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Chapter 6
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6:1-4 After these things Jesus went away on the other side of the Sea of the Galilee of the Tiberias. But a much/many-headed crowd (continually) followed Him, because they (continually/repeatedly) beheld (P66, א,* א) the signs which He (continually/repeatedly) made upon/’with regard to’ the weak. But Jesus came up into/on the mountain and (continually) * (א*) sat still (P66, א,* א) in company with His disciples. But the ‘paschal lamb’/Passover, the feast of the Jews, (continually/-) was near.

Word for word: 6:1 (12 words in the Greek text) After these-(things) went-away the Jesus on-the-other-side (of)-the (of)-sea (of)-the (of)-Galilee (of)-the (of)-Tiberias. 6:2 (14 words in the Greek text) followed-(continually) but him (a)-crowd much/many-headed, because (they)-continually)-beheld the signs which (he)-(continually)-made upon/'with regard to' the-(ones) 'being-weak'/weak. 6:3 (12 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus prima manus) came-up but into the mountain and (continually)-sat-still in-company-with the disciples his. 6:4 (9 words in the Greek text) was-(continually) but near the paschal-lamb, the feast (of)-the (of)-Jews.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Moses said to Pharao:) “After these things I will come/go out.” … (Ex 11:8b, Greek OT)

(When Israel had left Egypt and crossed the Red Sea) Moses and Aaron and Nadab and Abihu and seventy of the council of elders of Israel ascended (to the mountain). And they beheld the place, where the God of Israel stood there. ... And they ate and (continually) they drank. (Ex 24:9-10a,11b, Greek OT)

These feasts to the Lord (are) called holy … In the first month, in/on the fourteenth day of the month upwards/about a middle in the evenings (is) Passover to the Lord. (Lev 23:4a,5, Greek OT)

(The sons of the prophet) show the way in which the man of God, the one having come out of Judas, had come up. (1 King 13:12b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said: “The remaining of Israel), a much/many-headed crowd, will turn away/back here.” (Jer 31:8b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to the prophet about Judas:) “Behold, … I will make visible/known to them to listen to (Me), and I will be a physician to her, and I will make peace and faith (with) them. (Jer 33:6, Greek OT)

Behold, the Lord goes out, out of His place. He will descend and step against the heights of the earth. (Micah 1:3, Greek OT)

(Judith said to the Lord:) “ … You are a succour, an assistance of ones being weak.” (Judith 9:11a)


The Latter Revelation:

Beholding the crowds (Jesus) ascended into/on the mountain. And having sat down His disciples came to Him. (Matt 5:1)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) ”Attend the ones being weak.” (Matt 10:8a)

Jesus retired ... in a boat ..., and having heard (Him) the crowds followed Him on feet/foot (א,*א) from the cities. And on their having come out He beheld a much/many-headed crowd, and He was moved in His inward vital parts on/’for the sake of’ them, and He attended (the ones of) them ‘(who were) not forceful’/’(who had) not force’. (Matt 14:13b-14)

Jesus came to the side of the Sea of the Galilee, and having ascended into/to the mountain He (continually) was seated there. (Matt 15:29b)

The parents (of Jesus) (continually/repeatedly) went 'according to'/every year into/to Jerusalem (at) the Feast of the ‘paschal lamb’/Passover. (Luke 2:41)

After these things (Jesus) came out and viewed a toll collector (with) name Levi, being seated against the toll-house. And He says (א,* א) to him: “Follow Me!” (Luke 5:27)

Having descended (from the mountain) in company with (the twelve) (Jesus) stood upon a level place. And (there were) a much/many-headed crowd of His disciples and a much/many-headed multitude of the people. (Luke 6:17a)

But the Feast of the unleavened things, the one being said/called the ‘paschal lamb’/Passover, (continually) drew near. (Luke 22:1)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

As (Jesus) (continually) was in/with (the people) in the (disgraced) Jerosolyma/Jerusalem in/at the ‘paschal lamb’/Passover in/during the feast, many believed into His name looking at His signs which He (continually) made. (John 2:23)

Jesus, bothering (and having bothered) ‘out of’/’in consequence of’ the way of the journey, sat ‘in this way’/so (continually) still on the spring. It (continually) was as a sixth hour.” (John 4:6b)

After these things it/there (continually/-) was the (א,*א) feast of the Jews, and Jesus ascended into (a disgraced) Jerosolyma/Jerusalem. (John 5:1)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 - about 1500

Jesus becomes literally overrun, people press on him from all sides. ... Externally it could seem as a great success, but it shows through that it was the possibility to be healthy which drew many to Jesus, rather than his message about the kingdom of God. That he healed sick persons was, as we know, only a part of his message, a sign that God visited his people and that a new time was about to set in. (Bo Giertz "Evangelium enligt Markus" s 27 in comment to Mark 3:7-12; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

The Gospels may have simplified several localities into one which, as "the mountain", was thought of as a Christian Sinai. (Raymond E. Brown "The Gospel according to John" p 232)

(John) mentions the Passover primarily because ... some of the acts and words of this chapter have a eucharistic significance, and the eucharist ... must be understood in the context of the Jewish Passover. (C.K. Barrett "The Gospel according to St John" p 274)


about 1500 and time before

Our teacher ... Jesus Christ ... was crucified ... in the times of Tiberius Caesar. (Justin Martyr, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol I, p 166)

At (this) time (Tiberias) was a splendid but chiefly heathen city, whose magnificent buildings contrasted with the more humble dwellings common in the country. (Alfred Edersheim “Jewish Social Life” p 37)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Erika André, Karl-Erik Bergh, Henry Daniel-Rops, Roger Martin du Gard, Johannes Gossner, Alf Henrikson, Inge Kvarnström, Viktor Rydberg, Lina Sandell, Håkan Sjögren, Erik Sollerman, P. Waldenström.


My own comments and speculations:

As Moses left Egypt, crossed the Red Sea and went up to Mount Sinai, so Jesus left (a disgraced) Jerosolyma/Jerusalem (compare Rev 11:8), crossed the Sea of Tiberias and went up to the mountain.


Greek words:

anerchomai (come up) 1 King 13:12; John 6:3 – Gal 1:17-18.

thalassa (sea) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Matt 15:29; John 6:1 – Judith 1:12; 2:24; 1 Macc 6:29; 8:23,32; 14:5,34; 15:1,11,14; 2 Macc 9:8; Wisdom of Solomon 5:22; 14:3; 19:12; Sir 1:2; 18:10; 24:6,29,31; 29:17; 40:11; 43:24; 44:21; 50:3; Baruch 3:30; The Prayer of Azariah v 13; The Song of Praise of the Three Men v 54; The Prayer of Manasseh v 3,9; Matt 4:15,18; 8:24,26-27,32; 13:1,47; 14:24(א,*א); Matt 14:25-26; 17:27; 18:6; 21:21; 23:15; Mark 1:16; 2:13; 3:7; 4:1,39,41; 5:1,13,21; 6:47-49; 7:31; 9:42; 11:23; Luke 17:2,6; 21:25; John 6:16-19,22,25; 21:1,7. Acts 4:24; 7:36; 10:6,32; 14:15; 17:14; 27:30,38,40; 28:4; Rom 9:27; 1 Cor 10:1-2; 2 Cor 11:26; Heb 11:12,29; Jas 1:6; Jude v 13; Rev 4:6; 5:13; 7:1-3; 8:8-9; 10:2,5-6,8; 12:12,18; 13:1; 14:7; 15:2; 16:3; 18:17,19,21; 20:8,13; 21:1.

Tiberias (Tiberias) John 6:1 – John 6:23; 21:1.


Additional studies:

Ex 12:18; Num 28:16; Deut 16:1; Matt 15:30; Mark 1:45; 5:21,24; 6:32-34; 8:1; 9:14; 12:37; Luke 5:29; 6:18; 7:11; 8:4; 9:10-11,37; 13:17; John 2:13; 6:5,14,15,23; 11:55; 12:9,12; 21:1; Rev 1:19; 4:1; 7:9; 15:5; 18:1; 19:1,6.


E.D. Johnson "The Johannine Version of the Feeding of the Five Thousand - An Independent Tradition?"; New Testament Studies 8 (1962): 151-154.

A.R.C. Leaney "1 Peter and the Passover: An Interpretation"; New Testament Studies 10 (1963-1964): 238-251.

Timothy K. Hui "The Purpose of Israel's Annual Feasts"; Bibliotheca Sacra 147 (1990): 143-154.

Dieter Mitternacht "Knowledge-making in John 6: A Narrative-Psychological Reading"; Svensk Exegetisk Årsbok 72 (2007).

John Painter "Tradition and Interpretation in John 6"; New Testament Studies 35 (1989): 421-450.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-03-05; 2011-01-30; 2014-01-09, 2014-10-14)

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6:5-7 Having so lifted against/up the eyes and viewed that a much/many-headed crowd comes towards Him, Jesus says towards Philip: “From where may we buy breads/bread, in order that these ones may eat?” This He (continually) said to try him, for He Himself knew (and had known), what He (continually) was about to make/do. Philip so answers * (א*): “Breads/bread of/for two hundred denarii are/is not enough for them, in order that everyone may take ‘something short/’a little’.”

Word for word: 6:5 (23 words in the Greek text, the sequence of the words according to Sinaiticus) Having-lifted-against so the eyes the Jesus and having-viewed that (a)-crowd much/many-headed comes towards him (he)-says towards Philip: From-where may-(we)-buy breads in-order-that may-eat these-(ones)? 6:6 (11 words in the Greek text) this but (he)-(continually)-said trying him; he-(himself) for 'knew-(and-had-known)'/knew what (he)-(continually)-was-about-to make. 6:7 (15 words in the Greek text) answers so the Philip: (of)-two-hundred (of)-denarii breads not are-enough (for)-them in-order-that everyone short something may-take.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

The messenger of the Lord spoke (to the woman who to Abram would bear a son “according to the flesh”): “Hagar … from where do you come and where do you go?” (Gen 16:8a, Greek OT)

… God tried Abraham. (Gen 22:1a, Greek OT)

(Moses said to the Lord:) "From where (is it) to me to give meat to every/all this people, because they weep on/’for the sake of’ me saying: 'Give us meat, in order that we may eat!' I will not alone be able to carry this people, because this word is more/too weighty for me." (Num 11:13-14, Greek OT)

(Moses said to the Lord:) "Will every titpit of the sea be led together for (the grumbling people), and will it be enough for them?" (Num 11:22b, Greek OT)

(Moses said to Israel:) "The Lord your God has led you in the desolate (district these forty years), in that way (that) He – according to the circumstances – might treat you ill and test you and have knowledge throughout of the things in your heart, if you might watch His commandments or not." (Deut 8:2b, Greek OT)

(Moses said to Israel:) "In the desolate (district) (the Lord gave) you manna as morsels which your fathers did not know, in order that He might treat you ill and test you and/but make/do you well upon/’with regard to’ your last days." (Deut 8:16, Greek OT)

(The sons of Ephraim) tested God in their hearts to demand food they (in) their souls/desires, and they ‘talked down’/accused God and spoke: "Not will God be able to make a table ready in the desolate (district)?" (Ps 78:18-19, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said to the Lord:) "Towards You I have lifted my eyes, (to You) dwelling in the heaven!" (Ps 123:1, Greek OT)

(Isaiah said to Israel:) ”Lift your eyes ‘(in) a circle’/round about’ and behold your children having been (and being) led together.” (Is 60:4a, Greek OT)

(Judith said:) “’To the side of’/besides all these things we may be thankful to the Lord, our God, Who tries us according as and/also our fathers.” (Judith 8:25)

Abraham was found faithful in a test. (1 Macc 2:52a)

(Philip) would ‘support ... aside’/’bring ... up’ (the son of the king) to be king. (1 Macc 6:15b)

(Solomon said:) “God tried (the righteous) and found ‘them worthy of Himself’/’that they were Him worthy’.” (Wisdom of Solomon 3:5b)

(Solomon said:) “When (the righteous) were tried … they gained knowledge, how the wicked, being judged in company with wrath, were tormented, for these indeed as a father having proved (to) bring to mind, but those as a severe king having sought (to) ‘administer justice entirely’/give judgment.” (Wisdom of Solomon 11:9-10)

(Solomon said to the Lord:) “You have arranged every thing throughout (with) measure and number and standing-place/balance.” (Wisdom of Solomon 11:20b)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “Child, if you may come to be a slave to the Lord, make your soul ready into/’for the purpose of’ a test.” (Sir 2:1)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “If (you) acquire a friend, acquire him in a test.” (Sir 6:7a; cf. John 15:13-15)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “In the first things (wisdom) will go in company with (the one believing in her) in a ‘turning asunder’/distorted way. She will lead fear and cowardice against him and torment him in her education, till he may not believe (in) her soul, and she will try him in her fundamental laws. (Sir 4:17)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “A furnace proves a vessel of the potter and a test of a man (is) in his ‘counting throughout’/consideration.” (Sir 27:5)


The Latter Revelation:

Having come to/forward the one trying spoke to (Jesus): "If You are a son of God, speak in order that these stones may become breads/bread." (Matt 4:3)

(Jesus) taught (the people in Nazaret) in their synagogue, so that they were overwhelmed and said: “From where (are) this wisdom and the abilities to this One? … From where (did) so this One (get) all these things?” (Matt 13:54b,56b)

Having called * (א,*א) the disciples to Him Jesus spoke: “I do not want to ‘loosen ... from’/dismiss (the men) fasting.” … The disciples say to (Jesus): "From where in a desert (are) so many breads/loaves to us, so that (they can) feed a so much/many-headed crowd?” (Matt 15:32b-33)

The foolish (virgins) spoke to the sensible ones: “Give us out of your olive-oil, because our torches are quenched.” But the sensible answered saying: “They may not at any time ‘not (א,* א, A) be’/be enough for us and you.” (Matt 25:8-9a)

(The man gave to) everyone ‘according to’/after the own ability. … (Matt 25:15b)

(Jesus said to the priest leaders and the elders of the people:) “From where was (continually) the baptism of John, out of heaven or out of men?” … They answered (that they did) not know from where. (Matt 21:25a; Luke 20:7)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "Give (the crowd) you/yourselves to eat!" And they says to Him: "Having gone may we buy breads/bread of/for two hundred denarii and/’so that’ we may (א,*א) give to them to eat?" (Mark 6:37b)

Having lifted against/up His eyes into/towards His disciples Jesus (continually/repeatedly) said ... (Luke 6:20a)

(The apostles) ‘gave asunder’/distributed to everyone in so far as any – according to the circumstances – (continually) had need. (Acts 4:35b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

On the following day (Jesus) wanted to come out into Galilee, and He finds Philip. And Jesus says to him: "Follow Me." (John 1:43)

The threebedleader had tasted the water having become (and becoming) wine, and he did not know from where it is/was – but the servants, the ones having ladled (and ladling) out the water, knew. (John 2:9)

(The woman said to Jesus:) “From where have You the living water?” (John 4:11b)

A much/many-headed crowd (continually) followed (Jesus), because they (continually/repeatedly) beheld (P66, א,* א) the signs which He (continually/repeatedly) made upon/’with regard to’ the weak. (John 6:2)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

The test which God exposes us to remind about positive criticism. They make our weaknesses clear but only aiming to help us to become better. (Niklas Piensoho "En för alla - alla för en" p 156 in comment to 1 Pet 1:6-9; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

So (Björnstjerne) Björnson and I fired up. Scolding and abusive language. . . . Ask him to be quiet now. He has tried me as a friend, as an enemy he would fear me. I does not attack, but I defend myself, and this I do well! (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev IV 1884" p 387,389; letter 1884-12-02 to Jonas Lie; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

What meaneth “to prove him”? … We may discover it from the Old (Testament). For there too it is said: “And it came to pass after these things that God did tempt Abraham.” (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers XIV:151-152)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Gordon Bridger, Amadeus Creutzberg, Ylva Eggehorn, Herbert Johansson, Sven Lidman, Gunnar Lindqvist, Martin Luther, Vilhelm Moberg, Lewi Pethrus, Laurence Rees, Josef Rydén, Margareta Strömstedt.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning Philip in a restoration perspective, see My own comments and speculations to John 1:43-44.

Concerning “Philip”, see also Rev 6:2a (“hippos”).


Paul said to the believers in Corinth: "Try yourselves if you are in the faith! Prove yourselves!” (2 Cor 13:5a)


Greek words:

arkeô (be enough) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) John 6:7 – 2 Macc 5:15; Wisdom of Solomon 14:22; Matt 25:9; Luke 3:14; John 14:8; 2 Cor 12:9; 1 Tim 6:8; Heb 13:5; 3 John v 10.

artos (bread) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Matt 4:3; 15:33; Mark 6:37; John 6:5,7 – Tobit 1:10-11,17; 2:5; 4:16-17(BA); 8:19; Judith 10:5; 1 Macc 4:51; 2 Macc 1:8; 10:3; Wisdom of Solomon 16:20; Sir 10:27; 12:5; 14:10; 15:3; 20:16(17); 23:17; 29:21; 33:25; 34:21(25); 41:19(20); 45:20; Bel and the Dragon v 33; Matt 4:4; 6:11; 7:9; 12:4; 14:17,19; 15:2,26,34,36; 16:5,7-12; 26:26; Mark 2:26; 3:20; 6:8,38,41,52; 7:2,5,27; 8:4-6,14,16-17,19,20(א,*א); 14:22; Luke 4:3-4; 6:4; 7:33; 9:3,13,16; 11:3,5,11(א*.א,A); 14:1,15; 15:17; 22:19; 24:30,35; John 6:9,11,13,23,26,31-35,41,48,50-51,58; 13:18; 21:9,13. Acts 2:42,46; 20:7,11; 27:35; 1 Cor 10:16-17; 11:23,26-28; 2 Cor 9.10; 2 Thess 3:8,12; Heb 9:2.

brachys (short) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) John 6:7 – 2 Macc 5:17; 7:33,36; 13:11; Wisdom of Solomon 16:27; Luke 22:58; Acts 5:34; 27:28; Heb 2:7,9; 13:22.

dênarion (denarius) Mark 6:37; John 6:7 – Matt 18:28; 20:2,9-10,13; 22:19; Mark 12:15; 14:5; Luke 7:41; 10:35; 20:24; John 12:5; Rev 6:6.

diakosioi (two hundred) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Mark 6:37; John 6:7 – 2 Macc 3:11; 12:4; John 21:8; Acts 23:23; 27:37; Rev 11:3; 12:6; 14:20(א*).

(h)ekastos (everyone) (in the Synoptics, John, Acts, 1-3 John, Rev + examples in the Apocrypha) Matt 25:15; John 6:7; Acts 4:35 – Esther 2:11; 3:4; Tobit 1:7; Judith 7:5; 1 Macc 14:12; Sir 16:14; Baruch 2:8; Matt 16:27; 18:35; 26:22; Mark 13:34; Luke 2:3; 4:40; 6:44; 13:15; 16:5; John (7:53); 16:32; 19:23. Acts 2:3,6,8,38; 3:26; 11:29; 17:27; 20:31; 21:19,26; Rev 2:23; 4:8(א,*א); Rev 5:8; 6:11; 20:13; 21:21; 22:2,12.

peirazô (try) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Judith 8:25; Wisdom of Solomon 3:5; 11:9; Sir 4:17; Matt 4:3; John 6:6; 2 Cor 13:5 – Tobit 12:13(14); Judith 8:12,26; 1 Macc 12:10; 2 Macc 11:19; Wisdom of Solomon 1:2; 2:17,24; 19:5; Sir 13:11; 18:23; 34:10; 37:27; 39:4; Matt 4:1; 16:1; 19:3; 22:18,35; Mark 1:13; 8:11; 10:2; 12:15; Luke 4:2; 11:16; John 8:6. Acts 5:9; 9:26; 16:7; 24:6; 1 Cor 7:5; 10:13; Gal 6:1; 1 Thess 3:5; Heb 2:18; 3:9; 4:15; 11:17,37(א,*א); Jas 1:13-14; Rev 2:2,10; 3:10.


Additional studies:

Ps 81:7(8); Matt 14:15-16; 20:29; Mark 3:20; 6:2,34-36; 8:1-4; Luke 9:12-13; John 4:35; 6:68; 1 John 4:1; Rev 2:2; 3:10; 5:6; 7:9,13-14.


David Gibson "Eating is Believing? On Midrash and the Mixing of Metaphors in John 6"; Themelios 27.2 (2002): 5-15.

E.D. Johnson "The Johannine Version of the Feeding of the Five Thousand - An Independent Tradition?"; New Testament Studies 8 (1962): 151-154.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-03-05; 2011-02-01; 2014-01-13; 2014-10-14)

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6:8-13 One out of His disciples, Andrew, Simon Peter's brother, says to Him: “It/there is a very little boy here, who has five breads/loaves of barley and two little titbits. However, these ones, what is it into/for so many?” Jesus spoke: “Make/have the men to ‘fall up’/’lie back’.” But it/there (continually) was much grass in the place. The males so ‘fell up’/’lay back’, the number (was) as/about three (א*) thousand. Jesus so took the breads/loaves and ‘was thankful’/’gave thanks’ and gave (א,* א) to the ones lying up/’down to table’ , likewise and/also out of the little titbits as much as they (continually) wanted.

But/and as they were ‘fulfilled with (the loaves)’/satiated, He says to His disciples: “Lead together the fragments having been over and above, in order that anything may not perish.” And they so led together and filled twelve large baskets of/with fragments out of the five breads/loaves of barley which was/were (א,* א, A) over and above for the ones ‘having eaten down (and eating down)’/’having eaten (and eating)’.

Word for word: 6:8 (12 words in the Greek text) says (to)-him one out-of the disciples his, Andrew the brother (of)-Simon (of)-Peter 6:9 (17 words in the Greek text) is (a)-very-little-boy here who has five breads/loaves of-barley and two little-titbits; however these-(ones) what is-(it) into so-many? 6:10 (22 words in the Greek text) spoke the Jesus: Make the men fall-up. was-(continually) but grass much in the place. fell-up so the males the number as three-thousands. 6:11 (19 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus) took so the breads the Jesus and 'was-thankful'/'gave-thanks' and gave (to)-the-(ones) lying-up likewise and out-of the little-titbits as-many-as (they)-(continually)-wanted. 6:12 (15 words in the Greek text) as but (they)-were-fulfilled-with, (he)-says (to)-the disciples his: lead-together the having-been-over-and-above fragments, in-order-that not anything may-perish. 6:13 (17 words in the Greek text) (they)-led-together so and filled twelve large-baskets (of)-fragments out-of the five breads (of)-the of-barley which was/were-over-and-above (to)-the-(ones) having-eaten-(and-eating)-down.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

The Lord God dispatched out (Adam), out of the ‘place by the side of apprehension’/Paradise of delicacy to work the earth. (Gen 3:23, Greek OT)

(The messenger of the Lord said to Abraham concerning the son Isaac:) “You may not throw/lay your hand against, against the very little boy.” (Gen 22:12a, Greek OT)

Isaac sowed in that year, and he found in that period of time hundredfold barley. (Gen 26:12, Greek OT)

Pharaoh spoke towards Joseph: “Speak to your brothers: ‘Make/do this: Fill/equip your journey and go away to the earth/land of Canaan.’” (Gen 45:17, Greek OT)

(Jacob said: “Judas is) a young animal of a lion …” (Gen 49:9b, Greek OT)

In so far as (the Egyptians) humbled (the descendants of the sons of Israel), so much more they became. (Ex 1:12a, Greek OT)

... The barley was struck. ... Nothing light green was not/- left behind in the woods/trees or in ‘every herb’/’all herbs’ of the plain in every earth/ground of Egypt. (Ex 9:31a; 10:15b, Greek OT)

(Moses said to the sons of Israel:) "This (is) the bread which the Lord has given you to eat. This (is) the word which the Lord has ‘arranged together’/commanded: 'Lead together from (the manna).'" (Ex 16:15b-16a, Greek OT)

The people sat down to eat and drink and stood up to jest/play. ... At the time when (Moses) drew near the (walled) camp ... he was wrathful (with) passion. ... And it/there fell out of the people in that day into/about three thousand males. (Ex 32:6b,19a,28b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Moses/Israel:) “You shall grind asunder the fragments (of the sacrifice of finest wheaten flour). (Lev 2:6, Greek OT)

(Moses said to the Lord:) "Will every titpit of the sea be led together for (the grumbling people), and will it be enough for them?" ... And a spirit came out from the side of the Lord, and it conveyed across a mother of a quail from the sea. ... The pieces of the meat were still in the teeth (of Israel), before it (would) ‘leave out’/disappear, and the Lord was passionate into/’for the purpose of’ the people, and the Lord hit the people (with) an extremely great blow. (Num 11:22b,31a,33, Greek OT)

(Moses said to the officers of the army:) "Kill every/everyone (of Midian) ‘connected with the male’/’of the males of the little ones’." (Num 31:17a, Greek OT)

He was king in Jeshurun, when the heads of the people were gathered, the tribes of Israel together. (Deut 33:5, New American Standard)

(When) the leaders of the peoples together (with) the tribes of Israel (have) been led together, it/there will be a leader in the one being welcomed. (Deut 33:5; Greek OT)

Boaz spoke to his very little boy standing against, against the ones harvesting (the barley): “Whose young woman (is) this (= Ruth)?” (Ruth 2:5, Greek OT)

A male ... carried towards (the man of God = Elisha) firstlings/’bread of the first fruits’, twenty breads/loaves of barley. ... And (the prophet) spoke (to the male): "Give the people and let them eat." And/but his ‘public servant’/servant said: "What/how may he give this in the very eyes of a hundred males?" And/but (the prophet) spoke: "Give the people and let them eat, because this is what the Lord says: ‘They shall eat and leave entirely/behind.’" And they ate and left entirely/behind according to the word of the Lord. (2 Kings 4:42-44, Greek OT)

Gehazi (was) the very little boy of Elisha. (2 Kings 5:20, Greek OT)

The young bulls having been made holy (were) six hundred, (the) sheep three thousand. (2 Chron 29:33, Greek OT)

(David said:) "The Lord is a shepherd to me, and nothing was for me in want. Into a place of young verdure there He pitched a tent to me.” (Ps 23:1-2a, Greek OT)

(David said:) “Taste and behold that the Lord (is) beneficial.” (Ps 34:8a or 34:9a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) ”Hear Me and eat good things, and your soul will revel in good things.” (Is 55:2b Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) "My people will be fulfilled of/with My good things." (Jer 31:14b, Greek OT)

The ones (in Jerusalem) eating delicacies were ‘made unseen’/disfigured in the ‘ways out’/departures. (Lam 4:5a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said about the false prophetesses: “They continually) profaned Me towards My people with respect to a sheaf of barley and with respect to fragments of bread.” (Ezek 13:19a, Greek OT)

(The Lord will say to His people:) ”Behold, I dispatch out to you the bread-stuff and the wine and the olive oil. And you will be fulfilled/satiated with them, and I will ‘not not’/not any longer give you into a reproach in/among the nations.” (Joel 2:19b, Greek OT)

(Tobit said:) ”I (continually) gave My breads/loaves to the ones being hungry.” (Tobit 1:17a)

(Tobit) ‘fell up’/’lay back’ to breakfast. And the table was put by the side of (him), and it was put by the side of (him) more little titbits. (Tobit 2:1b-2a)

(Tobit said to his son:) “Give out of your bread to the ones being hungry.” (Tobit 4:16a)

The very little boy (Tobias) ‘got power over’/seized the (great) fish and carried it up against the earth/land. (Tobit 6:3b or 4b,BA)

(Judith said:) “’To the side of’/besides all these things we may be thankful to the Lord, our God, Who tries us according as and/also our fathers.” (Judith 8:25)

Simon divided into portions/parts three thousand males to go into Galilea. … And out of the nations into/about three thousand males fell. … (1 Macc 5:20a,22b)

(Solomon said to the Lord:) “You have arranged every thing throughout (with) measure and number and standing-place/balance.” (Wisdom of Solomon 11:20b)

(Solomon said to the Lord:) “In stead of (destruction) You gave Your people morsels (with) nourishment of messengers, and You offered them bread from heaven without bother.” (Wisdom of Solomon 16:20a)

(Solomon said:) “Out of the Red Sea (there was) an unimpeded way and out of a violent billow a plain wearing/wore a young verdure. ... (And the Israelites) demanded (with) desire food courses of delicacy.” (Wisdom of Solomon 19:7b,11b)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said: “Wisdom) will give (the one fearing the Lord) a morsel bread of understanding.” (Sir 15:3a)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said: “The Lord) fulfilled (men) with (the) insight of an understanding.” (Sir 17:7a)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “ … Elisha was fulfilled of/with the spirit (of Eliah).“ (Sir 48:12a)

God aroused the holy Spirit of a rather young very little boy ‘in which’/with name Daniel. (Susanna v 45b, Theod)


The Latter Revelation:

(John the Baptist said: "The One who comes behind me) ... will lead together His bread-stuff into the granary." (Matt 3:12a)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "Who is out of you, a man, whom his son will demand a (piece of) bread, he will not 'give on'/hand him a stone, (will he)? Or and/also will demand a fish, he will not 'give on'/hand him a serpent, (will he)?" (Matt 7:9-10)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "Whoever has, to him it will be given, and it will be ‘over and above’/’more than enough’." (Matt 13:12a)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “The kingdom of the heavens is like leaven, which on a woman's having taken (it), she hid (it) in, into three corn-measures (about 13 litres each) of flour, till (the time in) which it was wholly leavened.” (Matt 13:33b, cf. Rev 6:6 where three measures flour are barley)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "The kingdom of the heavens is like a drag-net having been thrown into the sea and led together (fish) out of every descent." (Matt 13:47)

(The disciples) say to (Jesus): “We have here ‘if not’/only five breads/loaves and two fishes/fish.” (Matt 14:17)

They lifted the thing being over and above of the fragments, twelve large baskets filled with (it). (Matt 14:20b)

The disciples say to (Jesus): "From where in a desert (are) so many breads/loaves to us, so that (they can) feed a so much/many-headed crowd?” (Matt 15:33)

(Jesus) took the seven breads/loaves and the fishes/fish and having ‘been thankful’/’given thanks’ He fragmented/’broke (the loaves) to pieces’ and (continually) gave to the disciples, but/and the disciples to the crowds. ... The ones eating (continually) were as if (א,*א) four thousand males, separately/except women and little boys and girls. (Matt 15:36,38)

The boat already was filled (with water). (Mark 4:37b)

(Jesus) 'arranged on'/ordered (the disciples) to ‘lean up’/’lay down’ (א ,*א, B*) all ‘drinking-bouts drinking-bouts’/’by drinking-bouts’ on the light green grass. And they ‘fell up’/’lay back’ ‘garden-beds garden-beds’/’by garden-beds’ ‘according to hundred’/’of hundreds’ and ‘according to fifty’/’of fifties’. And having taken the five breads/loaves and the two fishes/fish (and) having seen/looked up into the heaven He blessed and ‘fragmented down’/’broke off’ the breads/loaves and gave * (א ,*א, B*) to the disciples in order that they might put (it) by the side of them. And He divided the two fishes/fish into portions (with) all. And they all ate and were fed. And they lifted of fragments of twelve large baskets of complements (א,* א) and from the fishes/fish. And the ones having eaten (continually/-) were five thousand males. (Mark 6:39-44)

Having run and filled a sponge (with) sour wine (and) having put it round about a reed, a certain one (continually/repeatedly) gave it to (Jesus) to drink. (Mark 15:36a)

Ones being hungry (God) has fulfilled/satiated of/with good things. (Luke 1:53a)

Amazement had surrounded (Simon Peter) and all the ones (being) together with him on/’for the sake of’ the catch of the fishes/fish, the one (א,* א, A) which they had ‘taken together’/collected. … (Jesus said to Simon Peter:) “From the now (on) you will be catching men alive.” (Luke 5:9,10b)

(Jesus said to the crowds:) “The ones ‘beginning under’/’being the first’ in glorious clothing and delicacy are in the royal palaces.” (Luke 7:25b)

The lord spoke towards the slave: “Come/go out into/to the ways and enclosures and urge (men) to come in, in order that my house may be filled.” (Luke 14:23)

(Judas was) out of the number of the twelve. (Luke 22:3b)

(Peter said to the Jews:) "Let you be saved from this crooked generation." The ones who indeed so having received his saying from (him) were baptized, and in that day ’as if’/about three thousand souls/persons were ‘put to’/added. But/and they (continually) ‘were being patient’/adhered to the teaching of the apostles and the communion, to the fragmenting/breaking of the bread and the prayers. (Acts 2:40b-42)

(Stephen said to his brothers and fathers: “The Israelites) made a young bull ... and led a sacrifice up to the idol and were (continually) cheerful in the works of their hands.” (Acts 7:41)

A hand of a lord (continually) was in company with (the ones bringing the good little message of the Lord Jesus), both/and a much/great number of (the ones) having believed turned themselves next to, against/to the Lord. (Acts 11:21)

(Barnabas and Paul said to the crowds:) “And yet (God) did not let Himself be without witness (in) doing good, giving rains to you from heaven and seasonable fruit-bearing times, fulfilling your hearts with nourishment and cheerfulness.” (Acts 14:17)

(The assemblies) of called out ... ‘were over and above’/grew (in) the number ‘according to a day’/’day by day’. (Acts 16:5)

... Having taken a bread (Paul) ‘was thankful’/’gave thanks’ to God in the very eyes of all and having fragmented/’broken to pieces’ he began to eat. (Acts 27:35)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

Jesus says to (the servants): "Fill the water-pots (of/containing) water." And they filled them till up/’the brim’. (John 2:7)

For in this way God welcomed the adornment/’adorned world’, so that He gave the Son, the only descendant, in order that 'every the'/everyone believing into Him may not perish however/but have agelong life. (John 3:16)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Already the one harvesting takes wage and leads together fruit into/for agelong life.” (John 4:36a)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 - about 1500

In connection with the Easter the first of the barley harvest was brought (Lev 23:10-14; Deut 16:9). (Göran Larsson "Tid för Gud, Judiska och kristna perspektiv på de judiska högtiderna" p 36; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

The manna that God provided the children of Israel did not have a flavor peculiar to itself. It took on the taste of whatever the one dining most hungered for. If you wanted chicken, it tasted like a fine, fat hen. If you wanted dessert, manna could tast like honey or fig jam. Perhaps this “bread of heaven” was the first, best, all-round food. (Michael E. Williams ”Exodus-Joshua” p 70; Exodus Rabbah 25.3)

Certain rabbis say that only those who have eaten manna, that is those who have eaten their fill, can truly study Torah. (Michael E. Williams ”Exodus-Joshua” p 71; Plaut p 504)

Interesting is that the word ”bread” in John 6:1-13 is used five times and “fish” twice. Cf. above note to John 4:18. … The number twelve (in connection with “baskets”) occurs in the first synoptic feeding wonder in contrast to the number seven in the second. Both numbers are understood in Judaism as an expression for completeness. (René Kieffer "Johannesevangeliet" p 147-148, my translation)

"Lovis sent me with bread", Lill-Klippen said. He opened his leather bag getting out five big round loaves. Then Ronja cried again; "Birk, have you seen? Bread! We have got bread!" She seized a loaf holding it up. She drew in the scent, and the tears came in her eyes. "Lovis' bread! I had forgotten that there was something so glorious." And she broke big bits and filled her mouth. . . . Ronja chewed, the taste of bread was felt as a blessedness in her mouth, and it got her to long for Lovis. (Astrid Lindgren "Ronja Rövardotter" p 178-179; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

In the provisions concerning the year of jubilee a particular grace appeared to God's Israel. It was a levelling and an improvement of almost all social conditions. All slaves were set free in the beginning of the year of jubilee, all debts were remitted, and all property, whether sold or pledged, returned to the original owner or its rightful heir. The earth itself enjoyed an uniterrupted rest of one or really two year, untouched of spade, pick and plough. Of this the harvest, it is true, did not come off for all three years, for the forty-ninth year was just the usual sabbatical or holy year, when nothing was allowed to be sown or harvested. The fiftieth year was just the free year or year of jubilee, when nothing either was sown or harvested. No famine was yet to fear. God intervened by letting the earth in the forty-eighth year give such a rich crop, that it was enough even for the following three years. As it expressly is said in the ordinance about the year of jubilee (Leviticus chapter 25). I will order My blessing for you in the the forty-eighth (literally: sixth) year that it will bring forth the crop for three years. When you are sowing the fifty-first (literally: ninth) year, you can still eat old things from the crop. (Karl Palmberg "Ur livskällan. Andra årgången." p 6; comment to Luke 4:16-22; Karl Palmberg /1842-1920/ was from 1883 a Lutheran clergyman in Månsarp in the diocese of Växjö and president in Jönköpings Missionsförening (Missionary Society) 1886-1911; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

The thing was that my grandfather in Minnesota had always described Sweden to me as a paradise. . . . Apples in America tasted like nothing compared with the juicy apples in Småland, strawberries in Sweden tasted much better than our American ones, and the pike in Långasjö were so marvellous that it was a shame to compare them with the fish in Minnesota. I listened to Grandfather's descriptions and as a child thought about them a great deal, and in my mind told myself, "Some day . . . some day . . . I will travel to Sweden . . . I will taste the apples and strawberries in paradise and the good fish that can be caught in Långasjö and which is better than any other fish." . . . I had expected that everything in Sweden would be large and magnificient, in accordance with Grandfather's descriptions. This turned out not to be so. The little red cottages along the road were picturesque but not imposing. The trees were small in comparison with the giant trees I had seen in various places in America, the locomotives were much smaller than our American engines, the same with the streetcars. But everything was clean and proper and there were flower beds around the railway stations. A little railroad station in America in those days looked like a junk heap in comparison with a Swedish one - here thrash lay in piles and there were no flowers. The villages in Sweden were not so different from small communities in America, but everything was cleaner and neater, and there were flowers everythere. As far as the larger cities were concerned, they were also as clean and freshly swept as though they had just been put in order to receive some distinguished guest. (Amandus Johnson "En svenskamerikan besöker sitt fosterland år 1906" p 258-259)

(Emma Wigelstjerna) stuffed everything in her cupboards and drawers during the lapse of the year to be able to spread them out for admiring eyes the 14th of June - and what was not eaten up or filled in pirates and ridicules, it was as carefully as ever the survivals after the feeding of the five thousand males brought together and hidden to her next birthday. (Sven Lidman "Huset med de gamla fröknarna" p 79-80; "pirates and ridicules" were a kind of bags and carriers; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Among the Christians, who on the Appian Way had wandered to meet Paul in order to welcome and console him, was a man being called Martialis. . . . When (Jesus) wonderfully fed a hungering crowd in the desert, it was he who carried the bread basket and the fishes. It was he who served at the table, when Jesu had the last meal with his disciples. He was the youngest, but perhaps the first counted within that circle of disciples which surounded Jesus and the apostles and which was called "the seventy". Martialis had early set his mind on preaching the Christianity in the capital of the world. (Viktor Rydberg "Paulus i Rom" p 25-26; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Close by the city (Jönköping) there was a decayed fortress, perhaps at that time the most impressive ruin within the borders of Sweden. . . . (The boy) went there (in order to read his just bought literary works) and sat down in the (grass). There was a blessed vegetation that early summer (year 1839?). The grass stood high . . . and it shimmered in the vegetation of marigolds and buttercups, harebells, ox-eye daisies and red German catchflies. . . . "Young rascal", a wrathful voice sounded. . . . "Do you not know, that it has become forbidden to go here and trample down my grass, the grass of the county governor? Do you not go to church, you little rascal? Have you not heard the ordinance from the pulpit, damned naughty blackguard? . . . Did you not know that this ground is protected by law to the hay-harvest?" . . . (He) pointed upwards the bastion Gustavus Adolpus. "Up there it is not forbidden to trample down the grass. That place is exempted from the prohibition, and you can have as nice there as here. Go there and read your songs and fairy-tales!" (Viktor Rydberg "Pojkarne" p 122-128; year 1839; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


about 1500 and time before

I do not think that (Andrew) spake without an object, but as having heard of the miracles of the Prophets and how Elisha wrought a sign with the loaves. ... Seest thou how great is the interval between the servants and the Master? They having grace by measure, wrought their miracles accordingly, but God, who acteth with free power, did all most abundantly. (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers XIV:152-153)

Frequent, and sometimes strange, are the Rabbinic advices, what kinds of fish to eat at different times, and in what state of preparation,. ... In truth, these Rabbis are veritable connoisseurs in this delicacy ... they advise when they are in season, discern a peculiar flavour in the same kinds if caught in different waters, and tell us how to prepare them most tastfully. (Alfred Edersheim "The Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah Part I" p 473)

(John uses) a peculiar word for ’fish’, opsarion, which properly means what was eaten along with the bread, and specially refers to the small, and generally dried or pickled fish eaten with bread, like our ’sardines,’ or the ’caviar’ of Russia, the pickled herrings of Holland and Germany, or a peculiar kind of small dried fish, eaten with the bones, in the North of Scotland. (Alfred Edersheim "The Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah Part I" p 682)

There can be little doubt ... that the words which Jesus spake, whether in Aramaean, Greek, or Hebrew, were those so well known: ‘Blessed art Thou, Jehovah our God, King of the world, Who causes to come forth bread from the earth.’ (Alfred Edersheim "The Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah Part I" p 684)

Those ’baskets’ ... made of wicker or willows, were in common use, but considered of the poorest kind (Comp. Sotah ii. 1). (Alfred Edersheim "The Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah Part I" p 684)

The blessing (among the Jews) was spoken over the bread, and this was supposed to cover all the rest of the food that followed, such as the meat, fish or vegetables – in short, all that made up the dinner, but not the dessert. Similarly, the blessing spoken over the wine included all other kinds of drink. Otherwise it would have been necessary to pronounce a separate benediction over each different article eaten or drunk. He who neglected the prescribed benedictions was regarded as if he had eaten of things dedicated to God, since it was written: ‘The earth is the Lord's and the fulness thereof.’ ... So rigid was this, that it was deemed duty to speak a blessing over a drink of water, if one was thirsty (Ber. vi.8). ... Fish was a favorite dish, and never wanting at a Sabbath-meal. ... Locusts – fried in flour or honey, or preserved – required, according to the Talmud, no blessing, since the animal was really among the curses of the land. (Alfred Edersheim "The Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah Part II" p 206,209)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Samuel Josef Agnon, Alf Ahlberg, Eric S. Alexandersson, Ann-Charlotte Alverfors, Sven Bengtsson, UllaBritt Berglund, Per Beskow, Stig Bjällmark, Enid Blyton, Gordon Bridger, Barthold Carlson, Lennart Dahlqvist, Sven Danell, Hjalmar Fernström, Bo Giertz, Carl Grimberg, Berndt Gustafsson, Märtha Hallander, Jan Arvid Hellström, Alf Henrikson, Marianne Herrlin, Erik Holmberg, Homeros, Henrik Ibsen, Barbro Jern, Aina Johansson, Edvard Johansson, K.W. Johansson, Eskil Jonsson, Gunlög Järhult, Aleksis Kivi, Olle Larsson, Gustaf Linder, Martin Luther, Vilhelm Moberg, Axel Mollstadius, Fabian Månsson, Wilhelm Möller, Gösta Nicklasson, Nils Henrik Nilsson, Folke Nordangård, Pansy, Abraham Rundbäck, Göran Sahlberg, Dag Sandahl, Martha Sandwall-Bergström, Enar Skillius, Alexander Solsjenitsyn, C.H. Spurgeon, Rune Storck, August Strindberg, Owe Thörnqvist, Anton Tjechov, Greta Tunlid, Tore Zetterholm, Sigrid Westberg, Gustaf Wikner, Thecla Wrangel, Emile Zola, Göran Åberg.


My own comments and speculations:

In a restoration perspective we see how the barley, the grass, the three thousand males and the males among the little ones of Midian are restored. On the restoration of Andrew, see My own comments and speculations on John 1:40-41a. The male Adam, who was driven away from the Lord out of the garden of “delicacy”, now in the person of Andrew is allowed to come near Jesus and eat titpits.

The Greek word (paidarion) for "very little boy" in John 6:9 is unique for the NT. Probably we have an allusion to the very little boy Isaac, who sowed and found barley (Gen 22:12; 26:12). An allusion is also possible to the very little boy Tobias, who threw a fish against the land (Tobit 6:3 or 6:4).

Sometimes the Greek in John has another word for "fish" than the word we meet in the Synoptics. In John 21:1-15 we find both these words. I mean that this shows that John wants to separate the two words from one another. The word here in John 6 is a diminutive form of “opson”, a word we have in Num 22:11. I choose to translate it by "titbit", which is a quite possible meaning of the word, when it is used of food eaten together with bread. In a restoration perspective we see how the titbits that caused death in the desolate (district) now give a state of being satisfied. Compare also with other allusions to Num 11 in John 6 (Num 11:13 - John 6:5; Num 11:20,33 - John 6:56-57).

Furthermore compare with John 2:6-10, where we see not only the large quantity of Jesus' drink but perhaps above all the high quality. It was a fine wine. Here in John 6 we now have titbits. And if we associate the barley loaves in John with those given to Elisha, we know that these loaves were of the first fruits, that is of highest quality.

According to Jewish number symbolism the number five stands for what is insufficient and incomplete. Together with the number one it stands for what is imperfect, together with the number two for what is complete and divine. In the five breads of barley and the two little titbits we are given a sign revealing who Jesus is. Compare My own comments and speculations to John 4:16-18.

Concerning the wonder as a sign, see My own comments and speculations to John 21:4-7a.


Paul said to the believers in Corinth: "In the night in which (Jesus) (continually) was given ‘to the side of’/over, He took a bread and having ‘been thankful’/’given thanks’ He ‘fragmented (it)’/’broke (it) to pieces." (1 Cor 11:23b-24a)


Greek words:

anakeimai (lie up/lie down to table) John 6:11 – Tobit 9:6; Matt 9:10; 22:10-11; 26:7,20; Mark 6:26; 14:18; Luke 22:27; John 12:2; 13:23,28.

anapiptô (‘fall up’/’lie back’) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Tobit 2:1; Mark 6:40; John 6:10 – Tobit 7:9; Judith 12:16; Sir 25:18; 32:2; Matt 15:35; Mark 8:6; Luke 11:37; 14:10; 17:7; 22:14; John 13:12; 21:20.

arithmos (number) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Luke 22:3; John 6:10; Acts 11:21; 16:5 – Esther 9:11; Tobit 9:3; Judith 2:20; 5:10; 2 Macc 2:24; 8:16; Wisdom of Solomon 4:8; Sir 37:25; 41:13; 42:7; 51:28; The Prayer of Manasseh v 9. Acts 4:4; 5:36; 6:7; Rom 9:27; Rev 5:11; 7:4; 9:16; 13:17-18; 15:2; 20:8.

bibrôskô (consume) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) John 6:13 – Epistle of Jeremiah v 71; Bel and the Dragon v 11(12).

dôdeka (twelve) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Matt 14:20; Mark 6:43; Luke 22:3; John 6:13 – 1 Macc 1:7; Sir 49:10; Matt 9:20; 10:1-2,5; 11:1; 19:28; 20:17; 26:14,20,47,53; Mark 3:14,16; 4:10; 5:25,42; 6:7; 8:19; 9:35; 10:32; 11:11; 14:10,17,20,43; Luke 2:42; 6:13; 8:1,42-43; 9:1,12,17; 18:31; 22:30,47; John 6:67,70-71; 11:9; 20:24. Acts 6:2; 7:8; 19:7; 24:11; 1 Cor 15:5; Jas 1:1; Rev 7:5-8; 12:1; 21:12,14,16,21; 22:2.

empimplêmi (fulfil with) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Sir 17:7; 48:12; Luke 1:53; John 6:12; Acts 14:17 – Sir 16:29; Baruch 3:32; Luke 6:25; Rom 15:24.

eucharisteô (be thankful) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Judith 8:25; Matt 15:36; John 6:11; Acts 27:35 – 2 Macc 1:11; 12:31; Wisdom of Solomon 18:2; Matt 26:27; Mark 8:6; 14:23; Luke 17:16; 18:11; 22:17,19; John 6:23; 11:41. Acts 28:15; Rom 1:8,21; 7:25(א*,A); 14:6; 16:4; 1 Cor 1:4,14; 10:30; 11:24; 14:17-18; 2 Cor 1:11; Eph 1:16; 5:20; Phil 1:3; Col 1:3,12; 3:17; 1 Thess 1:2; 2:13; 5:18; 2 Thess 1:3; 2:13; Philemon v 4; Rev 11:17.

klasma (fragment) (in the NT + one example in the OT) Lev 2:6; Matt 14:20; Mark 6:43; John 6:12-13 – Matt 15:37; Mark 8:8; 19-20; Luke 9:17.

kofinos (large basket) Matt 14:20; Mark 6:43; John 6:13 – Judges 6:19(B); Ps 81:6(7); Matt 16:9; Mark 8:19; Luke 9:17.

krithinos (of barley) (in the NT + examples in the OT) 2 Kings 4:42; John 6:9 – Num 5:15; Judges 7:13; John 6:13.

opsarion (little titbit) Tobit 2:2, John 6:9,11 – John 21:9-10,13.

paidarion (very little boy) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Tobit 6:4(5); John 6:9 – Tobit 6:3; 6:6(7); 1 Macc 2:46; 13:17-18; 16:16, Bel and the Dragon v 14(Theod).

perisseuô (be over and above) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Tobit 4:16; Matt 13:12; 14:20; John 6:12-13; Acts 16:5 – 1 Macc 3:30; Sir 10:27; 19:24; Matt 5:20; 15:37; 25:29; Mark 12:44; Luke 9:17; 12:15; 15:17; 21:4; Rom 3:7; 5:15; 15:13; 1 Cor 8:8; 14:12; 15:58; 2 Cor 1:5; 3:9; 4:15; 8:2,7; 9:8,12; Eph 1:8; Phil 1:9,26; 4:12,18; Col 2:7; 1 Thess 3:12; 4:1,10.

tosoutos (so much/many) (in the NT + one example in the OT) Ex 1:12; Matt 15:33; John 6:9 – Matt 8:10; Luke 7:9; 15:29; John 12:37; 14:9; 21:11. Acts 5:8; 1 Cor 14:10; Gal 3:4; Heb 1:4; 4:7; 7:22; 10:25; 12:1; Rev 18:7,17.

trischilioi (three thousand) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) John 6:10(א*); Acts 2:41 – 1 Macc 4:6,15; 5:20,22; 7:40; 9:5; 10:77; 11:44,74; 12:47; 2 Macc 4:40; 12:33.

(h)ôde (here) (in the NT + one example in the OT) Matt 14:17; John 6:9 – Gen 15:14; Matt 8:29; 12:6,41-42; 14:8,18; 16:28; 17:4,17; 20:6; 22:12; 24:23; 26:38,53(א*); Matt 28:6; Mark 6:3; 8:4; 9:1,5; 11:3; 13:2,21; 14:32,34; 16:6; Luke 4:23; 9:12,33,41; 11:31-32; 14:21; 15:17; 16:25; 17:21,23; 19:27; 21:6(א,*א,B); 23:5; 24:6; John 6:25; 11:21,32; 20:27. Acts 9:14,21; 1 Cor 4:2; Col 4:9; Heb 7:8; 13:14; Jas 2:3; Rev 4:1; 11:12; 13:10,18; 14:12; 17:9.


Additional studies:

Gen 3:23-24; 37:30; 1 Sam 9:13; 2 Kings 4:38,41; 2 Chron 31:10; Jer 31:25; Matt 14:17-21; 15:34-38; 16:9-10; 22:10; Mark 8:5-9,19-20; 14:22; Luke 3:17; 9:13-17; 11:5-6; 13:20-21; John 1:40,47-48; 6:23,39; 10:28; 11:50,52; 17:12; 18:9; 21:9-13; Rev 6:6; 8:5,7; 10:10; 17:3; 19:21.


Peter E. Cousins "The Feeding of the Five Thousand"; The Evangelical Quarterly 39.3 (July-Sept. 1967): 152-154.

David Gibson "Eating is Believing? On Midrash and the Mixing of Metaphors in John 6"; Themelios 27.2 (2002): 5-15.

E.D. Johnson "The Johannine Version of the Feeding of the Five Thousand - An Independent Tradition?"; New Testament Studies 8 (1962): 151-154.

L. Smolar-M. Aberbach "The Golden Calf Episode in Postbiblical Literature"; Hebrew Union College Annual 39 (1968): 91-116.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-03-05; 2011-02-07; 2014-01-21; 2014-10-15)

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6:14-15 Having so beheld the sign He had made/done the men (continually) said that/: “This is truly the prophet coming/’who is to come’ into the adornment/’adorned world’!” So having knowledge that they are about to come and rape Him and show up (א*) a king, Jesus, He (Himself) alone, flees (א*) again into/to the mountain.

Word for word: 6:14 (19 words in the Greek text, the sequence of the words according to Sinaiticus) the so men having-beheld what (he)-made sign (they)-said-(continually) that this-(one) is truly the prophet the-(one) into the adornment coming. 6:15 (19 words in the Greek text) Jesus so having-knowledge that (they)-are-about-to come and rape him and show-up (a)-king, (he)-flees again into the mountain, he-(himself) alone.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The males of Sodom) used extremely violence ‘to the side of’/against the male Lot. ... (One of the messengers, dispatched away by the Lord, said to Lot:) "Save yourself into/to the mountains ... " But Lot spoke towards them: "... Save my soul ... (so that) the bad things may not take me down/up, and I may die. Behold, this city (is) near to flee down to ... it is small/little ... and my soul will live." (Gen 19:9b,17b,18a,20, Greek OT)

(Jacob said:) "An evil little wild animal ... has raped Joseph." (Gen 37:33b, Greek OT)

(The people said to Aaron:) “Stand up and make us gods who will go before us. For Moses, this man, who led us out, out of Egypt, we do not know what has become (and becomes) (with) him.” (Ex 32:1b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Moses about Israel:) "I will cause a prophet to stand up to them out of their brothers just as you, and I will give My word in his mouth, and he shall talk (with) them, in so far as I - according to the circumstances - may enjoin him.” (Deut 18:18, Greek OT)

He was king in Jeshurun, when the heads of the people were gathered, the tribes of Israel together. (Deut 33:5, New American Standard)

(When) the leaders of the peoples together (with) the tribes of Israel (have) been led together, it/there will be a leader in the one being welcomed. (Deut 33:5; Greek OT)

The woods/’kinds of woods’ went to anoint a king to themselves, and they spoke to the olive-tree: “Be king upon/over us!” (Judges 9:8, Greek OT)

(Israel) (continually) did not wish to hear Samuel, and they spoke to him: "By no means, ... it/there shall be a king against/over us, and we shall be, we and/also, ‘according to’/as all the nations, and our king shall administer justice to us and come out in front of us and war/wage our war." (1 Sam 8:19-20, Greek OT)

(David said:) "Lord my God, against You I have hoped. Save me out of all the ones pursuing me and deliver me, (that) they not at any time may as a lion rape my soul." (Ps 7:1-2a or 2-3a, Greek OT)

Behold, the Lord goes out, out of His place. He will descend and step against the heights of the earth. (Micah 1:3, Greek OT)

(The Lord said Jerusalem:) "I shall begin the thing to hit you (and) make you unseen/disfigured on/'for the sake of' your misses (of My mark). ... You shall sow and you may not/certainly not mow, you shall press an olive-tree and you may not/certainly not besmear olive-oil, and you may not/certainly not drink wine!" (Micah 6:13,15a, Greek OT)

Two (of the sons of the king) fled into/to the mountains (of) Ararat and (one of his other sons) was king after him. ... (Tobit 1:21b)

(The priest Mattatias) and his sons fled (from Jerusalem) into/to the mountains. (1 Macc 2:28a)

Judas spoke (with) the males (being) in company with him: ”Do not fear the multitude (of the enemies) and you may not be cowardly (before) their storming. Remember our fathers as they were saved in (the) Red Sea, when Pharaoh pursued them in/with ability/power.” (1 Macc 4:8-9)

The Jews and the priests have been pleased with Simon being their commander and priest leader into the (coming) age till a faithful prophet (will) stand up. (1 Macc 14:41b)

(Antiochus said:) “ … I have shown (and shows) up my son … (as) a king.” (2 Macc 9:25)

(Solomon said:) “A holy spirit of education will flee deceit.” (Wisdom of Solomon 1:5a)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “In/with sayings (of Moses) (the Lord) caused signs to cease entirely, and He glorified him.” (Sir 45:3a)


The Latter Revelation:

(The slanderer showed Jesus) all the kingdoms of the adornment/’adorned world’ and their glory. And he spoke to Him: "All these things I will give You, if – according to the circumstances – on having fallen/’sunk down’ You may prostrate Yourself before me (in honour of me)." Then Jesus says to him: "Withdraw, adversary, for it has been (and is) written: 'You shall prostrate yourself (towards) the Lord your God (in adoration of Him) and Him alone you shall serve.'" (Matt 4:8b-10)

(Jesus said:) "From the days of John the Baptist till just now the kingdom of the heavens suffers violence, and men using violence rape it." (Matt 11:12)

Having ‘loosened from’/dismissed the crowds, (Jesus) ascended into/to the mountain to pray ‘according to’/concerning (the) own (thing). But having become evening, He (continually) was there alone. (Matt 14:23)

The crowds (continually/repeatedly) said: "This is the prophet Jesus, the One (who is) from Nazareth of Galilee." (Matt 21:11)

(Jesus said to Peter, James, John and Andrew:) “Let the ones (being) in the Judea flee into/to the mountains.” (Mark 13:14b)

… The Lord ‘showed up’/appointed and/also (א,* א, A) seventy others. (Luke 10:1a)

A certain one out of the crowd spoke to (Jesus): “Teacher, speak to my brother to divide the inheritance into portions/parts in company with me. But He spoke to him: “Man, who has ‘set down’/set Me a judge or a divider against/over you?” (Luke 12:13-14)

In/with this saying (by a son of Israel) Moses fled. (Acts 7:29a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

The light ‘brings to’/gives light in the gloom, and the gloom did not ‘take... down’/understand it. (John 1:5)

(The priests and the levites asked John the Baptist:) "Are you the prophet?" And he answered: ”Not/no.” (John 1:21b)

(Jesus) Himself had (continually) knowledge of what (continually) was in the man. (John 2:25b)

The woman says to (Jesus): “* (א*) I look at, that You are a prophet.” (John 4:19)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and about 1500

Once Moses had become a part of Pharaoh's household, the rabbis say, the king became quite fond of the young Hebrew, playing games with him and hugging him. Sometimes Moses would take Pharaoh's crown off the kings head and place it on his own. When the magicians of Egypt saw this they told Pharaoh that it was a very bad sign, that it meant Moses would one day rebel and attempt to rule Egypt. (Michael E. Williams ”Exodus-Joshua” p 39; Exodus Rabbah 1.26)

(Moses) was quite literally the man who gave up a kingdom to answer God's summons to be the leader of his people. ... According to Josephus, Moses was so beautiful a child that, when he was being carried down the street in his nurse's arms, people stopped to look at him. ... One day Pharaoh's daughter took him to her father and asked him to make him his successor on the throne of Egypt. Pharaoh agreed. Then, the tale goes on, Pharaoh took his crown and jestingly placed it on the infant Moses' head; but the child snatched it off and threw it on the ground. (William Barclay “The Acts of the Apostles” p 58 commenting Acts 7:17-36)

Now I am sitting in Vaxholm, where I have fled, alone, from the city, steam wagon, bells, telephone and social life. No wonder that I do not directly want to return, all the more as I have taken to flight from other parties. . . . The loneliness cooled nice and I feel that the will has hurt itself in tetanus, that I do not return to Stockholm, at the very least to the home where I have suffered more than can be described. (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev VIII jan 1890-dec 1891" p 16,18; letter 1890-03-21 to Johan Oscar Strindberg and letter 1890-03-23 to Gustaf af Geijerstam)


about 1500 and time before

The name of Joshua (Jesus) was a type. ... He brought in the people into the promised land, as Jesus (does) into heaven. (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers XIV:489)

Moses ... was the first of the prophets. (Justin Martyr, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol I, p 173)

As Moses wrote signs and miracles, so also did Jesus. And there is no doubt but that the likeness of the signs proves Him to be that prophet of whom he said that He should come, ‘like himself.’ (Recognitions of Clement, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol VIII, p 92)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Åke Andrén, Honoré de Balzac, Elisabeth Beskow, Gordon Bridger, Magnus Jacob Crusenstolpe, Stefan Einhorn, Bo Frid, Joel Halldorf, Hjalmar Holmquist, Anders Jarlert, Kurt Johannesson, Lars Levi Laestadius, Li Po, Teodor Lindhagen, Ulf Lundell, Edin Lövås, R.H. Moncrieff, Fredrik Nielsen, Efraim Palmqvist, L.C. Retzius, Göran Sahlberg, Henrik Schartau, Sven Stolpe, Jesper Svartvik, Anton Tjechov, Carl Fr. Wislöff.


My own comments and speculations:

Perhaps we have a double meaning of who is king in Deut 33:5. The people think it is Moses, while it in stead is the Lord Himself.

Concerning "the prophet", see My own comments and speculations to John 1:21b. Concerning Jesus/Joshua as a type of Jesus, cf. My own comments and speculations to John 1:28.


(Jesus) has been thought worthy of more glory ‘to the side of’/’in comparison with’ Moses. ... And Moses was indeed faithful in the whole of (God's) house as an attendant/servant into/’for the purpose of’ a testimony of/to the things which would be talked (in the future). (Heb 3:3a,5)


Greek words:

anadeiknymi (show up) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) 2 Macc 9:25; Luke 10:1, John 6:15 – 2 Macc 2:8; 9:14,23; 10:11; 14:12; Acts 1:24.

(h)arpazô (rape) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Matt 11:12; John 6:15 – Tobit 1:20; Judith 16:9; Wisdom of Solomon 4:11; Baruch 4:26; Matt 13:19; John 10:12,28-29; Acts 8:39; 23:10; 2 Cor 12:2,4; 1 Thess 4:17; Jude v 23; Rev 12:5.

feugô (flee) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Tobit 1:21; 1 Macc 2:28; Wisdom of Solomon 1:5; Mark 13:14; John 6:15; Acts 7:29 – Tobit 1:18; 6:17(18); Judith 5:8; 14:3; 15:2; 1 Macc 1:18,38; 2:44; 3:11,24; 4:5,14,22; 5:9,34,43; 6:4; 7:32,44; 9:10,18,33,40; 10:12,43,49,64,73,82-83; 11:16,55,70,72-73; 15:11,37; 16:8,10; 2 Macc 5:8; 8:24; 11:11-12; Wisdom of Solomon 10:6; 16:15; Sir 21:2; Epistle of Jeremiah v 54; Matt 2:13; 3:7; 8:33; 10:23; 23:33; 24:16; 26:56; Mark 5:14; 14:50,52; 16:8; Luke 3:7; 8:34; 21:21; John 10:5,12. Acts 27:30; 1 Cor 6:18; 10:14; 1 Tim 6:11; 2 Tim 2:22; Heb 11:34; Jas 4:7; Rev 9:6; 12:6; 16:20; 20:11.


Additional studies: Gen 14:10; 27:42-43; 31:21; Deut 18:15; Matt 3:11; 11:3; 14:13; 15:29; Mark 6:31,45-46; Luke 4:5-8; 6:12; 7:16,19; 24:19; John 6:3,39; 7:40; 9:17; 11;27; 12:13; 15:20; 18:36-38; Acts 3:22; 7:37; Rev 11:15,17.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-03-05; 2011-02-10; 2014-01-25; 2014-10-15)

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6:16-21 But as it became evening, His disciples descended against the sea and having stepped in, into a boat, they came/went on/to the other side of the sea into/to Capharnaum. But the gloom took them down (א,*א), and Jesus had not yet come (and did not come) towards them. Both/further the sea (continually) was aroused of/’because of’ (the) great/strong wind (which was) blowing. Being (and having been) so driven as/about twenty-five or thirty stadia, they look at Jesus walking about upon the sea and becoming/coming near the boat. And they feared. But He says to them: “I am. Do not fear.” They (continually) so wanted to take Him into the boat, and straightaway the boat became/drove against (א*) the earth/land into/to which they (continually/repeatedly) withdrew.

Word for word: 6:16 (11 words in the Greek text) As but evening (it)-became descended the disciples his against the sea 6:17 (21 words in the Greek text) and having-stepped-in into (a)-boat (they)-(continually)-came on-the-other-side (of)-the sea into Capharnaum. took-down but them the gloom and not-yet had-come-(and-came) Jesus towards them. 6:18 (7 words in the Greek text) the both sea wind great blowing was-(contiually)-aroused. 6:19 (22 words in the Greek text) driving-(and-having-driven) so as stadia twenty five or thirty (they)-look-at the Jesus walking-about upon the sea and near the boat becoming, and (they)-feared. 6:20 (8 words in the Greek text) 'the-(one)'/he but says (to)-them: i/I (i/I)-am; not fear. 6:21 (18 words in the Greek text, the sequence of the words according to Sinaiticus) (they)-(continually)-wanted so take him into the boat, and straightaway the boat became against the earth into which (they)-(continually)-withdrew.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

After these words a word of the Lord became/came towards Abram in a vision, saying: “Do not fear, Abram!” (Gen 15:1a, Greek OT)

(Lot said to the messengers:) “I will not be able to be saved throughout into/to the mountain, (so that) the bad things may not take me down/up and I may die.” (Gen 19:19b, Greek OT)

The Lord withdrew the sea in/with a violent south wind the whole night, and He made the sea dried out, and the water was split/divided. And the sons of Israel came into, into a middle of the sea ‘according to’/over the dried out thing. (Ex 14:21b-22a, Greek OT)

(Elijah) finds Elisah ... in/with cattles/oxen – twelve pairs of cattles/oxen in the very eyes of him ... and (Eliah) came, came against him and tossed his sheep's skin against, against him. And (Elisah) left the oxen entirely. (1 Kings 19:19b-20a, Greek OT)

(God) walking/walks about against grounds, upon sea. (Job 9:8b, Greek OT)

(David said: ”The) voice of the Lord (was) upon the waters; the God of the glory thundered, the Lord upon many waters.” (Ps 29:3, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said: “God,) Your way (was) in the sea, Your paths in many waters, and of Your footsteps (they) will not have knowledge.” (Ps 77:19 alt 77:20, Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) “Woe the multitude of many nations! As a sea swelling in waves in this way they will be troubled ... Many nations (are) as much water.” (Is 17:12a,13a, Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) “The water of the sea will be troubled (when the Lord entirely ruins the inhabited world).” (Is 24:14b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to His people:) “Do not fear, because I have redeemed you. I have called you (by) your name, you are Mine. And if you – according to the circumstances – may step across, through the water, I am in company with you.” (Is 43:1b-2a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said the prophet: “Speak to Pharaoh:) ‘You troubled the waters with your feet. … ’” (Ezek 32:2b)

(The Lord said:) ”A foot of a man may not/certainly not trouble (the waters) any longer (when Egypt is crushed). …” (Ezek 32:13b, Greek OT)

The length (with) the branches of (the tree which was the proud king of Babylon was) as/about thirty stadia. (Dan 4:9a or 4:12a, Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) “Upon my sleeping-place (in the sleep by night) I (continually) looked at, and behold, the four winds of the heaven fell in/upon into/against the great sea.” (Dan 7:2b, Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) “I heard the one being (and having been) wrapped up in the things of fine linen, who (continually) was above the water of the river.” (Dan 12:7a, Greek OT)

The Lord aroused a wind into the sea and it/there became a great billow in/on the sea, and the boat was in danger to be crushed. ... And (the ‘men of a ship’/seamen) took Jonah and threw him out into the sea. And the sea ‘stood out of’/stopped its surge/raging. (Jonah 1:4,15, Greek OT)

But as it became evening the slaves made haste to ‘loosen up’/’set out’. … Judith was alone left behind. (Judith 13:1a,2a)

Having stepped in, into a boat Tryphon fled into Orthosia (Greek: Orthôsia). (1 Macc 15:37; cf. Orthôsia with “orthos” = “upright, straight” and with “eutheôs” = “straightaway” in John 6:21)

From/’owing to’ his overweening (pride) (Antiochus) indeed supposed he (could) go by sea (against/over) the earth and go on the pelago/’open sea’. … (2 Macc 5:21b)

Just now (Antiochus thought he could) 'arrange on'/order the waves of the sea. (2 Macc 9:8a)

(Solomon said: “The wisdom) is easy to be ‘looked at’/perceived by the ones welcoming her and (easy) to be find by the ones seeking her.” (Wisdom of Solomon 6:12b)

(Wisdom brought the pious people) through (the) Red Sea and led them through, through many waters, but she inundated their enemies, and out of (the) depth of (the) abyss she let them be brought to the boil. (Wisdom of Solomon 10:18-19)

(Solomon said to the Lord:) “You have arranged every thing throughout (with) measure and number and standing-place/balance.” (Wisdom of Solomon 11:20b)

(Solomon said to the Lord:) “An artist, Wisdom, prepared (the boat) entirely, but Your ‘understanding beforehand’/foresight, Father, steers (it), because You and/also has given a way in (the) sea and in waves a secure path, showing that You are able to save out of every/all. … Because of this … (men) having come through billows (on) a raft were saved throughout.” (Wisdom of Solomon 14:2b-4a,5b)

(This) certainly unable night and out of the nooks of an unable Hades … the omens/monsters were driven of/by phantoms … and (men were surprised by) an unexpected fear. (Wisdom of Solomon 17:13-14 or 17:14-15)

(Solomon said:) “Out of the Red Sea (there was) an unimpeded way and out of a violent billow a plain wearing/wore a young verdure.” (Wisdom of Solomon 19:7b)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “’It is’/’there are’ winds, which be/’having been’ created into/’for the purpose of’ a procuration of justice.” (Sir 39:28a)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “Put/lay your neck under, underneath a yoke (of wisdom), and let your soul receive education/teaching in addition. It is near to find her.” (Sir 51:26)

(Manasseh said to the Lord: “You) having/had fettered the sea with (the) saying of Your command.” (The Prayer of Manasseh v 3a)


The Latter Revelation:

Having become evening (they) carried to (Jesus) many being demon-possessed, and He threw out the spirits (with) a saying. (Matt 8:16a)

Having beheld crowds (א*) around Him He exhorted to go away ‘into on’/to the other side. (Matt 8:18)

(Jesus said to the scribes and the Pharisees:) “When – according to the circumstances – the unclean spirit may come out from the man, it 'comes through'/passes through waterless places, seeking rest, and does not find. Then it says: ‘I will turn myself next to, into my house, from which I came out.’ And having come it finds (it) being at leisure and (א,*א) being (and having been) swept and being (and having been) adorned. Then it goes and takes in company with itself by its side seven other spirits more evil than itself. And (on) their having come in it dwells there. And the last things of that man become worse than the first things." (Matt 12:43-45a)

(Jesus) urged the disciples to step in, into the boat and lead/go before him 'into on'/to the other side till (the time in) which He might have ‘loosened ... from’/dismissed the crowds. … But having become evening, He (continually) was there (on the mountain) alone. But the boat (with the disciples) already (continually) was (in) a middle of the sea (א,* א), being tormented by the waves, for the wind (continually) was opposite. But (in) the fourth watch of the night (Jesus) came towards (His disciples) walking about against the sea. But * (א*) having beheld Him walking about upon the sea they were troubled saying that/: “It is a phantom!” And they shouted from/’owing to’ the fear. But straight/’straight off’ He talked (with) them saying: ”Be confident. I am. Do not fear.” (Matt 14:22b,23b-27)

Having straightaway stretched out the hand Jesus took upon/’hold of’ (Peter). (Matt 14:31a)

(The priest leaders) ‘caused ... to stand’/’put aside’ thirty silvermetals/’pieces of silver’ to (Judas). (Matt 26:15b)

Having been aroused (Jesus) ‘honoured on’/blamed the wind and spoke to the sea: “Be quiet, be gagged (and remain gagged)!” And the wind ‘grew weary’/slackened and it became a great calm. (Mark 4:39)

And having become evening the boat (continually) was in a middle of the sea, and (Jesus) Himself (was) alone upon the earth/land. And having beheld (His disciples) being tormented in the driving, for it/there (continually) was a wind opposite them, around the fourth watch of the night He comes towards them walking about upon the sea, and He (continually) wanted to come to the side of them. But having beheld Him upon the sea walking about they thought that/: “It is a phantom!”, and they shouted up/out, for all beheld Him, and they were troubled. But straight/’straight off’ (Jesus) talked in company with them, and He says to them: “Be confident! I am, do not fear!” And He ascended towards them into the boat, and the wind ‘grew weary’/slackened. (Mark 6:47-51a)

(One out of the crowd said to Jesus:) “Whereat/where * (א*) (the spirit) may take down/up (my son), he breaks ‘in pieces’/down * (א,* א) and foams.” (Mark 9:18a)

(In/during) many times/’(spaces of) time’ (an unclean spirit) had raped (and raped) (a certain man) together with (it). ... He had (continually/repeatedly) been driven by the little demon into the desolate (places). (Luke 8:29b)

(The Lord said:) "This (woman), being a daughter of Abraham, whom the adversary had bound (for), behold, eighteen (12+6) years, had she not to be loosened from this band (on) the sabbath day?" (Luke 13:16)

Having feared (א,* א) and becoming frightened (the eleven and the other disciples) (continually) thought ‘to look’/’that they looked’ at a spirit. (Luke 24:37)

As (Paul) had beheld the vision, we straightaway sought to come out into Macedonia, concluding that/: "God has called (and calls) us to bring a good little message to them." (Acts 16:10)

Having come before/forth against/to the boat we were led up against Assos being about to from there take up Paul. For having arranged (and arranging) (it) throughout in this way he himself was being about to go on foot. (Acts 20:13)

(Paul said to the people on the boat:) “This night ... a messenger of God (said to me): ‘Do not fear!’” (Acts 27:23-24a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven: The light ‘brings to’/gives light in the gloom, and the gloom has not taken it down/up. (John 1:5)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

One has wanted to explain away that Jesus walked on the water by pointing to a misunderstanding of the preposition translated by “on”, v 19. … However this rationalistic way to explain away is unsatisfying. The whole Jesus tradition supposes that Jesus is lord over nature and then it is not more sensational if he walks on the water than if he quiets the storm. (René Kieffer "Johannesevangeliet" p 165, translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Now everyone must fight for himself, fight for the life against the unmerciful streams which with all power wanted to have them from the Glupa falls. They could see the calmwater inside at the shore. Near but still too far away. The Glupa falls will win at last, Ronja thought. She had not the strength more. Now she wanted to give up, let herself be led where the streams brought her and disappear in the Glupa falls. But in front of her she had Birk. He turned his head and looked at her. Time and again he turned round to her, and then she tried again. Tried and tried. Till she could not more. Butt then she was inside in calmwater, and Birk drew her with him towards the shore. . . . Not until the sun was setting they came home to the Bearcave. And there, on the flat rock outside, Lovis sat waiting. (Astrid Lindgren "Ronja Rövardotter" p 190; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

There are OT passages, particularly among those dealing with the Exodus ... numerous enough to make it plausible that (John) meant the miracle to reflect the general symbolism of the crossing of the sea at the time of the Exodus and the prerogative of Yahweh to make a path on or in the waters. (Raymond E. Brown "The Gospel according to John" p 255-256)

So wild they were, all the waves in Dead Lake!" Never I have seen wilder waves. They threw themselves over us, tore in us, pulled in us and slung us further towards new raging waves. It was no good use trying to row. We held in the oars, both Jum-Jum and I. We held in them as hard as we could. . . . (Our boat) was fragile and little just as we. "Now we have no oarrs", Jum-Jum said. "And soon we have no boat. When the waves sling it against the rocks of (the evil) knight Kato, it gets broken" . . . We would die at the feet of knight Kato, this was what the waves wanted. . . . The waves were wilder and wilder. . . . But then something strange happened. Just when we thought, that we would die, the waves lay down and became calm. Absolutely calm they became. (Astrid Lindgren "Mio, min Mio" p 134-135; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

"What are we going to do today, Pippi", Annika asked. . . . "Well, play croquet perhaps", Pippi said. . . . "Or also we could scamper down to the river training to walk on the water." "One is not able to walk on the water, is one?" Tommy said. "Yes, it is by no means an impossibility", Pippi said. "In Cuba I once met a cabinet-maker who . . . " The horse began galopping, and the little children, crowding around him, could not hear the continuation. (Astrid Lindgren "Pippi Långstrump går ombord" p 151; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask; BG Ask-comment: The Swedish word for "cabinet-maker" here is "finsnickare", in English "fine carpenter". Perhaps we here have an allusion to Jesus as the carpenter. Cf. Mark 6:3.)

Jesus repeated the same words with which the angel had addressed (the women): Be not afraid. Dread for God and the eternal thing is resident with us for the sake of sin. "Do not fear" is a heavenly voice down in the dark home of sin and distress. It has in the Bible often been pronounced to trembling hearts. So it was said ... to the disciples, when Jesus came to them, walking on the sea: "Be not afraid, I am." ... So to John on the island Patmos: "Do not fear, I am the first and the last." So at last to the angel of the congregation in Smyrna: "Do not fear for what you will suffer." It belongs to the tender care of our heavenly father for his own ones not only to protect them from all dangers, but also deliver them from fear of such threatening ones. (Karl Palmberg "Ur livskällan. Andra årgången." p 228-229; comment to Matt 28:9-15; Karl Palmberg /1842-1920/ was from 1883 a Lutheran clergyman in Månsarp in the diocese of Växjö and president in Jönköpings Missionsförening (Missionary Society) 1886-1911; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

The sun has not shone for three long weeks in the little cottage Gersau at the Lake of Lucerne, not shone since in the beginning of October. . . . After sunset it became absolutely calm, and I was sleeping half the night till I was roused by the ringing of the church clock and a noise which could be dissolved in: the own soughing of the storm when it threw itself over the Alps on the south shore of the lake, was compressed in the kettle of the lake, pushed into the alleys, wrenched in signboards, shook window-shutters and roofing tiles, whirled in tree-tops and bush tufts. The waves of the lake thudded against the harbour strongholds, hissed over the schooners and plashed against the boats. . . . After three hour's noise the danger is over, and the following morning the chronicle of the village reports that a block of stone in Schwyz had passed rushing in the middle of a farm-house and taken away the right wing without dangerous consequence for the ones living in the left wing. (August Strindberg "Upp till Solen" p 334)

A beautiful summer day early in the morning of June 12, 1867, a large crowd was gathered at the railway station in Forserum, a village in central Sweden. The occasion was that Daniel Heard and family were going to America for the second time and with him a group of about one hundred young men and women, all with few exceptions from fifteen to thirty years of age. . . . Soon we arrived in Jönköping where additional travelers joined us. . . . On the fourteenth we went aboard the steamer "Hero" which would take us from Gothenburg to Hull, England. . . . The next morning we were in the North Sea. There was a cold wind and high waves; with few exceptions all were seasick. From all quarters one heard groans, "I am so sick I believe I shall die! . . . Would that I had stayed at home instead of dying in this misery," and other similar expressions. As stated, the waves were running high, but the Hero was a good little steamer and made progress in spite of the waves. . . . The "City of Baltimore" was gliding out of Liverpool harbor on the afternoon of June 20 with about one thousand passengers and a crew of one hundred twenty-five. . . . The weather was beautiful, the sea was calm and the City of Baltimore made good headway. . . . Saturday, June 29, . . . we arrived in (New York). . . . Saturday, July 6, we all boarded the steamer bound for Galveston. . . . A severe storm came to meet us and the waves struck our boat with terrific force. There was a creaking and a crashing, the mast and the entire ship trembled, and a cry came from the engine room that the ship had sprung a leak. In a rush the pumping equipment was put in motion, but it consisted only of an old wooden pump operated by hand, heavy labor which required many hands and which continued without the slightest interruption for two days and two nights. Fortunately there were many strong men on board so that we could change places, otherwise all would have gone to the bottom. The old pump spurted a stream of water continuously four inches in diameter, requiring three men at the pump handle. . . . With the prospect that at any moment we might go to the bottom we arrived at a harbor in North Carolina. If I recall correctly it was named Smithville. Here the damage to the ship was repaired after two days. . . . Our next stop was Key West where we arrived on July 18. . . . We left Galveston and steered into Buffalo Bayou shortly before sunset. It was a beautiful moonlit night. . . . I shall never forget how glorious it felt to put the feet on solid ground again. It was also the first time on Texas soil. . . . At four in the morning we were in Houston. . . . Finally at eleven o'clock on July 31 our party came to a halt at John Palm's house in Brushy, the present Palm Valley. We had reached our destination and many of the Swedes who lived in the neighborhood came to extend a welcome. (Johannes Swenson "A journey from Sweden to Texas 90 Years Ago" p 121-126)

(Löven) is an magnificent and glorious lake. Many are the ships and log rafts travelling there, late it have time to go to winter rest, seldom before Christmas. Often it is also in low spirits, it can foam white of wrath and throw over sailing-boats, but it can also lie in a dreaming calm and reflect the sky. . . . The plain complains of having little room and bad view. "What a fool you are", the mountains answer, "you would only feel how it is blowing down here at the lake." No doubt it happens in some places, that the mountains must move themselves to the side letting the plain come along looking at the lake. But when it sees the lake in its wrath, when it spits like a wildcat . . . then it soon admits that the mountains are right and withdraws to its cramped prison again. (Selma Lagerlöf "Gösta Berlings saga" p 25-27; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

If we have received Christ Jesus the Lord, though the night be dark and the wind high, yet we may comfort ourselves, we shall be at the shore before long. (Matthew Henry "Concise Commentary on the Whole Bible" p 782)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: H.C. Andersen, Werner Aspenström, J. Bellet, David Bellingham, Elisabeth Beskow, Marcus Birro, Torsten Bohlin, Gordon Bridger, Barthold Carlson, Elizabeth Charles, Magnus Jacob Crusenstolpe, Wiilliam Dalrymple, Sven Danell, Henry Daniel-Rops, Alexander Daumont, Sven Ekman, Albert Engström, Stefan Einhorn, Rolf Fredriksson, Bo Frid, Erik Gustaf Geijer, Carl Grimberg, Agne Hamrin, Olov Hartman, Verner von Heidenstam, Anna Hellström, Betty Janson, Erik Axel Karlfeldt, Rudyard Kipling, Lars Levi Laestadius, C.S. Lewis, Sven Lidman, Kristina Lugn, C.F. Lundström, Martin Luther, Bertil Malmberg, Vilhelm Moberg, James Morris, Wilhelm Möller, Elvy Nilbratt, Torsten Nilsson, Fritjof Nilsson Piraten, Nils Nordström, J. Nyrén, Efraim Palmqvist, A.M. Posse, Viktor Rydberg, Gunnar E. Sandgren, Bo Setterlind, E. Aug. Skogsbergh, Milton Steinberg, John Stott, A.M. Strinnholm, Margareta Strömstedt, Jesper Svartvik, Tomas Tranströmer, Jules Verne, Gustaf Wikner, Per Wirtén, Fredrik Wislöff, Thecla Wrangel, Xenofon, Anna Ölander.


My own comments and speculations:

The Midrash Exodus Rabbah says that although the Red Sea first divided, when the water reached the people of God up to their nose, they showed great faith and were in good spirits, when they went through a middle of the sea. In John the gloom had taken down the disciples, and they feared. In a restoration perspective the courageous Israel, which was saved through the Red Sea, now must be humilated. Then it was a courageous people who was saved. Now the disciples feared. But also these were saved!

In a restoration perspective we can also compare the young verdure of the plain once following the violent billow (Wisdom of Solomon 19:7) with the aroused sea following the much grass of the ground.

That the gloom had taken down the disciples can be compared to John 1:5, where it is said that the gloom did not take down the light. The same word in Greek “katalambanô” is used for "take down" in the two texts; in John 6:17 we have this word in the Sinaiticus version. The fight between light and gloom in John 1:5 is in these verses represented by the two numbers 25 and 30. The number 25 represents the people of God in the OT and the NT (12 + 12; an alternative possibility is to see the 24 as the 24 prophets – incl. John the Baptist – of the old covenant) + the Lord of this people, that is Jesus (cf. My own comments and speculations to Rev 1:6b, 4:4a and 22:20-21), while the number 30 (24 + the imperfect number 6) represents the gloom powers (cf. Dan 4:9 or 4:12; Matt 26:15). The kingdom of Jesus is nearer the disciples than what the kingdom of this world is. Cf. also Luke 13 16 (the number 18 = 12 + the imperfect number 6) and My own comments and speculations to John 5:5-9a.

We can also see the number in the light of the 30 woe-cries in the Synoptics (see Matt 11:21; 18:7; 23:13,15-16,23,25,27,29; 24:19; 26:24; Mark 13:17; 14:21; Luke 6:24-26; 10:13; 11:42-44,46-47,52; 17:1; 21:23; 22:22). Here we can compare with the 28 “happy-words” in the Synoptics. In the Gospel of John we have two “happy-words” (John 13:17; 20:29). It is more than possible to see these two words as a completion to get the sum 30. Cf. Sir 33:14-15 and 42:24.

Furthermore we can compare with the age for the entrance of the office for the Levites, being fixed first in Num 4:3 at thirty and then in Num 8:24-25 at twenty-five years of age (cf. Edersheim “The Temple” p 95). Cf. the possible allusion to the Levites in John 21:11.

Concerning the wonder as a sign, see My own comments and speculations to John 21:4-7a.


Paul said to the believers in Corinth: "I do not want your/you to be ‘not to have’/without knowledge, brothers, that all our fathers (continually) were underneath the cloud, and all came through, through the sea." (1 Cor 10:1)

The perfect welcome throws the fear outside, because the fear has a chastisement, but the one fearing is not (and has not been) made perfect in the welcome. (1 John 4:18)


Greek words:

anemos (wind) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Matt 14:24; Mark 4:39; 6:48,51; John 6:18 – Wisdom of Solomon 4:4; 5:14; Sir 5:9; 22:18; 34:2; Matt 7:25; 8:26-27; 11:7; 14:30,32; 24:31; Mark 4:37,41; 13:27; Luke 7:24; 8:23-25; Acts 27:4,7,14-15; Eph 4:14; Jas 3:4; Jude v 12; Rev 6:13; 7:1.

diegeirô (arouse) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Mark 4:39; John 6:18 – Esther 1:1l(A11); Judith 1:4; 2 Macc 7:21; 15:10; Luke 8:24; 2 Pet 1:13; 3:1.

eikosi (twenty) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) John 6:19 – Tobit 5:3; 2 Macc 10:35; 13:2; Luke 14:31; Acts 1:15; 27:28; 1 Cor 10:8; Rev 4:4,10; 5:8; 11:16; 19:4.

elaunô (drive) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Wisdom of Solomon 17:14(15); Mark 6:48; Luke 8:29; John 6:19 – 2 Macc 9:4; Sir 38:25; Jas 3:4; 2 Pet 2:17.

embainô (step in) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) 1 Macc 15:37; Matt 14:22; John 6:17 – 2 Macc 12:3; Matt 8:23; 9:1; 13:2; 15:39; Mark 4:1; 5:18; 6:45; 8:10,13; Luke 5:3; 8:22,37; John 21:3.

eutheôs (straightaway) (in the NT + one example in the Apocrypha) Matt 14:31; John 6:21; Acts 16:10 – 2 Macc 6:28; Matt 4:20,22; 8:3; 13:5; 20:34; 21:2; 24:29; 25:15(16); 26:49,74; 27:48; Luke 5:13; 12:36,54; 14:5; 17:7; 21:9; John 18.27. Acts 9:18,20,34; 12:10; 17:10,14; 21:30; 22:29; Gal 1:16; Jas 1:24; 3 John v 14; Rev 4:2.

opsia (evening) Judith 13:1; Matt 14:23; Mark 6:47; John 6:16 – Matt 8:16; 14:15; 20:8; 26:20; 27:57; Mark 1:32; 4:35; 14:17; 15:42; John 20:19.

ploion (boat) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) 1 Macc 15:37; Matt 14:22; Mark 6:51; John 6:17,19,21; Acts 20:13 – 1 Macc 8:26,28; 11:1; 13:29; 15:3,14; Wisdom of Solomon 14:1; Sir 33:2; Matt 4:21-22; 8:23-24; 9:1; 13:2; 14:13,32-33; 15:39; Mark 1:19-20; 4:1,36-37; 5:2,18,21; 6:32,45,47,51,54; 8:10,14; Luke 5:2-3,7,11; 8:22,37; John 6:22-23,24(א*); John 21:3,6. Acts 20:38; 21:2-3,6; 27:2,6,10,15,17,19,22,30-31,37-39,44; 28:11; Jas 3:4; Rev 8:9; 18:19.

stadion (stadium) Dan 4:9(12); John 6:19 – 2 Macc 11:5; 12:9-10,16-17,29; Susanna v 37; Luke 24:13; John 11:18; 1 Cor 9:24; Rev 14:20; 21:16.

fobeomai (fear) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Matt 14:27; Mark 6:50; John 6:19-20; Acts 27:24; 1 John 4:18 – Esther 1:1h(A8); 2:20; 9:2; Tobit 1:19; 2:8; 4:21; 6:15(BA),18; 12:16-17; 14:6; Judith 1:11; 2:28; 4:2; 5:23; 8:8; 10:16; 11:1; 16:11,15-16; 1 Macc 2:62; 3:22; 4:8; 8:12; 9:6; 10:8,76; 12:28,52; 2 Macc 7:29; Wisdom of Solomon 8:15; 18:25; Sir 1:13-14,16,20; 2:7-9,15-17; 6:16-17; 7:31; 10:19-20,24; 15:1,13,19; 21:6; 25:10; 26:3,23,25; 32:14,16; 33:1; 34:13-15(14-17); Epistle of Jeremiah v 14,22,28,64,68; Susanna v 2(Theod),57; The Prayer of Azariah v 18; Matt 1:20; 2:22; 9:8; 10:26,28,31; 14:5,30; 17:6-7; 21:26,46; 25:25; 27:54; 28:5,10; Mark 4:41; 5:15,33,36; 6:20; 9:32; 10:32; 11:18,32; 12:12; 16:8; Luke 1:13,30,50; 2:9-10; 5:10; 8:25,35,50; 9:34,45; 12:4-5,7,32; 18:2,4; 19:21; 20:19; 22:2; 23:40; 24:37(א,*א); John 9:22; 12:15; 19:8. Acts 5:26; 9:26; 10:2,22,35; 13:16,26; 16:38; 18:9; 22:29; 23:10; 27:17,29; Rom 11:20; 13:3-4; 2 Cor 11:3; 12:20; Gal 2:12; 4:11; Eph 5:33; Col 3:22; Heb 4:1; 11:23,27, 13:26, 1 Pet 2:17; 3:6,14; Rev 2:10; 11:18; 14:7; 15.4; 19:5.


Additional studies:

Gen 21:17; Joshua 8:1; 10:8; 11:6; Judges 6:23; 2 Chron 20:15-17; Ps 107:23-30; Is 7:4; 10:24; 37:6; 41:10,13-14; 43:5; 44:2,8; 51:7; 54:4; Jer 1:8; 10:5; 30:10; 42:11; 46:27-28; 51:46; Lam 3:57; Ezek 2:6; Dan 10:12,19; Joel 2:21-22; Haggai 2:5(6); Zech 8:13-15; Matt 8:23-28; 10:26-31; 14:25-34; Mark 4:36-41; 6:50,53; Luke 1:12; 8:22-25; 11:24-26; John 6:24,59; 8:12; 11:30; 12:35,46; Rev 5:13; 6:13; 7:1; 10:1,5; 15:2; 18:17; 21:1.


A. Bentzen: "Övergången över havet"; Svensk Exegetisk Årsbok 2 (1937): 93-106.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-03-06; 2011-02-17; 2014-01-30; 2014-10-15)

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6:22-24 On the following day the crowd, standing (and having stood) on the other side of the sea, beheld that another little boat was not (continually/-) there ‘if not’/except one, that one into which Jesus' disciples had stepped in (א*), and that Jesus had not come into, into the boat together with His disciples, however/but His disciples had alone gone away. (On) the boats' - out/’on the basis’ of Tiberias – so having come upon/near (א,*א), near the place whereat/where they had eaten the bread (which) the Lord having/had ‘been thankful’/’given thanks’ and having beheld that Jesus (continually) was not there (א*), nor His disciples, they ascended into the boat (א*) and came into Capharnaum seeking Jesus.

Word for word: 6:22 (45 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus prima manus) (On)-the following-day the crowd the-(one) standing-(and-having-stood) on-the-other-side (of)-the (of)-sea beheld that (a)-little-boat another not (continually)-was there 'if not'/except one, that-(one) into which (had)-stepped-in the disciples (of)-the (of)-Jesus and that not come-into-together (with)-the disciples his the Jesus into the boat however alone the disciples his (had)-gone-away. 6:23 (16 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus) having-come-upon/near so the boats out-of Tiberias near the place whereat (they)-ate the bread having-been-thankful (of)-the (of)-lord. 6:24 (23 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus prima manus) and having-beheld that not (they)-(continually)-were there the Jesus nor the disciples his, (they)-ascended into the boat and came into Capharnaum seeking the Jesus.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

The Egyptians fled underneath the water (of the sea), and the Lord shook out/off the Egyptians (to the) middle of the sea. And the water turned back against (them) and veiled/covered the wagons and the riders and every ability/power of Pharaoh having gone (and going) into the sea after (the people of Israel), and it was not ‘entirely left’/spared out of them, nor/’not even’ one. (Ex 14:27b-28, Greek OT)


The Latter Revelation:

Simon and the ones (being) in company with him ‘pursued ... entirely’/hunted Him, and they found Him and say to Him that/: "All seek You." (Mark 1:36-37)

(Jesus) spoke to His disciples, in order that a little boat might ‘be patient to’/adhere to Him because of the crowd, in order that they might not oppress/crowd Him. (Mark 3:9)

(The disciples) took (Jesus) to the side of, as/because He (continually) was in the boat. And other boats were (continually) in company with Him. (Mark 4:36b)

(Jesus said to His disciples: “There will be) upon the earth anguish of/among (the) nations, and (א,* א) in/during puzzle sounds of sea and surge, on men's stopping breath from/’owing to’ fear and expectation of the things coming upon the (inhabited) world. (Luke 21:25b-26a)


My own comments and speculations:

While the pursuers in Egypt were overthrown in a middle of the sea, the "pursuers" of Jesus are going over the sea without any problems. By this and by the later invitation to receive agelong life we can in a restoration perspective see the drowned Egyptians as restored.


Greek words:

eperchomai (come upon-on-against) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Luke 21:26; John 6:23(א,* א) – Judith 9:5; 1 Macc 8:4; 2 Macc 1:7; 9:18; Wisdom of Solomon 12:27; 19:13; Baruch 4:9; Epistle of Jeremiah v 48; Luke 1:35; 11:22; Acts 1:8; 8:24; 13:40; 14:19; Eph 2:7; Jas 5:1.

ploiarion (little boat) Mark 3:9; John 6:22 – John 21:8.

syneiserchomai (come into together) (in the NT + one example in the Apocrypha) John 6:22 – Esther 2:13; 1 Macc 12:48; Sir 39:2; John 18:15.


Additional studies:

John 6:1-21; Rev 8:9.


Mark Kiley "The Geography of Famine: John 6:22-25"; Révue Biblique 102 (1995): 226-230.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-03-06; 2011-02-18; 2014-01-30)

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6:25-29 And having found Him on the other side of the sea they spoke to Him: “Rabbi, when did You come (א,* א) here?” Jesus answered them and spoke: “Amen, amen, I say to you: ‘You do not seek Me, because you beheld signs, however/but because you ate out of the breads/loaves and were fed. ‘Do not work (for) the consumption perishing, however/but (for) * (א,* א) (the consumption) staying into/for an agelong life, which the Son of the Man gives (א,*א) to you, for this One the Father, God, has sealed.’” They so spoke towards Him: “What may we make/do in order that we may work (for) the works of God?” Jesus answered and spoke to them: “This, it is the work of God, in order that you may believe into the One whom that One has dispatched away.”

Word for word: 6:25 (12 words in the Greek text) and having-found him on-the-other-side (of)-the (of)-sea (they)-spoke (to)-him: rabbi, when here came-(you)? 6:26 (24 words in the Greek text) Answered them the Jesus and spoke: amen amen (i/I)-say (to)-you, (you)-seek me not because (you)-beheld signs, however because (you)-ate out-of the breads and were-fed. 6:27 (26 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus) work not (for)-the consumption the-(one) perishing however the-(one) staying into life agelong, which the son (of)-the (of)-man gives you; this-(one) for the father sealed the god. 6:28 (12 words in the Greek text) (they)-spoke so towards him: what may-(we)-make to work (for)-the works (of)-the (of)-god? 6:29 (17 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus) answered Jesus and spoke (to)-them: this is the work (of)-the (of)-god, in-order-that (you)-may-believe into (the-one)-whom dispatched-away that-(one).


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Moses' father-in-law said to him:) “You may throughout be a witness for (the people) to the commands of God and to His law and give them signs of the ways, in which they shall go in them, and to the works, which they shall make/do.” (Ex 18:20, Greek OT)

(Moses said to Israel: "The Lord) treated you ill and let you famish and gave you the manna as morsels, which your fathers did not know, in order that He might bring up a message to you, that the man shall not alone/only live on/’for the sake of’ bread, however/but the man shall live on/’for the sake of’ every word going out through mouth of God." (Deut 8:3, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) "’In order’/because of what do you honour silvermetal and do not (honour) your toil into satiation/’what satiates’? Hear Me and eat good things, and your soul will revel in good things. Give heed (with) your ear lobes and follow on My ways. ‘Hear upon’/’listen to’ Me, and your soul will live in good things. And I shall put asunder/’in order’ (with) an agelong covenant." (Is 55:2-3a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) “Against the cursed (be) the one making/doing the works of the Lord carelessly.” (Jer 48:10)

(The man set/clothed in linen said to Daniel:) “The sayings (have been) sealed till a seasonable goal/end time.” (Dan 12:9b, Greek OT, Theod)

The ones making/giving alm/alms will be fed (with) life. (Tobit 12:9b)

(Solomon said to the Lord:) “In stead of (destruction) You gave Your people morsels (with) nourishment of messengers, and You offered them bread from heaven without bother.” (Wisdom of Solomon 16:20a)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “Rotting every work ‘leaves out’/disappears, and the one working/’being busy with’ it will perish ‘in company’/together with it.” (Sir 14:19)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “In every work believe (with) your soul, for this is and/namely a keeping of commandments.” (Sir 32:23)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) ”The work of (the Lord is) filled with (His) glory.” (Sir 42:16b)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples: "Pray in this way: 'Our Father,) give us the bread for the coming (day).'" (Matt 6:11)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "Do not heap for you heaps upon the earth, whereat/where moth and consumption ‘make unseen’/disfigure and whereat/where thieves dig through and steal, but heap for you heaps in a heaven, whereat/where ‘and not’/neither moth ‘and not’/nor consumption ‘make unseen’/disfigure and whereat/where thieves do not dig through and (א,* א) steal." (Matt 6:19-20)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) ”Not 'every the'/everyone saying to Me: ’Lord, Lord’ will come into, into the kingdom of the heaven, however/but the one making/doing the will of My Father, the One in the heavens.” (Matt 7:21)

(The five thousand males) all ate and were fed. (Mark 6:42)

(Jesus said to His disciples: ”The crowd) have already abode (with) Me three days and have not (knowledge) what they may eat.” (Mark 8:2b)

(One/someone questioned Jesus): "Good teacher, what shall I make/do, in order that I may inherit agelong life?" (Mark 10:17b)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Be so awake, for you do not know, when the lord of the habitation comes.” (Mark 13:35a)

The slanderer spoke to (Jesus): "If You are a son of God, speak to this stone in order that it may become bread." And Jesus answered towards him: "It has been (and is) written that/: 'The man shall not alone/only live on/’for the sake of’ bread.'" (Luke 4:3-4)

Having sat still by the side of towards the feet of the Lord (Mariam) (continually) had heard His saying. But Martha (continually) had pulled/bustled round about, around/’with regard to’ much service. But having stood on/near (Him) she had spoken: “Lord, do You not care for, that my sister entirely has left to me alone to render service? Speak so to her in order that she in stead may take (it) together with me.” But having answered the Lord had spoken to her: “Martha, Martha, you care (about) and are distracted around/’in relation to’ many things. But it is (a matter) of few things or one thing (א*), for Mary has chosen the good portion, whichever/which shall not be taken off/from her." (Luke 10:39b-42)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "The soul is more than the nourishment. … And do not seek what you may eat and what you may drink." (Luke 12:23a,29a)

Having been questioned by the Pharisees when the kingdom of God comes, (Jesus) answered them and spoke: “The kingdom of God does not come in company with ‘a keeping to the side of’/’an observation’.” (Luke 17:20)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

John (the Baptist) was a witness saying that/: "I have viewed (and view) the Spirit as a pigeon descending out of heaven, and It stayed against Him. And I did not know (and had not known) Him, however/but the One having sent me to baptize in the (P66,א,*א) water, that One spoke to me: ‘(The One) against whom you – according to the circumstances - may behold the Spirit descending and staying against Him, this One is He baptizing in holy spirit.’" And I have beheld (and behold) and have been (and am) a witness, that this One is the Chosen One (P5,א*) of God. (John 1:32-34)

The one having taken (Jesus') evidence has sealed, that God is truthful. (John 3:33)

(Jesus) said to (His disciples): "I have consumption to eat, which you do not know. ... My food is ‘in order that’/that I might make/do the will of the One having sent Me and make His work perfect." (John 4:32,34)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 - about 1500

Westcott suggests that "the thought of Christ as an accepted sacrifice" may be what is meant (with "be sealed"). His reason is that "In the Jewish ritual the victims are examined and sealed if perfect" and he gives as reference Mishnah, Shek. 1:5. ... The view is attractive, but (John 6:27) says nothing about sealing perfect victims. (Leon Morris "The Gospel according to John" p 318)

“Put his seal” … Particularly we think of the scene, where the Baptist sees the Spirit come down from heaven and remain over Jesus. (René Kieffer "Johannesevangeliet" p 151; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Nonno's grandmother asked us, if we were hungry, and so we were. And then she took out a round loaf and cut of it in thick slices, which she gave us. It was a brown, crisp bread, and it was the nicest bread I had eaten in my life. "Oh, what it tastes nice", I said to Nonno. "What kind of bread is this?" "I do not know, if it is a special kind of bread", Nonno said. "The bread which satisfies hunger we usually call it." (Astrid Lindgren "Mio, min Mio" p 49; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

(Christ) is the sealed bread. "Him the father has sealed." Sealing of a thing of course means that it is proved, found valid, thus perfect, as far as it can be said about earthly things. A manufacturer for example gives out a product, properly stamped. The stamp or the seal then says that the firm accepts the product as its product, and that it is the best it has been able to produce. Is it now a well-known firm, so you do not hesitate that the product is the best of that kind you can get. Thus sealing and faith closely belong together also in earthly things. ... The one receiving the witness (of God), he has sealed that God is truthful. The one who, because of the sealing of God, receives Christ as his bread of life, eats of it and finds it good, he, so to speak, seals his seal beside God's. He accepts and for his part confirms what God has done and spoken. Thus God and this man agree. God determines, he accepts; God gives, he receives; God wants, and he wants the same thing. This is the innermost nature and kernel of faith. (Karl Palmberg "Ur livskällan. Första årgången." p 172-173; comment to John 6:24-36; Karl Palmberg /1842-1920/ was from 1883 a Lutheran clergyman in Månsarp in the diocese of Växjö and president in Jönköpings Missionsförening (Missionary Society) 1886-1911; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

From the most remote prehistoric age echoes reach us, which confirm the evangelical saying, that man does not live by bread alone, and there is no reason that a remote future, the all coming destinies of our generation, will not witness to it. Sicut cervus ad fontem aquarum, ita anima ad te, Deus! (Ps 42:2) (Viktor Rydberg "Ett par ord om skaldekonsten" p 209; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

(An article in Gazetta Piemontese was) about the agricultural question. . . . They have namely in Europe at last discovered that man is not living only of God's and men's words, but principally of bread, and that lack of bread can not take the place of wood and iron and cotton fabric; laquered works or art industry; furthermore they have realized that the lack of bread causes crimes and that crimes give the poor man bread - and accomodation. For fear of the serious consequences they so have begun to think of favouring the agriculture. (August Strindberg "Från det vaknande Italien" p 74; Piemonte 1884-03-03; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

I do not believe that I can leave this place until death takes me away. We live better than the people in Sweden, and we are not wanting in spiritual food. When I compare conditions here with those in Sweden, we are fortunate. We have good bread and wheat flour and as much beef and pork as we desire for each meal. We have all the butter, eggs and milk we need. Last summer I sold twenty dozen eggs every two weeks. . . . We have an abundance of various kinds of apples. In fact, we have so many things that make for comfort and happiness that, when I compare Sweden with this country, I have no desire to return. But, on the other hand, when I think about Sweden's healthful climate and how pleasant it would be for us to be together, I confess that I am a little dissatisfied, especially since Gustaf passed away. (Mary Stephenson "Letter from New Sweden, Iowa to relatives in Småland" p 120; letter dated 1865-06-15)

(General Löwensköld) had got the ring by the king - there was only one king for him, and the ring had got into the portrait to show, that Bengt Löwensköld was faithful to him. . . . King Karl was a man, who the world never had seen the like, and the one having lived in his nearness, had experienced, that there were more beautiful and higher thing to struggle for than the glory and prosperity of this world. . . . When (Löwensköld's) coffin was put down in the walled sepulchral chamber, which he had got ready in Bro cemetery, the king's ring remained sitting on the forefinger of his left hand. There were many of those present, who complained about the thing that such a jewel would follow dead man in the grave, for the ring of the general almost was as known and famous as he himself. People told that there was so much gold in it, that it could have been enough to buy a farm for it, and that the red cornelian, where the monogram of the king was engraved, had not smaller worth. . . . People almost thought, that it was an injustice, that it lay there. It could of course have been sold in foreign countries for expensive money and given bread to many persons, who had not other things to feed on than on straw and bark. . . . The ring lay in a screwed up coffin, in a walled up sepulchral cellar, under heavy stone slaps, inaccessible to the boldest thief, and in this way people thought it had to remain to the last day of the world. (Selma Lagerlöf "Löwensköldska ringen" p 8-9; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

It is difficult for the modern mind to realise that until almost the end of the eighteenth century the food problem in Europe had to be faced without potatoes. ... The old French government, when called upon to handle food scarcity, as it constantly was, made its calculations always and of necessity in terms of corn. In the south the olive, in the central highlands the chestnut, and everywhere various sorts of pulses and green vegetables entered into the people's dietary; but it is hardly an exaggeration to say that the typical peasant lived buy bread alone. (J.H. Clapman "Economic Development of France and Germany 1815-1914" p 22)


about 1500 and time before

If a man by his labor should feed Christ, and give Him drink, and clothe Him, who so senseless and as to say that such an one labors for the meat that perisheth, when there is for this the promise of the kingdom that is to come, and of those things? This meat endureth forever. ... What is the advantage of this world's luxury? To-day it is, and to-morrow it is not; to-day a bright flower, to-morrow scattered dust; to-day a burning fire, to-morrow smouldering ashes. But spiritual things are not so, they ever remain shining and blooming, and becoming brighter every day. (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers XIV:158-159)

The Holy Spirit ... is the food of life (eternal). (Irenaeus, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol I, p 521)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Svetlana Aleksijevitj, Ann-Charlotte Alverfors, Stefan Andhé, Natalja Arsenjevna Roslova, Elisabeth Beskow, Gunnar Björkborg, Carl Boberg, J.H. Clapman, Runar Eldebo, Hjalmar Fernström, Siv Fernström, Adolphine Fogtmann, Bo Frid, Pontus Grate, Lennart Gustavsson, Hans Hallebo, Alf Henrikson, C.G. Hjelm, Sven Ingvar, Juan Ramon Jiménez, Sven Johansson, Adolf Kloo, Karl Knutsson, Ad. Kolmodin, Kristina Lugn, Martin Luther, Mathilda Malmvall, Vilhelm Moberg, Helmer V. Nyberg, Sigurd Ohlsson, Gunnar Olén, Hilding Pleijel, Mats Rehnberg, Sigvard Rubenowitz, Allan Rydén, Sven Edvin Salje, Gösta Sandberg, E. Aug. Skogsbergh, Erik Sonesson, Jesper Svartvik, Nils Tägt, P. Waldenström, Albin Widén, Ernst Wigforss, Arne Wirdenäs, Carl Fr. Wislöff.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning "amen, amen", see John 1:51a with My own comments and speculations.

Concerning "the Son of the Man", see My own comments and speculations to John 1:51b.


(Paul said to the believers in Rome:) ”It is not the hearers of a law (who are) righteous by the side of God, however/but the makers/doers of a law will be justified.” (Rom 2:13)

Paul said to the believers in Corinth: "(God) is the One having sealed us and given us the plege of the Spirit in our hearts." (2 Cor 1:22)

Paul said to the believers in Philippi: “Work entirely/’whole-heartedly’ (towards) your own saving in company with fear and trembling.” (Phil 2:12b)

My little children, these things I write to you in order that you may not miss (the mark of God). And if – according to the circumstances – anyone may miss (the mark of God), we have One being called to the side of, towards the Father, Jesus Christ, (One being) righteous. (1 John 2:1)

The adornment/’adorned world’ is led by the side of, and its desire, but the one making/doing the will of God stays/abides into the (coming) age. (1 John 2:17)


Greek words: póte (when) (in the NT) Mark 13:35; Luke 17:20; John 6:25 – Matt 17:17; 24:3; 25:37-39,44; Mark 9:19; 13:4,33; Luke 9:41; 12:36; 21:7; John 10:24; Rev 6:10.

chortadsô (feed) (in the NT + examples in the OT) Tobit 12:9; Mark 6:42; John 6:26 - Ps 17:15; 104:13; 132:15; Matt 5:6; 14:20; 15:33,37; Mark 7:27; 8:4,8; Luke 6:21; 9:17; 15:16; 16:21; Phil 4:12; Jas 2:16; Rev 19:21.


Additional studies:

Matt 3:17; 4:3-4; 6:25; 17:5; 23:7-8; 25:46; Mark 1:11; 5:21; 6:54; 9:7; Luke 3:22; 4:42; 9:35; 11:3; John 1:51; 3:15-17; 4:14; 5:37; 6:2,14,30,40,47,53-54,58,62; 8:18; 10:28,36; 11:26, 16:9; 17:2-3,21-23; 20:30-31; Rom 4:5; 1 Cor 6:13; Eph 1:13; 4:30; Col 2:22; 1 Thess 1:3; Jas 2:22; 2 Pet 1:17; 1 John 3:23, 2 John v 8; Rev 2:19,26; 5:1; 6:2; 7:2-8; 9:4; 20:3.


L.M. Dewailly "Vilket bröd avses i Fader vår?"; Svensk Exegetisk Årsbok 45 (1980): 77-89.

David Gibson "Eating is Believing? On Midrash and the Mixing of Metaphors in John 6"; Themelios 27.2 (2002): 5-15.

Donald Guthrie "The Importance of Signs in the Fourth Gospel"; Vox Evangelica 5 (1967): 72-83.

Mark Kiley "The Geography of Famine: John 6:22-25"; Révue Biblique 102 (1995): 226-230.

Andreas J. Köstenberger "Jesus as Rabbi in the Fourth Gospel"; Bulletin for Biblical Research 8 (1998): 97-128.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-03-06; 2011-02-22; 2014-02-01; 2014-10-16)

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6:30-33 They so spoke to Him: “What sign do You so make/do, in order that we may behold and may believe (in) You? What do You work? Our fathers ate the manna in the desolate (district), entirely as it has been (and is) written: ‘He has given (and gives) (א,* א) them bread out of the heaven to eat.’” Jesus so spoke to them: “Amen, amen, I say to you: ‘Moses has not given (and gives) you the bread out of the heaven, however/but My Father gives you the true bread out of heaven. For the bread, the one (א,*א) (which is) of God, is the one descending out of the heaven giving life to the adornment/’adorned world’.’”

Word for word: 6:30 (15 words in the Greek text) (They)-spoke so (to)-him: what so make you sign, in-order-that (we)-may-behold and may-believe you? what work-(you)? 6:31 (19 words in the Greek text) the fathers our the manna ate in the desolate, entirely-as (it)-is having-been-(and-being)-written: bread out-of the heaven (he)-has-given-(and-gives) them (to)-eat. 6:32 (31 words in the Greek text) spoke so (to)-them the Jesus: amen amen (i/I)-say (to)-you: not Moses has-given-(and-gives) you the bread out-of the heaven, however the father my gives you the bread out-of the heaven the true. 6:33 (17 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus) the for bread the-(one) (of)-the (of)-god is the-(one) descending out-of the heaven and life giving the adornment.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

The Lord spoke towards Moses: "Behold, I will let breads/loaves out of the heaven rain for you. And the people shall come out and collect ‘the day into’/’day by’ day. In that way I shall try them, if they will go/walk (in) My law or not. And it will be the sixth day, and they make ready what – if according to the circumstances - they may carry into (their habitations), and it will be double what they ‘ - if according to the circumstances – led together ‘according to day into day’/’day after day’." (Ex 16:4-5, Greek OT)

(Moses said to Israel:) "This (is) the bread which the Lord has given you to eat." (Ex 16:15b, Greek OT)

The sons of Israel ate the man/manna (for) forty years. (Ex 16:35a, Greek OT)

(Moses' father-in-law said to him:) “You may throughout be a witness for (the people) to the commands of God and to His law and give them signs of the ways, in which they will go in them, and to the works, which they will make/do.” (Ex 18:20, Greek OT)

(God) gave (His people) wet, manna to eat and He gave them bread of heaven. (Ps 78:24, Greek OT)

(The son of Tobit said:) “ … What sign may I give (Gabael), and/that he may gain additional knowledge of me and believe me?” (Tobit 5:2a, S)

(Solomon said to the Lord:) “In stead of (destruction) You gave Your people morsels (with) nourishment of messengers, and You offered them bread from heaven without bother.” (Wisdom of Solomon 16:20a)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "Pray you so in this way: '... Give us to-day our bread for the coming (day).'" (Matt 6:9a,11)

The Pharisees came out and began to ‘seek together’/debate with (Jesus), seeking from the side of Him a sign from the heaven trying Him. (Mark 8:11)

(The priest leaders and the scribes said to Jesus:) “… Descend now from the cross, in order that we may behold and believe!” (Mark 15:32a)

(False witnesses said to the Jews:) “We have heard (Stephen) saying/say, that Jesus, this Nazorean, ... will change/alter the customs which Moses gave by the side of us.“ (Acts 6:14)

(Stephen said to the Israelites: “On the mountain Sinai Moses) received living little sayings to give to you (P74, א,* א, B).” (Acts 7:38b)

(Stephen said to the Jews in the council:) “God turned Himself (about) and gave (the Israelites) to the side of to serve the army of the heaven entirely as it has been (and is) written.” (Acts 7:42a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

The Jews so answered and spoke to Him: "What sign do You show us, because You make/do these things?" (John 2:18)

No one has ascended (and ascends) into the heaven ‘if not’/except the One having descended out of the heaven, the Son of the Man. (John 3:13)

(The Samaritans said to the woman:) “We know, that this One truly is the Saviour of the adornment/’adorned world’.” (John 4:42b)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 - about 1500

The providing of manna was regarded as the greatest of Moses' miracles. ... The tense correction (from "has given" to "gives") is based on a different Hebrew vocalization wherein the consonants ntn are read as "noten" rather than "natan". (Raymond E. Brown "The Gospel according to John" p 262)

A bucket filled with desert manna was, according to Heb 9:4, kept in the inside of the arch, inacessible for the eyes or contact of men ... Jesus and his word are a manna being concealed from everyone thinking oneself not need remission of sins. (Sven Danell "Kyrkoårets vardag" p 176 in comment to John 6:24-36; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

(The Greek word for "believe" in verse 30) is no longer (as in verse 29) constructed with “eis” but with the dative; that is, the Jews contemplate no more than putting credence in the words of Jesus. (C.K. Barrett "The Gospel according to St John" p 288)

It was natural enough (in the Rabbinic Judaism) to think of Torah as the bread of Moses, and from this it is an easy step to the manna. This bread of Moses is superseded by the real bread from heaven. (C.H. Dodd ”The Interpretation of the Fourth Gospel” p 83)

I wonder if not the time has come that I worked a miracle, for the sake of the people. Say a photo in colour. Or iodine-synthesis! . . . . . . Yes, the time has come to work a miracle - for the people. . . . To make silk by a liquid, without silk-worms. To transform linen-thread into silk. To transform cotton- and linenfabrics into silk (For Alingsås!). To at an aniline factory get iodine as a by-product. The same thing direct at gas-works. To fix aniline colours. . . . . . . Now I want to work the wonder, that people may believe in - me - And then I cannot work the wonder! But You will work it, for You have the hand! And if You then say: this Strindberg has taught me. Then I shall answer: Glory to God who has taught me! (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev XI maj 1895-nov 1896" p 140,151-153,156-157; letters 1896-03-16, 1896-03-28 and 1896-04-10, all to Torsten Hedlund; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


about 1500 and time before

The Holy Spirit ... is the food of life (eternal). (Irenaeus, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol I, p 521)

(The) manna, which was Angels' food, distilled (as they imagined) from the upper light, ‘the dew from above’ ... they expected the Messiah to bring again from heaven. For, all that the first deliverer Moses had done, the second – Messiah – would also do. (Alfred Edersheim "The Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah Part II" p 30)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Alf Ahlberg, Ingvar Andersson, Leo Baeck, Bo Frid, Anton Fridrichsen, Per Lundberg, Martin Luther, Verner Malmsten, Wiktor Norin, Martha Sandwall-Bergström, Isaac Basjevis Singer, Jesper Svartvik, Ragnar Thoursie, P. Waldenström.


My own comments and speculations:

The gathered bread on the sixth day was enough also for the coming sabbath day. So also Jesus' bread is enough for morrow, the heavenly, eternal sabbath day.

The crowd wanted to behold and then believe, but Jesus calls men to believe and the behold (cf. John 11:40).

Concerning "amen, amen", see John 1:51a with My own comments and speculations.


Paul said to the believers in Corinth: "All (our fathers) ate * (א*) spiritual food." (1 Cor 10:3)


Greek words:

manna (manna) (in the NT) John 6:31 – John 6:49; Heb 9:4; Rev 2:17.


Additional studies:

Ex 16:21; Num 11:7-8; Joshua 5:12; Neh 9:15,20; Ps 105:40; Prov 9:5; Amos 8:11; Matt 12:38; 16:1,4; Luke 11:3,16,29; John 2:23; 6:2,14,26,36,41,49-51,58; 11:40; 12:14; 20:30-31; 1 Cor 1:22; 10:3; Rev 2:17.


Glenn Balfour "The Jewishness of John's Use of the Scriptures in John 6:31 and 7:37-38"; Tyndale Bulletin 46:2 (1995): 357-380.

Paul W. Ferris "Manna narrative of Exodus 16:1-10"; Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 18.3 (Summer 1975): 191-199.

David Gibson "Eating is Believing? On Midrash and the Mixing of Metaphors in John 6"; Themelios 27.2 (2002): 5-15.

Donald Guthrie "The Importance of Signs in the Fourth Gospel"; Vox Evangelica 5 (1967): 72-83.

Maarten J.J. Menken "The Provence and Meaning of the Old Testament Quotation in John 6:31"; Novum Testamentum 30 (1988): 39-56.

Richard D. Patterson-Michael Travers "Contours of the Exodus Motif in Jesus' Earthly Ministry"; Westminster Theological Journal 66.1 (Spring 2004): 25-47.

John W. Pryor "The Johannine Son of Man and the descent-ascent motif"; Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 34.3 (Sept. 1991): 341-351.

R. Smith "Exodus Typology in the Fourth Gospel"; Journal of Biblical Literature 81 (1962): 329-342.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-03-07; 2011-02-24; 2014-02-03; 2014-10-16)

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6:34-36 They so spoke towards Him: “Lord, give us always this bread.” Jesus so (א,*א) spoke to them: “I am the bread of the life. The one coming towards Me may not/certainly not be hungry, and the one believing into Me will not/certainly not ever thirst. However I spoke to you, because you and/namely have beheld (and behold) * (א,*א,A) and do not believe.”

Word for word: 6:34 (11 words in the Greek text) (they)-spoke so towards him: lord, always give us the bread this. 6:35 (27 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus) spoke so (to)-them the Jesus: i/I (i/I)-am the bread (of)-the (of)-life; the-(one) coming towards me not/certainly not may-be-hungry, and the-(one) believing into me not/certainly not will-thirst ever. 6:36 (9 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus) However (i/I)-spoke (to)-you, because and (you)-have-beheld-(and-behold) and not believe.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Moses said to Israel: "The Lord) treated you ill and let you famish and gave you the manna as morsels, which your fathers did not know, in order that He might bring up a message to you, that the man shall not alone/only live on/’for the sake of’ bread, however/but the man shall live on/’for the sake of’ every word going out through mouth of God." (Deut 8:3, Greek OT)

(The Lord said: "My people) will not be hungry, nor (it) will thirst." (Is 49:10a, Greek OT)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “Knowledge of a wise one (is) as an inundation (which) is made full, and his counsel as a spring of life. ” (Sir 21:13)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "Happy the ones being hungry and thirsting (for) the righteousness, because they themselves will be fed." (Matt 5:6)

(Jesus said:) "Come here towards Me, all being bothered and being (and having been) burdened, and I will bring you to rest.” (Matt 11:28)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "Because of this I talk (with the people) in parables, because seeing they do not see, and hearing they do not hear, nor do they perceive." (Matt 13:13)

Peter spoke to (Jesus): “Lord, if You are, exhort me to come towards You against the waters.” But/and He spoke: "Come!" (Matt 14:28b-29a)

(Jesus said to His disciples: “The righteous will say to the Son of the Man:) ‘When did we beheld You being hungry, and we supported/’gave ... to eat’ You, or thirsting and we gave You to drink?’ ... (The King said to them:) "As much as you have made/done against one of the least of these My brothers, you have made/done Me." (Matt 25:37b,40b)

Ones being hungry (God) has fulfilled/satiated of/with good things. (Luke 1:53a)

Having stood up (the son) came towards his father. But on his still holding far off, his father beheld him ... (and this man spoke to his slaves): "Carry the fattened young bull, sacrifice and having ate we may be cheerful." (Luke 15:20a,23)

(The father) spoke to (his older son): ”Child, you are always in company with me, and all my things it is your things.” (Luke 15:31)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

The woman said to (Jesus): "Lord, give me this water, that I may not thirst, nor come through hitherward to ladle out." (John 4:15)

(The crowd) so spoke to (Jesus): “What sign do You so make/do, in order that we may behold and may believe (in) You?” (John 6:30a)

(Jesus said to the Jews:) “My Father works till just now, and I work.” (John 5:17b)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

To "believe in Jesus" is the same thing as to "come to Jesus". To believe is not to accept certain theoretic theses but to come in connection to and in community of life with Christ Himself as the living Lord he is. And it becomes possible just by going to him, no matter what you now happen to be. It is the sick ones who need to come to the physician. (Bo Giertz "Evangelium enligt Johannes" p 77; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Jesus' words mean that men will never hunger or thirst for anything other than Jesus' own revelation. (Raymond E. Brown "The Gospel according to John" 269)

Nonno's grandmother gave me the red mantle and Jum-Jum the blue. And she gave Nonno a round loaf of the bread satisfying hunger and a pot of water from the spring slaking thirst, and so we wandered back over the hills the same way we had come. . . . We encamped for the night . . . made a fire, a big, warm, glorious fire. And we sat around it eating of the bread satisfying hunger and drank of the water from the spring slaking thirst. (Astrid Lindgren "Mio, min Mio" p 53; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

To eat (the Bread of Life) does not mean hungering, eating and hungering again. ... If a man truly has life-giving contact with Jesus he never ceases to be dependent on him, but the initial contact does not need to be repeated. (C.K. Barrett "The Gospel according to St John" p 291,293)

Christ is just bread, not only corn. ... When the grains of corn, full and shining, are led into the bin, all things only are joy and delight; yet they do not know any suffering. Jesus so descended from heaven, heavenly glorious. Such the disciples and others, who believed in him and loved him, also wanted to keep him. They were like unwise children thinking that the the millstones are the most injurious being found for the fine, clean grains of corn. "Lord, spare yourself, this shall not happen to you", Peter, the great child, shouts. But to spare the grains of corn would be our death, we living by bread. Also it had been the death of every sinner, if God had spared his son the cross. Therefore it is not the innermost marrow and kernel of the gospel only to preach how God has given us a saviour, but how he has given him out in death for us. As he himself says: Unless a grain of wheat falls into the earth and dies, it remains by itself alone, but if it dies, it bears much fruit. And I lay down my life for the sheep. Therefore, as the grains of corn are crushed in the mill, so the holy body of Christ became broken, torn apart and nailed asunder by the scourging, the skinning and at last the crucifixion. But now he also became a bread giving the world life. Therefore, as sure as he by God is the determined and sealed bread having descended from heaven, so he also by God through suffering and dead is the prepared bread giving eternal life. (Karl Palmberg "Ur livskällan. Första årgången." p 173-174; comment to John 6:24-36; Karl Palmberg /1842-1920/ was from 1883 a Lutheran clergyman in Månsarp in the diocese of Växjö and president in Jönköpings Missionsförening (Missionary Society) 1886-1911; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Alice Lesch Kelly, Astrid Lindgren, Arnold Ljungdahl, Magnus Malm, H.M. Melin, Erik Pontoppidan, A.M. Strinnholm, P. Waldenström, Carl Fr. Wislöff.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning "I am" see John 4:25-26 with My own comments and speculations.


Greek words:

pantote (always) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Wisdom of Solomon 11:21; Luke 15:31; John 6:34 – Wisdom of Solomon 19:18; Matt 26:11; Mark 14:7; Luke 18:1; John 7:6; 8:29; 11:42; 12:8; 18:20; Rom 1:10; 1 Cor 1:4; 15:58; 2 Cor 2:14; 4:10; 5:6; 9:8; Gal 4:18; Eph 5:20; Phil 1:4,20; 2:12; 4:4; Col 1:3; 4:6,12; 1 Thess 1:2; 2:16; 3:6; 4:17; 5:15-16; 2 Thess 1:3,11; 2:13; 2 Tim 3:7; Philemon v 4; Heb 7:25.

peinaô (be hungry) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Matt 5:6; Luke 1:53; John 6:35 – Tobit 1:17; 4:16(BA); 1 Macc 13:49; Sir 4:2; 16:27; 24:21; Baruch 2:18; Matt 4:2; 12:1,3; 21:18; 25:35,37,42,44; Mark 2:25; 11:12; Luke 4:2; 6:3,21,25; Rom 12:20; 1 Cor 4:11; 11:21,34; Phil 4:12; Rev 7:16.


Additional studies:

Ex 3:6,14; 20:2; Is 55:1-3; Matt 6:11; Luke 11:3; John 4:14; 6:26,29,48-51,58; 7:37; 11:40; 14:17; 15:24; 20:30-31.


David Gibson "Eating is Believing? On Midrash and the Mixing of Metaphors in John 6"; Themelios 27.2 (2002): 5-15.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-03-07; 2011-02-25; 2014-02-04; 2014-10-17)

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6:37-40 Every (nation?) which the Father gives Me will arrive towards Me, and the one coming towards Me I may not/certainly not throw out * (א*), because I have descended (and descend) out of (א,*א) the heaven, not in order that I might make/do My will, however/but the will of the One having sent Me, *(א*) in order that every (nation?) which He has given (and gives) Me, (that) I may not perish out/’in consequence’ of it, however/but (that) I may cause it to stand up in/on the last day. For this is the will of My Father, in order that 'every the'/everyone looking at the Son and believing into Him may have agelong life. And I Myself will cause him to stand up in/on the last day.

Word for word: 6:37 (17 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus prima manus): every-(nation?) which gives me the father towards me will-arrive, and the-(one) coming towards me not/certainly not (i/I)-may-throw-out. 6:38 (18 words in the Greek text) because (i/I)-have-descende-(and-descend) out-of the heaven not in-order-that (i/I)-might-make the will the mine however the will (of)-the-(one) having-sent me 6:39 (16 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus prima manus) in-order-that every-(nation?) which (he)-has-given-(and-gives) me not (i/I)-may-perish out-of it, however (i/I)-may-cause-to-stand-up it in the last day. 6:40 (29 words in the Greek text) this for is the will (of)-the (of)-father my, in-order-that every the looking-at the son and believing into him may-have life agelong, and will-cause-to-stand him i/I-(myself) in the last day.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Solomon said to the Lord:) "And the alien, who is not from this Your people, and/also he will arrive and pray in this place, and You shall listen to (him) out of the heaven, out of Your ready dwelling, and You shall make/do according to all things, as many as the alien – according to the circumstances – may call against You, in that way (that) all the peoples may have knowledge of Your name and fear You entirely as Your people Israel, and You may have knowledge, that Your name has been (and is) called against, against this house, which You have built.” (1 Kings 8:41-43, Greek OT)

The priests went into of the house of the Lord inside to purify (it), and they threw out every impurity having been found in the house of the Lord and (threw it) into the court of the house of the Lord. And the Levites received (it) to throw (it) out outside into the torrent of Kidron. (2 Chron 29:16, Greek OT)

(Ezra) read in (the) scroll of the law of God … from the first day till the last day. (Neh 8:18, Greek OT)

(Solomon said to God:) “Let the name (of the king) be ‘being blessed’/blessed into the ages, before the sun his name will stay throughout, and in him all the tribes of the earth will be blessed. All the nations will call him happy.” (Ps 72:17; Greek OT)

(David said to the Lord:) "All the nations as many as You have made will arrive and prostrate themselves before, in the very eyes of You (in honour of You), Lord." (Ps 86:9a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) “I come to lead together all the nations and the tongues. And they will arrive and behold My glory” (Is 66:18b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) "I will cause shepherds to stand up for (the whole rest of My people), (shepherds) who will be shepherds for them." (Jer 23:4a, Greek OT)

(The sons of Israel and the sons of Judas) will arrive and ‘flee down’/resort towards the Lord God, for an agelong covenant will not be forgotten. (Jer 50:5b, Greek OT)

In a last (breath a martyr said:) “The king of the adornment/’adorned world’ will cause us, having died in favour/defence of the laws (of the Lord), to stand up into an agelong revival.” … (A martyr said to the king who was responsible for his torment and death:) "Exchanging/’undergoing a change’ by men, we wait for by God hopes to again be ‘stood up’/risen by Him. For you, indeed, it will not be a resurrection into life.” (2 Macc 7:9b,14b)


The Latter Revelation: (Jesus said to His disciples:) ”Not 'every the'/everyone saying to Me: ’Lord, Lord’ will come into, into the kingdom of the heaven, however/but the one making/doing the will of My Father, the One in the heavens.” (Matt 7:21)

(Jesus said:) “Whoever – according to the circumstances – may make/do the will of My Father, the One in heavens, he is My brother and sister and mother.” (Matt 12:50)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "It is not the will * (א,* א) of your Father – the One in heavens – ‘in order that’/that one of these small ones (becoming as the little boys and girls) may perish." (Matt 18:14b)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “When the Son of the Man – according to the circumstances – may come in His glory, and all the messengers in company with Him, then He will sit down upon His throne of glory. And all the nations will be led together in front of Him. … (And) the righteous ones (will go away) into an agelong life.” (Matt 25:31-32a,46b)

Having come to/forward Jesus talked (with the eleven disciples) saying: "Every/all (judicial) authority in heaven and upon earth has been given to Me. Having gone * (א,* א, A) be/make disciples (of) all the nations." (Matt 28:18-19a; BG Ask-comment: Walter Bauer says in his Greek-English lexicon - p 485 - that the Greek word for "be or become a disciple" - as a transitive verb has the meaning of "make a disciple". Perhaps no translator has another meaning. But I am not sure that this is the johannine view. To be disciples in a company of all nations can cause the crowd of disciples to increase. Cf. John 17:21-23.)

(Jesus said to the crowds:): “Males of Nineveh will stand up in the judgment in company with this generation.” (Luke 11:32a)

(Jesus said to the crowd:) “You (may) behold Abraham and Isaac and Jacob and all the prophets in the kingdom of God but you being thrown out outside. And (men) will arrive from upstickings/east and settings/west and * (א,*א,A) ‘north wind’/north and ‘south wind’/south and lean up/back in the kingdom of God.” (Luke 13:28b-29)

The Lord of the vineyard spoke: “What shall I make/do? I will send my welcomed son. Perhaps they will ‘turn in themselves’/’be ashamed’ (towards) this one.” (Luke 20:13)

(Jesus said to His Father:) “‘More than’/however not My will, however/but become/’be done’ Yours." (Luke 22:42b)

* (א*) Males (continually) were dwelling into/in Jerusalem, (males) standing in awe of (God) from every nation of the ones (being) underneath the heaven. ... (Everyone heard) the own language (be spoken). ... (Peter said:) "This is the thing having been (and being) spoken through the prophet Joel. 'And it will be/happen in the last days, God says: 'I will pour out from My spirit against every/'every kind of' flesh.'" (Acts 2:5,8,16-17a)

(Paul and Barnabas said:) "In this way the Lord has enjoined (and enjoins) us: 'I have put (and put) you into/'purposed for' (being) a light of nations.'" (Acts 13:47a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

Jesus says to (His disciples): “My food is ‘in order that’/that I might make/do the will of the One having sent Me and make His work perfect.” (John 4:34)

(The Samaritans) (continually/repeatedly) said to the woman that/: “We do not any longer believe because of your evidence (א*), for ourselves we have heard (and hear) and we know, that this One truly is the Saviour of the adornment/’adorned world’.” (John 4:42)

(Jesus said to the Jews:) "Amen, amen I say to you, that the one hearing My saying and believing (in) the One having sent Me has agelong life and does not come into judgment, however/but has stepped (and steps) over out of the death into the life." (John 5:24)

(Jesus) said to His disciples: "Lead together the fragments left over, that nothing may perish." (John 6:12)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

The neuter (pan) is sometimes used with reference to persons if it is not the individuals but a general quality that is to be emphasized. (Raymond E. Brown "The Gospel according to John" p 270, quotation from a Greek Grammar)

It may be wondered, if the evangelist (who knows perfectly well how to say "everyone who" in vs. 40) may not want to give a greater collective force here (in verses 37 and 39). (Raymond E. Brown "The Gospel according to John" p 270)

The effect of the neuter (“pan” = each in verses 37 and 39) is to emphasize strongly the collective aspect of the Father's gift of believers. (C.K. Barrett "The Gospel according to St John" p 294)

Through the Messiah the light will be brought to victory and a time of rich blessing will break for the whole of mankind. As Schalom Asch declares it is not firstly a matter of a domination of Israel, "but the domination of God over the whole world". All nations will come and take the yoke of the kingdom of heaven, and a new order will begin in the world, the order of the Messiah. (Eric Wärenstam "Messias - Messiastro och Messiasförväntan inom judendom och kristendom" p 12; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

The resurrection of Christ is the most important event having happened on our earth. If he had not resurrected, so it had not been given victory over sin, no salvation from death and no hope for the eternity. No event has exercised such a remoulding influence as this one. One people after another has been laid under the sceptre of Christ. It is true that wars and heroic deeds have crushed kingdoms and founded others. Christ again conquered death and stood up from the dead ones and gives resurrection and eternal life to everyone believing in him. (Karl Palmberg "Ur livskällan. Andra årgången." p 218-219; comment to Matt 28:1-8; Karl Palmberg /1842-1920/ was from 1883 a Lutheran clergyman in Månsarp in the diocese of Växjö and president in Jönköpings Missionsförening (Missionary Society) 1886-1911; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

(1902 November 18th) . . . (Ellen) Key paid a visit, was turned out by me, for exellent reasons. (August Strindberg "Ockulta dagboken" p 164; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

When (innkeeper mother) passes (us), she says as for herself: "Yes, it will after all become so cherished to hear Paulus Andersson from Sandarne." We are sitting quiet, we, and we only listen. Innkeeper mother is now standing behind us picking up logs out of the firewood bin. "Thank heavens that Paulus Andersson will hold a Bible interpretation in my house at four o'clock this afternoon", she says for herself, while she rattles the logs. "All the ones wanting to stay and listen are so welcome", she goes on. "The one coming, the one I do not throw out, I say as Jesus. But the one fearing men more than God, he shall go his way." (Selma Lagerlöf "Ett barns memoarer" p 16; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

The Jews expected the general conversion of the Gentiles to be a conversion to Judaism. (Alfred Edersheim “The Temple” p 280)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Stig Abrahamsson, Miriam Adeney, Lars Ahlberg, Anita Albertsson, Eskil Albertsson, Arvid Almquist,Valdemar Ammundsen, Anders Andrén, Gertrud Aulén, Harold Begbie, Sven Bengtsson, August Berg, Elisabeth Beskow, Natanael Beskow, Oloph Bexell, Emil Birkeli, Harry Blomberg, Gordon Bridger, John H.Y. Briggs, Sven-Erik Brodd, Ingmar Brohed, Gunnar Brundin, George Carey, O. Carling, Marcus Cheng, F. Peter Cotterell, Roger Cowley, Sven Danell, Hjalmar Danielson, Allan Eddeland, Bertil Edvardsson, Ansgar Eeg-Olofsson, Erling Elgeholm, Sune Elofson, Albert Engström, Olle Engström, Per Ericsson, Linné Eriksson, Sigfrid Estborn, William Faulkner, Erik Floderus, Emilia Fogelklou, Erik Folke, A.P. Franklin, Fredrik Franson, Anna Fridén, Karl Fries, O.W. Genander, Einar Genitz, Robert S. Greenway, Paulus Mar Gregorios, Geraldine Guinness-Taylor, Tore Gunnarsson, Berndt Gustafsson, Björn Hallström, Yngve Hamrin, Alf Henrikson, Enok Hedberg, Gösta Hedberg, Anna Hellström, Eric Hertz, C.G. Hjelm, Joseph Hocking, Eric Jansson, Anders Jarlert, Barbro Jern, Eskil Johansson, Oscar Johansson, Emil Johnson, Eskil Jonsson, Charles Josiya, Augustinus Keijer, C.J.A. Kihlstedt, Andrew Kirk, Adolf Kloo, Charles H. Kraft, Lars Levi Laestadius, Olle Larsson, Hugo Linder, Daniel Lindmark, Gustaf Ljunggren, Sven Lodin, J.E. Lundahl, Martin Luther, Daniel Luyindu, Viveca Lärn, D.L. Moody, B.M. Ncongwane, Richard Newton, Fredrik Nielsen, Josefa Ngoza, Bertil Nilsson, J. Nyrén, T.H. Odencrants, Sigurd Ohlsson, Jan-Olof Olsson, Gunne Oscarsson, Roland Oscarsson, C. René Padilla, Georg Palmaer, Efraim Palmqvist, Lewi Pethrus, Olaus Petri, Nina Pleijel, Laurence Rees, Einar Rimmerfors, Anna Maria Roos, Viktor Rydberg, Björn Ryman, Vinay Samuel, Efr. Sandblom, Karin Sarja, Wilh. Sjöholm, Enock H. Skooglund, Howard A. Snyder, Åke Sparring, Milton Steinberg, Chris Sugden, Bengt Sundkler, Arvid Svärd, O. Terning, Tite Tiénou, Anton Tjechov, Lars Vitus, Derek Walcott, P. Waldenström, G.O. Wallenberg, Johan Olof Wallin, Kallistos Ware, Olof Wennås, Paul Wern, Arne Winerdal, Yngve Ydreborg, Göran Åberg.


My own comments and speculations:

For the thought behind John 6:37 Barrett ("The Gospel according to St John" p 294) refers to Matt 8:12 or similar passages. This passage (Matt 8:11-12 or better Luke 13:28-29, cf. the expressions "will arrive" - hêxousin - and "throw out") deals with all those who are coming from the nations, who - in contrast to the sons of the kingdom - will not be expelled outside. I share Barrett's opinion and propose furthermore that this passage also could explain the use of “pan” (= every) in John 6:37,39. Compare also with Rev 21:3, where it is said that the men will be God's peoples (people in plural!).

When the Greek word (“hêkô”) for "arrive" in John 6:37 otherwise is used in the Bible about the coming of men to God, this refers to a collective or a representative of a collective (Israel: Jer 50:5; the nations: 1 Kings 8:41-43; Ps 86:9; Rev 15:4). This collective use of “hêkô” together with the allusion to Luke 13:28-29 can be motive enough to translate the neuter “pan” by "every nation" (ethnos - the Greek word for "nation" - is neuter). Compare John 17:2.

On "agelong life" see John 3:14-15 with My own comments and speculations.

On "the last day" see John 5:28-29.


(Christ) has spoken (and speaks) (to His Father): "Behold, I have arrived to make/do Your will.." (Heb 10:9a)

The one making/doing the will of God stays/abides into the (coming) age. (1 John 2:17b)

This is the promise which He Himself promised/made to us, the agelong life. (1 John 2:25)


Greek words:

anistêmi (cause to stand up/stand up) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) 2 Macc 7:9,14; Luke 11:32; John 6:39-40 – Tobit 8:5; 11:10; 12:13,21; Judith 10:2; 12:5; 1 Macc 2:1; 3:1; 9:31; 13:14; 14:41; 2 Macc 12:44; 14:33; Sir 31:20; 47:1; 48:1; Baruch 5:5; Epistle of Jeremiah v 52; Susanna v 19(Theod),34,61(Theod); Bel and the Dragon v 39(Theod). Matt 9:9; 12:41; 17:9(א,*א); Matt 22:24; 26:62; Mark 1:35; 2:14; 3:26; 5:42; 7:24; 8:31; 9:9-10,27,31; 10:1,34; 12:23,25; 14:57,60; Luke 1:39; 4:16,29,38-39; 5:25,28; 6:8; 9:8,19; 10:25; 11:7-8; 15:18,20; 16:30(א,*א); Luke 16:31; 17:19; 18:33; 22:45-46; 23:1; 24:7,12,33,46; John 6:44,54; 11:23-24,31; 20:9. Acts 1:15; 2:24,32; 3:22,26; 5:6,17,34,36-37; 6:9; 7:18,37; 8:26-27; 9:6,11,18,34,39-41; 10:13,20,23,26,41; 11:7,28; 12:7; 13:16,32(33),34; 14:10,20; 15:7; 17:3,31; 20:30; 22:10,16; 23:9; 26:16,30. Rom 15:12; 1 Cor 10:7; Eph 5:14; 1 Thess 4:14,16; Heb 7:11,15.

eschatos (last) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) 2 Macc 7:9; John 6:39-40; Acts 2:17 – 1 Macc 4:15; 2 Macc 3:31; 7:41; Wisdom of Solomon 2:16; 3:17; Sir 1:13; 2:3; 3:26; 6:28; 7:36; 12:12; 13:7; 14:7; 21:10; 24:28; 28:6; 30:1,10; 33:16; 38:20; 48:24; Matt 5:26; 12:45; 19:30; 20:8,12,14,16; 27:64; Mark 9:35; 10:31; 12:6,22; Luke 11:26; 12:59; 13:30; 14:9-10; John 6:44,54; 7:37; 11:24; 12:48. Acts 1:8; 13:47; 1 Cor 4:9; 15:8,26,45,52; 2 Tim 3:1; Heb 1:2; Jas 5:3; 1 Pet 1:5,20; 2 Pet 2:20; 3:3; 1 John 2:18; Jude v 18; Rev 1:17; 2:8,19; 15:1; 21:9; 22:13.


Additional studies:

Matt 6:10; 8:11-12; 11:28; 26:39,42; Mark 14:36; Luke 14:14; John 3:13,15-17; 5:29-30; 6:27,29,65; 10:28-29; 12:20-21,32,45; 14:19; 17:2,6-9,12,24; 18:9; 1 Cor 6:14; 1 Thess 4:16-17; Rev 11:7; 15:4; 20:5-6; 21:24.


Per Beskow "Mission, Trade and Emigration in the Second Century"; Svensk Exegetisk Årsbok 35 (1970): 104-114.

Anton Fridrichsen "Missionstanken i Fjärde evangeliet"; Svensk Exegetisk Årsbok 2 (1937): 137-148.

David Gibson "Eating is Believing? On Midrash and the Mixing of Metaphors in John 6"; Themelios 27.2 (2002): 5-15.

Birger Olsson "Mission a la Lukas, Johannes och Petrus"; Svensk Exegetisk Årsbok 51 (1986): 180-191.

John W. Pryor "The Johannine Son of Man and the descent-ascent motif"; Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 34.3 (Sept. 1991): 341-351.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-03-07; 2011-02-28; 2014-02-08; 2014-10-17)

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6:41-44 The Jews grumbled so (continually) on account of Him, because He spoke: “I am the bread having descended out of the heaven.” And they (continually) said: “Is not this Jesus, the son of Joseph, whose father * (א*) we know? How does this (א,*א,A) so (P66,א,*א,A) say: ‘I (א,*א) have descended (and descends) out of the heaven.’?” Jesus so (א,*א) answered and spoke to them: “Do not grumble in company with one another. No one is able to come towards Me, if – according to the circumstances – not the Father having sent Me may draw him. And I will cause him to stand up * (P66c,75,א,*א) the last day.”

Word for word: 6:41 (17 words in the Greek text) Grumbled-(continually) so the Jews on-account-of him because (he)-spoke: i/I (i/I)-am the bread the-(one) having-descended out-of the heaven. 6:42 (23 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus prima manus) and (they)-(continually)-said: not this-(one) is Jesus the son (of)-Joseph, whose we know the father; how so says this-(one): i/I out-of the heaven have-descended-(and-descends)? 6:43 (10 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus) answered so Jesus and spoke (to)-them: not grumble in-company-with one-another. 6:44 (20 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus) no-one is-able-to come towards me if-according-to-the-circumstances not the father the-(one) having-sent me may-draw him, and-i/I will-cause-to-stand-up him the last day.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

The serpent was (continually) most sensible of all the little wild animal on the earth, which the Lord God had made. And the serpent spoke to the woman: “’What that’/why did God speak: ‘You may not/certainly not eat from every/all wood in the ‘place by the side of apprehension’/Paradise?’” (Gen 3:1, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Moses): "I have descended to take (My people) out for Myself, out of the hand of Egyptians and to lead them out, out of that earth/land and to lead them into, into a good and ‘much earth’/’large land’." (Ex 3:8a, Greek OT)

Every/’the whole’ synagogue of (the) sons of Israel grumbled throughout against Moses and Aaron, and the sons of Israel spoke towards them: “(It had been) advantageous (that) we had died in the earth/land Egypt having been struck by the Lord, when we – according to the circumstances – sat down upon/’with regard to’ the kettles of the meats/meat and (continually) ate breads/bread into satiation’/’so that we were satiated’, because you have led us out into this desolate (district) to kill this every/whole synagogue in/with famine.” ... And Moses said: "Your grumblings are not ‘down from’/against us however/but ‘down from’/against the Lord." (Ex 16:2-3,8b, Greek OT)

(In Rephidim) the people thirsted (in/for) water, and the people grumbled there towards Moses saying: "’In order of what this’/'why ... for this' did You cause us to go up out of Egypt?" (Ex 17:3a, Greek OT)

The people (Israel) was ‘little in the soul’/faint-hearted in/on the way. And the people talked down/against towards God and ‘down from’/against Moses saying: "’In order to what’/why have you led us out, out of Egypt to kill us in the desolate (district)? Because it/there is not bread, nor water, but/then our soul has been indignant in/at the throughout empty bread." And the Lord dispatched away ‘putting to death’/deadly serpents into the people, and they (continually) bit the people, and much people of the sons of Israel died. (Num 21:4b-6, Greek OT)

(David said:) "... All my enemies (continually) whispered ‘down from’/against me." (Ps 41:7a or 41:8a, Greek OT)

(The woman said about Solomon:) “Draw (me to) you. Let us run behind you into your scent of ointment oils.” (Song of Solomon 1:4a, Greek OT)

The Lord was beheld to (Israel) from afar (an He said): “I have welcomed you (with) an agelong welcoming. Because of this I have drawn you into sympathy." (Jer 31:3, Greek OT)


The Latter Revelation:

Out of (Mary, the woman of Joseph) was begotten Jesus, the One being said/called christ/anointed. (Matt 1:16b)

(Jesus said:) "All things have been given to the side of Me by the (א*) Father." (Matt 11:27a)

(The parents of Jesus found Him in the sanctuary.) His mother spoke towards Him: “... Behold, ‘being caused’/feeling pain Your father and I seek (א*) You.” And He spoke towards them: "What (is it) that you seek (א*) Me? Did you not know, that I must be in the things of 'the Father My'/'My Father'?” (Luke 2:48b-49)

All (in the synagogue continually) were witnesses to (Jesus) and (continually) wondered on/at the sayings of the joybringing (grace), (sayings) going out, out of His mouth. And they (continually/repeatedly) said: "Is by no means this One Joseph's son?" (Luke 4:22)

The Pharisees and * (א,*א) the scribes (continually) grumbled towards (Jesus') disciples, saying: "Because of what do you eat and drink in company with the toll collectors and missers (of the mark of God)?" (Luke 5:30)

The Lord of the vineyard spoke: “What shall I make/do? I will send my welcomed son. Perhaps they will ‘turn in themselves’/’be ashamed’ (towards) this one.” (Luke 20:13)

They believed, as many as (continually) were (and had been) arranged into an agelong life. (Acts 13:48b)

(Paul said to the males in Athen: “God) has ‘caused ... to stand’/fixed a day in which He is about to judge the (inhabited) world in/with righteousness in/’by means of’ a male to whom He has marked out by boundaries a faith having been offered to all (by) having caused Him to stand up out of dead (bodies).” (Acts 17:31)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

Philip finds Nathanael and says to him: "We have found (and find) the One of whom Moses in the law and/’and also’ the prophets wrote, Jesus from Nazareth, a son of Joseph." (John 1:45)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 - about 1500

Jesus' drawing on the cross is applicable to all, but it is assumed that man will accept it and believe in him. Cf. John 5:25ff. (René Kieffer "Johannesevangeliet" p 154; translation from the Swedish text)

The same (Greek) word (for "grumble") appears in LXX account of the grumbling of the Israelistes during the Exodus (Ex 16:2,7,8). (Raymond E. Brown "The Gospel according to John" p 270)

John nowhere affirms belief in the virgin birth of Jesus, but it is probable that he knew and accepted the doctrine (see on 1:13) and that he here (6:42) ironically alludes to it. (C.K. Barrett "The Gospel according to St John" p 295)

The whales are, as you know, monstrously big animals, floating round out in the wide seas. You do not manage to catch them as fish with fishing-line and fish-hook. In stead of being drawn up and into the boat, they easily throw down both boat and men. ... The whaling-boat lies still down, as soon as whales are in sight, and one or more boats with courageous men in them are put out. These men row as near as possible next to the whale they want to catch and throw with great force a long, pointed, with flues furnished iron bar, called harpoon, in the body of the animal, where she dives down more or less deeply. The whale becomes wrathful but knows a remedy. He dives down against the bottom to get rid of the harpoon. But this adheres and joins and the men in the boat let a long line, attached to the harpoon, leave. ... When at last the men in the boat withdraw the line, the whale comes up to the surface, with the ventral fins in the air, dead or nearly dead. ... Here we have a picture of God's invitation to a sinner or the now and for evermore final stitch, or the turning-point in the life of a man, or the going, not as for the whale from life to death, but from death to life. ... When the sons of Zebedee sat down at their fishing and when Nathanael stood under the fig-tree ... then the blessed harpoon, the invitation of the spirit, the invitation to the wedding of the lamb, slowly glides down and into their hearts. ... Sometimes it surely happens, that you rush deeper down in sin, sometimes right to the bottom to become free from the stitch. ... Now God stands there like the whalers and waits and lets his line of patience and love, so to speak, to join right down to the depth. But soon he sees that the time has come to draw up the poor sinner. (Karl Palmberg "Pilgrims tillfälliga betraktelser" p 32-33; Karl Palmberg /1842-1920/ was from 1883 a Lutheran clergyman in Månsarp in the diocese of Växjö and president in Jönköpings Missionsförening (Missionary Society) 1886-1911; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


about 1500 and time before

“If a man cometh to (Jesus),” saith some one, “what need is there of drawing?” But the words do not take away our free will, but show that we greatly need assistance. And He implieth not an unwilling comer but one enjoying much succor. (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers XIV:164)

Whatever work a man does with murmuring, he cuts away and loses his reward. ... It is not therefore possible to “serve” Him “acceptably” without a sense of gratitude to Him for all things, both for our trials, and the alleviations of them. (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers XIV:514)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Yngve Brilioth, O. Carling, Hjalmar Danell, Lena Einhorn, Bo Frid, Carl Grimberg, Joel Halldorf, Alf Henrikson, Ad. Kolmodin, Lars Levi Laestadius, Martin Luther, Gabriel Mützenberg, Fredrik Nielsen, Efraim Palmqvist, Pansy, Lewi Pethrus, Gösta Sandberg, Ernst Schrill, Jesper Svartvik, Knut Svensson, Kristin Zeiler, P. Waldenström.


My own comments and speculations:

In the wilderness the Lord killed the grumbling people asking for bread. Now in a restoration perspective we see how the grumbling people asking for bread are invited to eat the bread to agelong life (John 6:51). This is a spiritual bread given by Jesus, who rather is the Son of God than the son of Joseph.

The Father draws a man by, with the help of the Spirit and the bride, saying ”Come” to him. And the one having been called may say: “Come.” Compare with Rev 22:17. In a restoration perspective we can see how the ”drawing” of the serpent (Gen 3:1) to disobedience and disbelief has been replaced by the drawing of the Father to obedience and faith.

Concerning "the last day" see John 5:28-29.


Paul said to the believers in Corinth: "We may (א,* א) not grumble entirely just (as) some of (the people of Israel) grumbled (in the desolate district) and perished by the Destroyer." (1 Cor 10:10)


Greek words:

gongyzô (grumble) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Luke 5:30; John 6:41,43; 1 Cor 10:10 – Judith 5:22; Sir 10:25; Matt 20:11; John 6:61; 7:32.

(h)elkô (draw) (in the Apocrypha, the NT) John 6:44 – 1 Macc 10:82; Wisdom of Solomon 19:4; John 18:10; 21:6,11; Acts 16:19; 21:30; Jas 2:6. See also (h)elkyô John 12:32-33.


Additional studies:

Ex 16:7; 17:3; Num 11:1; 14:2,27,36; Hos 11:4; Matt 13:55; Mark 6:3; Luke 3:23; 15:2; 19:7; John 1:19; 6:33,37-40,51-52,58,62,65; 7:27-28; Rev 20:5-6; 22:17.


David Gibson "Eating is Believing? On Midrash and the Mixing of Metaphors in John 6"; Themelios 27.2 (2002): 5-15.

Tom Gorringe "Numbers 13-14"; Expository Times 117 (2006): 182-184.

John W. Pryor "The Johannine Son of Man and the descent-ascent motif"; Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 34.3 (Sept. 1991): 341-351.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-03-08; 2011-03-01; 2014-02-12; 2014-10-18)

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6:45-51a It is (and) has been (and is) written in the prophets: “And all will be taught of/by God.” 'Every the'/everyone having heard from the side of the Father and having learned comes towards Me. Not (so) that anyone has beheld (and beholds) the Father ‘if not’/except the One being from the side of the Father (א,*א); this One has beheld (and beholds) God (א*). Amen, amen, I say to you, the one believing has agelong life. I am the bread of the life. Your fathers ate the manna in the desolate (district), and they died. This One is the bread descending out of the heaven, in order that a certain one may eat out of it and not die. I am the living bread having descended out of the heaven. If – according to the circumstances – anyone may eat out of My (א,*א) bread, He will live into the (coming) age.

Word for word: 6:45 (21 words in the Greek text) (it)-is having-been-(and-being)-written in the prophets: and will-be all taught (of)-god. every the having-heard from-the-side-of the father and having-learned comes towards me. 6:46 (17 words in the Greek text) not that the father has-beheld-(and-beholds) anyone if not the-(one) being from-the-side-of the father, this-(one) has-beheld-(and-beholds) the god. 6:47 (9 words in the Greek text) amen amen (i/I)-say (to)-you, the-(one) believing has life agelong. 6:48 (6 words in the Greek text) I (i/I)-am the bread (of)-the (of)-life. 6:49 (11 words in the Greek text, the sequence of the words according to Sinaiticus) the fathers your ate the manna in the desolate-(district) and (they)-died. 6:50 (17 words in the Greek text) this-(one) is the bread the-(one) out-of the heaven descending, in-order-that (a)-certain-(one) out-of it may-eat and not may-die. 6:51a (22 words in the Greek text) i/I (i/I)-am 'the bread the living'/'the living bread' the-(one) out-of the heaven having-descended; if-according-to-the-circumstances anyone may-eat out-of the my bread (he)-will-live into the age.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(God said: “Adam may not) stretch out the hand and take of the wood of the life, and eat, and/’so that’ he will live into the (coming) age.” (Gen 3:22b, Greek OT)

Moses said to (the sons of Israel): "(The manna) (is) the bread which the Lord has given you to eat." (Ex 16:15b, Greek OT)

(Nehemiah said:) “This work (with the temple) became ‘to be made’/made perfect from the side of our God.” (Neh 6:16b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Jerusalem:) "All your sons (will be) taught of/by God." (Is 54:13, Greek OT)

The Lord utters: "Giving I shall give My laws into the mind of (My people) ... And everyone may not/certainly not teach his fellow-citizen and everyone his brother, saying: 'Gain knowledge of the Lord', because all shall know Me, from the small/little one of them and till the great one of them, because I shall be propitious to their unrighteousnesses, and I may not/certainly not any longer remember their misses (of My mark). (Jer 31:33b-34, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Israel:) "I shall give My Spirit in you and I will make/do (so), in order that you may go/walk in My fundamental laws, and My judicial verdicts you may watch/observe and make/do." (Ezek 36:27, Greek OT)

(Judas) called the ones (being) together with him to the side of ... to wait for the conquest, which will be/come to them from the side of the All-powerful. (2 Macc 15:8)

(Solomon said to the Lord:) “The origins of the fruits do not support the man, however/but Your word keeps throughout the ones believing You.” (Wisdom of Solomon 16:26b)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “Every/all wisdom (is) from the side of the Lord, and in company with Him it is into the (coming) age.” (Sir 1:1)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "Happy the ones being hungry and thirsting (for) the righteousness, because they themselves will be fed." (Matt 5:6)

(Jesus said:) "All things have been given to the side of Me by the (א*) Father, and no one has additional knowledge of the Son ‘if not’/except the Father. Nor anyone has additional knowledge of the Father ‘if not’/except the Son, and (the one) to whom the Son – if according to the circumstances – may wish to reveal." (Matt 11:27)

Jesus says to (the priest leaders and the elders): “Did you nor at any time read in the writings: ‘A stone which the ones building rejected, this has become into a head/beginning of a corner, from the side of the Lord this became, and it is wondrous in our eyes?’” (Matt 21:42)

(Jesus) spoke (to His disciples:) "To you it has been (and is) given to gain knowledge of the mysteries of the kingdom of God." (Luke 8:10a)

(Jesus said to the twelve:) “All the things having been (and being) written through the prophets (about) the Son of the Man will be ended.” (Luke 18:31b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

No one has ever beheld (and beholds) God. An only descendant, a God, the One being into/in the bosom of the Father, that One has ‘been in command out’/explained Him. (John 1:18)

(Jesus said to Nicodemus:) "The Spirit blows whereat/where it wants, and you hear its voice. However, you do not know from where it comes, and where it withdraws. In this way is 'every the'/everyone having been (and being) begotten out of the water and (א,*א) the Spirit." (John 3:8)

The one believing into the Son has agelong life. (John 3:36a)

Jesus so (א,*א) spoke to (the crowd): “I am the bread of the life.” (John 6:35a)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 - about 1500

The life (the believers) have makes the physical death relative. See John 11:25f. (René Kieffer "Johannesevangeliet" p 155; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

(1900 July) 15th Sunday. Read in the Bible: II Chron. 20:20: "Put your trust in the Lord your God, and you will be established. Put your trust in His prophets and succeed." (II Chron.) 26:5: "And he continued to seek God . . . And as long as he sought the Lord, God prospered him." This is the sum of all wisdom, which the life has taught me. If the ones being "pursued" by misfortune wanted to do the experiment. All this wisdom I still learnt as a child: "The one God loves, (the one loving God) success has!" For what purpose is all learning then? Compare: The Acts of the Apostles 26:24: "Paul, you are out of your mind. Your great learning is driving you mad." (August Strindberg "Ockulta dagboken" p 118; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

They sat after cleared evening table, the father with his three newspapers, Aftonbladet, Allehanda and Posttidningen, Johan with a school-book. The old man took a rest. "What is it you read?" he asked. Philosophy!" Long pause. The boys always called logic philosophy. "Of what kind is philosophy, in fact?" "The science about the thing to think!" "Hm! Must one need to learn to think! Let me look at that!" He put off his spectacles and read. "Do you think the farmers in the Riksdag (he was one hating farmers, but now he needed the farmers for the argumentation), do you think the farmers in the Riksdag have learnt philosophy? That I do not think, but nevertheless they come down on the professors like anything. You read so much unneccessary!" And with this the philosophy was dismissed. . . . In order to check (Johan) in his growth . . . the confirmation was postponed. He read theology in school and knew the gospels in Greek, but he was not ready for the confirmation examination! . . . (And) Johan was as skilful in the natural sciences elected in the club "The friends of the natural science", and as the only one from his class this was a great honour. (August Strindberg "Tjänstekvinnans son" p 122-124; the sixties of the nineteenth century; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

(Johan) told (the mother) out of the books about nature and history and she who never had got knowledge, listened in a devotional spirit. But when she had listened for a long while, either she now needed to raise herself or really feared the wisdom of the world, she came along with the only knowledge being able to make man happy. She spoke about Christ; Johan recognized well that speech, but the mother understood to say it to him personally. . . . There was something unhealthy in her views, and he thought himself observe the dislike of the uncultivated one to culture. Why this long curriculum in school? He answered himself, when it nevertheless was regarded to be nothing in comparison with this dusky doctrines about Jesus' blood? He also knew that the mother gathered this speech out of conversations with wet-nurses, virgins in sewing-circles and old women going to syrupy church. Strangely, he thought, that these would be in charge of the most highest wisdom, of which neither the priest in church or the teacher in school had an idea. He began to find that these humble ones were exceedingly spiritually proud and that the way to wisdom through Jesus was a made up short cut. (August Strindberg "Tjänstekvinnans son" p 84-85; the sixties of the nineteenth century; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

"Margit", (Master Gudmund) said, "it is stated, that this house has become built by heathen forefathers. Where are they now? In their lifetime they never had heard about the Lord Jesus. Would they because of this involuntary ignorance have become judged to torments resting for ever? Away with this, Margit! It has existed heathens, which, when they in outward sense had not the law, nevertheless did what the law ordered, because God - please, observe: God himself - had written his law in their hearts and consciences. . . . Glory to God, who in his severity is just, merciful and of great mildness." (Viktor Rydberg "Vapensmeden" p 79-80; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


about 1500 and time before

Those who without letters have believed this faith are barbarians so far as regards our language; but as regards doctrine, manner and tenor of life they are, because of faith, very wise indeed; and they do please God, ordering their conversation in all righteousness, chastity and wisdom. (Irenaeus, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol I, p 417)

Moses himself says to the people in Deuteronomy: “The Lord thy God formed a covenant in Horeb. The Lord formed not this covenant with your fathers, but for you.” Why, then, did the Lord not form the covenant for the fathers? Because “the law was not established for righteous men.” But the righteous fathers had the meaning of the Decalogue written in their hearts and souls, that is, they loved the God who made them, and did no injury to their neighbour. There was therefore no occasion that they should be cautioned by prohibitory mandates, because they had the righteousness of the law in themselves. ... Lord's advent ... should be subsequent to that law which was given by Mose. (Irenaeus, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol I, p 481,490)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Carl Jonas Love Almqvist, Erika André, Margit Asssarsson, Magnus Bergman, P.M. Bergman, Oloph Bexell, Ingmar Brohed, Barthold Carlson, Sven Danell, Emma Dixon, Fjodor Dostojevskij, V. Raymond Edman, Stefan Einhorn, E.J. Ekman, Rolf Fredriksson, Bo Frid, Jan Fridegård, Carl Grimberg, Peter Halldorf, David Hedegård, Alf Henrikson, Alice Hulting, Bengt Hägglund, Brita Johansson, Herbert Johansson, Majken Johansson, Nath. Johansson, Viktor Johansson, Eskil Jonsson, Alexis Kivi, Lars Levi Laestadius, Rolf Lemke, Agnes Linder, Gustaf Linder, Daniel Lindmark, Anna Lorentz, Martin Luther, Vilhelm Moberg, Fredrik Nielsen, Fritiof Nilsson Piraten, N. Odenvik, Bror Olsson, John Ongman, Einar Persson, Lewi Pethrus, Hilding Pleijel, Gustaf Pontén, Harald Rasmussen, Ingemar Ringsvåg, Sigrid Rosell, Abraham Rundbäck, Carl-Erik Sahlberg, Gösta Sandberg, Em. Sandmark, Sven-Åke Selander, Bo Setterlind, Isaac Basjevis Singer, Olof Sjöstrand, Samuel Sollerman, Russell P. Spittler, Hans D. Stern, Jesper Svartvik, Johanna Svensdotter, Bengt Söderberg, Lennart Tegborg, Alf Tergel, Einar Thomassen, Anton Tjechov, P. Waldenström, Amy Catherine Walton, Yngve Ydreborg, Manne Zettergren, Göran Åberg.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “beheld (and beholds) God”, see John 1:18 with My own comments and speculations.

Concerning "amen, amen", see John 1:51a with My own comments and speculations.

Concerning "agelong life", see John 3:14-15 with My own comments and speculations.

Concerning “bread of the life”, see also John 6:34-36.

Concerning "I am", see John 4:25-26 with My own comments and speculations.


Paul said to the believers in Thessalonica: "’On account of the brotherly friendship, you yourselves have not need (to have anyone) to write to you, for you yourselves are taught by God into the thing to welcome one another." (1 Thess 4:9)

And the life was made visible, and we have beheld (and behold) and we are witnesses and bring a message to you (about) the agelong life, whichever/which (continually) was towards the Father and was made visible to you. (1 John 1:2)

You have ointment from the Holy One, and 'you know all ones'/'all of you have knowledge'. I have not written to you, that you do not know the truth, however/but that you know it, and that every lie is not out of the truth. (1 John 2:20-21)

And you, the ointment, which you have taken from Him, it stays in you, and you have not need, in order that anyone may teach you. However, as His Spirit (א*) teaches you on account of all things and is true and is not a lie, and entirely as It has taught you, you stay in Him. (1 John 2:27)

This is the evidence, that God has given us an agelong life, and this life is in His Son. The one having the Son has the life. The One not having the Son of God has not the life. (1 John 5:11-12)


Greek words:

didaktos (taught) Is 54:13; John 6:45 – 1 Macc 4:7; 1 Cor 2:13. (Psalms of Solomon 17:32)

manthanô (learn) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) John 6:45 – Esther 4:5; 2 Macc 7:2; Wisdom of Solomon 6:1,9; 7:13; Sir 8:8-9; 16:24; 18:19; Baruch 3:14; Matt 9:13; 11:29; 24:32; Mark 13:28; John 7:15; Acts 23:27; Rom 16:17; 1 Cor 4:6; 14:31,35; Gal 3:2; Eph 4:20; Phil 4:9,11; Col 1:7; 1 Tim 2:11; 5:4,13; 2 Tim 3:7,14; Tit 3:14; Heb 5:8; Rev 14:3.


Additional studies:

Ex 16:19; Lev 10:11; Num 14:23; Deut 1:35; Matt 2:23; Luke 10:22; John 3:13,15,18; 4:14; 5:19,24,37; 6:31-33,35-36,38,41,51,58; 7:29; 8:17,38,56; 9:16; 11:26; 16:13; 17:7; Acts 7:42; 13:40; Rom 2:14-15; 7:6; 1 Cor 10:3,5; Phil 3:15; Heb 3:16,19; 8:10-11; 10:16; Rev 2:17; 3:19; 4:6; 10:1,6; 11:15.


Geoff A. Adams "The New Covenant of Jeremiah 31:31-37"; Reformation and Revival 6.3 (Summer 1997): 77-97.

David Gibson "Eating is Believing? On Midrash and the Mixing of Metaphors in John 6"; Themelios 27.2 (2002): 5-15.

Walter C. Kaiser Jr "The old promise and the New Covenant: Jeremiah 31:31-34"; Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 15.1 (Winter 1972): 11-23.

John W. Pryor "The Johannine Son of Man and the descent-ascent motif"; Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 34.3 (Sept. 1991): 341-351.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-03-09; 2011-03-03; 2014-02-14; 2014-10-18)

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6:51b-59 And the bread * (א,* א) which I will give is My flesh in favour of the life of the adornment/’adorned world’. The Jews (continually/repeatedly) combatted/disputed so towards one another, saying: “How is this One able to give us the (א,*א) flesh to eat?” Jesus so spoke to them: “Amen, amen, I say to you, if – according to the circumstances – you may not eat the flesh of the Son of the Man and may not drink His blood, you have not life in yourselves. The one chewing My flesh and drinking My blood has agelong life, and I will cause him to stand up the last day. For My flesh is truthful consumption, and My blood is truly (P66, א*) a drinking. The one chewing My flesh and drinking My blood stays in Me and I in him. Entirely as the living Father has dispatched Me away, and I live because of the Father, and the one chewing Me, and/also that one will live because of Me. This is the bread, the one descending (P66, א*) out of the (P66, א,* א) heaven, not entirely as the fathers ate and died. The one chewing this bread will live into the (coming) age. These things He spoke in a synagogue teaching in Capharnaum.

Word for word: 6:51b (15 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus) and the bread which i/I will-give in-favour-of (of)-the (of)-the (of)-adornment (of)-life the flesh my is. 6:52 (15 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus) Combatted-(continually) so one-another towards the Jews saying: how is-able-to this-(one) us give the flesh (to)-eat? 6:53 (28 words in the Greek text; the sequence of the words according to Sinaiticus) spoke so (to)-them the Jesus: amen amen (i/I)-say (to)-you: if-according-to-the-circumstances not (you)-may-eat the flesh (of)-the (of)-son (of)-the (of)-man and (you)-may-drink the blood his, not (you)-have life in (your)selves. 6:54 (19 words in the Greek text) the-(one) chewing my the flesh and drinking my the blood has life agelong, and-i/I will-cause-to-stand-up him the last day. 6:55 (14 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus) the for flesh my truthful is consumption, and the blood my truly is (a)-drinking. 6:56 (16 words in the Greek text) the-(one) chewing my the flesh and drinking my the blood in me stay and-i/I in him. 6:57 (19 words in the Greek text) entirely-as dispatched-away me the living father and-i/I live because-of the father and the-(one) chewing me and-that-(one) will-live because-of me. 6:58 (25 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus) this is the bread the-(one) out-of the heaven descending, not entirely-as ate the fathers and (they)-died. the-(one) chewing 'this the'/this bread will-live into the age. 6:59 (7 words in the Greek text) These-(things) (he)-spoke in (a)-synagogue teaching in Capharnaum.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(God said to the man:) "From the wood of the thing to have knowledge of fine and evil, from it you shall not eat. But/and (in) which day you – according to the circumstances – may eat from it, you will die (in) death." (Gen 2:17, Greek OT)

(The Lord said: “Adam may not) stretch out the hand and take of the wood of the life, and eat, and/’so that’ he will live into the (coming) age.” (Gen 3:22b, Greek OT)

Melchizedek, king of Salem, carried out breads/bread and wine. But/and he (continually) was a priest of the highest God. (Gen 14:18, Greek OT)

The shepherds of Gerar combatted/disputed ‘in company with’/with the shepherds of Isaac, maintaining the water be/being theirs. (Gen 26:20a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Moses: “The people) ate the meats/meat (of the sheep).” (Ex 12:8a, Greek OT)

... (The Lord gives the sons of Israel) meat to eat (during the) evenings and breads/bread early in the days. (Ex 16:8a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) "And a man, a man of the sons of Israel or of the proselytes of the ones ‘lying towards’/’being added’ in you, who – according to the circumstances – may eat every/any blood, I will set My face against, against the soul eating the blood, and I will perish it out of its people." (Lev 17:10, Greek OT)

The sons of Israel spoke: "Who will give us a morsel meat?" ... (The Lord said to Israel: “You shall eat meat) a month of days, till it – according to the circumstances – may come out, out of your nostrils, and it shall for you be into/’purposed for’ cholera, because you have disobeyed the Lord who is in/among you and you wept in the very eyes of Him, saying: ‘”In order that what to us”/’why did we’ come out, out of Egypt?’” ... The meats/meat (continually) was still in/between their teeth, before it might ‘leave out’/disappear, and the Lord was passionate into/against the people, and the Lord hit the people (with) an extremely great blow. ... And they buried the desirous people there. (Num 11:4b,20,33,34b, Greek OT)

It/there (continually) was not water in/for the synagogue, and they assembled themselves against Moses and against Aaron. ... (They said to Moses:) "’In order that’/’because of’ what have you led the synagogue of the Lord up into this desolate (district)? ... And ‘in order that’/’because of’ this what/why have you led us up out of Egypt?" (Num 20:2,4a,5a, Greek OT)

(Israel said:) "Which flesh, whichever has heard the voice of the living God talking out of the middle of the fire, as we, and (which still) will live?" (Deut 5:26, Greek OT)

(The male out of another tribe) spoke towards David: “Come here towards me, and I will give your fleshes/’pieces of flesh’ to the flying creatures of the heaven and to the domestic animals of the earth.” (1 Sam 17:44, Greek OT)

(Job said to his friends:) “Have my maidattendants/maidservants not many times said: ‘Who may – according to the circumstances – give us of his fleshes/flesh to be fulfilled/satisfied?’” (Job 31:31, Greek OT)

(David said:) “In the drawing near against me treating (me) ill to eat my flesh, my adversaries and my enemies themselves were weak and fell.” (Ps 27:2, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to the prophet:) “Speak to every bird (and) flying creature and towards all little beasts of the plain: ‘Be led’/come together … and eat meat and drink blood. You shall eat (the) meat of giants and drink (the) blood of leaders of the earth.’” (Ezek 39:17b-18a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to the prophet:) “It will be in the place, where it was spoken to (the sons of Israel): 'You (are) not My people', there they will be called: 'Sons of a living God'.” (Hos 1:10b, Greek OT)

... (The king had) arranged out/for the consumption and the drinking of (Daniel and his friends). (Dan 1:10a, Greek OT)

(Solomon said:) “The inhabitants long ago of Your holy earth/land ... ‘ate party’/’feasted on’ inward vital parts of human fleshes/flesh and blood. (Wisdom of Solomon 12:3,5a)

(Solomon said to the Lord:) “The origins of the fruits do not support the man, however/but Your word keeps throughout the ones believing You.” (Wisdom of Solomon 16:26b)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “Flesh and blood will ponder (what is) evil.” (Sir 17:31b)

(One) man (must) eat (the) flesh of his son and (another) man (the) flesh of his daughter. (Baruch 2:3b)


The Latter Revelation:

(Simon Peter said to Jesus:) "You are the christ/'anointed one', the Son of the living God." But ‘having answered Jesus’/’Jesus answered and’ spoke to him: "Happy are you, Simon, a son of Jona, because flesh and blood have not revealed (it) to you, however/but My Father, the One (who is) in the heavens. (Matt 16:16b-17)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "As it (continually) was in the (א,* א) days before the inundation, (they were) chewing and drinking ... and they had not knowledge till the inundation came and lifted/’took away’ all of them, in this way the ‘being by the side of’/presence of the Son of the Man will be." (Matt 24:38a,39)

On their eating, having taken a bread and blessed, Jesus ‘fragmented (it)’/’broke (it) to pieces and (continually/repeatedly) gave (א*,A) to the disciples (and) (א*) spoke: "Take, eat. This is my body." And having taken a cup and having ‘been thankful’/’given thanks’, He gave to them saying: “Drink out of it, all (of you). For this is My blood of the covenant, the one being poured out on account of many into/’for the purpose of’ a ‘letting be’/’leaving alone’ of misses (of the mark of God).” (Matt 26:26-28)

They went into, into Capharnaum. And straight/’straight off’ in/on the sabbaths * (א*) (Jesus) taught into/in the synagogue. (Mark 1:21b)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "Behold My hands and My feet, that I am He Himself. Feel (on) Me and behold, that a spirit has not fleshes/’pieces of flesh’ (P75, א*) and bones entirely as you look at ‘Me having’/’that I have’." (Luke 24:39)

... Moses was beheld (to some of the sons of Israel) combatting/disputing, and he '(continually) changed together'/'tried to deal' with them into/’for the purpose of’ peace. (Acts 7:26a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

And the Saying became flesh. (John 1:14a)

(Jesus said to the crowd:) "‘Do not work (for) the consumption perishing, however/but (for) * (א,* א) (the consumption) staying into/for an agelong life, which the Son of the Man gives (א,*א) to you." (John 6:27a)

(Jesus said to the Jews:) “I am the living bread, the one having descended out of the heaven. If – according to the circumstances – anyone may eat out of My (א,*א) bread, He will live into the (coming) age.” (John 6:51a)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 - about 1500

The language of eating the flesh and drinking the blood is said to be explicable only, or at least most naturally, in terms of the sacrament. But is this so? Surely not! ... The eating and drinking spoken of are the means of bringing eternal life (v. 54), and they are absolutely unqualified. Who is going to argue seriously that the one thing necessary for eternal life is to receive Holy Communion? Nothing is said, for example, about faith; is it not necessary to believe if we are to have life? (Leon Morris "The Gospel according to John" p 333)

Perhaps Ignatius of Antioch about 110 A.D. alludes to (John 6:27 and 6:53ff): ”I do not rejoice in perishable food, neither in the the enjoyments of this life. I want have the bread of God, that is the flesh of Jesus Christ, which is come from the seed of David, and to drink I want to have his blood, it is an imperishable meal of love”, Ignatius' letter to the Roman 7:3. (René Kieffer "Johannesevangeliet" p 151; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

It is a fundamental mistake to assume that John (or the author of vv. 51c-58) understood the bread and wine to be a kind of medicine, conferring immortality by quasimagical means. His removal of the eucharistic allusion from the last supper to this discourse proves precisely the contrary; it is his intention to set the eucharist in the context of the work of Jesus as a whole and to give it a strictly personal interpretation. ... The fact that the eucharistic and non-eucharistic statements stand in parallel shows that John is not concerned to argue for the uniqueness of the eucharist as a means of grace. (C.K. Barrett "The Gospel according to St John" p 297)

The tale how the relief expedition had found (the son of Joel and Thala and the other north pole travellers) this summer, half dead of starvation . . . (Thala) had to hear time and again. . . . "The vicar had got information from England", (Joel said to Thala). . . . "There was one who in despair cut his throat." . . . "They ate him up, I suppose", the wife said. . . . "They had not taken more than one af the arms. . . . (Our son Sven) was forced to take a bit in his mouth, he as the others", (the man said). . . . (Thala) thought . . . she never would forget the distaste she had felt, when she heard, that her son had tasted flesh of a man. . . . "(But) although he has neglected us, although he has come back with little honour, I can not otherwise than love him", (Thala) thought. (Selma Lagerlöf "Bannlyst" p 6-13; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

How perplexed we now would be, if Jesus not also had said, in which way and with which means this union with God, this eternal life, could be received. ... My beloved, what does it then want to say to eat the flesh of the Son of Man and drink his blood? At first it is in this, that Christ must be received in faith completely. A man is in the bible characterized as flesh and blood, this is what he is as a man. Thus Jesus here means his whole person as the Son of God having become man. Therefore he changes the words flesh and blood for the word me farther down in the text. "As the living Father has sent me, and I live because of the father, so he who eats me, he also shall live because of me." This reception of Christ, with all what he is and has, was prototyped in the Old Testament with the regulation, that the paschal lamb would be eaten completely. After this the yearning and the sighs, which the holy spirit wakes in the heart, where he is allowed to dwell, also stretch as "Oh, that I could seize Christ completely; oh, that I might be completely united with him; oh, that he might steadily dwell with me"; and so on. (Karl Palmberg "Ur livskällan. Andra årgången." p 183-184; comment to John 6:52-71; Karl Palmberg /1842-1920/ was from 1883 a Lutheran clergyman in Månsarp in the diocese of Växjö and president in Jönköpings Missionsförening (Missionary Society) 1886-1911; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Gustaf (to Adolf): "This is of course cannibalism! Do you know what it is! Yes, the savages eat their enemies to get prominent qualities in themselves! - She has eaten your soul, this woman (Tekla); your courage, your knowledge." (August Strindberg "Fordringsägare" p 215; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

If you knew how life appears when one as the author must do, undressed naked in a market, how you as a vampire suck the blood of your friends, your nearest ones, your own blood! Hush! And if you do not do so, you are no author! And - how alone you become! The old, the old society you can not live with and in; the new ones flee from you, for they want to have their hunting-ground alone. (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev V 1885-juli 1886" p 62; letter 1885-03-30 to Verner von Heidenstam; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


about 1500 and time before

"Sit down beside me", (Singoalla) said (to Erland), "and hear a legend which the people of my father told. They say, that the man and the woman having drunk the blood of each other will feel life's sorrow and joy, health and discomfort at the same time and in the same manner; that they can speak to each other, although they are at a long distance, and that their hearts never can be separated. Do you believe this?" "I do not know, but I have heard, that friends wanting to form an eternal alliance, mixed blood with one another. Singoalla", Erland continued, "I want to drink from your blood; do you want to drink from mine?" "Yes, rather than from the spring of the desert", Singoalla answered. . . . The girl draw her dagger, stuck its fine point in the arm of her darling catching with her lips the little pearl of blood of youth oozing out. After that she laid her left hand bare. With the point of the dagger she brought forth a drop of the juice of her veins, a drop which by Erland was covetously kissed away. (Viktor Rydberg "Singoalla" p 55-56; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

See ye not the infants with how much eagerness they lay hold of the breast? with what earnest desire they fix their lips upon the nipple? With the like let us also approach ... the nipple of the spiritual cup. (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers X:496)

Job implied, speaking of his servants, by whom he was beloved so exceedingly, that they desired to cleave unto his flesh. For they said to show the strong love which they felt: “Who would give us to be satisfied with his flesh?” (Job 31:31). Wherefore this also Christ hath done to lead us to a closer friendship and to show His love for us. He hath given to those who desire Him not only to see Him but even to touch and eat Him and fix their teeth in His flesh. (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers XIV:166)

He, who was the perfect bread of the Father, offered Himself to us as milk, (because we were) as infants. He did this when He appeared as a man, that we, being nourished, as it were, from the breast of His flesh, and having, by such a course of milk-nourishment, become accustomed to eat and drink the Word of God, may be able also to contain in ourselves the Bread of immortality, which is the Spirit of the Father. ... The Holy Spirit ... is the food of life (eternal). (Irenaeus, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol I, p 521)

According to the Rabbis, ‘the seal of God was Truth (AeMeTH),’ the three letters of which this word is composed in Hebrew being ... respectively the first, the middle, and the last letters of the alphabet (Jer. Sanh. 18a; Ber. R. 81). Thus the words of Christ would convey his hearers that for the real meat, which would endure to eternal life – for the better Messianic banquet – they must come to Him, because God had impressed upon Him His own seal of truth, and so authenicated His teaching and Mission. ... Among the ruins of the Synagogue of Capernaum the lintel has been discovered, and that it bears the device of a pot of manna, ornamented with a flowing pattern of vine leaves and clusters of grapes. (Edersheim II:29)

Canon Westcott clearly shows, that the reference to the Holy Supper can only be secondary. Mark here specially, that in the latter we have ‘the Body,’ not ‘the Flesh’ of the Lord. (Edersheim II:34)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Ann-Charlotte Alverfors, Saul Bellow, Per Beskow, Gordon Bridger, Pearl S. Buck, E.J. Ekman, LarsOlov Eriksson, P. Fjellstedt, Gustave Flaubert, Emilia Fogelklou, Bo Frid, Bo Giertz, William Golding, Carl Grimberg, Peter Halldorf, Heinrich Heine, Gustaf Hellström, Bengt Hägglund, Sven Ingvar, Claes Lindskog, Martin Luther, Carl Henrik Martling, Dieter Mitternacht, D.L. Moody, Herta Müller, Fabian Månsson, Fredrik Nielsen, Anders Nohrborg, David Nyvall, Thede Palm, Hilding Pleijel, Ingrid Pohl, Per Rickardsson, Carl Olof Rosenius, Seymor Rossel, Joanne Kathleen Rowling, Anders Runesson, Gunnar E. Sandgren, Enar Skillius, Milton Steinberg, Jesper Svartvik, Thomas a Kempis, P. Waldenström, Cecilia Wassén, N.P. Wetterlund, Göran Åberg.


My own comments and speculations:

In a restoration perspective we can see how the flesh in the wilderness, which was chewed to death, now is chewed to agelong life. And the drinking of the blood, which in times of old led to death, now gives agelong life.

The Greek word for "drinking" in John 6:55 only occurs here in the Gospels. The only time this word is used in the Greek OT is in Dan 1:10, where it is used about wine in a negative meaning in contrast to the water Daniel and his friends drank.

The Greek word for "meat" in Num 11 is “kreas”. The word “sarx” in John can allude both to “kreas” in Num and the word for body - sôma - in the Synoptics. The Hebrew word for "meat" in Num 11 can very well also be translated by flesh. The composition “flesh and blood” in John has its most obvious background in the Synoptics in Matt 16:16-17, a Bible passage which is not a question of the eucharist but of Peter's understanding of Jesus' person, which also is mentioned in John 6, however in a different way (cf John 6:69)..

On "amen, amen", see John 1:51a with My own comments and speculations.

On "the Son of the Man", see My own comments and speculations to John 1:51b.

On "agelong life" see also John 3:14-15 with My own comments and speculations.

On "the last day" see also John 5:28-29.


Paul said to the believers in Corinth: ”The last Adam (became) into/to a spirit making alive.” (1 Cor 15:45b)

And the life was made visible, and we have beheld (and behold) and we are witnesses and bring a message to you (about) the agelong life, whichever/which (continually) was towards the Father and was made visible to you. (1 John 1:2)

You, what you have heard from a beginning, let (it) stay in you. If – according to the circumstances – what you have heard from a beginning may stay in you, and/also you will stay in the Father and in the Son (א,*א). (I John 2:24)

The one keeping His commandments stays in Him, and He in him. And in this we have knowledge, that He stays in us, out of the Spirit, of which He has given us. (1 John 3:24)

In this the welcome of God has been made visible in us, that God has dispatched (and dispatches) away His Son, the only Descendant, into the adornment/’adorned world’, in order that we might live through Him. In this is the welcome of God (א,*א), not that we welcomed (א,*א) God, however/but that He Himself welcomed us and has dispatched (and dispatches) (א,*א) away His Son (to be) a propitiation on account of our misses (of His mark). (1 John 4:9-10)

The one who – if according to the circumstances – may confess that/: “Jesus is the Son of God”, in him God stays, and he himself in God. (1 John 4:15)

This is the evidence, that God has given us an agelong life, and this life is in His Son. The one having the Son has the life. The One not having the Son of God has not the life. (1 John 5:11-12)


Greek words:

didaskô (teach) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Mark 1:21; John 6:59 – Wisdom of Solomon 6:10; Sir 9:1; 18:13; 22:9; 30:3; 33:28(29); 45:5; Matt 4:23; 5:2,19; 7:29; 9:35; 11:1; 13:54; 15:9; 21:23; 22:16; 26:55; 28:15,20; Mark 1:22; 2:13; 4:1-2; 6:2,6,30,34; 7:7; 8:31; 9:31; 10:1; 11:17; 12:14,35; 14:49; Luke 4:15,31; 5:3,17; 6.6; 11:1; 12:12; 13:10,22,26; 19:47; 20:1,21; 21:37; 23:5; John 7:14,28,35; 8:(2),20,28; 9:34; 14:26; 18:20. Acts 1:1; 4:2,18; 5:21,25,28,42; 11:26; 15:1,35; 18:11,25; 20:20; 21:21,28; 28:31; Rom 2:21; 12:7; 1 Cor 4:17; 11:14; Gal 1:12; Eph 4:21; Col 1:28; 2:7; 3:16; 2 Thess 2:15; 1 Tim 2:12; 4.11; 6:2; 2 Tim 2:2; Tit 1:11; Heb 5:12; 8:11; 1 John 2:27; Rev 2:14,20.

kakeinos (and that one) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) John 6:57 – 2 Macc 1:15; Wisdom of Solomon 18:1. Matt 23:23; Mark 12:4-5; Luke 11:7,42; 20:11; 22:12; John 7:29; 10:16; 14:12; 17:24; Acts 5:37; 15:11; 18:19; Rom 11:23; 1 Cor 10:6; 2 Tim 2:12; Heb 4:2.

machomai (combat) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) John 6:52; Acts 7:26 – 2 Macc 10:17; 12:36; 2 Tim 2:24; Jas 4:2.

posis (drinking) Dan 1:10; John 6:55 – Rom 14:17; Col 2:16.

synagôgê (synagogue) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Mark 1:21; John 6:59 – Esther 10:3k(F10); 1 Macc 14:28; Sir 4:7; 16:6; 21:9; 24:23; 31:3; 41:18; 45:18; Susanna v 41,60. Matt 4:23; 6:2,5; 9:35; 10:17; 12:9; 13:54; 23:6,34; Mark 1:23,29,39; 3:1; 6:2; 12:39; 13:9; Luke 4:15-16,20,28,33,38,44; 6:6; 7:5; 8:41; 11:43; 12:11; 13:10; 20:46; 21:12; John 18:20. Acts 6:9; 9:2,20; 13:5,14,43; 14:1; 15:21; 17:1,10,17; 18:4,7,19,26; 19:8; 22:19; 24:12; 26:11; Jas 2:2; Rev 2:9; 3:9.

trôgô (chew) Matt 24:38; John 6:54,56-58 – John 13:18.


Additional studies:

Gen 40:19(Greek OT: sarx); Num 11:13,18-21; 2 Kings 9:36(Greek OT: sarx); 19:4,16; Is 49:18; Ezek 5:11; 18:3; Dan 6:26; Mark 14:22-24; Luke 4:31; 22:19-20; John 1:4,12,18-19,29,32-33,51; 2:12; 3:4,9,13,16-17,36; 4:9,14; 5:,21,24-30,38; 6:17,24,29,31,33,35,38-39,41,44,47-49,51,56,62; 8:31; 9:16; 10:19; 11:24,26; 13:18; 14:10,20; 15:4-10; 17:23; 20:21; Acts 14:15; Rom 9:26; 1 Cor 11:23-25; 2 Cor 3:3; Gal 2:20; Eph 5:2; Heb 10:5,10; 1 John 4:16; Rev 1:54; 2:20, 5:9; 7:2; 10:9-10; 11:15; 12:11; 14:20; 15:7; 16:6; 17:16(sarx); 18:1; 19:18(sarx),21(sarx); 20:5-6.


David Gibson "Eating is Believing? On Midrash and the Mixing of Metaphors in John 6"; Themelios 27.2 (2002): 5-15.

G.H.R. Horsley "Synagogor och semantik"; Svensk Exegetisk Årsbok 64 (1999).

Judith Lieu "Temple and Synagogue in John"; New Testament Studies 45 (1999): 51-69.

John W. Pryor "The Johannine Son of Man and the descent-ascent motif"; Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 34.3 (Sept. 1991): 341-351.

John Wilkinson "The Quail Epidemic of Numbers 11:31-34"; The Evangelical Quarterly 71.3 (Jul.-Sept. 1999): 195-208.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-03-10; 2011-03-07; 2014-02-21; 2014-10-20)

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6:60-65 Many out of His disciples so having heard spoke: “This saying is hard. Who is able to hear it?” But Jesus, knowing in Himself that His disciples grumble/grumbled on account of this, spoke to them: “Does this cause you to stumble? (What about) if – according to the circumstances – you so may look at the Son of the Man ascending whereat/where He (continually) was formerly? The Spirit is the one making alive. The flesh does not help nothing/anything. The words which I have talked (and talk) (with) you is/are spirit and is/are life. However, out of you some are who do not believe. For the Saviour (א,*א) knew from (P66, א,* א) a beginning (that) some are the * (א,*א) believing ones and (that) someone (continually) was the one being about to give Him ‘to the side of’/over (P66, א,*א). And (continually/repeatedly) He said: “Because of this I have spoken (and speak) to you, because no one is able to come towards Me, if – according to the circumstances – it may not have been (and is) given him out of the Father.”

Word for word: 6:60 (17 words in the Greek text) Many so having-heard out-of the disciples his spoke: hard is the saying this, who is-able-to (of)-it hear? 6:61 (18 words in the Greek text) 'knowing-(and-having-known)'/knowing but the Jesus in (him)self that (they)-grumble on-account-of this the disciples his spoke (to)-them: this cause-to-stumble you? 6:62 (12 words in the Greek text) if-according-to-the-circumstances so (you)-may-look-at the son (of)-the (of)-man ascending whereat (he)-(continually)-was 'the formerly'/formerly? 6:63 (21 words in the Greek text) the spirit is the-(thing/one) making-alive, the flesh not helps nothing. the words which i/I have-talked-(and-talk) (with) you spirit is and life is. (25 words in the Greek text) however out-of you are some who not believe. 'knew-(and-had-known)'/knew for from (a)-beginning the saviour some are the-(ones) believing and someone (continually)-was the-(one) being-about-to him give-to-the-side-of. 6:65 (20 words in the Greek text) and (he)-(continually)-said: because-of this (i/I)-have-spoken-(and-speak) (to)-you, because no-one is-able-to come towards me if-according-to-the-circumstances not (it)-may-be having-been-given-(and-be-given) him out-of the father.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

The word (about throwing out his son) was ‘brought to light’/appeared extremely hard opposite/before Abraham. (Gen 21:11, Greek OT)

Having beheld his brothers Joseph ‘gained additional knowledge of’/recognized (them), and/but he (continually) alienated from them and talked hardly/harshly (with) them. (Gen 42:7a, Greek OT)

Every/’the whole’ synagogue of (the) sons of Israel grumbled throughout against Moses and Aaron, and the sons of Israel spoke towards them: “(It had been) advantageous (that) we had died in the earth/land Egypt having been struck by the Lord, when we – according to the circumstances – sat down upon/’with regard to’ the kettles of the meats/meat and (continually) ate breads/bread into satiation’/’so that we were satiated’, because you have led us out into this desolate (district) to kill this every/whole synagogue in/with famine.” ... And Moses said: "Your grumblings are not ‘down from’/against us however/but ‘down from’/against the Lord." (Ex 16:2-3,8b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Moses:) "I know the evil thing (of the sons of Israel), as much as they make/do here to-day, before 'the thing to lead Me'/'I have led' them into the good earth/land which I swore (to give) their fathers." (Deut 31:21b, Greek OT)

(David said to Solomon:) " ... The Lord lets all hearts undergo a test and has knowledge of every device." (1 Chron 28:9a, Greek OT)

(The foreign king wrote:) “We find the Jews having been (and being) given to the side of into invisibility/vanishing by the three times criminal (Haman) being/are not badmen but are citizens (with) most righteous laws.” (Esther 8:12p/E15, Greek OT)

(Solomon said to his son:) "Take upon/’hold of’ my education, you may not let (it) be, however/but watch it yourself into/’for the purpose of’ your life." (Prov 4:13, Greek OT)

(Judas sang to the Lord:) "Give peace for us, for You have ‘given back’/performed all things for us." (Is 26:12b, Greek OT)

(A voice says:) "Every/all flesh (is) grass, and every/all glory of a man (is) as a flower of grass. The grass was dried, the flower fell ‘out of’/off. But the word of our God stays into the (coming) age. (Is 40:6b-8, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Israel:) "From a beginning I have not talked in a hidden (place), nor in a dark place of 'an earth'/'a land'. At the time when it became, I (continually) was there. And now the Lord has dispatched (and dispatches) away Me and His Spirit." (Is 48:16b, Greek OT)

(The people in Egypt said to the prophet:) “We will not hear your saying, which you in the name of the Lord have talked towards us.” (Jer 44:16, Greek OT)

The Lord gave (Jerusalem) ‘to the side of’/over into (the) hands (of the king of Babylon). (Dan 1:2a, Greek OT)

(Solomon said:) “What/how has the overweening (pride) helped us?” (Wisdom of Solomon 5:8a)

(Solomon said: “The wisdom) is easy to be ‘looked at’/perceived by the ones welcoming her and (easy) to be find by the ones seeking her.” (Wisdom of Solomon 6:12b)

(Solomon said:) “You are educated (with) my words, and you will be helped.” (Wisdom of Solomon 6:25)

(Solomon says: “I have knowledge of) beginning and end and middle of times.” (Wisdom of Solomon 7:18a)

(Solomon said:) “Being good I came into an undefiled body, but having/I had' knowledge that I will not otherwise have power in/of (wisdom), if – according to the circumstances – not God may give (it).” (Wisdom of Solomon 8:20b-21a)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “A friend is a companion of tables, and/but he may not/certainly not stay by the side of (you) in your day of oppression.” (Sir 6:10)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “Every flesh (is) as a garment (which) ‘is made old’/’becomes old’, (and) ... it may die.” (Sir 14:17)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “The one playing the hypocrite will ‘be caused to stumble’/stumble in (a law).” (Sir 32:15b)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “The works of every/everyone (are) flesh in the very eyes of (the Lord), and it/there is not (anything) to be hidden from His eyes.” (Sir 39:19)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said: “The Highest One brings away a message about) the things having been (and being) taken to the side of and the things which will be, and revealing/'He reveals' hidden away footsteps.” (Sir 42:19)

(The Babylonians said to their king:) “Give Daniel to the side of us. But if not we will kill you and your house.” And the king beheld, that they extremely/vehemently hastened him and having been urged he gave Daniel to the side of them. (Bel and the Dragon v 29b-30, Theod)


The Latter Revelation:

The names of the twelve apostles are these: “ ... Judas Iscariot, the one having given (Jesus) ‘to the side of’/over.” (Matt 10:2a,4b)

(Jesus said to the disciples of John:) “Happy is the one who – if according to the circumstances – may not ‘be caused to stumble’/stumble in/at Me.” (Matt 11:6)

(Jesus said:) "All things have been given to the side of Me by the (א*) Father." (Matt 11:27a)

(Jesus said to His disciples): “To you it has been (and is) given to gain knowledge of the mysteries of the kingdom of the heavens, but to those/’the others’ it has (and is) not been given.” (Matt 13:11b)

Then having come to (Jesus) the disciples spoke (א,*א) to Him: ”Do You know, that the Pharisees having heard the saying ‘were caused to stumble’/’took offence’?” (Matt 15:12)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “What/’in what way’ will a man be helped, if he – according to the circumstances – may gain the whole adornment/’adorned world’, but his soul may be damaged?” (Matt 16:26)

(The man) gave ... to everyone ‘according to’/after the own ability. … (Matt 25:15b)

Having come to (Jesus) the one having taken (and taking) the one talent spoke: "Lord, I had knowledge of you that you are a hard man, harvesting whereat/where you did not sow and leading together, from where you did not scatter asunder." (Matt 25:24)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) ”The one having in company with Me dipped in the hand in the bowl, this one will give Me ‘to the side of’/over.” (Matt 26:23b)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “The spirit, indeed, (is) willing, but the flesh (is) weak.” (Matt 26:41b)

One/someone (continually/repeatedly) questioned (Jesus): "Good teacher, what shall I make/do, in order that I may inherit agelong life?" ... (Jesus said to him:) "One (thing) it is in want of (for) you. Withdraw and sell as many things as you have and give to the beggarly ones, and you will have a heap/treasure in heaven. And come here (and) follow Me." ... The disciples were amazed on/’for the sake of’ (Jesus') sayings. But again Jesus 'having answered'/answered (and) says to them: "Children, how troublesome it is to come into, into the kingdom of God! … By the side of men (it is) unable, however/but not by the side of God. For all things are able by the side of God." (Mark 10:17b,21b,24,27b)

(Luke said:) "The ones having become from a beginning eyewitnesses and rowers/servants of the saying have given (the things having been and being completed among us) ‘by the side of’/over to us." (Luke 1:2)

(Jesus) knew the ‘countings throughout’/considerations of (the scribes and the Pharisees). (Luke 6:8a)

Having descended (from the mountain) in company with (the twelve) (Jesus) stood upon a level place. And (there were) a much/many-headed crowd of His disciples and a much/many-headed multitude of the people. (Luke 6:17a)

(Jesus enjoined) the apostles through holy spirit. ... (Acts 1:2b)

They believed, as many as (continually) were (and had been) arranged into an agelong life. (Acts 13:48b)

(Paul said to the males in Athen: “God) has ‘caused ... to stand’/fixed a day in which He is about to judge the (inhabited) world in/with righteousness in/’by means of’ a male to whom He has marked out by boundaries a faith having been offered to all (by) having caused Him to stand up out of dead (bodies).” (Acts 17:31)

(Jesus said to Paul:) “Saul, Saul, what/why do you pursue Me? (It is) hard to you to kick towards the stings/goads?” (Acts 26:14b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Jesus) (continually) had not need ‘in order that’/that anyone might be a witness on account of the man, for He Himself had (continually) knowledge of what (continually) was in the man. (John 2:25)

What having been (and being) begotten out of the flesh is flesh, and what having been (and being) begotten out of the Spirit is spirit. (John 3:6)

And no one has ascended (and ascends) into the heaven ‘if not’/utom He who descended out of the heaven, the Son of the Man. (John 3:13)

The One whom God has dispatched away talks the words of God, for He does not give the spirit-wind out of a measure. (John 3:34)

The Jews grumbled so (continually) on account of Him, because He spoke: “I am the bread having descended out of the heaven.” ... Jesus so (א,*א) answered and spoke to them: “Do not grumble in company with one another. No one is able to come towards Me, if – according to the circumstances – not the Father having sent Me may draw him.” (John 6:41,43-44a)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 - about 1500

“Sklêros” can be used, for instance, of a stone which is specially hard for masons to work; it can be used metaphorically of a king who is inhuman and hard in his treatment of his subjects. (William Barclay ”New Testament Words” p 121)

In Paul's view, spirit and flesh are irreconcilable adversaries. (Donald Guthrie "Galatians" p 135; comment to Gal 5:17)

It is important to note the standpoint which is established by this reference to the Spirit (v 63). John is writing with the completed work of Christ (7:39) in mind, including his ascension and the gift of the Spirit, and the discourse of this chapter is incomprehensible except from this standpoint; otherwise the words of Jesus could have led only to a crude cannibalism. (C.K. Barrett "The Gospel according to St John" p 304)

Faith in Christ is not merely difficult; apart from God it is impossible (cf. Mark 10:27). (C.K. Barrett "The Gospel according to St John" p 305)

Last Thursday evening, when I tired out, after the mushroom excursion of the day, was going to sleep at about ten o'clock, the telephone was ringing - and it was Esse. . . . He talked as a chatterbox about the situation in Denmark, and it was a tale about sabotage and misery. He asserts, that all Danish young persons are "illegale" and take part in the sabotages. Esse himself has talked to Lasse, that he has joined bursting a factory in the air, dressed in a German uniform. Of course it is understandable that the young persons wholeheartedly are absorbed in patriotic activity, but that it is not quite a good thing, this is certain. Surely the destructive inclinations, which are present with all men, will wake to life in an alarming way, and to after that go back to a normal life, where one must not burst factories and smash window-panes, it will perhaps not become so easy. (Astrid Lindgren "Krigsdagböcker 1939-1945" p 193; 1943-09-20; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

We are, as we know, much more put together than we ourselves understand. No one of us can make a man. So from where does the spirit come producing all the miracles of life? This Swedenborg solves with a catchword. "It is God", and the neoplatonists say "it is the fountain-head", beaming out all these things. This we do not understand more, we do not restrict ourselves to only words, we want to understand. But that they all have seen, that here the great mystery was to hand, I think is great. Materialists, wanting to explain the world without pretending that it is a question of a soul in everything, I think are more short-sighted. (Selma Lagerlöf "Du lär mig att bli fri - Selma Lagerlöf skriver till Sophie Elkan" p 427-428; letter 1915-08-30; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Jesus knew, that among the ones hearning his words, some were who didn't believe, such ones as didn't stand in a right relation to him, who didn't search or wait life in him. (Ad. Kolmodin "Johannesevangeliet - En verklighetsskildring" s 129; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

The unknown: "What should we do then?" The lady: "I don't know." The unknown: "No, we know nothing and barely this, therefore, you see, I will believe henceforth." The lady: "How do you know that you will believe, because faith is a gift?" The unknown: "You can, as we know, get a gift, if we pray." The lady: "Oh, the one being able to pray, but I have never been able to beg . . . " The unknown: I have had to learn it, why is it that you are not able to do it?" The lady: "One has to take down oneself first . . ." The unkown: "This life sees to so well . . ." (August Strindberg "Till Damaskus III" p 308; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

I am surprised that You admire an author You dislikes and not wholly esteems! Do You worship the empty talent, and the language rich of pictures, and so on. Then You are far from Christ who preached the spirit. (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev IV 1884" p 376; letter 1884-11-07 to the wholesale dealer Olof Gustav Nilsson in Malmö; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

It is a beautifully significant practice of the modern Jews, that, before fulfilling any special observance directed in their Law, they always first bless God for the giving of it. ... It is intended to express that the Law is felt not a burden, but a gift of God in which to rejoice. (Alfred Edersheim “The Temple” p 174)


about 1500 and time before

During the winter Erland was a more diligent disciple with pater Henrik than usually. Daily he set his face to the monastery. . . . One winter evening nearer spring it happened, that, after the teacher and the disciple having studied together, the old man placed his hands upon the shoulders of the young one, and his eyes shone of the fire of the exultation. With half whispering voice, sounding solemn and mysterious in the vault illuminated by the lamp, he spoke about the mastery of the spirit over the bodily, about the mastery of the invisible word over sinewy arms and defiant minds, over princes and lords, over all the armies of the world, also if they were innumerable as the sand of the sea. (Viktor Rydberg "Singoalla" p 30; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

(The flesh) must be the follower, not the leader, and it is not it that must regulate our life, but the laws of the Spirit must it receive. (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers XI:440)

Tear yourselves as much as possible from carnal things, for the loss which comes to you from these lies not in common matters, but what is the chief of goods. For it is not possible for the man who clings strongly to the things of the present life really to lay hold on those in heaven, but he who is earnest about the one must needs lose the other. (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers XIV:31)

What is “understanding carnally”? It is looking merely to what is before our eyes without imagining anything beyond. … (We) must look into all mysteries with the eyes within. This is seeing spiritually. (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers XIV:170)

Let us cast out carnal minds. But what are carnal? Whatever makes the body flourish and do well, but injures the soul. (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers XIV:452)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Hjalmar Alving, Gottfried Arnold, Augustinus, Elisabeth Beskow, John Bunyan, Atle Burman, Runar Eldebo, Bo Frid, Josef Gustafsson, Peter Halldorf, Gudmar Hasselberg, Alf Henrikson, Ivar Hylander, Bengt Hägglund, Sven Kårbrant, Severin Larsen, Hans Larsson, Sven Lidman, Erik Lindorm, Gustaf Ljunggren, Martin Luther, Edin Lövås, Magnus Malm, Karin Mandelstam, Vilhelm Moberg, Leon Morris, Gösta Sandberg, Sven Stolpe, Rune Storck, Jesper Svartvik, Anton Tjechov, Thomas a Kempis, P. Waldenström, Carl Fr. Wislöff, Agne Ydrefelt.


My own comments and speculations:

The disciples grumbled at Jesus' sayings in the same way as the people in the wilderness grumbled at the food they got by Moses. In both cases the words/the food were given by the Lord Himself.

Concerning "a beginning", see also John 1:1-2. Concerning “from a beginning” (ap´ archê), see also John 8:44; 15:27; 1 John 1:1; 2:7,13-14,24; 3:8,11; 2 John 1:5-6; Rev 14:4.

Concerning "the Son of the Man", see My own comments and speculations to John 1:51b.


If - acccording to the circumstances - I may give a morsel/bit of my 'things beginning'/properties and if I - according to the circumstances - may give 'to the side of'/over my body in order that I may boast but have not a welcome, I am not helped anything. (1 Cor 13:3)

Paul said to the believers in Corinth: "It has been (and is) written in this way: 'The first man Adam became into/to a living soul.' The last Adam (became) into/to a spirit making alive." (1 Cor 15:45)

‘Every the thing’/everything in the adornment/’adorned world’, the desire of the flesh and the desire of the eyes and the swaggering of the subsistence, is not out of the Father however/but is out of the adornment/’adorned world’. (1 John 2:16)

In this we (א*) have knowledge of the Spirit of God: every spirit which confesses Jesus Christ having come (and coming) in flesh is out of God. (1 John 4:2)


Greek words:

paradidômi (give to the side of) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Esther 8:12p(E15); Bel and the Dragon v 29-30; Matt 10:4; 11:27; 26:23; Luke 1:2; John 6:64; 1 Cor 13:3 – Esther 2:13; 4:17n(C17),17q(C22); Tobit 7:12(13); 14:7; Judith 6:10; 8:9,33; 1 Macc 3:34; 4:30; 7:35; 10:6,9; 12:34,45; 15:21; 16:18; 2 Macc 1:17; 10:4; 14:31,33; 15:15; Sir 4:19; 23:6; 42:7; Baruch 4:6; The Prayer of Azariah v 9; Bel and the Dragon v 22. Matt 1:19(א*); 4:12; 5:25; 10:17,19,21; 17:22; 18:34; 20:18-19; 24:9-10; 25:14,20,22; 26:2,15-16,21,24-25,45-46,48; 27:2-4,18,26; Mark 1:14; 3:19; 4:29; 7:13; 9:31; 10:33; 13:9,11-12; 14:10-11,18,21,41-42,44; 15:1,10,15; Luke 4:6; 9:44; 10:22; 12:58; 18:32; 20:20; 21:12,16; 22:4,6,21-22,48; 23:25; 24:7,20; John 6:71; 12:4; 13:2,11,21; 18:2,5,30,35-36; 19:11,16,30; 21:20. Acts 3:13; 6:14; 7:42; 8:3; 12:4; 14:26; 15:26,40; 16:4; 21:11; 22:4; 27:1; 28:17; Rom 1:24,26,28; 4:25; 6:17; 8:32; 1 Cor 5:5; 11:2,23; 15:3,24; 2 Cor 4:11; Gal 2:20; Eph 4:19; 5:2,25; 1 Tim 1:20; 1 Pet 2:23; 2 Pet 2:4,21; Jude v 3.

proteron (formerly) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) John 6:62 – 1 Macc 3:46; 4:47,60; 5:1; 11:27,34; 12:3,16,24; 15:3; 2 Macc 1:22; John 9:8; Gal 4:13; 1 Tim 1:13; 2 Tim 2:6(א*); Heb 4:6; 7:27; 10:32; 1 Pet 1:14.

skandalizô (cause to stumble) Sir 32:15; Matt 11:6; 15:12; John 6:61 – Sir 9:5; 23:8; (Psalms of Solomon 16:7); Matt 5:29-30; 13:21,57; 17:27; 18:6,8-9; 24:10; 26:31,33; Mark 4:17; 6:3; 9:42-43,45,47; 14:27,29; Luke 7:23; 17:2; John 16:1; 1 Cor 8:13; 2 Cor 11:29.

sklêros (hard) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Matt 25:24; John 6:60; Acts 26:14 – 2 Macc 6:30; Wisdom of Solomon 11:4; Sir 3:26-27; 30:8; Jas 3:4; Jude v 15.

ôfeleô (help) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Wisdom of Solomon 5:8; 6:25; Matt 16:26; John 6:63 – Tobit 2:10(BA); Matt 15:5; 27:24; Mark 5:26; 7:11; 8:36; Luke 9:25; John 12:19; Rom 2:25; 1 Cor 13:3; 14:6; Gal 5:2; Heb 4:2; 13:9.


Additional studies:

Gen 1:2; Is 8:14; Jer 15:16; Ezek 37:1-14; Matt 9:4,8; 11:6; 19:11,16-25; 24:21; Mark 13:19; 14:20,38,43; Luke 6:16; 18:18-27; 22:3,23,47; 24:39; John 1:12-13; 1:51; 2:2; 3:27; 4:34; 5:24-25; 5:38; 6:27,37,42,52,53,66,68; 7:3; 8:43-45,47; 10:26; 15:3,27; 16:1; 17:8; 18:4; Acts 1:9; 15:20; 26:4; Rom 8:5-9; 9:32-33; 2 Cor 3:6; Gal 6:8; Eph 4:8-10; 2 Thess 2:13; Heb 4:12; 1 Pet 1:24-25; 2:8; 3:18; 2 Pet 3:4; 1 John 2:7,13-14,24; 3:8,11; 2 John 1:5,6; Rev 2:2,7,9,19; 3:1,8,15,21; 13:15; 14:14; 22:17.


David Gibson "Eating is Believing? On Midrash and the Mixing of Metaphors in John 6"; Themelios 27.2 (2002): 5-15.

J.J. Kilgallen "The Strivings of the Flesh (Galatians 5,17)"; Biblica 80 (1999): 113-114.

E.A.C. Pretorius "The opposition (pnevma) and (sarx) as persuavive summons (Galatians 5:13-6:10)"; 26.2 Neotestamentica (1992): 441-460.

John W. Pryor "The Johannine Son of Man and the descent-ascent motif"; Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 34.3 (Sept. 1991): 341-351.

David A. Desilva "No Confidence in the Flesh: The Meaning and Function of Phil 3:2-21"; Trinity Journal 15 ns (1994): 27-54.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-03-11; 2011-03-11; 2014-02-26; 2014-10-21)

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6:66-69 So (P66,א,*א) ‘out of’/’in consequence of’ this many * (א,* א) of His disciples went away into the things behind and no longer (continually) walked about in company with Him. Jesus so spoke to the twelve: “You do not want to withdraw and/also, (do you)?” Simon Peter answered Him: “Lord, towards whom shall we go away? You have words of agelong life. And we have believed (and believe) and have had (and have) knowledge, that You are the holy one of God.”

Word for word: 6:66 (16 words in the Greek text) Out-of this so many (of)-the (of)-disciples his went-away into the-(things) behind and no-longer in-company-with him (continually)-walked-about. 6:67 (11 words in the Greek text) spoke so the Jesus (to)-the twelve: not and you want withdraw? 6:68 (12 words in the Greek text) answered him Simon Peter: lord, towards whom shall-(we)-go-away? words (of)-life agelong (you)-have 6:69 (12 words in the Greek text) and we have-believed-(and-believe) and have-had-(and-have)-knowledge that you are the holy-(one) (of)-the (of)-god.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Lot's) woman saw against (Sodom), into the things behind, and she became a pillar of salt. (Gen 19:26, Greek OT)

And all the sons of Israel (continually) grumbled throughout against Moses and Aaron. ... And the other/one spoke to the other: "We may give (us) a ruler and turn away into Egypt." (Num 14:2a,4, Greek OT)

(David said:) "Let them be put a shame to and let them be turned in/towards themselves the ones seeking my soul. Let them be turned away into the things behind and let them entirely be put a shame to the ones counting/devising bad things to me." (Ps 35:4, Greek OT)

(In the desolate district the people of Israel) provoked to wrath to Moses ... and to Aaron, the holy one of the Lord. (Ps 106:16, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) ”Woe a nation ‘being a misser’/missing (My mark) … you have entirely left the Lord in (a place) and provoked the holy One of Israel to wrath.” (Is 1:4, Greek OT)

(The prophet said: ”In) that day ... the eyes (of a man) will see/fix in, into the holy One of Israel.” (Is 17:7; Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) “What does the Lord seek out from the side of you 'however or'/but the thing to make judicial verdict and welcome mercy and the thing to be ready to go in company with the Lord, your God.” (Micah 6:8b, Greek OT)

(Azariah said:) "(Lord), may not Your mercy stand aloof from us because of ... Israel, Your holy one." (The Prayer of Azariah v 12)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “You may not speak that/: ‘Because of the Lord I stood aloof’, for the things he has hated, you shall not make/do.” (Sir 15:11)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said: “God) heightened Aaron (being) holy like (Moses).” (Sir 45:6a)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “The bones of the twelve prophets ... redeemed (the people) in/with a faith of hope.” (Sir 49:10)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said:) “'Every the'/everyone hearing these My sayings and not making/doing them will be like a foolish male, whoever built his habitation against the sand. And the wet descended, and the rivers came and * (א*) cut/struck towards that habitation and it fell and its falling (continually) was great. (Matt 7:26-27)

(Jesus said to His disciples: “From) every/everyone hearing the saying of the kingdom and not perceiving it, the evil one comes and rapes the thing having been (and being) sown in his heart. This is the one having been sown to the side of the way.” (Matt 13:19)

Simon Peter 'having answered'/'answered and' spoke (to Jesus:) "You are the christ/'anointed one', the Son of the living God." (Matt 16:16)

(A man with an unclean spirit said to Jesus:) "We (א,*א) know You, who You are, the holy one of God." (Mark 1:24b)

(The Pharisees and the scribes) questioned (Jesus): “Because of what do not Your disciples walk about according to the tradition of the elders?” (Mark 7:5a)

Judas Iscariot, the/he (being) one of the twelve, went away towards the priest leaders, in order that he might give ‘(Jesus) to the side of’/’over (Jesus)'. (Mark 14:10)

Having descended (from the mountain) in company with (the twelve) (Jesus) stood upon a level place. And (there were) a much/many-headed crowd of His disciples and a much/many-headed multitude of the people. (Luke 6:17a)

(Jesus said:) “No one having thrown/put his (א,*א,A) hand against, against the plough and seeing into the things behind is well-put/well-adapted in the kingdom of God.” (Luke 9:62)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “The day the Son of the Man is revealed … let not the one (being) in a field turn next to, into the things behind. Recollect the woman of Lot! (The one) who – if according to the circumstances – may seek to save (א,* א, A) his soul will perish it.” (Luke 17:30b,31b-33a)

(Peter said to the men of Israel:) "You denied the Holy and Righteous One and demanded a male, a murderer, to be given graciously to you." (Acts 3:14)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

Having so lifted against/up the eyes and viewed that a much/many-headed crowd comes towards Him, He says towards Philip: “From where may we buy breads/bread, in order that these ones may eat?” (John 6:5)

Many out of the disciples (of Jesus) so having heard spoke: “This saying is hard. Who is able to hear it?” (John 6:60)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

Man is allowed to answer a yes of faith to the calling of God. So does Isaiah. He is so allowed to witness of the divine majesty he has beheld. Isaiah's God often is called "The holy One of Israel". (Gösta Sandberg "Om livets Ord tala vi" p 83 in comment to Is 6:1-8; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

A sower went out to sow his seed. ... Some fell beside the road, it is said. Such could hardly be avoided. For it was not as with us a road separated from the tilled land through ditches or any other thing, but only one or more through the field trampled down paths. The sower could not prevent that some part of the seed at the scattering fell on these paths. Also observe, how it is said "fell" beside the road, obviously unexpectedly in spite of all carefulness by the sower. ... The meaning of the parable is this ... as the words are in Matthew: When anyone hears the word of the kingdom, and does not understand it, the evil one comes and snatches away what has been sown in his heart. ... Thus according to the words the fault with the sown grains of corn beside the road was to not understand or comprehend. Poor road, it was too hard or, so to say, too satisfied to be able to receive something more, and so the seed became lying on the road until it was trampled down or picked off. (Karl Palmberg "Ur livskällan. Tredje årgången." p 115-118; comment to Luke 8:4-15; Karl Palmberg /1842-1920/ was from 1883 a Lutheran clergyman in Månsarp in the diocese of Växjö and president in Jönköpings Missionsförening (Missionary Society) 1886-1911; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

It was Moleschott (and not yet Darwin) who . . . was preached, and the circulation of the matter was the catchword. With this and with his geology the engineer took down the Mosaic creation history. . . . "Are you going to church?" the friend asked. "No", Johan said. "I never more go to church." "Yes, follow your conscience", the engineer said. This was the first time Johan stayed away from church. . . . He spoke with enthusiasm about the new Gospel proclaiming blessedness for all, life and happiness for all. . . . The consequence was a new moral, which he sensitively formulated so: the thing not hurting any fellow-creature is allowed for me. . . . He didn't care a damn what Christ had said, for that had no application more. . . . He retired into his shell. (August Strindberg "Tjänstekvinnans son" p 162-163,167)

“To whom shall we go away?” An expression indicating much affection, for it shows that their teacher was more precious to them than anything, than father or mother or any possessions. (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers XIV:171)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Eskil Albertsson, Eric S. Alexandersson, Carl Jonas Love Almqvist, Augustinus, Ivan Bunin, Sven Danell, D.R. Davies, E.J. Ekman, Runar Eldebo, Einar Genitz, Birger Gerhardsson, Gunlög Järhult, Ragnar Järhult, Lars Levi Laestadius, Severin Larsen, C.S. Lewis, Sven Lidman, Lars Lindberg, Torgny Lindgren, Ebba Lindqvist, Martin Luther, Evert Nilsson, Anders Nohrborg, Efraim Palmqvist, Lewi Pethrus, Niklas Piensoho, Efraim Rang, L.C. Retzius, Einar Rimmerfors, Bo Setterlind, John Stott, August Strindberg, Knut Svensson, R.A. Torrey, Gustaf Ullman, P. Waldenström, Johan Olof Wallin, Ingrid Ydén-Sandgren.


My own comments and speculations:

The words "the holy one of God" can be compared with "the holy one of the Lord", an expression which is used in Ps 106:16 about Aaron and the words "Israel, Your holy one" used in The Prayer of Azariah v 12. Observe the difference between being The holy One of Israel = The Lord God (cf. Is 1:4) and being The holy one of God = a man or a people sanctified by God. Also observe that the word "hosios" (pious) in Acts 2:27 in the light of the Septuagint has another meaning than the word "hagios" here in John 6:69. That Jesus can be seen as "the pious One (of God)" does consequently not mean that He therefore can be described as "the holy One of God".

Peter confesses who Jesus is with the words of an unclean spirit. He has not yet the perfect confession in John 20:31 "the Christ, the Son of God". It is worth considering that it is only in the Synoptics (Matthew) that Peter confesses Jesus as "the Christ, the Son of the living God", while it is John (and before him the woman Martha in John 11:25) who in his gospel says that Jesus is "the Christ, the Son of God". Peter will understand that Jesus not only has words of agelong life but that He is the Saying and the Life. Compare My own comments and speculations to John 1:40-41a and John 1:42.

But Peter is not like the disciples who withdraw from Jesus. These disciples are like the seed sown along the way. They have heard the Saying without understanding Him and His words. Peter is neither like Judas Iscariot, who goes away towards the priest leaders to betray Jesus (Mark 14:10). In stead Peter goes away towards Him who has words of agelong life, and at last also he will confess, that Jesus is the Lord who “knows all things” (cf. John 21:17).

As for the seed to the side of the way (Matt 13:19), see also John 8:31-47. As for the seed on rocky ground (Matt 13:20-21), see John 9:18-23; 12:42-43. As for the seed among thorns (Matt 13:22), see John 15:6. As for the seed against the fine earth (Matt 13:23), see John 15:1-8.

On “the twelve”, see John 6:70-71.


(Paul said to the believers in Ephesos: “The holy ones) might attain into the unity of the faith and the additional knowledge of the Son of God.” (Eph 4:13a)

(Paul said to Timothy:) “Having welcomed the now/present age Demas left me entirely in (a place).” (2 Tim 4:10a)

If it so indeed (continually) was perfection through the Levitical priestdom ... what need (was there) still/more (for) the other priest to stand up according to the arrangement of Melchizedek and not to be said/related according to the arrangement of Aaron? (Heb 7:11)

(With) faith we understand (that) the ages be/were adjusted fitly (with) a word of God. (Heb 11:3a)

But if we – according to the circumstances – may walk about in the light, as He is in the light, we have communion in company with one another, and the blood of Jesus, His Son, makes us clean from every miss (of the mark of God). (1 John 1:7)

Out of us they came out, however/but they (continually) were not out of us, for if they (continually) were out of us, they – according to the circumstances – had (and ‘had had’/’would have’) stayed in company with us. However (they came out), in order that it might be made visible, that all are not out of us. (1 John 2:19)


Additional studies:

Is 50:5; Mark 4:15; 8:29; Luke 8:12; 9:20; John 1:19-22; 5:24; 6:60,63-64,70-71; 7:17; 10:36; 11:27; 12:49-50; 17:8,19; 20:24; Acts 3:14; 4:27,30; 5:20; 1 John 4:16; Rev 13:4; 14:6; 15:4; 21:12-14,21; 22:2.


William R. Domeris "The Confession of Peter According to John 6:69"; Tyndale Bulletin 44.1 (1993): 155-167.

David Gibson "Eating is Believing? On Midrash and the Mixing of Metaphors in John 6"; Themelios 27.2 (2002): 5-15.

H.L.N. Joubert "The Holy One of God (John 6:69)"; Neotestamentica 2.1 (1968): 52-69.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-03-12; 2011-03-16; 2014-03-03)

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6:70-71 Jesus answered and spoke to (א,*א) them: “Did I not choose you, the twelve? And out of you it/there is a slanderer.” But He (continually) said/meant Judas of Simon from Karuoth (א*), for this one, being (א,*א) one out of the twelve, was (continually) about to give Him ‘to the side of’/over.

Word for word: 6:70 (16 words in the Greek text) answered Jesus and spoke (to)-them: not i/I you the twelve chose? and out-of you (a)-slanderer (it/there)-is. 6:71 (16 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus prima manus) (he)-(continually)-said but Judas (of)-Simon from Karuoth, this-(one) for was-(continually)-about-to him give-to-the-side-of, one being out-of the twelve.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

Moses, a man of God, blessed the (twelve) sons of Israel before his end (all except Simon). (Deut 33:1b, Greek OT)

(Esther said:) The slanderer (Haman) is not worthy (to belong to) the court of the king.” (Esther 7:4b; Greek OT)

Six will be a saying being watched (by) a son of perdition. (Prov 24:22aa, Greek OT)

(God) will make a district ... on the other side of the Jordan, Galilee of the nations, the parts of Judea. (Is 8:23b or 9:1b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) "A judgment comes ... against Karioth and against Bozrah and against all the cities of of Moab. (Jer 48:21a,24a, Greek OT)

The Lord gave (Jerusalem) ‘to the side of’/over into (the) hands (of the king of Babylon). (Dan 1:2a, Greek OT)

Thus says the Lord: "For three transgressions of Moab and for four I will not revoke its punishment ... so I will send fire upon Moab, and it will consume the citadels of Kerioth." (Amos 2:1a,2a, New American Standard)

This is what the Lord says: “I will dispatch out a fire against Moab, and it shall eat down/up bases of its cities.” (Amos 2:2a, Greek OT)

The 'over and above'/unusual things of the sayings of Judas and the wars and the male achievements, which he made/did, and his greatness it has not been written down, for it (continually) was extremely many.” (1 Macc 9:22)

Simon called his two sons, the elders Judas and John. (1 Macc 16:2a)

(Solomon said to God:) “If we – according to the circumstances – may miss (Your mark), we are Yours knowing Your power. But we will not miss (Your mark), knowing that we are (and have been) counted (as) Yours.” (Wisdom of Solomon 15:2)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said: “The Highest One brings away a message about) the things having been (and being) taken to the side of and the things which will be and revealing/'He reveals' hidden away footsteps.” (Sir 42:19)

(The Lord) made (Moses) holy in faith and meekness. He chose him out of every/all flesh. (Sir 45:4)


The Latter Revelation:

Jacob begot Judas and his brothers. (Matt 1:2b)

The names of the twelve apostles are these: “ ... Judas Iscariot, the one having given (Jesus) ‘to the side of’/over.” (Matt 10:2a,4b)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “The darnels are the sons of the evil one, but/and the enemy, the one having sown them, is the slanderer.” (Matt 13:38b-39a)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “The Son of the Man is about to be given ‘to the side of’/over into hands of men.” (Matt 17:22b)

Then one of the twelve, the one being said/called Judas Iscariot, 'having gone'/went towards the priest leaders. (Matt 26:14)

(Jesus said to Peter:) “Withdraw behind Me, adversary, because you do not consider the things of God, however/but the things of the men.” (Mark 8:33b)

(Jesus chose from the disciples) twelve, whom He and/also named apostles. ... But an adversary came into, into Judas, the one being called Iscariot, being out of the number of the twelve. (Luke 6:13b; 22:3)

(One of the disciples was) about to (give ‘to the side of’/over Jesus). (Luke 22:23b)

(Peter said to the males of Israel:) “God ... glorified His boy Jesus, whom you indeed gave ‘to the side of’/over and denied.” (Acts 3:13a)

The twelve (called) to the multitude of the disciples. (Acts 6:2a)

(Paul said to the soothsayer:) “O, son of a slanderer, filled with every deceit and every recklessness, an enemy of every/all righteousness.” (Acts 13:10a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

The Saviour (א,*א) knew from (P66, א,* א) a beginning (that) some are the * (א,*א) believing ones and (that) someone (continually) was the one being about to give Him ‘to the side of’/over (P66, א,*א). (John 6:64b)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 - about 1500

The number twelve associates to the tribes of Israel. ...After the exile the ten tribes of North Israel had disappeared. However it was a part of the expectations before the end time that God (or Messiah) then would reassemble all the twelve tribes and recover the kingdom of Israel (cf. Acts 1:6; Sir.36:13). ... "The twelve" is a fixed designation of the apostles. ... Such a designation should in the first time of the church have given a more precise impression and could more have functioned as a technical term than "apostles" which only meant "messengers". It also designated them as the patriarchs in an anewcreated people of God. (Lars Hartman "Ur Markusevangeliet" s 59 in comment to Mark 3:13-19; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

The reading "from Kerioth" ... would make Judas a Judean disciple of Jesus, whereas the other members of the Twelve ... were Galileans. (Raymond E. Brown "The Gospel according to John" p 298)

I have adepts in Prussia, Austria, England, Italy and had formerly in Sweden a disciple calling me the Master, and he of course came to an end like Judas, because he was of bad nature and lived badly. (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev XI maj 1895-nov 1896" p 26; letter 1895-06-07 to Anders Eliasson; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Of course I know that formerly there were a great deal of people, who didn't know what fear is. . . . I know some undaunted fellows being not afraid to . . . sit down at a dinner-table being laid for thirteen persons. (Selma Lagerlöf "Löwensköldska ringen" p 7; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


about 1500 and time before

In Western Europe during the Middle Ages they thought themselves know, that the sibyls were twelve in number. . . . Authorities for ten of them they had in the Father of the Church Lactantius and in the historiographer of the Visigoths Isodore of Seville. The two (others), Europe and Agrippa, were invented in order to level off the number of the sibyls with the number of the prophets and the apostles. (Viktor Rydberg "Undersökningar i germanisk mythologi - Första delen" p 57; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Is it a meaningless and accidental thing, that the positions of names, and the elections of the apostles, and the working of the Lord, and the arrangement of created things, are what they are? – we answer them: Certainly not. (Irenaeus, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol I, p 396)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Alf Ahlberg, Carl Jonas Love Almqvist, H.C. Andersen, Nils Andrén, Lars-Ola Borglid, Fredrik Böök, Doris Dominique, Bob Dylan, Per Ericsson, Linné Eriksson, Nikolaj Gogol, Johannes Gossner, Carl Grimberg, Peter Hallberg, Dag Hammarskjöld, Alf Henrikson, Nils Herlitz, Gunnar Hillerdal, Homeros, Victor Hugo, Juan Ramon Jiménez, Ruth Klüger, Lars-Olof Larsson, Gustaf Ljunggren, Martin Luther, Mathilda Malmvall, Vilhelm Moberg, V.S. Naipul, Fredrik Nielsen, Bertil Nilsson, Hilding Nordström, Nathan Odenvik, Hilding Pleijel, Haralan Popoff, Anna Maria Roos, Viktor Rydberg, Sven Edvin Salje, Bernhard Shaw, Alexander Solsjenitsyn, John Stott, Hesba Stretton, A.M. Strinnholm, John Törnquist, P. Waldenström, Per Wästberg, Rudolf Vrba, Göran Åberg.


My own comments and speculations:

In the Gospel of John Judas is the one being recorded as the sixth of apostles (cf. Andrew + an unknown in John 1:35-40, Peter 1:41-42, Philip 1:43-46, Natanael 1:45-50). In Jewish number symbolism the number six represents the man having missed the mark of God and who is rebellious against a perfect God. Cf. also Prov 24:22 with John 17:12.

Like one of Israel's twelve sons distinguished himself in a negative sense, so does also one of Jesus' twelve disciples.

In a restoration perspective we see how Judas (in Greek Ioudas), the most prominent of Israels's sons, now is humiltated in the disciple Judas. Cf. My own comments and speculations to John 18:33-36. We can also see the contrast between the successful Jewish leader Judas Maccabaeus (1-2 Macc) and Judas from Karuoth.

In the Greek OT the place “Kariôt” is named in Jer 48:24, where this place is counted among the cities of Moab. In the Hebrew OT it is also spoken about this place in Amos 2:2. About the cities in Moab, it is said in Amos 2:2 (Greek OT) that their bases will be eaten up. Furthermore Karioth is named in the Hebrew OT in Joshua 15:25, where this place is a city in the south of Judas at the boundary to Edom. Cf. the destiny of Judas according to John 17:12.

The spelling of the Sinaiticus reading (prima manus) “apo Karyôtou” (from Karuoth) is unique. In the OT (Jer 31:24) we have the spelling “Kariôth”. The middle letter in this OT-word, “i” (iota, the smallest letter in the Greek alphabet with the form ι), has in the Gospel of John been replaced by “y” (the Greek letter ypsilon with the form υ). The “u/υ” can be seen as a an extended form of “i/ι”. This is a halfway extension to the longest letter “ô/ω” (omega) in the Greek alphabet. Jesus is presented as the ω in Rev 1:8. Judas did not reach up to Him who is the ω. We can say, that he came halfway. Cf. My own comments and speculations to John 18:4-5.


Greek words:

diabolos (slanderer) (in the NT + examples in the OT) Esther 7:4; Matt 13:39; John 6:70; Acts 13:10 - 1 Chron 21:1; Esther 8:1; Job 1:6, 2:1; Zech 3:1-2; 1 Macc 1:36; Wisdom of Solomon 2:24; Matt 4:1,5,8,11; 25:41; Luke 4:2-3,6,13; 8:12; John 8:44; 13:2,27; Acts 10:38; Eph 4:27; 6:11; 1 Tim 3:6-7,11; 2 Tim 2:26; 3:3; Tit 2:3; Heb 2:14; Jas 4:7; 1 Pet 5:8; 1 John 3:8,10; Jude v 9; Rev 2:10; 12:9,12; 20:2,10.

eklegô (choose) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Sir 45:4; Luke 6:13; John 6:70 – Tobit 1:4(BA); 1 Macc 6:35; 7:37; 10:32; 2 Macc 5:19; Sir 45:16; Baruch 3:27; Mark 13:20; Luke 9:35; 10:42; 14:7; John 13:18; 15:16,19; Acts 1:2,24; 6:5; 13:17; 15:7,22,25; 1 Cor 1:27-28; Eph 1:4; Jas 2:5.

Ioudas (Judas) (in the NT) Matt 1:2; 10:4; 26:14; Luke 22:3; John 6:71 – Matt 1:3; 2:6; 13:55; 26:25,47; 27:3; Mark 3:19; 6:3; 14:10,43; Luke 1:39; 3:30,33; 6:16; 22:47-48; John 12:4; 13:2,26,29; 14:22; 18:2-3,5. Acts 1:13,16,25; 5:37; 9:11; 15:22,27,32; Heb 7:14; 8:8; Jude v 1; Rev 5:5; 7:5.

Karyôt (Karuoth) John 6:71. Se My own comments and speculations above.


Additional studies:

Matt 10:1-4; 19:28; 26:21,48; Mark 3:14-19; 14:18,20; Luke 9:1; 22:4,21-23,30; John 6:64,67; 8:44; 13:21,27; 17:12; 20:24; Acts 1:17; Rev 17:14; 21:12-14,21; 22:2.


A.S. Geyser "Jesus, the Twelve and the twelve tribes in Matthew"; Neotestamentica 12.1 (1978): 1-19.

David Gibson "Eating is Believing? On Midrash and the Mixing of Metaphors in John 6"; Themelios 27.2 (2002): 5-15.

B.E. (Bertil) Gärtner "Judas Iskariot"; Svensk Exegetisk Årsbok 21 (1956): 50-86.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-03-12; 2011-03-20; 2014-03-07; 2014-10-22)

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