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Chapter 5
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5:1-3(4) After these things it/there (continually/-) was the (א,*א) feast of the Jews, and Jesus ascended into (a disgraced) Jerosolyma/Jerusalem. But it/there is in the (disgraced) Jerosolyma/Jerusalem a (א*) pond, connected with sheep, which is said/called (א*) in Hebrew Bethzatha, having five porticoes. In these a multitude of weak, blind, lame and dried out (continually) lay down.

Word for word: 5:1 (13 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus) After these-(things) was-(continually) the feast (of)-the (of)-Jews and ascended the Jesus into Jerosolyma/'(a disgraced) Jerusalem'. 5:2 (14 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus prima manus) Is but in the Jerosalymas/'(a disgraced) Jerusalem' connected-with-sheep (a)-pond the(? cf. "to" in the Greek text Sinaiticus prima manus)/which being-said Bethzatha five porticoes having. 5:3 (9 words in the Greek text) in these lay-down-(continually) (a)-multitude (of)-the '(ones)-being-weak'/'weak-(ones)', blind-(ones), lame(-ones), (and)-dried-out-(ones). 5:4 (no text in Sinaiticus)


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

Having come to/forward Jacob rolled away the stone from the mouth of the well and gave the sheep of Laban, his mother's brother, to drink. (Gen 29:10b, Greek OT)

(Moses) delivered/helped (the seven daughters) and ladled out to him and gave their sheep to drink. (Ex 2:17b, Greek OT)

(Moses said to Pharao:) “After these things I will come/go out.” … (Ex 11:8b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Moses:) “ … A lame or blind man (shall not ‘carry to’/offer the gifts of God to Him).” (Lev 21:18a, Greek OT)

The Lord spoke towards Moses, saying: “Talk with the sons of Israel and speak towards them: ‘The feasts of the Lord ... these are My feasts.’” (Lev 23:1-2, Greek OT)

Solomon made … porticoes fourfold/four-sided. (1 Kings 6:33b, Greek OT)

(They) built the gate (being) connected with sheep. (Neh 3:1a, Greek OT)

(Shallum built) the wall of a pond of the little sheep-skins ... of Siloam (at the place of) the shearing (of the sheep) of the king and till the ladders/steps descending from a city of David. (Neh 3:15b, Greek OT, S)

(David said:) "The Lord is a shepherd to me, and nothing was for me in want. ... He ‘supported me out’/’brought me up’ upon a water of rest.” (Ps 23:1,2b, Greek OT)

(The enemies of the Jews) lifted/went away from Jerusalem and threw in/up (a wall) by the side of (the place) in Bethzait. … (Their commander let kill many) into the great well. (1 Macc 7:19)


The Latter Revelation:

And behold, a man having a dried out hand. (Matt 12:10a)

Many crowds came to (Jesus) having in company with themselves lame, blind, crooked, dumb and many others. (Matt 15:30a)

The mother-in-law of Simon (continually) lay down having a fever. (Mark 1:30a)

The paralytic (continually) lay down (on a mattress). (Mark 2:4b)

Having come out (Jesus) beheld a much/many-headed crowd, and He was moved in His inward vital parts against them, because they (continually) were * (א*) (as if) not having a shepherd. (Mark 6:34a)

(Jesus and His parents) ascending/ascended to (Jerusalem) according to the custom of the feast. (Luke 2:42b)

After these things (Jesus) came out and viewed a toll collector (with) name Levi, being seated against the toll-house. And He says (א,* א) to him: “Follow Me!” (Luke 5:27)

Having descended (from the mountain) in company with (the twelve) (Jesus) stood upon a level place. And (there were) a much/many-headed crowd of His disciples and a much/many-headed multitude of the people. (Luke 6:17a)

There was (continually/-) and/also an inscription on/at (Jesus) (with) letters (in) Greek, (in) Latin, (in) Hebrew (א*): "This One (is) the King of the Jews." (Luke 23:38)

All of (the believers?, the apostles?) (continually/repeatedly) were unanimously in the portico of Solomon. (Acts 5:12b)

The multitude of (people from) all the cities round Jerusalem (continually) came together with (the believers) carrying weak. (Acts 5:16a)

(In Lydda) Peter found a certain man (with) name Aineas, having ‘out of’/since eight years lying down upon a mattress, (a man) who (continually) was (and had been) ‘loosened from the side’/paralysed. And Peter spoke to him: “Aineas, Jesus Christ heals you. Stand up and extend/’stretch out’ yourself.” And straightaway he stood up. (Acts 9:33-34)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

Jesus answered and spoke to (the woman): "'Every the'/everyone drinking out of this water will thirst again, but the one drinking (א*) out of the water, which I will give him, will not/certainly not thirst into the (coming) age." (John 4:13-14a)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

"Bethzatha" may be a corruption of "Bezetha", which Josephus tells us was the name of the quarter of the city in which the pool lay, or it may come from (the Hebrew word meaning) "House of Olives". (Leon Morris "The Gospel according to John" p 266)

The name (Betzatha) means “new city”. (Anfin Skaaheim "Johannesevangeliet" p 126; translation from the Norwegian text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Erika André, Carl-Martin Bergstrand, Carin Bergström, Barthold Carlson, Gunnar Dinnetz, Albert Engström, Per Ericsson, Gunvor Eriksson, Jacob Frese, Carl Grimberg, Lennart Gustavsson, Marianne Herrlin, Gunnar Hillerdal, Inga Johansson, Eskil Jonsson, KJ. Otto af Klercker, Pär Lagerkvist, Sven Lidman, Ulla Lindell, Sigurd Lindgren, Arnold Lindman, Gunnar Lindqvist, Josef Lundin, Hans Lustig, Vilhelm Moberg, Marie Clark Nelson, Elvy Nilbratt, Anders Nohrborg, Folke Nordangård, Jeanna Oterdahl, Karl Palmberg, Efraim Palmqvist, Sven-Erik Pernler, Roger Qvarsell, Per Richardson, Abraham Rundbäck, Viktor Rydberg, Sven Edvin Salje, John Samuelson, Olof Sjöstrand, Stig Stenström, Carl-Herman Tillhagen, Linnéa Varenius, P.G. Vejde, Gösta Weiler, Albert Wiberg, Gustaf Wikner, Virginia Woolf, Thecla Wrangel, Anders M. Wåhlin, Emile Zola.


My own comments and speculations:

The number five is in Jewish number symbolism a symbol for what is weak and humble.


The God of the peace ... (led) up the great Shepherd of the sheep out of dead (bodies). (Heb 13:20a)


Greek words:

Bêthzatha (Bethzatha) 1 Macc 7:19 (Bethzait); John 5:2.

(H)ebraïsti (in Hebrew) (in the NT + one example in the Apocrypha) John 5:2 – Sir Prologue; John 19:13,17,20; 20:16; Rev 9:11; 16:16. Cf. (H)ebraïkos (Hebrew) in Luke 23:38 and (H)ebraïs (Hebrew language) in Acts 21:40; 22:2 and 26:14.

katakeimai (lie down) Mark 1:30; 2:4; John 5:3; Acts 9:33 – Prov 6:9; 23:34; Judith 13:15; Wisdom of Solomon 17:7; Mark 2:15; 14:3; Luke 5:25,29; 7:36(א*); Luke 7:37; John 5:6; Acts 28:8; 1 Cor 8:10.

kolymbêthra (pond) (in the NT + examples in the OT) Neh 3:15; John 5:2 – 2 Kings 18:17; Neh 3:16; Is 7:3; 22:9; 36:2; Nahum 2:8; John 5:7; 9:7.

xêros (dried out) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Matt 12:10; John 5:3 – 1 Macc 8:23,32; Wisdom of Solomon 19:7; Sir 6:3; 39:22; Matt 23:15; Mark 3:3; Luke 6:6,8; 23:31; Heb 11:29.

plêthos (multitude) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Luke 6:17; John 5:3; Acts 5:16 – Judith 2:17-18; 5:3,10; 7:2,18; 15:7; 16:3; 1 Macc 3:19; 5:12; 6:41; 8:15,20; 9:6,63; 10:77; 15:3; 2 Macc 2:24; 4:39; 5:3,26; 9:2; 11:16; 12:27,42; 13:1,10; 14:20,41; 15:21; Wisdom of Solomon 6:24; 8:15; 11:17; 14:20; 16:1; 18:5; 19:10; Sir 5:6; 7:7; 16:3; The Prayer of Azariah v 19. Mark 3:7-8; Luke 1:10; 2:13; 5:6; 8:37; 19:37; 23:1,27; John 21:6. Acts 2:6; 4:32; 5:14; 6:2,5; 14:1,4; 15:12,30; 17:4; 19:9; 21:22(P74,א,*א,A),36; 23:7; 25:24; 28:3; Heb 11:12; Jas 5:20; 1 Pet 4:8.

probatikos (connected with sheep) Neh 3:1; John 5:2 – Neh 3:32; 12:39.

stoa (portico) 1 Kings 6:33; John 5:2; Acts 5:12 – Ezek 40:18; 42:3,5; John 10:23; Acts 3:11.

tyflos (blind) (in the NT + one example in the Apocrypha) Matt 15:30-31; John 5:3 – Epistle of Jeremiah v 36; Matt 9:27-28; 11:5; 12:22; 15:14, 20:30; 21:14; 23:16-17,19,24,26; Mark 8:22-23; 10:46,49,51; Luke 4:18; 6:39; 7:21-22; 14:13,21; 18:35; John 9:1-2,13,17-20,24-25,32,39-41; 10:21; 11:37; Acts 13:11; Rom 2:19; 2 Pet 1:9; Rev 3:17.

chôlos (lame) (in the NT) Matt 15:30-31; John 5:3 – Matt 11:5; 18:8; 21:14; Mark 9:45; Luke 7:22; 14:13,21; Acts 3:2; 8:7; 14:8; Heb 12:13.


Additional studies:

John 6:1; 9:7; 10:1-18; 19:13,17,20; 20:16; 21:1; Acts 21:40; 1 Pet 2:25; Rev 1:19; 4:1; 7:9; 9:11; 15:5;16:16; 18:1.


Steven M. Bryan "Power in the Pool: the Healing of the Man at Bethesda and Jesus' violation of the Sabbath (Jn 5:1-18)"; Tyndale Bulletin 54.2 (2003): 7-22.

Gordon D. Fee "On the Inauthenticity of John 5:3b-4"; The Evangelical Quarterly 54:4 (Oct.-Dec. 1982): 207-218.

Bruce Grigsby "Washing in the Pool of Siloam - A Thematic Anticipation of the Johannine Cross"; Novum Testamentum 27 (1985): 227-235.

Timothy K. Hui "The Purpose of Israel's Annual Feasts"; Bibliotheca Sacra 147 (1990): 143-154.

Daniel B. Wallace "John 5:2 and the Date of the Fourth Gospel"; Biblica 71 (1990): 177-205.

L.T. Witkamp "The Use of the Traditions in John 5:1-18"; Journal for the Study of the New Testament 25 (1985): 19-47.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-02-17; 2010-12-11; 2013-12-04; 2014-10-10)

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5:5-9a But it/there (continually) was a certain man * (א,* א), having (been) in his weakness thirty and eight years. Having beheld this one lying down and having gained knowledge, that he has/had (been there) * (א,*א) much/long time, He says to him: “Do you want to become healthy?” The one being weak answered: “Lord, I have not a man, in order that, when – according to the circumstances – the water may be troubled, he may throw/put me into the pond, in which I come/’want to come’, but (then) another descends before me.” Jesus says to him: “Rise, lift your mattress and walk about.” * (א*) The man became healthy, and he lifted his mattress and walked (continually) about.

Word for word: 5:5 (13 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus) was-(continually) but (a)-certain man thirty and eight years having in the weakness his. 5:6 (16 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus) this beholding the Jesus lying-down and having-gained-knowledge that much time (he)-has, (he)-says (to)-him: want-(you) healthy become? 5:7 (27 words in the Greek text) answered him the (one)-being-weak: lord, (a)-man not (i/I)-have in-order-that when-according-to-the-circumstances may-be-troubled the water may-throw me into the pond, in which but comes i/I, another before me descends. 5:8 (11 words in the Greek text) says (to)-him the Jesus: rise, lift the mattress your and walk-about. 5:9a (11 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus prima manus): became healthy the man and (he)-lifted the mattress his and walked-(continually)-about.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

The people (continually) was grumbling opposite the Lord (over their) evil things. And the Lord heard (it), and He was passionate (in) wrath. And it was ‘burnt out’/kindled fire in/among them from the side of the Lord and ate down/up a certain part (New American Standard: some of the outskirts) of the (walled) camp. (Num 11:1, Greek OT)

(Moses said to Israel:) "The days which ‘went by the side’ from Kadesh-barnea till (the time in) which we came to the side of the ravine Zered (was) thirty and eight years; till (the time in) which 'an every'/'a whole' generation of males, warriors, falling/fell throughout dying out of the (walled) camp, in so far as the Lord had sworn to them." (Deut 2:14, Greek OT).

(Shallum built) the wall of a pond of the little sheep-skins ... of Siloam (at the place of) the shearing (of the sheep) of the king and till the ladders/steps descending from a city of David. (Neh 3:15b, Greek OT, S)

(Naaman) descended and baptized/dipped himself seven times in the Jordan, according to the word of (Elisha). And his flesh ‘turned itself next’/’was changed’ to as flesh of a small, very little boy, and he was made clean. (2 Kings 5:14, Greek OT)

(King) Asa was/became decrepit (against) the feet in the thirty-ninth year of his kingdom/reign, till extremely he was decrepit. And in his decrepitude he did not sought the Lord, however/but the physicians. And Asa was brought to rest in company with his fathers, and he came to an end in the thirty-ninth year of his kingdom/reign. (2 Chron 16:12-13, Greek OT)

(David said to the Lord:) “Because I was silent, my bones were made old from/’owing to’ ‘the thing to shout me’/’my groaning’ the whole day, because Your hand day and night was weighted against me. ... (Then) I 'gave knowledge of'/perceived my miss (of Your mark). (Ps 32:3-4a,5a, Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) “The water of the sea will be troubled (when the Lord entirely ruins the inhabited world).” (Is 24:14b, Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) "Lord, Your eyes (sought) into a faith ... and/but (Your people) did not want to turn next to (You)." (Jer 5:3, Greek OT)

(The Lord said the prophet: “Speak to Pharaoh:) ‘You troubled water (with) your feet. … ’” (Ezek 32:2b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) ”A foot of a man may not/certainly not trouble (the waters) any longer (when Egypt is crushed). …” (Ezek 32:13b, Greek OT)

(Tobias) ‘was friends with’/kissed his father and mother, and (his father) spoke to him: “Go being healthy!” (Tobit 5:17b, S)

(Judith said to the Lord:) “ … You are a succour, an assistance of ones being weak.” (Judith 9:11a)

(The enemies of the Jews) lifted/went away from Jerusalem and threw in/up (a wall) by the side of (the place) in Bethzait. … (Their commander let kill many) into the great well. (1 Macc 7:19)

(Solomon said to the Lord:) “You have arranged every thing throughout (with) measure and number and standing-place/balance.” (Wisdom of Solomon 11:20b)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said: ”I came) into Egypt in the eighth and the thirtieth year upon/’with regard to’ king Euergetes. (Sir Prologue)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus attended) every sickness and every decrepitude in/among the people. (Matt 4:23b)

All the ones having badly (Jesus) attended. In that way the thing being spoken through the prophet Isaiah was completed on his saying: "He Himself took our weaknesses." (Matt 8:16b-17a)

The crowd (wondered) seeing ... the lame ones walking about. (Matt 15:31a)

‘Having answered’/’Jesus answered and’ spoke to (the disciples): “Amen, I say to you, if you – according to the circumstances – may have faith and may not doubt, you will not only make/do the thing (which was done) of/to the fig tree, ‘however and’/’but also’ – according to the circumstances – you may speak to this mountain: ’’Be lifted’/rise and ‘be thrown’/’throw yourself’ into the sea’, (and) it will become/’come about’.” (Matt 21:21)

The ready ones came in, in company with (the bridegroom), into the wedding banquets, and the door was shut. But afterwards the rest of the virgins and/also come, saying: “Lord, lord, open for us.” But ‘having answered’/’he answered and’ spoke: “Amen I say to you: ‘I do not know you.’” (Matt 25:10b-12)

After a much/long time the lord of those slaves comes and ‘lifts up’/gives a saying/reckoning in company together with them. (Matt 25:19)

(They) come carrying towards Jesus a paralytic, being lifted by four. ... (Jesus says to the paralytic:) "I say to you, rise, lift your mattress and withdraw into your house." And he rose, and having straight/’straight off’ lifted the mattress he came out in front of all. (Mark 2:3,11-12a)

Many crowds (continually) came together to hear and be attended from/’owing to’ their weaknesses. (Luke 5:15b)

(In/during) many times/’(spaces of) time’ (an unclean spirit) had raped (and raped) (a certain man) together with (it). ... He had (continually/repeatedly) been driven by the little demon into the desolate (places). (Luke 8:29b)

(Jesus said to the blind:) “What do you want I may make/do for you?” (Luke 18:41a)

(Peter said to a male having been lame out of the belly of his mother:) "In the name of Jesus Christ, the Nazoraean, * (א,* א, B) walk about!" And having seized him (by) the right hand, he raised him. But/and immediately his steps and ankles were made firm. And springing up he stood, and he (continually) walked about. ... (Peter said to the elders and the leaders of the people:) “In the name of Jesus Christ, the Nazoraean, ... this (male) stands healthy by the side of (you) in the very eyes of you.” ... And the man against whom this sign of healing had (א,* א, A) become (och became א,* א, A) (continually/-) was more (than) forty years (old). (Acts 3:6b-8a; 4:10b,22)

(In Lydda) Peter found a certain man (with) name Aineas, having ‘out of’/since eight years lying down upon a mattress, (a man) who (continually) was (and had been) ‘loosened from the side’/paralysed. And Peter spoke to him: “Aineas, Jesus Christ heals you. Stand up and extend/’stretch out’ yourself.” And straightaway he stood up. (Acts 9:33-34)

As/about a time of forty years (the Lord) ‘wore the turns of’/’put up with’ (the people) in the desolate (district). (Acts 13:18)

(The Jews) troubling/troubled the crowds. (Acts 17:13b)

(Festus resided) in/with (the Jews) not more (than) eight or ten days. (Acts 25:6a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Jesus) had knowledge of all (men) and ... He (continually) had not need ‘in order that’/that anyone might be a witness on account of the man, for He Himself had (continually) knowledge of what (continually) was in the man. (John 2:24b-25)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 - about 1500

When Moses was in Midian keeping sheep for his father-in-law, Jethro, one of his young sheep ran away. Moses left the rest of the flock to run after the lamb that fled. The faster Moses ran and the more he shouted, the faster the sheep ran ahead of him. Finally, the sheep found a quiet pool in a shady spot and stopped to drink. When Moses saw this, he said, “How foolish I was. You only wanted a drink, and by chasing after you I made the situation even worse. You must be tired now.” So he placed the lamb on his shoulders and carried it back to the flock. Seeing Moser' compassion for the sheep, God said, “This is the one I want to lead my people out of slavery in Egypt.” (Michael E. Williams ”Exodus-Joshua” p 40; Exodus Rabbah 2.2)

Perhaps the number 38 has some connection with the gloomy wandering of Israel in the desert. (Gösta Sandberg "Glädjens budskap" p 366 in comment to John 5:1-14; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

"Shall I not be allowed to be ill as other men?" (Karlsson said). "Do you want to be ill", Lillebror said amazed. "Surely all men want this", Karlsson said. "I want to be lying down in my bed having much fever, and you are to ask, how I am, and I shall say, that I am the most ill in the world, and you are to ask, if it is anything I want, and I shall say, that I am so ill so ill, so I absolutely do not want to have anything . . . but a mass of cake and a great deal of biscuits and full of chocolate and a whole heap of sweets." (Astrid Lindgren "Lillebror och Karlsson på taket" p 54-56; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Emil's father . . . was lost in thought of his son and his future. "That he would become president in the local government committé, Emil, this I doubt", he said at last. "But probably he surely will become a fairly honest man. If he may live and have health and if God so wants." Emil's mother nodded agreeing. "Yes, yes! If God so wants!" "And if Emil wants", little Ida said. Emil smiled a mild smiling. "It becomes this one may see", he said. (Astrid Lindgren "Än lever Emil i Lönneberga" p 170; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

The distress, being mentioned in this text, words hardly are able to describe. A man lying sick for thirty-eight years, consequently without hope to become restored. ... Like the magnet draws the iron to itself, such a distressed soul so draws the grace and blessedness of God down to himself. (Karl Palmberg "Ur livskällan. Första årgången." p 395-340; comment to John 5:1-14; Karl Palmberg /1842-1920/ was from 1883 a Lutheran clergyman in Månsarp in the diocese of Växjö and president in Jönköpings Missionsförening (Missionary Society) 1886-1911; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Perhaps I nevertheless can be an authoress, if it only depends on the will and not on the talents. For will, this I probably think I have. (Selma Lagerlöf "Ett barns memoarer" p 162; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


about 1500 and time before

(The weak man) knew not who it was that asked him, nor that He would heal him, but still he mildly relates all the circumstances and asks nothing further, as though he were speaking to a physician, and desired merely to tell the story of his sufferings. (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers XIV:128)

Tell me what burdensome command have we enjoined? Have a wife (it is said) and be chaste. Is this difficult? How? when many, not Christians only but heathens also, live chastely without a wife. ... We are enjoined nothing difficult, nothing burdensome, if we have the will. And if we have not the will, even the easiest things will appear burdensome to us. (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers XIV:432)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Carl Jonas Love Almqvist, Liselotte J. Andersson, Gunnar Aspelin, Augustinus, Tage Aurell, Leo Baeck, Honoré de Balzac, Victoria Benedictsson, Elisabeth Beskow, Oloph Bexell, Gordon Bridger, Fredrik Brosché, Martin Buber, Önver Cetrez, Olof von Dalin, Sven Danell, E.J. Ekman, Jacob Frese, Roger Martin du Gard, Erik Gustaf Geijer, Johannes Gossner, Carl Grimberg, Axel Gustafsson, Alf Henrikson, Victor Hugo, Henrik Ibsen, Stanley Jones, KJ. Otto af Klercker, C.S. Lewis, Sven Lidman, Ivar Lundgren, Harriet Löwenhielm, Margareta Malmgren, Frank Mangs, Vilhelm Moberg, Fabian Månsson, Fredrik Nielsen, Sven Nilsson, Ann-Margreth Ohlinder-Nielsen, Lewi Pethrus, Einar Rimmerfors, Johan Ludvig Runeberg, Viktor Rydberg, Alf Sagnér, Lina Sandell, Karin Sarja, E. Aug. Skogsbergh, Erik Sonesson, Georg Stiernhielm, Sven Stolpe, August Strindberg, Edith Södergran, Rune Söderlund, Gunnar Söderström, Anton Tjechov, Tomas Tranströmer, Lars Vitus, Carl Wilson.


My own comments and speculations:

In the wilderness complaining men in the outskirts of the holy camp were killed. Now in a restoration perspective we see how a complaining man on the outskirts of the holy city Jerusalem becomes healthy. It took thirty-eight years before the last man died in the wilderness. In thirty-eight years he had to wait for his punishment. Now a weak man had to wait thirty-eight years to become healthy. Usually it is said, that Israel wandered in the wilderness for forty years. Compare Acts 25:6 “eight or ten years” and Acts 13:18 “about forty years”. See also 2 Chron 16:12-13, where the king became decrepit after thirty-eight years of reign and did not want to seek the help of the Lord, wherefore he died (cf. John 5:14).

The numbers “thirty” and “eight” also can allude to the number of gloomy powers resp. the number of a new good age. Cf. My own comments and speculations to John 6:16-21 and Rev 17:9b-11.

The place of death (1 Macc 7:19) is restored to a place of life. And men leave the pool of the sheep-skin (= the killed sheep) in David's old city (Neh 3:15) to descend into the pool of a new city (Neh 3:15), a pool which water gives life to the sheep. (Betzatha = new city)

When Jesus during his life on the earth took our weaknesses and bore our sicknesses the prophecy in Is 53:4 was completed (Matt 8:16-17). Concerning our misses of the mark of God (= sins) this prophecy (Is 53:4-5) was completed on the cross (1 Pet 2:24).

Concerning the wonder as a sign, see My own comments and speculations to John 21:4-7a.


James said to the believers: “Is anyone in/among you weak, let him call to (himself) the elders of the (assembly) of called out and let them pray against/over him having smeared him (with) olive-oil in the name of the Lord, and the vow of the faith will save/preserve the one being fatigued, and the Lord will raise him.” (Jas 5:14-15a)


Greek words:

astheneia (weakness) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) 1 Macc 1:5; Matt 8:17; Luke 5:15; John 5:5 – 2 Macc 9:21; Luke 8:2; 13:11-12; John 11:4; Acts 28:9; Rom 6:19; 8:26; 1 Cor 2:3; 15:43; 2 Cor 11:30; 12:5,9-10; 13:4; Gal 4:13; 1 Tim 5:23; Heb 4:15; 5:2; 7:28; 11:34.

krabattos (mattress) Mark 2:11-12; John 5:8-9; Acts 9:33 – Mark 2:4,9; 6:55; John 5:10-11; Acts 5:15.

oktô (eight) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) John 5:5; Acts 9:33; 25:6 – 1 Macc 4:56,59; 2 Macc 2:12; Luke 2:21; 9:28; 13:16; John 20:26; 1 Pet 3:20.

tarassô (trouble) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) John 5:7; Acts 17:13 – Esther 3:15; 4:4; 5:2b(D16); 7:6; Tobit 12:16; Judith 4:2; 7:4; 14:7,19; 1 Macc 3:5; Wisdom of Solomon 16:6; Sir 30:7; 51:21. Matt 2:3; 14:26; Mark 6:50; Luke 1:12; 24:38; John 11:33; 12:27; 13:21; 14:1,27. Acts 15:24; 17:8; Gal 1:7; 5:10; 1 Pet 3:14.

triakonta (thirty) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) John 5:5 – Esther 4:11; Judith 7:20; 15:11; 1 Macc 6:30; Matt 13:8,23; 26:15; 27:3,5(א,*א); Matt 27:9; Mark 4:8,20; Luke 3:23; John 6:19; Gal 3:17.

(h)ygiês (healthy) (in the NT + one example in the Apocrypha) Matt 15:31; John 5:6,9; Acts 4:10 – Sir 30:14; Matt 12:13; Mark 5:34; John 5:11,14-15; 7:23; Tit 2:8.

chronos (time/space of time) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) 2 Macc 6:13; Matt 25:19; Luke 8:29; John 5:6; Acts 13:18 - Esther 2:15; 3:13g(B7); 8:12x(E24); 9:28; Tobit 2:11; 14:4-5; 1 Macc 15:8; 2 Macc 1:22; 4:23; 6:1; 10:3; 12:15,39; 14:3,38; Wisdom of Solomon 2:4; 7:2,18; 8:8; 12:20; 14:16; Sir 29:5; 43:6; Baruch 3:32; 4:35; Epistle of Jeremiah v 2. Matt 2:7,16; Mark 2:19; 9:21; Luke 1:57; 4:5; 8:27; 18:4; 20:9; 23:8; John 7:33; 12:35; 13:33(א,*א); John 14:9. Acts 1:6-7,21; 3:21; 7:17,23; 8:11; 14:3,28; 15:33; 17:30; 18:20,23; 19:22; 20:18; 27:9; Rom 7:1; 16:25; 1 Cor 7:39; 16:7; Gal 4:1,4; 1 Thess 5:1; 2 Tim 1:9; Tit 1:2; Heb 4:7; 5:12; 11:32; 1 Pet 1:17,20; 4:2-3; Jude v 18; Rev 2:21; 6:11; 10:6; 20:3.


Additional studies:

Matt 9:2-7; Mark 5:8-9; 10:51; Luke 5:18-25; 7:13-15; 13:13; John 1:47-48; 1 Cor 10:5, Jude v 5.


Steven M. Bryan "Power in the Pool: the Healing of the Man at Bethesda and Jesus' violation of the Sabbath (Jn 5:1-18)"; Tyndale Bulletin 54.2 (2003): 7-22.

G. Forkman "Människans förändring - ett tema i Johannesevangeliet"; Svensk Exegetisk Årsskrift 51 (1986): 57-64.

John Wilkinson "A Study of Healing in the Gospel according to John"; Scottish Journal of Theology 20 (1967): 442- .

L.T. Witkamp "The Use of the Traditions in John 5:1-18"; Journal for the Study of the New Testament 25 (1985): 19-47.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-02-18; 2010-12-17; 2013-12-09; 2014-10-10)

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5:9b-13 But it (continually/-) was sabbath in that day. The Jews so (continually/repeatedly) said to the one having been (and being) attended: “It is sabbath, and it is not permitted for you to lift your mattress.” But he answered them: “The One having made me healthy, that One spoke to me: ‘Lift your mattress and walk about.’” They asked him: “Who is the Man, the One speaking to you: ‘Lift and walk about.’” But the one having been healed did not know who it is/was, for Jesus had nodded (א*), being a crowd in the place.

Word for word: 5:9b (7 words in the Greek text) Was-(continually) but sabbath in that day. 5:10 (16 words in the Greek text) said-(continually) so the Jews (to)-the having-been-(and-being)-attended: sabbath (it)-is, and not it-is-permitted (for)-you (to)-lift the mattress your. 5:11 (17 words in the Greek text) the-(one) but answered them: the-(one) having-made me healthy that-(one) (to)-me spoke: lift the mattress your and walk-about. 5:12 (12 words in the Greek text) (they)-asked him: who is the man the-(one) speaking (to)-you: lift and walk-about? 5:13 (16 words in the Greek text) the-(one) but having-been-healed not 'knew-(and-had-known)'/knew who (it)-is the for Jesus nodded/'had-nodded' (of)-(a)-crowd being in the place.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The Lord said Israel:) "Remember the day of the sabbaths to make it holy. ... You shall not make/do every/any work in it." (Ex 20:8,10a, Greek OT)

The sons of Israel ... found a male collecting woods/’pieces of wood’ (on) the day of the sabbaths. ... And the Lord talked towards Moses saying: "Let the man be put to death (with) death." (Num 15:32b,35a, Greek OT)

(David said to the Lord:) "The ones hating me as (if it was) a benefit and throughout nodding/winking (with) eyes." (Ps 35:19b, Greek OT)

(Solomon said:) "Just as eagerness/sweep of a water, in this way (is) a heart of a king in (the) hand of God. Where - if according to the circumstances and (if) He wants - (the king) may nod, there (it was) He (who) leant/bent it." (Prov 21:1, Greek OT)

In this way the Lord says: "Watch your souls, and do not lift portable things in/on the day of the sabbaths and do not go out (in/through) the gates of Jerusalem." (Jer 17:21, Greek OT)

It will not be permitted to no/any one of the people and/or of the priests to not adopt any of these (provisions). (1 Macc 14:44a)

(Solomon said to the Lord:) “Herbs … did not attended (Your sons) … However, Your saying healing/healed all.” (Wisdom of Solomon 16:12)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “ … An ‘(assembly) of called out’/assembling of a crowd (my heart ‘stands in awe’/beware of).” (Sir 26:5a)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus attended) every sickness and every decrepitude in/among the people. (Matt 4:23b)

(The people in the synagogue) questioned (Jesus) saying if/: “Is it permitted on the sabbaths/sabbath to attend?”, (this) in order that they might accuse Him. But He spoke to them: “What man will be ‘out of’/of you, who ‘will have’/has one sheep, and if – according to the circumstances – this may fall in into/- a pit (on) the sabbaths/sabbath, (who) by no means having (א,*א) ‘got power (over)’/seized (it) will raise it(א,*א)? How great/much difference does a man so make (compared with) a sheep? ‘So that’/therefore it is permitted to make/do finely (on) the sabbaths/sabbath.” (Matt 12:10b-12)

Separate from a parable Jesus talked nothing (with the crowds). (Matt 13:34b)

Jesus retired ... in a boat ..., and having heard (Him) the crowds followed Him on feet/foot (א,* א) from the cities. And on their having come out He beheld a much/many-headed crowd, and He was moved in His inward vital parts on/’for the sake of’ them, and He attended (the ones of) them ‘(who were) not forceful’/’(who had) not force’. (Matt 14:13b-14)

(Jesus) attended many having badly. (Mark 1:34a)

(The people in the synagogue) (continually) ‘kept ... by the side of’/observed (Jesus), if He attends (א,*א) (the man with the dried out hand) in/on (א,*א) the sabbaths, in order that they may accuse Him. And He says to the man having the dried out hand: “Rise into the middle (of the synagogue)!” And He says to them: “Is it (on) the sabbaths permitted to make/do good or to make/do (that which is) bad, to save a soul or to kill?” (Mark 3:2-4a)

… The scribes and the Pharisees (said at the meeting between Jesus and the paralysed man): “Who is this One who talks blasphemies?” (Luke 5:21a)

(The Lord said:) "This (woman), being a daughter of Abraham, whom the adversary had bound (for), behold, eighteen years, had she not to be loosened from this band (on) the sabbath day?" (Luke 13:16)

The commander ... had nodded to (Paul) to say/speak. (Acts 24:10a)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 - about 1500

There is a ban on any work whatsoever on Sabbath. This strict rule can only be broken when health or life is at stake. Among work that cannot be performed on Sabbath are the lighting of fires and cooking, so warm dishes for the holiday should be prepared in advance. (Eugeniusz Duda "The Old Synagogue at Cracow's Kazimierz" p 15)

If a sabbath falls during a feast, the commands of the sabbaths are given preference, because the sabbath is more holy than the feasts. (Göran Larsson "Tid för Gud, Judiska och kristna perspektiv på de judiska högtiderna" p 18, cf. John 5:1; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

The whole Sunday evening - after the after-churchcoffee - Emil sat . . . in the joiner's shed carving his onehundredthirtieth wooden old man, before he suddenly remembered that it, to be sure, was Sunday, then one was not allowed to cut with knife, it was the pure, terrible sin. Probably one was not allowed to extract teeth, neither paint anyone blue. Emil put his wooden old man aside on the shelf among the others. He sat there on the chopping-block, while the twilight fell outside the window of the joiner's shed, and he thought of his sins. At last he folded his hands praying: "Dear God, do so that I stop doing my mischiefs! Prays Emil Svensson, Katthult, Lönneberga kindly." (Astrid Lindgren "Än lever Emil i Lönneberga" p 66-67; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

In the window of the cottage Gusten's freckled face was seen, and during cruel grimaces towards a piece of a mirror, going by the name of the Sunday viewer, he went there and back with the razor lightening in the sunshine. "Are you going to church today?" Carlsson asked as a morning greeting. "No, we are not coming so often to the house of God", Rundqvist answered, "for we have two rowing miles there and and as many from there, and you shall not profane the day of rest with unnecessary work." (August Strindberg "Hemsöborna" p 19; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

The theological lessons now turned to disputations with the teacher. This one was priest and atheist and interested in the objections, but also he tired and soon ordered that the disciples would answer according to the textbook. "How many persons in the divinity?" "One!" "Yes, but what does Norbeck say?" "He says three!" "Well, say so then!" In the home it was silent. They left him in peace; they understood that he was lost, and it was too late to seize him. One Sunday the father had a try in the old way, but was given tit for tat. "Why do you never go to church more?" he asked. "What shall I do there?" "A good sermon always has something good to give." "To preach I can do myself." Cut! The pietists let a priest have intercession for Johan in Betlehemskyrkan, after they had seen him in a uniform for men shooting with live cartridges. (August Strindberg "Tjänstekvinnans son" p 209-210; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


about 1500 and time before

A remedy on the holy day could only be applied in diseases of the internal organs (from the throat downwards), except when danger to life or the loss of an organ was involved (Jerus. Shabb. 14d). (Alfred Edersheim "The Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah Part II" p 182)

The Rabbis hold that (the Sabbath) was not intended for the Gentiles, and most of them trace the obligation of its observance only to the legislation on Mount Sinai. (Alfred Edersheim “The Temple” p 175)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Stig Abrahamsson, Eskil Albertsson, Eric S. Alexandersson, H. Allard, Carl Jonas Love Almqvist, Ann-Charlotte Alverfors, Sven Alverlin, Martin Andersen Nexø, Stefan Andhé, Nils Andrén, Åke Andrén, Verner Aspenström, Tage Aurell, Jane Austen, Håkan Bengtsson, Gösta Berg, Henrik Berg, Karl-Erik Bergh, Per Beskow, Oloph Bexell, Manfred Björkquist, Amanda M. Blankenstein, Minna Blümmer, Enid Blyton, Lars-Ola Borglid, Ingrid Böhn-Jullander, Barthold Carlson, Winston Churchill, Joseph Alfred Conwell, Stig Dagerman, Sven Danell, Tage Danielsson, Charles Dickens, Emma Dixon, Eugeniusz Duda, Erik Fahlman, Hjalmar Fernström, Siv Fernström, A.P. Franklin, Rex Gardner, Bolette Margrethe Gjør, Nikolaj Gogol, Röl Gording, Gunnar Granberg, Carl Grimberg, Jan Guillou, Geraldine Guinness-Taylor, Berndt Gustafsson, Lennart Gustavsson, Yngve Hamrin, Knut Hamsun, Lars Hartman, J.G. Hazén, Verner von Heidenstam, Gustaf Hellström, Otto Hermansson, Edwin Hodder, Hans-Eric Holger, Anders Jarlert, Eskil Jonsson, Eyvind Johnson, Olof Josefsson, Samuel Kiechel, Rudyard Kipling, Nikolaj Kljujev, G. Kurze, Selma Lagerlöf, Annty Landherr, Amy Le Feuvre, Harry Lenhammar, Sven Lidman, Jonas Lie, Sigurd Lindgren, Teodor Lindhagen, Harald Lundberg, Viveca Lärn, Carl Henrik Martling, Czeslaw Milosz, Vilhelm Moberg, Alice Munro, Richard Newton, Fredrik Nielsen, Bertil Nilsson, Torsten Nilsson, Fritiof Nilsson Piraten, J. Nyrén, Runa Ohlander, Ivan Oljelund, Vibeke Olsson, John Ongman, John Ortberg, Magnus Ottosson, James Innel Packer, Karl Palmberg, Pansy, Folke Peterson, Lewi Pethrus, Hilding Pleijel, Nina Pleijel, Wladyslaw Reymont, Ingemar Ringsvåg, Felicitas Rose, Abraham Rundbäck, Johan Ludvig Runeberg, Viktor Rydberg, Gunnar E. Sandgren, Martha Sandwall-Bergström, Kristina Saviin, Ulf Schöldström, Bo Setterlind, Charles M. Sheldon, Isaac Basjevis Singer, Enock H. Skooglund, Alexander Solsjenitsyn, Johanna Spyri, Sture Stamming, Gunnar Stenvall, Robert Louis Stevenson, Ture Sällberg, Corrie ten Boom, Helmut Thielicke, Eglanton Thorne, Carl-Herman Tillhagen, Anton Tjechov, Charlottte Maria Tucker, Greta Tunlid, Sigrid Undset, P.G. Vejde, Nils Erik Villstrand, Rudof Vrba, Derek Walcott, P. Waldenström, Johan Olof Wallin, Gottlieb Weitbrecht, Olof Wennås, C.A. Wetterbergh, Patrick White, Ernst Wigforss, Gustaf Wikner, Stig Wikström, Thomas de Witt Talmage, Emile Zola, Göran Åberg, Eva Österberg.


My own comments and speculations:

The weak man had on the sabbath day been lying down at the pond, connected with sheep. He was as a sheep without a shepherd. If now a sheep would have been raised on the sabbath, should not also a man be raised, a man who was as a sheep (Mark 6:34), waiting a long time for being healed.

As an obedient king under the will of God Jesus nodded for the weak (cf. Prov 21:1). Because there was a crowd there, He nodded in stead of speaking, for with the crowds He only talked in parables (Matt 13:34).


Paul said to the believers in Corinth: “All things are permitted, however, all things do not carry/bring together. All things are permitted, however, not all things build/’build a house’.” (1 Cor 10:23)


Greek words:

exesti(n) (it is permitted) (in the NT + examples in the OT) 1 Macc 14:44; Matt 12:10,12; Mark 3:4; John 5:10; 1 Cor 10:23 – Ezra 4:14; Esther 8:12g(E7); Matt 12:2,4; 14:4; 19:3; 20:15; 22:17; 27:6; Mark 2:24,26; 6:18; 10:2; 12:14; Luke 6:2,4,9; 14:3; 20:22; John 18:31. Acts 2:29; 16:21; 21:37; 22:25; 1 Cor 6:12; 2 Cor 12:4.

therapeuô (attend) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Wisdom of Solomon 16:12; Matt 4:23; 12:10; 14:14; Mark 1:34; 3:2; John 5:10 – Esther 1:1b(A2),q(A16); 2:19; 6:10; Tobit 1:7; 12:3; Judith 11:17; Sir 18:19; 38:7; Epistle of Jeremiah v 38; Matt 4:24; 8:7,16; 9:35; 10:1,8; 12:15,22; 15:30; 17:16,18; 19:2; 21:14; Mark 3:10; 6:5,13; Luke 4:23,40; 5:15; 6:7,18; 7:21; 8:2,43; 9:1,6; 10:9; 13:14; 14:3; Acts 4:14; 5:16; 8:7; 17:25; 28:9; Rev 13:3,12.

neuô (nod) John 5:13; Acts 24:10 – Prov 4:25; 21:1; John 13:24.

ochlos (crowd) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Sir 26:5; Matt 13:34; 14:13-14; John 5:13 – Judith 7:18; 1 Macc 1:17,20,29; 2 Macc 4:40; 11:6; 14:23,45; Epistle of Jeremiah v 5; Matt 4:25; 5:1; 7:28; 8:1,18; 9:8,23,25,33,36; 11:7; 12:23,46; 13:2,36; 14:5,15,19,22-23; 15:10,30-33,35-36,39; 17:14; 19:2; 20:29,31; 21:8-9,11,26,46; 22:33; 23:1; 26:47,55; 27:15,20,24; Mark 2:4,13; 3:9,20,32; 4:1,36; 5:21,24,27,30-31; 6:34,45; 7:14,17,33; 8:1-2,6,34; 9:14-15,17,25; 10:1,46; 11:18,32; 12:12,37,41; 14:43; 15:8,11,15; Luke 3:7,10; 4:42; 5:1,3,15,19,29; 6:17,19; 7:9,11-12,24; 8:4,19,40,42,45; 9:11-12,16,18,37-38; 11:14,27,29; 12:1,13,54; 13:14,17; 14:25; 18:36; 19:3,39; 22:6,47; 23:4,48; John 6:2,5,22,24; 7:12,20,31-32,40,43,49; 11:42; 12:9,12,17-18,29,34. Acts 1:15; 6:7; 8:6; 11:24,26; 13:45; 14:11,13-14,18-19; 16:22; 17:8,13; 19:26,33,35; 21:27,34-35; 24:12,18; Rev 7:9; 17:15; 19:1,6.

sabbaton (sabbath) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Matt 12:10-12; Mark 3:2,4; John 5:9-10 – Judith 8:6; 10:2; 1 Macc 1:39,43,45; 2:32,34,38,41; 6:49; 9:34,43; 10:34; 2 Macc 5:25; 8:26-28; 12:38; 15:3; Matt 12:1-2,5,8; 24:20; 28:1; Mark 1:21; 2:23-24,27-28; 6:2; 16:1-2; Luke 4:16,31; 6:1,5-7,9; 13:10,14-16; 14:1,3,5; 18:12; 23:54,56; 24:1; John 5:16,18; 7:22-23; 9:14,16; 19:31; 20:1,19. Acts 1:12; 13:14,27,42,44; 15:21; 16:13, 17:2; 18:4; 20:7; 1 Cor 16:2; Col 2:16.

topos (place) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Matt 14:13; John 5:13 – Judith 3:3, 1 Macc 1:25; 3:35,46; 4:43,46; 6:57,62; 8:4; 9:45; 10:13,40,73; 12:2,4; 14:48; 15:29-30; 2 Macc 1:14,19,29,33; 2:7,18; 3:2,12,18,38-39; 4:33,38; 5:16-17,19-20; 6:2; 8:6,17,31; 9:17; 10:7,14,19,34; 12:2,18; 13:4,18,23; 14:22; 15:34; Wisdom of Solomon 12:10,20; Sir 12:12; 19:17; 36:12(15); 46:12; 49:10; Baruch 2:24; The Prayer of Azariah v 15; Matt 12:43; 14:15,35; 24:7,15; 26:52; 27:33; 28:6; Mark 1:35,45; 6:11,31-32,35; 13:8; 15:22; 16:6; Luke 2:7; 4:17,37,42; 6:17; 9:10(א,*א,A),12; 10:1; 11:1,24; 14:9-10,22; 16:28; 19:5; 21:11; 22:40; 23:33; John 6:10,23; 11:6,30,48; 14:2-3; 18:2; 19:13,17,20,41; 20:7. Acts 1:25; 4:31; 6:13-14; 7:7,33,49; 12:17; 16:3; 21:28; 25:16; 27:2,8,29,41; 28:7; Rom 9:26; 12:19; 15:23; 1 Cor 1:2; 14:16; 2 Cor 2:14; Ef 4:27; 1 Thess 1:8; 1 Tim 2:8; Heb 8:7; 11:8; 12:17; 2 Pet 1:19; Rev 2:5; 6:14; 12:6,8,14; 16:16; 18:17; 20:11.


Additional studies:

Deut 5:12-14; Neh 13:15,19; Jer 17:22-27; Matt 12:1-14; Mark 1:37-38,44; 2:26; 3:1-6; 7:36; 8:23,26; Luke 4:43; 6:1-11; 13:10-17; 14:1-6; John 6:15; 7:23,46; 9:14,16.


Steven M. Bryan "Power in the Pool: the Healing of the Man at Bethesda and Jesus' violation of the Sabbath (Jn 5:1-18)"; Tyndale Bulletin 54.2 (2003): 7-22.

H.R. Cole "The Sabbath and the Alien"; Andrews University Seminary Studies 38.2 (2000): 223-229.

Theophile James Meek "The Sabbath in the Old Testament: its origin and development"; Journal of Biblical Literature 33.3 (1914): 201-212.

David T. Williams "The Sabbath: Mark of Distinction"; Themelios 14.3 (April 1989): 96-101.

L.T. Witkamp "The Use of the Traditions in John 5:1-18"; Journal for the Study of the New Testament 25 (1985): 19-47.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-02-18; 2010-12-19; 2013-12-13; 2014-10-10)

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5:14 After these things Jesus finds him in the sanctuary, and He spoke to him: "Behold, you have become (and becomes) healthy; do not miss (the mark of God) any longer, in order that it may not become anything worse to you.”

Word for word (23 words in the Greek text, the sequence of the words according to Sinaiticus): After these-(things) finds him the Jesus in the sanctuary and (he)-spoke (to)-him: behold healthy (you)-have-become-(and-becomes), not-any-longer miss, in-order-that not worse anything (for)-you (it)-may-become.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Moses said to Israel:) "From the day you came out, out of Egypt till you came into this place, disobeying you have ‘ended throughout’/persisted (in so many things) towards the Lord. And in/at Horeb you provoked the Lord, and the Lord was passionate on/’for the sake of’ you to destruct you wholly." (Deut 9:7b-8, Greek OT)

(Ezra said to God:) "After every thing coming against us in our evil makings/doings and in our great error, because (this crowd) is not as our God, because You have made our lawlessnesses light and You have given us saving, because we have turned ourselves next to strew asunder Your commandments and ally ourselves to the peoples of the grounds, not may you provoke/’be wrathful’ in/among us till a consummation, (till) the thing to not be a remnant and be saved throughout?" (Ezra 9:13-14, Greek OT)

(Solomon said:) “The justice (on the basis) of the ones missing (the mark of God) always ‘comes out against’/pursues the transgression of the unrighteous.” (Wisdom of Solomon 14:31b)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “In all your sayings remember your last things, and you will not miss (the mark of God) into the (coming) age.” (Sir 7:36)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “Child, have you missed (the mark of God), you may ‘not not’/not 'put to'/add (anything) any longer/more! … Flee from miss (of the mark of God) as from a face of a serpent!” (Sir 21:1a,2a)


The Latter Revelation:

Having beheld the faith (of the men carrying the paralytic) Jesus spoke to (him): “Child, be confident! Your misses (of the mark of God) are ‘let be’/’left alone’.” (Matt 9:2b)

(Jesus said to the scribes and the Pharisees:) “When – according to the circumstances – the unclean spirit may come out from the man, it 'comes through'/passes through waterless places, seeking rest, and does not find. Then it says: ‘I will turn myself next to, into my house, from which I came out.’ And having come it finds (it) being at leisure and (א,*א) being (and having been) swept and being (and having been) adorned. Then it goes and takes in company with itself by its side seven other spirits more evil than itself. And (on) their having come in it dwells there. And the last things of that man become worse than the first things." (Matt 12:43-45a)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “If your brother – according to the circumstances – may miss (the mark of God) * (א,* א ,B), withdraw and convict him meanwhile/between you and him alone/only. If he – according to the circumstances – may hear you, you have gained your brother.” (Matt 18:15)

Having suffered many things by many physicians and having spent all the things from the side of herself and having been helped nothing however/but rather having/’(the woman who had been in a blood stream for twelve years) had come’ into the/a worse (state). (Mark 5:26)

(Mary and Joseph, who was of the tribe of Judas) returned to Jerusalem, seeking (א,* A) (Jesus). … After three days they found Him in the sanctuary. (Luke 2:45b-46a)

(Jesus said to some present:) "If – according/’regard is paid’ to the circumstances - you may not change your mind, you will all perish (like the Galileans whose blood Pilate had mixed ‘in company’/together with their sacrifices). ... (and) in the same manner perish as (the eighteen against whom the tower in Siloam fell)." (Luke 13:3b,5b)

... (Jesus said to the leprous:) ”Having gone show yourselves on/up to the priests.” (Luke 17:14a)

(The male having been lame) came into, into the sanctuary, walking about and springing and praising God. (Acts 3:8b)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

Like the Greek verb "hamartanô" means to miss the mark, the (corresponding) Hebrew verb "hrata" also has the basic meaning to miss a mark, make a mistake, forget oneself, sin. The verb is used in several places in the OT in a profane meaning, for example in Judges 20:16: "Each one could sling a stone at a hair and not miss." (Studiebibeln V:91; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

I always think I do something unrightly, when I am ill in bed. In the old time sickness no doubt was regarded as sin. In the Bible Jesus always says to the sick ones: " Your sins are forgiven to you." . . . I prayed to God, that he would forgive me my sins, against him and against all men, above all against you, who I made so unhappy last night. No, I did not pray for any special grace for you, I only prayed for forgiveness for me, poor, sinful man. And I thought it was such a silly and frugal prayer, for who was I that I would ask God to forgive just me. I wanted, that I had been able to pray for peace and for the thing that the whole world would be spared from the misery of the war, but I was only able to pray. "Forgive me my sins", over and over again. And during this I had absolutely no idea that this could help my sick heart. I had wanted to pray much more beautiful, more moving with greater humility. But nevertheless, can you understand this, I was helped. The great pain in my heart ceased to exist. It was not this I had prayed for, I had prayed for forgivenes for my sins. But during this prayer the bodily pain ceased to exist. I was so astonished and so glad and so thankful. It was the prayer, which helped me, and it is you, dear, little Röpecka, who has taught me to pray. You must have some share in this. It is on that account I know that you live. Today you might have sent intense prayers to God for your Pilewort who is very much fond of you. Thank you. . . . Might God protect us! He has given me much more good things than I have deserved. Might he hold his hand screening over you, who has spread so much happiness around you. (Selma Lagerlöf "Brev 2 - 1903-1940" s 349,359-360,366; letters 1938-06-19, 1939-08-27 and 1939-12-20 to Ida Bäckmann; Ida Bäckmann was in a habit to call Selma Lagerlöf Svalört=Pilewort because of her, as she thought, svala=cool temperament; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

With this healing (of the paralysed one) something occurs, which, as far as I know, didn't occur at any other such thing, namely that Jesus expressly showed, that the suffering here had its cause in the sin of the man. Although it was the main thing both for him and the ones carrying him, that he might be restored to his body, so Jesus first turned to his conscience by telling him remission of his sins: Take courage, my child (so the original text), your sins are forgiven. Jesus thus knew, that there were conscious sins which pained him and that it was forgiveness for these he above all needed. Thus this is to some extant a peculiar faith healing. The effect of it on the present ones also became very great. ... We find three things here: repentance or change of attitude in the man; faith in him and in the ones carrying him and might in Christ to forgive sins. (Karl Palmberg "Ur livskällan. Tredje årgången." p 402; comment to Matt 9:1-8; Karl Palmberg /1842-1920/ was from 1883 a Lutheran clergyman in Månsarp in the diocese of Växjö and president in Jönköpings Missionsförening (Missionary Society) 1886-1911; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

The punishments here are for warning, there for vengeance. ”What then,” saith one, ”so all diseases proceed from sin?” Not at all, but most of them; and some proceed from different kinds of loose living, since gluttony, intemperance, and sloth, produce such like sufferings. (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers XIV:131-132)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Elisabeth Beskow, LarsOlov Eriksson, Lars Hartman, Amy Le Feuvre, Martin Luther.


For on our missing (the mark of God) volontarily after 'the take'/'having taken' the additional knowledge of the truth, it/there is not any longer left a sacrifice on account of misses (of the mark of God), but a certain fearful expectation of judgment and fire being about to (with) zeal eat/consume the hostile ones. (Heb 10:26-27)

If – according to the circumstances – anyone may behold his brother ‘missing (the mark of God)’/making a miss (of the mark of God), not towards death, he will demand and he will give life to him, to those who do not miss (the mark of God) towards death. It/there is a miss (of the mark of God) towards death. I do not say/speak on account of that, in order that you may ask (for it). Every unrighteousness is a miss (of the mark of God), and/but it/there is a miss (of the mark of God) (which is) not towards death. (1 John 5:16-17)


Greek words:

(h)amartanô /miss (the mark of God)/ (in the NT + examples in the Apokrypha) Wisdom of Solomon 14:31; Sir 7:36; Matt 18:15; John 5:14; Hebr 10:26; 1 John 5:16 – Esther 4:17n(C17); Tobit 4:5; Judith 5:20; 11:10; 2 Macc 7:18; 10:4; Wisdom of Solomon 11:16; 12:2,11; 15:2,13; Sir 7:7; 10:29; 15:20; 19:4,16,28; 20:21; 24:22; 27:1; 38:15; 42:1; Baruch 1:13,17; 2:5,12,33; 3:2,4,7; Epistle of Jeremiah v 12(13); Susanna v 23; The Prayer of Azariah v 6; The Prayer of Manasseh v 8,12; Matt 18:21; 27:4; Luke 15:18,21; 17:3-4; John (8:11;) 9:2-3. Acts 25:8; Rom 2:12; 3:23; 5:12,14,16; 6:15; 1 Cor 6:18; 7:28,36; 8:12; 15:34; Eph 4:26; 1 Tim 5:20; Tit 3:11; Heb 3:17; 1 Pet 2:20; 2 Pet 2:4; 1 John 1:10; 2:1; 3:6,8-9; 5:18.

mêketi (no longer/not any longer): See John 4:35-36.

cheirôn (worse) Matt 12:45; Mark 5:26; John 5:14 – 1 Sam 17:43; Wisdom of Solomon 15:18; 17:6; Matt 9:16; 27:64; Mark 2:21; Luke 11:26; 1 Tim 5:8; 2 Tim 3:13; Heb 10:29; 2 Pet 2:20.


Additional studies: Matt 9:5;12:5-6; Mark 2:5,9-10; Luke 5:20,23; 11:24-25; John 5:29; 8:11; Heb 6:4-6; 2 Pet 2:21-22; Rev 2:22.

Steven M. Bryan "Power in the Pool: the Healing of the Man at Bethesda and Jesus' violation of the Sabbath (Jn 5:1-18)"; Tyndale Bulletin 54.2 (2003): 7-22.

John Christopher Thomas "'Stop Sinning Lest Something Worse Come Upon You.' The Man at the Pool in John 5."; Journal for the Study of the New Testament 59 (1995): 3.20.

L.T. Witkamp "The Use of the Traditions in John 5:1-18"; Journal for the Study of the New Testament 25 (1985): 19-47.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-02-19; 2010-12-22; 2013-12-16; 2014-10-11)

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5:15-18 The man went away and spoke (א,* א) to the Jews, that it is/was Jesus who has/had made him healthy. And because of this the Jews (continually) pursued Jesus, because He (continually/repeatedly) made these things in/on a sabbath. But * (P75, א,* א, B) He answered them: “My Father works till just now, and I work. Because of this * (א,* א) rather/’all the more’ the Jews (continually) sought to kill Him, because He not only (continually) loosened the sabbath, ‘however and’/’but also’ (continually) said/called God an own Father, making Himself equal (with) God.

Word for word: 5:15 (14 words in the Greek text) went-away the man and spoke (to)-the Jews that Jesus is the-(one) having-made him healthy. 5:16 (13 words in the Greek text) and because-of this pursued-(continually) the Jews the Jesus, because these-(things) (he)-made-(continually) in (a)-sabbath. 5:17 (12 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus) The-(one) but answered them: the father my till just-now works and-i/I work. 5:18 (26 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus) because-of this rather sought-(continually) him the Jews (to)-kill, because not only loosened-(continually) the sabbath, however and father own said-(continually) the god equal (him)self making (with)-the god.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

God blessed the seventh day and made it holy, because in/on it He ‘caused entirely to cease’/rested from all His works which God had begun to make. (Gen 2:3, Greek OT)

(The serpent spoke to the woman:) "God has known that in the day you – according to the circumstances – may eat from (the wood of the thing to know/'have knowledge of') your eyes will be opened throughout, and you will be as gods having knowledge of fine and evil." And the woman beheld that the wood (of the thing to know/'have knowledge of') (is) fine into/’for the purpose of’ consumption and that (it is) pleasing to behold for the eyes, and that it is a seasonable hour of the thing to understand entirely, and having taken its fruit she ate. And she gave and/also to her male (being) in company with her, and he ate. (Gen 3:5-6)

(Jacob said to Laban:) "What (is) my misdeed, because you (have) hunted behind me?" (Gen 31:36b, Greek OT)

(Joseph's brothers) spoke to him: “Being king you shall not be king against/over us, (shall you)?” ... And they (continually) did evil to kill him. (Gen 37:8a,18b, Greek OT)

... Pharaoh (continually) sought to ‘take up ... for himself’/’get rid of’ Moses. But Moses retired from (the) face of Pharaoh. (Ex 2:15a)

(In Rephidim) the people thirsted (in/for) water, and the people grumbled there towards Moses saying: "’In order of what this’/'why ... for this' did You cause us to go up out of Egypt?" ... But/and Moses cried towards the Lord saying: "What shall I do (with) this people? Still a small/little (while) and they will throw stones down (against) me." (Ex 17:3a,4, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Israel:) "You shall watch/keep the sabbaths, because this is (made) holy of the Lord to you. The one profaning it shall be put to death (with) death. Every who will make/do a work in/on it, that soul shall shall be destructed wholly out of (the) middle of his people." (Ex 31:14, Greek OT)

(The eunuchs) (continually) sought to kill the king … (Esther 2:21b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to His people: “My slave David) will ‘call against’/invoke Me: ‘You are my Father, my God.’” (Ps 89:26a or 89:27a, Greek OT)

“... To whom have you likened Me ... ?”, the Holy One spoke. (Is 40:25, Greek OT)

(The males) spoke to the king: "’Let presently ‘be taken up for yourself’/’you ... get rid of’ that man (Jeremiah)." (Jer 38:4a, Greek OT)

(The enemy) (continually) sought to kill (the Jewish leader). (1 Macc 9:32b)

(Antiochus said: “It is) righteous to arrange oneself under God and being mortal not consider oneself equal (with Him).” (2 Macc 9:12b)

(The godless men say about the righteous man:) "He swaggers (about) God as (if He was) a father." (Wisdom of Solomon 2:16b)

(Solomon said to the Lord:) "In company with You (is) the wisdom knowing your works and being by the side of (You), when You make the adornment/'adorned world'." (Wisdom of Solomon 9:9a)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “The works of the Lord may not/certainly not be brought to a consummation. ...” (Sir 38:8 or 38:8a)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said: “The Lord) has created (and creates) good things to the good ones from a beginning. In this way (also) bad things to the missers (of His mark).” (Sir 39:25)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "Happy the ones having been (and being) pursued with respect to righteousness, because the kingdom of the heavens is theirs." (Matt 5:10)

(Jesus said to His disciples: "A person) who – if according to the circumstances – so may loosen one of the least of these commandments (of the Law), and in this way may teach the men, will be called least in the kingdom of the heavens. * (א*) “ (Matt 5:19)

(Jesus said:) "From the days of John the Baptist till just now the kingdom of the heavens suffers violence, and men using violence rape it." (Matt 11:12)

(Jesus) spoke to (the people in the synagogue): “What man will be ‘out of’/of you, who ‘will have’/has one sheep, and if – according to the circumstances – this may fall in into/- a pit (on) the sabbaths/sabbath, (who) by no means having (א,*א) ‘got power (over)’/seized (it) will raise it (א,*א)? How great/much difference does a man so make (compared with) a sheep? ‘So that’/therefore it is permitted to make/do finely (on) the sabbaths/sabbath.” Then He says to the man (with the ‘dried out’ hand): "Stretch out your hand!" And he stretched (it) out, and it was restored healthy * (א,*א). But having come out the Pharisees took/arranged a council meeting ‘down from’/against Him, in what way they might perish Him. (Matt 12:11-14)

(The ones who had been first hired with wages said: ) “These last ones have made/done one hour, and you have made them equal (with) us, the ones having borne the weight of the day and the heat.” (Matt 20:12)

‘Having answered’/’Jesus answered and’ spoke to (the disciples): “Amen, I say to you, if you – according to the circumstances – may have faith and may not doubt, you will not only make/do the thing (which was done) of/to the fig tree, ‘however and’/’but also’ – according to the circumstances – you may speak to this mountain: ’’Be lifted’/rise and ‘be thrown’/’throw yourself’ into the sea’, (and) it will become/’come about’.” (Matt 21:21)

(Jesus) said (to God): "My Father, ... " (Matt 26:39b)

Having come out (the healed man) began to proclaim (what Jesus had done with him). (Mark 1:45a)

(Jesus) says to (the people in the synagogue): “Is it (on) the sabbaths permitted to make/do good or to make/do (that which is) bad, to save a soul or to kill?” (Mark 3:4a)

The priest leaders and the scribes (continually) sought (for) how, having got power over (Jesus) in/with deceit, (how) they might kill Him. (Mark 14:1b)

(The parents of Jesus found Him in the sanctuary.) His mother spoke towards Him: “... Behold, ‘being caused’/feeling pain Your father and I seek (א*) You.” And He spoke towards them: "What (is it) that you seek (א*) Me? Did you not know, that I must be in the things of 'the Father My'/'My Father'?” (Luke 2:48b-49)

... The synagogue leader, being vexed because Jesus had attended (on) the sabbath, said to the crowd that/: "Six days are in/on which one must work." (Luke 13:14a)

(Peter said to the leaders of the people and the elders:) “In/’by means of’ (Jesus) this (male) stands healthy by the side of (you) in the very eyes of you.” (Acts 4:10b)

(Stephen said to the Jews:) “Which one of the prophets did your fathers not pursue? And they killed ...” (Acts 7:52a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

All things became through (the Saying), and separate from It nothing (P66, א*) became that has become (and becomes). (John 1:3)

As many as took (Jesus) ... were begotten ... out of God. (John 1:12-13)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

Why could observant Jews in the old school take part in gymnastics on the Saturday but not in writing? Yes, because it is the creating act in itself which is forbidden, if it so only concerns to generate an electric spark or create a letter of the alphabet. (Göran Larsson "Tid för Gud, Judiska och kristna perspektiv på de judiska högtiderna" p 23; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Jesus was not teaching that God is the Father of all. The Jews would have accepted that. His claim meant that God was his Father in a special sense. He was claiming that he partook of the same nature as his Father. This involved equality. (Leon Morris "The Gospel according to John" p 274-275)

Last Saturday (1895-09-28) . . . Pasteur died, he who did not think that creation is in progress but was made in six days, to cease with that (creation) the seventh. (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev XI maj 1895-nov 1896" p 73; letter 1895-09-29 to Anders Eliasson; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

God is the Creator of the world: but having once created it he remains its absolute master, takes interest in it, intervenes in it at every moment, and abandons none of his power to the blind play of natural laws, still less to chance. ... ‘The human mind,’ (Calvin) wrote, ‘having once realized the virtue of God in the Creation, stops there ... but faith must indeed go farther; it must recognize him as perpetuel governor and guardian, whom it has known to be the Creator. And that he not only drives the machinery of the world and all its parts in a universal motion, but sustains, nourishes and cares for every creature, even for the little birds.’ ... Calvin wrote in 1559: ‘ ... (God) is like a captain of a ship, holding the helm in order to cope with every event.’ ... Where unbelievers can see only the play of natural forces or the effect of chance, believers will perceive the hand of God. (F. Wendel "Calvin" p 177-179; The Theological Doctrine of Calvin)

God's will (according to Calvin) ... is active, at work, operative: "Providence is not something by which God idly observes from heaven what takes place on earth but that by which he as it were keeps his hand on the rudder and leads all events." Accordingly, it concerns action as well as seeing. God is not idle but active. He does not just look on, but works. ... His activity also with respect to the entire process of cosmic events is ongoing. ... It is typical for Calvin that God exercises a special providence with respect to persons, specifically to believers. (Marijn de Kroon "The honour of God and human salvation; Calvin's theology according to his Institutes" p 6)

If any one say, “And how doth the Father ‘work,’ who ceased on the seventh dag from all His works?” let him learn the manner in which He ‘worketh’. What then is the manner of His working? He careth for, He holeth together all that hath been made. Therefore when thou beholdest the sun rising and the moon running in her path, the lakes, and fountains, and rivers, and rains, the course of nature in the seeds and in our own bodies, and those of irrrational beings, and all the res by means of which this universe is made up, then learn the ceaseless working of the Father. “For He maketh His sun to rise upon the evil and the good, and sendeth rain on the just and on the unjust.” (Matt. v. 45) And again; “If Gos so clothe the grass of the field, which to-day is, and to-morrow is cast into the fire” (Matt vi. 30); and speaking of the birds He said, “Your Heavenly Father feedeth them.” (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers XIV:133)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Gottfried Arnold, Hjalmar Bergman, Elisabeth Beskow, Hjalmar Bjurulf, George Carey, Tim Dowley, Gunnar Eriksson, P. Fjellstedt, Albert Granmo, Lars Hartman, Stefan Hedkvist, James Houston, Charles Kingsley, Ad. Kolmodin, Eskil Köllquist, Hans Larsson, Joachim G. Leithöuser, Lars Lindberg, Astrid Lindgren, Torgny Lindgren, Martin Luther, Carl Henrik Martling, Vilhelm Moberg, Torsten Nilsson, Lars-Arne Norberg, Anders Piltz, Viktor Rydberg, Gösta Sandberg, Milton Steinberg, John Stott, Olof Sundby, Bertil Torekull, Thornton Wilder.


My own comments and speculations:

God still works by giving men the Holy Spirit (Joh 1.12-13,33; 3:3; 7:37-39).

Jesus "loosened the Sabbath" but kept other commandments (cf. Matt 19:18-19; Mark 10:19-20; Luke 18:20). See also My own comments and speculations to John 13:34-35.


(Paul said to the believers in Colossae:) "In Him (who is the first-born of all creation) all the things were created, in the heavens and upon the earth, the things possible to behold and the things impossible to behold ... all the things have been (and are) created through Him and into/’for the purpose of’ Him. (Col 1:16)

To which one of the messengers did (God) once speak: " ... I will be to Him into/to a Father, and He will be to Me into/to a Son?" (Heb 1:5)


Greek words:

apokteinô (kill) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Esther 2:21; 1 Macc 9:32; Matt 16:21; Mark 3:4; 14:1; John 5:18; Acts 7:52 – Esther 9:6,15; Tobit 1:18,21; 6:14; 14:10-11; 1 Macc 2:9,25; 3:11; 5:28,35; 7:4,16; 9:40,61,69; 11:10,47; 12:48; 13:23,31; 16:16,21-22; 2 Macc 10:22; Wisdom of Solomon 16:9; 18:5; Sir 47:4; Susanna v 53,62(Theod); Bel and the Dragon v 22(Theod),25(26)(Theod),28,29(Theod); Matt 14:5; 16:21; 17:23; 21:35,38-39; 22:6; 23:34,37; 24:9; 26:4; Mark 6:19; 8:31; 9:31; 10:34; 12:7-8; 14:1; Luke 9:22; 11:47-49; 12:4-5; 13:4,31,34; 18:33; 20:14-15; John 7:1,19-20,25; 8:22,37,40; 11:53; 12:10; 16:2, 18:31. Acts 3:15; 21:31; 23:12,14; 27:42; Rom 7:11; 11:3; Eph 2:16; 1 Thess 2:15; Rev 2:13,23; 6:8; 9:5,15,18,20; 11:5,7,13; 13:10,15; 19:21.

diôkô (pursue) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Matt 5:10; John 5:16; Acts 7:52 – 1 Macc 2:47; 3:24; 4:9,15-16; 5:22,60; 9:15; 10:49; 11:73; 12:51; 15:11,39; 2 Macc 2:21; 5:8; Wisdom of Solomon 2:4; 5:14; 11:20; 16:16; 19:2-3; Sir 11:10; 31:5; 34:2; Matt 5:11-12,44; 10:23; 23:34; Luke 11:49; 17:23; 21:12; John 15:20. Acts 9:4-5; 22:4,7-8; 26:11,14-15; Rom 9:30-31; 12:13-14; 14:19; 1 Cor 4:12; 14:1; 15:9; 2 Cor 4:9; Gal 1:13,23; 4:29; 5:11; 6:12; Phil 3:6,12,14; 1 Thess 5:15; 1 Tim 6:11; 2 Tim 2:22; 3:12; Heb 12:14; 1 Pet 3:11.

isos (equal) (in the NT + examples in the OT) Matt 20:12; John 5:18 – Ex 26:24; Job 11:12; 30:19; 2 Macc 9:15; Wisdom of Solomon 7:3; Mark 14:56,59; Luke 6:34; Acts 11:17; Phil 2:6; Rev 21:16.

monos/monon (alone/only) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Matt 21:21; John 5:18 – Esther 3:13e(B5); 4:13,17l(C14),17t(C25); 8:12d(E4); Tobit 1:6(BA); 8:6; Judith 3:8; 12:10; 1 Macc 12:36; 13:4; 2 Macc 1:24-25; 7:37; Wisdom of Solomon 10:1; 19:15; Sir 18:2; 24:5,34; 45:25; Baruch 4:16; Susanna v 14(Theod),36(Theod); The Prayer of Azariah v 22; Matt 4:4,10; 5:47; 8:8; 10:42; 12:4; 14:23,36; 17:8; 18:15; 21:19; 24:36; Mark 4:10; 5:36; 6:8,47; 9:2,8; Luke 4:4,8; 5:21; 6:4; 8:50; 9:18,36; 10:40; 24:18; John 5:44; 6:15,22; 8:(9),16,29; 11:52; 12:9,24; 13:9; 16:32; 17:3,20. Acts 8:16; 11:19; 18:25; 19:26-27; 21:13; 26:29; 27:10; Rom 1:32; 3:29; 4:12,16,23; 5:3,11; 8:23; 9:10,24; 11:3; 13:5; 16:4,27; 1 Cor 7:39; 9:6; 14:36; 15:19; 2 Cor 7:7; 8:10,19,21; 9:12; Gal 1:23; 2:10; 3:2; 4:18; 5:13; 6:4,12; Eph 1:21; Phil 1:27,29; 2:12,27; 4:15; Col 4:11; 1 Thess 1:5,8; 2:8; 3:1; 2 Thess 2:7; 1 Tim 1:17; 5:13; 6:15-16; 2 Tim 2:20; 4:8,11; Heb 9:7,10; 12:26; Jas 1:22; 2:24; 1 Pet 2:18; 1 John 2:2; 5:6; 2 John v 1; Jude v 4,25; Rev 15:4.


Additional studies:

Gen 2:2; Joshua 8:16-17; 2 Sam 7:14; 1 Chron 22:10; Esther 6:2; Ps 2:7; Eccl 5:1(2); Is 14:14; Ezek 28:2,9; Matt 9:2-3; 12:5-6,8; 26:65; Mark 2:7,27-28; 14:36; Luke 6:5; 13:15; John 1:19; 6:35; 7:21,25,29-30; 9:4,14,16; 10:30,33,36; 14:10,28; 19:7,34; Rom 8:32; 2 Thess 2:4; 2 John v 3; Rev 1:4,6.


Steven M. Bryan "Power in the Pool: the Healing of the Man at Bethesda and Jesus' violation of the Sabbath (Jn 5:1-18)"; Tyndale Bulletin 54.2 (2003): 7-22.

Craig S. Keener "Is Subordination Within the Trinity Really Heresy? A Study of John 5:18 in Context"; Trinity Journal 20.1 (1999): 39-51.

James F. McGrath "A Rebellious Son? Hugo Odeberg and the Interpretation of John 5:18"; New Testament Studies 44 (1998): 470-473.

J.C. O'Neill "Making Himself Equal With God (John 5:17-18). The Alleged Challenge to Jewish Monotheism in the Fourth Gospel."; Irish Biblical Studies 17 (1995): 50-61.

L.T. Witkamp "The Use of the Traditions in John 5:1-18"; Journal for the Study of the New Testament 25 (1985): 19-47.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-03-02; 2010-12-27; 2013-12-20; 2014-10-12)

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5:19-21 Jesus so answered and (continually) said to them: “Amen, amen, I say to you: The Son is not able to make (anything) (away) from Himself, ‘nothing anything’/nothing (which) He – * (א,*א,B) according to the circumstances – may not see the Father making/make, for the things that One – according to the circumstances - may make, these things the Son and/also makes likewise. For the Father is friends with the Son, and He shows Him all things which He Himself makes. And greater works than these ones He will show Him, ‘in order’/so that you wonder (א,* א). For just as the Father raises the dead (bodies) and makes them alive, in this way and/also the Son makes alive to the ones He wants.”

Word for word: 5:19 (37 words in the Greek text, the sequence of the words according to Sinaiticus) Answered so the Jesus and said-(continually) (to)-them: amen amen (i/I)-say (to)-you, not is-able-to the son make from (him)self nothing according-to-the-circumstances not anything (he)-may-see the father making; which for according-to-the-circumstances that-(one) may-make, these(-things) and the son makes likewise. 5:20 (22 words in the Greek text) the for father is-friends-with the son and all-(things) (he)-shows him which he-(himself) makes, and greater (than)-these-(ones) (he)-will-show him works, in-order-that you wonder. 5:21 (16 words in the Greek text) just-as for the father raises the dead-(bodies) and makes-(them)-alive, in-this-way and the son which-(ones) (he)-wants makes-alive.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(God said to Abraham:) "Take your welcomed son Isaac, whom you have welcomed, and go into the high earth/land and carry him up there into a burnt offering." (Gen 22:2a, Greek OT)

(Moses said to the synagogue/gathering:) "... You will gain knowledge that the Lord has dispatched me away to make/do all these works, because (these are) not from Myself." (Num 16:28, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) "I shall kill and I shall make alive. I shall hit and I shall heal. And it/there is not (one) who ‘takes out for himself’/delivers out of My hands." (Deut 32:39b, Greek OT)

(Hannah said:) "The Lord puts to death and produces living beings. He leads down into Hades and He leads up. The Lord makes beggarly and He makes rich. He humbles and He heightens up." (1 Sam 2:6-7, Greek OT)

(The king of Israel said:) “Not (am) I God to put to death or to make alive? ...” (2 Kings 5:7b, Greek OT)

(The Levites said to the Lord:) “You make all things alive. … “ (Neh 9:6b, Greek OT)

(Solomon said:) "Just as eagerness/sweep of a water, in this way (is) a heart of a king in (the) hand of God. Where - if according to the circumstances and (if) He wants - (the king) may nod, there (it was) He (who) leant/bent it." (Prov 21:1, Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) "Let us go and turn ourselves next to, towards the Lord our God. For He has raped/plundered (and rapes/plunders) (us), and He will heal us. He will hit, and He will heal an open wound to us. After two days He shall make us healthy. We may stand up in/on the third day, and we may live in the very eyes of Him. (Hos 6:1-2, Greek OT)

Tobias ... spoke to (Tobit): “Father, I shall make/do all things, as many as you have enjoined (and enjoin) me.” (Tobit 5:1, BA)

(Tobias) ‘was friends with’/kissed his father and mother, and (his father) spoke to him: “Go being healthy!” (Tobit 5:17b,S)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) "Over against the bad one (stands) the good one, and over against the death the life. In this way a reverent (stands) over against a misser (of the mark of God). And see in this way in, into all the works of the Highest One, two (and) two, one entirely opposite 'the one'/another." (Sir 33:14-15)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “On/after (the) end (of Elisah) his works (were) wondrous.” (Sir 48:14b)


The Latter Revelation:

Behold, a voice out of the heavens saying (about Jesus): "This One is My welcomed Son, in/with whom I have been pleased." (Matt 3:17)

(Jesus said to the twelve:) “Attend the ones being weak. Raise dead (bodies).” (Matt 10:8a)

(Jesus said to His disciples: “A scarlet kernel of mustard) is indeed smaller than all (other) seeds, but when – according to the circumstances - it may have increased, it is greater than the vegetables and becomes a tree.” (Matt 13:32a)

All (continually) wept and (continually) ‘cut themselves’/mourned (the daughter of the synagogue leader). But (Jesus) spoke: "Do not weep, for she has not died however/but she sleeps." And they (continually) ‘laughed down’/guffawed at Him, knowing that she had died. But having ‘got power over’/seized her hand He raised His voice, saying: "The girl, rise!" And her spirit turned next to (her). (Luke 8:52-55a)

(Jesus said to the hypocrites:) "What/why do you not and/also judge the righteous thing (away) from yourselves?" (Luke 12:57)

(The older son said to his father:) “Behold, for so many years I am/’have been’ your slave, and I have nor at any time come by the side of your commandment. …” (Luke 15:29b)

It became/came all at once out of the heaven a sound just as (a sound) being carried/produced (by) a violent breath/puff. (Acts 2:2a)

(Paul said to the king:) “Why is it judged/considered faithless/incredible ‘by the side of’/among you, if God raises dead (bodies)?” (Acts 26:8)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

The Father welcomes the Son and has given (and gives) all things in His hand. (John 3:35)

The kingly one says towards (Jesus): “Lord, descend before my little boy dies.” Jesus says to him: “Go! Your son lives!” (John 4:49-50a)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

The language Jesus uses is thoroughly rabbinic. He begins with a very strong affirmation of community of action with the Father. It is not simply that he does not act in independence ot the Father, he cannot act in independence of the Father. He can do only the things he sees the Father doing. ... The Father (he and no other) raises people from the dead and gives them life. This is the teaching of the Old Testament (Deut. 32:39; 1 Sam. 2:6; 2 Kings 5:7). ... This idea was accepted throughout Judaism. (Leon Morris "The Gospel according to John" p 277-279)

The context in 5:20ff indicates that the "greater" works are to give life and to pronounce judgement. (Birger Olsson "Structure and Meaning in the Fourth Gospel" p 67)

That the son makes living whom he wants has often been misunderstood. As if he capriciously would choose some to be made living and let others remain in their sins. It is not so. The meaning is, that he does not let force anyone's will or order upon himself but acts freely and unconstrainedly. This he can because he in everything carries out the will of his father, which alone is law.Therefore he taught us to pray: "Thy will be done, on earth as it is in heaven." The first one in the endless row of heavenly and earthly beings making the will of God is the son himself. As it is said in the letter to the Hebrews: "Behold, I have come (In the roll of the book it is written of me) to do thy will, O God." From this will he does not yield." (Karl Palmberg "Ur livskällan. Andra årgången." p 447; Karl Palmberg /1842-1920/ was from 1883 a Lutheran clergyman in Månsarp in the diocese of Växjö and president in Jönköpings Missionsförening (Missionary Society) 1886-1911; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: LarsOlov Eriksson, P. Fjellstedt, Bo Frid, Johannes Gossner, Niklas Piensoho, Jesper Svartvik, P. Waldenström.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “the greater works”, see also Exegetes, evangelists and others and My own comments and speculations to John 14:12-14.


Paul said to the believers in Rome: "If the Spirit of the One having raised Jesus out of dead (bodies) inhabits in you, the One having raised Christ Jesus out of dead (bodies) will and/also make alive your mortal bodies through the Spirit of the One’ inhabiting in’/inhabiting you." (Rom 8:11)

Paul said to the believers in Corinth: ”The last Adam (became) into/to a spirit making alive.” (1 Cor 15:45b)


Greek words:

zôopoieô (make alive) (in the NT) John 5:21; Rom 8:11; 1 Cor 15:45 – John 6:63; Rom 4:17; 1 Cor 15:22,36; 2 Cor 3:6; Gal 3:21; 1 Tim 6:13(א,*א); I Pet 3:18.

(h)omoiôs (likewise) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) John 5:19 – Esther 1:18; Wisdom of Solomon 6:7; 15:7; Matt 22:26; 26:35; 27:41; Mark 4:16(א,*א,A); 15:31; Luke 3:11; 5:10,33; 6:31; 10:37; 13:3; 16:25; 17:28; John 6:11; 21:13; Rom 1:27; 1 Cor 7:3-4,22; Heb 9.21; Jas 2:25; 1 Pet 3:1,7; 5:5; Jude v 8; Rev 2:15; 8:12.

fileô (be friends with) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Tobit 5:17; John 5:20 – Esther 4:17d(C6); 10:3; Tobit 10:12(BA); Wisdom of Solomon 8:2; Matt 6:5; 10:37; 23:6; 26:48; Mark 14:44; Luke 20:46; 22:47; John 11:3,36; 12:25; 15:19; 16:27; 20:2; 21:15-17; 1 Cor 16:22; Tit 3:15; Rev 3:19; 22:15.

(h)ôsper (just as) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) John 5:21; Acts 2:2 – Wisdom of Solomon 19:17; Baruch 4:24,28,33; Matt 6:2,7; 12:40; 13:40; 18:17; 20:28; 24:27,37; 25:14,32; Luke 17:24; 18:11. Acts 3:17; 11:15; Rom 5:12,19,21; 1 Cor 8:5; 10:7; 11:12; 15:22; 16:1; 2 Cor 8:7; Gal 4:29; 1 Thess 5:3; Heb 4:10; 7:27; 9:25; Jas 2:26; Rev 10:3.


Additional studies:

1 Kings 17:22; 2 Kings 4:34-35; Ezek 37:13; Tobit 13:2; Wisdom of Solomon 16:13; Matt 11:27; Mark 1:11; Luke 3:22; John 1:4; 3:11,35; 5:25-26,28-30; 6:46; 7:18,21; 8:28,38; 10:17; 11:25,43-44,51; 12:49; 14:10,12; 15:4,9; 16:13; 17:23; 18:34; Rom 6:4; 2 Cor 3:5; Eph 2:5; Phil 3:21; 1 Thess 4:16; Rev 1:1; 4:1; 13:5; 17:6-7.


Werner Georg Kümmel "Futurisk och presentisk eskatologi i den äldsta urkristendomen"; Svensk Exegetisk Årsbok 24 (1959): 54-71.

Aida Besançon Spencer "Father-Ruler: The Meaning of the Metaphor 'Father' for God in the Bible"; Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 39.3 (Sept. 1996): 433-442.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-03-02; 2010-12-30; 2013-12-21)

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5:22-24 For nor the Father judges ‘no one’/anyone, however/but has given (and gives) every/all judgment to the Son, in order that all may honour the Son entirely as they may honour the Father. The one not honouring the Son does not honour the Father having sent Him. Amen, amen I say to you, that the one hearing My saying and believing (in) the One having sent Me has agelong life and does not come into judgment, however/but has stepped (and steps) over out of the death into the life.

Word for word: 5:22 (13 words in the Greek text) nor for the father judges no-one, however the judgment every (he)-has-given-(and-gives) the son 5:23 (21 words in the Greek text) in-order-that all may-honour the son entirely-as (they)-may-honour the father. the-(one) not honouring the son not honours the father the-(one) having-sent him. 5:24 (31 words in the Greek text) Amen amen (i/I)-say (to)-you that the-(one) the saying my hearing and believing the-(one) having-sent me, has life agelong and into (a)-judgment not comes, however has-stepped-(and-steps)-over out-of the death into the life.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Moses said to Israel:) "... You may not/certainly not ‘dispatch under’/avoid a face of a man, because the judgment is of God. (Deut 1:17a, Greek OT)

(The rod out of the root of Jesse) will not judge ‘according to’/after the glory, nor convict ‘according to’/after the talking, however/but with humble judgment He will judge, and He will convict the humble ones. (Is 11:3b-4a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) “To Me every knee will crook, and every tongue will 'confess out'/admit God.” (Is 45:23b; Greek OT)

(The people in Egypt said to the prophet:) “We will not hear your saying, which you (in) the name of the Lord have talked towards us.” (Jer 44:16, Greek OT)

A thousand of a number of one thousand (continually) performed public duties to (the Old of Days), and ten thousand of a number of ten thousand stood (and had stood) by the side of Him. And a court of justice sat down, and books were opened. ... And to (one as a son of man) was given the beginning and the honour and the kingdom, and all the peoples, tribes, tongues will be slaves to Him. His (judicial) authority (is) an agelong (judicial) authority, and His kingdom will not be ruined throughout. (Dan 7:10b,14, Greek OT, Theod)

The ones (who) did not ‘take for themselves before’/prefer to step over against the Greek fashions (would) be entirely slaughtered. (2 Macc 6:9)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “The Lord alone will be justified/'pronounced as righteous'.” (Sir 18:2)

“Bless ... the Lord … because ... He saved you out of hand of death.” (The Song of Praise of the Three Men v 65a)


The Latter Revelation:

(What was spoken through the prophet Isaiah might be completed, saying:) "... The people being seated in darkness beheld a great light. And to the ones being seated in a district and a shadow of death, to them a light stuck up." (Matt 4:16)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "Every/everyone whoever hears these My sayings, and makes/does them, will be likened (to) a sensible male, whoever built his habitation against the rock." (Matt 7:24)

(Jesus said:) "All things have been given to the side of Me by the (א*) Father." (Matt 11:27a)

God enjoined saying (א*): “Honour the father.” (Matt 15:4a)

(Jesus) says to (His disciples:) “For because of your ‘a few’/little faith, amen I say to you: ‘If – according to the circumstances – you may have faith as a scarlet kernel of mustard, you will speak to this mountain: ‘Step ‘in from’/’from here’ over there’, and it will step over, and nothing will be unable to you.” (Matt 17:20)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "Do not judge, and you may not/certainly not be judged." (Luke 6:37a)

(Jesus said:) "The one not adopting Me, does not adopt the One having dispatched me away." (Luke 10:16b)

The Lord of the vineyard spoke: “What shall I make/do? I will send my welcomed son. Perhaps they will ‘turn in themselves’/’be ashamed’ (towards) this one.” (Luke 20:13)

Having loosened the pains of child-birth of the death (God) caused (Jesus) to stand up. (Acts 2:24a)

Peter said: "(Jesus) is the One marked out by God by bounderies (as) a judge of living ones and of dead (bodies)." (Acts 10:42b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

For in this way God welcomed the adornment/’adorned world’, so that He gave the Son, the only descendant, in order that 'every the'/everyone believing into Him may not perish however/but have agelong life. For God did not dispatch away the Son into the adornment/’adorned world’, in order that He might judge the adornment/’adorned world’, however/but in order that the adornment/’adorned world’ might be saved through Him. The one believing into Him is not judged. * (א*, א, B) The one not believing has already been (and is) judged, because he has not believed (and does not believe) into the name of (the) Son of God, the only descendant. (John 3:16-18)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

Those who do not come into judgment will not come into judgment on the last day either. ... The saying points to their permanent safety. To have eternal life is to be secure throughout eternity. ... Bultmann points out that "Jesus' words are not didactic propositions but an invitation and a call to decision" (Theology of the New Testament II). (Leon Morris "The Gospel according to John" p 280)

When God in the beginning of time created heaven and earth, it happened through Christ (John 1:1-3). ... When God in the completion of time redeemed the fallen creation, it happened through Christ (2 Cor 5:19). ... When God in the end of time will judge living and dead ones, it will happen through Christ (John 5:22). (Knut Svensson "En för alla" p 17; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

The word of Jesus is an active thing, which has almost an independent existence, and judges, gives life and cleanses. (C.K. Barrett "The Gospel according to St John" p 261)

The apostle testifies, that Christ is the Lord of all men, and that everything is created through him and to him. In this "everything" we men, as the most distinguished beings, must, to be sure, be taken in account. As it is also expressly said, that all knees will be bent in his name. Thus the meeting of all men with him some time is as sure as the fact that night follows day. The one thing nust happen, the other thing must also happen, for it is so settled in creation itself. Thus to meet Christ or not to meet him does not lie in the free choice of any man. Against it the point of time when it will happen, if in time to be saved or after time to be lost, is in our choice. As Jesus himself said: the father does not judge anyone but has given all judgment to the son; namely the judgment of salvation in time for the one coming to him and believe in him as well as the judgment of condemnation after time for the ones having resisted and despised him. Therefore everybody must rise out of their tombs, some, as it is expressly said, to the resurrection of life and some to the resurrection of judgment. Which of the two it will be depends on whether they have met him in time or have withdrawn themselves from this meeting. (Karl Palmberg "Ur livskällan. Andra årgången." p 233, comment to Matt 28:9-15; Karl Palmberg /1842-1920/ was from 1883 a Lutheran clergyman in Månsarp in the diocese of Växjö and president in Jönköpings Missionsförening (Missionary Society) 1886-1911; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

What I must do, it is to make use of the satire, when I shall place my petroleum under Paris! I despise the satire, but I must make use of it! I mean that I first of all must make myself heard! And the Parisian does not listen to sermon! (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev IV 1884"; letter 1884-06-01 to Jonas Lie; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

”He that honoreth not the Son honoreth not the Father.” For where there are two kings, if one is insulted the other is insulted also, and especially when he that is insulted is a son. He is insulted even when one of his soldiers is maltreated; not in the same way as in this case, but as it were in the person of another, while here it is as it were his own. (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers XIV:138)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Augustinus, Bo Brander, Yngve Brilioth, Sven Danell, P. Fjellstedt, Bo Frid, Berndt Gustafsson, Emil Malm, D.L. Moody, John Stott, Jesper Svartvik, P. Waldenström, Carl Fr. Wislöff.


My own comments and speculations:

God did not dispatched His Son to judge the adornment/’adorned world’ but to save it. But one day He will judge it in righteousness (Acts 17:31).


Paul said to the believers in Rome: "(There is) consequently now no ‘judicial verdict down’/’sentence of guilty’ for the ones (being) in Christ Jesus." (Rom 8:1)

Paul said to the believers in Philippi: “In the name of Jesus every knee may crook … and every tongue may ‘confess out’/admit that Jesus Christ (is) Lord into a glory of God a Father.” (Phil 2:10a,11)

'Every the'/everyone denying the Son, nor has the Father. The one confessing the Son and/also has the Father. (1 John 2:23)

We know, that we have stepped (and step) over out of the death into the life, because we welcome our (א,*א) brothers. The one not welcoming stays in the death. (1 John 3:14)

The one having the Son has the life. The One not having the Son of God has not the life. These things I have written to you, in order that you may know, that you have an agelong life, to the ones believing into the name of the Son of God. (1 John 5:12-13)


Greek words:

thanatos (death) (in the Synoptics, John, the Acts, 1-3 John, Rev + examples in the Apocrypha) The Song of Praise of the Three Men v 65; Matt 4:16; John 5:24; Acts 2:24; 1 John 3:14 – Esther 4:8; 4:17i(C11),17k(C12); Tobit 3:4; 4:2,10(BA); 6:13; 12:9; 14:10; Judith 7:27; 11:11; 12:14; 14:5; 1 Macc 5:2; 2 Macc 4:47; 6:19,30-31; 7:29; 13:8; Wisdom of Solomon 1:12-13; 2:20,24; 12:20; 16:13; 18:12,16,20; 19:5; Sir 4:28; 11:14; 14:12; 15:17; 22:11; 23:12; 26:5; 27:29; 28:6,21; 30:17; 33:14; 37:2,18; 38:18; 39:29; 40:9; 41:1-3; 51:6,9; Epistle of Jeremiah v 35; Susanna v 22; Matt 10:21; 15:4; 16:28; 20:18; 26:38; 26:66; Mark 7:10; 9:1; 10:33; 13:12; 14:34; 14:64; Luke 1:79; 2:26; 9:27; 22:33; 23:15,22; 24:20; John 8:51-52; 11:4,13; 12:33; 18:32; 21:19. Acts 13:28; 22:4; 23:29; 25:11,25; 26:31; 28:18; 1 John 5:16-17; Rev 1:18; 2:10-11,23; 6:8; 9:6; 12:11; 13:3,12; 18:8; 20:6,13-14; 21:4,8.

metabainô (step over) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) 2 Macc 6:9; Matt 17:20; John 5:24; 1 John 3:14 – 2 Macc 6:1; Wisdom of Solomon 7:27; Matt 8:34; 11:1; 12:9; 15:29; Luke 10:7; John 7:3; 13:1; Acts 18:7.

timaô (honour) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Matt 15:4; John 5:23 (א,* א); Esther 8:12c(E2); 9:3; Tobit 4:3; 10:12(BA); 2 Macc 3:2,12; 13:23; Wisdom of Solomon 6:21; 14:17,20; Sir 3:3,5,8; 26:26; 38:1; Matt 15:6,8; 19:19; 27:9; Mark 7:6,10; 10:19; Luke 18:20; John 8:49; 12:26; Acts 28:10; Eph 6:2; 1 Tim 5:3; 1 Pet 2:17.


Additional studies:

Is 9:6-7; Micah 5:1-4; Matt 10:40; 25:46; 28:18; Mark 12:27; Luke 6:47-49; John 3:36; 5:27,30; 6:40,47,68; 8:15; 9:39; 10:10,28; 11:25-26; 12:44,47-48; 14:10; 15:23; 17:2; 20:31; Acts 17:31; Rom 3:26; 8:34; 10:17; Eph 2:6; 1 John 3:2; 5:11; Rev 3:8,20; 4:9,11; 5:12-13; 7:12; 14:7; 18:20.


Werner Georg Kümmel "Futurisk och presentisk eskatologi i den äldsta urkristendomen"; Svensk Exegetisk Årsbok 24 (1959): 54-71.

Chuck Lowe "'There is No Condemnation' (Romans 8:1): But Why Not?" Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 42.2 (June 1999): 231-250.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-03-02; 2011-01-04; 2013-12-23; 2014-10-13)

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5:25-27 Amen, amen, I say to you, that an hour comes * (א*), when the dead (bodies) may (P66, א,* א) hear the voice of the Son of God, and * (P66, א*) having heard they will live. For * (א*) as the Father has life in Himself, in this way He has given and/also to the Son to have life in Himself. And He has given Him (judicial) authority to make/execute judgment, because He is a son of man.

Word for word: 5:25 (20 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus prima manus) amen amen (i/I)-say (to)-you that comes (an)-hour when the dead-(bodies) may-hear the voice (of)-the (of)-son (of)-the (of)-god and having-heard (they)-will-live. 5:26 (17 words in the Greek text) as for the father has life in (him)self, in-this-way and the son gave life (to)-have in (him)self. 5:27 (10 words in the Greek text) and (judicial)-authority (he)-gave him judgment (to)-make, because son (of)-(a)-man (he)-is.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

God formed the man of gravel from the earth and puffed in, into his face, a breath of life. And the man became into a living soul. (Gen 2:7, Greek OT)

(God) made two shares of inheritance, one to the people of God and one to all the nations. And these two shares of inheritance came into an hour and a seasonable time and into a day of judgment in the very eyes of God and in all the nations. (Esther 10:3gb-h/F7b-8, Greek OT)

(Job said to the Lord:) ”You have put life and mercy by the side of Me.” (Job 10:12a, Greek OT)

(David said to the Lord: “What is) a son of man, that You inspect him? Having short/’a short time’ been less something to the side of messengers You crowned him (with) glory and honour. And You set him down against the works of Your hands, all things You arranged under below his feet.” (Ps 8:4b-6 alt 8:5b-7, Greek OT)

(David said to the Lord God:) "By the side of You (is) a spring of life." (Ps 36:9a alt 36:10a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) “Give heed (with) your ear lobes and follow on My ways. ‘Hear upon’/’listen to’ Me, and your soul will live in good things.” (Is 55:3a, Greek OT)

(The prophet said: “The Lord) spoke towards me: ‘Prophesy against these bones and speak to them: Dried out bones, hear the saying of the Lord: This is what the Lord God says to these bones: Behold, I carry a spirit of life into you.’” (Ezek 37:4-5, Greek OT)

A thousand of a number of one thousand (continually) performed public duties to (the Old of Days), and ten thousand of a number of ten thousand stood (and had stood) by the side of Him. And a court of justice sat down, and books were opened. ... And to (one as a son of man) was given the beginning and the honour and the kingdom, and all the peoples, tribes, tongues will be slaves to Him. His (judicial) authority (is) an agelong (judicial) authority, and His kingdom will not be ruined throughout. (Dan 7:10b,14, Greek OT, Theod)


The Latter Revelation:

When the Son of the Man – according to the circumstances – may come in His glory, and all the messengers in company with Him, then He will sit down upon His throne of glory. (Matt 25:31)

(Jesus said to the Sadducees: “God) is not the (א,* א ,A)God of ‘dead (bodies)’/dead, however/but of living ones. (Mark 12:27a)

The saying (of Jesus) (continually) was in/with (judicial) authority. ... It became amazement against/over all (in the synagogue), and they talked together with, towards one another saying: "What (is) this saying, because He in/with (judicial) authority and ability 'arranges on'/orders the unclean spirits, and they come out." (Luke 4:32b,36)

(The father said to his slaves:) "This my son (continually) was (a) dead (body) and/but has ‘lived up’/’returned to life’." (Luke 15:24a)

On (the women's) leaning the faces into/to the earth (the two men) spoke towards (them): “What/why do you seek the living One in company with the dead (bodies)?” (Luke 24:5b)

Peter said: "(Jesus) is the One marked out by God by bounderies (as) a judge of living ones and of dead (bodies)." (Acts 10:42b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

In (the Saying) is (א,*א) life. (John 1:4a)

The Father welcomes the Son and has given (and gives) all things in His hand. (John 3:35)

Jesus says to (the Samaritan woman): “Believe Me, woman, that an hour comes, when you ‘and not’/neither in/on this mountain ‘and not’/nor in (a disgraced) Jerosolyma/Jerusalem will prostrate yourselves (before) the Father (in honour of Him). … However, an hour comes, and it is now, when the true ‘prostrators’ will prostrate themselves before the Father (in honour of Him) in spirit and truth.” (John 4:21,23a)

Just as the Father raises the dead (bodies) and makes them alive, in this way and/also the Son makes alive to the ones who He wants. (John 5:21)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

In the churches and the preaching of our days it is true that it is confessed that Jesus Christ is "coming again to judge living and dead ones", but it is hardly anything it is spoken especially marked about. Still also this side belongs to the picture of Jesus which is given us in the Gospel of John. ... We should not speak about the judgement to say something amusing but in order that it is necessary. (LarsOlov Eriksson "För att ni skall tro. Johannesevangeliet" p 109-110; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Johannes Gossner, Sven Lidman, Anders Nohrborg, Anton Tjechov, P. Waldenström.


Paul said to the believers in Rome: ”What (is) the taking aside (of Israel) if not life out of dead (bodies)?” (Rom 11:15b)

Paul said to the believers in Ephesos: "Being dead (bodies) (in) (our) falls from the side of (God), He made us together alive (in) Christ ... and raised (us) together and made (us) together sit in Christ Jesus in the heavenly (places)." (Eph 2:5-6)


Additional studies:

Ps 66:9; Matt 8:22; 22:32; Mark 13:26; Luke 15:32; 19:10; 20:38; 21:36; John 1:12-13,51; 5:21,28; 6:57,60,63,68: 8:43,47; 9:27,39; 16:2,32; Acts 17:31; Rom 6:4; Gal 2:20; Eph 2:1-4; 5:14; 1 Tim 5:6; Rev 1:13,16,18; 2:7; 3:1,3,10; 11:4,7,18.


Werner Georg Kümmel "Futurisk och presentisk eskatologi i den äldsta urkristendomen"; Svensk Exegetisk Årsbok 24 (1959): 54-71.

O. Linton "Johannesevangeliet och eskatologien"; Svensk Exegetisk Årsbok 22/23 (1957/1958): 98-110.

Chuck Lowe "'There is No Condemnation' (Romans 8:1): But Why Not?" Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 42.2 (June 1999): 231-250.

Lars Hartman "Att tolka eskatologiska texter"; Svensk Exegetisk Årsbok 60 (1995): 23-38.

Jan G. van der Watt "A new look att John 5:25-9 in the light of the use of the term 'eternal life' in the Gospel according to John"; Neotestamentica 19.1 (1985): 71-86.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-03-02; 2011-01-06; 2013-12-25)

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5:28-29 Do not wonder (over/at) this, because it comes an hour, in which all the ones in the memorial tombs may (P66, א*, א) hear His voice. And they shall go out, the ones having made/done the good things into a resurrection of life, but the ones having practised the worthless things into a resurrection of judgment.

Word for word: 5:28 (17 words in the Greek text) not wonder (over)-this, because (it)-comes (an)-hour in which all the-(ones) in the memorial-tombs may-hear the voice his. 5:29 (17 words in the Greek text) and (they)-will-go-out the-(ones) the good-(things) having-made into (a)-resurrection (of)-life, the-(ones) but the worthless-(things) having-practised into (a)-resurrection (of)-judgment.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The Lord said:) "It/there is not a god more than Me. I shall kill, and I shall make alive. ... " (Deut 32:39b, Greek OT)

(This song will be sung upon the earth/land of Judas: "Lord), Your dead (bodies) will stand up, and the ones in the memorial tombs will rise. And the ones in the earth will be cheerful." (Is 26:19a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Israel:) "Behold, I open your tombs and I shall lead you up out of your tombs, and I shall lead you into the earth/land of Israel." (Ezek 37:12b, Greek OT)

Many of the ones sleeping entirely/soundly in/on the breadth of the earth will stand up, ‘the ones’/these indeed into agelong life, but the ones/others into asunderspread sowing and agelong shame. (Dan 12:2, Greek OT)

The king of the adornment/’adorned world’ will cause us, having died in favour/defence of the laws (of the Lord), to stand up into an agelong revival. (2 Macc 7:9b)

(A martyr said to the king who was responsible for his torment and death:) "Exchanging/’undergoing a change’ by men, we wait for by God hopes to again be ‘stood up’/risen by Him. For you, indeed, it will not be a resurrection into life." (2 Macc 7:14b)

(The young man said to the king:) “Our brothers, having indeed ‘carried under’/endured a short hardship of an inexhaustible life, have fallen (and fall) underneath (the) covenant of God. But you will 'carry away'/suffer the righteous judgment of God, the inflicted penalties of the overweening (pride). (2 Macc 7:36)


The Latter Revelation:

(John the Baptist said to the Pharisees and Sadducees: “The One who comes behind me) will baptize you in holy spirit and fire ... and will lead together His bread-stuff into the granary, but the chaff He will burn down (in) an unquenchable fire.” (Matt 3:11b,12b)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "Do not judge, in order that you may not be judged." (Matt 7:1)

(Jesus said to a rich man:) “If you want to come into, into the life, keep the commandments.” (Matt 19:17b)

(Jesus said to His disciples: "The cursed ones who have not done anything to the least of My brothers) will go away into an agelong chastisement, but the righteous ones (who have done something to the least of My brothers) into an agelong life." (Matt 25:46)

The memorial tombs were opened, and many bodies of the holy ones, having been (and being) fallen asleep, were raised. And having come out, out of the memorial tombs after (Jesus') raising they came into, into the holy city and they were made conspicuous to many. (Matt 27:52-53)

(Jesus said to the one who had called/invited Him:) “It will in stead be given back to you in/at the resurrection of the righteous ones.” (Luke 14:14b)

(One of the badmen said:) “We (suffer) indeed righteously, for worthy we ‘take away’/receive the things which we practised/did. But this One has practised/done nothing ‘out of place’/improper.” (Luke 23:41)

(Paul said: "I have) a hope towards (א,* א) God ... that it/there will be a resurrection of both righteous ones and unrighteous ones." (Acts 24:15)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

God did not dispatch away the Son into the adornment/’adorned world’, in order that He might judge the adornment/’adorned world’, however/but in order that the adornment/’adorned world’ might be saved through Him. The one believing into Him is not judged. * (א*, א, B) The one not believing has already been (and is) judged, because he has not believed (and does not believe) into the name of (the) Son of God, the only descendant. But this is the judgment, that the light has come (and comes) into the adornment/’adorned world’ and the men welcomed the darkness rather than the light, for their works (continually) were evil. For every/everyone practising the worthless hates the light and does not come towards the light, in order that his works may not be convicted. But the one making/doing the truth comes towards the light, in order that it may be made visible, that it is in God his works having been (and being) worked. (John 3:17-21)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 - about 1500

In (Jewish) apocalyptic it is doubtful whether the Jews will be judged at all; when it is spoken about scenes of judgements the interest in any case is concentrated on their Gentile adversaries. (Per Block "Människosonens dom" p 161 in comment to Matt 25:31-46; translation from the Swedeish text: BG Ask)

When it became evening, the lord of the vineyard said to his foreman: "Call the laborers and pay them their wages, beginning with the last group to the first." But why just these first? They had, you know, come last and had worked least. Well, with this arrangement he wanted to know partly his own goodness and partly the disposition of the workers. Therefore now justice was allowed to yield and grace came forward. In order that this would happen, those who had earned least must be placed first. With this the dispute was aroused and this before the lord of the vineyard himself. For step the right or the fame of a man too near, and he can not keep back his displeasure, if he so stood before the God of all flesh and before a wide-open abyss. Such is man, that dust! ... Observe: the lord of the vineyard was not accused in order that he did somebody any injustice, but only because he did too much good. ... The thought that blessedness will be based on merit, Jesus often found with his disciples. But he always broke it down with greatest vigour. So he also is doing here. Thus every claim regarding the coming blessedness is refused, even claims being based on the Lord's own will. Such things are obviously shown in the parable (in Matt 20:1-16). For the longer work of the ones having come first had, to be sure, of course occurred in obedience to the will of the lord of the vineyard. But as soon as this became a claim of them, they were refused. Then it had only his sovereign will as its object. "May I not do what I want with what is my own?" With this no wrong thing happened. For he gave nobody too little, but only the last coming ones too much. But who did it concern except he himself! As he also adds: "Is your eye envious, that I am good?" Observe: that I am good. ... (God) is doing good, because he is good. Sun is here an obvious picture. It lights and warms, because it is mere light and mere warmth. It is not doing it, because any on the earth thanks her for it, no, only because it is what it is. ... May we then humble ourselves and realize our unworthiness, that he may be able to act in grace and goodness with us! (Karl Palmberg "Ur livskällan. Tredje årgången." p 110-113; comment to Matt 20:1-16; Karl Palmberg /1842-1920/ was from 1883 a Lutheran clergyman in Månsarp in the diocese of Växjö and president in Jönköpings Missionsförening (Missionary Society) 1886-1911; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Rabbi Aqiba (who died c. A.D. 135) used to say: " ... the judgement of the generation of the Flood endured twelve months; the judgement of Job endured twelve months; the judgement of Gog and Magog which is to come shall endure twelve months; and the judgement of the unrighteous in Gehenna shall endure twelve months." (cf. C.K. Barrett "The Gospel according to St John" p 263)

I have given (Bengt Lidforss) some ideas for a glorious resurrection, although not in Sweden, where you only die without rise again. (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev IX 1892-jan 1894" p 337; letter 1893-12-20 to Elis Strömgren; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


about 1500 and time before

The Father of all is ... the whole source of all that is good. (Irenaeus, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol I, p 374)

Christ Jesus ... (is) the Saviour of those who are saved, and the Judge of those who are judged. (Irenaeus, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol I, p 417)

(God) established two kingdoms – I mean that of the present time and that of the future, - and appointed times to each, and decreed that a day of judgment should be expected, which He determined, in which a severance is to be made of things and of souls: so that the wicked indeed shall be consigned to eternal fire for their sins; but those who have lived according to the will of God the Creator, having received a blessing for their good works, effulgent with brightest light, introduced into an eternal abode, and abiding in incorruption, shall receive eternal gifts of ineffable blessings. (Recognitions of Clement, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol VIII, p 84)

Shall we become slothful in well-doing and cease from the practise of love? God forbid that any such course should be followed by us! But rather let us hasten with all energy and readiness of mind to perform every good work. For the Creator and Lord of all Himself rejoices in His works. For by His infinitely great power He established the heavens, and by His incomprehensible wisdom He adorned them. ... We see how all righteous men have been adorned with good works, and how the Lord Himself, adorning Himself with His works, rejoiced. (Clement of Rome to the Corinthians, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol I, p 13-14)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Anders Blåberg, Amadeus Creutzberg, Johannes Gossner, Martin Luther, Harry Martinson, Ingun Montgomery, J. Nyrén, Joseph Ratzinger, Sven Edvin Salje, Margareta Strömstedt, Edith Södergran, P. Waldenström.


Paul said to the believers in Rome: "(God) will give back to everyone according to his works; to the ones who ‘according to’/concerning endurance of a good work seek glory and honour and immortality indeed/’on the one hand’ agelong life, but to the ones who ‘out of’/’in consequence of’ quarrel and disobeying the truth ‘are persuaded (in)’/obey the unrighteousness, but/’on the other hand’ wrath and passion.” (Rom 2:6-8)

Paul said to the believers in Galatia: The one sowing into the flesh of himself will out of the flesh harvest ruin, but the one sowing into the spirit will out of the spirit harvest agelong life. (Gal 6:8)

Greek words:

anastasis (resurrection) (in NT + examples in the Apocrypha) 2 Macc 7:14; Luke 14:14; John 5:29; Acts 24:15 – 2 Macc 12:43; Matt 22:23,28,30-31; Mark 12:18,23; Luke 2:34; 20:27,33,35-36; John 11:24-25; Acts 1:22; 2:31; 4:2,33; 17:18,32; 23:6,8; 24:21; 26:23; Rom 1:4; 6:5; 1 Cor 15:12-13,21,42; Phil 3:10; 2 Tim 2:18; Heb 6:2; 11:35; 1 Pet 1:3; 3:21; Rev 20:5-6.

ekporeuomai (go out) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) John 5:29 – Tobit 5:18; Judith 7:12; 1 Macc 3:13,45; 15:25; Sir 42:13. Matt 3:5; 4:4; 15:11,18; 20:29; Mark 1:5; 6:11; 7:15,19-21,23; 10:17,46; 11:19; 13:1; Luke 3:7; 4:22,37; John 15:26. Acts 9:28; 19:12; 25:4; Eph 4:29; Rev 1:16; 4:5; 9:17-18; 11:5; 16:14; 19:15; 22:1.

mnêmeion (memorial tomb) (in the NT + one example in the Apocrypha) Matt 27:52-53; John 5:28 – Wisdom of Solomon 10:7; Matt 8:28; 23:29; 27:60; 28:8; Mark 5:2; 6:29; 15:46; 16:3,5,8; Luke 11:44,47; 23:55; 24:1(P75;א,*א); Luke 24:2,9,12,22,24; John 11:17,31,38; 12:17; 19:41-42; 20:1-2,4,8,11; Acts 13:29.


Additional studies: Dan 7:10-14; Zeph 3:15; 2 Macc 12.44; Matt 25:31-46; John 4:21; 5:21,24-25; 10:3,16; 11:43; Rom 2:9-10; 14:9; 1 Cor 15:22-23,52; 2 Cor 5:10; 1 Thess 4:16; Heb 10:27; 3 John v 11; Rev 2:23; 3:3; 11:4,18; 14:7; 17:6-7; 20:4,12-13.

W. Robert Cook "Eschatology in John's Gospel"; Criswell Theological Review 3.1 (1988): 79-99.

Werner Georg Kümmel "Futurisk och presentisk eskatologi i den äldsta urkristendomen"; Svensk Exegetisk Årsbok 24 (1959): 54-71.

Chuck Lowe "'There is No Condemnation' (Romans 8:1): But Why Not?" Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 42.2 (June 1999): 231-250.

Jan G. van der Watt "A new look att John 5:25-9 in the light of the use of the term 'eternal life' in the Gospel according to John"; Neotestamentica 19.1 (1985): 71-86.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-03-02; 2011-01-08; 2013-12-28; 2014-10-13)

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5:30-32 I am not able to make/do nothing/anything from/'owing to' Myself. Entirely as I hear, I judge. And My judgment is righteous, because I do not seek My will however/but the will of the One having sent Me. If – according to the circumstances – I am a witness on account of Myself, My evidence is not truthful. It/there is Another being a witness on account of Me, and you (א*) know, that the evidence (to) which He is a witness on account of Me is truthful.

Word for word: 5:30 (30 words in the Greek text) Not am-able-to i/I make from (my)self nothing; entirely-as (i/I)-hear (i/I)-judge, and the judgment 'the mine'/my righteous is, because not (i/I)-seek the will 'the mine'/my however the will (of)-the-(one) having-sent me. 5:31 (11 words in the Greek text) If-according-to-the-circumstances i/I am-a-witness on-account-of (my)self, the evidence my not is truthful. 5:32 (17 words in the Greek text) another i the-(one) being-a-witness on-account-of me, and '(you)-know-(and-have-known)'/'you-know' that truthful is the evidence (to)-which (he)-is-a-witness on-account-of me.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Moses said to the Lord:) "From where (is it) to me to give meat to every/all this people, because they weep on/’for the sake of’ me saying: 'Give us meat, in order that we may eat!' I will not alone be able to carry this people, because this word is more/too weighty for me." (Num 11:13-14, Greek OT)

(Moses said to the synagogue/gathering:) "... You will gain knowledge that the Lord has dispatched me away to make/do all these works, because (these are) not from Myself." (Num 16:28, Greek OT)

(Moses said:) "Upon/’with regard to’ a mouth of two witnesses and a mouth of three witnesses every word shall stand/’stand firm’." (Deut 19:15b, Greek OT)

(David said to the Lord: “In) You, Lord, (is) the greatness and the ability (1 Chron 29:11a, Greek OT)

… The righteous judgment of God came (and had come) against, against (the foreign king). (2 Macc 9:18a)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus) began to reproach the cities in which most of His (works of) ability had become/’come about’, because they had not changed their minds: “… If the (works of) ability having become/’come about’ in you had become/’come about’ in Tyre and Sidon, they had – according to the circumstances - changed their minds long ago being seated (א,* א) in sack and ashes.” (Matt 11:20,21b)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "Upon/’with regard to’ a mouth of two or three witnesses every word may stand/’stand firm’." (Matt 18:16b)

(The master of the house said to the idle ones:) ”Which/what – if according to the circumstances – may be righteous, I will give you.” (Matt 20:4b)

(Jesus said to the hypocrites:) "What/why do you not and/also judge the righteous thing (away) from yourselves?" (Luke 12:57)

All ‘of them’/together of the multitude of the disciples began rejoicing to praise God (with) a great/loud voice on account of all the (works of) ability which they beheld. (Luke 19:37b)

The Lord of the vineyard spoke: “What shall I make/do? I will send my welcomed son. Perhaps they will ‘turn in themselves’/’be ashamed’ (towards) this one.” (Luke 20:13)

(Jesus said:) "Father, if You wish to carry (א,* א, A) this cup to the side of from Me (let it happen) (א,* א, A). ‘More than’/however not My will, however/but become/’be done’ Yours." (Luke 22:42)

The eunuch ‘having answered’/'answered and' spoke to Philip: “I ‘am in need of’/ask you, on account of whom does the prophet say this? On account of himself or on account of ‘the other someone’/’someone else’?” But/and Philip ... brought from this writing to him a good little message (about) Jesus. (Acts 8:34,35b)

(The Lord said to Paul: “In Jerusalem) they will not receive your evidence on account of Me to the side of (themselves).” (Acts 22:18b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

It became a man having been (and being) dispatched away from the side of God. A name to him (continually) was (א*) John. This one came into/’for the purpose of’ an evidence, in order that he might be a witness on account of the light, in order that all might believe through him. That one was (continually) not the light, however/but (he became) in order that he might be a witness on account of the light. (John 1:6-8)

Jesus says to (His disciples): “My food is ‘in order that’/that I might make/do the will of the One having sent Me and make His work perfect.” (John 4:34)

(Jesus said to the Jews): “Amen, amen, I say to you: The Son is not able to make (anything) (away) from Himself, ‘nothing anything’/nothing (which) He – * (א,*א,B) according to the circumstances – may not see the Father making/make, for the things that One – according to the circumstances - may make, these things the Son and/also makes likewise.” (John 5:19)

(Jesus said to the Jews:) “Nor the Father judges ‘no one’/anyone, however/but has given (and gives) every/all judgment to the Son, in order that all may honour the Son entirely as they may honour the Father.” (John 5:22-23a)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

The "Another" in John 5:32 is the Father. For the idea of God as witness cf. Exodus Rabbah 1.20, where He bears witness to Abraham. (cf. C.K. Barrett "The Gospel according to St John" p 264)

Cf. the rabbinic sayings in Ket. 2:9, "none may be believed when he testifies of himself. ... None may testify of himself." (Leon Morris "The Gospel according to John" p 287)

Hammurabi's text (the illegible one I have) not even resembles cuneiform writing. It surely is a scientific villainy like so many others from the side of the Gentiles. . . . Are there any Christian assyriologist i Sweden besides E. Tegnér (the younger one)? In Lund, or Uppsala? Is he a Gentile, he witnesses falsely and can not be used. (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev 16, maj 1907-12 april 1908" p 108-109; letter 1907-11-26 to the publishing company Björck och Börjesson; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Now I have spoken so much about myself that I feel poorly. (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev II 1877-1882" p 205; letter 1880-11-21 to Edvard Brandes; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Thecla Wrangel.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “bear(s) witness ... evidence”, see also John 1:6-8)


Paul said to the believers in Corinth: "Upon/’with regard to’ a mouth of two witnesses and/or three every word will stand/’stand firm’." (2 Cor 13:1b)

If we – according to the circumstances – may confess our misses (of the mark of God), He is faithful and righteous, in order that He may let our (א,* א) misses (of His mark) be to us and make us clean from every unrighteousness. (1 John 1:9)

If we take the evidence of the men, the evidence of God is greater, because the evidence of God is this, that He is (and has been) a witness on account of His Son. (1 John 5:9)


Greek words:

dikaios (righteous) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) 2 Macc 9:18; Matt 20:4; John 5:30 – Esther 1:1f(A6),1h(A8); 4:17n(C18); 8:12p(E15); Tobit 3:2; 4:17(BA); 7:6(7); 9:6; 13:9(10)(BA),13(15); 1 Macc 7:12; 2 Macc 1:24-25; 7:36; 9:12; 10:12; 11:14; 12:6; 13:23; Wisdom of Solomon 2:10,12,16,18; 3:1,10; 4:7,16; 5:1,15; 10:4-6,10,13,20; 11:14; 12:9,15,19; 16:17,23; 18:7,20; 19:16-17; Sir 7:5; 9:16; 27:8; 35:5-6(8-9),18(22); 44:17; Baruch 2:9; Epistle of Jeremiah v 72; Susanna v 3,9,53. The Prayer of Azariah v 4; The Song of Praise of the Three Men v 63; The Prayer of Manasseh v 1,8; Matt 1:19; 5:45; 9:13; 10:41; 13:17,43,49; 23:28-29,35; 25:37,46; 27:19,24(א,*א,A); Mark 2:17; 6:20; Luke 1:6,17; 2:25; 5:32; 12:57; 14:14; 15:7; 18:9; 20:20; 23:47,50; John 7:24; 17:25. Acts 3:14; 4:19; 7:52; 10:22; 22:14; 24:15; Rom 1:17; 2:13; 3:10,26; 5:7,19; 7:12; Gal 3:11; Eph 6:1; Phil 1:7; 4:8; Col 4:1; 2 Thess 1:5-6; 1 Tim 1:9; 2 Tim 4:8; Tit 1:8; Heb 10:38; 11:4; Jas 5:6,16; 1 Pet 3:12,18; 4:18; 2 Pet 1:13; 2:7-8; 1 John 2:1,29; 3:7,12; Rev 15:3; 16:5,7; 19:2; 22:11.

emautou (myself) (in the NT) John 5:30-31 – Matt 8:9; Luke 7:7-8; John 7:17,28; 8:14,18,28,42,54; 10:18; 12:32,49; 14:3,10,21; 17:19; Acts 20:24; 24:10; 26:2,9; Rom 11:4; 1 Cor 4:3-4,6; 7:7; 9:19; 10:33; 2 Cor 2:1; 11:7,9; 12:5; Gal 2:18; Phil 3:13; Philemon v 13.


Additional studies: Num 35:30; Deut 17:6; Is 28:6; 42:1; Wisdom of Solomon 1:6; Matt 6:10; 17:5; 26:39,42; Mark 9:7; 14:36; Luke 9:35; John 5:22,37,41,44; 6:38; 8:13-18; 15:26; 21:24; 1 Cor 15:24-28; 1 Tim 5:19; Heb 6:17-18; 10:7,28; Rev 4:11; 5:3; 11:18; 16:5; 18:20.

J.C. Hindley "Witness in the Fourth Gospel"; Scottish Journal of Theology 18 (1965): 319 -.

Urban C. von Wahlde "The Witnesses to Jesus in John 5:31-40 and Belief in the Fourth Gospel"; Catholic Biblical Quarterly 43 (1981): 385-404.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-03-03; 2011-01-10; 2013-12-29; 2014-10-13)

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5:33-35 You have dispatched (and dispatch) away (men) towards John, and he has been (and is) a witness to the truth. But I do not take the evidence from the side of a man. However I say these things, in order that you may be saved. That one (continually) was the lamp having been burning and ‘bringing to’/giving light, but/and you wanted towards/’in regard to’ an hour exult in its light.

Word for word: 5:33 (8 words in the Greek text) you have-dispatched-(and-dispatch)-away towards John, and (he)-has-been-(and-is)-a-witness (with/to)-the-truth. 5:34 (14 words in the Greek text) i/I but not from-the-side-of (a)-man the evidence take, however these-(things) (i/I)-say in-order-that you may-be-saved. 5:35 (18 words in the Greek text) that-(one) (continually)-was the lamp the-(one) having-been-burning and bringing-to-light, you but wanted exult towards (an)-hour in the light its.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The Lord said to Moses:) "You shall make the seven lamps (of the lampstand). And You shall put the lamps against (it), and they shall ‘bring to’/give light out of 'the one face'/'one and the same place'." (Ex 25:37a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Moses:) “ ... ‘arrange together for’/command the sons of Israel … in order that (the people) ‘through every thing’/continually may have a lamp burning.” (Ex 27:20, Greek OT)

(The men of David said to Abishai:) "You shall not any longer go out in company with us into war, and you may not/certainly not quench (David), the lamp of Israel." (2 Sam 21:17b, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said to the Lord:) “Mercy and truth will go before, before Your face.” (Ps 89:14b or 89:15b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) "The pious ones (of Zion) will exult (with) exultation. There I will let a horn stick up out of (Zion) for David. I have made a lamp ready for My anointed." (Ps 132:16b-17, Greek OT)

(When the temple had been cleaned, before the sacrifice would be offered, the priests lit) the lamps upon the lampstand, and they (continually) ‘brought to’/gave light in the temple. (1 Macc 4:50b)

Elijah, a prophet as a fire, stood up and his saying (continually) burnt as a torch. (Sir 48:1)

(To the idols the priests) have lamps burning, and more than to themselves, which no one are/is able to behold. (Epistle of Jeremiah v 18)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Nor does (anyone) ‘burn a lamp’/’have a lamp burning’ and put it underneath the corn-measure however/but against the lampstand, and it shines to all the ones in the habitation." (Matt 5:15)

Every/’the whole’ Jewish district (continually) went out towards (John the Baptist) and all the inhabitants of (a disgraced) Jerosolyma/Jerusalem. (Mark 1:5a)

(Mary said:) "My spirit exulted on/’for the sake of’ God, my Saviour." (Luke 1:47)

In this hour (Jesus) exulted in the Holy Spirit. (Luke 10:21a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(John) was (continually) not the light, however/but (he became) in order that he might be a witness on account of the light. (John 1:8)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

Pippi sat at the table with her head leaned against her arms. With a dreaming expression in her eyes she stared at a little candle standing in front of her with a flickering flame. . . . The stars shone over the roof of Villa Villekulla. In there Pippi was. She would be there for ever. . . . Pippi only stared before her with dreaming eyes. So she put out the candle. (Astrid Lindgren "Pippi Långstrump i Söderhavet" p 158-167; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Jesus was the light. John was inferior. He was the lamp, with which one lights oneself in the house, before the sun rises. (P. Waldenström "Nya Testamentet" p 439; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Hear how (Gösta Berling) calls the people! He commands, he gives them all employment. "Light we must have, light above all, here the horn lantern of the miller is not enough. Look at those heaps of twigs, bring them up to precipice and set them on fire! It becomes work for women and children! Quickly only, put up a big, flaming bonfire of twigs and light it! It will light up our work, it will be seen wide and call helpers here. And lets it never go out! Bring straw, bring twigs, let clear flames blaze towards the sky!" (Selma Lagerlöf "Gösta Berlings saga" p 219; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Sven Danell, P. Fjellstedt, Carl-Erik af Geijerstam, Lars Hartman, Ad. Kolmodin, C.S. Lewis, Olaus Magnus, Hilding Pleijel, Anna Maria Roos, William Shakespeare, August Strindberg.


My own comments and speculations:

John had as joybringing (grace) (the name John = grace) and truth gone before the Lord (cf. Ps 89:14 or 89:15). Jesus was the increasing Light. John became the lamp with the decreasing light. Cf. John 3:30.

Concerning “witness to the truth”, see also John 18:37; 3 John v 3. In the NT the expression “martyreô tê alêtheia” only occurs in the johannine books.


Peter said: "You make/do finely/well giving heed to (the profetic saying) as to a lamp ‘bringing to’/giving light in a parched place, till (the time in) which the (א,* א) day may ray through and a lightcarrying may stick up in your hearts." (2 Pet 1:19b)


Greek words:

agalliaomai (exult) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Luke 1:47; 10:21; John 5:35 – Tobit 13:9(10)(BA),15(BA); Sir 30:3; Matt 5:12; John 8:56; Acts 2:26; 16:34; 1 Pet 1:6,8; 4:13; Rev 19:7.

kaiô (burn/have burning) (in the NT + examples in the OT) Ex 27:20; Epistle of Jeremiah v 18; Matt 5:15; John 5:35 - Ex 3:2; Lev 24:2,4; Deut 4:11; 5:23; 9:15; Is 5:24; 30:33; Dan 3:19-20; Tobit 14:4; 1 Macc 12:29; Sir 23:16(17); 28:22; 40:30; The Prayer of Azariah v 23; The Song of Praise of the Three Men v 65; Luke 12:35; 24:32; John 15:6; Heb 12:18; Rev 4:5; 8:8,10; 19:20; 21:8.

lychnos (lamp) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) 1 Macc 4:50; Epistle of Jeremiah v 18; Matt 5:15; John 5:35; 2 Pet 1:19 – Tobit 8:13; 2 Macc 1:8; 10:3; Sir 26:17; Matt 6:22; Mark 4:21; Luke 8:16; 11:33-34,36; 12:35; 15:8; Rev 18:23; 21:23; 22:5.


Additional studies: Dan 12:3; Matt 11:7-11; 13:5-6; 20-21; John 1:7,15,19-34; 3:17,26; 11:42; 2 Cor 7:8; Philemon v 15; 1 John 5:9; Rev 11:4; 17:12.

J.C. Hindley "Witness in the Fourth Gospel"; Scottish Journal of Theology 18 (1965): 319 -.

Urban C. von Wahlde "The Witnesses to Jesus in John 5:31-40 and Belief in the Fourth Gospel"; Catholic Biblical Quarterly 43 (1981): 385-404.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-03-03; 2011-01-11; 2013-12-30; 2014-10-14)

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5:36 But the evidence I have (is) greater than (that) of John, for the works which the Father has given (and gives) Me, in order that I may make them perfect, the works themselves, which I make/do, are witnesses on account of Me, that the Father has dispatched (and dispatches) Me away.

Word for word (32 words in the Greek text): I but have the evidence greater (than)-the (of)-John; the for works which has-given-(and-gives) me the father in-order-that (i/I)-may-make-perfect them, they-(themselves) the works which (i/I)-make are-witnesses around/'on-account-of me that the father me has-dispatched-(and-dispatches)-away.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

A prophet as Moses has not yet stood up in Israel ... in/with all the signs and omens which the Lord dispatched away him to make them in earth/'the land' Egypt, to Pharaoh and to all his attendants/servants and to every/all his earth/land. (Deut 34:10a,11, Greek OT)

(David said:) "Listen to my prayer, Lord ... I have remembered days of beginnings. I have ‘cared for in’/studied all Your works." (Ps 143:1a,5a, Greek OT)


The Latter Revelation:

(The disciples of John the Baptist said to Jesus:) " Are You the One coming/’who is to come’, or wait/'are ... to wait' we for ‘the other’/another?" And ‘having answered Jesus’/’Jesus answered’ and spoke to them: "Having gone bring a message to John from (you) (about) the things you hear and see. Blind ones see/look up and lame ones walk about, leapers are made entirely clean and dumb ones hear, and dead (bodies) are raised, and beggarly ones are given a good little message." (Matt 11:3-5)

(Jesus said to the crowds:) "The one (being) smaller in the kingdom of the heavens is greater than (John the Baptist)." (Matt 11:11b)

(Peter said:) "Males, Israelites, hear these sayings: Jesus the Nazoraean (is) a male having been (and being) shown from/away from God into/to you (with) abilities and omens and signs which God made through Him in your middle, entirely as you yourselves know." (Acts 2:22)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

It became a man having been (and being) dispatched away from the side of God. A name to him (continually) was (א*) John. This one came into/’for the purpose of’ an evidence, in order that he might be a witness on account of the light, in order that all might believe through him. That one was (continually) not the light, however/but (he became) in order that he might be a witness on account of the light. (John 1:6-8)

As (Jesus) (continually) was in/with (the people) in the (disgraced) Jerosolyma/Jerusalem in/at the ‘paschal lamb’/Passover in/during the feast, many believed into His name looking at His signs which He (continually) made. (John 2:23)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

Examples of quoted authors in the Swedish version: Bo Frid, Jesper Svartvik.


My own comments and speculations:

Concerning “evidence ... be a witness”, see also John 1:6-8. Concerning “greater”, see also John 1:49-50.


Paul said to the believers in Corinth: "Indeed, the signs of the apostle were entirely worked/accomplished in/among you in/with every/all endurance, both (with) signs and omens and abilities." (2 Cor 12:12)

If we take the evidence of the men, the evidence of God is greater, because the evidence of God is this, that He is (and has been) a witness on account of His Son. (1 John 5:9)


Additional studies: Is 35:5-6; Matt 3:17; 9:6; 12:28; John 1:32-33; 3:17; 4:34; 5:20,32; 9:3; 10:25,38; 14:11; 15:24; 17:4; Gal 4:4.

J.C. Hindley "Witness in the Fourth Gospel"; Scottish Journal of Theology 18 (1965): 319 -.

Urban C. von Wahlde "The Witnesses to Jesus in John 5:31-40 and Belief in the Fourth Gospel"; Catholic Biblical Quarterly 43 (1981): 385-404.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-03-03; 2011-01-12; 2013-12-31)

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5:37 And the Father having sent Me, that One has been (and is) a witness on account of Me. And you have not ever heard (and hear) His voice, and you have not beheld (and behold) His form.

Word for word (18 words in the Greek text): and the having-sent me father that-(one) has-been-(and-is)-a-witness on-account-of me. and-not voice his ever (you)-have-heard-(and-hear) and-not form his (you)-have beheld-(and-behold).


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

The Lord spoke towards Moses: "Behold, I shall become/come to the side of (you) towards you in a pillar of a cloud, in order that the people may hear My talking towards you and may believe (in) you into the (coming) age. ... And the Lord will descend against the mountain Sinai opposite to every/all the people." ... And it (continually) became voices and rays of light ... (Ex 19:9,11b,16b, Greek OT)

Moses and Aaron and Nadab and Abihu and seventy of the council of elders of Israel ascended (to the mountain). And they beheld the place, where the God of Israel stood there. (Ex 24:9-10a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Moses:) "You may behold My ‘things behind’/back, but My face will not be beheld for you." (Ex 33:23b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Aaron and Miriam:) "If – according to the circumstances – it may become a prophet (of/among) you to the Lord, I will ‘be gained’/give knowledge to him in a vision, and I will talk (with) him in a sleep. Not in this way (with) the one attending/’caring for’ Me, Moses. He is faithful in My whole house. I will talk (with) him mouth ‘according to’/to mouth, in a form/beholding and not through riddles. And he has beheld the glory of the Lord." (Num 12:6b-8a, Greek OT)

(Moses said to Israel:) "The Lord talked towards you out of a middle of the fire. You heard a voice/sound of words, and you did not behold a likeness/image, ‘however or’/only a voice/sound." (Deut 4:12, Greek OT)


The Latter Revelation:

‘In ... pray’/’on (Jesus') praying’ the form of His face became ‘the other’/another. … And Peter and the ones who (continually) were together with him … beheld His glory. (Luke 9:29a,32a)

(When Jesus was glorified in the presence of Peter, John and Jacob) it became/came a voice out of the cloud, saying: "This is My Son, the One having been (and being) chosen, hear Him!" (Luke 9:35)

The Lord of the vineyard spoke: “What shall I make/do? I will send my welcomed son. Perhaps they will ‘turn in themselves’/’be ashamed’ (towards) this one.” (Luke 20:13)

The males, the ones travelling together with (Saul), stood speechless, hearing indeed the voice but not looking at anyone. (Acts 9:7)

Paul said: "The ones being together with me viewed indeed the light but did not heard the voice of the One talking (with) me." (Acts 22:9)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

No one has ever beheld God. An only descendant, a God, the One being into/in the bosom of the Father, that One has ‘been in command out’/explained Him. (John 1:18)

(Jesus said to the Jews:) “It/there is Another being a witness on account of Me, and you (א,* א) know, that the evidence (to) which He is a witness on account of Me is truthful.” (John 5:32)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

The Midrash Mekilta comments on Ex 19:11: "It teaches that at that moment (the people) saw what Isaiah and Ezekiel never saw." Thus, there seems to have been a popular tradition about hearing and seeing God at Mount Sinai, and John presents Jesus as arguing against this. (Raymond E. Brown "The Gospel according to John" p 225)

Those who do not believe in Jesus do not hear the voice of God (cf. 12:29), nor have they seen him (1:18); but he who has truly seen Jesus as the Son of God has seen his Father also (14:9); so also in Jesus himself the believer encounters the Word of God. The witness of the Father is thus not immediately acessible and assessable; the observer cannot sit in judgement upon it and then decide whether or not he will believe in Jesus. He must believe in Jesus first and then he will receive the direct testimony from God. (C.K. Barrett "The Gospel according to St John" p 267)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Carl Jonas Love Almqvist, Johannes Gossner, P. Waldenström.


Paul said to Timothy: "(God) alone has undeadliness/immortality, inhabiting an inaccessible light, whom no one of men has beheld, nor is able to behold." (1 Tim 6:16a)

No one has ever viewed (and views) God. If we – according to the circumstances – may welcome one another, God stays in us, and His welcome has been (and is) made perfect in us. (1 John 4:12)

If we take the evidence of the men, the evidence of God is greater, because the evidence of God is this, that He is (and has been) a witness on account of His Son. The one believing into the Son of God has the evidence in himself. The one not believing (in) God has made (and makes) Him a liar, because he has not (and does not) believe into the evidence, which * (א,*א) is (and has been) a witness on account of His Son. (1 John 5:9-10)


Greek words:

eidos (form) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Luke 9:29; John 5:37 – Wisdom of Solomon 15:5; Sir 23:16; 25:2; 43:1; Luke 3:22; 2 Cor 5:7; 1 Thess 5:22.


Additional studies: Gen 32:24-30; Ex 33:11,20; Deut 4:15; 5:23-27; Matt 3:17; Mark 1:11; 9:7; Luke 3:22; John 6:27,46; 8:18; 12:28-29; Rom 1:9; Col 1:15; 1 Thess 2:5,10; 2 Pet 1:17-18; Rev 1:8.

J.C. Hindley "Witness in the Fourth Gospel"; Scottish Journal of Theology 18 (1965): 319 -.

Urban C. von Wahlde "The Witnesses to Jesus in John 5:31-40 and Belief in the Fourth Gospel"; Catholic Biblical Quarterly 43 (1981): 385-404.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-03-03; 2011-01-14; 2014-01-01; 2014-10-14)

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5:38-40 And you do not have His saying staying in you, because that One whom He has dispatched away, (in) this One you do not believe. Investigate the writings, because you think, (that) you in them have agelong life. And those are the ones which are witnesses on account of Me. And/but you do not want to come towards Me, in order that you may have life.

Word for word: 5:38 (17 words in the Greek text): and the saying his not (you)-have in you staying, because whom dispatched-away that-(one), this-(one) you not believe. 5:39 (18 words in the Greek text) investigate the writings, because you think in them life agelong have; and those-(ones) are the-(ones) be-witnesses on-account-of me. 5:40 (9 words in the Greek text) and not you-want come towards me in-order-that life (you)-may-have.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(David said:) "In a ‘bed's head’/beginning of a scroll it has been (and is) written on account of me. I have wished the thing to make/do Your will, my God." (Ps 40:7b-8a alt 40:8b-9a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to His people:) "You did not wish to hear." (Is 30:15b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) "My people had not knowledge of the judicial verdicts of the Lord. How (can) you speak that/: 'We are wise and the law of the Lord is in company with us'? Into/’purposed for’ ‘in vain’/’the vain thing’ it has become a false rope/measuring-line for scribes." (Jer 8:7b-8, Greek OT)

(Judith said to the elders of the city:) “Investigate and gain additional knowledge of (God's) understanding. … ” (Judith 8:14b)

(Israel) spread out the scroll of the law, 'on account of'/to get the guidance' which the nations ‘investigating out’/investigate of the likenesses of their idols/images. (1 Macc 3:48)

(Solomon said:) “Vain all men ... (who) out of the beholding of good things were not stable/able to know the One being and giving heed to the works did not gain additional knowledge of the Artist ... They investigate throughout (Greek: diereunaô) the works (of God) and are persuaded (with/by) the sight, because the things being seen (are) fine.” (Wisdom of Solomon 13:1,7)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “The one seeking a law will be fulfilled in/with it, and the one playing the hypocrite will ‘be caused to stumble’/stumble in it.” (Sir 32:15)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “The one understanding the law of a highest one throughout will seek out wisdom of all ‘of beginnings’/’living during times of beginning’. ... He will keep together descriptions of ‘males of names’/’famous males’ and will come into together with (others) in (the) turnings (and twistings) of parables. He will seek out things hidden away of/in proverbs, and in (the) riddles of parables he will ‘turn back’/’become absorbed’.” (Sir 38:34b-39:3/39:1b-3)

This (is) the book of the commands of God and the law (is) the one 'beginning under'/being into the (coming) age. All the ones 'getting power over'/keeping it (come) into life, but the ones leaving it entirely will die. (Baruch 4:1)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus spoke to His disciples:) “... Every scribe having been/become a disciple to the kingdom of the heavens is like a man, a master of a house, whoever throws/brings out of his heap/treasure new and old things.” (Matt 13:52)

(Jesus said to the priest leaders and the Pharisees: “A king) dispatched away his slaves to call the ones being (and having been) called into the wedding banquets/festivals, and/but (continually/repeatedly) they did not want to come.” (Matt 22:3)

(Jesus said to the Sadducees:) “You ‘are led’/go astray, not knowing the writings but/and not the ability of God.” (Matt 22:29b)

(Jesus said:) "Jerusalem, Jerusalem, the (city) killing the prophets and throwing stones at the ones having been (and being) dispatched away towards her! How many times have I wanted to lead together against/’in quest of’ your children, 'which a turn'/'the way' a hen against/’in quest of’ her ‘young birds’/chickens leads together underneath the wings, and/but you did not want." (Matt 23:37)

Abraham says (to the rich man: "Your five brothers) have Moses and the prophets, let them hear them. ... If they do not hear Moses and the prophets, nor they will be persuaded, if - according to the circumstances - someone may stand up out of dead (bodies)." (Luke 16:29,31)

Having begun from Moses and from all the prophets (Jesus) and/also (went on) to throughout/carefully interpret (א*) for (the Emmaus disciples) what (continually) was(א,* א) in * (א,* א) the writings, the things on account of Himself.” (Luke 24:27)

(The Jews in Berea) received the saying in company with every/all willingness 'judging up'/examining the writings ‘according to a day’/daily, if it hopefully has/’is with’ these things in this way. So indeed many out of them believed. (Acts 17:11b-12a)

(Apollos was) able in the writings. ... Sinewyly he entirely (and) throughout (continually) convicted the Jews (in) a popular assembly ‘showing on’/demonstrating through the writings, (that) Jesus be/was the christ/'anointed one'. (Acts 18:24b,28)

Having throughout/solemnly ‘been a’/born witness Paul (continually/repeatedly) ‘put out’/explained the kingdom of God (to the leading men of the Jews) persuading both/- them on account of Jesus, from both the law of Moses and the prophets, from early in the day till evening. (Acts 28:23b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Jesus) came into the own things, and the own ones did not take Him to the side of (them). (John 1:11)

Philip finds Nathanael and says to him: "We have found (and find) the One of whom Moses in the law and/’and also’ the prophets wrote, Jesus from Nazareth, a son of Joseph." (John 1:45)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 - about 1500

To be able to receive the message of Jesus and see its connection with the witness of the Scriptures, it is called for an understanding that the Old Testament in fact witnesses about Jesus. The one not seeing it, nor can understand Jesus and his claims. (LarsOlov Eriksson "För att ni skall tro. Johannesevangeliet" p 108; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

While John does not quote the Old Testament as frequently as do some other New Testament writers, it is still the case, as Richard Morgan says, that "the Old Testament is present at every crucial moment in the Gospel." It is one of John's great themes that in Jesus God is working his purposes out. Every critical moment sees the fulfillment of Scripture in which those purposes are set forth. (Leon Morris "The Gospel according to John" p 172)

God's promise to Abraham about a family numerous as the sand of the sea, not could it have only the Jewish nation in view? ... That especially the paschal lamb was a prototype of Christ, Paul says plainly. ... Why would the holy spirit arouse such a deep longing and so innumerable sighs in the hearts of David and other god-fearing men in the Old Testament after righteousness and peace, if not as signs that atonement and perfect righteousness some day would be brought out? And why would so detailed directions be given about the sacrifices, if not to inculcate the giving of the great sacrifice on Golgatha? Why so elaborated arrangements in the tabernacle and in the temple, if not to give a prototype about God's temple in the New Covenant, the society of the holy ones? ... Not could the promise in Paradise about the treading to pieces of the head of the serpent mean only the same thing as when someone kills an ordinary serpent on the ground? Nor could the promise to Moses about the raising of a special prophet, like him, who would tell the people the whole will of God, be emptied with the appearance of Elijah, Jeremiah or any of the other prophets? And probably the words in David's 103rd psalm, that God pardons iniquities and heals all diseases, aim longer than at the occasional revelations of divine mercy happening in the Old Covenant. Always also the attempts being done to get the saying in Is chapter 53 and elsewhere about God's suffering Servant to mean only the people of Israel will fail. Thus in the full and deepest meaning Jesus can say: You search the Scriptures and these are the ones bearing witness of me. (Karl Palmberg "Ur livskällan. Andra årgången." p 32-33; comment to Luke 5:31-39; Karl Palmberg /1842-1920/ was from 1883 a Lutheran clergyman in Månsarp in the diocese of Växjö and president in Jönköpings Missionsförening (Missionary Society) 1886-1911; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Leb' wohl und lese den Bibel, da steht Alles, und ich frage ihn jeden Tag zum Rath! (Live well and read the Bible, all is there, and I ask it advice every day!) (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev XII dec 1896-aug 1898" p 363; letter 1898-08-29 to the daughter Karin Strindberg; translation from the German text: BG Ask)

The belief that the intensive study of the Torah was the way to agelong life is a commonplace of rabbinic teaching. C.H. Dodd (The Interpretation of the Fourth Gospel p 82,146) quotes Pirque Aboth VI:7 in Mishnah: "Great is Torah, for it gives to them who practise it life in this age and in the age to come."


about 1500 and time before

Let food and baths and dinners and the other things of this life have their appointed time; but let the teaching of heavenly philosophy have no separate time, let every season belong to it. For Paul saith, “In season, out of season, reprove, rebuke, exhort” (2 Tim. iv. 2). And the Prophet too saith, “In His law will he meditate day and night” (Ps. i. 3); and Moses commanded the Jews to do this always. For the things of this life, baths, I mean, and dinners, even if they are necessary, yet being continually repeated, render the body feeble; but the teaching of the soul the more it is prolonged, the stronger it renders the soul which receives it. (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers XIV:65-66)

It behooves us to explore all carefully. For the words of the Scriptures are our spiritual weapons; but if we know not how to fit those weapons and arm our scholars rightly, they keep indeed their proper power, but cannot help those who receive them. ... (If we) let him not put the shield before his breast, but perversely tie it to his legs: will he be able to gain any advantage from the armor? will he not rather be harmed? (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers XIV:105)

Everywhere, beloved, we have need of faith, faith the mother of blessings, the medicine of salvation; and without this it is impossible to possess any one of the great doctines. Without this, men are like to those who attempt to cross the open sea without a ship, who for a little way hold out by swimming, using both hands and feet, but when they have advanced farther, are quickly swamped by the waves. (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers XIV:115)

Great is the profit of the divine Scriptures, and all-sufficient is the aid which comes from them. (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers XIV:128)

(Christ sent the Jews) not to a mere reading but a careful and considerate search, for He said not “Read the Scriptures” but “Search the Scriptures”. … These sayings (concerning Christ) were not on the surface, nor were they cast forth to open view, but lay like treasure hidden very deep. Now he that searcheth for hidden things, except he seek them with care and toil, will never find the object of his search. (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers XIV:147)

We must go over the Scriptures not in a chance way or carelessly, but with all exactness that we be not entangled. (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers XIV:207)

Christ is written about even in the Pentateuch; He is spoken of in each of the Prophets and in the Psalms and in a word, as the Saviour Himself says, in all the Scriptures. He refers us to them all, when He says: “Search the Scriptures.” (Origen, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol X p 347)

(Christ) says plainly: “Search the Scriptures, in which ye expect (to find) salvation; for they testify of me,” which will be the meaning of “Seek, and ye shall find”. (Tertullian, the Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol III, p 247)

There is, brethren, one God, the knowledge of whom we gain from the Holy Scriptures, and from no other source. (Hippolytus, The Ante-Nicene Fathers V:227)

I carefully noticed the passages which (the heretics) garble from the Scriptures with the view of adapting them to their own fictions. (Irenaeus, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol I, p 359)

Look carefully into the Scriptures, which are the true utterances of the Holy Spirit. Observe that nothing of an unjust or counterfeit character is written in them. (Clement of Rome, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol I, p 17)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Alf Ahlberg, Friedrich Ahlfeld, Inger Ahlstedt-Yrlid, Eskil Albertsson, Roger Andersson, Augustinus, Hjalmar Bjurulf, Minna Blümmer, Poul Borchsenius, Gordon Bridger, Anna Maria Cederschiöld, Amadeus Creutzberg, Sven Danell, Henry Daniel-Rops, Stig Dominique, Joel Eriksson, Linné Eriksson, Björne Erixon, K.A. Fernström, Bo Frid, Otto Funcke, Birger Gerhardsson, Bo Giertz, Johannes Gossner, Peter Halldorf, William Haslam, Verner von Heidenstam, Alf Henrikson, C.G. Hjelm, Edwin Hodder, Anders Hultman, Anders Jarlert, Lennart Johansson, Eyvind Johnson, Gustav F. Johnson, Ulrik Josefsson, Aleksis Kivi, Thorvald Källstad, Lars Levi Laestadius, Selma Lagerlöf, Hans Larsson, Harry Lenhammar, Aug. E. Lernberg, Sven Lidman, Valborg Lindgärde, Gunnar Lindqvist, C. Fr. Lundin, Martin Luther, Anette Lyster, N.P. Madsen, Carl Henrik Martling, Vilhelm Moberg, Wilhelm Möller, Watchman Nee, Sinikka Neuhaus, Fredrik Nielsen, Carl-Olof Nilsson, Arvid Norberg, J. Nyrén, Bernt Olsson, Bror Olsson, Efraim Palmqvist, Carl Fr. Peterson, Lewi Pethrus, Hilding Pleijel, Joh. Rinman, Nils Rodén, Viktor Rydberg, Henrik Schartau, Sven-Åke Selander, Bo Setterlind, Isaac Bashevis Singer, Harry Sjöman, Enock H. Skooglund, Erik Sollerman, John Stott, Jesper Svartvik, Knut Svensson, Staffan Swahn, Hjalmar Söderberg, Nathan Söderblom, Thomas a Kempis, Ragnar Thoursie, Carl-Herman Tillhagen, Anton Tjechov, P. Waldenström, Johan Olof Wallin, Kallistos Ware, Olof Wennås, Albert Wiberg, Pontus Wikner, Stig Wikström, Carl Fr. Wislöff, Thecla Wrangel, David F. Wright, Karl-Göran Zettergren, Göran Åberg, Wilhelm Åkerblom.


I have written to you, youths, because you are stable and the saying of God stays in you, and you have conquered (and conquer) the evil one. (1 John 2:14b)


Greek words:

eraunaô (NT)/ereunaô (OT) (investigate) (in the NT + examples in the OT) Judith 8:14; John 5:39 – Gen 31:33; John 7:52; Rom 8:27; 1 Cor 2:10; 1 Pet 1:11; Rev 2:23. Perhaps John has disregarded the Greek OT with “e” and used the Hellenistic form with “a” in connection with the reference to the “beginning” OT to allude to Him who is the Alpha (Rev 1:8). Several times (see My own comments and speculations to John 18:4-5; 19:25-27 and Rev 4:9a) we see how John replaces different letters (“eo/i/o”) with an “ô”, probably to allude to Him who also is the Ô.

dokeô (think/seem) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) John 5:39 – Esther 1:19; 3:9; 5:4; 8:8; Tobit 3:15; 1 Macc 8:28; 15:20; 2 Macc 1:13; 2:29; 5:6; 7:16; 9:8,10; 14:14; Wisdom of Solomon 12:27; Susanna v 5(Theod); Bel and the Dragon v 6(Theod); Matt 3:9; 6:7; 17:25; 18:12; 21:28; 22:17,42; 24:44; 26:53,66; Mark 6:49; 10:42; Luke 1:3; 8:18; 10:36; 12:40,51; 13:2,4; 19:11; 22:24; 24:37; John 5:45; 11:13,31,56; 13:29; 16:2; 20:15. Acts 12:9; 15:22,25,28; 17:18; 25:27; 26:9; 27:13; 1 Cor 3:18; 4:9; 7:40; 8:2; 11:16; 12:22-23; 14:37; 2 Cor 10:9; 11:16; 12:19; Gal 2:2,6,9; 6:3; Phil 3:4; Heb 4:1; 10:29; 12:10-11; Jas 1:26; 4:5.


Additional studies: Is 8:20; 34:16; Matt 5:17; Luke 13:34; 18:31; 19:41-44; 24:45; John 1:4; 5:21,26; 7:52; 10:34-35; 15:7; Acts 13:27; 17:2-3; Rom 2:17-21a; 7:10; Gal 3:21-22; 2 Tim 3:15-17; 1 Pet 1:10; 2 Pet 1:19; 1 John 5:20; Rev 19:10.

Urban C. von Wahlde "The Witnesses to Jesus in John 5:31-40 and Belief in the Fourth Gospel"; Catholic Biblical Quarterly 43 (1981): 385-404.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-03-03, 2011-01-17; 2014-01-04<, 2014-10-14)


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5:41-44 I do not take glory from the side of men. However, I have (and have had) knowledge of you, that you have not the welcome of God in yourselves. I have come (and come) in the name of My Father, and you do not take Me. If – according to the circumstances – another may come in (his) own name, you will take that one. How are you able to believe taking glory from the side of one another and do not seek the glory from the side of the alone/only God?

Word for word: 5:41 (5 words in the Greek text) Glory from-the-side-of men not (i/I)-take. 5:42 (12 words in the Greek text, the sequence of the words according to Sinaiticus prima manus) however (i/I)-have-(and-have-had)-knowledge-of you that not (you)-have the welcome (of)-the (of)-god in (your)selves/you. 5:43 (22 words in the Greek text) i/I have-come-(and-comes) in the name (of)-the (of)-father my, and not (you)-take me; if-according-to-the-circumstances another may-come in the name the own, that-(one) will-(you)-take. 5:44 (18 words in the Greek text) how are-able-to you believe glory from-the-side-of one-another taking, and the glory the-(one) from-the-side-of the alone/only god not seek?


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

Descending ‘out of’/from the mountain Moses did not know that the sight of the colour of his face was (and had been) glorified, in/from the thing 'to talk him'/'that he had talked' (with) (the Lord). (Ex 34:29b, Greek OT)

Saul spoke (to Samuel): "I have missed (and miss) (the mark of God), however/but glorify me presently/now in the very eyes of the elders of Israel and in the very eyes of my people ... and I shall prostrate before the Lord your God (in honour of Him)." (1 Sam 15:30, Greek OT)

(Hiskia prayed:) “You, Lord our God, save us out of (the) hand (of the kings of Assyria), in order that all kingdoms of the earth may have knowledge that You are the alone/only God.” (Is 37:20, Greek OT)

(Solomon said: “The) beginning of (the wisdom is) ... a welcome of education. Welcome (is) a keeping of laws (of the wisdom).” (Wisdom of Solomon 6:17-18a)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) "Happy the ones having beheld (Eliah) and the ones having (and being) fallen asleep in a welcome (א*), for we will and/also live (in) life." (Sir 48:11)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “I will give glory to the One giving me wisdom.” (Sir 51:17b)

(Azariah said to the Lord: “Let our enemies) gain knowledge that You alone are the Lord God.” (The Prayer of Azariah v 22a)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Give heed to not make/practise your righteousness in front of the men towards/’in regard to’ be viewed (among) them. … When you so – according to the circumstances – you may make/give alm/alms, you may not sound the trumpet in front of you, just as the hypocrites make/do in the synagogues and in the lanes, in that way (that) they may be glorified by the men. … And when you (א* sing.) – according to the circumstances – may pray, you (א* sing.) shall not be as the hypocrites, because they ‘are friends with’/like to pray in the synagogues and in the corners of the streets, in that way (that) they may ‘be brought to light’/’shine forth’ (among) the men. … But/and when – according to the circumstances – you may fast, do not become sullen as the hypocrites, for they ‘make ... unseen’/disfigure their faces, in that way (that) they may ‘be brought to light’/’shine forth’ fasting (among) the men. Amen, I say to you, they hold off their wage.” (Matt 6:1a,2a,5a,16)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Making/giving your alm/alms let not the left (hand) have knowledge of what your right (hand) makes/does, in that way (that) your alm/alms may be in the hidden. … When you – according to the circumstances – pray, come/go into your storehouse and shut your door and pray to your Father, 'the One'/who (is) in the hidden. … On your fasting smear your head and wash your face, in that way (that) you may not ‘be brought to light’/’shine forth’ fasting (among) the men, however/but (among/with) your Father, the One (being) in the concealed. And your Father, the One seeing in the concealed, will give you back.” (Matt 6:3-4a,6a,17-18)

(Jesus said to Peter:) “Withdraw behind Me, adversary, because you do not consider the things of God, however/but the things of the men.” (Mark 8:33b)

(Jesus said to the much/many-headed crowd:) "’See from’/’beware of’ the scribes, the ones wanting to walk about in dresses and (get) greetings in the market places and first seats in the synagogues and first companies of guests in/at the chief meals, the ones eating down/up the habitations of the widows and (for) a pretence praying long." (Mark 12:38b-40a)

(Jesus said:) “Many will come on/’for the sake of’ My name, saying that/: ‘I am’ and will lead many astray.” (Mark 13:6)

(Jesus said to the Pharisees:) “ … You come to the side of the judgment/justice and the welcome of God. … You welcome the first seats in the synagogues.” (Luke 11:42a,43a)

(Jesus) spoke to (the Pharisees): "You are the ones justifying yourselves in the very eyes of the men, but God has knowledge of your hearts, because the thing (being) high in/among men (is) an abomination in the very eyes of God." (Luke 16:15)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Jesus) came into the own things, and the own ones did not take Him to the side of (them). (John 1:11)

(Jesus said to the Jews:) “I do not take the evidence from the side of a man.” (John 5:34a)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 - about 1500

The Book of Wisdom uses (agapê) for the love of God (Wisdom 3:9) and for the love of wisdom (Wisdom 6:18). (William Barclay ”New Testament Words” p 19)

It is characteristic of the rabbinic literature to give the greatest deference to famous rabbis. (Raymond E. Brown "The Gospel according to John" p 226)

By no means our earth is full of the glory of God. Men seek their own glory. The world reverberates with names which are praised and envied or are praised and loved. The might and glory and fame they have won are perhaps very fragile and perishable. They are kings for a day. This year the newspapers are full of their achievements. Soon they disappear leaving, as it seems, no trace in forgetfulness. Other names live for all time. Was it their own glory they sought, or was it the glory of God? (Anna Söderblom "Ett år - ord för varje dag samlade ur Nathan Söderbloms skrifter" p 15; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Temptations to depart from truth meet at almost every step we take; particularly they meet when question is about giving and giving up, whether for the work of the kingdom of the Lord, missions, or for God's servants of alms, the poor ones. Sometimes it is said: "I cannot give more", or simply "I have not more to give", though the conscience, if it would be allowed to speak, would say, that it is a long way from truth. Sometimes again a wealthy, to not say rich man, has given and given in abundance, though reasons are to suspect that he has not given by pure love for the Lord or to his fellow-beings. However, who does now want to even suggest this? No, on the contrary he is praised and commended, perhaps with an intimation of reward in the resurrection of the righteous ones, for the purpose that he will give still more abundant next time. However, think if we so at one of our most holy undertakings - to give and to give up - lie to ourselves, and to others and tell lies of others! How terrible! Or if we through our false praising would come others to be a hypocrite or be lulled into a sense of self-pleasure, pride and confidence! Here the words of Christ hit the Jews: "How can you believe, when you receive glory from one another, and you do not seek the glory that is from the one being alone God." Observe: "being alone God", thus the only one on which it depends, if we will get eternal approval and praise. Moving is that the ability to believe here is said to depend on whether we have received praise from one another or not. When now what Christ has spoken never is empty words, so is almost sure, that the irresolution in the spiritual and the lack of trusting in God of which we all are short depend on the general - also believers' - seeking and hankering for approval and praise. Yes, my beloved ones, let us not neglect this. Search yourself closely, particularly every time you give and give up. Think, if you only would seek the praise of men and not the praise being from God, and by that become incapable of being able to believe. However, the words are spoken by him, who beholds down in every depth of heart and who got might to judge living and dead ones and who never exaggerates in his words. The great royal road into hypocrisy ... is just the habit to seek and take praise by one another. How terrible this danger is in our time. God, search us out! (Karl Palmberg "Ur livskällan. Första årgången." p 468-469; comment to Matt 12:41-44; Karl Palmberg /1842-1920/ was from 1883 a Lutheran clergyman in Månsarp in the diocese of Växjö and president in Jönköpings Missionsförening (Missionary Society) 1886-1911; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

I am no Nebuchadnezzar, for I have passed through Inferno, and I know whom I believe and know my smallness. But I have a feeling of the greatness of my commission and sometimes I tremble. They have exhibited me, but I have not seen it; they want to celebrate me, but I do not go there! (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev XX juni 1911-maj 1912" p 115; letter 1911-09-13 to Julius Per Abraham Muhr; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


about 1500 and time before

Be it my portion both to be insulted and despised for God's sake, rather than to be honored by all kings; for nothing, nothing is equal to this glory. (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers X:130)

The vain man is ever like persons in a storm, trembling and fearing, and serving a thousand masters. But he that is clear of this thraldom, is like men in havens, enjoying a liberty untainted. Not so that person, but as many acquintances as he has, so many masters has he, and he is forced to be a slave to all of them. How then are we to get free from this hard bondage? It is by growing enarmoured of another glory, which is really glory. For as with those that are enarmoured of persons, the sight of some handsomer one doth by its being seen take them off from the first: so with those that court the glory which cometh from us men, the glory from heaven, if it gleameth on them, has power to lead them off from this. Let us then look to this, and by feeling admiration of its beauty, we may shun the hideousness of the other, and have the benefit of much pleasure by enjoying this continually. (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers XI:477)

It cannot be that he who is so zealous a slave to the glory of this present world can obtain the glory which is from God. Wherefore He rebuked them, saying, “How can ye believe, which receive honor of men, and not seek the honor which cometh from God?” This passion is a sort of deep intoxication, and makes him who is subdued by it hard to recover. And having detached the souls of its captives from heavenly things, it nails them to the earth, and lets them not look up to the true light, but persuades them ever to wallow in the mire, giving them masters so powerful, that they have the rule over them without needing to use commands. For the man who is sick of this disease, does of his own accord, and without bidding, all that he thinks will be agreeable to his masters. On their account he clothes himself in rich apparel, and beautifies his face, taking these pains not for himself but for others; and he leads about a train of followers through the market-place, that others may admire him, and all that he does he goes through, merely out of obsequiousness to the rest of the world. Can any state of mind be more wretched than this? That others may admire him, he is ever being precipitated to ruin. (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers XIV:14)

A powerful thing, powerful indeed, is the tyranny of vainglory; it is able to make blind the eyes even of the wise, except they be sober; for if the taking of gifts can effect this, much more will the yet more violent feeling of this passion. Wherefore Jesus said to the Jews, “How can ye believe, which receive honor one of another, and seek not the honor that cometh from God only?” (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers XIV:30)

“I receive not honor from men.” That is, “I need it not”: “My nature,” He saith, “is not of such a kind as to need the honor which is from men, for if the sun can receive no addition from the light of a candle, much farther am I from needing the honor which is from men.” ... But who is it that He here saith shall come “in his own name”? He alludeth here to Antichrist. ... For he will neither say that he is sent by the Father, nor that he cometh according to his will, but in everything contrariwise, seizing like a tyrant what belongeth not to him, and asserting that he is the very God over all, as Paul saith, ‘Exalting himself above all that is called God, or that is worshiped, showing himself that he is God.’ (2 Thess ii. 4.) This is to ‘come in his own nam.’ (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers XIV:148)

The Olympic Games were the greatest of (the four Panhellenic Games). ... Their span of life - from 776 BC to AD 392, after which they were banned as pagan by the Christian emperor Theodosius - was co-terminous with ancient Greek civilisation. They were even seen as being a revival of an earlier heroic custom founded by Heracles. ... The keynote of the Games was glory - glory for oneself and glory for one's city. In so far as the two can be separated, the former was brought by victory in the athletic events, especially the foot-race, and the latter by victory in the chariot-race. In this money talked. Equipping a chariot was expensive, and a high proportion of the winners in the event came from the rich colonial cities of southern Italy and Sicily. ... Not only was the glory in the competion, there was glory in the surroundings. The sanctuary of Zeus in which the Games were held was blessed by nature - it stood in a well watered and well wooded valley - and improved by art. ... Finally there was glory in the people who came. They included the famous and the fashionable, not only athletes and aristocrats but also artists and philosophers. (Maurice Pope "The Ancient Greeks - How they lived and worked" p 38-39)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Ann-Charlotte Alverfors, Johann Arndt, Werner Aspenström, Augustinus, Leo Baeck, Miguel de Cervantes, Charles Dickens, Bob Dylan, Carl Grimberg, Peter Halldorf, O. Hallesby, C.G. Hjelm, Anders Jarlert, Lasse Johansson-Lucidor, Selma Lagerlöf, Sven Lidman, Axel Liffner, Martin Luther, Bertil Malmberg, Vilhelm Moberg, John Ortberg, Blaise Pascal, Seymor Rossel, Viktor Rydberg, Gösta Sandberg, Bo Setterlind, Isaac Basjevis Singer, Valfrid Spångberg, John Stott, Thomas a Kempis, Thomas Thorild, Anton Tjechov, Fredrik Vetterlund, P. Waldenström, Per Wästberg.


My own comments and speculations:

I have translated the Greek word ”agapê” by “welcome”, because I comprehend that the word “erôs” (Prov 7:18; 30:16) better corresponds to “love”. Compare with my own comments and speculations in connection with John 3:16-18.


Paul said to the believers in Rome: "The one (being) a Jew in the hidden ... (has) the ‘praise on’/praisefulness not out of men however/but out of God. (Rom 2:29)

Paul said to Timothy: "To the King of the ages, an alone/only God, immortal (and) impossible to behold, (be) honour and glory into the (coming) ages of the (coming) ages. Amen.” (1 Tim 1:17)

The one who – according to the circumstances – may keep (Jesus') saying, in this one the welcome of God truly has been (and is) made perfect. In/by this we have knowledge, that we are in Him. (1 John 2:5)

Do not welcome the adornment/’adorned world’, but/and not the things in the adornment/’adorned world’. If – according to the circumstances – anyone may welcome the adornment/’adorned world’, the welcome of the Father is not in him. (1 John 2:15)

Little boys (and girls), it is a last hour, and entirely as you have heard that antichrist comes, and/also now many antichrists have become (and become), from where we have knowledge, that it is a last hour. (1 John 2:18)

Welcomed, let us welcome one another, because the welcome is out of God, and 'every the'/everyone welcoming is (and has been) begotten out of God and has knowledge of God. The one not welcoming has not gained knowledge of God, that God is a welcome. (1 John 4:7-8)

We have gained (and gain) knowledge and we have believed/’confided in’ (and believe/’confide in’) the welcome which God has in us. God is welcome, and the one staying in the welcome stays in God, and God stays in him. (1 John 4:16)


Greek words:

agapê (welcome) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Wisdom of Solomon 6:17-18; Sir 48:11(א*); Luke 11:42; John 5:42; 1 John 2:5,15; 4:7,16 – Wisdom of Solomon 3:9; Matt 24:12; John 13:35; 15:9-10,13; 17:26. Rom 5:5,8; 8:35,39; 12:9; 13:10; 14:15; 15:30; 1 Cor 4:21; 8:1; 13:1-4,8,13; 14:1; 16:14,24; 2 Cor 2:4,8; 5:14; 6:6; 8:7-8; 8:24; 13:11,13(14); Gal 5:6,13,22; Eph 1:4; 2:4; 3:17(18)-19; 4:2,15-16; 5:2; 6:23; Phil 1:9,16; 2:1-2; Col 1:4,8,13; 2:2; 3:14; 1 Thess 1:3; 3:6,12; 5:8,13; 2 Thess 1:3; 2:10; 3:5; 1 Tim 1:5,14; 2:15; 4:12; 6:11; 2 Tim 1:7,13; 2:22; 3:10; Tit 2:2; Philemon v 5,7,9; Heb 6:10; 10:24; 1 Pet 4:8; 5:14; 2 Pet 1:7; 1 John 3:1,16-17; 4:9-10,12,17-18; 5:3; 2 John v 3,6; 3 John v 6; Jude v 2,12,21; Rev 2:4,19.


Additional studies: 2 Kings 19:15,19; Matt 23:5-7; 24:5,24; Mark 13:22; Luke 20:46-47; 21:8; John 7:18; 8:50; 10:25; 12:39,43; 17:3; 1 Thess 2:6; Jude v 25; Rev 13:1,3-4,6; 14:1.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-03-04; 2011-01-24; 2014-01-06; 2014-10-14)

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5:45-47 Do not think that I will accuse you towards the Father. The one accusing you is Moses, into whom you have hoped (and hope), for if you (continually) believed (in) Moses, you (continually) believed – according to the circumstances – (in) Me, for that one wrote on account of Me. But if you do not believe (in) the letters (of the alphabet) of that one, how will you believe (in) My words?

Word for word: 5:45 (18 words in the Greek text) Not think that i/I will-accuse you towards the father; is the-(one) accusing you Moses, into whom you have-hoped-(and-hope). 5:46 (12 words in the Greek text) if for (you)-(continually)-believed Moses, (you)-(continually)-believed according-to-the-circumstances me; on-account-of for me that-(one) wrote. 5:47 (12 words in the Greek text) if but the (of)-that-(one) letters-(of-the-alphabet) not (you)-believe, how the my words will-(you)-believe?


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Moses said to Israel: "The Lord) treated you ill and let you famish and gave you the manna as morsels, which your fathers did not know, in order that He might bring up a message to you, that the man shall not alone/only live on/’for the sake of’ bread, however/but the man shall live on/’for the sake of’ every word going out through mouth of God." (Deut 8:3, Greek OT)

(Moses enjoined the Levites saying:) "Having taken this scroll of the law put it out of/from sides/'the side' of the chest/ark of the covenant of the Lord your God, and it will there be into/’purposed for’ a testimony in (Israel)." (Deut 31:26, Greek OT)

(The king) spoke to His teacher to ‘carry into’/bring in’ "letters (of the alphabet) of the recollection of the days" to read for him. (Esther 6:1b, Greek OT)

(David said:) "In a ‘bed's head’/beginning of a scroll it has been (and is) written on account of me. I have the thing wished to make/do Your will, my God." (Ps 40:7b-8a alt 40:8b-9a, Greek OT)

(Tobit said:) ”… I believe, that all things which God has spoken will be brought to a consummation, and a word out of the sayings may not/certainly not fall throughout/asunder … “ (Tobit 14:4, S)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “Believe (in God) and He will ‘take ... in stead’/’part with’ you. Straighten your ways and hope for Him.” (Sir 2:6)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Amen I say to you: ‘Till – according to the circumstances - the heaven and the earth may come by the side of, not one “iota” (the smallest letter) or one tittle, may not/certainly not come by the side of from the law, till – according to the circumstances – all things may become/’come about’.’” (Matt 5:18)

(Jesus said to the crowds and to His disciples:) "The scribes and the Pharisees have sat down upon the seat of Moses." (Matt 23:2)

The faithful one in a least thing is faithful and/also in a much/great thing. (Luke 16:10a)

Abraham says (to the rich man: "Your five brothers) have Moses and the prophets, let them hear them. ... If they do not hear Moses and the prophets, nor they will be persuaded, if - according to the circumstances - someone may stand up out of dead (bodies)." (Luke 16:29,31)

(The Emmaus disciples said:) “We hope (א,*א), that (Jesus) is the One being about to redeem Israel.” (Luke 24:21a)

(Jesus) opened throughout the understanding (of the disciples) to perceive the writings. (Luke 24:45)

(Apollos was) able in the writings. ... Sinewyly he entirely (and) throughout (continually) convicted the Jews (in) a popular assembly ‘showing on’/demonstrating through the writings, (that) Jesus be/was the christ/'anointed one'. (Acts 18:24b,28)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

Philip finds Nathanael and says to him: "We have found (and find) the One of whom Moses in the law and/’and also’ the prophets wrote, Jesus from Nazareth, a son of Joseph." (John 1:45)

(Jesus said to the Jews:) "Investigate the writings, because you think, (that) you in them have agelong life. And those are the ones which are witnesses on account of Me." (John 5:39)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 - about 1500

Why could observant Jews in the old school take part in gymnastics on the Saturday but not in writing? Yes, because it is the creating act in itself which is forbidden, if it so only concerns to generate an electric spark or create a letter of the alphabet. (Göran Larsson "Tid för Gud, Judiska och kristna perspektiv på de judiska högtiderna" p 23; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Jesus' words give sense of what Moses has written. (René Kieffer "Johannesevangeliet" p 134; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

In John the ground of the accusation is not that men have transgressed a commandment but that they have failed to understand the commandments, have taken them as ends in themselves. (C.K. Barrett "The Gospel according to St John" p 270)

Apollos came from Alexandria ... the place where scholars believed in the allegorical interpretation of the Old Testament. They believed that not only did the Old Testament record history but that every recorded event had an inner meaning. Because of this Apollos would be exceedingly useful in convincing the Jews, for he would be able to find Christ all over the Old Testament and to prove to them that the Old Testament looked forward all the time to his coming. (William Barclay “The Acts of the Apostles” p 139 commenting Acts 18:24-28)

To show that the counsel of God's will had happened, "Jesus began with Moses and with all the prophets and explained to them the things concerning Himself in all the Scriptures". He went from book to book, calling attention to what concerned his suffering, death and resurrection as well as his glorifying with his father. What comments of the bible, my beloved ones! But also what a blessed privilege that we now have the same books among us and are able to ourselves read them! Now light was shown for the disciples and in this light a new world, like for the wanderer, who during the night also in the most beautiful landscape has not seen anything, but at the rise of the sun sees a shining world with beauty by beauty. All this existed, as we know, also during darkness, and the wanderer also at that time had eyes to see with, but light must come in addition, which created everything like anew. ... (The disciples) had before gone like with blindfolded eyes in the middle of the blessednesses, which Moses and the prophets had beheld and proclaimed. And Jesus, who had called them to himself and who they have followed - they had not had a feeling that he was the centre, lord and king in the new world opening for them. (Karl Palmberg "Ur livskällan. Tredje årgången." p 188-189; comment to Luke 24:13-35; Karl Palmberg /1842-1920/ was from 1883 a Lutheran clergyman in Månsarp in the diocese of Växjö and president in Jönköpings Missionsförening (Missionary Society) 1886-1911; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Now may be printed, after the corrections have been done and this has been controlled, for they are not in the habit of correcting all. But in philology every character is important. (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev XX juni 1911-maj 1912" p 132; letter 1911-09-25 to Karl Börjesson; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

What are we to do with the proof-sheet? To make it easier, I have in the Greek words which I have had to put in excluded the tone-signs hoping you have a proof-reader, who does not exclude the spirituses and iota subscriptures. But still more accurate I am that my Swedish endings and final articles are printed as I have written them. Have I written "gode", I do not want to see "goda". Have I written "öfversättningarna", I do not want to see "öfvers-e". ("Viktor Rydbergs brev II Brev från Viktor Rydberg 1855-1881" p 72; letter 1873-08-22 to Hans Forssell)

(Calvin) drew his own inspiration as much from the Old as from the New Testament, but did so by making every effort to find in the one as much as in the other, what he regarded as the end and aim of the Scriptures, namely Jesus Christ. This attitude was perfectly consistent with his notion of Scriptural revelation and of the books of the Bible. ... Although it is true to say that he thought one could find the word of God in the Bible, he nevertheless said that the word we possess in the Scriptures is a mirror which reflects something, but does not impart to us the thing in itself. The Scripture itself is ‘an instrument by which the Lord dispenses the illumination of the Spirit to the faithful, but it is not to be indentified with the Lord himself. ... (Calvin) does not confine the work and the action of Christ within the New Testament, but sees their intervention quite as much in the Old Covenant. The Biblical witness as a whole is to be regarded as witness to Jesus Christ, and theology has no other purpose than the guidance of believers in this quest of the Christ through all the Biblical writings. (F. Wendel "Calvin" p 159-160,215; The Theological Doctrine of Calvin)


about 1500 and time before

As in gold mines one skillful in what relates to them would not endure to overlook even the smallest vein as producing much wealth, so in the holy Scriptures it is impossible without loss to pass by one jot or one tittle, we must search into all. For they all are uttered by the Holy Spirit, and nothing useless is written in them. (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers XIV:125)

If any one unpracticed in the art undertake to work a mine, he will get no gold but ... will undergo a labor unprofitable and pernicious: so also they who understand not the method of Holy Scriptures, nor search out its peculiarities and laws, but go over all its points carelessly and in one manner, will mix the gold with earth, and never discover the treasure which is laid up in it. (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers XIV:143)

Marvel not if (Jesus) now putteth forward Moses, although He said, ”I receive not witness from man,” for He referreth them not to Moses, but to the Scriptures of God. (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers XIV:149)

When it was getting dark in the little chamber (of Klemens), he went out in the assembly-hall continuing his eager, devotional reading. But when the stars began to shimmer all through the ether, he had to give up the parchment, for its letters did not more let themselves be discerned. I was with them as with the men. They were of little importance if not in combination with one another, but when they also lost this independence, when twilight came, which evaporated their characteristic trait making the one like the other, then also the spirit, which just spoke out of them, was away. (Viktor Rydberg "Den siste atenaren I" p 212; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

By the words of Christ we do not mean those only which He spake when He became man and tabernacled in the flesh; for before that time, Christ, the Word of God, was in Moses and the prophets. For without the Word of God, how could they have been able to prophesy of Christ? ... Moses or the prophets both spake and performed all they did through being filled with the Spirit of Christ. (Origen, the Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol IV, p 239)

(Justin Martyr wrote to Trypho, a Jew:) “These words have neither been prepared by me, nor embellished by the art of man; but David sung them, Isaiah preached them, Zechariah proclaimed them, and Moses wrote them. Are you acquainted with them, Trypho? They are contained in your Scriptures, or rather not yours, but ours. For we believe them; but you, though you read them, do not catch the spirit that is in them.” (Justin Martyr, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol I, p 209)

By enumerating all ... the appointments of Moses, I can demonstrate that they were types, and symbols, and declarations of those things which would happen to Christ, of those who it was foreknown were to believe in Him, and of those things which would also be done by Christ Himself. (Justin Martyr, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol I, p 216)

Christ indicates in the clearest manner that the writings of Moses are His words. If then (this be the case with regard) to Moses, so also, beyond a doubt, the words of the other prophets are His (words). … (The Lord) did not teach that he who brought forth the old was one, and he that brought forth the new another; but that they were one and the same. ... One and the same householder produced both covenants, the Word of God, our Lord Jesus Christ, who spake with both Abraham and Moses, and who has restored us anew to liberty, and has multiplied that grace which is from Himself. ... The Son of God is implanted everywhere throughout (Moses') writings. ... And it would be endless to recount (the occasions) upon which the Son of God is shown forth by Moses. (Irenaeus, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol I, p 464, 472-473)

They, who were in the habit of hearing Moses and the prophets, did also readily receive the First-begotten of the dead, and the Prince of the life of God, - Him who, by the spreading forth of hands, did destroy Amalek, and vivify man from the wound of the serpent, by means of faith which was (exercised) towards Him. ... (Those) of the circumcision (were) assisted by the Scriptures, which the Lord confirmed and fulfilled, in coming such as He had been announced. (Irenaeus, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol I, p 495)

If any one reads the Scriptures with attention, he will find in them an account of Christ, and a foreshadowing of the new calling. For Christ is the treasure which was hid in the field, that is, in this world (for “the field is the world”); but the treasure hid in the Scriptures is Christ, since He was pointed out by means of types and parables. (Irenaeus, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol I, p 496)

In Rabbinic commentation on Messianic times ... the whole past was symbolic, and typical of the future – the Old Testament the glass, through which the universal blessings of the latter days were seen. It is in this sense that we would understand the two sayings of the Talmud: ‘All the prophets prophesied only of the days of the Messiah’ (Sanh. 99a) and ‘The world was created only for the Messiah (Sanh. 98b).’ In accordance with all this, the ancient Synagogue found references to the Messiah in many more passages of the Old Testament than those verbal predictions, to which we generally appeal; and the latter formed (as in the New Testament) a propotionately small, and secondary element in the conception of the Messianic era. ... It would seem as if every event were regarded as prophetic, and every prophecy, whether by fact, or by word (prediction), as a light to cast its sheen on the future ... till the darkness of (Israel's) present night was lit up by a hundred constellations kindling in the sky overhead. (Alfred Edersheim "The Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah Part I" p 162-163)

The whole Old Testament is full of Christ. Even where persons are not, events may be types. If any one failed to see in Isaac or in Joseph a personal type of Christ, he could not deny that the offering up of Isaac, or the selling of Joseph, and his making provision for the sustenance of his brethren, are typical of events in the history of our Lord. (Alfred Edersheim “Old Testament” I:XIII)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Stig Abrahamsson, Alf Ahlberg, Eric S. Alexandersson, Martin S. Allwood, Ronny Ambjörnsson, Anders Andersson, Stefan Andhé, Johann Arndt, Werner Aspenström, Eric Axelsson, Honoré de Balzac, Ignatius Aphram I Barsoum, Karl Barth, Erik Beijer, Johann Albrecht Bengel, Eskil Bergen, Per Beskow, Rudolf Björkman, Carl Boberg, August Bondeson, Lars-Ola Borglid, Bo Brander, Barthold Carlson, Winston Churchill, Börje Dahlquist, Sven Danell, Henry Daniel-Rops, Bruce A Demarest, Arthur Conan Doyle, Ulf Ekman, Per Olof Ekström, Runar Eldebo, Justus Elgeskog, Henrik Elmgren, LarsOlov Eriksson, Björne Erixon, Nils Ferlin, P. Fjellstedt, Ott Funcke, Galileo Galilei, Bo Giertz, Johann Wolfgang Goethe, Röl Gording, Johannes Gossner, Billy Graham, Carl Grimberg, Berndt Gustafsson, Stefan Gustavsson, Sören Halldén, Peter Halldorf, Björn Hallström, Lars Hartman, Gunnar Heckscher, David Hedegård, Jörgen Hedman, Jens Heimdahl, Jan Arvid Hellström, Alf Henrikson, Ingrid Hesslander, Bengt Holmberg, Folke Holmér, Victor Hugo, Bengt Hägglund, Folke Isaksson, J.P. Jacobsen, Liselotte Johansson, Viktor Johansson, Eyvind Johnson, Ulrik Josefsson, Ragnar Järhult, Christofer Klasson, Ruth Klüger, Lars Levi Laestadius, Annty Landherr, Hans Larsson, Harry Lenhammar, Aug. E. Lernberg, C.S. Lewis, Sven Lidman, Lars Lindberg, Henrik Ljungman, Bengt Loman, Ivar Lundgren, Martin Luther, Evald Lövestam, Eva Magnusson, Lennarth Magnusson, Howard Marshall, Carl Henrik Martling, Philip Mcnair, H.M. Melin, Vilhelm Moberg, Thomas More, Leon Morris, Wilhelm Möller, Fredrik Nielsen, Evert Nilsson, Nils Henrik Nilsson, Fritiof Nilsson Piraten, Anders Nohrborg, Agne Nordlander, Hugo Odeberg, T.H. Odencrants, Bernt Olsson, Ragnar Olsson, Vibeke Olsson, John Ongman, John Ortberg, René Pache, Efraim Palmqvist, Lewi Pethrus, Claes Pettersson, Niklas Piensoho, Björn Ranelid, Inga-Britt Ranemark, Harald Rasmussen, Carl Olof Rosenius, Viktor Rydberg, Göran Sahlberg, Sven Edvin Salje, Gösta Sandberg, Elisabeth Sandlund, Erich Sauer, Kristiina Savin, Bo Setterlind, Henryk Sienkiewicz, William B. Silverman, Isaac Bashevis Singer, Anfin Skaaheim, Björn Skogar, Göran Skytte, Erik Sollerman, Alexander Solsjenitsyn, Birgit Th Sparre, Eva Spångberg, Milton Steinberg, Sven Stolpe, John Stott, Margareta Strömstedt, R. Stübe, Knut Svensson, Nathan Söderblom, Helmut Thielicke, Einar Thomassen, Ragnar Thoursie, Anton Tjechov, Bertil Torekull, R.A. Torrey, Tomas Tranströmer, P. Waldenström, Kallistos Ware, F. Wendel, John Wenham, Paul Wern, Carl Fr. Wislöff, Birgitta Yavari, Brita Åhman, Mats Åmark.


My own comments and speculations:

The expression "letters of the alphabet" is a more literal translation of a Greek word usually translated by "writing" (cf. the background in Matt 5:18). The letters of Moses are a part of the words which the Saying Jesus completes. And in the time of completion the least and the shortest letter iota in Moses' words can be lengthened/filled out to the last and longest letter omega (see My own comments and speculations to John 18:4-5). And after John has written His writings it is no longer possible to add or to take away any letters (cf. Rev 22:18-19).


(Paul said to the Jews:) “… you are brought to rest on/'for the sake of' a law.” (Rom 2:17a)

Paul said to Timothy: "You know from ‘a suckling’/childhood vigorous "letters of the alphabet", the ones being able to give you wisdom into a saving through the faith in Christ Jesus." (2 Tim 3:15)

(Jesus) has been thought worthy of more glory ‘to the side of’/’in comparison with’ Moses. ... And Moses was indeed faithful in the whole of (God's) house as an attendant/servant into/’for the purpose of’ a testimony of/to the things which would be talked (in the future). (Heb 3:3a,5)

(When Christ comes into the adornment/’adorned world’, He says:) "Behold, I arrive - in a ‘bed's head’/beginning of a scroll it is (and has been) written on account of Me - to make/do Your will, God. (Heb 10:7)


Greek words:

gramma (letters of the alphabet) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Esther 6:1; John 5:47; 2 Tim 3:15 – Esther 4:3; 6:2; 8:5,10,12r(E17); 9:1; 1 Macc 5:10; Luke 16:6-7; 23:38(א,*א,A); John 7:15; Acts 26:24; 28:21; Rom 2:27,29; 7:6; 2 Cor 3:6-7; Gal 6:11.

elpizô (hope) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Sir 2:6; Luke 24:21; John 5:45 – Judith 6:9; 8:20; 2 Macc 7:11; Wisdom of Solomon 2:22; Sir 2:9; 34:7; Baruch 4:22; Matt 12:21; Luke 6:34; 23:8. Acts 24:26; 26:7; Rom 8:25; 15:12,24; 1 Cor 13:7; 15:19; 16:7; 2 Cor 1:10,13; 5:11; 8:5; 13:6; Phil 2:19,23; 1 Tim 3:14; 4:10; 5:5; 6:17; Philemon v 22; Heb 11:1; 1 Pet 1:13; 3:5; 2 John v 12; 3 John v 14.

katêgoreô (accuse) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) John 5:45 – 1 Macc 7:6,25; 2 Macc 4:47; 10:13,21; Matt 12:10; 27:12; Mark 3:2; 15:3-4; Luke 6:7; 23:2,10,14; John (8:6;) Acts 22:30; 24:2,8,13,19; 25:5,11,16; 28:19; Rom 2:15; Rev 12:10.


Additional studies: Deut 18:18-19; 31:19,22; Luke 18:31, 24:27,44-45; John 10:6; 12:38; Acts 5:22; 7:37; Rom 2:23; 10:5; 2 Cor 3:14-16; Rev 1:8; 12:10; 15:3; 22:18.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-03-04; 2011-01-28; 2014-01-07; 2014-10-14)

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