confidence, in their own spiritual vision. ... Those who are blind may be willing to obey the directions of Jesus (9:6f) and so receive sight. Those however who enjoy the light of the Law are unwilling to leave it for more perfect illumination, and so become blind, losing the light they have. (C.K. Barrett "The Gospel according to St John" p 366)

What a picture, my beloved ones - a beam, literally a stock, in a an eye of a man! And this spoken by him, who knows everything and who because of his truthfulness cannot exaggerate. Most moving is that the man, who had this beam in his eye, did not even know it. . . . We can, (Jesus) says, have a fault, comparable with a stock in the eye, without perceiving it. And the gravity is increased, when he says, that the same man sees the mote, a down, a hair or the like in the eye of another. What a picture, my beloved ones: a beam in the own eye, which you cannot perceive, and a little mote in the eye of your brother, which you at once see! What a terrible state! Oh God, call us all seriously to our senses. (Karl Palmberg "Ur livskällan. Tredje årgången." p 407; comment to Luke 6:36-42; Karl Palmberg /1842-1920/ was from 1883 a Lutheran clergyman in Månsarp in the diocese of Växjö and president in Jönköpings Missionsförening (Missionary Society) 1886-1911; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

E.T.A. Hoffman writes in the beginning of the former (19th) century this: "In old times we had a pious, stylish faith; we acknowledged the thing above but also knew the insufficiency of our senses: so 'the Enlightenment', came, which made everything so clear that people for only clearness did not see a jot; and now the supersensual thing should be seized offhand by flesh and bone." (August Strindberg "En blå bok I" p 158; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


about 1500 and time before

Let us not lift up ourselves, but let us declare ourselves unprofitable, that we may become profitable. For if thou call thyselves approved, thou art become unprofitable, though thou wert approved; but, if useless, thou art become profitable, even though thou wert reprobate. (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers X:18)

Let us set up a tribunal in ourselves, for the sins committed by ourselves, becoming ourselves accusers, and judges, and executioners for our offenses. (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers X:397)

If some, wilfully closing the eyes of their mind, would not receive the rays of that Light, their darkness arises not from the nature of the Light, but from their own wickedness, who willfully deprive themselves of the gift. For the grace is shed forth upon all ... And those who are not willing to enjoy this gift, ought in justice to impute their blindness to themselves; for if when the gate is opened to all, and there is none to hinder, any being willfully evil remain without, they perish through none other, but only through their own wickedness. (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers XIV:29)

“The world ... knew Him not” (John 1:10); but they of whom the world was not worthy knew Him. ... “The world knew Him not”; that is, those persons who are as it were nailed to the world alone, and who mind the things of the world. ... The world then was ignorant not only of Him, but also of His Father ... for nothing so darkens the mind as to be closely attached to present things. (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers XIV:31)

(Justin Martyr says to Trypho, a Jew:) “To the poor the Gospel is preached, the blind see, yet you do not understand. You have now need of a second circumcision, though you glory greatly in the flesh. The new law requires you to keep perpetual sabbath, and you, because you are idle for one day, suppose you are pious, not discerning why this has been commanded you: and if you eat unleavened bread, you say the will of God has been fulfilled. The Lord our God does not take pleasure in such observances: if there is any perjured person or a thief among you, let him cease to be so; if any adulterer, let him repent; then he has kept the sweet and true sabbaths of God. If any one has impure hands, let him wash and be pure.” (Justin Martyr, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol I, p 200)

One and the same God (that blesses others) inflicts blindness upon those who do not believe, but who set Him at naught; just as the sun, which is a creature of His, (acts with regard) to those who, by any weaknes of the eyes, cannot behold his light; but to those who believe in Him and follow Him, He grants a fuller and greater illumination of mind. (Irenaeus, the Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol I, p 502)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Per Ahlmark, Eric S. Alexandersson, Augustinus, Bo Brander, Gordon Bridger, Miguel de Cervantes, Douglas James Davies, Bob Dylan, Ulf Ekman, Runar Eldebo, Bo Frid, Johannes Gossner, Carl Grimberg, Verner von Heidenstam, C.G. Hjelm, Andres Küng, Lars Levi Laestadius, J.M.G. Le Clézio, Anna Maria Lenngren, Sven Lidman, Martin Luther, David Nyvall. Bengt Pleijel, Sven Edvin Salje, Gunnar E. Sandgren, Sadhu Sundar Singh, Milton Steinberg, Yrsa Stenius, Sven Stolpe, Jesper Svartvik, Tomas Transtrmer, P. Waldenström, Gideon Wikström.


My own comments and speculations:

The restoration perspective is obvious. Those who are blind will see, and those who see will become blind. Cf. Psalms of Solomon 2:10: “God, the earth will gain knowledge, (that) all Your judicial verdicts are righteous.”


Paul said to the ones who bore the name "Jew": “(You) have persuaded (and persuade) yourself to be a guide of/to blind ones, a light of/to the ones in darkness." (Rom 2:19)

Paul said to the believers in Corinth: ”We are a fragrance of Christ to God in/among the ones being saved and in/among the ones being perished; to 'which ones'/’the latter ones’ indeed a scent out of death into death, but to 'which ones'/’the former ones’ a scent out of life into life.” (2 Cor 2:15-16a)

If we – according to the circumstances – may speak, that we have not a/any miss (of the mark of God), we lead ourselves astray and the truth is not in us. (1 John 1:8)

The one hating his brother is in the gloom and wanders about in the gloom and does not know where he withdraws, because the gloom has blinded his eyes. (1 John 2:11)


Greek words:

krima (judicial verdict) (in the NT + examples in the OT) Jer 23:5; Mark 12:40; John 9:39 - Ex 18:22; Num 36:13; 2 Sam 8:15; Ps 19:9(10); 119:75; Jer 51:9-10; Ezek 33:14; 44:24; Zech 7:9; 8:16; 1 Macc 2:29; Wisdom of Solomon 12:12; Sir 19:25; 20:4; 21:5, 38:33; 41:3; 43:10; 48:7; The Prayer of Azariah v 5; Matt 7:2; Luke 20:47; 23:40; 24:20; Acts 24:25; Rom 2:2-3; 3:8; 5:16; 11:33; 13:2; 1 Cor 6:7; 11:29,34; Gal 5:10; 1 Tim 3:6; 5:12; Heb 6:2; Jas 3:1; 1 Pet 4:17; 2 Pet 2:3; Jude v 4; Rev 17:1; 18:20; 20:4.


Additonal studies:

Prov 26:12; Is 29:18; 35:5; 40:4; 42:7,18-19; Wisdom of Solomon 2:21; Matt 11:21-24; 19:28; 23:16-24; Mark 4:11-12; 8:17-18; Luke 4:18; 6:41-42; 11:45; 12:47,56; 18:11-14; John 3:17,19-21,36; 5:22,24,27; 8:33-34; 12:40,47; 15:22,24; Acts 7:56; 28:26-27; Rom 4:15; 5:13; 11:8; 1 Cor 1:27-29; 8:1; 1 John 5:16; Rev 3:1,15-18.


Gillis Gerleman "Bemerkungen zur Terminologie der 'Blindheit' im Alten Testament"; Svensk Exegetisk Årsbok 41/42 (1976/1977): 77-80.

Hisayasu Ito "Johannine irony demonstrated in John 9: Part 1-2"; Neotestamentica 361-388 (2000): 361-388.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-03-30; 2011-07-08; 2014-04-29; 2014-10-30)

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