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According to John

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1:1-2 In a beginning the Saying (continually) was, and the Saying (continually) was towards God, and the Saying (continually) was God. This was in a beginning (continually) (directed) towards God.

Word for word: 1:1 (17 words in the Greek text) In (a)-beginning was-(continually) the saying, and the saying was-(continually) towards the god, and god was-(continually) the saying. 1:2 (7 words in the Greek text) This was-(continually) in (a)-beginning towards the god.


The Gospel of John and the Book of Revelation: The one who in the Gospel of John "was in a beginning" (John 1:1) is in the Revelation named "The Beginning and the End" (Rev 22:13). Jesus is the one who "must increase" (John 3:30).


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

In a beginning ... God spoke. (Gen 1:1a,3a, Greek OT).

After these words a word of the Lord became/came towards Abram in a vision, saying: “Do not fear, Abram!” (Gen 15:1a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Moses:) "You shall speak towards (Aaron) and you shall give my words into his mouth, and I shall open my mouth and his mouth and I shall conclude to you what you shall make/do. And he shall talk towards, towards the people and he shall be your mouth and you shall to (Aaron) be the things (being) towards God." (Ex 4:15-16, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) "Moses alone shall draw near towards the Lord, but (the elders) shall not draw near. But/and the people shall not ascend together with, in company with them." (Ex 24:2, Greek OT)

(Mordecai said to the Lord God: “The enemies) desired to perish Your inheritance out of a beginning.” (Esther 4:17fb or C 8b, Greek OT)

(Solomon said to God:) “Let the name (of the king) be ‘being blessed’/blessed into the ages, before the sun his name will stay throughout, and in him all the tribes of the earth will be blessed. All the nations will call him happy.” (Ps 72:17; Greek OT)

(The Lord said to David's Lord:) "I begot You out, out of a womb before a morning-star. ... You are a priest into the (coming) age according to the arrangement of Melchizedek." (Ps 110:3b,4b, Greek OT; cf. Heb 7:3 below)

(Wisdom said:) "The Lord created me, a beginning of His ways, into/'for the purpose of' His works. Before the age He based Me in a beginning. ... (When) He (continually) made the bases of the earth stable, I (continually) was betrothed by the side of Him. I (continually) was towards (the place) where He rejoiced." (Prov 8:22-23,29b-30a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Israel:) "From a beginning I have not talked in a hidden (place), nor in a dark place of 'an earth'/'a land'. At the time when it became, I (continually) was there. And now the Lord has dispatched (and dispatches) away Me and His Spirit." (Is 48:16b, Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) “A saying of the Lord (continually) became/came towards me out/'on the basis' of a second (time).” (Jer 1:13a, Greek OT)

(The Lord/Jeremiah said to Jeremiah/Jerusalem: “Israel was) to the Lord a beginning of His products/fruits.” (Jer 2:3b, Greek OT)

(The people in Egypt said to the prophet:) “We will not hear your saying, which you (in) the name of the Lord have talked towards us.” (Jer 44:16, Greek OT)

A saying of the Lord (continually) became/came towards Ezekiel. (Ezek 1:3a, Greek OT)

(Amos said to the people of Israel:) “Hear this saying, which the Lord has talked against you.” (Amos 3:1a, Greek OT)

Many nations will go and speak: "Come here, let us ascend into/to the mountain of the Lord ... because law will come out, out of Zion and a saying of the Lord out of Jerusalem.” (Micah 4:2, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Bethlehem:) “The One will come out, out of you for Me to be into/to a leader in Israel, and His ‘ways out’/departures (are) from a beginning, out of days of an age.” (Micah 5:2b, Greek OT)

A book of sayings (about) Tobit. (Tobit 1:1a)

(Tobit said:) ”… I believe, that all things which God has spoken, it will be brought to a consummation and be/'take place', and a word out of the sayings may not/certainly not fall throughout/asunder … “ (Tobit 14:4, S)

In/’by means of’ the thing to complete of a saying Jesus/(Joshua) became a judge in Israel. (1 Macc 2:55)

(Solomon said:) “What wisdom is, and how it became/’was made’, I will bring away a message (about), and I will not hide away a mystery for you, however/but from a beginning of an origin I will spy.” (Wisdom of Solomon 6:22a)

(Solomon said: “Wisdom) is for men an inexhaustible heap/treasure, which the ones having acquired (it) towards God have been dispatched/equipped (with) friendship.” (Wisdom of Solomon 7:14a)

(Solomon says: “I have knowledge of) beginning and end and middle of times.” (Wisdom of Solomon 7:18a)

(Solomon said:) "Having a way of subsistence/life together with God (wisdom) glorifies a noble descent." (Wisdom of Solomon 8:3a)

(Solomon said: “Ruin of life) (continually) was not from a beginning, and it will not be into the (coming) age.” (Wisdom of Solomon 14:13)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “Wisdom has been (and is) created former/before all things, and an understanding of a frame of mind (is) out/’on the basis’ of an age.” (Sir 1:4)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said: “The wisdom) will open her mouth in an (assembly) of called out of a highest one: ‘…I came out from a mouth of a highest one. ... Before the age, from a beginning he created me.’” (Sir 24:2a,3a,9a)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said to God:) “Give a testimony to Your in a beginning (being) creatures.” (Sir 36:14a or 36:17a)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) ”A saying (is) a beginning of every work.” (Sir 37:16a)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “The one understanding in/- the law of a highest one throughout will seek out wisdom of all ‘of beginnings’/’living during times of beginning’.” (Sir 38:34b-39:1/39:1b)


The Latter Revelation:

A beginning of the good little message of Jesus Christ * (א*). (Mark 1:1)

(Jesus taught the crowd:) “Hear! Behold, the one sowing came out to sow. ... The one sowing sows the saying.” (Mark 4:3,14)

(Jesus said to His disciples: “In) those days it will be such an oppression as has not become of such kind from a beginning of a creation, which God created, till the now and not/certainly not may become.” (Mark 13:19)

(Luke said:) "The ones having become from a beginning eyewitnesses and rowers/servants of the saying have given (the things having been and being completed among us) ‘by the side of’/over to us." (Luke 1:2)

(The messenger said to Zacharias:) “It will be joy to you and exultation, and many will rejoice on/’for the sake of’ the origin of (your son).” (Luke 1:14)

(During) the command of Tiberius …, a word of God became/came against/to John … (Luke 3:1a,2b)

Beginning (His ministry) Jesus (continually) was ‘as if’/about thirty years. (Luke 3:23a)

It became/’came about’ in the crowd ‘to lie’/’that they pressed’ on (Jesus) and/to hear the saying of God. (Luke 5:1a)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “The one sowing came out to sow his sowing. … The sowing is the saying of God.” (Luke 8:5a,11b)

God spoke to (a rich man:) “Thoughtless (man)! This night they demand back your soul from you. But the things you have made ready, to whom will it be?” (Jesus said:) “In this way (is) the one heaping for himself and not being rich into/’for the purpose of’ God.” (Luke 12:20-21)

... The first saying I indeed made on account of all things, which Jesus began both to make/do and teach. (Acts 1:1)

(Peter said:) “The Holy Spirit fell against, against them, just as and/also against us in a beginning.” (Acts 11:15b)

Hearing (these words) the nations (continually) rejoiced and (continually) glorified the saying of the Lord. (Acts 13:48a)

(Paul said:) “I exercise/’work for’ to ‘through every’/throughout have an unhurt joint knowledge towards God and the men.” (Acts 24:16b)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 - about 1500

Nowadays there are many who esteem Jesus and who see him as an example, as a fantastic man, as a prominent teacher. All these things are insufficient in the light of the prologue of John. Here it is clear that he is divine, he is God. (LarsOlov Eriksson "För att ni skall tro - Johannesevangeliet" p 27; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Normally "pros" with accusative expresses the direction to. . . . John uses throughout "pros" with accusative to mark direction. Thus there are good reason for the translation "Ordet var vänt mot Gud/The word was turned towards God" in John 1:1. (René Kieffer "Johannesevangeliet" p 14; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

In the Targum Onkelos to Gen 28:21; Ex 3:12; 19:17 "the Word of the Lord" is a surrogate for God Himself. When for instance Gen 28:21 says that "the Lord will be my God", the Targum says "the Word (or the Memra) of the Lord will be my God". (Cf. Raymond E. Brown "The Gospel according to John" p 523-524)

That John's opening verse is intended to recall the opening verse of Genesis is sure; that it reflects the opening of the earliest gospel is probable. (C.K. Barrett "The Gospel according to St John" p 151)

The only begotten Son of God ... is called "The Word", because he reveals the thought of God and realizes the will of God. Already when the words and the men were create, he left his stamp on everything. The thought was, that the men would become his brothers and the children or God. (Anton Fridrichsen-Per Lundberg "Ur Bibeln" p 199; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

God of the Old Testament was a speaking God, expressing his thought and will through his word. (Ad. Kolmodin "Johannesevangeliet" p 11; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

As a son always is of the same nature as the father, yes a being with him, so was and is Christ, as the Son of God, now God himself. (Karl Palmberg "Ur livskällan. Första årgången." p 39-40; Karl Palmberg /1842-1920/ was from 1883 a Lutheran clergyman in Månsarp in the diocese of Växjö and president in Jönköpings Missionsförening (Missionary Society) 1886-1911; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Natural science, you being quite sure. Of the true nature of your things. ... Answer, this you have, but not to the question. Answers to much not concerning us. ... "In the beginning was the cell", so is the word. But before the cell? Another cell. You see the material but not the one making it. If he was master or journeyman? He does not exist for the adversary Believing in the shoe but denying the shoemaker. ... No, science, in order to help so little Your pride is too great. And when your mystic envelope is worn out And people see what inside is You are not the God they believe. (August Strindberg "Naturvetenskapen"; Jönköpings-Posten 1908-04-24; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

(The son of God) is called "the word" most closely with allusion to Gen 1:1, where the creation of the world is done through a word of God. (P. Waldenström "Nya Testamentet" p 392-393; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Perhaps the longed for is what never yet is understood and what no one will understand, but nevertheless (the wanderer) had to long and have a feeling, he had to wander and watch and seek it. . . . And if he came to the end of the world, where no ways arrive, where the kingdom of Nothing is, he bent over the precipice staring into the depth with a desire full of sadness. . . . And leaning over the precipice he cried down into the depth lacking echo, and the cry would go through an endless non-being, through spaces being silent: God! (Viktor Rydberg "Längtan" p 240; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

The Son of God is called the Word, because He is the eternal expression of the thoughts of the Father, because the Father more particularly speaks through Him and through Him reveals himself and works, and because one only knows and has the Father in the Son, as one has the thought in the word. The Word was in the beginning, not became, but already was when time and the created things began to be. Consequently the Word was before all time, so then of eternity. (Peter Fjellstedt "Biblia" p 237; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Has it been a time, when the world did not exist? And how has the world come to being? These questions (the boy) made himself, but not without outer reason. He had heard a sister read out of a book (Bruzelius' history) something which concerned them and made a mighty impression on him: "Morning was the time, when Ymir buildt: was not sand, not sea, not cool billows. Earth was not, not the sky the high, only the Yawning Gulf." The answer to the riddle he got by the revered hereditary legend on the lips of his mother: the world is created by God. He knew before, that God is our father and protector of all and in invisible measure everywhere present. His speculations about Ymir, who "built", without having an earth to build on, was removed by a description of the proceeding from the light, which was lit in the darkness of the depth until the appearance of man on the earth. What in the evening whiles was told about God, the angels and the blessedness filled him with admiration and was received with faith. The world was beautiful, such he had seen it, and had remarkable phenomena, but got now also a holy worth, because it was the world of God. (Viktor Rydberg "Från barndomen" p 115-116; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

As our words explain our minds to others, so was the Son of God dispatched in order to reveal his Father's mind to the world. (Matthew Henry "Concise Commentary on the Whole Bible" p 773)


about 1500 and time before

(John) doth not begin like the rest (of the evangelists) from beneath, but from above, from the same point, at which he was aiming, and it was with a view to this that he composed the whole book. And not in the beginning only, but throughout all the Gospel, he is more lofty than the rest. (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers X:3)

To lead away from (the) fondness for earth those who were like to fall into it, and to draw them up towards heaven, with good reason (the Apostle) commences his narrative from above, and from the eternal subsistence. For while Matthew enters upon his relation from Herod the king, Luke from Tiberius Caesar, Mark from the Baptism of John, this Apostle, leaving alone all these things, ascends beyond all time or age. Thither darting forward the imagination of his hearers to the “WAS IN THE BEGINNING,” not allowing it to stay at any point, nor setting any limit, as they did in Herod, and Tiberius, and John. (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers XIV:16)

God begat in the beginning, before all creatures (or: God begat before all creatures a Beginning who was) a certain rational power (proceeding) from Himself, who is called by the Holy Spirit, now the glory of the Lord, now the Son, again Wisdom, again an angel, then God, and then Lord and Logos. ... I shall quote again the words narrated by Moses himself, which we can indisputably learn that (God) conversed with some one who was numerically distinct from Himself, and also a Being. These are the words: “And God said: ‘Behold, Adam has become as one of us, to know good and evil.’” In saying, therefore, “as one of us” (Moses) has declared that (there is a certain) number of persons associated with one another, and that they are at least two. ... This Offspring ... was truly brought forth from the Father before all the creatures, and the Father communed with Him; even as the Scripture by Solomon has made clear, that He whom Solomon calls Wisdom, was begotten as a Beginning before all His creatures. (Justin Martyr, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol I, p 227-228)

When Hebrew ceased to be a spoken languge Scripture was still read in that language in the services in the synagogue. As a concession to the weakness of the flesh there arose the custom of giving a running translation, which was called a Targum. At first the Targums were oral only, but in later times they were written down. Those that have survived enable us to see that they were somewhat free paraphrases rather than exact translations. The Targumists tried to give the sense of the passage being read, and not simply to translate mechanically. These Targums were produced at a time when, from motives of reverence and from fear of breaking the third commandment, Jews had ceased to pronounce the divine name. When they came to this name in the original the readers substituted some other expression they thought more reverent, such as "the Holy One" or "the Name." Sometimes they said, "the Word (Memra)." (Leon Morris "The Gospel according to John" p 105)

The Holy One, blessed be he, consulted the Torah, when he created the world. (Jacob Neusner "Genesis Rabbah, The Judaic commentary to the book of Genesis Vol I" p 1; Gen 1:1)

The tractate Menachot (from the Mishnah) closes with these words: ‘Alike as regards burnt-offerings of beasts and those of fowls (those of the poor) and the meat-offering, we find the expression “for a sweet savour,” to teach us, that to offer much or to offer little is the same, provided only that a person direct mind and heart towards God.’ (Alfred Edersheim "The Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah" p II:388)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Augustinus, Elisabeth Bergstrand-Poulsen, Robert James Berry, Oloph Bexell, Gordon Bridger, Robert Brow, Colin Brown, Göran Burenhult, Joseph A. Burgess, Charles Darwin, Colin Chapman, Sven Danell, Fjodor Dostojevskij, Bo Frid, Johann Wolfgang Goethe, Stefan Gustavsson, Walter R. Hearn, Paul Helm, Alf Henrikson, Bengt Hägglund, Curt Härenstam, Irenaeus, Lasse Johansson-Lucidor, Liselotte Johansson, Isak Krook, Tony Lane, Olle Larsson, Martin Luther, H.M. Melin, Vilhelm Moberg, Wilhelm Möller, Michael Nazir-Ali, Torsten Nilsson, James Innel Packer, Harald Rasmussen, Mia Rosander, Henrik Sjögren, Erik Sollerman, Douglas C. Spanner, Milton Steinberg, R. Stübe, Jesper Svartvik, Nathan Söderblom, Rabindranath Tagore, Einar Thomassen, J.R.R. Tolkien, F. Voltaire, P. Waldenström, Paul Wern, David Wilkerson, Mats Åmark.


My own comments and speculations:

“A beginning”, cf. “The Beginning” in Rev 3:14; 21:6 and 22:13. He who is in a beginning is also He who is a beginning (Rev 1:8, א*) and above all “The Beginning” Himself. Jesus is the Man, male and female, the Prototype of the very first Adam with all ribs left intact (cf. John 19:5,33-37), indeed, God Himself and God Herself.

To be towards God is to have acquired an inexhaustible wisdom and to be a friend of God. Cf. Wisdom of Solomon 7:14.

Already in the first verse we see the difference between this translation and the translation we usually meet, when we read the Bible. There are two important words in Greek which both often are translated by ”word”. The one is “logos”, which we meet here in the opening verse. The other word is “rêma”, which occurs later on in the gospel. If we study the words in themselves, it is wholly defensable and perhaps proper to translate them by “word”. But if we despite this try to separate the Greek words from each other, it is close at hand to choose the word “word” for “rêma”, even if also this word sometimes can mean “saying”.

Then the difficulty is to find a fitting English word for ”logos”. I have chosen “saying”, because “logos” easily can be associated with “lego”, which I translate by “say” (cf. also Tobit 14:4, see above). This translation makes clear, that my translation does not aim to be immediately accessible but to make the words understandable in comparison with other words in the Bible.

When I translate with two different words/expressions (cf. became/came in Gen 15:1 above), the first word is purposed for comparison with other words and the second one purposed to be the more readable word.

Sometimes the Greek word for ”God” (theos) has definite article and sometimes it has not. In my translation I have chosen to almost throughout translate “theos” without definite article, even if the article is found in the original text. In a corresponding way the Greek word for “lord” (kyrios) often is translated by “the Lord”, even if this word in the original text lacks definite article. Words aiming at God and Jesus (for instance the Son, He) are usually translated by capital letter, even if it is not so in the original text. A reason for this is, that the text in this way becomes more readable. The same thing also is valid, where the Greek word for “spirit” (pneuma) distinctly aims at the Holy Spirit.


Paul said to the believers in Rome: ”(Christ is) upon/near all things, God, blessed into the (coming) ages. Amen.” (Rom 9:5b)

Paul said to the believers in Philippi: “In a beginning of the good little message ... I came out from Macedonia ... (Phil 4:15b)

(Melchizedek being) without father, without mother, without genealogy and not having a beginning of days, and not an end of life, but/and being made like the Son of God he stays/abides a priest into the 'carried throughout'/continuous. (Heb 7:3)

(These things we write) on account of the Saying of the life, what (continually) was from a beginning, what we have heard (and hear), what our eyes have beheld (and behold), what we viewed and (what) our hands felt (on). And the life was made visible, and we have beheld (and behold) and we are witnesses and bring away a message to you (about) the agelong life, whichever/which (continually) was towards the Father and was made visible to you. (1 John 1:1-2)


Greek words:

archê (beginning) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Esther 4:17f(C8); Wisdom of Solomon 7:18; 14:13; Sir 24:9; 36:14(17); 37:16; Mark 1:1; 13:19; Luke 1:2; John 1:1-2; Acts 11:15; Phil 4:15; Heb 7:3; 1 John 1:1 – Esther 4:17r(C23); 8:12m(E12); 1 Macc 15:17; 2 Macc 4:10,27,50; 13:3; Wisdom of Solomon 6:17; 9:8; 12:11; 14:12,27; Sir 1:14; 10:12-13; 15:14; 16:26; 25:24; 29:21; 39:25,32. Matt 19:4,8; 24:8,21; Mark 10:6; 13:8; Luke 12:11; 20:20; John 2:11; 6:64; 8:25,44; 15:27; 16:4; Acts 10:11; 11:5; 26:4; Rom 8:38; 1 Cor 15:24; Eph 1:21; 3:10; 6:12; Col 1:16,18; 2:10,15; 2 Thess 2:13(א,*א); Tit 3:1; Heb 1:10; 2:3; 3:14; 5:12; 6:1; 2 Pet 3:4; 1 John 2:13-14,24; 3:8,11; 2 John v 5-6; Jude v 6; Rev 1:8(א*); Rev 3:14; Rev 14:4(א,*א); Rev 21:6; 22:13.


Additional studies:

Ps 119:89; Mark 2:2; Luke 5:1; 6:47; John 1:10; 10:30,33,36; 17:5; 20:28; Phil 2:6; Col 1:17; 2:9; 2 Tim 1:9; Tit 2:13; Hebr 1:2,8; 2 Pet 1:1; 1 John 2:1; 5:20; Rev 1:2,4,9; 4:11; 6:9; 17:8,17; 19:13.


John Ashton "The Transformation of Wisdom. A Study of the Prologue of John's Gospel"; New Testament Studies 32 (1986): 161-186.

Stephen J. Casselli "Jesus as Eschatological Torah"; Trinity Journal 18.1 (1997): 15-41.

Mary Coloe "The Structure of the Johannine Prologue and Genesis 1"; Australian Biblical Review 45 (1997): 40-55.

Ian Hart "Genesis 1:1 - 2:3 as a Prologue to the Book of Genesis"; Tyndale Bulletin 46.2 (1995): 315-336.

C.T.R. Hayward "The Holy Name of the God of Moses and the Prologue of St. John's Gospel"; New Testament Studies 25 (1978): 16-32.

G. Lindeskog "Theoskristologien i Nya testamentet"; Svensk Exegetisk Årsbok 37/38 (1972/1973): 222-237.

Edgar J. Lovelady "The Logos Concept"; Grace Journal 4.2 (Spring 1963): 15-24.

James F. McGrath "Prologue as Legitimation: Christological Controversy and the Interpretation of John 1:1-18"; Irish Biblical Studies 19.3 (1997): 98-120.

Edward Leroy Miller "'In the Beginning': A Christological Transparency"; New Testament Studies 45 (1999): 587-592.

Edward Leroy Miller "The Johannine Origins of the Johannine Logos"; Journal of Biblical Literature 112 (1993): 445-457.

Edward Leroy Miller "The Logos was God"; The Evangelical Quarterly (Apr.-June 1981): 65-77.

Olaf Moe "Logosbegreppet i Johannesevangeliets sammanhang"; Svensk Exegetisk Årsbok 22/23 (1957/1958): 111-118.

Francis J. Moloney "John 1:18. 'In the Bosom of' or 'Turned towards' the Father"; Australian Biblical Review 31 (1983): 63-71.

John Painter "Theology, Eschatology and the Prologue of John"; Scottish Journal of Theology 46 (1993): 27-.

Gene Smilie "The One Who is Speaking in Hebrews 12:25"; Tyndale Bulletin 55.2 (2004): 275-294.

Gene Smilie "The Other 'Logos' at the End of Heb. 4:13"; (The Journal) Novum Testamentum 47.1 (2005): 19-25.

Jeffrey Lloyd Staley "The Structure of John's Prologue: Its Implications for the Gospel's Narrative Structure"; Catholic Biblical Quarterly 48 (1986): 241-263.

Thomas H. Tobin "The Prologue of John and Hellenistic Jewish Speculation"; Catholic Biblical Quarterly 52 (1990): 252-269.

D. Francois Tolmie "The characterization of God in the Fourth Gospel"; Journal for the Study of the New Testament 69 (1998): 57-75.

Simon Ross Valentine "The Johannine Prologue - A Microcosm of the Gospel"; The Evangelical Quarterly 68.4 (Oct.-Dec. 1996): 291-304.

Benedict T. Viviano "The Structure of the Prologue of John (1:1-18): A Note." Révue Biblique 105 (1998): 176-184.

Stephen Voorwinde "John's Prologue: Beyond Some Impasses of Twenteth Century Scholarship"; Westminster Theological Journal 64.1 (2002): 15-44.

Jan G. van der Watt "The Composition of the Prologue of John's Gospel: The Historical Jesus introducing Divine Grace."; Westminster Theological Journal 57 (1995): 311-332.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-01-11; 2009-09-14; 2012-09-15; 2014-02-22; concluding version 2017-08-25)

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1:3 All things became through It, and separate from It nothing (P66, א*) became that has become (and becomes).

Word for word (11 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus prima manus): all-(things) through it became, and separate-from it became nothing which has-become-(and-becomes).


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

God spoke: “Let (it) become ... and it became in this way.” (Gen 1:3,6,9,11,14-15,20,24,30, Greek OT)

Aaron ‘carried to’/presented the sacrifice … separate from the burnt offering of the morning. (Lev 9:17, Greek OT)

It became after these sayings. (Esther 1:1sa or 1:1a, Greek OT)

(Mordocai said to the Lord:) “You have made the heaven and the earth and every/all being wondered/admired in the thing (being) underneath heaven.“ (Esther 4:17ca/C3, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said: “With) the saying of the Lord the heavens were made firm.” (Ps 33:6a, Greek OT)

The saying, the one becoming from the side of the Lord towards Isaiah. (Is 2:1a, Greek OT)

And every/all the people spoke: “Oh, that it may become, oh, that it may become.” (Judith 13:20b)

(Judith said: “Lord) … You spoke, and it was become.” (Judith 16:14a)

(Solomon said:) “What wisdom is, and how it became/’was made’, I will bring away a message (about), and I will not hide away a mystery for you, however/but from a beginning of an origin I will spy.” (Wisdom of Solomon 6:22a)

(Solomon said:) ”What (is) richer than a wisdom working all the things.” (Wisdom of Solomon 8:5b)

(Solomon began his prayer:) "God of fathers and a lord of the mercy, the One having made all the things in/with Your saying.” (Wisdom of Solomon 9:1)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “The Lord created (Wisdom) ... and poured her out against/over all His works.” (Sir 1:9)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “In/with a judgment of the Lord His works (are) from a beginning.” (Sir 16:26a)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said: “The Lord) has created (and creates) good things to the good ones from a beginning. In this way (also) bad things to the missers (of His mark).” (Sir 39:25)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “The works of (the Lord) (are) in (His) sayings.” (Sir 42:15b)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “In/with a saying (of the Highest One) all the things are ‘lain together with’/composed.” (Sir 43:26b)


The Latter Revelation:

Having come to/forward the one trying spoke to (Jesus): "If You are a son of God, speak in order that these stones may become breads/bread." (Matt 4:3)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Amen I say to you: ‘Till – according to the circumstances - the heaven and the earth may come by the side of, not one “iota” (the smallest letter) or one tittle, may not/certainly not come by the side of from the law, till – according to the circumstances – all things may become/’come about’.’” (Matt 5:18)

Separate from a parable Jesus talked nothing (with the crowds). (Matt 13:34b)

(The shepherds said:) “We may behold this word, the one becoming (and having become), of which the Lord has given us knowledge.” (Luke 2:15b)

(Jesus said to His disciples: “The one having heard (My sayings) and not having made/done (them) is like a man having built a habitation against the earth separate from a base.” (Luke 6:49a)

... The first saying I indeed made on account of all things, which Jesus began both to make/do and teach. (Acts 1:1)

(God made) the adornment/’adorned world’ and all the things in it ... (and gave) to every/all life and breath and all the things. (Acts 17:24a,25b)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 - about 1500

For the Stoics God was an Omnipotence, the ruling principle in all existing. For the Jews he was the Creator having been found of eternity, before every created thing, and having created the man to his image to live in company with him. (Bo Giertz "Apostlagärningarna" p 141 in comment to Acts 17:22-34; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

"The verb for 'come into being' (become) is used consistently to describe creation in the LXX of Gen 1." (Raymond E. Brown "The Gospel according to John" p 6)

Christ is the one, through whom God has performed and performs all his work. First in the creation. Everything, it may be found on the earth or in the present heavens, has become through Christ. Even everything which will be found on the new earth and in the new heaven will become through him. (Karl Palmberg "Ur livskällan. Andra årgången." p 40; Karl Palmberg /1842-1920/ was from 1883 a Lutheran clergyman in Månsarp in the diocese of Växjö and president in Jönköpings Missionsförening (Missionary Society) 1886-1911; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Since 1896 I call myself Christian (See Inferno). ... The view of life seducing my youth, was called the transformistic, mechanical doctrine of evolution (the Darwinism). Darwin himself kept the faith in the Creator, who would once in the formed material have put an instinct into evolution, by which the species had arisen by influence of natural selection during struggle for existence and so on. This was something like the position of the religious Linné, who realized that an evolution or a gradual proceeding creation work did not exclude the Creator. But the disciples of Darwin "evoluted" the doctrine backwards ande taught that creation had created itself, which of course is absurd. (August Strindberg "Tal till svenska nationen" s 14-16; Religion; Social-Demokraten 19 July 1910; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask; The title = Speech to the Swedish nation)

Everything has the eternal, independently creating Word to thank for its existence. Sin alone does not belong to what has come to being through the Word; for the Word reveals the thoughts of God; but just as God cannot think anything sinful, so neither sin has been able to become or have its origin through the Word. (Peter Fjellstedt "Biblia" p 237-238; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Without (the Son of God) was not any thing made that was made, from the highest angel to the meanest worm. (Matthew Henry "Concise Commentary on the Whole Bible" p 773)

Whatever aspect of God we may be seeking to know, it is in Christ alone that we attain to the knowledge, at least since the Fall, of God the Creator, as well as of God the Redeemer. Much more, it is by Christ, the Word of God, that all things were created. More generally, Calvin affirms that the world and man were created by the entire Trinity. (François Wendel "Calvin" p 170; The Theological Doctrine of Calvin)


about 1500 and time before

Moses in the beginning of the history and writings of the Old Testament speaks to us of the objects of sense and enumerates them to us at length. … But this Evangelist … includes both these things and the things which are above these in a single sentence; with reason, because they were known to his hearers, and because he is hastening to a greater subject, and has instituted all his treatise, that he might speak not of the works but of the Creator, and Him who produced them all. ... And that you may not think that he merely speaks of all the things mentioned by Moses, he adds, that “without Him was not anything made that was made.” That is to say, that of created things, not one ... was brought into being without the power of the Son. (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers XIV:21)

If “all things were made by Him, and without Him was not anything made that was made” consequently also prophecy and the law were by Him and were spoken by Him in parables. (Clement of Alexandria, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol II p 509)

While we say that all things have been produced and arranged into a world by God, we shall seem to utter the doctrine of Plato. (Justin Martyr, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol I, p 169-170)

The own word (of God) is both suitable and sufficient for the formation of all things, even as John, the disciple of the Lord, declares regarding Him. ... God is the former of all things, like a wise architect, and a most powerful monarch. (Irenaeus, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol I, p 361-362,370)

In all things God has the pre-eminence, who alone is uncreated, the first of all things, and the primary cause of the existence of all, while all other things remain under God's subjection. (Irenaeus, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol I, p 521)

The Father is indeed above all, and He is the Head of Christ; but the Word is through all things, and is Himself the Head of the Church; while the Spirit is in us all, and He is the living water, which the Lord grants to those who rightly believe in Him, and love Him, and who know that “there is one Father, who is above all, and through all, and in us all.” (Irenaeus, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol I, p 546)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Werner Aspenström, Augustinus, Robert Banks, Per Beskow, Charles Darwin, Stefan Edman, Bo Frid, Johannes Gossner, Paul Hazard, Jan Arvid Hellström, Alf Henrikson, Ludvig Holstein, Ruth Klüger, Nils Henrik Nilsson, Viktor Rydberg, Isaac Bashevis Singer, Alexander Solsjenitsyn, Jesper Svartvik, Anton Tjechov, Birgitta Yavari.


(Paul said to the believers in Colossae:) "In Him (who is the first-born of all creation) all the things were created, in the heavens and upon the earth, the things possible to behold and the things impossible to behold ... all the things have been (and are) created through Him and into/’for the purpose of’ Him. (Col 1:16)


Greek words:

ginomai (become) (John, 1-3 John, Rev + examples in the Apocrypha) Esther 1:1; Judith 16:14; John 1:3 – Esther 4:7; 9:14,26; 10:3f(F6); Tobit 8:16; Judith 7:29; 8:18,26; 13:1; 15:1, 1 Macc 1:33,64; 4:20; 13:5; 2 Macc 1:32; 5:11,20; 7:18; 10:14,21-22; 11:1,13; 12:1,42; 13:9,17; 14:22,26,44; Wisdom of Solomon 7:3; 9:2; 14:11; 19:18; Sir 5:4; 8:12; The Prayer of Azariah v 10; John 1:6,10,12,14-15,17,28,30; 2:1,9; 3:9,25; 4:14; 5:6,9,14; 6:16-17,19,21,25; 7:43, 8:33,58; 9:22,27,39; 10:16,19,22,35; 12:29-30,36,42; 13:2,19; 14:22,29; 15:7-8; 16:20; 19:36; 20:27; 21:4; 1 John 2:18; 2 John v 12; 3 John v 8; Rev 1:1,9-10,18-19; 2:8,10; 3:2; 4:1-2; 6:12; 8:1,5,7-8,11; 11:13,15,19; 12:7,10; 16:2-4,10,17-19; 18:2; 21:6; 22:6.

chôris (separate from) (in the NT + one example from the OT): Lev 9:17; Matt 13:34; Luke 6:49; John 1:3 – Matt 14:21; 15:38; Mark 4:34; John 15:5; 20:7; Rom 3:21,28; 4:6; 7:8-9; 10:14; 1 Cor 4:8; 11:11; 2 Cor 11:28; Eph 2:12; Phil 2:14; 1 Tim 2:8; 5:21; Philemon v 14; Heb 4:15; 7:7,20; 9:7,18,22,28; 10:28; 11:6,40; 12:8,14; Jas 2:18,20,26.


Additional studies:

Deut 32:47; 2 Kings 4:6; Ps 33:9; 104:24; 148:5; Is 38:16; Jer 10:16; 51:19; John 1:10; 3:35; 15:3; Rom 4:17; 1 Cor 8:6; Eph 3:9; Col 1:15-17; Heb 1:2,10; 2:10; 11:3; Rev 1:3; 3:14; 4:11; 5:13.


John Ashton "The Transformation of Wisdom. A Study of the Prologue of John's Gospel"; New Testament Studies 32 (1986): 161-186.

Mary Coloe "The Structure of the Johannine Prologue and Genesis 1"; Australian Biblical Review 45 (1997): 40-55.

S. Herner "Skapelsen enligt prästskriften och jahvisten"; Svensk Exegetisk Årsbok 5 (1940): 20-28.

James F. McGrath "Prologue as Legitimation: Christological Controversy and the Interpretation of John 1:1-18"; Irish Biblical Studies 19.3 (1997): 98-120.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-01-12; 2009-09-21; 2012-09-21; 2014-02-22; concluding version 2017-08-26)

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1:4 In It is (א,*א) life, and the life (continually) was the light of the men.

Word for word (12 words in the Greek text): in it life is, and the life was-(continually) the light (of)-the men.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

God spoke: "Let (it( become light" And it became light. ... And God spoke: "Let (it) become luminaries in the firmament of the heaven. ... Let the waters ... (and) the earth ‘lead out’/’bring forth’ living soul/souls ‘according to’/after (their) descent." (Gen 1:3,14a,20a,24a, Greek OT)

(Elihu said to Job: "God) delivered my soul out of death, in order that my life may praise Him in light." (Job 33:30, Greek OT)

(David said to the Lord God:) “By the side of You (is) a spring of life. In Your light we will behold light.” (Ps 36:9 or 36:10, Greek OT)

(The Psalmist said to the Lord:) “The manifestation of Your sayings will give light.” (Ps 119:130a, Greek OT)

(Solomon said to the Lord:) “Into/to a reminding of Your sayings (Your sons) (continually) were ingrafted (by the serpents). … Your saying, healing all, (attended them).” (Wisdom of Solomon 16:11a,12b)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said: “Eliah raised) a dead (body) out of death and out of Hades in/with a saying of (the) Highest One.” (Sir 48:5)

(Baruch said to Israel:) ”Learn where frame of mind is, where stability is, where understanding is to gain knowledge together/’at the same time’, where long subsistence is and life, where light of the eyes is and peace.” (Baruch 3:14)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "In this way let your light shine in front of the men in that way (that) they may behold your fine works and glorify your Father in the heavens." (Matt 5:16)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Narrow (is) the gate and being (and having been) oppressed the way leading away into life.” (Matt 7:14a)

(Jesus said to a rich man:) “If you want to come into, into the life, keep the commandments.” (Matt 19:17b)

Peter was (continually) seating in company together with the rowers/servants and warming himself towards the light. (Mark 14:54b)

(Simeon said: "My eyes have beheld) a light into a revelation of nations and a glory of Your people Israel." (Luke 2:32)

(Paul said to the king:) “If (Christ is) first out of a resurrection of dead (bodies), He is about to bring down a message (about) a light both to the people and to the nations.” (Acts 26:23b)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 - about 1500

The essence of the word is fixed with two words: LIFE - LIGHT. He has life and gives life - he has light and gives light. The light is the way of life to realize its existence. Light is the outer appearance for life. "You cover yourself with light as with a cloak." Ps. 104:2. (Gösta Sandberg "Glädjens budskap" p 38 in comment to John 1:1-14; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

In the rabbinic thought we can see a contrast between this world, which is altogether night, and the age to come, which is light and life. (Cf. C.K. Barrett "The Gospel according to St John" p 157)

Only in Him, who is called the Word and in the beginning made all life, only in Him still always is the spiritual and eternal life. (Carl Olof Rosenius "Betraktelser" p 702 in comment to John 1:4; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


about 1500 and time before

(John) calls (the Son) both “Light” and “Life,” for He hath freely given to us the light which proceeds from knowledge, and the life which follows it. ... And what, tell me, is the nature of this “light”? This kind (of light) is the object not of the senses, but of the intellect, enlightening the soul herself. (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers XIV:7,24)

As those who see the light are within the light, and partake of its brilliancy; even so, those who see God are in God, and receive of its splendour. But (His) splendour vivifies them; those, therefore, who see God, do receive life. (Irenaeus, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol I, p 489)

Communion with God is life and light, and the enjoyment of all the benefits which He has in store. (Irenaeus, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol I, p 556)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: P. Fjellstedt, Johannes Gossner, Stefan Gustavsson, David Hedegård, Thor Heyerdahl, René Kieffer, Christofer Klasson, CS Lewis, Martin Luther, Viktor Rydberg, Carl-Herman Tillhagen, Leo Tolstoj, Stig Wikström.


Paul said to the believers in Philippi: "You ‘are brought to’/give light as luminaries in an adornment/’an adorned world’, holding fast a saying of life." (Phil 2:15b-16a)

(Paul said to Timothy:) “(Christ Jesus) indeed (made) the death inactive, but/and (gave) light to life and immortality through the good little message .” (2 Tim 1:10b)

(These things we write) on account of the Saying of the life, what (continually) was from a beginning, what we have heard (and hear), what our eyes have beheld (and behold), what we viewed and (what) our hands felt (on). And the life was made visible, and we have beheld (and behold) and we are witnesses and bring away a message to you (about) the agelong life, whichever/which (continually) was towards the Father and was made visible to you. (1 John 1:1-2)

And this is the message which we have heard (and hear) from Him and (which) we bring up a message to you, that God is light and (that) gloom is not ‘not anything’/’at all’ in Him. (1 John 1:5)

But if we – according to the circumstances – may walk about in the light, as He is in the light, we have communion in company with one another, and the blood of Jesus, His Son, makes us clean from every miss (of the mark of God). (1 John 1:7)


Greek words:

zôê (life) (in the Synoptics, John, the Acts, 1-3 John, Rev + examples in the Apocrypha) Baruch 3:14; Luke 16:25; John 1:4; 1 John 1:1-2 – Tobit 1:3; 3:10; 4:3,5; 8:17; 10:13; 12:9(BA); Judith 10:3; 16:22; 1 Macc 2:13; 9:71; 2 Macc 7:14,22-23,36; 14:46; Wisdom of Solomon 1:12; 12:23; 13:11,18; 14:12; 15:12; 16:13; Sir 3:12; 4:1,12; 9:13; 10:9; 11:14; 15:17; 16:3; 17:11; 21:13; 22:11-12; 23:1,4; 29:21,24; 30:5,17,22; 31:27; 33:14,20; 34:17(20),21(25); 37:18,27,31; 39:26; 40:28-29; 41:4,13; 45:5; 48:11,14,23; Baruch 1:11; 3:9; 4:1; The Prayer of Manasseh v 15. Matt 7:14; 18:8-9; 19:16-17,29; 25:46; Mark 9:43,45; 10:17,30; Luke 10:25; 12:15; 16:25; 18:18,30; John 3:15-16,36; 4:14,36; 5:24,26,29,39-40; 6:27,33,35,40,47-48,51,53-54,63,68; 8:12; 10:10,28; 11:25; 12:25,50; 14:6; 17:2-3; 20:31; Acts 2:28; 3:15; 5:20; 8:33; 11:18; 13:46,48; 17:25; 1 John 2:25; 3:14-15; 5:11-13,16,20; Rev 2:7,10; 3:5; 7:17; 11:11; 13:8; 17:8; 20:12,15; 21:6,27; 22:1-2,14,17,19.

fôs (light) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Baruch 3:14; Matt 5:16; Mark 14:54; Luke 2:32; 16:8; John 1:4,7; Acts 26:23; 1 John 1:5 – Esther 1:1k(A10); 8:16; 10:3c(F3); Tobit 3:17; 5:10; 10:5; 11:8; 13:11(13); 14:10; 1 Macc 12:29; 2 Macc 1:32; Wisdom of Solomon 7:10,26,29-30; 17:(19)20; 18:1,4; Sir 22:11; 24:27; 32:16; 33:7; Baruch 3:33; 4:2; 5:9; The Song of Praise of the Three Men v 47. Matt 4:16; 5:14; 6:23; 10:27; 17:2; Luke 8:16; 11:33,35; 12:3; 16:8; 22:56; John 1:5,7-9; 3:19-21; 5:35; 8:12; 9:5; 11:9-10; 12:35-36,46; Acts 9:3; 12:7; 13:47; 16:29; 22:6,9,11; 26:13,18; Rom 2:19; 13:12; 2 Cor 4:6; 6:14; 11:14; Eph 5:8-9,13-14; Col 1:12; 1 Thess 5:5; 1 Tim 6:16; Jas 1:17; 1 Pet 2:9; 1 John 2:8-10; Rev 18:23; 21:24; 22:5.


Additional studies:

Job 12:10; Ps 56:14; Ezek 33:11; 37:9-10; Dan 12:2.


John Ashton "The Transformation of Wisdom. A Study of the Prologue of John's Gospel"; New Testament Studies 32 (1986): 161-186.

L. Brun "Ordet, lyset, livet Joh 1:1-5"; Svensk Exegetisk Årsbok 5 (1940): 95-115.

J.C. Coetzee "Life (eternal life) in St. John's writings and the Qumran scrolls"; Neotestamentica 6.1. (1972): 48-66.

Mary Coloe "The Structure of the Johannine Prologue and Genesis 1"; Australian Biblical Review 45 (1997): 40-55.

A.D. MacRae "Light in the Johannine Epistles"; Tyndale Bulletin 10 (1962): 8-12.

James F. McGrath "Prologue as Legitimation: Christological Controversy and the Interpretation of John 1:1-18"; Irish Biblical Studies 19.3 (1997): 98-120.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-01-13; 2009-09-25; 2012-09-28; 2014-02-23; concluding version 2017-08-26)

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1:5 And the light ‘brings to’/gives light in the gloom, and the gloom has not taken it down/up.

Word for word (13 words in the Greek text): And the light in the gloom brings-to-light, and the gloom it not took-down.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The Lord said to the serpent:) "I will put enmity upwards/between your middle and upwards/- a middle of the woman and upwards/between a middle of your seed and upwards/- a middle of her seed. He shall keep your head, and you shall keep his heel." (Gen 3:15, Greek OT)

(Lot said to the messengers:) “I will not be able to be saved throughout into/to the mountain, (so that) the bad things may not take me down/up and I may die.” (Gen 19:19b, Greek OT)

Aaron and his son (shall let the lamp in the tent burn) from evening as long as (to) early in the day. ... (Lev 24:3b, Greek OT)

(Balaam said:) "I shall show him and/but by no means now. I call him happy, and/but he does not draw near. A constellation shall stick up out of Jacob, and a man shall stand up out of Israel." (Num 24:17a, Greek OT)

(Moses said to “the tribes east of Jordan”:) “You will miss (the mark of God) opposite the Lord and you will have knowledge of your miss (of the mark of God), when – according to the circumstances - the bad things may take you down.” (Num 32:23b, Greek OT)

(Moses said to Israel:) “If you – according to the circumstances – may not listen to the voice of the Lord your God to watch and make/do all His commandments … all these curses shall come against you and take you down/up.” (Deut 28:15, Greek OT)

(Job said: “Where) iron becomes out of earth … (man) put/made an arrangement for darkness ... (where) stone (is) gloom and shadow of death.” (Job 28:2-3, Greek OT)

(David said:) “The Lord (is) my enlightening.” (Ps 27:1a, Greek OT)

(The daughters of Moab said to the daughter of Zion:) “Gloom flees at noon … .” (Is 16:3b, Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) “Give light, give light Jerusalem, for your light arrives, and the glory of the Lord sticks (and has stuck) up against you. Behold, darkness and dusk will veil earth against nations. But the Lord will ‘bring to’/give light against you, and His glory will be beheld against you.” (Is 60:1-2, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to the leaders of Jacob:) “It will for you be gloom out of divination, and the sun will 'set against'/'perish for' the prophets, and the day will grow dark against them.” (Micah 3:6b, Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) “If – according to the circumstances – I may sit down in the darkness, the Lord will give me light.” (Micah 7:8b)

(The sons of Israel) took beforehand down/up all the tops of the high mountains. (Judith 4:5a)

The lamps upon the lampstand (continually) … ‘brought to’/gave light in the temple. (1 Macc 4:50b)

(The enemies of Israel wanted to) take down/up and ‘lift out’/remove all these (Jews) in one day. (1 Macc 5:27b)

(The enemies of the Jews threw up a wall) against the top/castle in Jerusalem to take it down/up. … (1 Macc 6:26b)

(The officer) dispatched away the other (soldiers) to take down/up Jerusalem and the mountain of the temple. (1 Macc 16:20)

Having taken down/up the city, (which was) the willing of God, (Judas) made an inexpressible slaughter, so that the lake, lying by the side of (the city) (and) having the breadth of two stadia, ‘be brought to light’/appeared being (and having been) filled (with) alluvial blood. (2 Macc 12:16)

(Solomon said: “Wisdom) is a reflection of an eternal light.” (Wisdom of Solomon 7:26a)

(Solomon said: “Wisdom) is more comely than sun and (has) a putting/placing over ‘every of’/all constellations. Being judged together with light it is found former, for night indeed receives/succeeds throughout to this one, but badness is not entirely stable (against) wisdom.” (Wisdom of Solomon 7:29-30)

(Wisdom said:) “I gave (Adam – the father of the adorned world) stability to get power (over) all ‘of it’/things.” (Wisdom of Solomon 10:2)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “Do not make/do bad things, and a bad thing may not/certainly not take you down/up.” (Sir 7:1)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) ”The one having power in/over the law will take down/up (wisdom).” (Sir 15:1b)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “Unintelligent men will not/certainly not take down/up (wisdom).” (Sir 15:7a)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “A misser (of the mark of God) will be ‘taken down’/caught in/through his lips.” (Sir 23:8a)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said: “My) education will still give light as an early morning, and I will bring it out to light till into (that which is) far.” (Sir 24:32)


The Latter Revelation:

(Soothsayers from upstickings/east said:) “Where is the One having been brought forth, a King of the Jews? For we have beheld His star.” (Matt 2:2a)

Having secretly called the soothsayers Herod examined exactly from the side of them the time of the ‘being brought to light’/appearing of the star. (Matt 2:7)

Jesus says to (the slanderer): "Withdraw, adversary! for it has been (and is) written: 'You shall prostrate yourself (towards) the Lord your God (in adoration of Him) and Him alone you shall serve.'" Then the slanderer lets Him be. (Matt 4:10-11a)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “You are the light of the adornment/’adorned world’. A city lying above a mountain is not able to be hidden/concealed, (is it)? Nor does (anyone) ‘burn a lamp’/’have a lamp burning’ and put it underneath the corn-measure however/but against the lampstand, and it shines to all the ones in the habitation. In this way let your light shine in front of the men in that way (that) they may behold your fine works and glorify your Father in the heavens.” (Matt 5:14-16)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “If so the light, the one (being) in you, is darkness, how much/great (is) the darkness.” (Matt 6:23b)

… (People) carried to (Jesus) many being demon-possessed, and He threw out the spirits (with) a saying. (Matt 8:16a)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) ”What I say you in the gloom, speak in the light.” (Matt 10:27a)

(Jesus said:) "From the days of John the Baptist till just now the kingdom of the heavens suffers violence, and men using violence rape it." (Matt 11:12)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) ”When the grass sprouted and made/bore fruit, then the darnels and/also ‘were brought to’/came to light. … The darnels are the sons of the evil one.” (Matt 13:26,38b)

(Jesus said to Simon Peter:) "The gates of Hades shall not be entirely stable (with regard to My assembly of called out)." (Matt 16:18b)

(One out of the crowd said to Jesus:) “Whereat/where * (א*) (the spirit) may take down/up (my son), he breaks ‘in pieces’/down * (א,* א) and foams.” (Mark 9:18a)

(The shepherds) watching/'kept watch' (by) night against/over their flock. And a messenger of the Lord stood near them, and a glory of the Lord shone round about them, and a great fear feared/seized them. (Luke 2:8b-9)

The saying (of Jesus) (continually) was in/with (judicial) authority. ... It became amazement against/over all (in the synagogue), and they talked together with, towards one another saying: "What (is) this saying, because He in/with (judicial) authority and ability 'arranges on'/orders the unclean spirits, and they come out." (Luke 4:32b,36)

Having ‘kept ... by the side of’/observed (Jesus) (the priest leaders and the scribes) dispatched away suborners playing the hypocrites ‘to be’/’that they ... were’ righteous themselves, in order that they might ‘take on’/blame His saying, so that they (might) give Him ‘to the side of’/over to the beginning/leadership and the (judicial) authority of the commander. (Luke 20:20)

(The suborners) were not stable (enough) to take on/’hold of’ (Jesus) (by) His word opposite/’in the presence of’ the people. And having wondered on/at His answer, they were silent. (Luke 20:26)

Jesus spoke towards the ones having become/come to the side of (Him), priest leaders and officers of the sanctuary and elders, (who had come) towards (א*) Him: "... ‘According to’/’day after’ day on My being in company with you in the sanctuary, you did not stretch out the hands against Me. However, this hour is Yours, and/likewise the (judicial) authority of the darkness." (Luke 22:52a,53)

In/during the go/journeying (of Saul) it became/’came about to’ him draw/’on his drawing’ near Damascus both/that a light out of the heaven suddenly flashed round about him, and having fallen against the earth he heard a voice saying to him: “Saul, Saul, what/why do you pursue Me?” But/and he spoke: “Who are You, Lord?” But/and (He spoke): “I am Jesus whom you pursue?” ... (For) three days (Saul) (continually) was not seeing. (Acts 9:3-5,9a)

(Jesus said to Paul: ”You shall) open the eyes (of the nations) to turn (them) next to (God) from darkness into light, and (from) the (judicial) authority of the adversary against/to God.” (Acts 26:18a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

The life (continually) was the light of the men. (John 1:4b)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

Does this (that Jesus is the light of the world) mean, that with his arrival the night has yielded to the day? Or at least that dawn has come, the gloom-light change-over from night to day? It is not the picture the texts in the N.T. give us. ... The light shines. But "the light shines in the darkness", John says. The night still lasts. ... The day has not come with Jesus. But a light in the night which the darkness has not obtained power over. And by that a gift, an invitation to men: You need not let yourselves be determined by the darkness, and what it represents, you can have a share in the light, become the children of the light. (Evald Lövestam "Axplock - Nytestamentliga studier" p 116; A living hope; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Jonatan seized hold of me when I was going to fall down in the depth. And then I happened to drop the torch. We saw it fall as a streak of fire, deeper and deeper and deeper, and at last disappear. And so we were in the darkness. The outermost and worst of all darknesses in the world. I did not dare to move and not to speak and not to think, I tried to forget that I existed and that I stood there in the black darkness quite close to an abyss. But I heard Jonatan's voice beside me. At last he managed to set fire to the other torch we had with us. (Astrid Lindgren "Bröderna Lejonhjärta" p 177; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

There was an attempt by darkness to overcome the light - namely the fall of man. Notice that the aorist, "overcome'", thus receives its normal meaning as referring to a single past action. But the light shines on, for although man sinned, a ray of hope was given to him. Gen 3:15 says that God put enmity between the serpent and the woman and that the serpent was not destined to overcome her offspring. In particular, the seed of the woman, which for the N.T. was Jesus, would be victorious over Satan. (Raymond E. Brown "The Gospel according to John" p 27, overcome = take down)

The light shining for us, while wandering in this world, is in truth a light shining in a gloomy wilderness. Look out over the life being lived here in the world, and no man with discretion can deny, that it is a gloomy wilderness. And if you see into your own heart the same wilderness meet you there. There is a gloomy wilderness within you, a glomy wilderness outside you, and only God knows which is most gloomy. It is a life in uncertainty and darkness. It is a life where most things are veiled in mist, mists of lies and in mists of disbelief and in mists of incomprehensibility. It is something of a life of shade, something tottering and uncertain, a world of haze. But in this world of haze there is a light shining. God shines in the darkness, and the lantern of the word of God shines the way of your feet through the shadow. We praise You and bless You, lord, that light is shining in the darkness, and that the darkness has not got power over it. (Sven Lidman "Bryggan håller - Vittnesbörd om korsets kraft" p 68; comment to Luke 24:13-31; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

In the avenue people in Paris begin to celebrate Christmas Eve. At midnight shouts and songs of more glad nature make known that the réveillon is well under way, and it continues till morning is breaking, the same morning giving light over snow and spruce forest and over gloomy men quietly wandering to early service on Christmas Day celebrating the victory of light over darkness. (August Strindberg "Marthas bekymmer" p 57; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Out of times enveloped by night towards a goal, hidden for you, oh, mankind, you advance in centuries your path in the desert! Your day only is a gleam, shining pale and faint - see, before her mist and behind her night! And generations, where you march, in the desert sink down, and trembling you ask: almighty, where does my way lead? ? (Viktor Rydberg "Kantat vid jubelfestpromotionen i Uppsala den 6 september 1877" p I:423; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

To all believing Israelites, this hope (of the Davidic Kingdom) has through the long night of ages, been like that eternal lamp which burns in the darkness of the Synagogue, in front of the heavy veil that shrines the Sanctuary, which holds and conceals the precious rolls of the Law and the Prophets. (Alfred Edersheim "The Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah Part I" p 276)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Eric S. Alexandersson, Werner Aspenström, David Bellingham, Bo Brander, Ylva Eggehorn, Peter Fjellstedt, Dag Hammarskjöld, Ola Hansson, Irenaeus, Lars Levi Laestadius, Martin Luther, Vilhelm Moberg, Gösta Nicklasson, Bengt Pleijel, Dag Sandahl, Lina Sandell, Bo Setterlind, Isaac Bashevis Singer, Erik Johan Stagnelius, P. Waldenström, Fredrik Wislöff.


My own comments and speculations:

In my translation I separate the Greeks word “skotia” and “skotos” by translating them by “gloom” respectively “darkness”.


Paul said to the believers in Corinth: "God, the One having spoken: 'Light will shine out of darkness' (is) the One who has shone in our hearts towards/’in regard to’ an enlightening of the knowledge of the glory of God in (the) face of Jesus Christ." (2 Cor 4:6)

And this is the message which we have heard (and hear) from Him and (which) we bring up a message to you, that God is light and (that) gloom is not ‘not anything’/’at all’ in Him. (1 John 1:5)

Again/’on the other hand’ I write a new commandment to you, which is truthful and/both (א,* א) in Him and in you, because the gloom is ‘led by the side of’/’passing away’ and the true light already ‘brings to’/gives light. (1 John 2:8)

The one hating his brother is in the gloom and wanders about in the gloom and does not know where he withdraws, because the gloom has blinded his eyes. (1 John 2:11)


Greek words:

skotia (gloom) Job 28:3; Is 16:3; Micah 3:6; Matt 10:27; John 1:5; 1 John 1:5; 2:8,11 – Luke 12:3; John 6:17; 8:12; 12:35; 12:46; 20:1; 1 John 2:9

fainô (bring to light) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) 1 Macc 4:50; Matt 2:7; 13:26; John 1:5; 2:8 - Tobit 6:17(18); 1 Macc 11:12; 2 Macc 1:33; 3:33; 5:2; 6:27; 10:29; 11:8; 12:9,16,36; 14:20; Wisdom of Solomon 8:15; Matt 1:20; 2:13,19; 6:5,16,18; 9:33; 23:27-28; 24:27,30; Mark 14:64; Luke 9:8; 24:11; John 5:35; Rom 7:13; 2 Cor 13:7; Phil 2:15; Heb 11:3; Jas 4:14; 1 Pet 4:18; 2 Pet 1:19; Rev 1:16; 8:12; 18:23; 21:23

katalambanô (take down) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) 1 Macc 6:26; 16:20; 2 Macc 12:16; Sir 7:1; 15:1,7; 23:8; Mark 9:18; John 1:5 – Judith 2:25; 1 Macc 1:19; 5:28,30,35; 6:3,50; 10:1,23; 11:46; 12:30; 13:43; 15:30; 2 Macc 5:5; 10:22; 14:41; Susanna v 58; John 6:17(א,* א); 8:3-4; 12:35; Acts 4:13; 10:34; 25:25; Rom 9:30; 1 Cor 9:24; Eph 3:18; Phil 3:12-13; 1 Thess 5:4.


Additional studies:

Gen 15:17; Ps 112:4; 1 Macc 5:44(prokatalambanô); Matt 4:16,24; Mark 1:32; Luke 3:2; 4:13; 7:21; 8:16; 11:35; 15:8; John 3:19; 9:5; Acts 26:12-18; 1 Tim 6:16; 1 John 5:5; Rev 18:1; 22:5.


John Ashton "The Transformation of Wisdom. A Study of the Prologue of John's Gospel"; New Testament Studies 32 (1986): 161-186.

Mary Coloe "The Structure of the Johannine Prologue and Genesis 1"; Australian Biblical Review 45 (1997): 40-55.

James F. McGrath "Prologue as Legitimation: Christological Controversy and the Interpretation of John 1:1-18"; Irish Biblical Studies 19.3 (1997): 98-120.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-01-14; 2009-10-10; 2012-10-14; 2014-02-24; concluding version 2017-08-26)

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1:6-8 It became a man having been (and being) dispatched away from the side of (of)-God. A name to him (continually) was (א*) John. This one came into/’for the purpose of’ an evidence, in order that he might be a witness around (of)-the (of)-light, in order that all might believe through his/him. That one was (continually) not the light, however/but (he became) in order that he might be a witness on account of (of)-the (of)-light.

Word for word: 1:6 (9 words in the Greek text, Sinaiticus prima manus:) It-became (a)-man, having-been-(and-being)-dispatched-away from-the-side-of (of)-god, was-(continually) (a)-name (to)-him John. 1:7 (14 words in the Greek text): this-(one) came into (an)-evidence, in-order-that he-might-be-(a)-witness on-account-of the light, in-order-that all might-believe through him. 1:8 (11 words in the Greek text): not was-(continually) that-(one) the light, however in-order-that he-might-be-(a)-witness on-account-of (of)-the (of)-light.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

Abram believed (in) God. And it was counted to him into righteousness. (Gen 15:6, Greek OT)

A messenger of the Lord was beheld (to/by Moses) in a flame of fire out of the thorn-bush. ... Moses spoke towards God: “Behold, I shall come towards the sons of Israel, and I shall speak towards them: ‘The God of your fathers has dispatched (and dispatches) me away towards you.’ They will ask me: 'What (is) a name to Him?' What shall I speak towards them?” And God spoke towards Moses: “I am the One who is.” And He spoke: “In this way you shall speak to the sons of Israel: ‘The One who is has dispatched (and dispatches) me away towards you.’” (Ex 3:2,13-14, Greek OT)

(Moses said to the Lord:) “If so – according to the circumstances – (Israel) may not believe me ‘but not’/or listen to My voice? For they will speak: ‘God has not been (and is not) beheld to you.’” … (Aaron) made the signs opposite (Israel). And the people believed. (Ex 4:1b,30b-31a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to the people of Israel:) "Behold, I dispatch away My messenger before your face, in order that he may watch you in the way, so that he may lead you into, into the earth/land which I have made ready for you." (Ex 23:20, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said to the Lord:) “Your evidences (are) wondrous. … The manifestation of Your sayings will give light.” (Ps 119:129a,130a, Greek OT)

(Solomon said:) “From the side of the Lord (is) the help.” (Prov 21:31b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) “Whom shall I dispatch away, and who will go towards/’in regard to’ this people?” And (Isaiah) spoke: “Behold, I am (here). Dispatch away me.” (Is 6:8b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to His people Israel:) “Do not fear, because I have redeemed you. I have called you (by) your name, you are Mine.” (Is 43:1b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) “Behold, I dispatch out My messenger, and he will 'see against'/regard a way before My face, and the Lord whom you seek will suddenly arrive into His temple.” (Mal 3:1a, Greek OT)

(Judith said to Holophernes:) “God has dispatched me away. … ” (Judith 11:16b)

Achior … believed (in) God extremely. (Judith 14:10a)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said: “The Lord) made a man out of a beginning.” (Sir 15:14a)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) ”Divinations and forebodes and dreams are vain. ... If – according to the circumstances – (the beholding) may not be dispatched away in a visitation from the side of a highest one, you may not give your heart into them.” (Sir 34:5a,6)


The Latter Revelation:

(Soothsayers from upstickings/east said:) “Where is the One having been brought forth, a King of the Jews? For we have beheld His star.” (Matt 2:2a)

(Jesus said to the crowds: "John the Baptist) is this one on account of whom it has been (and is) written: 'Behold, I dispatch away my messenger before Your face, who shall entirely prepare Your way in front of You.'" (Matt 11:10)

Jesus was transformed in front of (James, John and Peter) and His face shone as the sun. (Matt 17:2a)

(Jesus said to the priest leaders and the elders of the people:) “From where was (continually) the baptism of John, out of heaven or out of men?” But/and they (continually) ‘counted throughout’/considered by the side of (א,* א) themselves, saying, "If we – according to the circumstances – may speak: 'Out of heaven', He will speak to us: 'So because of what did you not believe him?'." … They answered (that they did) not know from where.” (Matt 21:25; Luke 20:7)

Jesus says to (the priest leaders and the elders): “Did you nor at any time read in the writings: ‘A stone which the ones building rejected, this has become into a head/beginning of a corner, from the side of the Lord this became, and it is wondrous in our eyes?’” (Matt 21:42)

(Jesus said to the scribes and the Pharisees:) “You are witnesses to yourselves, that you are sons of the ones having murdered the prophets.” (Matt 23:31)

(Jesus dispatched away the twelve) to proclaim. (Mark 3:14b)

(The priest leaders and the scribes said to Jesus:) “… Descend now from the cross, in order that we may behold and believe!” (Mark 15:32a)

(The messenger said to Mary:) “Every word will ‘not be unable’/’be possible’ from the side of God.” (Luke 1:37)

(On the eighth day Zechariah wrote) “John is the (א,*א,A) name of him.” … (Luke 1:63b)

(John's father Zacharias prophecied:) "You, little boy, will be called a prophet of a Highest One, for you will go forward, in the very eyes of a lord, to make His ways ready, to give to His people knowledge of saving in/through a ‘letting be’/’leaving alone’ of their misses (of the mark of God), because of inward vital parts of a mercy of our God, in/through which ‘an upsticking’/’a sunrise’ will inspect us out of a height, to bring to light on the ones being seated in darkness and shadow of death, to entirely straighten our feet into a way of peace." (Luke 1:76-79)

Upon/’in the time of’ a priest leader Annas and of Caiaphas, a word of God became/came against/to John. (Luke 3:2a)

(Jesus said to the crowds concerning John the Baptist:) ”What did you come out to behold? A prophet? Yes, I say you, and more than over and above a prophet.” (Luke 7:26)

The wisdom of God spoke: ”I will dispatch away into/to them prophets and apostles, and (some) out of them they will kill and pursue.” (Luke 11:49)

(The elders, the priest leaders and the scribes said: “Of) what evidence have we yet need?” (Luke 22:71a)

(The crowds) (continually) called Barnabas ‘(the) brilliant one’/Zeus. (Acts 14:12a; cf. John 13:23-25; 21:3,21 where the relation between the apostle John and Peter can be compared with the relation between Barnabas and Paul)

Paul spoke: "John baptized (with) a baptism of a change of mind, saying to the people ‘in order that’/that they might believe into/’for the purpose of’ the One coming after him, this is into/’for the purpose of’ Jesus." (Acts 19:4)

(In the night the Lord said to Paul:) “As you throughout was a witness to the things on account of Me into/in Jerusalem, in this way you must be a witness and/also into/in Rome.” (Acts 23:11b)

(The Lord said to Paul:) “I dispatch you away into (the nations).” (Acts 26:17b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

All things became through (the Saying), and separate from It nothing (P66, א*) became that has become (and becomes). (John 1:3)

The life (continually) was the light of the men. The light ‘brings to’/gives light in the gloom, and the gloom has not taken it down/up. (John 1:4b-5)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

John the Baptist is a witness. It was his mission, and it was an important mission which John the Baptist shared with the namesake of him, the evangelist, (John) 21:24. Both had the mission to witness so that men would come to faith. (LarsOlov Eriksson "För att ni skall tro. Johannesevangeliet" p 22; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

The use (in John 1:6) of this word (Greek: ginomai) must be held to point a contrast between Jesus and John. Jesus "was" in the beginning; John "came into existence." ... But though John's place was subordinate, it was an important one. (Leon Morris "The Gospel according to John" p 79)

In the cemetery Mount Olives in Chicago (missionary Fredrik Franson) is sleeping to the morning of resurrection. In the gravestone the words: "En man sänd av Gud" (A man sent by God) are engraved, and at the bottom on the monument an open bible is carved with reference to John 1:6, where the above words are found. (Arvid Almquist "På konungens bud" p 28; Svenska Alliansmissionens missionskalender for 1957; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Peter Fjellstedt, Bo Giertz, Johannes Gossner, Martin Luther, Viktor Rydberg.


My own comments and speculations:

John the Baptist (or the Apostle John) was not the Light; neither Moses. But these men were dispatched away by God as witnesses to the Light. Moses can here be seen as a type of John.

In the NT the expression “a name to him” (onoma autô) only occurs in the johannine books. See also John 3:1 and Rev 6:8; 9:11. In the Apocrypha I have found this expression in Esther 2:5 and in Susanna v 1. In Esther 2:7 we find the expression “a name to her” (onoma autê), in Sir 22:14 “to him a name” (aufô onoma) and in Bel och Draken v 3 “to him a name” (hô onoma).


We have viewed (and view) and are witnesses, that the Father has dispatched (and dispatches) away the Son, a Saviour of the adornment/’adorned world’. (1 John 4:14)

The one believing into the Son of God has the evidence in himself. The one not believing (in) God has made (and makes) Him a liar, because he has not (and does not) believe into the evidence, which * (א,*א) is (and has been) a witness on account of His Son. (1 John 5:10)


Greek words:

apostellô (dispatch away) (in the NT + examples in the OT) Ex 23:20; Is 6:8; Mal 3:1; Judith 11:16; Sir 34:6; Matt 11:10; Mark 3:14; Luke 11:49; John 1:6; Acts 26:17; 1 John 4:14 – Gen 30:25; 31:4; 41:8,14; 45:5,7; 46:28; Ex 9:27; 15:10; 2 Sam 11:5; 2 Kings 14:19; 17:25; 2 Chron 7:13; Ps 105:20; 147:18; Jer 25:27; Dan 4:10(13),20(23); Tobit 3:17; Judith 11:7; 16:14; 1 Macc 15:1; 16:18; 2 Macc 11:6; 15:22-23; Sir 15:9; Matt 2:16; 8:31; 10:5,16,40; 13:41; 14:35; 15:24; 20:2; 21:1,3,34,36-37; 22:3-4,16; 23:34,37; 24:31; 27:19; Mark 1:2; 3:31; 4:29; 5:10; 6:7,17,27; 8:26; 9:37; 11:1,3; 12:2-6,13; 13:27; 14:13; Luke 1:19,26; 4:18,43; 7:3,20,27; 9:2,48,52; 10:1,3,16; 13:34; 14:17,32; 19:14,29,32; 20:10,20; 22:8,35; 24:49. John 1:19,24; 3:17,28,34; 4:38; 5:33,36,38; 6:29,57; 7:29,32; 8:42; 9:7; 10:36; 11:3,42; 17:3,8,18,21,23,25; 18:24; 20:21. Acts 3:20,26; 5:21; 7:14,34-35; 8:14; 9:17,38; 10:8,17,20,36; 11:11,13,30; 13:15; 15:27,33; 16:35-36; 19:22; 28:28; Rom 10:15; 1 Cor 1:17; 2 Cor 12:17; 2 Tim 4:12; Heb 1:14; 1 Pet 1:12; 1 John 4:9-10; Rev 1:1; 5:6; 22:6.

martyreô/martyromai (be a witness) (in the NT + examples in the OT) Matt 23:31; John 1:7-8; Acts 23:11; 1 John 4:14; 5:10 – Gen 4:4; 31:46; Judith 7:28; 1 Macc 2:37,56; Susanna v 41; Luke 4:22; John 1:15,32,34; 2:25; 3:11,26,28,32; 4:39,44; 5:31-33,36-37,39; 7:7; 8:13-14,18; 10:25; 12:17; 13:21; 15:26-27; 18:23,37; 19:35; 21:24; Acts 6:3; 10:22,43; 13:22; 14:3; 15:8; 16:2; 20:26; 22:5,12; 26:5,22; Rom 3:21; 10:2; 1 Cor 15:15; 2 Cor 8:3; Gal 4:15; 5:3; Eph 4:17; Col 4:13; 1 Thess 2:12; 1 Tim 5:10; 6:13; Heb 7:8,17; 10:15; 11:2,4-5,39; 1 John 1:2; 5:6-7,9; 3 John v 3,6,12; Rev 1:2; 22:16,18,20. Concerning “martyreô ... martyria” (be a witness ... evidence), see John 3:11,32; 5:31-32,36; 8:13-14; 19:35; 21:24; 1 John 5:9,10; 3 John 1:12; Rev 1:2. In the NT this expression only occurs in the johannine books.

martyria (evidence) (in the NT + examples in the OT) Ps 119:129; Luke 22:71; John 1:7; 1 John 5:10 – Gen 31:47; Sir 31:23-24; Mark 14:55-56,59; John 1:19; 3:11,32-33; 4:42(א*); 5:31-32,34,36; 8:13-14,17; 19:35; 21:24; Acts 22:18; 1 Tim 3:7; Tit 1:13; 1 John 5:9,11; 3 John v 12; Rev 1:2,9; 6:9; 11:7; 12:11,17; 19:10; 20:4. Concerning “martyreô ... martyria” (be a witness ... evidence), see John 3:11,32; 5:31-32,36; 8:13-14; 19:35; 21:24; 1 John 5:9,10; 3 John v 12; Rev 1:2. In the NT this expression only occurs in the johannine books.

onoma (name) (in the Synoptics, John, the Acts, 1-3 John, Rev + examples in the Apocrypha) Luke 1:63; John 1:6 – Esther 2:5,7; 4:17h(C10); 8:8; Tobit 1:9; 3:11,15; 5:12; 6:11; 8:5; 11:14; 12:6; 13:11(13),18; 14:9; Judith 9:8; 16:1; 1 Macc 2:51; 3:26; 4:33; 5:57,63; 6:17,44; 7:37; 8:1; 14:10; 2 Macc 8:4,15; 12:13; Wisdom of Solomon 2:4; 10:20; 14:21; Sir 6:22; 15:6; 17:10; 22:14; 36:11(14); 37:26; 39:2,9,15,35; 40:19; 41:11-13; 43:8; 44:8,14; 45:15; 46:1,12; 47:10,13,16,18; 50:20; 51:1,12; Baruch 2:11,15,26,32; 3:5,7; 4:30; 5:4; Susanna v 1-2,45; The Prayer of Azariah v 3,11,20; The Song of Praise of the Three Men v 29; Bel and the Dragon v 3; The Prayer of Manasseh v 3. Matt 1:21,23,25; 6:9; 7:22; 10:2,22,41-42; 12:21; 18:5,20; 19:29; 21:9; 23:39; 24:5,9; 27:32; 28:19; Mark 3:16-17; 5:9,22; 6:14; 9:37-39,41; 11:9; 13:6,13; 14:32; Luke 1:5,13,26-27,31,49,59,61; 2:21,25; 5:27; 6:22; 8:30,41; 9:48-49; 10:17,20,38; 11:2; 13:35; 16:20; 19:2,38; 21:8,12,17; 23:50; 24:13,18,47; John 1:12; 2:23; 3:1,18; 5:43; 10:3,25; 12:13,28; 14:13-14,26; 15:16,21; 16:23-24,26; 17:6,11-12,26; 18:10; 20:31. Acts 1:15; 2:21,38; 3:6,16; 4:7,10,12,17-18,30; 5:1,28,34,40-41; 8:9,12,16; 9:10-12,14-16,21,27,28(29),33,36; 10:1,43,48; 11:28; 12:13; 13:6,8; 15:14,17,26; 16:1,14,18; 17:34; 18:2,7,15,24; 19:5,13,17,24; 20:9; 21:10,23; 22:16; 26:9; 27:1; 28:7; 1 John 2:12; 3:23; 5:13; 3 John v 7,14(15); Rev 2:3,13,17; 3:1,4-5,8,12; 6:8; 8:11; 9:11; 11:13,18; 13:1,6,8,17; 14:1,11; 15:2,4; 16:9; 17:3,5,8; 19:12-13,16; 21:12,14; 22:4.

pisteuô (believe) (in the Synoptics, the Acts; 1-3 John; Rev + examples in the OT) Gen 15:6; Ex 4:1,31; Judith 14:10; Matt 21:25; Mark 15:32; John 1:7; Acts 19:4; 1 John 5:10 - Gen 42:20; Ex 4:5; Num 20:12; 1 Sam 27:12; 1 Kings 10:7; 2 Chron 9:6; 32:15; Esther 8:12e(E5); Job 9:16; 15:22,31; 39:12(15); Ps 78:22; 106:24; 116:10; Prov 14:15; Is 7:9; Jer 12:6; 47:14; Lam 4:12; Hab 1:5; Tobit 2:14; 5:2; 10:7(8); 14:4; 1 Macc 2:59; 7:7; 8:16; 10:46; 2 Macc 3:12,22; 12:25; Wisdom of Solomon 12:2; 14:5; 16:26; 18:6; Sir 2:6,8,13; 11:21; 12:10; 13:11; 19:15; 32:21,23-24; 36:26(28); 40:25; Susanna v 41; Matt 8:13; 9:28; 18:6; 21:22,32; 24:23,26; 27:42; Mark 1:15; 5:36; 9:23-24,42; 11:23-24,31; 13:21; Luke 1:20,45; 8:12-13,50; 16:11; 20:5; 22:67; 24:25. Acts 2:44; 4:4,32; 5:14; 8:12-13; 9:26,42; 10:43; 11:17,21; 13:12,39,41,48; 14:1,23; 15:5,7,11; 16:31,34; 17:12,34; 18:8,27; 19:2,18; 21:20,25; 22:19; 24:14; 26:27; 27:25; 1 John 3:23; 4:1,16; 5:1,5,13. Concerning the expression “pisteuô eis” (believe into), see My own comments and speculations to John 1:12-13.


Additional studies:

Ps 119:2-168; Mal 4:5; Tobit 12:14; 2 Macc 3:36; Susanna v 21,43,49,61; Matt 3:1; 11:14; 17:10-11; 21:27; Mark 1:4; 9:3,42; 11:30,33; Luke 1:17; 20:4; John 1:12,20; 3:26; 5:35; 10:3; Rev 17:3; 21:23-24.


John Ashton "The Transformation of Wisdom. A Study of the Prologue of John's Gospel"; New Testament Studies 32 (1986): 161-186.

Mary Coloe "The Structure of the Johannine Prologue and Genesis 1"; Australian Biblical Review 45 (1997): 40-55.

J.C. Hindley "Witness in the Fourth Gospel"; Scottish Journal of Theology 18 (1965): 319 -.

James F. McGrath "Prologue as Legitimation: Christological Controversy and the Interpretation of John 1:1-18"; Irish Biblical Studies 19.3 (1997): 98-120.

Jerome Murphy-O'Connor "John the Baptist and Jesus. History and Hypothesis."; New Testament Studies 36 (1990): 359-374.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-01-15; 2009-10-20; 2012-10-23; 2014-02-26; concluded version 2017-08-27)

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1:9 It (continually) was the true light, which gives light to every man coming into the adornment/'adorned world'.

Word for word (13 words in the Greek text): (It)-(continually)-was the light the true, which gives-light every man coming into the adornment.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

And God beheld all the things as many as He had made, and behold, (they were) exceedingly fine. And it became evening, and it became early in the day, a sixth day. And the heaven and the earth and every/all their adornment were brought to a consummation. (Gen 1:31 - 2:1, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Abram:) "Count up the stars ... In this way your seed will be." And Abram believed (in) God. And it was counted to him into righteousness. (Gen 15:5b-6, Greek OT)

The Lord came by the side of before the face (of Moses) and called: "The Lord God, compassionate and merciful, long-suffering and much merciful and true." (Ex 34:6, Greek OT)

(Bezalel) made the gold lampstand, which gives light. (Ex 37:17a, Greek OT 38:13)

(Balaam said:) "I shall show him and/but by no means now. I call him happy, and/but he does not draw near. A constellation shall stick up out of Jacob, and a man shall stand up out of Israel." (Num 24:17a, Greek OT)

(David said to the Lord:) " ... You are God, and Your sayings will be true." (2 Sam 7:28a, Greek OT)

(A priest) (continually) was giving (the Samaritans) light, how they might fear the Lord. (2 Kings 17:28b, Greek OT)

(Nehemiah said to the Lord: “You had led Israel) in a pillar of fire, having shown them the way (by) the night to give them light (over) the way, in which they will go in it.” (Neh 9:12b, Greek OT, S)

(David said:) “The heavens describe (the) glory of God, but/and the firmament brings a message (about) a making/work of His hands.” (Ps 19:1 eller 19:2, Greek OT)

(David said:) “The commandment of the Lord … (gives) eyes light. … The judicial verdicts of the Lord are true. ...” (Ps 19:8b,9b or 19:9b,10b, Greek OT)

(David said:) “The Lord (is) my enlightening.” (Ps 27:1a, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said to the Lord:) “Your evidences are wondrous. … The manifestation of Your sayings will light.” (Ps 119:129a,130a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Israel:) "It is great to you 'to yourself be'/'that you are' called My boy/servant to cause the tribes of Jacob to stand and to turn the asunderspread sowing of Israel next to (Me). Behold, I have put/set (and put/set) you into a covenant of descent, into a light of nations 'to be you'/'that you are' into a saving till 'a last'/'an end' of the earth." (Is 49:6, Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) “Give light, give light Jerusalem, for your light arrives, and the glory of the Lord sticks (and has stuck) up against you. Behold, darkness and dusk will veil earth against nations. But the Lord will ‘bring to’/give light against you, and His glory will be beheld against you.” (Is 60:1-2, Greek OT)

(The Lord said: “The slaves with the new name) ... will bless God, the True One.” (Is 65:16a, Greek OT)

(Tobit said to the Lord:) “Your many judgments (are) … true.” (Tobit 3:5a)

(The king soiled ... the temple) in/on Gerizim ‘to name towards (the) brilliant one’/’and named it to Zeus’, (the one) of hospitality. (2 Macc 6:2a)

(Solomon said: “Wisdom) is more comely than sun and (has) a putting/placing over ‘every of’/all constellations.” (Wisdom of Solomon 7:29a)

(Solomon said:) “Vain all men ... (who) out of the beholding of good things were not stable/able to know the One being and giving heed to the works did not gain additional knowledge of the Artist, however/but adopted as a law (that) ... a circle of stars ... or luminaries of heaven (were) Prytans/rulers (and) gods of an adornment/’adorned world’. If, indeed ‘amusing themselves’/’being enchanted’ by the embellishmen of (these things), they ‘took from below’/accepted these gods, (then they should) had had knowledge how much better the Master is (than) these, for the ‘leader of the origin’/originator of the beauty created them.” (Wisdom of Solomon 13:1-3)

(Solomon said: “With) empty glory of men death came into, into the adornment/’adorned world’.” (Wisdom of Solomon 14:14a א*)

(Solomon said:) “The whole adornment/’adorned world’ was shone down/upon (with) a shining light.” (Wisdom of Solomon 17:19 or 17:20)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “Put (wisdom) under your shoulder/’upper arm’ and bear it. And you may not be indignant at her bands. … For upon her it/there is a golden adornment.” (Sir 6:25,30a)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said: “The Lord) has adorned the great things of His wisdom, as/which is before the age and into the (coming) age.” (Sir 42:21a)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “A beauty of heaven (consists of) a glory of constellations, a world giving light in highest things of the Lord.” (Sir 43:9)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said: “The Lord) gave/admitted (Moses)... to give Israel light in His law.” (Sir 45:17)

(Manasseh said:) “Lord All-powerful ... He having made the heaven and the earth together with every/all their adornment.” (The Prayer of Manasseh v 1-2)


The Latter Revelation:

(Soothsayers from upstickings/east said:) “Where is the One having been brought forth, a King of the Jews? For we have beheld His star.” (Matt 2:2a)

(What was spoken through the prophet Isaiah might be completed, saying:) "... The people being seated in darkness beheld a great light. And to the ones being seated in a district and a shadow of death, to them a light stuck up." (Matt 4:16 – cf. Is 9:2)

(The prophet said:) “I will open my mouth in/with parables. I will belch/speak the things having been (and being) hidden from a foundation of an adornment/’adorned world’.” (Matt 13:35b)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “The field is the adornment/’adorned world’.” (Matt 13:38a)

(Jesus said to the twelve:) “You know that the leaders of the nations are lords downwards/over them, and the great ones have (judicial) authority downwards/over them. In this way it will not be in/among you, however/but the one in/among you who - if according to the circumstances – may want to become great, he will be your servant.” (Matt 20:25b-26)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Then it will be a great oppression, such as it has not become (א,* א) from a beginning of an adornment/’adorned world’ till the now, nor not/certainly not, may become.” (Matt 24:21)

(The Son of the Man will say:) "Come here, the (men) having been (and being) blessed of My Father, inherit the kingdom having been (and being) made ready for you from a foundation of an adornment/’adorned world’." (Matt 25:34b)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) ”Amen I say to you, whereat – if according to the circumstances – this good little message may be proclaimed in the whole adornment/’adorned world’, what this (woman) has made/done will also be talked of into/in a remembrance of her.” (Matt 26:13)

(Simeon said: "My eyes have beheld) a light into a revelation of nations and a glory of Your people Israel." (Luke 2:32)

(Jesus said to the crowd:) "If so your whole body (is) bright, having not any dark part, it will be wholly bright, as when the lamp – according to the circumstances – may give you light (with) the ray of light." (Luke 11:36)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) ”If you so have not become faithful in/’by means of’ the unrighteous mammon, will any one believe/entrust the true thing (by means of) you?” (Luke 16:11)

(Jesus is) near Jerusalem, and it seems to (the disciples), that the kingdom of God immediately is about to light up. (Luke 19:11b)

(The crowds) (continually) called Barnabas ‘(the) brilliant one’/Zeus. (Acts 14:12a)

(Paul, the apostle of the nations, said:) "I beheld ‘according to’/downwards the way a light from heaven, over/’more than’ the lustre of the sun, having shone round about me and the ones going together with me." ... But/and (he) spoke: "Who are You, Lord? But/and the Lord spoke: "I am Jesus whom you pursue." (Acts 26:13b,15)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

In (the Saying) is (א,*א) life, and the life (continually) was the light of the men. (John 1:4)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 - about 1500

There is an interesting (rabbinic) parallel to the present passage, namely, "Thou givest light ... to all who enter into the world" (Lev. Rab. 31.6; Soncino edn. p. 401). Again, the Law is said to have been given "to lighten every man" (Test. Lev. 14:4). (Leon Morris "The Gospel according to John" p 83)

The word "kosmos" in the meaning of "the world" is not at all found in the Septuaginta (Greek OT). Against it kosmos is used 10 times to designate adornments and decorations and five times ... for the host of heaven or the host of stars. (Studiebibeln V:586; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

“enlightens every man” Not that every man is redeemed automatically, for redemption comes through faith in the Savior (1:12). But this light is available to all men. (C.C. Ryrie "The Ryrie Study Bible" p 1600)

We do well to remember that the world is the garment of the living God. It is told that once, as they sailed in the Mediterranean, Napoleon's suite were discussing God. In the talk they eliminated him altogether. Napoleon had been silent but now he lifted his hand and pointed to the sea and the sky, “Gentlemen,” he said, ‘who made all this?” (William Barclay “The Acts of the Apostles” p 109 commenting Acts 14:8-18)

Such a delight and such a joy and song and play, and all these things the shepherd saw in the dark night, where before then he had not been able to perceive anything. He was so joyful that his eyes had been opened, that he knelt down thanking God. But when grandmother had come so long, she sighed saying: "But what that shepherd saw, we could also see, for the angels fly under heaven every Christmas night, if we only were able to discern them." And grandmother so laid her hand upon my head saying: "This you shall remember, for it is as true as I see you and you see me. It does not depend on light and on lamps, and it does not attach importance to moon or sun, but what is necessary, this is that we own such eyes, which are able to see the glory of God. (Selma Lagerlöf "Den heliga natten" p 9-10; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


about 1500 and time before

When we hear that “That was the true light”, let us seek to discover nothing more. (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers XIV:28)

There appeared another beside (the Father). But when I say “another”, I do not mean that there are two Gods, but that it is only as light of light, or as water from a fountain, or as a ray from the sun. (Hippolytus, The Ante-Nicene Fathers V:227)

Certain men have set the truth aside. ... They also overthrow the faith of many, by drawing them away, under a pretence of (superior) knowledge, from Him who founded and adorned the universe; as if, forsooth, they had something more excellent and sublime to reveal, than that God who created the heaven and the earth, and all things that are therein. (Irenaeus, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol I, p 315)

In Rabbinic commentation on Messianic times ... the whole past was symbolic, and typical of the future – the Old Testament the glass, through which the universal blessings of the latter days were seen. ... It would seem as if every event were regarded as prophetic, and every prophecy, whether by fact, or by word (prediction), as a light to cast its sheen on the future ... till the darkness of (Israel's) present night was lit up by a hundred constellations kindling in the sky overhead. (Alfred Edersheim "The Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah Part I" p 162-163)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Alf Ahlberg, Ann-Charlotte Alverfors, Augustinus, Bo Brander, Barthold Carlson, Anna-Maria Claesson, Bernhard of Clairvaux, Henry Daniel-Rops, Runar Eldebo, Peter Fjellstedt, Johann Wolfgang Goethe, Erik Lindorm, Martin Luther, Vilhelm Moberg, Petrus M. Nicander, Anders Nohrborg, Efraim Palmqvist, Harald Rasmussen, Bo Setterlind, Sven Stolpe, Gösta Sandberg, John Stott, August Strindberg, Einar Thomassen, P. Waldenström, Olof von Dalin.


My own comments and speculations:

The world is the beautiful piece of jewellery of God. This is not God himself, nor the same thing as the kingdom of God. But it is created by a good God and it is very fine (Gen 1:31, Greek OT).

In Sir 43:19 we have two words (kosmos and fôtizô) of the new Greek words in John 1:9. When we read the Gospel of John in the light of the OT, Sir 43:9 is a possible background to the understanding of the word “kosmos” in the johannine books. The world tries to adorn itself as the constellations, but the true star is the One having descended out of heaven to save the world trying to set itself in the place of God. Zeus was called the brillant one (2 Macc 6:2; Acts 14:12), but Jesus is the true Light Who outshines everything else.

The outside, visible adornment of earth and heaven can be compared with the inside, invisible adornment of a spirit. (1 Pet 3:3-4). Cf. also with Gen 2:1 which distinctly separates the adornment from the heaven and the earth.

Concerning “world”, see also the Greek word “oikoumenê” - (inhabited) world (Rev 3.10b).


Paul said to the believers in Corinth: “(The Lord) will give light to the hidden things of the darkness and make the counsels of the hearts visible. … “ (1 Cor 4:5b)

(Jesus Christ) is a propitiation on account of our misses (of the mark of God), but not on account of ours only, however/but and/also on account of the whole adornment/’adorned world’. (1 John 2:2)


Greek words:

alêthinos (true) (in the NT + examples in the OT) Ex 34:6; 2 Sam 7:28; Ps 19:9(10); Is 65:16; Tobit 3:5; Luke 16:11; John 1:9 – Num 14:18; 1 Kings 10:6; 2 Chron 9:5; Job 1:1; Is 38:3; 59:4; Dan 6:13; Tobit 3:2(BA); The Prayer of Azariah v 4,8; John 4:23,37; 6:32; 15:1; 17:3; 19:35; 1 Thess 1:9; Heb 8:2; 9:24; 10:22; 1 John 2:8; 5:20; Rev 3:7,14; 6:10; 15:3; 16:7; 19:2,9,11; 21:5; 22:6.

fôtizô (give light) (i NT + examples in the OT) Ex 37:17; 2 Kings 17:28; Neh 9:12; Ps 19:8(9); 119:130; Is 60:1; Sir 43:9; 45:17; Luke 11:36; John 1:9; 1 Cor 4:5 - Ex 38:13; 2 Kings 17:27; Ezra 9:8; Neh 9:19; Ps 18:28(29); 76:4(5); Wisdom of Solomon 17:5; Sir 24:32; 34:17(20); 42:16; 50:7; Baruch 1:12; Epistle of Jeremiah v 66; Eph 1:18; 3:9; 2 Tim 1:10; Heb 6:4; 10:32; Rev 18:1; 21:23; 22:5.

kosmos (adornment) (in the Synoptics, John, the Acts, 1-3 John, Rev + examples in the OT) Wisdom of Solomon 13:2; 14:14; 17:19(20); Sir 6:30; 43:9; The Prayer of Manasseh v 2; Matt 13:35,38; 24:21; 26:13; John 1:9; 1 John 2:2 - Judith 1:14; 10:4; 12:15; 1 Macc 2:11; 2 Macc 3:12; 7:9,23; 8:18; 12:15; 13:14; Wisdom of Solomon 1:14; 2:24; 5:20; 6:24; 7:17; 9:9; 11:17,22; 14:6; 16:17; 18:24; Sir 21:21; 32:5; 50:19. Matt 4:8; 5:14; 16:26; 18:7; 25:34; Mark 8:36; 14:9; Luke 9:25; 11:50; 12:30; John 1:10,29; 3:16-17,19; 4:42; 6:14,33,51; 7:4,7; 8:12,23,26; 9:5,39; 10:36; 11:9,27; 12:19,25,31,46-47; 13:1; 14:17,19,22,27,30-31; 15:18-19; 16:8,11,20-21,28,33; 17:5-6,9,11,13-16,18,21,23-25; 18:20,36-37. Acts 17:24; Rom 1:8,20; 3:6,19; 4:13; 5:12-13; 11:12,15; 1 Cor 1:20-21,27-28; 2:12; 3:19,22; 4:9,13; 5:10; 6:2; 7:31,33-34; 8:4; 11:32; 14:10; 2 Cor 1:12; 5:19; 7:10; Gal 4:3; 6:14; Eph 1:4; 2:2,12; Phil 2:15; Col 1:6; 2:8,20; 1 Tim 1:15; 3:16; 6:7; Heb 4:3; 9:26; 10:5; 11:7,38; Jas 1:27; 2:5; 3:6; 4:4; 1 Pet 1:20; 3:3; 5:9; 2 Pet 1:4; 2:5,20; 3:6; 1 John 2:15-17; 3:1,13,17; 4:1,3-5,9,14,17; 5:4-5,19; 2 John v 7; Rev 11:15; 13:8; 17:8.


Additional studies:

Ps 89:14(15); Is 42:6; Matt 17:2; John 1:10,29; 3:17,19-20; 4:42; 6:14,33,51; 7:7; 8:12,23; 9:5,39; 10:36; 11:27; 12:25,31,35,46-47; 13:1; 14:17; 16:21; 17:9; Rev 18:1; 21:23-24.


John Ashton "The Transformation of Wisdom. A Study of the Prologue of John's Gospel"; New Testament Studies 32 (1986): 161-186.

Peder Borgen "Logos var det sanne lys. Momenter till tolkning av Johannesprologen"; Svensk Exegetisk Årsbok 35 (1970): 79-95.

Mary Coloe "The Structure of the Johannine Prologue and Genesis 1"; Australian Biblical Review 45 (1997): 40-55.

Simon Martin "Exegesis 12. True Light in the World, John 1:1-18."; Foundations 27 (Autumn 1991): 2-7.

James F. McGrath "Prologue as Legitimation: Christological Controversy and the Interpretation of John 1:1-18"; Irish Biblical Studies 19.3 (1997): 98-120.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-01-16; 2009-10-30; 2012-11-07; 2014-02-27, concluding version 2017-08-28)

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1:10 He (continually) was in the adornment/’adorned world’, and the adornment/’adorned world’ had become through Him, and the adornment/’adorned world’ had not knowledge of Him.

Word for word (16 words in the Greek text): in the adornment he-was-(continually), and the adornment through him became, and the adornment him not had-knowledge-of.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(God said to the man:) "From the wood of the thing to have knowledge of fine and evil, from it you shall not eat. But/and (in) which day you – according to the circumstances – may eat from it, you shall die (in) death." (Gen 2:17, Greek OT)

Word for word (16 words in the Greek text): in the adornment he-was-(continually), and the adornment through him became, and the adornment him not had-knowledge-of.

The serpent spoke to the woman: "You will not die (in) death! For God has known that in the day you – according to the circumstances – may eat from (the wood of the thing to know/'have knowledge of') your eyes will be opened throughout, and you will be as gods, having knowledge of fine and evil." (Gen 3:4-5, Greek OT)

Moses spoke to Aaron: “What has this people made/done to you, because you have led a great miss (of the mark of God) against, against them?” ... And Moses spoke towards the people: “You have missed (and miss) (the mark of God) a great miss (of the mark of God).” ... And (Moses) spoke: " ... Lord, this people has missed (and misses) (the mark of God) a great miss (of the mark of God), and they have made to themselves golden gods." (Ex 32:21,30b-31, Greek OT)

(Balaam said:) "I shall show him and/but by no means now. I call him happy, and/but he does not draw near. A constellation shall stick up out of Jacob, and a man shall stand up out of Israel." (Num 24:17a, Greek OT)

Carrying out His adornment/’adorned world’ ‘according to’/after number (the Lord) will call every/all on/’for the sake of’ name. From/’owing to’ much glory and in/with a power of stability not anyone is in obscurity for You. (Is 40:26b, Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) "Hear a saying of the Lord, sons of Israel, for the reason that (it is) a judgment to the Lord towards the ones dwelling (on) the earth, for the reason that (there is) not truth, nor mercy, nor additional knowledge of God upon the earth." (Hos 4:1, Greek OT)

(Judith said:) ”We have not gained knowledge of ‘the other’/another god more than (the Lord), from Whom we hope.” (Judith 8:20a)

(Judas said to the males who were with him:) ”All the nations will have knowledge, because (the Lord) is the One redeeming Israel.” (1 Macc 4:11 S*)

(The Jews said to the Lord:) “Let the nations gain knowledge that You are our God.” (2 Macc 1:27b)

(Solomon said: “The wicked say:) ‘We may lie in ambush for the righteous ... (for) he promises/claims have knowledge of God and names himself “boy/slave of the Lord”.’” (Wisdom of Solomon 2:12a,13a)

(Solomon said to the Lord:) “In company with You (is) the wisdom knowing your works and being by the side of (You), when You make the adornment/’adorned world’ … Dispatch her out, out of holy heavens and send her from the throne of Your glory, in order that being together (with me) by the side of me, she may bother, and I may gain knowledge of what is well-pleasing by the side of You.” (Wisdom of Solomon 9:9a,10)

(Solomon said:) “What man will gain knowledge of a counsel of God?” (Wisdom of Solomon 9:13a)

(Baruch said to the Lord:) "'Every the'/'the whole' earth may gain knowledge that You (are) the Lord, our God." (Baruch 2:15a)

(Baruch said: “The sons of Hagar) had not knowledge of the way of the wisdom. … “ (Baruch 3:23b)

(Azariah said to the Lord: “Let our enemies) gain knowledge that You alone are the Lord God.” (The Prayer of Azariah v 22a)


The Latter Revelation:

(Soothsayers from upstickings/east said:) “Where is the One having been brought forth, a King of the Jews? For we have beheld His star.” (Matt 2:2a)

(Jesus said:) "No one has knowledge of who the Son is ‘if not’/except the Father and who the Father is ‘if not’/except the Son and to the one whom the Son – if according to the circumstances – may wish to reveal (it)." (Luke 10:22b)

(Jesus said to the lawyers:) "Woe to you, the lawyers, because you have lifted/’taken away’ the key of/to the knowledge; you have not come into/in yourselves and you have hindered the ones having come into/in." (Luke 11:52)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

All things became through (the Saying), and separate from It nothing (P66, א*) became that has become (and becomes). (John 1:3)

(The light) (continually) was the true light, which gives light to every man coming into the adornment/'adorned world'. (John 1:9)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

The earthly subjects for rejoicing often are fires of festivals, which go out as certainly as the most magnificent fireworks. Have you then no other light to give you light, it becomes at last dark and cold in your life. (Anna Söderblom "Ett år - ord för varje dag samlade ur Nathan Söderbloms skrifter" p 289; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Bo Bergman, Nils Ferlin, Bo Frid, Irenaeus, Lars Levi Laestadius, Eeva Kilpi, Vilhelm Moberg, Bengt Pleijel, Viktor Rydberg, Gösta Sandberg, Bo Setterlind, Jesper Svartvik.


My own comments and speculations:

In order to separate the two Greek verbs “ginôskô” and “oida” I translate by "gain/have knowledge" resp. "know".

In the perspective of restoration we will see how the old tree of knowledge (Greek OT: wood of the thing to know/'have knowledge of') to death is changed to a tree of knowledge to life. See My own comments and speculations to John 1:48.

"had not knowledge of Him" The Greek word "auton" is maculine and has been translated by "Him". Alternatively one could very well translate by "It" and let this word refer back to "the Saying".


Paul said to the believers in Rome: “(Men keeping down the truth in unrighteousness) exchanged the truth of God in/for the lie and showed reverence to and served the creation ‘to the side of’/’in comparison with’ the One having created (it).” (Rom 1:25a)

Paul said to the believers in Corinth: “However, for us (there is) one God, the Father, out of whom all the things (are), and we into Him; and one Lord, Jesus Christ, through whom all the things (are), and we through Him. However, the knowledge (is) not in all.” (1 Cor 8:6-7a)

Paul said to Timothy: "(God our Saviour) wants all men to be saved and come into an additional knowledge of truth." (1 Tim 2:4)

I write to you, fathers, because you have gained (and gain) knowledge of 'the One'/Him from a beginning. I write to you, youths, because you have conquered (and conquer) the evil (thing) (א,*א). (1 John 2:13)

Behold of what nature the Father has given (and gives) you a welcome, in order that you may be called children of God, (which) you and/also are. Because of this the adornment/’adorned world’ has not knowledge of you (א*), because it had not knowledge of Him. (1 John 3:1)

'Every the'/everyone staying in Him does not miss (the mark of God). Every/everyone missing (the mark of God) has not beheld (and does not behold) Him, nor He has (and has not had) knowledge of Him. (1 John 3.6)

We are out of God. The one having knowledge of God hears us. The one who is not out of God does not hear us. Out of this we have knowledge of the spirit of the truth and the spirit of the going astray. (1 John 4:6)

In this we have knowledge, that we welcome the children of God, when we – according to the circumstances – may welcome God and keep (א,*א) His commandments. (1 John 5:2)

We know that we are out of God and the whole adornment/’adorned world’ lies in (the power of) the evil one. (1 John 5:19)


Greek words:

ginôskô (gain/have knowledge of) (in John, 1-3 John, Rev + examples in the Apocrypha) Judith 8:20; 1 Macc 4:11; 2 Macc 1:27; Wisdom of Solomon 9:10,13; Baruch 2:15; 3:23; The Prayer of Azariah v 22; John 1:10; 1 John 2:13; 3:1,6; 4:6; 5:2 – Esther 4:11,17d(C5),17r(C23); Tobit 3:14; 5:2,12,14; 6:13,16; 7:4; 8:12; 9:3-4; 11:2; 14:4; Judith 8:29; 1 Macc 1:5; 2:39; 3:11; 6:3,13; 7:3,30,42; 8:10; 9:32-34,60,63; 10:80; 12:22,29; 2 Macc 6:21; 7:28; 14:32; 15:21; Wisdom of Solomon 2:1,19,22; 4:1; 7:17,21; 8:21; 10:5,12; 11:9,16; 16:22; Sir 1:6; 4:24; 8:18; 11:28; 12:1,11; 16:17; 23:20; 26:9; 32:8; 34:9; 37:8; 38:5; Baruch 2:30; 3:9,20,31-32; 4:13; Epistle of Jeremiah v 22,50,64; Bel and the Dragon v 35; The Prayer of Manasseh v 12; John 1:48; 2:24-25; 3:10; 4:1,53; 5:6,42; 6:15,69; 7:17,26-27,49,51; 8:27-28,32,43,52,55; 10:6,14-15,27,38; 11:57; 12:9,16; 13:7,12,28,35; 14:7,9,17,20,31; 15:18; 16:3,19; 17:3,7-8,23,25; 19:4; 21:17; 1 John 2:3-5,14,18,29; 3:16,19-20,24; 4:2,7-8,13,16; 5:20; 2 John v 1; Rev 2:23-24; 3:3,9; 7:15(א*).


Additional studies:

Gen 1:3; Hos 6:3; Matt 11:27; Luke 1:77; John 3:19; 14:17; 17:25; Acts 1:7; 1 Cor 1:21; 2:8; Col 1:16; Heb 1:2; 2 Tim 1:10.


John Ashton "The Transformation of Wisdom. A Study of the Prologue of John's Gospel"; New Testament Studies 32 (1986): 161-186.

Mary Coloe "The Structure of the Johannine Prologue and Genesis 1"; Australian Biblical Review 45 (1997): 40-55.

James F. McGrath "Prologue as Legitimation: Christological Controversy and the Interpretation of John 1:1-18"; Irish Biblical Studies 19.3 (1997): 98-120.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-01-16; 2009-11-06; 2012-11-17; 2014-03-02; concluding version 2017-08-28)

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1:11 He came into the own things, and the own ones did not take Him to the side of (them).

Word for word (10 words in the Greek text): into the own-(things) he-came, and the own-(ones) him not took-to-the-side-of.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

Abram ... counted up the own ones, born in his house. (Gen 14:14a, Greek OT)

Abraham … took in company with himself to his side ... his son Isaac. (Gen 22:3a, Greek OT)

(Israel said to Joseph:) “I may dispatch you away towards (your brothers). But/and he spoke to him: “Behold I/me.” … (But his brothers said:) “Now come so here (and) we may kill him.” (Gen 37:13b,20a, Greek OT)

(A Hebrew man said to Moses:) "Who has ‘caused ... to stand’/set you down (as) a leader or ‘an administrator of justice’/’a judge’ upon/’with regard to’ us?" (Ex 2:14a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Israel:) "If you now – according to the circumstances – may hear My voice (in) a hearsay and watch/keep My covenant, you shall be to Me a people being around/asunder from all the nations, for ‘every the’/’the whole’ earth is Mine." (Ex 19:5, Greek OT)

Having come into, into the own things (Haman) called the friends and his woman. … (Esther 5:10, Greek OT)

(David said: “I became) a foreigner to the sons of my mother.” (Ps 69:8b alt 69:9b, Greek OT)

(The Lord) dispatched away His saying and healed (His people). (Ps 107:20a, Greek OT)

(The wife of Solomon said to her husband:) “I shall take you to the side of (me), I shall lead you into the house of my mother.” (Song of Solomon 8:2a)

(The Lord said about His people:) “This (is) the nation which did not heard the voice of the Lord, nor received education. The faith ‘left out’/disappeared out of their mouth.” (Jer 7:28b, Greek OT)

(The wicked said to Jeremiah:) "And/also your brothers and the house of your father, and/also these have ‘not adopted’/rejected you." (Jer 12:6a, Greek OT)

All the males speaking to Jeremiah saying/said: "False! The Lord has not dispatched you away towards us saying: 'You may not come into, into Egypt to inhabit there.'" (Jer 43:2b, Greek OT)

(The people in Egypt said to the prophet:) “We will not hear your saying, which you (in) the name of the Lord have talked towards us.” (Jer 44:16, Greek OT)

Holy ones of a highest one will take the kingdom to the side (them) and ‘keep ... down’/possess the kingdom till/’as long as’ the age and till/’as long as’ the age of the ages. (Dan 7:18, Greek OT)

(The enemies acted in such a way that they) many times be/were damaged by the own ones. … (2 Macc 12:22b)

(God said to Wisdom:) ”Pitch a tent in Jacob, and 'inherit entirely'/’have the inheritance’ in Israel.” (Sir 24:8b)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus) left/’set ... out’ afterwards from there. And having come into His fatherland (Galilee, Jesus) taught (the people) in their synagogue. ... And they ‘were caused to stumble’/’took offence’ in/at Him. But Jesus spoke to them: "A prophet is not unhonoured ‘if not’/except in the own (א,*א) fatherland and in his habitation." (Matt 13:53b-54a,57)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) ”I have not been dispatched away ‘if not’/except into the sheep, the ones having been (and being) perished of the house of Israel.” (Matt 15:24b)

Jesus says to (the priest leaders and the elders): “Did you nor at any time read in the writings: ‘A stone which the ones building rejected, this has become into a head/beginning of a corner, from the side of the Lord this became, and it is wondrous in our eyes?’” (Matt 21:42)

Having taken Jesus to the side of into the Praetorium the soldiers of the commander led together the whole cohort against Him. (Matt 27:27)

(Jesus' mother and brothers) came out to ‘get power (over)’/seize Him, for they (continually/repeatedly) said that/: "He has ‘stood out of Himself’/’lost His senses’." (Mark 3:21b)

(The disciples) took (Jesus) to the side of, as/because He (continually) was in the boat. And other boats were (continually) in company with Him. (Mark 4:36b)

Jesus (continually/repeatedly) said to (the people in the synagogue) that/: "A prophet is not unhonoured, ‘if not’/except in 'the fatherland of himself'/'his own (א*) fatherland' and in/among his relatives and in his habitation." (Mark 6:4)

(There are) many things which (the Jews) have taken to the side of (themselves) to get power (over them). … (Mark 7:4b)

(Jesus said to Peter, James, John and Andrew:) “Into all the nations, first (into) a people (א*), the good little message must be proclaimed.” (Mark 13:10)

(Mary) brought forth her first-born son, and she swaddled Him and caused Him to lean up/back in a manger, for the reason that there was (continually) not a place for them in the inn. (Luke 2:7)

(Jesus was ... the son) of Judas. (Luke 3:33b)

(When Jesus was near Jerusalem He said:) “The fellow-citizens (of the man of noble descent) (continually) hated him and dispatched away a delegation behind/after him saying: ‘We do not want this one to be king against/over us.’” (Luke 19:14)

(The people demanded Jesus) to be crucified. And their voices (continually) were entirely stable. And Pilate ‘judged on’/decided that their demand (should) become (granted). (Luke 23:23b-24)

(Stephen said to the Israelites: “On the mountain Sinai Moses) received living little sayings to give to you (P74, א,* א, B). To him our fathers did not want to become obedient however/but thrust/pushed (him) away and turned themselves in their hearts into Egypt.” (Acts 7:38b-39)

(Paul said to the Jews in Antioch:) “Already since you thrust/pushed away (the saying of God), you judge yourselves not worthy the agelong life. ... ” (Acts 13:46b)

Those returned into the own things. (Acts 21:6b)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

The most painful love perhaps is the unanswered, unseen, unused one. John begins the whole tale of life about Jesus by saying: "He came to what was his, and his own didn't receive him." Something of this almost every man can recognize: To run up with the heart full of confidence - and be met by indifference, chilliness or scorn. To not be seen and understood with what you really wanted - how clumsy it still was expressed. To not be comprehended with the offer, the effort you called out before an action, which perhaps appears natural and obvious for others, but which costs me all. (Ylva Eggehorn "Språk för en vuxen tro" p 26; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

"The cross, Richard", (Nanna Rosén said), "the true cross, it has never been and will never be becoming in the eyes of the world. He is our pioneer and prototype in everything - and also we will experience what he experienced; 'and he came to his own and his own ones did not receive him'." (Sven Lidman "Såsom genom eld" p 81; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask; the title = "As through fire")

(God) sent our Lord Jesus Christ to call in the first place Israel to Himself, and in the second place the Gentiles, after the unfaithfulness of the people of Israel. (Origen, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol IV, p 240)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Bo Brander, Ylva Eggehorn, Bo Giertz, Johannes Gossner, Lars Levi Laestadius, P. Waldenström.


My own comments and speculations:

Jesus belonged to the people of Israel and the tribe of Judas (cf. Matt 1:2; Luke 3:33-34). In the Gospel of John it is rather Jews than Israelites who do not take Jesus to themselves (cf. John 1:47). See also My own comments and speculations to John 19:14b-16a.


Paul said to the believers in Corinth: "None of the leaders of this age has (and has had) knowledge of (the wisdom of God), for if they had had knowledge, they had – according to the circumstances - not crucified the Lord of the glory.” (1 Cor 2:8)


Greek words:

ta idia (the own /things/) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Esther 5:10; John 1:11; Acts 21:6 - Esther 6:12; 2 Macc 9:20; 11:23,26,29; Mark 15:20(א,*א,A), John 10:3,4,12; 16:32; 19:27; 1 Thess 4:11.

hoi idioi (the own /ones/) (examples) Gen 14:14; 2 Macc 12:22; John 1:11 – John 13:1; Acts 4:23; 24:23; 1 Tim 5:8.

to idion (the own /thing/) (in the NT) – Luke 10:34; John 15:19; 1 Cor 6:18; 11:21; Gal 6:5; 2 Pet 2:22; Jude v 6.

paralambanô (take from/by/to the side of) (in the NT + examples in the OT) Gen 22:3; Song of Solomon 8:2, Dan 7:18; Matt 27:27; Mark 4:36; 7:4; John 1:11 - Gen 47:2; Num 23:27; Esther 5:1a/D2; Dan 6:1,28; Tobit 9:2; Judith 6:21; 1 Macc 3:37; 4:1; 5:23; 2 Macc 4:7; 5:5; 10:11; Matt 1:20,24; 2:13-14,20-21; 4:5,8; 12:45; 17:1; 18:16; 20:17; 24:40-41; 26:37; Mark 5:40; 9:2; 10:32; 14:33; Luke 9:10,28; 11:26; 17:34; 18:31; John 14:3; Acts 15:39; 16:33; 21:24,26,32; 23:18; 1 Cor 11:23; 15:1,3; Gal 1:9,12; Phil 4:9; Col 2:6; 4:17; 1 Thess 2:13; 4:1; 2 Thess 3:6; Heb 12:28.


Additional studies:

Deut 7:6; Ps 38:11(12); 147:15; Matt 1:3; 27:25-26; Mark 12:6-8; 15:14-15; Luke 12:13-15; John 5:43.


John Ashton "The Transformation of Wisdom. A Study of the Prologue of John's Gospel"; New Testament Studies 32 (1986): 161-186.

Mary Coloe "The Structure of the Johannine Prologue and Genesis 1"; Australian Biblical Review 45 (1997): 40-55.

James F. McGrath "Prologue as Legitimation: Christological Controversy and the Interpretation of John 1:1-18"; Irish Biblical Studies 19.3 (1997): 98-120.

John W. Pryor "Jesus and Israel in the Fourth Gospel - John 1:11"; Novum Testamentum 32 (1990): 201-218.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-01-16; 2009-11-16; 2012-11-29; 2014-03-02; concluding version 2017-08-28)

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1:12-13 But as many as took him, to them He gave (judicial) authority to become children of God, to the ones believing into His name, who were begotten not out of bloods/blood, nor out of a will of flesh, nor out of a will of a male, however/but out of God.

Word for word: 1:12 (16 words in the Greek text) as-many-as but took him, (he)-gave (to)-them (judicial)-authority children (of)-god (to)-become (to)-the believing-(ones) into the name his, 1:13 (16 words in the Greek text) who not out-of (of-)bloods nor out-of (of-)will (of)-flesh nor out-of (of)-will (of)-male however out-of (of)-god were-begotten.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

God made the man, ‘according to’/after an image of God He made him. (Gen 1:27a, Greek OT)

The woman beheld that the wood (of the thing to know/'have knowledge of') (is) fine into/’for the purpose of’ consumption and that (it is) pleasing to behold for the eyes, and that it is a seasonable hour of the thing to understand entirely, and having taken its fruit she ate. And she gave and/also to her male (being) in company with her, and he ate. (Gen 3:6, Greek OT)

Having beheld that the daughters of the men are fine, the sons of God took women to themselves from all whom they chose. And the Lord God spoke: "My Spirit may not/certainly not entirely stay in these men into the (coming) age, because ‘of to be them’/’they are’ flesh, but their days shall be a hundred and twenty years." ... The sons of God went into, towards the daughters of the men, and they begot to themselves. (Gen 6:2-4a, Greek OT)

(God said to Abraham:) "I spared you the thing to not miss (My mark) into Me. ..." (Gen 20:6b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Moses:) “You shall make (the mixture of the sweet spices to) a holy olive-oil ointment, an ointment oil ... . And it will be a holy olive-oil ointment. And out of it you shall anoint the tent of the testimony and (other things; see Ex 30:25-28) and you shall make them holy and it will be a holy of the holies. 'Every the'/everyone touching them will be made holy.” (Ex 30:25-29, Greek OT)

Moses dispatched away (the twelve) to entirely contemplate the earth/land Canaan, and he spoke towards them: "... Behold the earth/land, what it is! ... What (is) the earth/land, if (it is) fat or ‘being by the side of’/lean? If it is trees in it or not? Having ‘been patient’/adhered to (it), take from the fruits of the earth/land.” And the days (were) days of spring, forerunners of a grape/'bunch of grapes'. (Num 13:17a,18a,20 or 13:18a,19a,21, Greek OT)

(Moses said to the people of Israel:) "You are sons of the Lord your God." (Deut 14:1a, Greek OT)

(Moses said to Israel:) “This commandment which I to-day enjoin you is not of excessive bulk, nor (it is) far from you. It is not up in the heaven (so that you must) say: ‘Who will ascend into the heaven for us and take it to us? And having heard it we will make/do it.’” (Deut 30:11-12, Greek OT)

(Moses said about Israel:) “They missed (the mark of God) revileworthily/blameworthily, (and they are) not children to (God). ... (Deut 32:5b, Greek OT)

(Ahab, the king of Israel) 'took a woman'/married Jezebel, the daughter of Ethbaal, king of Sidonians, and he went and was slave to Baal and prostrated himself before him (to honour him). (1 Kings 16:31b, Greek OT)

And (the Shunammite) came into/in towards (Elisha). And Elisha spoke: "Take your son." … And she took her son and went out. (2 Kings 4:36b,37b, Greek OT)

(David said to the Lord:) ”Let the ones having knowledge of Your name hope against You.” (Ps 9:10a or 11a, Greek OT)

(David said: “The Lord) caused my flesh to sprout and out of my will I will confess out/frankly to Him.” (Ps 28:7b, Greek OT)

(Agur said:) “Who has ascended into the heaven and descended? Who has led winds together in a bosom? Who has turned together water in a garment? Who has got power over all the borders of the earth? What (is) a name to Him or what (is) a name to His children, in order that you may have knowledge?” (Prov 30:4, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to His boy:) “I will ... put against ... My blessings against your children. (Is 44:3, Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) "This is the name, which (the Lord) will call/give (His righteous Upsticking to David): 'The Lord Josedek' (Josedek = The Lord is righteous)." (Jer 23:6b, Greek OT)

The kingdom and the (judicial) authority and their magnificense and the beginning of all the kingdoms underneath the heaven (the judgment) gave to a holy people of a Highest One) to be kings (over) an agelong kingdom, and all (judicial) authorities will arrange themselves to Him and obey Him. (Dan 7:27, Greek OT)

(The man set/clothed in linen said:) “An able king ... will make/do according to his will.” (Dan 11:3b, Greek OT Theod)

(The Lord spoke to the sons of Israel: “You) will be called: 'Sons of a living God'.” (Hos 1:10b, Greek OT)

(Tobit said to his son Tobias: “Abraham, Isaac and Jacob) took women out of their brothers, and they were blessed in their children. …” (Tobit 4:12b, BA)

(The messenger said to Tobias: “You will) take a woman out of the house of your father. … “ (Tobit 6:16b, S)

(The foreign king Antiochus) gave (some of the sons of Israel) (judicial) authority to make the fundamental laws of the nations. (1 Macc 1:13b)

(Solomon said:) “The reflection of (righteous ones is) by the side of a highest one. Because of this they will take the royal palace of the comely appearance and the fine diadem out of a hand of the Lord. (Wisdom of Solomon 5:15b-16a)

(Solomon said:) "I am indeed, and/also I, a mortal man equal (with) altogether and earthborn from (the) first moulded parents/ancestors. And in a mother's belly/womb flesh was carved/formed. (During) a time of ten months I (came to being) in blood out of a seed of a male and of an enjoyment of a having come together (in) a sleep/night." (Wisdom of Solomon 7:1-2)

(Solomon said:) “Having reflecting in my heart that imortality is in a kinsfolk of wisdom ... and good fame in communion of/with its sayings, go/'I went' about seeking in what way I might take (wisdom) into myself.” (Wisdom of Solomon 8:17b,18b)

(Solomon said to the Lord:) “You have a (judicial) authority of life and death.” (Wisdom of Solomon 16:13a)

(Solomon said: “The Lord) heightened up glory of the ones ‘getting power over’/seizing (wisdom).” (Sir 1:19b)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “Believe (in God) and He will ‘take ... in stead’/’part with’ you. Straighten your ways and hope against Him.” (Sir 2:6)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “A generation of flesh and blood (may die). The (one generation) indeed comes to an end, but the other is begotten.” (Sir 14:18b)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “Flesh and blood will ponder (what is) evil.” (Sir 17:31b)

The Chaldeans took Jerusalem and set her on fire ... (Baruch 1:2b)

(The prophet said to Israel:) “Who has ascended into the heaven and taken (the wisdom) and precipitated it out of the clouds?” (Baruch 3:29)

All the ones ‘getting power over’/keeping (the book of the commands of God) (come) into life. ... Turn yourself next to (it), Jacob, and take upon/’hold of’ it. (Baruch 4:1b-2a)


The Latter Revelation:

Out of (Mary) was begotten Jesus, the One being said/called christ/anointed. (Matt 1:16b)

(A messenger of the Lord said to Joseph:) ”What having been begotten in (Mariam א,*א) is out of holy spirit.” (Matt 1:20b)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) ”Happy (are) the peacemakers, because they shall be called sons of God.” (Matt 5:9)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Pray you so in this way: ‘Our Father, the One in the heavens.’” (Matt 6:9a)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “The one who does not take his cross and follow behind Me is not worthy of Me.” (Matt 10:38)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “The one receiving a prophet into/’for the purpose of’ a name of a prophet will take (the) wage of a prophet, and the one receiving a righteous one into/’for the purpose of’ a name of a righteous one will take (the) wage of a righteous one.” (Matt 10:41)

(Jesus said:) "Come here towards Me." (Matt 11:28a)

(Jesus said to Simon Peter:) "Happy are you, Simon, a son of Jona, because flesh and blood have not revealed (it) to you, however/but My Father, the One (who is) in the heavens.” (Matt 16:17b)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “The one who – according to the circumstances – may cause one of these small/little ones believing into Me to stumble, it ‘carries together’/’is profitable’ to him ‘in order that’/that an upper millstone may be hung around his neck and he may be drowned in the ‘pelago of the sea’/’open sea’.” (Matt 18:6)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “The flesh (is) weak.” (Matt 26:41b)

Having come to/forward Jesus talked (with the eleven disciples) saying: "Every/all (judicial) authority in heaven and upon earth has been given to Me." (Matt 28:18)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "Children, how troublesome it is to come into, into the kingdom of God!" (Mark 10:24b)

Mariam spoke towards the messenger: “How will this be, since I have not knowledge of a male.” ‘Having answered the messenger’/’the messenger answered and’ spoke to her: "Holy spirit will come against, against you, and an ability of a highest One will overshadow you. And herefore the thing being begotten and/also will be called holy, a son of God." (Luke 1:34-35)

(Jesus was a son) of Adam (= man), of God. (Luke 3:38b)

The saying (of Jesus) (continually) was in/with (judicial) authority. ... It became amazement against/over all (in the synagogue), and they talked together with, towards one another saying: "What (is) this saying, because He in/with (judicial) authority and ability 'arranges on'/orders the unclean spirits, and they come out." (Luke 4:32b,36)

Fear took/seized all of them (א,* א, A) (in Nain), and they (continually) glorified God, saying that/: "A great prophet has risen in/among us!" (Luke 7:16a)

(Jesus said:) “Wisdom has been justified from/by all her children.” (Luke 7:35)

(Jesus said to the seventy:) “Behold, I have given (and give) you the (judicial) authority to tread above serpents and scorpions and against every ability of the enemy, and nothing will (א,* א, A) * (א*) act unrighteously (against) you.” (Luke 10:19)

(Jesus said: "The kingdom of God) is like a leaven, which having took a woman hid in into three corn-measures (about 13 litres each) of flour, till (the time in) which it was wholly leavened." (Luke 13:21)

The (younger) son spoke to (his father): ”Father, I have missed (the mark of God) into/’with the purpose of’ the heaven and in the very eyes of you. I am not any longer worthy to be called your son.” (Luke 15:21a)

(The father) spoke to (his older son): ”Child, you are always in company with me, and all my things it is your things.” (Luke 15:31)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "The sons of this age are more sensible over/than the sons of light are into/’for the purpose of’ the generation of themselves." (Luke 16:8b)

(Jesus said: "The ones being thought entirely worthy to reach ... the resurrection out of dead bodies) are not any longer able to die, for they are sons of the resurrection, equal (with) messengers, being sons of God." (Luke 20:36)

(Pilate) gave Jesus ’to the side of’/over to their will. (Luke 23:25b)

(Peter said:) “(About Jesus) all the prophets are witnesses to take (possession of) a ‘letting be’/’leaving alone’ of misses (of the mark of God) through His name, every/everyone believing into Him.” (Acts 10:43)

(Paul said to the males in Athen: “God) has ‘caused ... to stand’/fixed a day in which He is about to judge the (inhabited) world in/with righteousness in/’by means of’ a male to whom He has marked out by boundaries a faith having been offered to all (by) having caused Him to stand up out of dead (bodies).” (Acts 17:31)

(Jesus said to Paul: ”You shall) open the eyes (of the nations) to turn (them) next to (God) from darkness into light, and (from) the (judicial) authority of the adversary against/to God, to take a ‘letting be’/’leaving alone’ of misses (of His mark) to them.” (Acts 26:18a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(John) came into/’for the purpose of’ an evidence, in order that he might be a witness on account of the light, in order that all might believe through him. (John 1:7)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 - about 1500

The ones who believed became the children of God. ... Probably the formulation is important, because it contains a rejection of Gnostic thoughts that man by birth is a child of God. (LarsOlov Eriksson "För att ni skall tro. Johannesevangeliet" p 23; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

The Gospel of John uses the verb believe more than any other writing in the NT (99 times). ... The word is most often constructed with a preposition (pisteuein eis) so that the meaning if anything becomes to wholly trust in, to bind oneself to, be united to. (Birger Olsson "Messiasbekännare i Johannesskrifterna" p 360-361; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

(John) does not say "to be" (children of God) but "to become". Not only is there a status, but there is a change of status. It is what Jesus speaks of as passing from death to life (5:24). ... It is clear that (John) thought of faith as an activity, as something that people do. His favorite construction is to follow the verb with "eis" and the accusative (36 times). ... By contrast the simple dative means believing that what someone says is true. ... "Nor of the will of the flesh," points to sexual desire, though we should bear in mind that John does not use the term "flesh" with the evil sense it commonly has in Paul. For him it denotes our bodily nature in its weakness rather than in its sinfulness. (Leon Morris "The Gospel according to John" p 87-89)

Who are the children of God? Many answer: All men on the earth. God of course has created them. He is the origin of everyone. God is the father of everyone. The Bible says: The one being born of God. ... There are two families on the earth. "The children of this age" and "the children of the light", Luke 16:8; 1 John 3:10. It always will be tensions between them. Sometimes more, sometimes less. ... What separates "the children of the light" from "the children of this age" is the faith. ... The faith has a completely definite content. Everyone is not the children of God who believe that there is a God. Or believe that Jesus has existed and was a great teacher we need to listen to. Or who support the Christian values. ... It is in Jesus Christ that God opens his fatherly arms towards you and gives you certainty that you are allowed to live as his child. (Bengt Pleijel "... för att ni skall veta ... En vandring genom Johannes första brev" p 164-164 in comment to 1 John 5:1a; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

"You do not want to take cough medicine, then you are a fool", Jonas said. "When I must take medicine, then I only make up my mind to take it, and so I take it." Then Lotta said: "When I must take medicine, then I make up my mind not to take it, and so I do not take it." Then she again compressed her lips and shook her head there and back. Mum tapped her saying: "Yes, then you can lie here coughing, poor little Lotta!" "Yes, and not sleep a single bit", Lotta said so content. (Astrid Lindgren "Barnen på Bråkmakargatan" p 23-24; English title: The Children on Troublemaker Street; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

The Jewish Scribes used “child of God” as a term of distinction for Israel, particularly on account of its possession of the Torah. (Rudolf Schnackenburg “The Moral Teaching of the New Testament” p 162)

Men are not by nature the children of God. Only by receiving Christ do they gain the right to become children of God. (C.K. Barrett "The Gospel according to St John" p 163)

Notice how the essence of the childhood is described: begotten by God. The one by whom someone is born, in his nature he participates. So the childhood is something real, something true, a share of divine nature. The reality, the essence consists in the reception of the holy spirit, God's own spirit, the spirit of Christ, the spirit of childhood. ... The reception of the childhood is done through faith. (Karl Palmberg "Ur livskällan. Tredje årgången." p 34-39; Karl Palmberg /1842-1920/ was from 1883 a Lutheran clergyman in Månsarp in the diocese of Växjö and president in Jönköpings Missionsförening (Missionary Society) 1886-1911; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

The glory and the gold lie in front of You! Take it! But you must stretch out Your arm! Only this! (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev X febr 1894-april 1895" p 5; letter 2 febr 1894 to Bengt Lidforss; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


about 1500 and time before

Do not shut thy doors against this light, and thou shalt enjoy great happiness.But this light cometh by faith, and when it is come, it lighteth abundantly him that hath received it. ... As one cannot rightly enjoy the sunlight unless he opens his eyes; so neither can one largely share this splendour, unless he have expanded the eye of the soul, and rendered it in every way keen of sight. (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers XIV:24)

(John) wishes to show, that not even does grace come upon man irrespectively, but upon those who desire and take pains for it. For it lies in the power of these to become (His) children; since if they do not themselves first make the choice, the gift does not come upon them, nor have any effect. Having therefore everywhere excluded compulsion, and pointing to (man's) voluntary choice and free power, he has said the same now. For even in these mystical blessings (i.e. of Baptism), it is, on the one hand, God's part, to give the grace, on the other, man's, to supply faith; and in after time there needs for what remains much earnestness. (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers XIV:37)

What then? Does nothing depend on God? All indeed depends on God, but not so that our free will is hindered. ... It depends ... on us, and on Him. For we must first choose the good; and then He leads us to His own. He does not anticipate our choice, lest our free-will should be outraged. But when we have chosen, the great is the assistance he brings to us. ... It is ours to choose and to wish; but God's to complete and to bring to an end. ... (But) we should not be lifted up ... even shouldst thou be very earnest, do not consider that the well doing is thine own. For if thou obtain not the impulse that is from above, all is to no purpose. (Chrysostom commenting Heb 7, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers XIV:425)

Jesus our Lord ... makes those that believe in His name the sons of God. (Irenaeus, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol I, p 419)

According to nature, then – that is, according to creation, so to speak – we are all sons of God, because we have all been created by God. But with respect to obedience and doctrine we are not all the sons of God: those only are so who believe in Him and do His will. And those who do not believe, and do not obey His will, are sons and angels of the devil, because they do the works of the devil. ... According to nature, then, they are (His) children, because they have been so created; but with regard to their works, they are not His children. ... But (if) they should be converted and come to repentance, and cease from evil, they should have power to become the sons of God, and to receive the inheritance of immortality which is given by Him. (Irenaeus, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol I, p 524-525)

The Father is indeed above all, and He is the Head of Christ; but the Word is through all things, and is Himself the Head of the Church; while the Spirit is in us all, and He is the living water, which the Lord grants to those who rightly believe in Him, and love Him, and who know that “there is one Father, who is above all, and through all, and in us all.” (Irenaeus, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol I, p 546)

In this (age) some persons betake themselves to the light, and by faith unite themselves with God, but others shun the light, and separate themselves from God. (Irenaeus, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol I, p 556)

Rabbinism would never have connected the designation of ‘children of God’ with any but Israel. (Ab. iii 14) (Alfred Edersheim "The Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah Part I" p 535)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Eric S. Alexandersson, Carl Jonas Love Almqvist, Erik H. Anderek, Johann Arndt, Oloph Bexell, Nils Bolander, Margit Borgström, Sven-Erik Brodd, Nils Dahlberg, Sven Danell, Henry Daniel-Rops, Runar Eldebo, LarsOlov Eriksson, Bo Frid, Gillis Gerleman, Bo Giertz, David Gitari, Johannes Gossner, Carl Grimberg, Jan Guillou, Axel Gustafsson, Freddy Götestam, Yehuda Halevi, Raymond Hammer, Lars Hartman, David Hedegård, John Hedlund, Alice Hulting, Bengt Hägglund, Gerhard Johansson, Gunlög Järhult, Anneli Kimling, Adolf Kloo, C.S. Lewis, Lars Levi Laestadius, Sven Lidman, Martin Luther, Moa Martinson, Wilhelm Möller, Stephen Neill, Anders Nohrborg, Birger Olsson, Efraim Palmqvist, Lewi Pethrus, Bengt Pleijel, Erik Pontoppidan, Carl Olof Rosenius, Viktor Rydberg, Gösta Sandberg, Elisabeth Sandlund, Bo Setterlind, Isaac Bashevis Singer, Milton Steinberg, Jesper Svartvik, Knut Svensson, Bernhard Toftgård, R.A. Torrey, Gunnel Vallquist, Nils Erik Villstrand, P. Waldenström, Johan Olof Wallin, Paul Wern, David F. Wright, Birgitta Yavari.


My own comments and speculations:

The children of God are begotten, not out of a will of a male but out of God. For the apostle John the true understanding of Jesus is that He is the Son of the Man and not a son of a male, that He is the Man and not a male (cf. John 19:5). Cf. also John 1:30-31 with My own comments and speculations.

Observe the difference between the verbs “paralambanô” (John 1:11: take to the side) and “lambanô” (John 1:12: take). “Lambanô” is the same Greek verb which in the Greek OT is used to describe Eve's taking the fruit from the tree of knowledge. Words and events have for John often many meanings. So ”lambanô” can be used to express other shades of meanings of “take” than “receive”. But no man can ”take”, if it is not first ”given/granted” by God. Often I only have translated ”lambanô” by “take”, which provides for both a receiving and a more active taking. Both meanings are necessary to understand what John means with the word. Compare the background in Wisdom of Solomon 8:18, where Solomon seeks to “take” Wisdom into himself and the background in Sir 2:6, where we have an agreement between “believe” and “take”.

Observe also the contrast between “take” and “give”. The one who takes the Saying into himself receives authority to become a child of God. To see an individual created human being - a male or a female person - as a child of God is not possible according to John's train of thought, because only Jesus is the true image/offspring of God, that is, the man who is characterized of what is both masculine and feminine, just as the very first man who was created to the image of God. But the men and the women who by faith into Jesus are incorporated with the true image of God are allowed to get juridical right to become children of God, not because of what they are in themselves but because of what they are in Him who is true God and true Man.

In a restoration perspective we see the contrast between the old time when the son Tobias took his wife-bride and the time of complement when the wife-bride takes the Son Jesus. In this perspective we can also compare the foreign king who gave some of the sons of Israel, who came to him, judicial authority to make the legal principles of the nations (1 Macc 1:13) with the King of Israel who give men of the nations judicial authority to become children of the God of Israel, if they come to Him.

Concerning the expression “pisteuô eis” (believe into), which I have not found in the OT, this also occurs in Matt 18:6; John 2:11,23; 3:16,18,36; 6:29,35,40; 7:5,31,38,39,48; 8:30; 9:35,36; 10:42; 11:25,26,45,48; 12:36,37,42,44,46; 14:1,12; 16:9; 17:20; Acts 10:43; 19:4; Rom 4:18; 10:10,14; Gal 2:16; Phil 1:29; I Pet 1:8; I Pet 1:21 (P72,א,*א); I John 5:10,13. The expression “pisteuo epi“ (believe on or believe against) does not occur in the johannine books. For John it is important to stress, that the fruitful faith is a faith into the vine Jesus Christ (cf. John 15:1ff). If we had been in company with Him but outside Him, we had in the eyes of God remained males and females without being able to be seen as a part of that Man who is both male and female. Compare My comments and speculations to John 19:33-37.

The expression “believe on” (pisteuô epi with dative) we have in Luke 24:25; Rom 10:11; 1 Tim 1:16; 1 Pet 2:6. The expression “believe against” (pisteuô epi with accusative) we have in Matt 27:42; Acts 9:42; 11:17; 16:31; 22:19; Rom 4:5,24; 9:33.


Paul said to the believers in Rome: “The Spirit Himself is a witness together with our spirit, that we are children of God.” (Rom 8:16)

Paul said to the believers in Corinth: "For already since the adornment/’adorned world’ through (its) wisdom had not knowledge of God in the wisdom of God, God was pleased with - through the folly of a (herald's) proclamation - save the ones believing." (1 Cor 1:21)

Paul said to the believers in Galatia: "You are all sons of God through the faith in Christ Jesus." (Gal 3:26)

James said to the believers: "Draw near to God and He will draw near to you." (Jas 4:8a)

And you, the ointment, which you have taken from Him, it stays in you, and you have not need, in order that anyone may teach you. However, as His Spirit (א*) teaches you on account of all things and is true and is not a lie, and entirely as It has taught you, you stay in Him. (1 John 2:27)

If – according to the circumstances – you may know, that He is righteous, you have and/also knowledge, that 'every the'/everyone making/practising the righteousness is (and has been) begotten out of Him. (1 John 2:29)

Behold of what nature the Father has given (and gives) you a welcome, in order that you may be called children of God, (which) you and/also are. Because of this the adornment/’adorned world’ has not knowledge of you (א*), because it had not knowledge of Him. Welcomed, now we are children of God, and it has not yet been made visible, what we will be. We know, that if – according to the circumstances – He may be made visible, we will be like Him, because we will behold Him entirely as He is. (1 John 3:1-2)

'Every the'/everyone having been (and being) begotten out of God does not make/practise miss (of His mark), because His seed stays in him, and he is not able to miss (His mark), because he has been (and is) begotten out of God. In this it is visible, (who are) the children of God and the children of the slanderer. 'Every the'/everyone not making/practising righteousness is not out of God, and/nor the one not welcoming his brother. (1 John 3:9-10)

In this we (א*) have knowledge of the Spirit of God: every spirit which confesses Jesus Christ having come (and coming) in flesh is out of God. (1 John 4:2)

Welcomed, let us welcome one another, because the welcome is out of God, and 'every the'/everyone welcoming is (and has been) begotten out of God and has knowledge of God. (1 John 4:7)

'Every the'/everyone believing that Jesus is the christ/'anointed one' is (and has been) begotten out of God, and 'every the'/everyone welcoming the One having begotten and/also welcomes the (child) being (and having been) begotten out of Him. (1 John 5:1)

Every the/child being (and having been) begotten out of God conquers the adornment/’adorned world’. And this is the conquest, the one having conquered the adornment/’adorned world’, our faith. (1 John 5:4)

These things I have written to you, in order that you may know, that you have an agelong life, to the ones believing into the name of the Son of God. (1 John 5:13)


Greek words:

(h)aima (blood) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Wisdom of Solomon 7:2; Sir 14:18; 17:31; Matt 16:17; John 1:13 – Esther 8:12k(E10); Judith 6:4; 9:3-4; 1 Macc 1:37; 7:17; 2 Macc 1:8; 12:16; 14:18,45; Wisdom of Solomon 11:6; 12:5; 14:25; Sir 8:16; 12:16; 22:24; 28:11; 33:31; 34:21(25),22(27); 40:9; 50:15; Susanna v 46. Matt 23:30,35; 26:28; 27:4,6,8,24-25,49(א,*א,B); Mark 5:25,29; 14:24; Luke 8:43-44; 11:50-51; 13:1; 22:20,44; John 6:53-56; 19:34; Acts 1:19; 2:19-20; 5:28; 15:20,29; 18:6; 20:26,28; 21:25; 22:20; Rom 3:15,25; 5:9; 1 Cor 10:16; 11:25,27; 15:50; Gal 1:16; Eph 1:7; 2:13; 6:12; Col 1:20; Heb 2:14; 9:7,12-14,18-22,25; 10:4,19,29; 11:28; 12:4,24; 13:11-12,20; 1 Pet 1:2,19; 1 John 1:7; 5:6,8; Rev 1:5; 5:9; 6:10,12; 7:14; 8:7-8; 11:6; 12:11; 14:20; 16:3-4,6; 17:6; 18:24; 19:2,13.

anêr (male) (in the NT) Luke 1:34; John 1:13 – Matt 1:16,19; 7:24,26; 12:41; 14:21,35; 15:38; Mark 6:20,44; 10:2,12; Luke 1:27; 2:36; 5:8,12,18; 6:8; 7:20; 8:27,38,41; 9:14,30,32,38; 11:31-32; 16:18; 17:12; 19:2,7; 22:63; 23:50; 24:4,19. John 1:30; 4:16-18; 6:10. Acts 1:10-11,16,21; 2:5,14,22,29,37; 3:2,12,14; 4:4; 5:1,9-10,14,25,35-36; 6:3,5,11; 7:2,26; 8:2-3,9,12,27; 9:2,7,12-13,38; 10:1,5,17,19,21-22,28,30; 11:3,11-12,20,24; 13:6-7,15-16,21-22,26,38; 14:8,15; 15:7,13,22,25; 16:9; 17:5,12,22,31,34; 18:24; 19:7,25,35,37; 20:30; 21:11,23,26,28,38; 22:1,3-4,12; 23:1,6,21,27,30; 24:5; 25:5,14,17,23-24; 27:10,21,25; 28:17. Rom 4:8; 7:2-3; 1 Cor 7:2-4,10-11,13-14,16,34,39; 11:3-4,7-9,11-12,14; 13:11; 14:35; 2 Cor 11:2; Gal 4:27; Eph 4:13; 5:22-25,28,33; Col 3:18-19; 1 Tim 2:8,12; 3:2,12; 5:9; Tit 1:6; 2:5; Jas 1:8,12,20,23; 2:2; 3:2; 1 Pet 3:1,5,7; Rev 21:2.

gennaô (beget/bear) (in the NT + exemples in the OT) Sir 14:18; Matt 1:16,20; Luke 1:35; John 1:12-13; 1 John 2:29; 3:9; 4:7; 5:1,4 - Gen 4:18; Ezra 10:44; Is 66:9; Tobit 1:9; 1 Macc 2:7; Sir 41:9; 49:15; Baruch 3:26; Matt 1:2-15; 2:1,4; 19:12; 26:24; Mark 14:21; Luke 1:13,57; 23:29; John 3:3-8; 8:41; 9:2,19-20,32,34; 16:21; 18:37; Acts 2:8; 7:8,20,29; 13:33; 22:3,28; Rom 9:11; 1 Cor 4:15; Gal 4:23-24,29; 2 Tim 2:23; Philemon v 10; Heb 1:5; 5:5; 11:12,23; 2 Pet 2:12; 1 John 5:18.

didômi (give) (John, 1-3 John, Rev + examples in the Apocrypha) 1 Macc 1:13; John 1:12; 1 John 3:1 - Esther 1:1q(A16); 2:3,9; 3:10; 4:8,17s(C24); 6:9; 7:3; 8:2; Tobit 1:7-8,13,17; 2:12,14; 3:4,17; 4:16-17,19; 5:2-3,7,10,15,20; 6:14; 7:9-10,17; 9:2,5-6; 10:2; 12:2-3; Judith 2:7,11; 7:21; 8:19; 9:3,9; 10:5,8,12; 11:15; 12:3; 15:11-12; 16:17,19; 1 Macc 2:7,50; 6:15,58; 8:7-8,26,28; 10:8,28,32,36,39-40,44-45,54,60,89; 11:9-10,12,23,37,50,58; 12:4,25,43; 14:8; 15:35,38; 16:19; 2 Macc 1:3; 2:2; 4:30,34; 7:30; 8:23; 12:11; 13:14,22; 15:15,33; Wisdom of Solomon 3:14; 7:7,15,17; 9:4,17; 10:2,10,14; 11:4; 12:9; 14:3; 18:4; Sir Prologue; 1:12; 6:37; 7:31; 9:2,6; 10:28; 11:17; 12:4-5,7; 14:13,16; 15:17; 17:2,6; 18:28; 20:15; 26:3; 30:11; 35:9(12); 36:15(18); 37:21; 38:6,11,26-28; 42:7; 43:33; 44:23; 45:5,7,17,20-21,26; 46:9; 47:5; 49:5; 50:23; 51:17,22,30; Baruch 1:12,18,20; 2:4,10,21,31,35; 3:7,27,37; 4:3; Epistle of Jeremiah v 34,52; Bel and the Dragon v 22. John 1:17,22; 3:16,27,34-35; 4:5,7,10,12,14-15; 5:22,26-27,36; 6:27,31-34,37,39,51-52,65; 7:19,22; 9:24; John 10:11(P45,א*); John 10:15(P45,66,א*); John 10:28-29; 11:22,57; 12:5,49; 13:3,15,26,29,34; 14:16,27; 15:16; 16:23; 17:2,4,6-9; John 17:10(א,*א); John 17:11-12,14,22,24; 18:9,11,22; 19:3,9,11; 21:13. 1 John 3:23-24; 4:13; 5:11,16,20; Rev 1:1; 2:7,10,17,21,23,26,28; 3:8-9; 4:9; 6:2,4; 7:2; 8:2-3; 9:1,3,5; 10:9; 11:1-3,13,18; 12:14; 13:2,4-5,7,14-16; 14:7; 15:7; 16:6,8-9,19; 17:13,17; 18:7; 19:7-8; 20:4,13; 21:6.

exousia (/judicial/ authority) (in the NT + examples in the OT) Dan 7.27; 1 Macc 1:13; Wisdom of Solomon 16:13; Matt 28:18; Luke 10:19; John 1:12; Acts 26:18 – 2 Kings 20:13; Esther 4:17b/C2; Ps 114:2; 136:8-9; Dan 3:30; 4:14(17); 7:14; Tobit 2:13; 7:10; Judith 8:15; 1 Macc 1:13; 6:11; 10:6,8,32,35,38; 11:58; 14:4; 2 Macc 3:24; 7:16; Wisdom of Solomon 10:14; Sir 9:13; 10:4; 17:2; 30:11; 33:20; 45:17. Matt 7:29; 8:9; 9:6,8; 10:1; 21:23-24,27; Mark 1:22,27; 2:10; 3:15; 6:7; 11:28-29,33; 13:34; Luke 4:6,32,36; 5:24; 7:8; 9:1; 12:5,11; 19:17; 20:2,8,20; 22:53; 23:7; John 5:27; 10:18; 17:2; 19:10-11; Acts 1:7; 5:4; 8:19; 9:14; 26:10,12. Rom 9:21; 13:1-3; 1 Cor 7:37; 8:9; 9:4-6,12,18; 11:10; 15:24; 2 Cor 10:8; 13:10; Eph 1:21; 2:2; 3:10; 6:12; Col 1:13,16; 2:10,15; 2 Thess 3:9; Tit 3:1; Heb 13:10; 1 Pet 3:22; Jude v 25; Rev 2:26; 6:8; 9:3,10,19; 11:6; 12:10; 13:2,4,7,12; 14:18; 16:9; 17:12-13; 18:1; 20:6; 22:14.

thelêma (will) (in the NT + examples in the OT) Ps 28:7; Dan 11:3 (Theod); Luke 23:25; John 1:13 - 2 Sam 23:5; Esther 1:8; Ps 1:2; 40:8(9); 103:21; Eccl 5:3(4); 12:1; Is 44:28; Dan 11:16; Mal 1:10; 1 Macc 3:60; 2 Macc 1:3; Sir 32:17; Matt 6:10; 7:21; 12:50; 18:14; 21:31; 26:42; Mark 3:35; Luke 11:2(א,*א,A); 12:47; 22:42; John 4:34; 5:30; 6:38,40; 7:17; 9:31; Acts 13:22; 21:14; 22:14; Rom 1:10; 2:18; 12:2; 15:32; 1 Cor 1:1; 7:37; 16:12; 2 Cor 1:1; 8:5; Gal 1:4; Eph 1:1,5,9,11; 2:3; 6:6; Col 1:1,9; 4:12; 1 Thess 4:3; 5:18; 2 Tim 1:1; 2:26; Heb 10:7,9-10,36; 13:21; 1 Pet 2:15; 3:17; 4:2,19; 2 Pet 1:21; 1 John 2:17; 5:14; Rev 4:11.

lambanô (take) (John, 1-3 John, Rev + examples in the Apocrypha) Tobit 4:12; 6:16; Wisdom of Solomon 8:18; Baruch 1:2; 3:29; John 1:12; 1 John 2:27 – Esther 6:11; 8:2; Tobit 5:2-3; 6:13,17; 7:10; 8:2,7,21; 9:5; 11:15; 12:4; Judith 1:15; 8:21; 12:15,19; 14:1; 15:11; 16:8,19; 1 Macc 1:21,23; 2:54,56; 3:12; 4:18,23,47; 5:22,28; 6:12; 7:47; 8:7-8; 9:40; 10:42; 11:48,56; 12:8; 13:25; 14:5; 2 Macc 1:14,19; 4:32,34; 5:11; 8:20,25; 9:5; 10:3,30; 12:12,35; 13:22; 14:5,19,26; 15:16; Wisdom of Solomon 5:16; 11:12; 13:13; 15:8; Sir 4:31; 14:16; 29:5; 46:19; Baruch 1:8; 2:17; Bel and the Dragon v 27; John 1:16; 3:11,27,32-33; 4:36; 5:34,41,43-44; 6:7,11,21; 7:23,39; 10:17-18; 12:3,13,48; 13:4,12,20,30; 14:17; 16:14,24; 17:8; 18:3,31; 19:1,6,23,27,30,40; 20:22; 21:13; 1 John 3:22; 5:9; 2 John v 4,10; 3 John v 7; Rev 2:17,28; 3:3,11; 4:11; 5:7-9,12; 6:4; 8:5; 10:8-10; 11:17; 14:9,11; 17:12; 18:4; 19:20; 20:4; 22:17.

sarx (flesh) (in the Synoptics, John, the Acts, 1-3 John, Rev + examples in the Apocrypha) Wisdom of Solomon 7:1; Sir 14:18; 17:31; Matt 26:41; John 1:13; 1 John 4:2 - Judith 16:17; 1 Macc 7:17; 2 Macc 9:9; Sir 1:10; 13:16; 14:17; 17:4; 18:13; 23:17; 25:26; 38:28; 39:19; 40:8; 41:4; 44:18,20; 45:4; 46:19; Baruch 2:3. Matt 16:17; 19:5-6; 24:22; Mark 10:8; 13:20; 14:38; Luke 3:6; 24:39; John 1:14; 3:6; 6:51-56,63; 8:15; 17:2; Acts 2:17,26,31. Rom 1:3; 2:28; 3:20; 4:1; 6:19; 7:5,18,25; 8:3-9,12-13; 9:3,5,8; 11:14; 13:14; 1 Cor 1:26,29; 5:5; 6:16; 7:28; 10:18; 15:39,50; 2 Cor 1:17; 4:11; 5:16; 7:1,5; 10:2-3; 11:18; 12:7; Gal 1:16; 2:16,20; 3:3; 4:13-14,23,29; 5:13,16-17,19,24; 6:8,12-13; Eph 2:3,11,14; 5:29,31; 6:5,12; Phil 1:22,24; 3:3-4; Col 1:22,24; 2:1,5,11,13,18,23; 3:22; 1 Tim 3:16; Philemon v 16; Heb 2:14; 5:7; 9:10,13; 10:20; 12:9; Jas 5:3; 1 Pet 1:24; 3:18,21; 4:1-2,6; 2 Pet 2:10,18; I John 2:16; I John 4:3(א,*א); II John v 7; Jude v 7-8,23; Rev 17:16; 19:18,21.

teknon (child) (in the NT + examples in the OT) Prov 30:4; Mark 10:24; Luke 7:35; 15:31; John 1:12; 1 John 3:1-2,10 - Gen 3:16; Ps 34:11(12); Is 63:8; Joel 2:23; Zech 9:13; 1 Macc 1:38; Wisdom of Solomon 12:5; 16:21; Sir 2:1; Baruch 4:19,21,25. Matt 2:18; 3:9; 7:11; 9:2; 10:21; 15:26; 18:25; 19:29; 21:28; 22:24; 23:37; 27:25; Mark 2:5; 7:27; 10:29-39; 12:19; 13:12; Luke 1:7,17; 2:48; 3:8; 11:13; 13:34; 14:26; 16:25; 18:29; 19:44; 20:31; 23:28; John 8:39; 11:52; Acts 2:39; 7:5; 13:33(34); 21:5,21; Rom 8:16-17,21; 9:7-8; 1 Cor 4:14,17; 7:14; 2 Cor 6:13; 12:14; Gal 4:19,25,27-28,31; Eph 2:3; 5:1,8; 6:1,4; Phil 2:15,22; Col 3:20-21; 1 Thess 2:7,11; 1 Tim 1:2,18; 3:4,12; 5:4; 2 Tim 1:2; 2:1; Tit 1:4,6; Philemon v 10; 1 Pet 1:14; 3:6; 2 Pet 2:14; 1 John 5:2; 2 John v 1,4,13; 3 John v 4; Rev 2:23; 12:4-5.


Additional studies:

Ps 79:9; 89:6(7); Wisdom of Solomon 2:16; 5:5; Baruch 4:2; Luke 15:21; John 2:23; 3:3,14-18; 5:17; 7:39; 17:13; 19:27; 20:31; Rom 8:14; 9:16; Gal 4:5; Eph 1:5; Jas 1:18; 1 Pet 1:23; 2 Pet 1:4; 1 John 3:23; Rev 3:3; 10:9.


John Ashton "The Transformation of Wisdom. A Study of the Prologue of John's Gospel"; New Testament Studies 32 (1986): 161-186.

Mary Coloe "The Structure of the Johannine Prologue and Genesis 1"; Australian Biblical Review 45 (1997): 40-55.

Gordon D. Kirchhevel "The Children of God and the Glory That John 1:14 saw" Bulletin for Biblical Research 6 (1996): 87-93.

Judith Lieu "Authority to Become Children of God: A Study of 1 John"; (The Journal) Novum Testamentum 23 (1981): 210-238.

James F. McGrath "Prologue as Legitimation: Christological Controversy and the Interpretation of John 1:1-18"; Irish Biblical Studies 19.3 (1997): 98-120.

J.J.J.V. Rensburg "The Children Of God In Romans 8"; Neotestamentica 15 (1981): 139-179.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-01-16; 2009-12-04; 2012-12-18; 2014-03-04; concluding version 2017-08-29)

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1:14a And the Saying became flesh and dwelt in a tent in/among us.

Word for word (9 words in the Greek text): And the saying flesh became and dwelt-in-(a)-tent in us.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Abram) ‘caused ... to stand’/’set up’ his tent (with) Bethel ‘according to’/opposite sea and Ai ‘according to’/opposite upsticking/sunrise, and there he built a sacrificial altar to the Lord and called upon, upon the name of the Lord. (Gen 12:8b, Greek OT)

(Lot) dwelt in a tent in Sodom. (Gen 13:12b, Greek OT)

(Isaac) built a sacrificial altar (in Beersheba) and called upon the name of the Lord and fixed/pitched his tent there. (Gen 26:25a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Moses:) "You shall make a holy place (a tent; cf. Ex 26:9) to Me and I will be beheld in/among you." (Ex 25:8, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Israel: "You shall eat meat) a month of days, till it – according to the circumstances – may come out, out of your nostrils, and it shall for you be into/’purposed for’ cholera, because you have disobeyed the Lord who is in/among you." ... And they buried the desirous people there. (Num 11:20a,34b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Solomon:) “I shall pitch a tent in a middle of the sons of Israel, and I shall not entirely leave the people, My Israel, in (a place).” (1 Kings 6:13, Greek OT)

(David) made the place ready for the chest/ark of God, and he made a tent for it. (1 Chron 15:1b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) “In that day I will cause David's tent, the one having been (and being) fallen, to stand up.” (Amos 9:11a, Greek OT)

"Amuse yourself and be cheerful, daughter of Zion; for the reason, behold, that I come and will pitch a tent in your middle", says the Lord. (Zech 2:10, Greek OT)

(Tobit said to Jerusalem:) “Again the tent (of the Lord) may be built to You in company with joy.” (Tobit 13:10b or 13:11b)

(Solomon said:) "In a mother's belly/womb flesh was carved/formed." (Wisdom of Solomon 7:1b)

(Solomon said to the Lord: “The temple was) an imitation of a holy tent, which You before/beforehand had made ready from a beginning.” (Wisdom of Solomon 9:8b)

(God said to Wisdom:) ”Pitch a tent in Jacob, and ‘inherit down/entirely’/’have the inheritance’ in Israel.” (Sir 24:8)

(God) gave (the wisdom) to His boy Jacob and to Israel, he having been (and being) welcomed by Him. After this she was beheld upon the earth and ‘turned back together with’/associated in/among the men. (Baruch 3:37b-38)


The Latter Revelation:

(Peter said to Jesus:) “It is fine to us to be here. If You want, I will make three tents here, one for You and one for Moses and one for Elijah.” (Matt 17:4b)

(Mary) brought forth her first-born son (Jesus). (Luke 2:7a)

Every/all flesh will behold the means of saving of God. (Luke 3:6)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "A spirit has not fleshes/’pieces of flesh’ (P75, א*) and bones entirely as you look at ‘Me having’/’that I have’." (Luke 24:39b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

In a beginning the Saying (continually) was, and the Saying (continually) was towards God, and the Saying (continually) was God. (John 1:1)

(They) were begotten not out of bloods/blood, nor out of a will of flesh, nor out of a will of a male, but out of God. (John 1:13)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 - about 1500

Above all (John) compares the arrival of Jesus to how the glory of God descended over the tabernacle, filled it and “dwelt” there (cf Ex 40:34f). This time it is the Son who incarnates the Torah (= the Word of God) and becomes the simple tent which on the earth contains the heavenly ... glory of the Father. (Göran Larsson "Tid för Gud, Judiska och kristna perspektiv på de judiska högtiderna" p 127; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Christ is the perfect expression of God in human form. ("Life Application Study Bible, Gospel of John" p 20; comment to John 1:14)


about 1500 and time before

(Christ) clothed Himself with flesh, that He might not, by encountering men with the unveiled Godhead, destroy them all. ... He would have annihilated all, since none could have endured the encounter of that unapproachable light. (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers XIV:26)

The Master took on Him the form of a servant. For He became Son of man, who was God's own Son, in order that He might make the sons of men to be children of God. For the high when it associates with the low touches not at all its own honor, while it raises up the other from its excessive lowness; and even thus it was with the Lord. He in nothing diminished His own Nature by this condescension, but raised us, who had always sat in disgrace and darkness, to glory unspeakable. Thus it may be, a king, conversing with interest and kindness with a poor mean man, does not at all shame himself, yet makes the other observed by all and illustrious. Now if in the case of the adventitious dignity of men, intercourse with the humbler person in nothing injures the more honorable, much less can it do so in the case of that simple and blessed Essence, which has nothing adventitious, or subject to growth or decay, but has all good things immovable, and fixed for ever. So that when you hear that “the Word became Flesh,” be not disturbed nor cast down. For that Essence did not fall from what It was into flesh, (it is truly impious to imagine this,) but continuing what it is, It so took upon It the form of a servant. (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers XIV:38-39)

What then was the tabernacle in which (the Word) dwelt? Hear the Prophet say; “I will raise up the tabernacle of David that is fallen.” (Amos ix. 11) It was fallen indeed, our nature had fallen an incurable fall, and needed only that mighty Hand. (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers XIV:39)

(Jesus Christ) became subject to corruption, that He might free our souls from death and corruption, and heal them and might restore them to health, when they were diseased with ungodliness and wicked lusts. (Ignatius, The Anti-Nicene Fathers Vol I p 52)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: LarsOlov Eriksson, Peter Fjellstedt, Bo Frid, Alf Henrikson, Irenaeus, Claes Lindskog, Margareta Malmgren, Harald Rasmussen, Viktor Rydberg, Enok H. Skooglund, Jesper Svartvik, Knut Svensson, Einar Thomassen, P. Waldenström, Paul Wern, Birgitta Yavari.


My own comments and speculations:

In a restoration perspective we will see how the flesh, which was sent by God and which caused death in the wilderness, now gives life. Cf. John 6:51.

As the alien Lot (Gen 19:9) dwelt in a tent in Sodom, so Jesus dwells as an alien in a tent among men in a city and a country, which can be compared with Sodom. Cf. John 1:11 and Rev 11:8. Jesus also can be compared with the patriarchs Abraham, Isaac and Jacob/Israel who all dwelt in tents. So the Lord did in the wilderness. So we see how Jesus wandered together with Lot and the patriarchs but also that He is the Lord Himself.


Paul said to the believers in Philippi: “’Beginning under’/being in a shape of God, (Jesus Christ) ‘was not in command’/’did not state’ to be equal (with) God (as) a rapture, however/but emptied Himself, having taken a shape of a slave, having become in ‘a likeness of’/’one like’ men." (Phil 2:6-7a)

Since the little boys and girls so had (and had had) a thing in common (with) blood and flesh, and/also (the Son), in a way nearly like (that), had ‘in company with’/’a share of’ the same things. (Heb 2:14a)

In this we (א*) have knowledge of the Spirit of God: every spirit which confesses Jesus Christ having come (and coming) in flesh is out of God. (1 John 4:2)


Greek words:

skênoô (dwell in a tent) (in the NT + one example in the OT) Gen 13:12; John 1:14 - Rev 13:6; 21:3.


Additional studies:

Gen 35:21; Ex 29:46; 2 Sam 7:2; 1 Chron 11:1; Ezek 37:27-28; Zech 2:13; Wisdom of Solomon 9:15; Sir 24:10; Matt 1:16,18; Luke 1:31; John 6:51; Acts 15:16; Rom 1:1,3; Gal 4:4; Col 1:22; 1 Tim 3:16; Heb 8:2; 2 Pet 1:13; 1 John 1:1-2; 7:2; 2 John 7; Rev 15:5; 19:13.


John Ashton "The Transformation of Wisdom. A Study of the Prologue of John's Gospel"; New Testament Studies 32 (1986): 161-186.

Anthony C. Thiselton "The Meaning of Sarx in 1 Corinthians 5:5: A Fresh Approach in the Light of Logical and Semantic Factors"; Scottish Journal of Theology 26 (1973): 204 -.

Mary Coloe "The Structure of the Johannine Prologue and Genesis 1"; Australian Biblical Review 45 (1997): 40-55.

James F. McGrath "Prologue as Legitimation: Christological Controversy and the Interpretation of John 1:1-18"; Irish Biblical Studies 19.3 (1997): 98-120.

Henry R. Moeller "Wisdom Motifs and John's Gospel"; Bulletin of the Evangelical Theological Society 6.3 (1963): 92-100.

A.B. du Toit "The incarnate word - a study of John 1:14"; Neotestamentica 2.1 (1968): 9-21.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-01-16; 2009-12-07; 2012-12-27; 2014-03-16; concluding version 2017-08-29)

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1:14b-15 And we viewed His glory, a glory as of an only descendant from the side of a father, filled with joybringing (grace) and truth. John is a witness on account of Him. And he has shouted (and shouts), saying: "This (continually) was * (א*) the One coming behind me, the One who (א*) has become (and becomes) in front of me, because He (continually) was my first (one) … ."

Word for word: 1:14b (14 words in the Greek text) and we-viewed the glory his, (a)-glory as (of)-(an)-only-descendant from-the-side-of (of)-(a)-father filled-with joybringing-(grace) and truth 1:15 (21 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus prima manus) John is-a-witness on-account-of him and (he)-has-shouted-(and-shouts) saying: this was-(continually) the-(one) behind me coming (the one)-who in-front-of me has-become-(and-becomes) because first my (he)-was-(continually).


The Gospel of John and the Book of Revelation: The one who John the Baptizer describes as "my first (one)" (John 1:15,30) is in the Revelation named "the First (One) (and the Last One)". (Rev 1:17b; 22:13). Jesus is the one who "must increase" (John 3:30).


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(God said to Abraham:) "Take your welcomed son Isaac, whom you have welcomed, and go into the high earth/land and carry him up there into a burnt offering." (Gen 22:2a, Greek OT)

Jacob dispatched away messengers in front of him. (Gen 32:3a, Greek OT)

(Jacob said to the Lord:) "It is fit to me (to be) from/’away from’ every righteousness and from/’away from’ every truth, which You have made for Your boy/slave." (Gen 32:10a)

Israel put (the younger) Ephraim in front of Manasseh. (Gen 48:20b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Moses:) "You shall speak to Pharaoh: 'This is what the Lord says: Israel (is) My first-born son.'" (Ex 4:22, Greek OT)

(Moses said to Israel: "Thus says the Lord:) 'Every first-born in (the) earth/land Egypt will come to an end ... but in/among all of the sons of Israel a dog shall not utter a sound ... in that way you may know as much as the Lord shall glorify from the side of (Him) ‘upwards a middle of’/between the Egyptians and Israel.'" (Ex 11:5a,7, Greek OT)

(Moses said to the Lord): "Show me Your glory!" ... The Lord came by the side of before the face (of Moses) and called: "The Lord God, compassionate and merciful, long-suffering and much merciful and true." (Ex 33:18; 34:6, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Aaron and Miriam:) "If – according to the circumstances – it may become a prophet (of/among) you to the Lord, I will ‘be gained’/give knowledge to him in a vision, and I will talk (with) him in a sleep. Not in this way (with) the one attending/’caring for’ Me, Moses. He is faithful in My whole house. I will talk (with) him mouth ‘according to’/to mouth, in a form/beholding and not through riddles. And he has beheld the glory of the Lord." (Num 12:6b-8a, Greek OT)

(The prophet Elijah said to the Lord concerning Israel:) “Let this people gain knowledge ... that You have turned the heart of this people (to be) behind.” (1 Kings 18:37b, Greek OT)

(Esther) spoke to (the king): “I beheld you, lord, as a messenger of God, and my heart was troubled from/’owing to’ fear of your glory, because you are wondrous, lord, and your face (is) filled up (with) joybringing (graces/’gracious things’).” (Esther 5:2a/D13-14, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said:) “The Lord God welcomes mercy and truth. He will give joybringing (grace) and glory.” (Ps 84:11a or 84:12a, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said:) ”Happy the people having knowledge of a war-cry! O Lord, they will go in the light of Your face.” (Ps 89:15 or 89:16, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said:) ”Praise the Lord, all the nations! Praise against Him, all the peoples, because His mercy was powerful against us, and the truth of the Lord stays into the (coming) age.” (Ps 117:1-2, Greek OT)

(Wisdom said: "When the Lord) (continually) made the bases of the earth stable, I (continually) was betrothed by the side of Him. I (continually) was towards (the place) where He rejoiced." (Prov 8:29b-30a, Greek OT)

(Solomon said:) “I was made great … ‘to the side of’/’in comparison with’ all the ones having become ‘in front me’/before in Jerusalem. (Eccl 2:9a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) “Woe a nation ‘being a misser’/missing (My mark), a people filled with misses (of My mark).” (Is 1:4a, Greek OT)

The other/one (seraph) shouts (and has shouted) towards the other and he (continually/repeatedly) said: “Holy, holy, holy (is) the Lord of hosts. The every/whole earth (is) filled with His glory.” (Is 6:3, Greek OT)

The glory of the Lord will be beheld, and every/all flesh will behold God's means of saving. (Is 40:5, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Israel:) “... I am first.” (Is 48:12a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) “I come to lead together all the nations and the tongues. And they will arrive and behold My glory” (Is 66:18b, Greek OT)

(Tobit said to the Lord:) "All your ways (are) alms and truth. ..." (Tobit 3:2b, BA)

(Tobias, the son of Tobit, said to Raphael:) “I am an only descendant to my father. … “ (Tobit 6:15b)

(Tobit said to Jerusalem: “All the ones welcoming You) … will rejoice against/over You, having viewed all Your glory.” (Tobit 13:14b or 13:16a, BA)

(Jeremiah) came out into/to the mountain, where Moses, having ascended, viewed the inheritance of God. (2 Macc 2:4b)

(Judas) called the ones (being) together with him to the side of ... to wait for the conquest, which will be/come to them from the side of the All-powerful. (2 Macc 15:8)

(Solomon said:) “The ones having been (and being) persuaded on/’for the sake of’ (the Lord) are together with truth, … for joybringing (grace) and mercy (are given) to His chosen ones.” (Wisdom of Solomon 3:9)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “It/there is a shame (giving) glory and joybringing (grace).” (Sir 4:21b)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) ”The eyes (of the men) beheld the magnificent glory (of the Lord).” (Sir 17:13a)

(The wisdom said:) “My branches (are) branches of glory and joybringing (grace).” (Sir 24:16b)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “Lord, have mercy on … Israel, who You have likened/’made like’ a first-begotten.” (Sir 36:11 or 36:14)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “Joybringing (grace) (is) as a ‘place by the side of apprehension’/Paradise in/with blessings.” (Sir 40:17a)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) ”The work of (the Lord is) filled with (His) glory.” (Sir 42:16b)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said about Moses: “The Lord) led out of, out of Himself a male of mercy. ... ... He likened him (with) a glory of holy ones ... and He showed him His glory.” (Sir 44:23b; 45:2a or 45:1a,2a)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “Ezekiel … beheld a beholding of glory.” (Sir 49:8a)

(Baruch said to Jerusalem:) “Set/clothe yourself into the (coming) age in the comely appearance of the glory from the side of God. Wrap up yourself in the double (garment) of righteousness, the one from the side of God.” (Baruch 5:1b-2a)


The Latter Revelation:

(John the Baptist said to the Pharisees and Sadducees:) “… The One coming behind me is more stable than me/I.” (Matt 3:11a)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "In this way let your light shine in front of the men in that way (that) they may behold your fine works and glorify your Father in the heavens." (Matt 5:16)

(Jesus said to the crowds: "John the Baptist) is this one on account of whom it has been (and is) written: 'Behold, I dispatch away my messenger before Your face, who shall entirely prepare Your way in front of You.'" (Matt 11:10)

Jesus spoke to His disciples: "If anyone wants to come behind Me, let him deny away himself and lift his cross and follow Me.” (Matt 16:24)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “If – according to the circumstances - two out of you together will (א,* א) raise your voices upon the earth on account of ‘every concern’/anything, which – if according to the circumstances – they may demand, it will become/’come about’ for them from the side of My Father, the One (being) in heavens.” (Matt 18:19b)

(Jesus said:) ”In this way the last ones will be first and the first ones last.” (Matt 20:16)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) ”The one who – according to the circumstances – may want to be first in/among you, he will be your slave, just as the Son of the Man.” (Matt 20:27-28a)

The crowds going before (Jesus) and the ones following Him (continually/repeatedly) shouted saying: "Hosanna to the Son of David. Being (and having been) blessed the one coming in a name of a lord. Hosannah in the highest things!" (Matt 21:9)

Jesus says to (the priest leaders and the elders): “Did you nor at any time read in the writings: ‘A stone which the ones building rejected, this has become into a head/beginning of a corner, from the side of the Lord this became, and it is wondrous in our eyes?’” (Matt 21:42)

(John the Baptist) proclaimed, saying: "Behind me comes the One (who is) more stable (than) me/I." (Mark 1:7a)

(Jesus said:) “By itself the earth carries/bears fruit; first grass, next (א*,B*) an ear of corn, next (א*,B*) filled with bread-stuff in the ear of corn.” (Mark 4:28)

Herod/’Herod's men’ ... ‘got power (over)’/seized John and bound him. … (On) his origins/birthday Herod made a chief meal for his great men and the leaders of a thousand (men) and the first ones of Galilee. (Mark 6:17a,21b)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "Children, how troublesome it is to come into, into the kingdom of God! … By the side of men (it is) unable, however/but not by the side of God. For all things are able by the side of God." (Mark 10:24b,27b)

(Mary) brought forth her first-born son (Jesus). (Luke 2:7a)

Jesus (continually) advanced in the wisdom and bodily growth and joybringing (grace) by the side of God and men. (Luke 2:52)

Filled with holy spirit Jesus returned from the Jordan. (Luke 4:1a)

All (in the synagogue continually) were witnesses to (Jesus) and (continually) wondered on/at the sayings of joybringing (grace), (sayings) going out, out of His mouth. ... (Jesus said to them:) "Upon/’with regard to’ truth I say to you." (Luke 4:22a,25a)

(Peter and John and James) beheld (Jesus') glory and the two males, the ones standing together with Him. ... And it became/came a voice out of the cloud, saying: "This is My Son." (Luke 9:32b,35a)

(A male said to Jesus:) “Look against/at, against/at my son, because he is my only descendant.” (Luke 9:38b)

Ascending into (a disgraced) Jerosolyma/Jerusalem (Jesus) went in front of (His disciples). (Luke 19:28b)

(Jesus said to the Pharisees concerning His disciples:) ”If – according to the circumstances - these are quiet, the stones will shout.” (Luke 19:40b)

The first ones of the people (continually) sought to perish (Jesus). (Luke 19:47b)

(The women) viewed the memorial tomb and as/how the body (of Jesus) was put/lain. (Luke 23:55b)

(Two males in white clothings said:) “This Jesus, The One having been taken up from you into the heaven, will come in this way 'which turn'/'in the manner that' you viewed Him going into the heaven.” (Acts 1:11b)

(Peter said to the Jews:) "Having so been heightened (at) the right (hand) of God both/and having taken from the side of the Father the promise of the Holy Spirit, (Jesus) poured out this which you see and hear." (Acts 2:33)

Stephen (was) filled with joybringing (grace) and ability. (Acts 6:8a)

(Paul said to the king:) “If (Christ is) first out of a resurrection of dead (bodies) He is about to bring down a message (about) a light both to the people and to the nations.” (Acts 26:23b)

... Publius (was) the first (one) of the island. (Acts 28:7a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

It became a man having been (and being) dispatched away from the side of God. A name to him (continually) was (א*) John. This one came into/’for the purpose of’ an evidence, in order that he might be a witness on account of the light, in order that all might believe through him. That one was (continually) not the light, however/but (he became) in order that he might be a witness on account of the light. (John 1:6-8)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 - about 1500

That the glory (of the Word) became visible reminds of the many times it is spoken about the glory of the Lord in connection with the salvation of the Israelites out of Egypt and their wandering in the desert, Ex 14; 19; 33f. (LarsOlov Eriksson "För att ni skall tro. Johannesevangeliet" p 24; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Grace is a lovely word. At its simplest it means beauty in the physical sense; then it comes to mean that beauty of character which all men love. Its nearest English equivalent is charm. (William Barclay “The Acts of the Apostles” p 56 commenting Acts 7:10)

Now we are in Italy! It was in the Mont-Cenis-tunnel, where the boundary is between France and Hesperia. The lamp gave dimly light in the compartment and pitch darkness prevailed outside the windows. It is a good effect this tunnel, discovered for the ones being the first time blinded by the glory of the South. It reminds of a reception in an order, where the victim first is led into a dark room and then with blindfolded eyes is let out to behold the light with blinded eyes. (August Strindberg "Från det vaknande Italien" s 71; Piemonte 1884-03-03; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

(The clergyman) thought, that it was the last time he stood there high in the pulpit preaching the glory of God. The last time. This affected the clergyman. He forgot all things of spirits and bishop. He thought he had to take the opportunity and bear witness to the glory of God. He thought, that the floor of the church with all the audience descended deeply, deeply down and that the roof was lifted from the church, so that he saw into heaven. He stood alone, quite alone in his pulpit, his spirit took to flight towards the opened heaven above him, his voice was strong and mighty, and he proclaimed the glory of God. He was a man of inspiration. He left the written sermon, the thoughts came down over him as a flock domesticated pigeons. He felt it, as if it was not he himself, who was speaking, but he also understood, that this was the highest thing on the earth and that nobody in splendour and glory could reach higher than he standing there proclaiming the glory of God. (Selma Lagerlöf "Gösta Berlings saga" p 8; The Clergyman; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask; the title in English: "The Story of Gösta Berling")

Men discover their weaknesses to those most familiar with them, but it was not so with Christ; those most intimate with him saw most of his glory. (Matthew Henry "Concise Commentary on the Whole Bible" p 773)


about 1500 and time before

The testimony (of John the Baptist) is shaded over, and contains besides much that is lowly. For he does not say, “This is the Son of God, the Only-begotten, the true Son”; but what? “He that cometh after me, is preferred before me; for He was before me.” As the mother birds do not teach their young all at once how to fly, nor finish their teaching in a single day, but at first lead them forth so as to be just outside the nest, then after first allowing them to rest, set them again to flying, and on the next day continue flight much farther, and so gently, by little and little, bring them to the proper height; just so the blessed John did not immediately bring the Jews to high things, but taught them for a while to fly up a little above the earth, saying, that Christ was greater than he. (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers XIV:45)

The prophets declared, that God should be seen by men who bear His Spirit (in them), and do always wait patiently for His coming. As also Moses says in Deuteronomy: “We shall see in that day that God will talk to man, and he shall live.” ... For the glory of God is a living man; and the life of man consists in beholding God. (Irenaeus, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol. I, p 489-490)

In all things God has the pre-eminence, who alone is uncreated, the first of all things, and the primary cause of the existence of all, while all other things remain under God's subjection. (Irenaeus, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol I, p 521)

According to ... Rabbinical authorities the Holy Spirit dwells in a man only through joy. (Alfred Edersheim “The Temple” p 280)

It is a universal principle in the Old Testament, that ‘the first’ always stands for the whole – the firstfruits for the whole harvest, the firstborn and the firstlings for all the rest; and that ‘if the firstfruit be holy, the lump is also holy.’ (Alfred Edersheim “The Temple” p 291)

(Education in Israel) is imparted by influence and example, before it comes by teaching; it is acquired by what is seen and heard, before it is laboriously learned from books; its real object becomes instinctively felt, before its goal is consciously sought. (Alfred Edersheim "The Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah Part I" p 227)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Sven Danell, Ylva Eggehorn, LarsOlov Eriksson, Peter Fjellstedt, Bo Giertz, Johannes Gossner, Carl Grimberg, Hjalmar Gullberg, Krister Hanell, David Hedegård, C.G. Hjelm, Homeros, Bengt Hägglund, Selma Lagerlöf, Martin Lind, Martin Luther, Wilhelm Möller, Martin P:n Nilsson, Niklas Piensoho, Johan Ludvig Runeberg, Erich Sauer, Harry Sjöman, Erland Sundström, P. Waldenström, N.P. Wetterlund.


My own comments and speculations:

The glory of the male Moses likens the glory of holy persons (cf. Sir 45:2), while the glory of the Man Jesus is filled with joybringing (grace) and truth and likens the glory of God, the Holy One.

The knowledge of John the Baptist about Jesus is limited. He sees him as the first (one) but not as the One who according to the Rvelation is both the First (One) and the Last (One) (cf. Rev 1:17). Cf. also Joh 1:30-31 where John the Baptist sees Jesus a male but not as the Son of God who is the Man.

Ex 4:22 (see above) alludes to the Messiah in the Midrash on Ps 2:7 (see Alfred Edersheim: The Life and Times of Jesus, the Messiah, p 713). Regarding the resemblance between Israel and Jesus, cf. John 1:40-42; 1:47-51; 1:49; 1:51; 17:4; 19:30.

Concerning “John is a witness on account of Him”, see also John 1:6-8.


(Abraham) (continually) ‘carried to’/brought the only descendant (as an offer). ... (Heb 11:17b)

Peter said: “Having taken honour and glory from the side of God, a father, … (a voice said to Jesus:) 'This is My welcomed * (א,* א, A) Son.’” (2 Pet 1:17a)

(These things we write) on account of the Saying of the life, what (continually) was from a beginning, what we have heard (and hear), what our eyes have beheld (and behold), what we viewed and (what) our hands felt (on). ... What we have beheld (and behold) and have heard (and hear) we bring away a message and/also to you, in order that and/also you may have communion in company with us. And but/further (we have) our communion in company with the Father and in company with His Son, Jesus Christ. (1 John 1:1,3)

If we – according to the circumstances – may speak, that we have not a/any miss (of the mark of God), we lead ourselves astray and the truth is not in us. (1 John 1:8)

I have not written to you, that you do not know the truth, however/but that you know it, and that every lie is not out of the truth. Who is the liar, if not the one denying that/: ”Jesus is not the christ/'anointed one'.”? This is the antichrist, the one denying the Father and the Son. (1 John 2:21-22)

In this the welcome of God has been made visible in us, that God has dispatched (and dispatches) away His Son, the only Descendant, into the adornment/’adorned world’, in order that we might live through Him. (1 John 4:9)


Greek words:

alêtheia (truth) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Tobit 3:2; Wisdom of Solomon 3:9; Luke 4:25; John 1:14; 1 John 1:8; 2:21 – Tobit 1:3; 4:6; 7:10; 8:7; 12:11; 13:6; 14:7-9; Judith 5:5; 10:13; 1 Macc 7:18; Wisdom of Solomon 5:6; 6:22; Sir 4:25,28; 7:20; 27:9; 37:15; The Prayer of Azariah v 5. Matt 22:16; Mark 5:33; 12:14,32; Luke 20:21; 22:59; John 1:17; 3:21; 4:23-24; 5:33; 8:32,40,44-46; 14:6,17; 15:26; 16:7,13; 17:17,19; 18:37-38; Acts 4:27; 10:34; 26:25; Rom 1:18,25; 2:2,8,20; 3:7; 9:1; 15:8; 1 Cor 5:8; 13:6; 2 Cor 4:2; 6:7; 7:14; 11:10; 12:6; 13:8; Gal 2:5,14; 5:7; Eph 1:13; 4:21,24-25; 5:9; 6:14; Phil 1:18; Col 1:5-6; 2 Thess 2:10,12-13; 1 Tim 2:4,7; 3:15; 4:3; 6:5; 2 Tim 2:15,18,25; 3:7-8; 4:4; Tit 1:1,14; Heb 10:26; Jas 1:18; 3:14; 5:19; 1 Pet 1:22; 2 Pet 1:12; 2:2; 1 John 1:6; 2:4; 3:18-19; 4:6; 5:6; 2 John v 1-4; 3 John v 1,3-4,8,12.

doxa (glory) (in the Synoptics, John, the Acts, 1-3 John, Rev + examples in the Apocrypha) Esther 5:2a(D13); Sir 4:21; 17:13; 24:16; 42:16; 45:2-3; 49:8; Baruch 5:1-2; Luke 9:32; John 1:14 – Esther 4:17e(C7),17o(C20),17u(C26); 5:1(D1),1d(D7),11; 6:3; 10:2; Tobit 3:16; 12:12,15; 13:16(BA); Judith 9:8; 1 Macc 1:40; 2:9,12,51,62; 3:3; 9:10; 10:58,60,64,86; 11:6; 12:12; 14:4-5,9-10,21,29,35; 15:9,32,36; 2 Macc 2:8; 4:15; 5:16,20; 6:11; 14:7; Wisdom of Solomon 7:25; 8:10; 9:10-11; 10:14; 15:9; 18:24; Sir 1:11,19; 3:10-11; 4:13; 5:13; 11:4; 14:27; 20:11; 24:17; 29:6,27; 33:23; 35:12(15); 36:13(16); 40:27; 42:17,25; 43:1,9,12; 44:2,13,19; 45:7,20,23,26; 47:6,11,20; 49:5,12; 50:11,13; 51:17; Baruch 2:17-18; 4:24,37; 5:4,6-7,9; The Prayer of Azariah v 20; The Song of Praise of the Three Men v 29-30; The Prayer of Manasseh v 5,15. Matt 4:8; 6:29; 16:27; 19:28; 24:30; 25:31; Mark 8:38; 10:37; 13:26; Luke 2:9,14,32; 4:6; 9:26,31; 12:27; 14:10; 17:18; 19:38; 21:27; 24:26; John 2:11; 5:41,44; 7:18; 8:50,54; 9:24; 11:4,40; 12:41,43; 17:5,22,24; Acts 7:2,55; 12:23; 22:11; Rev 1:6; 4:9,11; 5:12-13; 7:12; 11:13; 14:7; 15:8; 16:9; 18:1; 19:7; 21:11,23-24,26.

emprosthen (in front of) (in the NT + examples in the OT) Gen 32:3; 48:20; Eccl 2:9; Matt 5:16; 11:10; Luke 19:28; John 1:15 - Gen 24:7; 45:5; 1 Kings 3:12; 16:25,33; 2 Kings 18:5; 2 Chron 13:14; Eccl 1:16; 2:7; Is 45:1-2; 58:8; Ezek 2:10; 1 Macc 13:27; Matt 5:24; 6:1-2; 7:6; 10:32-33; 11:26; 17:2; 23:13; 25:32; 26:70; 27:11,29; Mark 2:12; 9:2; Luke 5:19; 7:27; 10:21; 12:8; 14:2; 19:4,27; 21:36; John 1:30; 3:28; 10:4; 12:37; Acts 10:4; 18:17; 2 Cor 5:10; Gal 2:14; Phil 3:13; 1 Thess 1:3; 2:19; 3:9,13; 1 John 3:19; Rev 3:5(א,*א); Rev 4:6; Rev 5:1(א,*א); Rev 19:10; 22:8.

theaomai (view) (in the NT + examples in the OT) Tobit 13:14; 2 Macc 2:4; Luke 23:55; John 1:14; Acts 1:11; 1 John 1:1 - 2 Chron 22:6; Tobit 2:2(BA); 13:6(7); Judith 15:8; 2 Macc 3:36; Matt 6:1; 11:7; 22:11; 23:5; Luke 5:27; 7:24; John 1:32,38; 4:35; 6:5; 11:45; Acts 21:27; 22:9; Rom 15:24; 1 John 4:12,14.

krazô (shout) (in the NT + examples in the OT) Is 6:3; Matt 21:9; Luke 19:40; John 1:15 - Gen 41:55; Ex 5:8; 2 Sam 19:29; Esther 4:17i/C11; Job 30:20,28; 34:20; Ps 4:4; 34:6(7); 141:1; Is 15:4; Tobit 6:2(3); 1 Macc 9:46; 11:49; Baruch 3:1; 4:20; Matt 8:29; 9:27; 14:26,30; 15:22-23; 20:30-31; 21:15; 27:23,50; Mark 3:11; 5:5,7; 9:24,26; 10:47-48; 11:9; 15:14; Luke 4:41(א,*א,B); 9:39; 18:39; John 7:28,37; 12:44; Acts 7:57,60; 14:14; 16:17; 19:28,32,34; 21:28,36; 23:6; 24:21; Rom 8:15; 9:27; Gal 4:6; Jas 5:4; Rev 6:10; 7:2,10; 10:3; 12:2; 14:15; 18:2,18-19; 19:17.

monogenês (only descendant) (in the NT + examples in the OT) Tobit 6:15; Luke 9:38; John 1:14; 1 John 4:9 - Judges 11:34; Tobit 3:15; 8:17; Wisdom of Solomon 7:22; Luke 7:12; 8:42; John 1:18; 3:16,18; Heb 11:17.

opisô (behind) (in the NT + examples in the OT) 1 Kings 18:37; Matt 3:11; 16:24; John 1:15 - Gen 8:8; 19:6,17,26; 24:5; 49:17; Ex 15:20; 2 Sam 3:16; 1 Kings 1:6; 2 Kings 9:19; 20:10; Ps 50:17; 114:3; Eccl 10:14; Song of Solomon 2:9; 1 Macc 9:47; Matt 4:19; 10:38; 16:23; 24:18; Mark 1:7,17,20; 8:33-34; 13:16; Luke 7:38; 9:23,62; 14:27; 17:31; 19:14; 21:8; John 1:27,30; 6:66; 12:19; 18:6; 20:14; Acts 5:37; 20:30; Phil 3:13; 1 Tim 5:15; 2 Pet 2:10,21(א,*א,A); Jude v 7; Rev 1:10; 12:15; 13:3.

patêr (father) (in 1-3 John, Rev + examples in the Apocrypha) Tobit 6:15; (John 1:14); 1 John 1:3 - Esther 2:7; 3:13f(B6); 4:14,17m(C16); 8:12l(E11); Tobit 1:4-5,8; 2:3; 3:3,5(BA),7,10,15; 4:12(BA); 5:1,7,9,10,17; 6:12-13,16,18(19); 7:5; 8:5,21; 9:4,6; 10:8-9; 11:2,6-8,11,15; 12:2; 13:4; 14:12-13; Judith 5:7; 7:28; 8:3,19,25; 9:2,12; 10:8; 1 Macc 2:19-20,50-51,54,65,69-70; 3:2; 4:9-10; 6:23; 7:2; 9:19; 10:52,55,67,72; 11:9,32,40; 13:3,25,27-28; 14:26; 15:3,10,33-34; 16:1-2,21,24; 2 Macc 1:19,25; 4:11; 7:30; 8:15; 9:23; 11:23-24; 13:9; 14:37; Wisdom of Solomon 2:16; 9:1,12; 10:1; 11:10; 12:6,21; 14:3,15; 18:6,9,22,24; Sir 3:1-3,5-6,8-12,14,16; 4:10; 7:27; 8:9; 22:3,5; 23:1,4,14; 30:4; 41:7,17; 42:9; 44:1,19,22; 47:23; 48:10; 51:10; Baruch 1:16,19-20; 2:6,19,21,24,33-34; 3:5,7-8; The Prayer of Azariah 3,5; The Song of Praise of the Three Men v 29; Bel and the Dragon v 1(Theod); The Prayer of Manasseh v 1; 1 John 1:2; 2:1,13-16,22-24; 3:1; 4:14; 2 John v 3-4,9; Rev 1:6; 2:28; 3:5,21; 14:1.

plêrês (filled with) (in the NT + examples in the OT) Is 1:4; 6:3; Sir 42:16; Mark 4:28; Luke 4:1; John 1:14; Acts 6:8 - Gen 25:8; 41:7,22,24; Num 7:26; Ruth 2:12; 2 Kings 7:15; 2 Chron 15:17; Is 1:11,15; Jer 5:27; 2 Macc 13:5; Sir 1:30; 19:26; 50:6; Epistle of Jeremiah v 16; Susanna v 28(Theod); Matt 14:20; 15:37; Mark 8:19; Luke 5:12; Acts 6:3,5; 7:55; 9:36; 11:24; 13:10; 19:28; 2 John v 8.

prôtos (first) (in the NT + examples in the OT) Is 48:12; Matt 20:16,27; Mark 6:21; Luke 19:47; John 1:15; Acts 26:23 - Gen 8:5; Esther 1:14; Job 8:7; Is 44:6; 1 Macc 6:6; 11:27; 2 Macc 8:9,23; 12:22; 14:8; 15:18; Matt 10:2; 12:45; 17:27; 19:30; 20:8,10; 21:28,31,36; 22:25,38; 26:17; 27:64; Mark 9:35; 10:31,44; 12:20,28-29; 14:12, Luke 2:2; 11:26; 13:30; 14:18; 15:22; 16:5; 19:16; 20:29; John 1:30,41; John 2:11(א*); John (8:7); 19:32; 20:4,8. Acts 1:1; 12:10; 13:50; 16:12; 17:4; 20:18; 25:2; 27:43; 28:7,17; Rom 10:19; 1 Cor 14:30; 15:3,45,47; 16:24; Eph 6:2; Phil 1:5; 1 Tim 1:15-16; 2:13; 5:12; 2 Tim 4:16,22; Heb 8:7,13; 9:1-2,6,8,15,18; 10:9; 2 Pet 2:20; 1 John 4:19; Rev 1:17; 2:4-5,8,19; 4:1,7; 8:7; 13:12; 16:2, 20:5-6; 21:1,19; 22:13

charis (joybringing /grace/) (in the Synoptics, John, the Acts 1-3 John; Rev + examples in the OT) Esther 5:2a(D14), Wisdom of Solomon 3:9; Sir 4:21; 24:16; 40:17; Luke 2:52; 4:22; John 1:14; Acts 6:8 - Esther 2:9,17; 5:8; 6:3; 7:3; Prov 3:34; Eccl 10:12; Zech 4:7; 6:14; Tobit 1:13; 12:18; Judith 8:23; 10:8; 1 Macc 10:60; 11:24; Wisdom of Solomon 4:15; 14:26; Sir 3:18; 7:33; 8:19; 21:16; 24:17; 26:13,15; 30:6; 32:10; 34:12(13); 37:5,21; Baruch 2:14. Luke 1:30; 2:40; 6:32-34; 17:9; John 1:16-17; Acts 2:47; 4:33; 7:10,46; 11:23; 13:43; 14:3,26; 15:11,40; 18:27; 20:24,32; 24:27; 25:3,9; 2 John v 3; Rev 1:4; 22:21.


Additional studies:

Ex 16:7,10; 24:9-11; 33:22-23; 40:35; Job 19:26-27; Ps 25:10; 40:10-11(11-12); 85:9-10(10-11); 86:15; Is 35:2; Ezek 39:21; Hos 4:1; Matt 11:3; Mark 9:3; Luke 3:16; 5:27; John 1:7,17,27; 2:11; 3:16,26,31; 7:29; 8:32; 9:16,33; 10:18; 14:6; 16:27; 17:7-8,24; 18:37; 19:34; Rom 5:21; 6:14; Col 1:19; 2:3,9; 2 Pet 1:16; Rev 1:8,14,16; 2:18; 4:3; 10:1; 19:11-13.


John Ashton "The Transformation of Wisdom. A Study of the Prologue of John's Gospel"; New Testament Studies 32 (1986): 161-186.

Mary Coloe "The Structure of the Johannine Prologue and Genesis 1"; Australian Biblical Review 45 (1997): 40-55.

W. Robert Cook "The 'Glory' Motif in the Johannine Corpus"; Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 27.3 (1984): 291-297.

David J. Hawkin "The Johannine Concept of Truth and Its Implications for a Technological Society"; The Evangelical Quarterly 59.1 (Jan.-Mar. 1987): 3-13.

Gordon D. Kirchhevel "The Children of God and the Glory That John 1:14 saw"; Bulletin for Biblical Research 6 (1996): 87-93.

James F. McGrath "Prologue as Legitimation: Christological Controversy and the Interpretation of John 1:1-18"; Irish Biblical Studies 19.3 (1997): 98-120.

Gerard Pendrick "Monogenês"; New Testament Studies 41 (1995): 587-600.

I.J. du Plessis "Christ as the Only begotten"; Neotestamentica 2.1 (1968): 22-31.

J. Bruce Prior "Who is 'Full of Grace and Truth' in W's Text of John 1:14?"; Bulletin for Biblical Research 11.2 (2001): 233-238.

Vemon K. Robbins "The We-Passages in Acts and Ancient Sea Voyages"; Biblical Research 20 (1975): 5-18.

A.B. du Toit "The incarnate word - a study of John 1:14"; Neotestamentica 2.1 (1968): 9-21.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-01-17; 2009-12-21; 2013-01-20; 2014-03-16; concluding version 2017-08-29)

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1:16 Because/and we have all taken out of His complement and joybringing (grace) instead of joybringing (grace).

Word for word (12 words in the Greek text): because out-of (of)-the (of)-completement his we all took and joybringing-(grace) in-stead-of (of)-joybringing-(grace)


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(God) took one of the ribs (of the man) and ‘completed ... upwards’/upcompleted flesh instead of it. (Gen 2:21b, Greek OT)

Noah found joybringing (grace) opposite the Lord God. (Gen 6:8, Greek OT)

(God said to Noah:) “The one pouring out blood of a man, in stead his blood will be poured out, because (God) made the man in/’by means of’ an image of God.” (Gen 9:6, Greek OT)

(Joseph said to Pharao:) "On account of the thing to make the dream of Pharaoh a second time, twice, (it means) that the word from the side of God will be truthful, and God will make, make it quick." (Gen 41:32, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Moses: “It will be given) soul in stead of soul, eye in stead of eye, tooth in stead of tooth.” (Ex 21:23b-24a, Greek OT)

(David said:) “The earth (is) the Lord's, and its complement, the (inhabited) world and all the ones dwelling in it.” (Ps 24:1, Greek OT)

(David said: "My enemies) have put/caused bad things ‘down from’/against me in stead of good things and hatred in stead of my welcoming/welcome." (Ps 109:5, Greek OT)

(Zerubbabel) will carry ‘out of’/out the stone of the inheritance of/with an equality of joybringing (grace) of its joybringing (graces). (Zech 4:7b, Greek OT)

(Solomon said to the Lord:) “In stead of (destruction) You gave Your people morsels (with) nourishment of messengers.” (Wisdom of Solomon 16:20a)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “Joybringing (grace) on/’under the rule of’ joybringing (grace) (is) a bashful woman.” (Sir 26:15a)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) "Over against the bad one (stands) the good one, and over against the death the life. In this way a reverent (stands) over against a misser (of the mark of God). And see in this way in, into all the works of the Highest One, two (and) two, one entirely opposite 'the one'/another." (Sir 33:14-15)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said: ”God) gave (Moses) ... a law of life and insight. … “ (Sir 45:5b)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “You may not adopt as a law that I came to loosen down/up the law or the prophets. I did not come to loosen down/up however/but to complete.” (Matt 5:17)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “You have heard that it was spoken: ‘Eye instead of eye and tooth instead of tooth.’” (Matt 5:38)

(Jesus said to His disciples: "The Son of the Man came) to give His soul (as) a ransom instead/’for the sake’ of many." (Matt 20:28b)

They lifted of fragments of twelve large baskets of complements (א,* א) and from the fishes/fish. (Mark 6:43a)

All (in the synagogue) ... (continually) wondered on/at the sayings of joybringing (grace), (sayings) going out, out of (Jesus') mouth. (Luke 4:22a)

(Jesus) spoke to (the criminal): "Amen I say to you, today you will be in company with me in the ‘place by the side of apprehension’/Paradise." (Luke 23:43)

Joybringing (grace) (continually) was great against/over all (who believed). (Acts 4:33b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

And we viewed His glory, a glory as of an only descendant from the side of a father, filled with joybringing (grace) and truth. (John 1:14b)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 - about 1500

I think that almost all here in Sweden feel just the same thing as I Christmas 1940, that it is a pure and undeserved and tremendous grace, that we are allowed to spend Christmas in our homes. That is many have had to spend Christmas out in their stations. But the members of the Women's Services have gone around distributing Christmas presents and Christmas spirit probably has been found also out in the stations. (Astrid Lindgren "Krigsdagböcker 1939-1945" p 74; 1940-12-28; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Now this mighty testimony wells forth out of John's happy inner: Of his fulness we have all got, and grace for grace, or literally: Of his fulness we all received, and grace in stead of grace. ... What they received John describes with this peculiar expression: and grace in stead of grace. (Karl Palmberg "Ur livskällan. Första årgången." p 500-501; Karl Palmberg /1842-1920/ was from 1883 a Lutheran clergyman in Månsarp in the diocese of Växjö and president in Jönköpings Missionsförening (Missionary Society) 1886-1911; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

All of us, no one excluded, have got grace of the fullness of Christ. ... Are there now many, who yet do not receive (the grace), so I am yet not allowed to lie and say, that it is not for them. ... With grace it is meant, that God does not act with us after our sins or repay us after our evil deeds (Ps 103). (P. Waldenström "Högmessotexter II" p 481-482 in comment to Joh 1:16-18; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


about 1500 and time before

What have we received? “grace for grace,” saith he. What grace, for what? For the old, the new. For there was a righteousness, and again a righteousness (Phil. iii. 6) ... There was a faith, there is a faith (Rom. i. 17) ... There was an adoption, there is an adoption (Rom. ix. 4) ... There was a glory, there is a glory ((2 Cor iii. 11) ... There was a law, and there is a law (Rom. viii. 2) ... There was a service, and there is a service (Rom ix. 4; Phil. iii. 3) ... There was a covenant, and there is a covenant (Jer. xxxi. 31). ... There was a sanctification, and there is a sanctification: there was a baptism, and there is a Baptism. there was a sacrifice, and there is a Sacrifice; there was a temple, and there is a temple: there was a circumcision, and there is a circumcision; and so too there was a “grace,” and there is a “grace.” But the words in the first case are used as types, in the second as realities, preserving a sameness of sound, though not of sense. (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers XIV:48)

(Jesus Christ) declares: “For in this place is One greater than the temple (read “sanctuary”; as the temple Jesus is holier, and by that greater, than the sanctuary with its place outside The Holy and The Holy of the Holies; my comment).” But (the words) “greater” and “less” are not applied to those things which have nothing in common between themselves, and are of an opposite nature, and mutually repugnant; but are used in the case of those of the same substance, and which possess properties in common, but merely differ in number and size; such as water from water, and light from light, and grace from grace. (Irenaeus, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol I, p 472)

The one and the same Lord has granted, by means of His advent, a greater gift of grace to those of a later period, than what He had granted to those under the Old Testament dispensation. For they indeed used to hear, by means of (His) servants, that the king would come, and they rejoiced to a certain extent, inasmuch as they hoped for His coming; but those who have beheld Him actually present, and have obtained liberty, and been partakers of His gifts, do possess a greater amount of grace, and a higher degree of exultation, rejoicing because of the King's arrival. (Irenaeus, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol I, p 474)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Lars Levi Laestadius, Gösta Nicklasson, Efraim Palmqvist, Elisabeth Sandlund, P. Waldenström.


My own comments and speculations: The world, which had found grace in the time of Noah (Gen 6:8), now takes part of the grace in Jesus Christ.


Paul said to the believers in Ephesos: “(You will gain) knowledge of the welcome of Christ ‘throwing over’/surpassing the knowledge, that you may be completed into every/all the complement of God.” (Eph 3:19)

Paul said to the believers in Colossae: "In (Christ) every/all the complement of the Divinity dwells bodily and you are being (and having been) completed in Him, who is the head of every/all beginning and (judicial) authority." (Col 2:9-10)


Greek words:

anti (instead of) (in the NT + examples in the OT) Gen 2:21; Ex 21:23-24; Wisdom of Solomon 16:20; Matt 5:38; 20:28; John 1:16 - Ex 21:25; 1 Kings 11:43; Esther 4:17k/C13; Prov 17:13; Tobit 1:15,21(BA); Judith 9:3, 1 Macc 3:1; 9:31; 15:31; Wisdom of Solomon 19:10; Sir 4:10; 10:14-15; 17:27; 29:6; Matt 2:22; 17:27; Mark 10:45; Luke 1:20; 11:11; 12:3; 19:44; Acts 12:23; Rom 12:17; 1 Cor 11:15; Eph 5:31; 1 Thess 5:15; 2 Thess 2:10; Heb 12:2,16; Jas 4:15; 1 Pet 3:9.

plêrôma (complement) (in the NT + examples in the OT) Ps 24:1; Mark 6:43; John 1:16; Col 2:9 - 1 Chron 16:32; Eccl 4:6; Matt 9:16; Mark 2:21; 8:20; Rom 11:12,25; 13:10; 15:29; 1 Cor 10:26; Gal 4:4; Eph 1:10,23; 3:19; 4:13; Col 1:19; 2:3.


Additional studies:

Rom 5:15, Eph 1:3; Rev 1:4; 22:21.


John Ashton "The Transformation of Wisdom. A Study of the Prologue of John's Gospel"; New Testament Studies 32 (1986): 161-186.

Mary Coloe "The Structure of the Johannine Prologue and Genesis 1"; Australian Biblical Review 45 (1997): 40-55.

James F. McGrath "Prologue as Legitimation: Christological Controversy and the Interpretation of John 1:1-18"; Irish Biblical Studies 19.3 (1997): 98-120.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-01-18; 2009-12-27; 2013-01-31; 2014-03-17; concluding version 2017-08-29)

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1:17 Because/for the law was given through Moses, the joybringing (grace) and the truth became through Jesus Christ.

Word for word (15 words in the Greek text): because the law through (of)-Moses was-given the joybringing-(grace) and the truth through (of)-Jesus (of)-Christ became.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

Jesus made/did entirely just (as) Moses spoke to him. (Ex 17:10a, Greek OT)

At the time when (the Lord) entirely had ceased talking (with Moses) in/on the mountain Sinai, He gave (him) the two tablets of the testimony, tablets of stone, having been (and being) written (with) the finger of God. (Ex 31:18, Greek OT)

(Moses said to the Lord:) "Show me Your glory!" ... The Lord came by the side of before the face (of Moses) and called: "The Lord God, compassionate and merciful, long-suffering and much merciful and true." (Ex 33:18; 34:6, Greek OT)

The priest, having been (and being) anointed shall … ‘bring towards’/offer … on account of his miss (of the mark of God), which he has ‘missed (the mark of God)’/done. (Lev 4:3, Greek OT)

The Lord talked towards Moses, saying: “Take towards yourself Jesus, the son of Nun, a man who has spirit in himself and put/lay your hands against, against him.” (Num 27:18, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Moses:) "Jesus ... shall come into (the good land). ... He shall let Israel inherit it entirely." (Deut 1:38, Greek OT)

Jesus … was fulfilled with a spirit of understanding. (Deut 34:9a, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said:) "The kings of the earth stood ‘by the side of’/near and the leaders were led together ... ‘down from’/against the Lord and ‘down from’/against His Anointed (Christ)." (Ps 2:2a, Greek OT)

(David said:) “All the ways of the Lord (are) mercy and truth to the ones seeking out His covenant and His evidences.” (Ps 25:10, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said:) “The Lord God welcomes mercy and truth. He will give joybringing (grace) and glory.” (Ps 84:11a or 84:12a, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said to the Lord:) “Mercy and truth, will go before, before Your face.” (Ps 89:14b or 89:15b, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said to the Lord:) "All Your commandments (are) truth." (Ps 119:86a, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said to the Lord:) “A beginning of Your sayings (is) truth, and into the (coming) age all the judicial verdicts of Your righteousness.” (Ps 119:160, Greek OT)

(The messenger said to the prophet:) “Seventy periods of seven days have been scratched/severed together against your people and against the holy city … to seal misses (of the mark of God) ... and to seal a beholding and a prophet and to anoint a holy of holies.” (Dan 9:24, Greek OT Theod)

(The prophet said:) "Hear a saying of the Lord, sons of Israel, for the reason that (it is) a judgment the Lord towards the ones dwelling (on) the earth, for the reason that (there is) not truth, nor mercy, nor additional knowledge of God upon the earth." (Hos 4:1, Greek OT)

(Tobit said to the Lord:) "All your ways (are) alms and truth. ..." (Tobit 3:2b, BA)

(The young man said:) “The law .. having been given to our fathers through Moses.” (2 Macc 7:30b)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “All these things (are) a book of a covenant of God, a Highest One, a law which Moses enjoined us.” (Sir 24:23a)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “Joybringing (grace) (is) as a ‘place by the side of apprehension’/Paradise in/with blessings.” (Sir 40:17a)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said: ”God) gave (Moses) ... a law of life and insight. … “ (Sir 45:5b)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “… Jesus ... a successor of Moses in prophecies.” (Sir 46:1a)

… This scroll (by) Jesus, son of Sirach Eleazar. (Sir 50:27a)


The Latter Revelation:

A book of (the) origin of Jesus Christ. (Matt 1:1a)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “You may not adopt as a law that I came to loosen down/up the law or the prophets. I did not come to loosen down/up however/but to complete.” (Matt 5:17)

A beginning of the good little message of Jesus Christ * (א*) (Mark 1:1)

When ‘eight days were fulfilled to circumcise Him’/’the eight days of His circumcision were completed’, His name and/also was called Jesus. ... When the days of their purification according to the law of Moses were fulfilled, (Joseph and Mary) led Jesus up into (a disgraced) Jerosolyma/Jerusalem. (Luke 2:21-22a)

(On the) waiting of the people for and (on the) ‘counting throughout’/considering of all in their hearts on account of John (if) he not at any time might be the christ/'anointed one', John answered saying to all: "I indeed baptize you (with) water, but it comes the One (being) more stable than me/I, whose thong of His sandals I am not fit to loosen." (Luke 3:15-16a)

All (in the synagogue) ... (continually) wondered on/at the sayings of joybringing (grace), (sayings) going out, out of (Jesus') mouth. ... But (He said to them): “Upon/’with regard to’ truth I say to you ..." (Luke 4:22a,25a)

(Stephen said to the Israelites: “On the mountain Sinai Moses) received living little sayings to give to you (P74, א,* א, B).” (Acts 7:38b)

(Peter said:) “(God) dispatched away the saying to the sons of Israel, (the saying) bringing a good little message (concerning) peace through Jesus Christ. (Acts 10:36a)

(Paul said to the Jews:) "Through (Jesus) a ‘letting be’/’leaving alone’ of misses (of the mark of God) a message is brought down to you from all things, of/from which you were not able to be justified in/’by means of’ (the) law of Moses." ... And he (continually) persuaded them to abide (in) the joybringing (grace) of God. (Acts 13:38b,43b)

(Peter said:) “We believe (we will) be saved through the joybringing (grace) of the Lord Jesus.” (Acts 15:11a)

(The elders said to Paul:) “Purify yourself ... and all will gain knowledge ... (that you) watching/keep the law.” (And Paul did so.) (Acts 21:24b,26a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven: And we viewed His glory, a glory as of an only descendant from the side of a father, filled with joybringing (grace) and truth. (John 1:14b)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 - about 1500

Paul passed through the prescribed rites of cleaning ... So (he) showed ... that he didn't want his fellow-countrymen to despise the law. In their circle he was wholly willing to live after Jewish custom. He also, as we know, had seen to that Timothy was circumcised, so that he could be a Jew among Jews. (Bo Giertz "Apostlagärningarna" p 169 in comment to Acts 21:15-26; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

"It is noteworthy that ... the early Christians seized on "Messiah" as his title par excellence and in its Greek form "Christ" became part of his proper name." (Raymond E. Brown "The Gospel according to John" p 46)

The name Jesus is Hebrew, as Jesus was a Hebrew. Completely it is called Jehosua but is shortened to Josua and then to Jesus. It is worded by two words, Jehovah and save, and means so literally: Jehovah saves. In that name a whole gospel is laid down, the most original, simple and rich gospel. For what greater and richer can be said or even be thought, than that God, against whom we have sinned, himself saves and reconciles. It is a great thing, when the offended one receives offered salvation; but over all description great, yes incomprehensible great it is, when the offended one himself gives reconciliation. This God has done. (Karl Palmberg "Ur livskällan. Tredje årgången." p 55-56; Karl Palmberg /1842-1920/ was from 1883 a Lutheran clergyman in Månsarp in the diocese of Växjö and president in Jönköpings Missionsförening (Missionary Society) 1886-1911; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

The Greek word Christ means Anointed, in Hebrew Messiah. Christ was expected to come and restore what had been lost to mankind through the fall of Adam (See Alfred Edersheim "The Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah Part II" p 715) Messiah would save Israel from its enemies and clean Jerusalem.


about 1500 and time before

(Christ) commands so great reverence to be shown towards (the law), that, even when (the scribes and the Pharisees) that teach it are depraved, He charges (the multitudes and His disciples) to hold to it. (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers X:435)

Was the law then of no use? It was indeed of use; and of great use: but to make men perfect it was of no use. ... All were figures, all shadows; circumcision, sacrifice, sabbath. (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers XIV:428)

Both the Mosaic law and the grace of the new covenant, as both fitted for the times (at which they were given), were bestowed by one and the same God for the benefit of the human race. For all those are of a perverse mind, having been set against the Mosaic legislation, judging it to be dissimilar and contrary to the doctrine of the Gospel, have not applied themselves to investigate the causes of the difference of each covenant. Since, therefore, they have been deserted by the paternal love and puffed up by Satan ... they have ... imagined that they have themselves discovered more than the apostles ... that they themselves are purer (in doctrine), and more intelligent, than the apostles. (Irenaeus, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol I, p 434)

Moses himself says to the people in Deuteronomy: “The Lord thy God formed a covenant in Horeb. The Lord formed not this covenant with your fathers, but for you.” Why, then, did the Lord not form the covenant for the fathers? Because “the law was not established for righteous men.” But the righteous fathers had the meaning of the Decalogue written in their hearts and souls, that is, they loved the God who made them, and did no injury to their neighbour. There was therefore no occasion that they should be cautioned by prohibitory mandates, because they had the righteousness of the law in themselves. ... Lord's advent ... should be subsequent to that law which was given by Mose. (Irenaeus, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol I, p 481,490)

Solomon ... built the temple as the type of truth. (Irenaeus, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol I, p 499)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Karl-Erik Andersson, Per Beskow, Ingmar Brohed, Chris Byworth, Sven Danell, E.J. Ekman, Björne Erixon, Johannes Gossner, Carl Grimberg, Astrid Gustafsson, Jan Arvid Hellström, Alf Henrikson, Lars Levi Laestadius, Sven Lidman, Mereth Lindgren, Martin Luther, Vilhelm Moberg, Ingun Montgomery, Wilhelm Möller, V.S. Naipul, Fredrik Nielsen, Nils Henrik Nilsson, Carl-Erik Sahlberg, Dag Sandahl, Elisabeth Sandlund, Bo Setterlind, Håkan Sjögren, Harry Sjöman, Gunnar Stenvall, Rune Storck, John Stott, August Strindberg, Nathan Söderblom, Olof Thulin, James B. Torrance, P Waldenström, David F. Wright, Göran Åberg.


My own comments and speculations:

The name Greek “Iêsos” should maybe best be translated by the word “Jesos”. However, I here have chosen to follow the Latin tradition and translate by “Jesus”. The most important purpose with this work is to separate Greek words from each other rather than to render the absolute best translation for each of the Greek words. This does not mean that the different letters in a word would not have significance and perhaps also here. Compare with My own comments and speculations to John 5:45-47.

Concerning “the joybringing (grace) and the truth”, see also John 1:14b-15; 1:51a; 18:15-16.


Paul said to the believers in Rome: "Miss (of the mark of God) will not be lord for you, for you are not underneath law but underneath joybringing (grace)." (Rom 6:14)

The law has become (and becomes) our tutor into Christ. (Gal 3:24a)

The law made nothing perfect. (Heb 7:19a)

What we have beheld (and behold) and have heard (and hear) we bring away a message and/also to you, in order that and/also you may have communion in company with us. And but/further (we have) our communion in company with the Father and in company with His Son, Jesus Christ. (1 John 1:3)

Who is the liar, if not the one denying that/: ”Jesus is not the christ/'anointed one'.”? This is the antichrist, the one denying the Father and the Son. (1 John 2:22)

In this we (א*) have knowledge of the Spirit of God: every spirit which confesses Jesus Christ having come (and coming) in flesh is out of God. (1 John 4:2)

This is the One having come through water and blood and spirit (א,* א, A), Jesus Christ, not in the water only, however/but in the water and in * (א,* א) blood and the Spirit is the One being a witness, because the Spirit is the truth. (1 John 5:6)


Greek words:

nomos (law) (in the Synoptics, John, the Acts, 1-3 John, Rev + examples in the Apocrypha) 2 Macc 7:30; Sir 24:23; 45:5; Matt 5:17; Luke 2:22; John 1:17; Acts 21:24 - Tobit 1:8; 7:13; Judith 11:12; Esther 1:13,15,19-20; 3:8; 4:16; 8:11; 8:12p(E15); 1 Macc 1:49,52,56-57; 2:21,26-27,42,48,50,58,64,67-68; 3:48,56; 4:42,47,53; 10:14,37; 13:3,48; 14:14,29; 15:21; 2 Macc 1:4; 2:2-3,18,22; 4:2,17; 5:8,15; 6:1,5,28; 7:2,9,11,23,37; 8:21,36; 10:26; 11:31; 12:40; 13:10(11),14; 15:9; Wisdom of Solomon 2:11; 6:4,18; 9:5; 14:16; 18:4,9; Sir Prologue; 2:16; 9:15; 15:1; 17:11; 19:17,20; 21:11; 23:23; 32:15,24; 33:2-3; 34:8; 35:1; 38:34(39:1); 39:8; 41:8; 42:2; 44:20; 45:17; 46:14; 49:4; 51:19; Baruch 2:2,28; 4:1,12; Susanna v 3(Theod),62. Matt 5:18; 7:12; 11:13; 12:5; Matt 15:6(א*); Matt 22:36,40; 23:23; Luke 2:23-24,27,39; 10:26; 16:16-17; 24:44; John 1:45; 7:19,23,49,51; 8:(5),17; 10:34; 12:34; 15:25; 18:31; 19:7; Acts 6:13; 7:53; 13:15,38(39); 15:5; 18:13,15; 21:20,28; 22:3,12; 23:3,29; 24:14; 25:8; 28:23.

Christos (Christ/Anointed) (in the Synoptics, John, the Acts, 1-3 John; Rev + examples in the OT) Ps 2:2; Matt 1:1; Mark 1:1; John 1:17; Acts 10:36; 1 John 1:3; 2:22; 4:2; 5:6 – Lev 4:5; 2 Macc 1:10; Sir 46:19; Matt 1:16-18; 2:4; 11:2; 16:16,20; Matt 16:21(א*); Matt 22:42; 23:10; 24:5,23; 26:63,68; 27:17,22; Mark 8:29; 9:41; 12:35; 13:21; 14:61; 15:32; Luke 2:11,26; 3:15; 4:41; 9:20; 20:41; 22:67; 23:2,35,39; 24:26,46; John 1:20,25,41; 3:28; 4:25,29; 7:26-27,31,41-42; 9:22; 10:24; 11:27; 12:34; 17:3; 20:31. Acts 2:31,36,38; 3:6,18,20; 4:10,26; 5:42; 8:5,12; 9:22,34; 10:48; 11:17; 15:26; 16:18; 17:3; 18:5,28; 24:24; 26:23; 28:31; 1 John 2:1; 3:23; 5:1,20; 2 John v 3,7,9; Rev 1:1-2,5; 11:15; 12:10; 20:4,6.


Additional studies:

Ex 20:1-17; 34:28; 2 Chron 25:4, 35:12; Ps 40:10-11(11-12); 85:9-10(10-11); 86:15; Luke 3:29; John 8:32; 14;16; 18:37; Acts 13:38; Rom 5:21; 10:4; Heb 1:1; 3:1-6; 10:1,28; Rev 1:4; 15:3; 17:3; 22:21.


John Ashton "The Transformation of Wisdom. A Study of the Prologue of John's Gospel"; New Testament Studies 32 (1986): 161-186.

William B. Badke "Baptised into Moses - Baptised into Christ: a Study in Doctrinal Developement"; The Evangelical Quarterly 60 (1988): 23-29.

Craig L. Blomberg "The Law in Luke-Acts"; Journal for the Study of the New Testament 22 (1984): 86-119.

Mary Coloe "The Structure of the Johannine Prologue and Genesis 1"; Australian Biblical Review 45 (1997): 40-55.

David J. Hawkin "The Johannine Concept of Truth and Its Implications for a Technological Society"; The Evangelical Quarterly 59.1 (Jan.-Mar. 1987): 3-13.

James F. McGrath "Prologue as Legitimation: Christological Controversy and the Interpretation of John 1:1-18"; Irish Biblical Studies 19.3 (1997): 98-120.

Vem Polythress "The Use of Intersentence Conjunctions 'De, Own, Kai' and Asyndeton in the Gospel of John"; Novum Testamentum 26 (1984): 312-334.

Thomas R. Schreiner "Paul's View of the Law in Romans 10:4-5"; Westminster Theological Journal (Fall 1993): 113-135.

M.A. Selfrid "Jesus and the Law in Acts"; Journal for the Study of the New Testament 30 (1987): 39-57.

C. van der Waal "The Gospel according to John and the Old Testament"; Neotestamentica 6.1 (1972): 28-47.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-01-18; 2010-01-03; 2013-02-17; 2014-03-17; concluding version 2017-08-30)

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1:18 No one has ever beheld (and beholds) God. An only descendant, a God, the One being into/in the bosom of the Father, that One has ‘been in command out’/explained Him.

Word for word (15 words in the Greek text): God no-one has-beheld-(and beholds) ever (an)-only-descendant (a)-god the-(one) being into the bosom (of)-the father that-(one) was-in-command-out.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(God said to Abraham:) "Take your welcomed son Isaac, whom you have welcomed, and go into the high earth/land and carry him up there into a burnt offering." (Gen 22:2a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Moses:) "You shall speak to Pharaoh: 'This is what the Lord says: Israel (is) My first-born son.'" (Ex 4:22, Greek OT)

Moses and Aaron and Nadab and Abihu and seventy of the council of elders of Israel ascended (to the mountain). And they beheld the place, where the God of Israel stood there. (Ex 24:9-10a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Moses:) "You may behold My ‘things behind’/back, but My face will not be beheld for you." (Ex 33:23b, Greek OT)

(Moses said to Israel:) "The Lord talked towards you out of a middle of the fire. You heard a voice/sound of words, and you did not behold a likeness/image, ‘however or’/only a voice/sound." (Deut 4:12, Greek OT)

… Behold, a male ‘was in command out’/explained the dream to his neighbour. (Judges 7:13a A, Greek OT)

Naomi took the little boy and put him into her bosom. … (And) this one (Obed) is father of Jesse, father of David. (Ruth 4:16a,17b, Greek OT)

(Abigail said to David:) “It will by no means ever be found bad things in you.” (1 Sam 25:28b, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said:) “A cloud and a dusk (are in a) circle of/around (the Lord).” (Ps 97:2a, Greek OT)

Sayings of Amos … which he beheld. (Amos 1:1a, Greek OT)

(Solomon said: “… Wisdom) showed (a righteous one) a kingdom of God and gave him knowledge of holy things.” (Wisdom of Solomon 10:10a)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) ”Who has beheld (and beholds) (the Lord) and will describe Him out/’to the full’?” (Sir 43:31a)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “Happy the clean ones (in) the heart, because they will behold God.” (Matt 5:8)

Jesus was transformed in front of (James, John and Peter) and His face shone as the sun. (Matt 17:2a)

(When Jesus had been baptized) a voice * (א*) out of the heavens: "You are My welcomed Son. In/with You I was pleased." (Mark 1:11)

(Jesus) (continually/repeatedly) said to (the ones being around Him together with twelve): "To you has been (and is) given the mystery of the kingdom of God, but for those, the ones outside, all things become in parables, in order that seeing they may see and not behold, and hearing, they may hear and not perceive, (in order that) they may not at any time turn themselves next to (God) and it may be ‘let be’/’left alone’ to them.” (Mark 4:11-12)

(Simeon said:) "My eyes have beheld Your saving, which You have made ready ‘according to’/after a face/figure of all peoples, a light into a revelation of nations and a glory of Your people Israel." (Luke 2:30-32)

(Jesus said to the Pharisees:) “ … The beggarly one died and was carried away by the messengers into Abraham's bosom. But and/also the rich man died and was buried. * (א*) Having lifted against/up his eyes in the Hades and ‘beginning under’/being in torments he beheld Abraham from from afar and Lazarus in his bosoms/bosom. And having raised his voice he spoke: “Father Abraham, have mercy on me, and send Lazarus, in order that he may dip the border/tip of his finger (in) water and cool my tongue, because I ‘am caused’/feel pain in this flame.” (Luke 16:22-24)

(Jesus said to two of His disciples:) “… You will find a foal having been (and being) bound, against which no one of men ever has sat down.” (Luke 19:30a)

(The two disciples) spoke towards one another: "Was by no means our heart/hearts (continually) burning in us as/while (Jesus) (continually) talked (with) us in/on the way, as/while He (continually) opened the writings throughout to us?" ... And they (continually) ‘was in command out’/explained (to the other disciples) the things in/on the way. (Luke 24:32,35a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

In a beginning the Saying (continually) was, and the Saying (continually) was towards God, and the Saying (continually) was God. (John 1:1)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 - about 1500

The verb used in (Ex) 24:11 for “see” is not the usual r’h (which connotes “looking at” with the eyes) (cf. see-blepô), but hzh used throughout the Hebrew Bible to describe “prophetic” seeing (cf. behold-horaô). The “seer” sees not with eyes but with a sixth sense, granted by special dispensation. These elders are the forebears of later prophets, whose leadership is defined by what they “see” of God, which is never by the naked eye. (Michael E. Williams ”Exodus-Joshua” p 97-98)

C.H. Dodd ("The interpretation of the fourth Gospel" p 86) compares the Word and the Torah (the law of Moses). He quotes Rabbi Eliezer ben José of Galilee (c. A.D. 150): "Before the world was made the Torah was written and lay in the bosom of God." Dodd says: "As the Logos is called the son of God, so the Torah is (in rabbinic judaism) described as the daughter of God."

Jesus is the only begotten Son of God. He is the unique One. The unparalleled One. He is the only One being one with the Father and who so can interpret the will of the Father and tell how the Father is. He is the unique instrument for the manifestation of God in the world of his love. (Bengt Pleijel "... för att ni skall veta ... En vandring genom Johannes första brev" p 142-143 in a comment to 1 John 4:9-10; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

(The firstborn son) revealed (God), in fact "exegeted" and interpreted him. Look here at a picture. A man stands with a book in his hand, written to us in an unkown language. Bu he is himself native in that country and also knows even our language well; he wants to tell us just what he knows. The content of that book we then hear with the same confidence, as if we ourselves know the language of that country. Just so when we hear Christ speak about his father and about the heavenly things. He both knows what he speaks about, and, as himself being God, his words are completely true. (Karl Palmberg "Ur livskällan. Första årgången." p 496-497; Karl Palmberg /1842-1920/ was from 1883 a Lutheran clergyman in Månsarp in the diocese of Växjö and president in Jönköpings Missionsförening (Missionary Society) 1886-1911; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


about 1500 and time before

Moses, as being a servant, was minister of lower things, but Christ being Lord and King, and the King's Son, brought to us things far greater, being ever with the Father, and beholding Him continually; wherefore He saith, “No man hath seen God at any time.” ... He that merely “seeth” hath not an in every way exact knowledge of the object, but he that “dwelleth in the bosom” can be ignorant of nothing. (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers XIV:51-52)

In respect to His greatness, and His wonderful glory, “no man shall see God and live,” for the Father is incomprehensible; but in regard to His love, and kindness, and as to His infinite power, even this He grants to those who love Him, that is, to see God, which thing the prophets did also predict. “For those things that are impossible with men, are possible with God.” ... God, and the Son of God, and the Son, and the Father, should not only be prophetically announced, but ... He should also be seen by all His members who are sanctified and instructed in the things of God. (Irenaeus, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol I, p 489-490)

If neither Moses, nor Elias, nor Ezekiel, who had all many celestial visions, did see God; but if what they did see were similitudes of the splendour of the Lord, and prophecies of the things to come; it is manifest that the Father is indeed invisible, of whom also the Lord said: “No man hath seen God at any time.” But His Word, as He Himself willed it, and for the benefit of those who beheld, did show the Father's brightness and explained His purposes ... not in one figure, nor in one character, did He appear to those seeing Him, but according to the reasons and effects aimed at in His dispensations, as it is written in Daniel. For at one time He was seen with those who were around Ananias, Azarias, Misael, as present with them in the furnace of fire ... At another time (He is represented as) “a stone cut out of the mountain without hands,” ... Then, too, is this same individual beheld as the Son of man coming in the clouds of heaven. (Irenaeus, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol I, p 491)

In no other way could we have learned the things of God, unless our Master, existing as the Word, had become man. For no other being had the power of revealing to us the things of the Father, except His own proper Word. (Irenaeus, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol I, p 526)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Carl Dymling, Peter Fjellstedt, Emilia Fogelklou, Bo Giertz, Johannes Gossner, Bengt Pleijel, John Stott, P. Waldenström, Anders Weiryd, Edvin Wirén.


My own comments and speculations:

As the dead, righteous israelites were in their father Abraham's bosom, so the risen Jesus is in His Father's bosom.

In the Greek OT no one has beheld God (cf. the Greek text of Ex 24:9 with the Hebrew text).


Paul said to the believers in Colossae: "(Jesus Christ) is an image of the God (being) impossible to behold, a first-born of all creation, because all the things have been (and are) created in Him." (Col 1:15-16a)

No one has ever viewed (and views) God. If we – according to the circumstances – may welcome one another, God stays in us, and His welcome has been (and is) made perfect in us. (1 John 4:12)

If – according to the circumstances – anyone may speak that/: ”I welcome God” and (if) he may hate his brother, he is a liar. For the one not welcoming his brother, whom he beholds (and has beheld), the one is not able to welcome God, whom he does not behold (and has not beheld). (1 John 4:20)


Greek words:

exêgeomai (be in command out) (in the NT + examples in the OT) Judges 7:13; Luke 24:35; John 1:18 - Lev 14:57; 1 Macc 3:26; 2 Macc 2:13; Acts 10:8; 15:12,14; 21:19.

kolpos (bosom) (in the NT + examples in the OT) Ruth 4:16; Luke 16:22; John 1:18 – Gen 16:5; Ex 4:6-7; Num 11:12; Deut 13:6; 28:54,56; 2 Sam 12:3; 1 Kings 17:19; Ps 79:12; Is 65:6; Jer 32:18; Sir 9:1; Luke 6:38; 16:23; John 13:23; Acts 27:39.

horaô-eidon-ide-idou (behold) (in John, 1-3 John, Rev) John 1:18; 1 John 4:20 - John 1:29,33-34,36,39,46-48,50-51; 3:3; Upp 3:5(א*); Upp 3:11,26,32,36; 4:29,35,45,48; 5:6,14,37; 6:14,22,24,26,30,36,46; 7:26; 8:38,56-57; 9:1,37; 11:3,31-34,36,40; 12:9,19,21,40-41; 14:7,9; 15:24; 16:16-17,19,22,29; 18:21,26; 19:4-6,14,26-27,33,35,37; 20:8,18,20,25,29; 21:21; 1 John 1:1-3; 3:1-2,6; 5:16; 3 John v 11,14; Rev 1:2,7,12,17,19-20; 4:1-2; 5:1-2,6,11; 6:1-2,5,8-9,12; 7:1-2,9; 8:2,13; Rev 8:38(P66,א*); Rev 9:1,12,17; 10:1,5; 11:14,19; 12:1,3,13; 13:1-2,11; 14:1,6,14; 15:1-2,5; 16:13; 17:3,6,8,12,15-16,18; 18:1,7; 19:10-11,17,19; 20:1,4,11-12; 21:1-3,22; 22:4,9.

pôpote (ever) (in the NT + one example in the OT) 1 Sam 25:28; Luke 19:30; John 1:18; 1 John 4:12 - John 5:37; 6:35; 8:33.


Additional studies:

Ex 33:20; Is 6:5; Matt 3:17; 11:27; Mark 9:3; Luke 3:22; 9:29; 10:22; John 3:16,18; 5:37; 6:46; 14:9; 19:34; 1 Cor 15:20; 2 Cor 4:4; 1 Tim 1:17; 6:16; 1 John 1:18; 4:9; 5:20; Rev 4:2; 5:3; 22:4.


John Ashton "The Transformation of Wisdom. A Study of the Prologue of John's Gospel"; New Testament Studies 32 (1986): 161-186.

Mary Coloe "The Structure of the Johannine Prologue and Genesis 1"; Australian Biblical Review 45 (1997): 40-55.

James F. McGrath "Prologue as Legitimation: Christological Controversy and the Interpretation of John 1:1-18"; Irish Biblical Studies 19.3 (1997): 98-120.

Henry R. Moeller "Wisdom Motifs and John's Gospel"; Bulletin of the Evangelical Theological Society 6.3 (1963): 92-100.

Francis J. Moloney "John 1:18. 'In the Bosom of' or 'Turned towards' the Father"; Australian Biblical Review 31 (1983): 63-71.

I.J. du Plessis "Christ as the Only begotten"; Neotestamentica 2.1 (1968): 22-31.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-01-18; 2010-01-09; 2013-02-22; 2014-03-18; concluding version 2017-08-31)

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1:19 And this is the evidence of John, when the Jews had dispatched away priests and Levites * (P66,75,א,*א) out of (a disgraced) Jerosolyma/Jerusalem, in order that they might fall/’fall down’ (א,*א) (towards) him (and ask): "Who are you?"

Word for word (22 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus): And this is the evidence '(of)-the (of)-John'/'of John', when dispatched-away the Jews out-of '(of)-Jerosolymas'/'(a disgraced)-Jerosolyma' priests and Levites in-order-that (they)-might-fall-(down-towards) him: you who are?


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

In that seasonable time the Lord ‘dispatched ... throughout’/commanded the tribe of Levi ... to be by the side of opposite the Lord to perform public duties and to pray 'on on'/in His name. (Deut 10:8a, Greek OT)

(Moses said to Israel:) "The Lord your God had ‘said against’/named (the priests, the levites) to stand by the side of Him and to bless on/in His name and on/’under the rule of’ their mouth every gainsaying and every ligament will be." (Deut 21:5b, Greek OT)

(The priest Jojada said to the assembly:) "Let 'not one'/'no one' come into a house of the Lord, ‘if not’/except – according to the circumstances – the priests and the Levites, and/namely the Levites performing public duties. These will come into/in, because they are holy." (2 Chron 23:6a, Greek OT)

Dositheos … (was said to be) priest and Levite. … (Esther 10:3lb/F11b, Greek OT)

(The) free (Jerusalem) has become into/- a slave. (1 Macc 2:11b)

In that day priests fell in a war. (1 Macc 5:67a)

(The king soiled) the temple in (a disgraced) Jerosolyma/Jerusalem ... and the (temple) in/on Gerizim. (2 Macc 6:2a)


The Latter Revelation:

(A disgraced) Jerosolyma/Jerusalem and every/all the Judea and every/all the district around the Jordan went out towards (John). (Matt 3:5)

A leader of a synagogue ... having fallen/’fallen down’ to the side of Jesus’ feet … (Luke 8:41b)

(Jesus said:) “A certain man descended from Jerusalem into/to Jericho, and he fell among robbers who, having and/also having set/stripped him out/off and putting/striking blows upon him, went away having ‘let ... be’/left him half dead. But ‘according to’/by chance a certain priest descended in that way. And having beheld him, he came/went to the other side.” (Luke 10:30b-31)

Having falling/’falling down’ against the feet (of Peter) Cornelius prostrated himself before (Peter). (Acts 10:25b)

... The Jews having descended (and descending) from Jerusalem stood round about (Paul). (Acts 25:7a)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

In a very valuable note G. J. Cunning argues that in this Gospel "'the Jews' ... means Judaeans as opposed to Galileans. ... The choice of the word 'Judaeans' to describe them strongly suggests that the Evangelist was a Galilean." (Leon Morris "The Gospel according to John" p 115)

Jönköping is the spiritual capital, the Jerusalem of Småland, which still - this their priests and levites admit - have got Sodom nearer and nearer at its very doors. To Jönköping one draws, now in the third and the fourth generation, down to have feasts, as the Jews once drew to Jerusalem. (Berndt Gustafsson "Frikyrkobröder" p 50; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

We find ... that all things what in the writings of the Old Testament are foretold have been exactly fulfilled, such things as that Jesus would come when the sceptre was taken from Judah, and the Jews had not longer its own authority. (Anders Nohrborg "Den Fallna Menniskans Salighets-Ordning" p 70 in comment to John 3:16; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Werner Aspenström, Oloph Bexell, Henry Daniel-Rops, Berndt Gustafsson, Erik Johannesson, Viktor Rydberg, August Strindberg.


My own comments and speculations:

Usually the Greek words “(H)ierousalêm” and “(H)ierosolyma” both are translated by the word “Jerusalem”. In the Bible the word “(H)ierosolyma” only occurs in the Apocrypha and the NT. In Tobith 1:4,6 and in 1 Macc 1:14,20; 10:43; 11:34 the word occurs in a for Jerusalem “disgraced” context. The same thing can be said about the constant use of the word in 2 Macc. Moreover, the last part (“lyma”) of the word can be translated by “disgrace” (cf. Feyerabend who translates by “dirty water, filth; disgrace”). Cf. also the word “lymainomai” which in this work is translated “outrage” but which very well can be translated by “disgrace”. One more camparison can be done with the verb "ollymi" which can mean "destroy". In the light of the Greek OT and the probable meaning of the word “(H)ierousalêm” as a habitation of peace I therefore mean that there is cause to separate the two words from each other.

Furthermore we can observe, how 1 Macc almost exclusively uses the word “(H)ierousalêm”, while 2 Macc constantly uses the word “(H)ierosolyma”. With this background we can in a restoration perspective see, how John constanstantly use “(H)ierosolyma” in his first book, the Gospel of John (“1 John”) and “(H)ierousalêm” in his second book, the Revelation (“2 John”).

The word “Ioudaios” (Jewish-Jew) is in the johannine books used as a designation of the inhabitants of Judea being descended from the tribe of Judah rather than as a designation of the people of Israel. Cf. “Galilaios” (Galilean) in John 4:45. In the time of Messiah all exulted must be humilated. Judah belonged to what must be counted as exulted in the land and among the tribes of Israel.

I am not sure, but I read the Greek word “epesôsin” in Sinaiticus as an aorist subjunctiv of the Greek word “piptô”.


Greek words:

(h)iereus (priest) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Esther 10:3l(F11); 1 Macc 5:67; Luke 10:31; John 1:19 – Tobit 1:7; Judith 4:6,8,14; 11:13; 15:8; 1 Macc 2:1; 3:51; 4:42; 7:14,33,36; 10:42; 11:23; 12:6,20; 14:20,28,41,44,47; 15:1-2; 2 Macc 1:10,13,15,19-21,23,30,33; 3:15; 4:14; 14:31,34; 15:31; Sir 7:29; 50:1,12; Baruch 1:7,16; Epistle of Jeremiah v 9,27,30,32,48,54; The Song of Praise of the Three Men v 61; Bel and the Dragon v 8(Theod),9(10),11(Theod),15,21,28(Theod). Matt 8:4; 12:4-5; Mark 1:44; 2:26; Luke 1:5; 5:14; 6:4; 17:14; Acts 4:1; 14:13; Heb 5:6; 7:1,3,11,14-15,17,20-21(21),23; 8:4; 9:6; 10:11,21; Rev 1:6; Rev 4:3(א*,A); Rev 20:6.

(H)ierosolyma; (a disgraced) Jerosolyma 2 Macc 6:2; Matt 3:5; John 1:19; Acts 25:7 – Tobit 1:4,6; 13:9(10)(BA); 1 Macc 1:14,20; 10:43; 11:34; 2 Macc 1:1,10; 3:6,9,37; 4:9,19,21; 5:22,25; 8:31,36; 9:4;10:15; 11:2,5,8; 12:9,29,31,43; 14:23,37; 15:30; Matt 2:1,3; 4:25; 5:35; 15:1; 16:21; 20:17-18; 21:1,10; Mark 3:8,22; 7:1; 10:32-33; 11:1,11,15,27; 15:41; Luke 2:22; 13:22; 19:28; 23:7; John 2:13,23; 4:20-21,45; 5:1-2; 10:22; 11:18,55; 12:12; Acts 1:4, 8:1,14,25; 11:27; 13:13; 16:4; 19:21; 20:16; 21:4,15,17; 25:1,9,15,20,24; 26:4,10,20; 28:17; Gal 1:17-18; 2:1.

Ioudaios (Jewish-Jew) (in the Synoptics, Rev; frequent in John and the Acts) John 1:19 – Matt 2:2; 27:11,29,37; 28:15; Mark 1:5; 7:3; 15:2,9,12,18,26; Luke 7:3; 23:3,37-38,51; Rev 2:9; 3:9. (See also my own comments and speculations)

Leuitês (Levite) (in the NT + one example in the OT) Esther 10:3l/F11; John 1:19 - Acts 4:36.

piptô (fall) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) 1 Macc 5:67; Luke 8:41; John 1:19; Acts 10:25 – Esther 3:7; 5:1d(D7); 5:2b(D15); 6:13; Tobit 12:16; Judith 4:11; 6:6,18; 7:11,22; 8:19; 9:1; 10:23; 14:6; 1 Macc 3:24; 4:15,34,40,55; 5:22,34,54,60; 6:46; 7:32,38,43-44; 9:18,21; 10:50,85; 11:74; 12:37; 16:10; 2 Macc 3:27; 9:7; 10:4; 12:34,40; Wisdom of Solomon 11:20; 18:23; Sir 1:30; 2:7; 13:21; 22:27; 23:1,3; 28:18,26; Matt 2:11; 4:9; 7:25,27; 10:29; 13:4-5,7-8; 15:14,27; 17:6,15; 18:26,29; 21:44; 24:29; 26:39; Mark 4:4-5,7-8; 5:22; 9:20; 13:25; 14:35; Luke 5:12; 6:39(א,*א,A),49; 8:5,7-8,14; 10:18; 11:17; 13:4; 14:5; 16:17,21; 17:16; 20:18; 21:24; 23:30. John 11:32; 12:24; 18:6; Acts 1:26; 5:5,10; 9:4; 13:11; 15:16; 20:9; 22:7; Rom 11:11,22; 14:4; 1 Cor 10:8,12; 13:8; 14:25; Heb 3:17; 4:11; 11:30; Jas 5:12; Rev 1:17; 2:5; 4:10; 5:8,14; 6:13,16; 7:11,16; 8:10; 9:1; Rev 11:11(P47,א,*א); Rev 11:13,16; 14:8; 16:19; 17:10; 18:2,3(א,*א,A); 19:4,10; 22:8.


Additional studies:

2 Kings 17:28; 2 Chron 23:4-6; 35:3; Matt 15:1; 16:15; Mark 3:22; 7:1; Luke 9:7-9; John 2:18; 5:33-35; 10:24; Acts 10:36-37; 13:23-25; 25:7; Rev 7:13; 22:8-9.


R. Abba "Priests and Levites in Ezekiel"; Vetus Testamentum 8 (1978): 1-9.

Jerome Murphy-O'Connor "John the Baptist and Jesus. History and Hypothesis."; New Testament Studies 36 (1990): 359-374.

S. Petri "Tillbedjan i ande och sanning: En exegethistorisk skiss till Joh 1:19-24"; Svensk Exegetisk Årsbok 11 (1946): 47-76.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-01-19; 2010-01-12; 2013-02-26; 2014-03-18; concluding version 2017-08-31)

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1:20 And he confessed and did not deny * (א,*א) that/: "I am not the christ/'anointed one'."

Word for word (11 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus): and (he)-confessed and not denied that i/I not am the christ/'anointed one'.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

Sarah denied, saying: “I did not laugh.”(Gen 18:15a, Greek OT)

(Solomon said:) “On/at the destruction of the first-born (the Egypts) confessed a people (being) a son of God.” (Wisdom of Solomon 18:13b)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to the twelve:) "Every/everyone whoever will confess in/with Me in front of the men, I will and/also confess in/with him in front of My Father, the One (being) in * (P19, א,* א) heavens. But whoever may – according to the circumstances – deny Me in front of the men, I and/also will deny him in front of My Father, the One (being) in * (P19, א,* א) heavens.” (Matt 10:32-33)

(On the) waiting of the people for and (on the) ‘counting throughout’/considering of all in their hearts on account of John (if) he not at any time might be the christ/'anointed one', John answered saying to all: "I indeed baptize you (with) water, but it comes the One (being) more stable than me/I, the thong of whose sandals I am not fit to loosen." (Luke 3:15-16a)


(Paul said to the Jews:) "As/when John ‘(continually) completed’/’was completing’ the course, he (continually) said: 'What you conjecture me to be, I am not." (Acts 13:25a)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

The word "confess" ... is in Greek called "homologein". It means "to agree with the apprehension of another person" or also "to declare one's solidarity with somebody". The word often occurs in a legal context. If an accused one says "the same thing as the judge", when the judge states his accusation, it means, that the accused one admits and confesses his blame. If he denies the accusation, witnesses can "say the same thing as he", that is, they can confirm his negative saying. Even when the word is used in a wider sense, it keeps something of its legal sanctity and loftiness. It means to say something definitely decided, something final - to speak under oath. (Gösta Sandberg "Glädjens budskap" p 45 in comment to Matt 10:32-39; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

1899. August 26th. ... The domestic servant entered with a letter from the former opera-singer Helmer Strömberg, who thanked me for (the book) "Advent" telling that he had been at Uppsala Hospital but regained his reason by prayer. The same case as mine, Herrlin's and Paul Cavallius' and others. ... The last days my thoughts also have concerned conversion and Christ. It can be Strömberg's doing with my person which I have apprehended at a distance. Yesterday I read in the Bible that "You shall through the desert return to Damascus". ... (1899) 19th (September) Mrs Tingley, the female theosophist, now is called Christ. Just as Dreyfus recently. It is magnificent. (August Strindberg "Ockulta dagboken" p 100; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask; the title in English: The occult diary)

‘He confessed, and denied not’. Canon Westcott points out, that ‘the combination of a positive and a negative’ is intended to ‘express the fulness of truth,’ and that ‘the first term marks the readinesss of his testimony, the second its completeness.’ (Alfred Edersheim "The Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah Part I" p 340)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Ingvar Andersson.


Who is the liar, if not the one denying that/: ”Jesus is not the christ/'anointed one'.”? This is the antichrist, the one denying the Father and the Son. (1 John 2:22)

In this we (א*) have knowledge of the Spirit of God: every spirit which confesses Jesus Christ having come (and coming) in flesh is out of God. (1 John 4:2)


Greek words:

arneomai (deny) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Matt 10:33; John 1:20; 1 John 2:22 – Wisdom of Solomon 12:27; 16:16; 17:9; Matt 26:70,72; Mark 14:68,70; Luke 8:45; 9:23; 12:9; 22:57; John 18:25,27; Acts 3:13-14; 4:16; 7:35; 1 Tim 5:8; 2 Tim 2:12-13; 3:5; Tit 1:16; 2:12; Heb 11:24; 2 Pet 2:1; 1 John 2:23; Jude v 4; Rev 2:13; 3:8.

homologeô (confess) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Wisdom of Solomon 18:13; Matt 10:32; John 1:20; 1 John 4:2 – Esther 1:1o(A14); 2 Macc 6:6; Sir 4:26; Susanna v 14(Theod); Matt 7:23; 14:7; Luke 12:8; John 9:22; 12:42; Acts 7:17; 23:8; 24:14; Rom 10:9-10; 1 Tim 6:12; Tit 1:16; Heb 11:13; 13:15; 1 John 1:9; 2:23; 4:3,15; 2 John v 7; Rev 3:5.


Additional studies:

1 Sam 10:1; Dan 9:25-26; John 3:28; Rev 2:13; 22:8-9.


S. Petri "Tillbedjan i ande och sanning: En exegethistorisk skiss till Joh 1:19-24"; Svensk Exegetisk Årsbok 11 (1946): 47-76.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-01-19; 2010-01-14; 2013-02-27; 2014-03-18; concluding version 2017-08-31)


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1:21a And they asked him again (א,* א): "What so/then? Are you Elijah? * (א,*א) He says: "I am not."

Word for word (11 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus): and (they)-asked him again: what so? Elijah (you)-are? (he)-says: not (i/I)-am.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The Lord said to Israel:) "Behold, I dispatch away to you Elijah ... before a great and conspicuous day of the Lord (will) come." (Mal 4:5)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to the crowds:) "The one (being) smaller in the kingdom of the heavens is greater than (John the Baptist). ... If you want to receive, he is Elijah, the one being about to come." (Matt 11:11b,14b)

(Jesus) asked His disciples, saying: “Who do the men say the Son of the Man be?” (Matt 16:13b)

(Peter said to Jesus:) "If you want, I will make three tents here, one for you and one for Moses and one for Elijah." ... Having lift against/up their eyes (Peter, James and John) beheld no one ‘if not’/except Him, Jesus alone. (Matt 17:4b,8)

(The messenger said to Zacharias about John the Baptist:) "He will come before in the very eyes of (the Lord) in a spirit and ability of Elijah." (Luke 1:17a)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

Augustine had the idea that Elijah was to come before Christ's second advent, so that John was not he. ... This idea has been taken up in modern times by J.C. Ryle, who cites Chrysostom, Jerome, Theophylact, and Gregory in support of the theory of two advents of Elijah, or more accurately of two Elijahs, an Elijah in the spirit and an Elijah in the flesh. ... C.F.D. Moule points out that it is too simple to see a straight contradiction between John's account and that of the Synoptists. "We have to ask by whom the identification is made, and by whom refused. The Synoptists represent Jesus as identifying, or comparing, the Baptist with Elijah, while John represents the Baptist as rejecting the identification when it is offered him by the interviewers. Now these two, so far from being incompatible, are psychologically complementary. The Baptist humbly rejects the exalted title, but Jesus, on the contrary, bestows it on him. Why should not the two both be correct?" (Leon Morris "The Gospel according to John" p 119)

Surely more and more false Christs will appear and seduce whole crowds.When therefore - to (now in 1906) mention an example - the notorious Dowie in Chicago recently alleged to be the second Elijah coming just before the second arrival of Christ, and seduced thousands, so this was a strong proof that time goes right, that is in the ones by Christ mentioned marks. Such phenomena surely will be more and more common. (Karl Palmberg "Hvad varslar tiden och hvad stundar?" p 61; Karl Palmberg /1842-1920/ was from 1883 a Lutheran clergyman in Månsarp in the diocese of Växjö and president in Jönköpings Missionsförening (Missionary Society) 1886-1911; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

At one time (Christ) said, “(Elias) will come,”, at another, “he hath come.” ... All these things are true. Since when He saith, “Elias indeed cometh, and will restore all things,” He means Elias himself, and the conversion of the Jews which is then to take place; but when He saith, “Which was for to come,” He calls John, Elias, with regard to the manner of his administration. Yea, and so the prophets used to call every one of their approved kings, David; and the Jews, “ruler of Sodom,” and “sons of Ethiopians;” because of their ways. (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers X:353)

Both (Eliah and John) appeared in a manner unexpected, and even antithetic to the habits of their contemporaries. John came suddenly out of the wilderness of Judea, as Eliah from the wilds of Gilead; John bore the same strange ascetic appearance as his predecessors; the message of John was the counterpart of that of Eliah; his baptism that of Elijah's novel rite on Mount Carmel. (Alfred Edersheim "The Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah Part I" p 255)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: C.J.A. Kihlstedt, Birger Sjöberg.


My own comments and speculations:

In the Gospel of John we see how John the Baptist has decreased from his high position in the Synoptics as "Elijah being about to come". Now it is Jesus who must increase (John 3:30).

Among many other types in the OT also Elijah is a type prefiguring Jesus. See for instance John 2:3-4, 4:49-50 and 19:26-27.

In Rev 11:3-6 we can have the narrative of the arrival of Eliah and the Prophet themselves.


Greek words:

erôtaô (ask) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Matt 16:13; John 1:21; Acts 10:48 – Tobit 6:7; 7:3; 1 Macc 10:72; 2 Macc 7:2. Matt 15:23; 19:17; 21:24; Mark 4:10; 7:26; 8:5; Luke 4:38; 5:3; 7:3; Luke 7:4(א,*א); Luke 7:36; 8:37; 9:45; 11:37; 14:18-19,32; 16:27; 19:31; 20:3; 22:68; 23:3; John 4:31,40,47; 5:12; (8:7;) 9:2,15,19; 12:21; 14:16; 16:5,19,23,26,30; 17:9,15,20; 18:19,21; 19:31,38; Acts 1:6; 3:3; 16:39; 18:20; 23:18,20; Phil 4:3; 1 Thess 4:1; 5:12; 2 Thess 2:1; 1 John 5:16; 2 John v 5.

Hlias (Elijah) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Matt 11:14; 17:4; Luke 1:17; John 1:21 – Judith 8:1; 1 Macc 2:58; Sir 48:1,4,12; Matt 16:14; 17:3; 17:10-12; 27:47,49; Mark 6:15; 8:28; 9:4-5,11-13; 15:35-36; Luke 4:25-26; 9:8,19,30,33; John 1:25; Rom 11:2; Jas 5:17.

palin (again) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) John 1:21(א,*א) – Tobit 13:10(11); 14:5; 2 Macc 3:33; 14:46; 15:39; Wisdom of Solomon 13:8; 16:23; 19:6; Sir 33:1. Matt 4:7-8; 5:33; 13:45,47; 18:19; 19:24; 20:5; 21:36; 22:1,4; 26:42-44,72; 27:50; Mark 2:1,13; 3:1,20; 4:1; 5:21; 7:31; 8:1,13,25; 10:1,10,24,32; 11:3,27; 12:4; 14:39-40,61,69-70; 15:4,12-13; Luke 6:43; 13:20; 23:20; John 1:35; 4:3,13,46; 6:15; 8:(2,8,)12,21; Joh 8:28(א,*א); Joh 9:15,17,27; 10:17-18,31,40; 11:7-8,38; Joh 12:22(P66,א,*א); Joh 12:28,39; 13:12; 14:3; 16:16-17,19,22,28; 18:7,27,33,38,40; 19:4,9,37; 20:10,21,26; 21:16; Acts 10:15; 11:10; 17:32; 18:21; 27:28; Rom 8:15; 11:23; 15:10-12; 1 Cor 3:20; 7:5; 12:21; 2 Cor 1:16; 2:1; 3:1; 5:12; 10:7; 11:16; 13:2; Gal 1:9,17; 2:1,18; 4:9,19; 5:1,3; Phil 1:26; 2:28; 4:4; Heb 1:5-6; 2:13; 4:5,7; 5:12; 6:1,6; 10:30; Jas 5:18; 2 Pet 2:20; 1 John 2:8; Rev 10:8,11; 17:8(א*).


Additonal studies:

Mark 1:6; 9:8; Luke 9:36; Rev 11:3; 22:8-9.


S. Petri "Tillbedjan i ande och sanning: En exegethistorisk skiss till Joh 1:19-24"; Svensk Exegetisk Årsbok 11 (1946): 47-76.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-01-19; 2010-01-16; 2013-02-28; 2014-03-20; concluding version 2017-09-01)

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1:21b "Are you the prophet?" And he answered: ”Not/no.”

Word for word (7 words in the Greek text): the prophet are you? and (he)-answered: not.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Moses said to Israel:) "The Lord your God will cause a prophet as/like me to stand up out of your brothers, you shall hear his (word)." ... (And the Lord said to Moses:) “I will give My word in his mouth, and he shall talk (with) them, in so far as I - according to the circumstances - may enjoin him.” (Deut 18:15,18b, Greek OT)

The Jews and the priests have been pleased with Simon being their commander and priest leader into the (coming) age till a faithful prophet (will) stand up. (1 Macc 14:41b)


The Latter Revelation:

(Peter said to Jesus:) "If you want, I will make three tents here, one for you and one for Moses and one for Elijah." ... Having lift against/up their eyes (Peter, James and John) beheld no one ‘if not’/except Him, Jesus alone. (Matt 17:4b,8)

Fear took/seized all of them (א,* א, A) (in Nain), and they (continually) glorified God, saying that/: "A great prophet has risen in/among us!" (Luke 7:16a)

(Peter spoke about Jesus to the people in the portico of Solomon:) "Moses indeed spoke that/: 'The Lord God will cause a prophet to stand up for us (א*) out of your brothers as me. You shall hear of Him ‘according to’/concerning all the things, as many as He – according to the circumstances – may talk towards/to you.'" (Acts 3:22)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

Stephen represents Moses as a forerunner to Christ. ... Moses visited in mature age his fellow-countrymen in order to make peace between them, just as Jesus made. He was mighty "in both word and deed" ... just as Jesus. (Peter Halldorf "Andens folk" p 116 in comment to Acts 7:17-44; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

The three eschatological roles proposed by the priests for John the Baptist can be associated with the three figures expected by the Qumran secterians; the Prophet-like-Moses, a priestly messiah (Elijah?) and the royal messiah. Cf. Raymond E. Brown "The Gospel according to John" p 49-50.

Now (the prophet) was Christ. Wherefore they do not say, “Art thou a prophet?” meaning thereby one of the ordinary prophets; but the expression, “Art thou the prophet?” with the addition of the article, means, “Art thou that Prophet who was foretold by Moses?” and therefore (John) denied not that he was a prophet, but that he was “that Prophet.” (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers XIV:56)

The Wisdom of God ... chose us twelve, the first who believed in Him, whom He named apostles; and afterwards other seventy-two most approved disciples, that, at least in this way recognizing the pattern of Moses, the multitude might believe that this is He of whom Moses foretold, the Prophet that was to come. ... For on this point only (whether Jesus were the Prophet whom Moses foretold) does there seem to be any difference between us who believe in Jesus, and the unbelieving Jews. (Recognitions of Clement, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol VIII, p 88-89)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Sten Hidal, Anders Nohrborg, Runa Ohlander, P. Waldenström.


My own comments and speculations:

See My own comments and speculations to John 1:21a.


Greek words:

profêtês (prophet) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) 1 Macc 14:41; Luke 7:16; John 1:21; Acts 3:22 – Tobit 2:6; 4:12(BA); 14:4-5; 1 Macc 4:46; 9:27,54; 2 Macc 2:1-2,4,13; 15:9,14; Wisdom of Solomon 7:27; 11:1; Sir Prologue; 36:15(18); 46:13,15; 48:1,8,22; 49:7,10; Baruch 1:16,21; 2:20,24; The Prayer of Azariah v 15; Bel and the Dragon v 33(Theod). Matt 1:22; 2:5,15,17,23; 3:3; 4:14; 5:12,17; 7:12; 8:17; 10:41; 11:9,13; 12:17,39; 13:17,35,57; 14:5; 16:14; 21:4,11,26,46; 22:40; 23:29-31,34,37; 24:15; 26:56; 27:9; Mark 1:2; 6:4,15; 8:28; 11:32; Luke 1:70,76; 3:4; 4:17,24,27; 6:23; 7:26,39; 9:8,19; 10:24; 11:47,49-50; 13:28,33-34; 16:16,29,31; 18:31; 20:6; 24:19,25,27,44; John 1:23,25,45; 4:19,44; 6:14,45; 7:40,52; 8:52-53; 9:17; 12:38. Acts 2:16,30; 3:18,21-25; 7:37,42,48,52; 8:28,30,34; 10:43; 11:27; 13:1,15,20,27,40; 15:15,32; 21:10; 24:14; 26:22,27; 28:23,25; Rom 1:2; 3:21; 11:3; 1 Cor 12:28-29; 14:29,32,37; Eph 2:20; 3:5; 4:11; 1 Thess 2:15; Tit 1:12; Heb 1:1; 11:32; Jas 5:10; 1 Pet 1:10; 2 Pet 2:16; 3:2; Rev 10:7; 11:10,18; 16:6; 18:20,24; 22:6,9.


Additional studies:

Matt 17:3; Mark 9:4-5,8,13; Luke 9:30,33,36; Rev 11:3; 22:8.


S. Petri "Tillbedjan i ande och sanning: En exegethistorisk skiss till Joh 1:19-24"; Svensk Exegetisk Årsbok 11 (1946): 47-76.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-01-19; 2010-01-17; 2013-03-02; 2014-03-20; concluding version 2017-09-01)

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1:22-25 They so spoke to him: "Who are you, in order that we may give an answer to the ones having sent us. What do you say on account of yourself?" He (continually/-) uttered: "I (am) a voice crying in the desolate (district): 'Straighten the way of (a) lord', entirely as Isaiah the prophet spoke." And (the ones) having been (and being) dispatched away (continually) were out/’on the basis’ of the Pharisees. And they * (א,*א) spoke to him: "So why do you baptize, if you are not the christ/'anointed one', nor Elijah, nor the prophet?"

Word for word: 1:22 (15 words in the Greek text) (they)-spoke so (to)-him: who are-(you)? in-order-that (an)-answer (we)-may-give (to)-the-(ones) having-sent us. what says-(you) on-account-of yourself? 1:23 (16 words in the Greek text) (he)-(continually)-uttered: i/I (a)-voice crying in the desolate-(district), straighten-(you) the way (of-a)-lord, entirely-as spoke Isaiah the prophet. 1:24 (6 words in the Greek text) And having-been-(and-being)-dispatched-away were-(continually) out/'on-the-basis'-of (of)-the (of)-Pharisees. 1:25 (17 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus): and (they)-spoke (to)-him: what/why so baptize-(you) if you not are the christ/'anointed one' nor Elijah nor the prophet?


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

Cain stood up against his brother Abel and killed him. ... And God spoke: "What have you made/done? A voice of your brother's blood cries towards Me out of the earth." (Gen 4:8b,10, Greek OT)

(Naaman) descended and baptized/dipped himself seven times in the Jordan, according to the word of (Elisha). And his flesh ‘turned next’/’was changed’ to as flesh of a small, very little boy, and he was made clean. (2 Kings 5:14, Greek OT)

(Elihu said to Job:) “If you – according to the circumstances – may be able, give me an answer.” (Job 33:5a, Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) “A voice crying in the desolate (district): ‘Make the way of (a) lord ready! Make straight the paths of our God. Every ravine will be completed/fulfilled, and every mountain and hill will be humbled/’made low’.’” (Is 40:3-4a, Greek OT)

“Cry (you) being in pains of child-birth, because the children of the desolate (one) (will be) many rather than (for) her having the male,” spoke ... the Lord. (Is 54:1b, Greek OT)

‘According to night’/’night by night’ … (Judith) baptized/dipped herself … upon/at the spring of the water. (Judith 12:7b)

The ones having been sent (were) three males by the council of elders. (2 Macc 4:44b)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “Baptizing/dipping oneself from/’owing to’ a dead (body) and touching it again, what/how will one be helped in/with one's bath.” (Sir 34:25 or 34:30)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “’Strive after’/’pray to’ (the) Highest One, in order that He may straighten your way in truth.” (Sir 37:15b)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said: “An alien nation) made the ways (of Jerusalem) desolate.” (Sir 49:6b)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said: “The Lord promised) to do good/well to the ones straightening ways.” (Sir 49:9b)


The Latter Revelation:

(John the Baptist) is the one having been spoken through Isaiah the prophet, saying: "A voice crying in the desolate (district): 'Make the way of (a) lord ready, make His paths straight.'" (Matt 3:3)

(Men) (continually) were baptized by (John the Baptist) in the Jordan River, 'confessing out'/'frankly confessing' their misses (of the mark of God). (Matt 3:6)

Having in the prison heard of the works of Christ (and) having sent (words) through his disciples John (the Baptist) spoke to Him: “Are You the One coming/’who is to come’, or wait/'are ... to wait' we for ‘the other’/another?” (Matt 11:2-3)

Pharisees and scribes came to Jesus from (a disgraced) Jerosolyma/Jerusalem (and put a question). (Matt 15:1)

(Jesus said to the priest leaders and the elders of the people:) "From where was (continually) the baptism of John, out of heaven or out of men?" But/and they (continually) ‘counted throughout’/considered by the side of (א,* א) themselves, saying, "If we – according to the circumstances – may speak: 'Out of heaven', He will speak to us: 'So because of what did you not believe him?' But if – according to the circumstances – we may speak: 'Out of men', we fear the crowd, for they all have John as a prophet." And ‘having answered Jesus they’/’they answered Jesus and’ spoke: "We do not know." (Matt 21:25-27a)

Entirely as it has been (and is) written in the prophet Isaiah: “Behold, I dispatch away My messenger before your face, who will entirely prepare your way.” A voice being cried in the desolate (district): “Make the way of (a) lord ready. Make His paths straight.” (Mark 1:2-3)

(Zacharias said: “The Lord God of Israel) has raised a horn of saving for us in a house of His boy David, entirely as He talked through a mouth of His holy prophets.” (Luke 1:69-70a)

Having wondered on/at (Jesus') answer, (the people) were silent. (Luke 20:26b)

(Paul said to the soothsayer:) “Will you not cease ‘turning aside’/perverting the straight ways of the Lord.” (Acts 13:10b)

(Paul said:) “Having judged (Jesus) the ones dwelling in Jerusalem and their leaders ... completed ... the voices of the prophets ... .” (Acts 13:27)

(Apollos) (continually) was (and had been) resounded/informed (of) the way of the Lord. (Acts 18:25a)

Paul spoke: "John baptized (with) a baptism of a change of mind." (Acts 19:4a)

(Paul said to the council:) “Males, brothers, I am a Pharisee, a son of Pharisees. ... “ (Acts 23:6b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

And (John) confessed and did not deny * (א,*א) that/: "I am not the christ/'anointed one'." (The priests and the Levites) asked him again (א,*א): "What so/then? Are you Elijah?" * (א,*א) He says: "I am not." "Are you the prophet?" And he answered: ”Not/no.” (John 1:20-21)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

Paul himself had understood that God had led him right from the womb and that his Pharisaical education had been a preparation for his task in life. The Pharisees stood for the religious seriousness, for the faith in the revelation in Scripture - the whole Scripture! - and for the certainty that the greatest works of God were in the future. ... It also turned out that among the Pharisees in the Council there were some persons who stood up for Paul. (Bo Giertz "Apostlagärningarna" p 179 in comment to Acts 23:6-11; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

The Pharisees were the successors of the Hasidim, who combined loyalty to Jewish religious tradition with patriotic fervour in support of the Maccabean revolt against the attack on Jewish institutions by Antiochus IV in the second century B.C. Their name probably means ‘the separated ones’ and may originally have been a nickname bestowed on them since, once the battle for religious freedom was won, they dissociated themselves from the political and priestly ambitions of the Maccabean dynasty. The reputation they had won as devout and patriotic scholors persisted into NT times when, although in the hands of the time-serving Sadducees, the Pharisees wielded far more influence over the people. (William Neil "The Acts of the Apostles" p 98)

The Pharisees were ... according to their own definition a “brotherhood”. Any Jew could join them as long as he was ready to accept their teaching and way of life, the most characteristic of which was strict observance of the law according to the traditions of the ancients and the exegesis of Pharisee scholars. (Rudolf Schnackenburg “The Moral Teaching of the New Testament” p 67)

On their second appearance before the Sanhedrin the apostles found an unexpected helper. Gamaliel was a Pharisee. The Sadducees were the wealthy collaborationist, who were ever seeking to preserve their own prestige; but the Pharisees had no political ambitions. Their name literally means “The Separated Ones,” and they had separated themselves from ordinary life in order to devote themselves to the keeping of the law in its every small detail. There were never more than about six thousand of them all told, and the austerity of their lives made them higly respected. ... When the Sanhedrin seemed likely to resort to violent measures against the apostles Gamaliel intervened. The Pharisees had a belief which combined fate and free-will. They believed that all tings were in the hand of God and yet that man was responsible for his actions. “Everything is foreseen,” they said, “yet freedom of choice is given.” (William Barclay “The Acts of the Apostles” p 49 commenting Acts 5:33-42)

(Outside Rome) a desert extends in all quarters, to the shoulders of the distant blue Apennines, to the Alban Hills and the sea. The contrast between the magnificence of nature and the arts enchanting us in the Roman amusement parks and the desolateness outside there feels at first almost overpowering, and one is ready to believe in a delusion, called forth to conceal from the capital of Catholicism the alarming reality, which surrounds it, conceal the premonitary sign of the fate, which would hit mankind's world of ideas, if the magnificence, which for so long time has wielded the sceptre of this district, could stretch her as far as she aims. It is a four poster bed of a passed away great power, this desert, Campagna di Roma, and during the first impression of this sight Rome is a dead person round whose temples one has twined a wreath of greenery. (Viktor Rydberg "Campagna di Roma" p 273-274; Rome 1874; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Svetlana Aleksijevitj, Erik Beijer, Saul Bellow, Håkan Bengtsson, UllaBritt Berglund, Jacob Bircherod, Stig Dagerman, Sven Danell, Carl Grimberg, Sergej Gurin, Josef Gustafsson, Lennart Gustavsson, Peter Halldorf, Alf Henrikson, Oscar Johansson, Eyvind Johnson, Lars Levi Laestadius, Gustaf Ljunggren, Martin Luther, Verner Malmsten, Dieter Mitternacht, Vilhelm Moberg, Petrus M. Nicander, Fredrik Nielsen, Paul Nilsson, Efraim Palmqvist, Lewi Pethrus, Anders Runesson, Petrus Silfverbrand, Harry Sjöman, Bertil Waldén, Paul Wern, Manne Zettergren.


My own comments and speculations:

To translate by the expression "the way of (a) lord" is better in accordance with the literal meaning with the Greek words than what the expression "the way of the Lord" (cf. Acts 18:25) is. In any case it is unclear if the Baptizer in his preaching understands that Jesu is the Lord Himself. Compare My own comments and speculations to John 1:30-31.


Greek words:

apokrisis (answer) (in the NT + examples in Job) Job 33:5; Luke 20:26; John 1:22 – Job 32:4; 35:4; Luke 2:47; John 19:9.

baptizô (baptize) 2 Kings 5:14; Judith 12:7; Sir 34:25(30); Matt 3:6; John 1:25 – Is 21:4. Matt 3:11,13-14,16; 28:19; Mark 1:4-5,8-9; 6:14,24; 10:38-39; Luke 3:7,12,16,21; 7:29-30; 11:38; 12:50; John 1:26,28,31,33; 3:22-23,26; 4:1-2; 10:40; Acts 1:5; 2:38,41; 8:12-13,16,36,38; 9:18; 10:47-48; 11:16; 16:15,33; 18:8; 19:3-5; 22:16; Rom 6:3; 1 Cor 1:13-17; 10:2; 12:13; 15:29; Gal 3:27.

boaô (cry) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Matt 3:3; John 1:23 – Esther 4:1; 10:3f(F6); Judith 4:12,15; 6:18; 7:29; 9:1; 10:1; 14:16-17; 1 Macc 3:50,54; 4:10,40; 13:45,50; Baruch 4:21,27; Epistle of Jeremiah v 31; Susanna v 46(Theod); Bel and the Dragon v 18(Theod),37(Theod); Mark 1:3; 15:34; Luke 3:4; 9:38; 18:7,38; Acts 8:7; 17:6; 25:24; Gal 4:27.

erêmos (desolate) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Matt 3:3; John 1:23 – 1 Macc 1:39; 2:29; 5:24,28; 2 Macc 5:27. Matt 3:1; 4:1; 11:7; 14:13,15; 23:38; 24:26; Mark 1:3-4,12-13,35,45; 6:31-32,35; Luke 1:80; 3:2,4; 4:1,42; 5:16; 7:24; 8:29; 9:10(א,*א,A),12; 15:4; John 3:14; 6:31,49; 11:54; Acts 1:20; 7:30,36,38,42,44; 13:18; 21:38; 1 Cor 10:5; Gal 4:27; Heb 3:8,17; Rev 12:6,14; 17:3.

euthynô (straighten) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) John 1:23; Sir 37:15; 49:9 – Sir 2:6; Jas 3:4.

Hsaias (Isaiah) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Matt 3:3; John 1:23 – Sir 48:20,22; Matt 4:14; 8:17; 12:17; 13:14; Matt 13:35(א*); Matt 15:7; Mark 1:2; 7:6; Luke 3:4; 4:17; John 12:38-39,41; Acts 8:28,30; 28:25; Rom 9:27,29; 10:16,20; 15:12.

kathôs (entirely as) (in the Synoptics, John, the Acts, 1-3 John, Rev + some examples in the OT and in the rest of the NT) Mark 1:2; Luke 1:70; John 1:23 – Gen 8:21; Num 26:54; Neh 5:6; Judith 7:11; 1 Macc 10:58; 11:26; 2 Macc 1:31; Susanna v 15(Theod); Matt 21:6; 26:24; 28:6; Mark 4:33; 9:13; 11:6; 14:16,21; 15:8; 16:7; Luke 1:2,55; 2:20,23; 5:14; 6:31,36; 11:1,30; 17:26,28; 19:32; 22:13,29; 24:24,39; John 3:14; 5:23,30; 6:31,57-58; 7:38; 8:28; 10:15; 12:14,50; 13:15,33-34; 14:27,31; 15:4,9-10,12; 17:2,11,14,16,18,21-23; 19:40; 20:21; Acts 2:4,22; 7:17,42,44,48; 11:29; 15:8,14-15; 22:3; Rom 1:13,17,28; 2:24; 3:10; 4:17; 8:36; 9:29; 15:7; 1 Cor 1:6; 4:17; 5:7; 8:2; 10:6; 12:11,18; 15:38,49; 2 Cor 1:5,14; 9:3; 10:7; 11:12; Gal 3:6; Eph 1:4; 4:17,32; Phil 1:7; Col 3:13; 1 Thess 2:13-14; 1 Tim 1:3; 1 Pet 4:10; 1 John 2:6,18,27; 3:2-3,7,12,23; 4:17; 2 John v 4,6; 3 John v 2-3.

(h)odos (way) (in the Synoptics, John, the Acts, 1-3 John, Rev + examples in the Apocrypha) Sir 37:15; 49:6,9; Matt 3:3; John 1:23; Acts 13:10; 18:25 – Tobit 1:2-3; 4:5,15(BA); 5:2,4-6,10,16-17(17),22; 10:7,13(14); 11:5,15; Judith 2:21; 5:8,18; 9:6; 10:13; 12:8; 13:16; 14:4; 15:2; 1 Macc 5:4,24,46,53; 6:33; 7:45; 8:19; 9:2; 11:4; 15:41; 2 Macc 2:6; 3:19; Wisdom of Solomon 5:6-7; 10:17; 12:24; 14:3; 18:23; 19:7; Sir 2:6,15; 6:26; 14:21; 16:20; 17:15,19; 21:10,16; 23:19; 32:20-21; 33:11; 37:9; 39:24; 47:23(24); 48:22; Baruch 3:13,20-21,23,27,31,37; 4:13,26; Epistle of Jeremiah v 42; The Prayer of Azariah v 4. Matt 2:12; 4:15; 5:25; 7:13-14; 8:28; 10:5,10; 11:10; 13:4,19; 15:32; 20:17,30; 21:8,19,32; 22:9-10,16; Mark 1:2-3; 2:23; 4:4,15; 6:8; 8:3,27; 9:33-34; 10:17,32,46,52; 11:8; 12:14; Luke 1:76,79; 2:44; 3:4-5; 7:27; 8:5,12; 9:3,57; 10:4,31; 11:6; 12:58; 14:23; 18:35; 19:36; 20:21; 24:32,35; John 14:4-6. Acts 1:12; 2:28; 8:26,36,39; 9:2,17,27; 14:16; 16:17; 18:26; 19:9,23; 22:4; 24:14,22; 25:3; 26:13; Rom 3:16-17; 11:33; 1 Cor 4:17; 12:31; 1 Thess 3:11; Heb 3:10; 9:8; 10:20; Jas 1:8; 2:25; Jas 5:19(א,*א); Jas 5:20; 2 Pet 2:2,15,21; Jude v 11; Rev 15:3; 16:12.

pempô (send) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) 2 Macc 4:44; Matt 11:2; John 1:22 – 2 Macc 3:38; 5:18,24; 11:32,37; 14:19; Wisdom of Solomon 9:17. Matt 2:8; 14:10; 22:7; Mark 5:12; Luke 4:26; 7:6,10,19; 15:15; 16:24,27; 20:11-13; 23:11(P75,א*); John 1:33; 4:34; 5:23-24,30,37; 6:38,44; 7:16,18,28,33; 8:16,18,26,29; 9:4; 12:44-45,49; 13:16,20; 14:24,26; 15:21,26; 16:5,7; 20:21. Acts 10:5,32-33; 11:29; 15:22,25; 19:31; 20:17; 23:30; 25:25(26),27. Rom 8:3; 1 Cor 4:17; 16:3; 2 Cor 9:3; Eph 6:22; Phil 2:19,23,25,28; 4:16; Col 4:8; 1 Thess 3:2,5; 2 Thess 2:11; Tit 3:12; 1 Pet 2:14; Rev 1:11; 11:10; 14:15,18; 22:16.

fêmi (utter) (in the NT + two examples in the OT) John 1:23 – Gen 24:47; Ex 25:40; Matt 4:7; 8:8; 13:28-29; 14:8; 17:26; Matt 19:18(א,*א); Matt 19:21; 21:27; 22:37; 25:21,23; 26:34,61; 27:11,23,65; Mark 9:12,38; 10:20,29; 12:24; 14:29; Luke 7:40,44; 15:17; 22:58,70; 23:3,40; John 18:29; Acts 2:38; 7:2; 8:36; 10:28,30-31; 16:30,37; 17:22; 19:35; 21:37; 22:2,27-28; 23:5,17-18,35; 25:5,22; 26:1,24-25,32; Rom 3:8; 1 Cor 6:16; 7:29; 10:15,19; 15:50; 2 Cor 10:10; Heb 8:5.

fônê (voice) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Matt 3:3; John 1:23; Acts 13:27 – Esther 1:1d-f(A4-6); 4:17z(C30); Judith 4:13; 8:17; 13:12,14; 16:11; 1 Macc 6:41; 9:13; 13:45; 2 Macc 7:8,21,27; 12:37; 15:29; Wisdom of Solomon 1:7; 7:3; 18:1; Sir 17:13; 29:5; 45:5,9; 46:17,20; 50:16; Baruch 1:18,21; 2:5,10,22-24,29; Susanna v 44(Theod); Bel and the Dragon v 18(Theod),41(Theod). Matt 2:18; 3:17; 12:19; 17:5; 27:46,50; Mark 1:3,11,26; 5:7; 9:7; 15:34,37; Luke 1:42(א,*א,A),44; 3:4,22; 4:33; 8:28; 9:35-36; 11:27; 17:13,15; 19:37; 23:23,46; John 3:8,29; 5:25,28,37; 10:3-5,16,27; 11:43; 12:28,30; 18:37. Acts 2:6,14; 4:24; 7:31,57,60; 8:7; 9:4,7; 10:13,15; 11:7,9; 12:14,22; 14:10-11; 16:28; 19:34; 22:7,9,14,22; 24:21; 26:14,24; 1 Cor 14:7-8,10; Gal 4:20; 1 Thess 4:16; Heb 3:7,15; 4:7; 12:19,26; 2 Pet 1:17-18; 2:16; Rev 1:10,12,15; 3:20; 4:1,5; 5:2,11-12; 6:1,6-7,10; 7:2,10; 8:5,13; 9:9,13; 10:3-4,7-8; 11:12,15,19; 12:10; 14:2,7,9,13,15,18; 16:1,17-18; 18:2,4,22-23; 19:1,5-6,17; 21:3.


Additional studies:

Deut 18:15,18; Jer 2:2; Ezek 20:35-36; 36:25; 37:23; Hos 2:14-16; Zech 13:1; Mark 3:22; 7:1; Luke 3:5-6; 7:29-30; 20:3-7; John 8:13; 9:16; 20:18; Rev 7:13; 16:12.


Donald E. Cook "A Gospel Portrait of the Pharisees"; Review and Expositor 84.2 (Spring 1987): 221-233.

Maarten J.J. Menken "The Quotation from Isa 40,3 in John 1,23"; Biblica 66 (1985): 190-205.

Jerome Murphy-O'Connor "John the Baptist and Jesus. History and Hypothesis."; New Testament Studies 36 (1990): 359-374.

Jacob Neusner "De rabbinska traditionerna om fariséerna före år 70. Problemet om muntlig tradition."; Svensk Exegetisk Årsbok 36 (1971): 97-116.

S. Petri "Tillbedjan i ande och sanning: En exegethistorisk skiss till Joh 1:19-24"; Svensk Exegetisk Årsbok 11 (1946): 47-76.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2008-12-29; 2009-01-20; 2010-01-23; 2013-03-03; 2014-03-20; concluding version 2017-09-02)

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1:26-27 John answered them saying: "I baptize in water. (In) your middle stood (and had stood) (P75, א,* א) One whom you do not know, * (א*, B) coming behind me, whose thong of His sandal I am not worthy ‘in order that’/that I may loosen."

Word for word: 1:26 (16 words in the Greek text) answered them the John saying: i/I baptize in water, middle (of)-you stood-(and-had-stood) (one)-whom you not 'know-(and-have-known)'/know 1:27 (14 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus prima manus) behind me coming, whose not (i/I)-am worthy in-order-that (i/I)-may-loosen his the thong (of)-the (of)-sandal.


The Gospel of John and the Book of Revelation: The one who in the Gospel of John stood in a middle of inquiring Jews (John 1:26) stands in the Revelation in a middle of assemblies with believing members from many nations (Rev 1:13,20). Jesus is the one who "must increase" (John 3:30).


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

God let ... every wood seasonable/'suitable for fruits of the season' stick up out of, out of the earth into/to beholding and fine into/to consumption and the wood of the life in a middle of the 'place by the side of apprehension'/Paradise and the wood of the thing to know, 'known of'/'acquainted with' fine and evil. (Gen 2:9, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Moses:) “Do not draw near here. Loosen the sandal out of/from your feet, for the place in/on which you stand is holy earth/ground.” (Ex 3:5, Greek OT)

The Lord talked towards Aaron: ”In (Israel) you will not inherit, and it will not be a portion to you in/among them, because I (am) your portion and your inheritance in a middle of the sons of Israel.” (Num 18:20, Greek OT)

(The Lord ‘arranged together’/commanded Moses:) “Every concern which will come through in fire, it will and/also be made clean. Or however/also it will be purified (in) the purification of the water. And all things, as many things - if according to the circumstances – may not be go through, through fire, it will come through, through water. (Num 31:23, Greek OT)

(Moses said to Israel:) “... Has God tried to ‘come into’/appear to take for himself a nation out of a middle of nations in/with a test and in/with signs and in/with omens ... as many as the Lord your God made/did for you in Egypt in the very eyes of your seeing? (Deut 4:34, Greek OT)

The officer leader of the Lord says towards Jesus: “Loosen the sandal out of/from your feet, for the place, on which you stand is holy.” (Joshua 5:15, Greek OT)

(Solomon said to the Lord:) “Your slave (is) in middle of Your people which You have taken out, a much/many-headed people which will not (be able to) be numbered.” (1 Kings 3:8, Greek OT)

(Job said:) “Now, now they ‘laughed me down’/’guffawed at me’, (the) least ones now bring to mind to me in/’by means of’ a part whose fathers I (continually) treated despicable, whom I ‘was in command’/stated not be worthy (to be) dogs of/at my wanderings on pasture-grounds.” (Job 30:1, Greek OT)

(The nations will come quickly.) They will not loosen their girdles … , nor the thongs of their sandals. (Is 5:27b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) “ ... I take every/all house of Israel out of a middle of the nations.” (Ezek 37:21a, Greek OT)

"Amuse yourself and be cheerful, daughter of Zion; for the reason, behold, that I come and will pitch a tent in your middle", says the Lord. (Zech 2:10, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to His people:) "You will gain additional knowledge that I am in a middle of Israel and I (am) the Lord your God ... ... and I will pour out from My spirit against every/all flesh." (Joel 2:27a,28a, Greek OT)

(The wisdom) goes herself about seeking the ones (being) her worthy.” (Wisdom of Solomon 6:16a)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “In a middle of a people (the Wisdom) will boast.” (Sir 24:1b)


The Latter Revelation:

… After three days (Jesus' parents) found Him in the sanctuary, sitting still in a middle of the teachers and hearing them and questioning them. (Luke 2:46)

John answered and said to all: "I indeed baptize you (with) water, but it comes the One (being) more stable than I, whose thong of His sandals I am not fit to loosen." (Luke 3:16a)

All in the synagogue were fulfilled (with) passion ... But having come through, through their middle, (Jesus) '(continually) went'/'went His way'. (Luke 4:28a,30)

(The elders of the Jews, dispatched away by the “the leader of a hundred men”, said to Jesus:) “He is worthy.” … (The “leader of a hundred men” sent friends, saying to Jesus:) “… I am not fit 'in order that'/that you may come in underneath my roof. Therefore I nor think myself worthy to come towards you.” (Luke 7:4b,6b-7a)

(Jesus said to the apostles:) “When you – according to the circumstances – may have made/done all the things having been throughout arranged to you, say that/: “We are useless slaves. We have made/done (and makes/does) what we (continually) were indebted to make/do.” (Luke 17:10b)

(Jesus said to the apostles:) ”I am in your middle as the One rendering service.” (Luke 22:27b)

(Jesus said:) “John indeed baptized (in) water.” (Acts 1:5a)

(Peter said:) "Males, Israelites, hear these sayings: Jesus the Nazoraean (is) a male having been (and being) shown from/away from God into/to you (with) abilities and omens and signs which God made through Him in your middle, entirely as you yourselves know." (Acts 2:22)

Having caused (the apostles) to stand in the middle (of them, the Jewish leaders) inquired (them). (Acts 4:7a)

(Paul said to the Jews:) "As/when John ‘(continually) completed’/’was completing’ the course, he (continually) said: 'What you conjecture me to be, I am not. However, behold, One comes after me, the sandal of the feet I am not worthy to loosen.'" (Acts 13:25)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

John is a witness on account of (Jesus). And he has shouted (and shouts), saying: "This (continually) was * (א*) the One coming behind me, the One who (א*) has become (and becomes) in front of me, because He (continually) was my first (one)." (John 1:15)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 - about 1500

(Christ Jesus) is among us, the one we do not know, or know so little. ... Christ's mysterious presence never forsakes you. (Brother Roger "No greater love" s 6-7; comment to John 1:26)

"In the middle of you stands one whom you not know." John the Baptist speaks about Jesus. If there is anyone we think we know in this old inclined western age, it is Jesus Christ. His image is worn, flat and fade of intimate knowledge of centuries. ... Revivals have taken experiences out of him. Is there anything to add to all books being written about him, all songs being sung to him, all theologies being formulated around him, all institutions and companies which have allowed his name to be used by them? (Ylva Eggehorn "Språk för en vuxen tro" p 27; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

What do you want of me? Now, as we know, you are free and have freedom and happiness, which you did not find at my side. Have you not perceived that I was the reason for your lack of peace? Now, catch hold of the joy which I denied you, but let me have my sorrow pure. Follow your fate which you think you can rule, but do not touch my fate, which another rules! the one you do not know! (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev XIV 1901-mars 1904" s 284; letter 1903-08-25 to Harriet Bosse; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


about 1500 and time before

Desiring to establish (Christ's) incomparableness, (John) says, “Whose shoe's latchet I am not worthy to unloose”; that is, who is not simply “before me,” but before me in such a way, that I am not worthy to be numbered among the meanest of His servants. For to loose the shoe is the office of humblest service. (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers XIV:57)

As to the shoes, which are spoken of in the three Gospels, we have a question to consider. We must compare them with the single shoe named by the disciple John. … (It is) as if John said: “I am by no means worthy to loose His shoestring, not even at the beginning, the string of one of His shoes.” (Origen, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol IV p 368-369)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Samuel Josef Agnon, Ragnar Blomqvist, Gösta Carshult, Sven Gabriel Fovolin, Thorsten Fransson, Bo Frid, Brother Roger, Anton Fridrichsen, Carl Grimberg, Lars Levi Laestadius, Ingeborg Lindqvist, Per Lundberg, Martin Luther, Vilhelm Moberg, Fredrik Nielsen, Viktor Rydberg, Vinay Samuel, Gösta Sandberg, Chris Sugden, Jesper Svartvik, Gustaf Wikner, Sigurd Wildte.


My own comments and speculations:

Compare Psalms of Solomon 17:32: “(The son of David) will be a righteous king against/over (Israel), taught by God. (There) is not unrighteousness in days of him, in (the) middle of them, because all (are) holy and the Christ of the Lord (is) their king.”

Concerning "in your middle" compare especially with Gen 2:9. Jesus is the tree of knowledge (Greek OT: wood of the thing know) in a middle of the Paradise. Compare John 1:48; 15:1; 20:16-17a. We can also see it like this, that Jesus stands in the middle of the Paradise, which in turn lies in Eden, a situation which can be compared with how Israel as one of God chosen nation is taken out of a middle of the nations (cf. Ezek 37:21) to be a special object of the care of God. For John the Baptizer however Jesus does not appear as anyone else than a great man such as Solomon (cf. 1 Kings 3:8).

Concerning “coming behind me”, see also John 1:14b-15.


Greek words:

axios (worthy) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Wisdom of Solomon 6:16; Luke 7:4; John 1:27; Acts 13:25 – Esther 7:4; 1 Macc 10:54; 2 Macc 4:25; 6:23-24,27; 7:29; 15:21; Wisdom of Solomon 1:16; 3:5; 9:12; 12:7; 13:15; 15:6; 16:9; 18:4; Matt 3:8; 10:10-11,13,37-38; 22:8; Luke 3:8; 10:7; 12:48; 15:19,21; 23:15,41; Acts 13:25,46; 23:29; 25:11,25; 26:20,31; Rom 1:32; 8:18; 1 Cor 16:4; 2 Thess 1:3; 1 Tim 1:15; 4:9; 5:18; 6:1; Heb 11:38; Rev 3:4; 4:11; 5:2,4,9,12; 16:6.

(h)imas (thong) (in the NT + examples in the OT) Is 5:27; Luke 3:16; John 1:27 – Job 39:10(13); Sir 33:27; Mark 1:7; Acts 22:25.

(h)istêmi (cause to stand/stand) (in the Synoptics, John, the Acts, 1-3 John, Rev + examples in the Apocrypha) John 1:26; Acts 4:7 – Esther 6:5; 9:27,31; Tobit 5:4; Judith 1:3; 8:11-12,33; 10:18; 13:3-4; 1 Macc 2:27; 4:59; 5:42; 6:38,51; 7:36,49; 8:7,17,20,29; 9:11; 11:57; 12:1; 13:28,38,52; 14:18,24,48; 2 Macc 3:33; 7:38; 14:45; 15:31; Wisdom of Solomon 5:1; 18:23; Sir 6:34; 11:20; 12:12; 14:25; 17:12; 37:9; 39:17; 40:12; 43:10; 44:12,20; 45:23-24; 46:3; 47:13; 50:12; Baruch 2:1,24; 5:5; Epistle of Jeremiah v 26; Susanna v 48; The Prayer of Manasseh v 10. Matt 2:9; 4:5; 6:5; 12:25-26,46-47; 13:2; 16:28; 18:2,16; 20:3,6,32; 24:15; 25:33; 26:15,73; 27:11,47; Mark 3:24-26; 9:1,36; 10:49; 11:5; 13:9,14. Luke 1:11; 4:9; 5:1-2; 6:8,17; 7:14,38; 8:20,44; 9:27,47; 11:18; 13:25; 18:11,13,40; 19:8; 21:36; 23:10,35,49; 24:17,36; John 1:35; 3:29; 6:22; 7:37; 8:(3),44; 11:56; 12:29; 18:5,16,18,25; 19:25; 20:11,14,19,26; 21:4. Acts 1:11,23; 2:14, 3:8; 4:14; 5:20,23,25,27; 6:6,13; 7:33,55-56,60; 8:38; 9:7; 10:30; 11:13; 12:14; 16:9; 17:22,31; 21:40; 22:25,30; 24:20-21; 25:10,18; 26:6,16,22; 27:21; Rev 3:20; 5:6; 6:17; 7:1,9,11; 8:2-3; 10:5,8; 11:4,11; 12:4,18; 14:1; 15:2; 18:10,15,17; 19:17; 20:12.

lyô (loosen) (in the NT + examples in the OT) Ex 3:5; Joshua 5:15; Is 5:27; Luke 3:16; John 1:27; Acts 13:25 - Gen 42:27; Job 5:20; 39:5(8); Jer 40:4; Judith 6:14; 9:2; Wisdom of Solomon 8:8; Matt 5:19; 16:19; 18:18; 21:2; Mark 1:7; 7:35; 11:2,4-5; Luke 13:15-16; 19:30-31,33; John 2:19; 5:18; 7:23; 10:35; 11:44; Acts 2:24; 7:33; 13:43; 22:30; 27:41; 1 Cor 7:27; Eph 2:14, 2 Pet 3:10-12; 1 John 3:8; 4:3; Rev 1:5; 5:2; Rev 5:5(א,*א); Rev 9:14-15; 20:3,7.

mesos (middle) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Sir 24:1; Luke 2:46; 4:30; 22:27; John 1:26; Acts 2:22; 4:7 – Judith 11:19; 14:19; 1 Macc 5:46; 6:45; 10:63; 11:45; 2 Macc 14:44; Sir 23:14; Susanna v 48; The Prayer of Azariah v 1. Matt 10:16; 13:25,49; 14:6; Matt 14:24(א,*א); Matt 18:2,20; 25:6; Mark 3:3; 6:47; 7:31; 9:36; 14:60; Luke 4:35; 5:19; 6:8; 8:7; 10:3; 17:11; 21:21; 22:55; 23:45; 24:36; John (8:3,9;) 19:18; 20:19,26; Acts 1:15,18; 17:22,33; 23:10; 26:13; 27:21,27; 1 Cor 5:2; 6:5; 2 Cor 6:17; Phil 2:15; Col 2:14; 1 Thess 2:7; 2 Thess 2:7; Heb 2:12; Rev 1:13; 2:1; 4:6; 5:6; 6:6; 7:17; 22:2.

(h)ydôr (water) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Luke 3:16; John 1:26; Acts 1:5 – Esther 1:1i(A9); 10:3c(F3); Judith 2:7; 7:12,17,20; 8:9; 9:12; 11:12; 12:7; 1 Macc 5:40; 9:33,45; 2 Macc 1:21,31,33; 15:39; Wisdom of Solomon 5:22; 10:18; 11:4,7; 16:17,29; 17:17(18); 18:5; 19:7,20; Sir 3:30; 15:3,16; 25:25; 26:12; 29:21; 38:5; 39:17,23,26; 40:11; 43:20; 48:17; The Song of Praise of the Three Men v 37,56. Matt 3:11,16; 8:32; 14:28-29; 17:15; 27:24,49(א,*א,B); Mark 1:8,10; 9:22,41; 14:13; Luke 7:44; 8:24-25; 16:24; 22:10; John 1:31,33; 2:7,9; 3:5; Joh 3:8(א,*א); Joh 3:23; 4:7,10-11,13-15,46; 5:7; 7:38; 13:5; 19:34. Acts 8:36,38-39; 10:47; 11:16; Eph 5:26; Heb 9:19; 10:22; Jas 3:12; 1 Pet 3:20; 2 Pet 3:5-6; 1 John 5:6,8; Rev 1:15; 7:17; 8:10-11; 11:6; 12:15; 14:2,7; 16:4-5,12; 17:1; 19:6; 21:6; 22:1,17.

(h)ypodêma (sandal) (in the NT + one example in the Apocrypha) Luke 3:16; John 1:27; Acts 13:25 – Sir 46:19; Matt 3:11; 10:10; Mark 1:7; Luke 10:4; 15:22; 22:35; Acts 7:33.


Additional studies:

Ex 29:45; Lev 26:12; Num 5:3; Deut 12:11; Matt 11:3; Mark 6:9; John 1:30; Acts 1:5; 19:4; Rev 3:4; 4:11; 5:9; 21:3.


Walther Eichrodt "The Holy One in Your Midst: The Theology of Hosea"; Interpretation 15 (1961): 259-275.

Jerome Murphy-O'Connor "John the Baptist and Jesus. History and Hypothesis."; New Testament Studies 36 (1990): 359-374.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-01-20; 2010-01-28; 2013-03-05; 2014-03-21; concluding version 2017-09-02)

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1:28 These things became/happened in Bethany on the other side of the Jordan, whereat/where John (continually) was baptizing.

Word for word (12 words in the Greek text): these-(things) became in Bethany on-the-other-side (of)-the (of)-Jordan, whereat was-(continually) the John baptizing.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The Egyptians) became/came by the side of against a threshing floor of Atad, which is on the other side of the Jordan, and they cut/mourned (Jacob) a great and extremely stable/lasting mourning. And (Joseph) made the grief for his father (for) seven days. ... (The Canaanites said:) "This is a great grief for the Egyptians. Because of this (Joseph) called its name Grief of Egypt, which is on the other side of the Jordan. (Gen 50:10-11, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Moses:) "Jesus/Joshua ... shall come into (the good land). ... He shall let Israel inherit it entirely." (Deut 1:38, Greek OT)

Moses said to the Lord: "Having so stepped through/across (the Jordan) I shall behold the good earth/land, the one being on the other side of the Jordan." ... (But the Lord said:) "Do not longer talk this saying (with Me)." (Deut 3:25a,26b, Greek OT)

(God) will make a district ... on the other side of the Jordan, Galilee of the nations, the parts of Judea. (Is 8:23b or 9:1b, Greek OT)

(The king had dispatched away persons) to all the ones in Samaria and its cities and (to the ones) on the other side of Jordan, till Jerusalem and Batane. (Judith 1:9a)

Jonathan and the ones in company with him sprang in, into the Jordan, and dived through into/to on the other side. (1 Macc 9:48a)


The Latter Revelation:

On the other side of the Jordan, Galilee of the nations … to them a light stuck up. (Matt 4:15b,16b)

Many crowds followed (Jesus) from ... on the other side of the Jordan. (Matt 4:25)

Jesus (became/appeared) in Bethany, in (the) habitation of Simon, the leprous. (Matt 26:6b)

(John the Baptist said:) "The winnowing shovel (of Jesus is) in His hand to thoroughly clean His threshing floor." (Luke 3:17a)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

Pierson Parker has put forward the interesting suggestion that the Bethany meant is the one near Jerusalem. He thinks a correct paraphrase would be, "These things took place in Bethany, which is across from the point of the Jordan where John had been baptizing." (Leon Morris "The Gospel according to John" p 125)

The application of the theory of seven days to John 1:19-2:11 is very attractive, but how can we possibly be sure that we are not reading into the Gospel something that was never even thought of by the evangelist or the redactor? (Raymond E. Brown "The Gospel according to John" p 106; Brown discusses the seven days of Gen 1:1-2:3 as a possible type.)

John works somewhere about the parts, where Israel at the exodus from Egypt marched over the Jordan into the country of promise. The entry now will be repeated. But now God wants the people to march through the baptism of penance in the Jordan into the sphere of the coming Kingdom. (Gösta Sandberg "Glädjens budskap" p 26 in comment to Luke 3:1-15; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

(Jesus Christ) is called Jesus, who after Moses brought the people into the land of promise. Hast thou seen the type? Behold the truth. That led into the land of promise, this into heaven, and to the good things in the heavens. (Chrysostom commenting Matt 1:1, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers X:10)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Lars Levi Laestadius.


My own comments and speculations:

In the old time the land "on the other side of the Jordan", the land west of Jordan, was the good land with its holy city Jerusalem, while the land "on the other side of the Jordan", the land east of Jordan, was the land of "grief of Egypt". And the grief lasted for seven days against a threshing floor. Cf. Gen 50:10-11).

In a restoration perspective (a disgraced) Jerosolyma/Jerusalem is the same as Egypt (and Sodom) (Rev 11:8). Priests, Levites and Pharisees (John 1:19,24) came from "Egypt" to Bethany, a name which can mean "house of affliction/grief" and where the leprous Simon lived. For the new Israel the seven days of grief after the dead Israel are replaced by seven days of joy with a wedding banquet i Cana - the new Canaan - as a climax. The grief land “on the other side of the Jordan” now has been changed into the joyful land “on the other side of the Jordan”.


Greek words:

Bêthania (Bethany) Matt 26:6; John 1:28 – Matt 21:17; Mark 11:1,11-12; 14:3; Luke 19:29; 24:50; John 11:1,18; 12:1.

Iordanês (Jordan) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Judith 1:9; Matt 4:15,25; John 1:28 – Judith 5:15; 1 Macc 5:24,52; 9:34,42-43,45,48; Sir 24:26; Matt 3:5-6,13; 19:1; Mark 1:5,9; 3:8; 10:1; Luke 3:3; 4:1; John 3:26; 10:40.

(h)opou (whereat) (in the NT + one example in the Apocrypha) John 1:28 – Tobit 13:5; Matt 6:19-21; 8:19; 13:5; 24:28; 25:24,26; 26:13,57; 28:6; Mark 2:4; 4:5,15; 5:40; 6:10,55-56; 9:18,48; 13:14; 14:9,14; 16:6; Luke 9:57; 12:33-34; 17:37; 22:11; John 3:8; 4:20,46; 6:23,62; 7:34,36,42; 8:21-22; 10:40; 11:30,32; 12:1,26; 13:33,36; 14:3-4; 17:24; 18:1,20; 19:18,20,41; 20:12,19; 21:18. Acts 17:1; 20:6; Rom 15:20; 1 Cor 3:3; Col 3:11; Heb 6:20; 9:16; 10:18; Jas 3:4,16; 2 Pet 2:11; Rev 2:13; 11:8; 12:6,14; 14:4; 17:9; 20:10.

peran (on the other side) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Judith 1:9; 1 Macc 9:48; Matt 4:15,25; John 1:28 – 1 Macc 5:37,39,41; 9:34; Matt 8:18,28; 14:22; 16:5; 19:1; Mark 3:8; 4:35; 5:1,21; 6:45; 8:13; 10:1; Luke 8:22; John 3:26; 6:1,17,22,25; 10:40; 18:1.


Additional studies: Joshua 3:17; Matt 4:16.

Brian Francis Byron "Bethany Across the Jordan or Simply: Across the Jordan"; Australian Biblical Review 46 (1998): 36-54.

Rainer Riesner "Bethany Beyond the Jordan (John 1:28): Topography, Theology and History in the Fourth Gospel"; Tyndale Bulletin 38 (1987): 29-63.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-01-21; 2010-01-30; 2013-03-07; 2014-03-22; concluding version 2017-09-02)

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1:29 On the following day he sees Jesus coming towards him, and he says: “Behold, the Lamb of God, the One lifting/’taking away’ the miss (of the mark of God) of the adornment/’adorned world’!”

Word-for word (21 words in the Greek text): (On)-the on-following-day (he)-sees the Jesus coming towards him and (he)-says: behold the lamb (of)-the (of)-god who lifting the miss (of)-the (of)-adornment


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The Lord spoke to Moses: “You shall at Pentecost offer) a he-goat ... on account of miss (of My mark) and two lambs, one year old, into/’for the purpose of’ a sacrifice ‘of means of’/to saving.” (Lev 23:19a, Greek OT)

(The Lord spoke to Moses, saying:) "You shall speak towards (the sons of Israel): 'These (are) the fruit offerings, as many as you shall lead towards to the Lord; two unblemished lambs, one year old, into a bringing of burnt offering the/every day." (Num 28:3, Greek OT)

Moses called all the sons of Israel and spoke towards them: "You have beheld (and behold) all things, as many as the Lord made/did in (the) earth/land Egypt before the very eyes of you, Pharaoh and the ones attending him and every/all his earth/land, the great tests which your eyes have beheld (and behold), the signs and those great omens. And till this day the Lord has not given you a heart to know and eyes to see and ears to hear." (Deut 29:2-4, Greek OT)

It became/happened on the following day (that) the people … built a sacrificial altar (in Betel) and carried up bringing of burnt offerings. (Judges 21:4a B, Greek OT)

(Saul said to Samuel:) "Now lift/’take ... away’ presently my misdeed ... and I will prostrate myself before the Lord your God." (1 Sam 15:25, Greek OT)

As a lamb (is) voiceless/soundless opposite the one shearing it, in this way (the slave of the Lord) does not open His mouth. (Is 53:7b, Greek OT)

(Simon) ‘lifted out’/’took away’ the impurities out of (the border/castle of Jerusalem) … (1 Macc 14:7b)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “Sacrifices (of Aaron) will (be burnt) … ‘according to a day’/’every day’ twice continually.” (Sir 45:14)


The Latter Revelation:

(Herod) ‘took up for himself’/’got rid of’ all the boys … from of two years and ‘more down’/under … (Matt 2:16b)

(Men) (continually) were baptized by (John the Baptist) in the Jordan River, 'confessing out'/'frankly confessing' their misses (of the mark of God). (Matt 3:6)

(Jesus said to the disciples of John:) “Having gone bring a message to John from (you) (about) the things you hear and see.” (Matt 11:4b)

‘Having answered’/’Jesus answered and’ spoke to (the disciples): “Amen, I say to you, if you – according to the circumstances – may have faith and may not doubt, you will not only make/do the thing (which was done) of/to the fig tree, ‘however and’/’but also’ – according to the circumstances – you may speak to this mountain: ’’Be lifted’/rise and ‘be thrown’/’throw yourself’ into the sea’, (and) it will become/’come about’.” (Matt 21:21)

(Jesus) (continually/repeatedly) said to (the ones being around Him together with twelve): "To you has been (and is) given the mystery of the kingdom of God, but for those, the ones outside, all things become in parables, in order that seeing they may see and not behold, and hearing, they may hear and not perceive, (in order that) they may not at any time turn themselves next to (God) and it may be ‘let be’/’left alone’ to them.” (Mark 4:11-12)

On the following day (on Jesus' and His disciples') having come out from Bethany, (Jesus) was hungry. (Mark 11:12)

(Joseph and Mary led Jesus up into a disgraced Jerosolyma/Jerusalem) to give a sacrifice according to the/what being (and having been) spoken in the law of the Lord: “A pair of turtledoves or two young ‘birds pigeons’/pigeons.” (Luke 2:24)

(During) the command of Tiberius …, a word of God became/came against/to John … (Luke 3:1a,2b)

(Jesus said to the eleven:) "A change of mind into/’purposed for’ a ‘letting be’/’leaving alone’ of misses (of the mark of God) to/will be proclaimed on/in (Christ's) name into all the nations, having begun from Jerusalem." (Luke 24:47)

As a lamb (is) voiceless/soundless opposite the one having sheared it, in this way (Jesus) does not open His mouth. (Acts 8:32b)

(Jesus said to Paul: ”You shall) open the eyes (of the nations) to turn (them) next to (God) from darkness into light, and (from) the (judicial) authority of the adversary against/to God, to take a ‘letting be’/’leaving alone’ of misses (of His mark) to them.” (Acts 26:18a)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 - about 1500

Every morning and evening, a lamb was sacrificed in the Temple for the sins of the people (Exodus 29:38-42). ... To pay the penalty for sin, a life had to be given - and God chose to provide the sacrifice himself. ... The "sin of the world" means everyone's sin, the sin of each individual. ("Life Application Study Bible, Gospel of John" p 22; comment to John 1:29)

The nominative (amnos/lamb) shows that (ide/behold) is no longer a real imperative ("Look at -") but an exclamation ("Behold!"). ... Hoskyns is one of few commentators who adopt (the) view (that the lamb is the lamb of the daily sacrifices offered morning and evening in the Temple). He speaks of John (the Baptist) as declaring "Jesus to be the property of God, by whose complete obedience the normal sacrifices in the Temple - a lamb without blemish was offered daily both morning and evening ... and even during the siege of Jerusalem these sacrifices were maintained in spite of very great difficulties ... - were fulfilled and superseded (John 2:18-22)". (Leon Morris "The Gospel according to John" p 126,128)

The verb used in (Ex) 24:11 for “see” is not the usual r’h (which connotes “looking at” with the eyes) (cf. see-blepô), but hzh used throughout the Hebrew Bible to describe “prophetic” seeing (cf. behold-horaô). The “seer” sees not with eyes but with a sixth sense, granted by special dispensation. These elders are the forebears of later prophets, whose leadership is defined by what they “see” of God, which is never by the naked eye. (Michael E. Williams ”Exodus-Joshua” p 97-98)

That the lamb in John 1:29 would allude to the Paschal Lamb is unlikely, because the corresponding word (“amnos”) in the Greek OT never is applied to the paschal victim except in a variant to Ex 12:5. (C.H. Dodd ”The Interpretation of the Fourth Gospel” p 230-231).

John here, as throughout in the Gospel, implies by his readers knowledge of the account of the Synoptists about the life of Jesus. (Ad. Kolmodin "Johannesevangeliet - En verklighetsskildring" p 16; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

It is called the sin of the world. Then every man must be included, if he so was from the end of the world, for everyone belongs to this created world. So nobody need not brood over whether this is valid to him or not. God has sent his son to take away the sin of the world. (Karl Palmberg "Ur livskällan. Tredje årgången." p 21-22; Karl Palmberg /1842-1920/ was from 1883 a Lutheran clergyman in Månsarp in the diocese of Växjö and president in Jönköpings Missionsförening (Missionary Society) 1886-1911; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

The lambs sacrificed every morning and evening can only refer to Christ slain as a sacrifice to redeem us to God by his blood. (Matthew Henry "Concise Commentary on the Whole Bible" p 774)


about 1500 and time before

(John calls Jesus) “Lamb,” to remind the Jews of the prophecy of Isaiah, and of the shadow under the law of Moses, that he may the better lead them from the type to the reality. That Lamb of Moses took not at once away the sin of anyone; but this took away the sin of all the world; for when it was in danger of perishing, He quickly delivered it from the wrath of God. (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers XIV:59)

Now we find the lamb offered in the continual (daily) sacrifice. Thus it is written: “This is that which thou shalt offer upon the altar; two lambs of the first year day by day continually for a continual sacrifice.” (Origen, The Ante-Nicene Fathers X, p 376)

The prophecy of Isaiah liii. ... (could not be) properly understood without its reference to its two great types (the Paschal Lamb and the Daily Sacrifice). ... One Jewish comment (Pesiqta, ed. Buber, p 61b) in regard to the Daily Sacrifice ... explains how the morning and evening sacrifices were intended to atone, the one for the sins of the night, the other for those of the day, so as ever to leave Israel guiltless before God; and it expressly ascribes to the the efficacy of a Paraclete – that being the word used. Without further following (a) remarkable Rabbinic commentation (in Yalkut p. 249a), which stretches back its view of sacrifices to the Paschal Lamb and, beyond it, to that offering of Isaac by Abraham which, in Rabbinic view, was the substratum of all sacrifices, we turn again to its teaching about the Lamb of the Daily Sacrifice. Here we have the express statement, that both the school of Shammai and that of Hillel – the latter more fully – insisted on the symbolic import of this sacrifice in regard to the forgiveness of sin. (Alfred Edersheim "The Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah Part I" p 342-343)

Both to sin- and to trespass-offerings, the Rabbinical principle must be kept in view – that they only atoned in case of real repentance. ... All sin-offerings were either public or private (congregational or individual). The former were always males; the latter always females, except the bullock for the high-priest's sin of ignorance, and the kid for the same offence of a ‘ruler’ (Lev 4:22). (Alfred Edersheim “The Temple” p 129)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Åke Andrén, Oloph Bexell, LarsOlov Eriksson, Erik Folke, Anna-Svea Gustafsson, Majken Johansson, Ragnar Järhult, Martin Luther, B.M. Ncongwane, Christer Pahlmblad, Efraim Palmqvist, Carl Olof Rosenius, Gösta Sandberg, Knut Svensson, P. Waldenström, Owe Wikström, Birgitta Yavari.


My own comments and speculations:

I think it is better to see the mention of the lamb (twice - two days, see also John 1:36) as an identification between Jesus and the two lambs offering day by day in the temple or perhaps still better the two lambs offered at Whitsuntide (Lev 23:19). Cf. My own comments and speculations to Rev 5:6a.

The taking away of the sin (miss of the mark of God) of the adornment/’adorned world’ can in the OT perhaps best be compared with the taking away of Saul's sin (miss of the mark of God) (1 Sam 15:25, Greek OT). Observe that the sinner (misser of the mark) Saul doesn't call the Lord His God but Samuel's God. So Saul, and men like him, can be said to be a type corresponding to the adornment/’adorned world’. They haven't the Lord as their God, but they have possibility to be converted and worship Him.


Peter said to the believers: "(You were redeemed with) the valuable blood of Christ, as (that) of an unblemished and unstained lamb." (1 Pet 1:19)

But if we – according to the circumstances – may walk about in the light, as He is in the light, we have communion in company with one another, and the blood of Jesus, His Son, makes us clean from every miss (of the mark of God). If we – according to the circumstances – may speak, that we have not a/any miss (of the mark of God), we lead ourselves astray and the truth is not in us. (1 John 1:7-8)

(Jesus Christ) is a propitiation on account of our misses (of the mark of God), but not on account of ours only, however/but and/also on account of the whole adornment/’adorned world’. (1 John 2:2)

I write to you, little children, because the misses (of the mark of God) have been (and are) left (alone) to you because of His name. (1 John 2:12)

We (א,*א) know, that that One was made visible, in order that He might lift/’take away’ our (א,*א) misses (of the mark of God), and it/there is not (any) miss (of the mark of God) in Him. (1 John 3:5)

The one making/practising the miss (of the mark of God) is out of the slanderer, because the slanderer misses (the mark of God) from a beginning. Into/’for the purpose of’ this the Son of God was made visible, in order that He might loosen/’pull apart’ the works of the slanderer. (1 John 3:8)

In this is the welcome of God (א,*א), not that we welcomed (א,*א) God, however/but that He Himself welcomed us and has dispatched (and dispatches) (א,*א) away His Son (to be) a propitiation on account of our misses (of His mark). (1 John 4:10)


Greek words:

airô (lift) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Matt 21:21; John 1:29; 1 John 3:5 – Esther 5:1d(D7); 5:2(D12); Judith 11:2; 1 Macc 8:18; 13:41; 16:13,19; Sir 13:2; Baruch 5:6; Epistle of Jeremiah v 3. Matt 4:6; 9:6,16; 11:29; 13:12; 14:12,20; 15:37; 16:24; 17:27; 20:14; 21:43; 24:17-18,39; 25:28-29; 27:32; Mark 2:3,9,11-12,21; 4:15,25; 6:8,29,43; 8:8,19-20,34; 11:23; 13:15-16; 15:21,24; Luke 4:11; 5:24-25; 6:29-30; 8:12,18; 9:3,17,23; 11:22,52; 17:13,31; 19:21-22,24,26; 22:36; 23:18; John 2:16; 5:8-12; 8:59; 10:18,24; 11:39,41,48; 15:2; 16:22; 17:15; 19:15,31,38; 20:1-2,13,15. Acts 4:24; 8:33; 20:9; 21:11,36; 22:22; 27:13,17; 1 Cor 5:2; 6:15; Eph 4:31; Col 2:14; Rev 10:5; 18:21.

(h)amartia /miss (of the mark of God)/ (in the Synoptics, John, Acts, 1-3 John, Rev + examples in the Apocrypha) Matt 3:6; Luke 24:47; John 1:29; Acts 26:18; 1 John 1:7-8; 2:2,12; 3:5,8; 4:10 – Tobit 3:3,5; 12:9-10; 14:7; Judith 7:28; 2 Macc 2:11; 5:17; 6:14-15; 7:32; 12:42-43,45; Wisdom of Solomon 1:4; 10:13. Sir 2:11; 3:3,14-15,27,30; 4:21,26; 5:5-6; 7:8; 8:5; 10:13; 12:14; 13:24; 14:1; 16:9; 17:20,25; 18:27; 19:8; 21:2; 23:3,10-13,16,18; 25:24; 26:28-29; 27:2,10,13; 28:1-2,4-5,8; 34:19(23),26(31); 38:10; 39:5; 46:7; 47:11,23(24); 48:15-16; Baruch 1:10; 4:12; Epistle of Jeremiah v 1; Susanna v 52; The Prayer of Azariah v 5,14. Matt 1:21; 9:2,5-6; 12:31; 26:28; Mark 1:4-5; 2:5,7,9-10; Luke 1:77; 3:3; 5:20-21,23-24; 7:47-49; 11:4; John 8:(3),21,24,34,46; 9:34,41; 15:22,24; 16:8-9; 19:11; 20:23. Acts 2:38; 3:19; 5:31; 7:60; 10:43; 13:38; 22:16; 1 John 1:9; 3:4,9; 5:16-17. Rev 1:5; 18:4-5.

amnos (lamb) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) John 1:29; Acts 8:32; 1 Pet 1:19 – Wisdom of Solomon 19:9; Sir 13:17; John 1:36.

blepô (see) (in the NT + examples in the OT) Matt 11:4; Mark 4:12; John 1:29 - Ex 4:11; 23:8; Deut 29:3; 1 Sam 3:2; 2 Sam 14:24; 2 Chron 10:16; Esther 2:15; 5:1d(D7); Ps 10:11; 69:23(24); Prov 16:25; Is 6:9; Ezek 11:1; 40:6; Tobit 5:10; 11:14(15); Judith 9:9; 1 Macc 12:29; 2 Macc 2:2; Wisdom of Solomon 2:14; 13:7; 16:18; 17:6; Sir 15:18; 30:20; 40:29; Susanna v 9; Matt 5:28; 6:4,6,18; 7:3; 12:22; 13:13-14,16-17; 14:30; 15:31; 18:10; 22:16; 24:2,4; Mark 4:24; 5:31; 8:15,18,23-24; 12:14,38; 13:2,5,9,23,33; Luke 6:41-42; 7:21,44; 8:10,16,18; 9:62;10:23-24; 11:33; 21:8,30; 24:12; John 5:19; 9:7,15,19,21,25,39,41; 11:9; 13:22; 20:1,5; 21:9,20; Acts 1:9; Apg 1:11(P74,א*); Apg 2:33; 3:4; 4:14; 8:6; 9:8-9; 12:9; 13:11,40; 27:12; 28:26; Rom 7:23; 8:24-25; 11:8,10; 1 Cor 1:26; 3:10; 8:9; 10:12,18; 13:12; 16:10; 2 Cor 4:18; 7:8; 10:7; 12:6; Gal 5:15; Eph 5:15; Phil 3:2; Col 2:5,8; 4:17; Heb 2:9; 3:12,19; 10:25; 11:1,3,7; 12:25; Jas 2:22; 2 John v 8; Rev 1:11-12; 3:18; 5:3-4; 9:20; 11:9; 16:15; 17:8; 18:18; 22:8.

epaurion (on following day) (in the NT + some examples in the OT) Judges 21:4; Mark 11:12; John 1:29 – Gen 19:34; Ex 9:6; 18:13; 32:6; Num 16:41; 17:8; Matt 27:62; John 1:35,43; 6:22; 12:12; Acts 10:9,23-24; 14:20; 20:7; 21:8; 22:30; 23:32; 25:6,23.


Additional studies:

Ex 29:38; 34:7; Num 14:18; 28:3-31; 29:6-38; Ps 32:5; 85:3; Ezek 46:13; Micah 7:18; Matt 3:13; Mark 1:4,9; John 1:36; 4:16-18,42; Heb 9:12; 1 Pet 2:24; Rev 5:6-13; 6:1; 7:9-10,14,16; 13:3; 17:3.


Leon Morris "The Atonement in John's Gospel"; Criswell Theological Review 3.1 (1988) 49-64.

Jerome Murphy-O'Connor "John the Baptist and Jesus. History and Hypothesis."; New Testament Studies 36 (1990): 359-374.

J.H. Roberts "The Lamb of God"; Neotestamentica 2.1. (1968): 41-51.

S.J. Nortjé "Lamb of God (John 1:29): an explanation from ancient Christian art"; Neotestamentica 30.1 (1996): 141-150.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-01-21; 2010-02-06; 2013-03-12; 2014-03-22; concluding version 2017-09-03)

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1:30-31 "This is (the One) in favour of whom I spoke: 'Behind me comes a male who has become (and becomes) in front of me, because He (continually) was my first (one).' And I did not know (and I had not known) Him, however/but in order that He might be made visible to Israel, because of this I have come baptizing in water."

Word for word: 1:30 (18 words in the Greek text) this is in-favour-of whom i/I spoke: behind me comes (a)-male who has-become-(and-becomes) in-front-of (of)-me, because first my (he)-was-(continually). 1:31 (16 words in the Greek text) and-i/I not knew-(and-had-not-known) him, however in-order-that (he)-might-be-made-visible (for)-the-Israel because-of this came i/I in water baptizing.


The Gospel of John and the Book of Revelation: The one who John the Baptizer describes as "my first (one)" (John 1:15,30) is in the Revelation named "the First (One) (and the Last One)". (Rev 1:17b; 22:13). Jesus is the one who "must increase" (John 3:30).


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Adam said about the woman:) "Out of her male this one has been taken." (Gen 2:23b, Greek OT)

In this way says the Lord God to (His) anointed, to Cyrus: “... I will go in front of you and level mountains.” (Is 45:1-2a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to the prophet about Judas:) “Behold, … I will make visible/known to them to listen to (Me), and I will be a physician to her, and I will make peace and faith (with) them. (Jer 33:6, Greek OT)

(Zechariah said to Jesus/Joshua:) "This is what the Lord, (the) All-powerful says: 'Behold, a male … will stick up from below and build the house of the Lord.'" (Zech 6:12b, Greek OT)

(Maccabaeus and his men) together with the crowds supplicated the Lord to dispatch away a good messenger towards/’in regard to’ a saving of Israel. (2 Macc 11:6b)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “Wisdom is downwards/’in conformity to’ its name, and she is not visible to many.” (Sir 6:22)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said about Moses: “The Lord) led out of, out of Himself a male of mercy. ... ... He likened him (with) a glory of holy ones.” (Sir 44:23b; 45:2a or 45:1a,2a)


The Latter Revelation:

(Peter said about Jesus:) “I do not know the Man.” (Matt 26:72b)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “It/there is not anything (א,* א, A) hidden, if not – according to the circumstances – in order that it may be made visible, nor it became hidden away, however/but in order that it might come into (the) visible.” (Mark 4:22)

(The messenger said: ”John the Baptist will) make a people ready being (and having been) entirely prepared for the Lord.” (Luke 1:17b)

Beginning (His ministry) Jesus (continually) was ‘as if’/about thirty years, being, as it (continually) was ‘adopted as a law’/supposed, a son of Joseph. (Luke 3:23)

(The Emmaus disciples said: “Jesus) became a male, a prophet able in saying and work (א,*א) opposite God and every/all the people.” (Luke 24:19b)

(After His resurrection Jesus said to His apostles:) "John indeed baptized (in) water, but not after many of these days you will be baptized in holy spirit." (Acts 1:5)

(Peter said:) "Males, Israelites, hear these sayings: Jesus the Nazoraean (is) a male having been (and being) shown from/away from God into/to you (with) abilities and omens and signs which God made through Him in your middle, entirely as you yourselves know." (Acts 2:22)

(Paul said to the males in Athen: “God) has ‘caused ... to stand’/fixed a day in which He is about to judge the (inhabited) world in/with righteousness in/’by means of’ a male to whom He has marked out by boundaries a faith having been offered to all (by) having caused Him stand up out of dead (bodies).” (Acts 17:31)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

John is a witness on account of Him. And he has shouted (and shouts), saying: "This (continually) was * (א*) the One coming behind me, the One who (א*) has become (and becomes) in front of me, because He (continually) was my first (one)." (John 1:15)

John said to (the Pharisees): (In) your middle stood (and had stood) (P75, א,* א) One whom you do not know, * (א*, B) coming behind me." (John 1:26b-27a)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

Did not John then know that he himself was six months older than Jesus? How could he then say, that Jesus was before him? It happened, because he knew, that Jesus was the Son of God in eternity, of which followed, that John was not six months older than Jesus, but that Jesus was a whole eternity older than he was. (Karl Palmberg "Ur livskällan. Tredje årgången." p 20-21; Karl Palmberg /1842-1920/ was from 1883 a Lutheran clergyman in Månsarp in the diocese of Växjö and president in Jönköpings Missionsförening (Missionary Society) 1886-1911; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

In rabbinic writings Zech 6:12 is universally admitted to be Messianic. (Alfred Edersheim "The Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah Part II" p 735)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Sven Danell, Carl Grimberg, Stefan Gustavsson, Viktor Rydberg, Fredrik Vetterlund.


My own comments and speculations:

This is the only time in the Gospel of John, when Jesus is called a male (anêr). John the Baptist, like the Emmaus disciples (Luke 24:19), did not know Jesus in a deeper meaning, that He is the Man. John the Baptist represents the meaning valid according to the law, that Jesus was the son of the male Joseph (cf. Zech 6:12 and Luke 3:23), a male like Moses (Sir 45:1). Peter (Acts 2:22) and Paul (Acts 17:31) also presents Jesus as a male. Furthermore Peter also says, that he does not know the Man (Mark 26:72). With John the Spirit has led the believers to remember the spiritual and true understanding of Jesus, that He is the Son of the Man, that is the Son of God. Cf. John 1:12-13, 7:45-46; 19:5,33-37 and Rev 12:5a.

Concerning “Behind me comes a male who has become (and becomes) in front of me, because He (continually) was my first (one)”, see also John 1:14b-15, especially the comparison between Jesus as the first and Jesus as the First and the Last.

In his comment to John 5:29 (The Gospel according to John p 286) Leon Morris says: "The Evangelist has earlier put some emphasis on the witness borne by John the Baptist. Here Jesus mentions this witness, but puts little stress on it. He is not interested in human witness of any kind (John 5:34)."


And the life was made visible, and we have beheld (and behold) and we are witnesses and bring away a message to you (about) the agelong life, whichever/which (continually) was towards the Father and was made visible to you. (1 John 1:2)

Out of us they came out, however/but they (continually) were not out of us, for if they (continually) were out of us, they – according to the circumstances – had (and ‘had had’/’would have’) stayed in company with us. However (they came out), in order that it might be made visible, that all are not out of us. (1 John 2:19)

If – according to the circumstances – He may be made visible, we may have ‘plain language’/frankness and not (have to) be put a shame to from Him ‘in His being by the side of’/’at His coming’. (1 John 2:28b)

We (א,*א) know, that that One was made visible, in order that He might lift/’take away’ our (א,*א) misses (of the mark of God), and it/there is not (any) miss (of the mark of God) in Him. (1 John 3:5)

Into/’for the purpose of’ this the Son of God was made visible, in order that He might loosen/’pull apart’ the works of the slanderer. (1 John 3:8b)

In this the welcome of God has been made visible in us, that God has dispatched (and dispatches) away His Son, the only Descendant, into the adornment/’adorned world’, in order that we might live through Him. (1 John 4:9)


Greek words:

kagô (and I) (in the NT) John 1:31 – Matt 2:8; 10:32-33; 11:28; 16:18; 18:33; 21:24; 26:15; Mark 11:29(P45,א,*א); Luke 1:3; 2:48; 11:9; 19:23; 20:3; 22:29; 24:49(א,*א); John 1:33-34; 5:17; 6:44,54,56-57; 7:28; 8:26; 10:15,27-28,38; 12:32; 14:16,20; 15:4,9; Joh 15:10(א,*א); Joh 16:32 (kame); 17:6(kamoi),11,18,21-22,26; 20:15,21. Apg 8:19; 10:28(kamoi); 22:13,19; Rom 3:7; 11:3; 1 Cor 2:1,3; 3:1; 7:8,40; 10:33; 11:1; 15:8(kamoi); 16:4(kame),10; 2 Cor 2:10; 6:17; 11:16,21-22; 12:20; Gal 4:12; 6:14; Eph 1:15; Phil 2:19,28; 1 Thess 3:5; Heb 8:9; Jas 2:18; Rev 2:6,28; 3:10; 22:8.

faneroô (make visible) Jer 33:6; Mark 4:22; John 1:31; 1 John 1:2; 2:19,28; 3:5,8; 4:9 – John 2:11; 3:21; 7:4; 9:3; 17:6; 21:1,14; Rom 1:19; 3:21; 16:26; 1 Cor 4:5; 2 Cor 2:14; 3:3; 4:10-11; 5:10-11; 7:12; 11:6; Eph 5:13-14; Col 1:26; 3:4; 4:4; 1 Tim 3:16; 2 Tim 1:10; Tit 1:3; Heb 9:8,26; 1 Pet 1:20; 5:4; 1 John 3:2; Rev 3:18; 15:4.


Additional studies:

Matt 3:11; Luke 1:78-79; 3:16; Acts 13:25; 1 John 5:6; Rev 1:17; 12:5; 20:14.


Jerome Murphy-O'Connor "John the Baptist and Jesus. History and Hypothesis."; New Testament Studies 36 (1990): 359-374.

A.S. Geyser "Israel in the fourth gospel"; Neotestamentica 20.1 (1986): 13-20.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-01-22; 2010-02-09; 2013-03-13; 2014-03-23; concluding version 2017-09-03)

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1:32-33 And John was a witness saying that/: "I have viewed (and view) the Spirit as a pigeon descending out of heaven, and It stayed against Him. And I did not know (and had not known) Him, however/but the One having sent me to baptize in the (P66,א,*א) water, that One spoke to me: ‘(The One) against whom you – according to the circumstances - may behold the Spirit descending and staying against Him, this One is He baptizing in holy spirit.’"

Word for word: 1:32 (17 words in the Greek text): And was-a-witness John saying that i/I-have-viewed-(and-view) the spirit as (a)-pigeon descending out-of (of)-heaven and (it)-stayed against him. 1:33 (33 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus) and-i/I not knew-(and-had-known) him, however the-(one) having-sent me (to)-baptize in the water that-(one) (to)-me spoke: against whom according-to-the-circumstances you-may-behold the spirit descending and staying against him, this-(one) is he baptizing in spirit holy.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(In a beginning) a spirit of God (continually) was carried upon, above the water. (Gen 1:2b, Greek OT)

Not having find rest for its feet the pigeon returned towards (Noah) into the chest/ark, because water (continually) was on every face of every/all the earth. (Gen 8:9a, Greek OT)

(The Lord ‘arranged together’/commanded Moses:) “Every concern which will come through in fire, it will and/also be made clean. Or however/also it will be purified (in) the purification of the water. And all things, as many things - if according to the circumstances – may not be go through, through fire, it will come through, through water. (Num 31:23, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) “Behold, behold that/: ‘I am.’ And it/there is not a god more than Me. I shall kill and I shall make alive. I shall hit and I shall heal.” (Deut 32:39a, Greek OT)

Samuel took the horn of olive-oil and anointed (David) in a middle of his (seven, older) brothers, and a spirit of the Lord sprang against, against David from that day and above. (1 Sam 16:13a, Greek OT)

Fire fell from the side of the Lord out of the heaven and ate down/up the burnt offering ... and the water in the ditch. (1 Kings 18:38a, Greek OT)

A spirit of God will ‘be brought’/come to rest against (a rod out of the root of Jesse); a spirit of wisdom and understanding, a spirit of counsel and stability, a spirit of knowledge and reverence. (Is 11:2, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) “I shall take ‘in stead’/’part with’ My boy Jacob: ‘Israel, My chosen one, I have received him towards My soul. I have given My Spirit against him.’” (Is 42:1a, Greek OT)

(The boy of the Lord said:) "A spirit of the Lord is against/over me." (Is 61:1a, Greek OT)

… Fire descended out of the heaven. (2 Macc 2:10a)


The Latter Revelation:

Having been baptized Jesus straight/’straight off’ ascended from the water; and behold, the heavens were opened, and (John) beheld a (א,* א, B) spirit of God descending as if (it was) a pigeon * (א*, B) coming against Him. (Matt 3:16)

(Jesus said to the twelve:) “Search out who in (a place) is worthy, and stay there till you – according to the circumstances – may come out (from the place).” (Matt 10:11b)

(John said:) "I baptized you (in) water, but (the One coming behind me) will baptize you in holy spirit." (Mark 1:8)

Straight off ascending out of the water (Jesus) beheld the heavens being split, and the Spirit as a pigeon descending and staying against (א,* א) Him. (Mark 1:10)

(After His resurrection Jesus said to His apostles:) "John indeed baptized (in) water, but not after many of these days you will be baptized in holy spirit." (Acts 1:5)

Peter utters towards (the Jews): “Change your minds and let yourselves, everyone/each of you, be baptized on/’for the sake of’ the name of Jesus Christ into/’for the purpose of’ a letting be (alone) of your misses (of the mark of God) and you will take the benefit of the Holy Spirit.” (Acts 2:38)

Having descended (to Samaria Peter and John) prayed on account of (the Samaritans), in that way that they might take holy spirit. (Acts 8:15)

(Peter) looks at the heaven being (and having been) opened and descending ... something as a great linen garment. (Acts 10:11a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

It became a man having been (and being) dispatched away from the side of God. A name to him (continually) was (א*) John. This one came into/’for the purpose of’ an evidence, in order that he might be a witness on account of the light, in order that all might believe through him. (John 1:6-7)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

Chrysostom held that Jesus was quite unknown to John until this moment, the reason being that John "had passed all his time in the wilderness away from his father's house". ... There is a quality of life that Christ and none other makes available. This life is a positive gift from the Spirit of God. Baptism with water had essentially a negative significance: it is a cleansing from - . But baptism with the Spirit is positive. It is the bestowal of new life in God. (Leon Morris "The Gospel according to John" p 133-134)

It was a good bit away to Tulipa yard, where Sofia lived. Her house lay in the border of Cherry Valley with the high mountains quite behind the back. We came riding there early in the morning. Sofia stood there feeding her doves. All her snow-white doves! When I saw them, I remembered her, the white dove once sitting on my window-frame, I suppose it now was a thousand years ago. "Do you remember", I whispered to Jonatan. "Was it not one of these doves lending you her feather-dress - when you were with me?" "Yes", Jonatan said, "how would I otherwise have been able to fly through the heavens however far?" The doves was as a white cloud around Sofia. (Astrid Lindgren "Bröderna Lejonhjärta" p 44; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

In Gen 1:2 we read that the Spirit was moving above the water. In Jewish tradition this is compared to the moving of a bird. Cf. Raymond E. Brown "The Gospel according to John" p 57.

When John had carried out his mission, it is true that his disciples stand turned towards God but nevertheless without the eternal life of God in Christ. ... Here now Christ steps in. He does not baptize with water. He baptizes his disciples with his own Spirit, the new Spirit of the kingdom of heaven. He is the "stronger One", the "coming One", having heaven with himself, he immerses man in the new being of the Spirit. (Gösta Sandberg "Glädjens budskap" p 68 in comment to Matt 3:11-12; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Jesus had a twofold task: to take away the sin and to baptize in holy spirit. Then he takes from us the worst thing we have, the sin, to give us the best thing he has: holy spirit. A blessed change! ... The word about the Lamb of God shows us to Golgotha; baptism in holy spirit is the message of Whitsuntide. We need both things in preaching and experience. (Knut Svensson "En för alla" p 47; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Your letter came as a white dove from heaven when I was driven out from the residence of rascals where I lived. ... Unfortunately the nature of my work and my temper have arranged that I have no friends and therefore I seize as a drowning man every coat collar coming in my horizon! And I will not let you go unless you bless me with K. book-shop or the 300 crowns. (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev VII febr 1888-dec 1889" p 114; letter 1888-09-05 to David BergstrYour letter came as a white pigeon from heaven when I was driven out from the residence of rascals where I lived. ... Unfortunately the nature of my work and my temper have arranged that I have no friends and therefore I seize as a drowning man every coat collar coming in my horizon! And I will not let you go unless you bless me with K. book-shop or the 300 crowns. (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev VII febr 1888-dec 1889" p 114; letter 1888-09-05 to David Bergström who had promised to economically support Strindberg; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)m who had promised to economically support Strindberg; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Emil Birkeli, Fjodor Dostojevskij, Albert Engström, Carl Grimberg, Bertil Gärtner, Verner von Heidenstam, Bengt Holmberg, Ulrik Josefsson, Lars Levi Laestadius, Staffan Larsson, Martin Luther, Margareta Malmgren, John Ongman, Lewi Pethrus, Björn Ryman, Anders Sjöberg, Russell P. Spittler, G.E. Söderholm, Esaias Tegnér, R.A. Torrey, P. Waldenström, Julian Ward, Gunnar Westin, Birgitta Yavari.


My own comments and speculations:

The baptism executed by John was a baptism in water for the purpose of 1) change of mind, 2) faith in (and at the giving of the Spirit “into”) Jesus, 3) remission of sins (misses of the mark of God) and brother- and sisterhood with Jesus and His disciples through the baptism executed by these ones, 4) agelong life through the baptism of the Spirit of Jesus Christ, 5) mutual, fruitbearing friendship in Jesus Christ and an eternal beholding of His face in a new Jerusalem.

John the Baptist confesses, that he beholds the same thing as Jesus. Cf. Mark 1:10.

Cf. also Genesis Rabbah II:IV over Gen 1:2: "’The Spirit of God hovers’ refers to the Spirit of Messiah in line with the following verse of the Scripture: 'And a spirit of God will come to rest against him' (Is 11:2)."


Paul said to the believers in Rome: "The one (being) a Jew in the hidden (has) a circumcision of heart in spirit, not (in) letter of the alphabet (and has) the 'praise on'/praisefulness not out of men however/but out of God. (Rom 2:29)

You have ointment from the Holy One, and 'you know all ones'/'all of you have knowledge'. (1 John 2:20)

And you, the ointment, which you have taken from Him, it stays in you, and you have not need, in order that anyone may teach you. However, as His Spirit (א*) teaches you on account of all things and is true and is not a lie, and entirely as It has taught you, you stay in Him * (א,*א) in order that if – according to the circumstances – He may be made visible, we may have ‘plain language’/frankness and not (have to) be put a shame to from Him ‘in His being by the side of’/’at His coming’. (1 John 2:27-28)

This is the promise (א,*א) (about being begotten out of God) you heard from a beginning, in order that you may welcome one another. (1 John 3:11)

No one has ever viewed (and views) God. If we – according to the circumstances – may welcome one another, God stays in us, and His welcome has been (and is) made perfect in us. In this we have knowledge, that we stay in Him and He Himself in us, because He has given (and gives) us out of His Spirit. (1 John 4:12-13)

This is the One having come through water and blood and spirit (א,* א, A), Jesus Christ, not in the water only, however/but in the water and in * (א,* א) blood and the Spirit is the One being a witness, because the Spirit is the truth, because three are the ones being witnesses, the Spirit and the water and the blood, and the three are into ’the one’/one. (1 John 5:6-8)


Greek words:

(h)agios (holy) (in the Synoptics, John, the Acts, 1-3 John, Rev + examples in the Apocrypha) John 1:33; Acts 1:5; 2:38; 8:15; 1 John 2:20 – Tobit 8:15(BA); 11:14; 12:15(BA); Judith 4:12-13; 8:21,24; 9:8; 16:20; 1 Macc 1:15,63; 2:7,12; 3:43,58-59; 4:36,41,43,48-49; 6:18,54; 9:54; 10:21,31,39,42,44; 11:37; 12:9; 13:3,6; 14:15,29,31,36,43; 15:7; 2 Macc 1:7,12,29; 2:18; 3:1; 5:15,25; 6:23,28,30; 8:17; 9:14,16; 14:3,31,36; 15:14,16-17,24,32; Wisdom of Solomon 1:5; 5:5; 7:22; 9:8,10,17; 10:10,20; 11:1; 12:3; 17:2; Sir 4:14; 23:9; 24:10; 26:17; 42:17; 43:10; 45:2,6,10,15,24; 47:8,10; 48:20; 49:12; 50:11; Baruch 2:16; 4:22,37; 5:5; Susanna v 45(Theod); The Prayer of Azariah v 5,12; The Song of Praise of the Three Men v 29-30; Matt 1:18,20; 3:11; 4:5; 7:6; 12:32; 24:15; 25:31; 27:52-53; 28:19; Mark 1:8,24; 3:29; 6:20; 8:38; 12:36; 13:11; Luke 1:15,35,41,49,67,70,72; 2:23,25-26; 3:16,22; 4:1,34; 9:26; 10:21; 11:13; 12:10,12; John 6:69; 14:26; 17:11; 20:22. Acts 1:2,8,16; 2:4,33; 3:14,21; 4:8,25,27,30-31; 5:3,32; 6:5,13; 7:33,51,55; 8:17,19; 9:13,17,31-32,41; 10:22,38,44-45,47; 11:15-16,24; 13:2,4,9,52; 15:8,28; 16:6; 19:2,6; 20:23,28; 21:11,28; 26:10; 28:25; Rev 1:1(א*); Rev 3:7; 4:8; 5:8; 6:10; 8:3-4; 11:2,18; 13:7,10; 14:10,12; 16:6; 17:6; 18:20,24; 19:8; 20:6,9; 21:2,10; 22:11,19,21(א,*א).

an (it is difficult to translate this particle by a single English word; in this translation it is rendered by the expression “according to the circumstances”) (John, 1-3 John, Rev + examples in the Apocrypha and in the rest of the NT) Mark 3:25,35; John 1:33 – Esther 3:13c(B3); Tobit 7:11(12)(BA); Judith 11:2,15; 1 Macc 15:9; Wisdom of Solomon 11:25; Sir 25:3; Baruch 3:13. Matt 2:13; 5:26; 10:11; 11:21; 12:7; 25:27; Luke 1:62; 2:26,35; 6:11; 7:39; 9:27,46; 13:25; 17:6; 19:23; John 2:5; 4:10; 5:19,46; 8:19,42; 9:41; 11:21-22,32; 13:20,24; 14:13,28; 15:16,19; 16:23; 18:30,36; 20:23. Acts 2:39,45; 3:20; 4:35; 5:24; 8:31; 15:17; 17:18; 23:35; 26:29; Rom 3:4; 9:29; 15:24; 1 Cor 2:8; 11:27,31,34; 12:2; 2 Cor 3:15; 10:9; Gal 1:10; 3:21; Phil 2:23; Heb 4:8; 8:4,7; 10:2; 11:15; Jas 5:7(א,*א); I John 2:5,19; 3:17; Rev 2:25; 14:4.

katabainô (descend) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) 2 Macc 2:10; Matt 3:16; John 1:32-33; Acts 8:15; 10:11 - Tobit 3:17; 6:2(3); Judith 2:27; 3:6; 6:14; 10:2,10,15; 14:2; 1 Macc 10:71; 16:14; Sir 35:15(18); 50:20; Baruch 3:19. Matt 7:25,27; 8:1; 14:29; 17:9; 24:17; 27:40,42; 28:2; Mark 1:10; 3:22; 9:9; 13:15; 15:30,32; Luke 2:51; 3:22; 6:17; 8:23; 9:54; 10:30-31; 17:31; 18:14; 19:5-6; 22:44; John 1:51; 2:12; 3:13; 4:47,49,51; 5:7; 6:16,33,38,41-42,50-51,58; Acts 7:15,34; 8:26,38; 10:20-21; 11:5; 14:11,25; 16:8; 18:22; 20:10; 23:10; 24:1,22; 25:6-7; Rom 10:7; Eph 4:9-10; 1 Thess 4:16; Jas 1:17; Rev 3:12; 10:1; 12:12; 13:13; 16:21; 18:1; 20:1,9; 21,2,10.

menô (stay) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Matt 10:11; Mark 1:10(א,* א); John 1:32-33; 1 John 2:27; 4:12-13 – Tobit 8:20; 10:8(9); Judith 7:5,20; 8:7; 11:17; 1 Macc 11:40; 15:7; 2 Macc 7:30; 8:1; Wisdom of Solomon 7:27; 16:5; Sir 42:23; 44:13. Matt 11:23; 26:38; Mark 6:10; 14:34; Luke 1:56; 8:27; 9:4; 10:7; 19:5; 24:29; John 1:38-39; 2:12; 3:36; 4:40; 5:38; 6:27,56; 7:9; 8:31,35; 9:41; 10:40; 11:6,54; 12:24,34,46; 14:10,17,25; 15:4-7,9-10,16; 19:31; 21:22-23. Acts 5:4; 9:43; 16:15; 18:3,20; 20:5,23; 21:7-8; 27:31,41; 28:16; Rom 9:11; 1 Cor 3:14; 7:8,11,20,24,40; 13:13; 15:6; 2 Cor 3:11,14; 9:9; Phil 1:25; 1 Tim 2:15; 2 Tim 2:13; 3:14; 4:20; Heb 7:24; 10:34; 13:14; 1 Pet 1:23,25; 1 John 2:6,10,14,17,19,24; 3:6,9,14-15,17,24; 4:15-16; 2 John v 2,9; Rev 17:10.

peristera (pigeon) (the NT + some examples in the OT) Gen 8:9; Matt 3:16; John 1:32 – Gen 8:8-12; 15:9; Lev 1:14; Ps 55:6(7); Song of Solomon 2:14; Matt 10:16; 21:12; Mark 1:10; 11:15; Luke 2:24; 3:22; John 2:14,16.


Additional studies:

Is 44:3; Joel 2:28-29; Matt 3:11; 12:18; 21:25; Luke 3:16; 4:18; John 1:26; 4:1-2; Acts 19:4-6; Rev 1:2; 8:13; 16:21; 20:14; 21:2.


Cornelius Bennema "Spirit-Baptism in the Fourth Gospel A Messianic Reading of John 1:33"; Biblica 84 (2003): 35-60.

L. Floor "The Lord and the Holy Spirit in the fourth Gospel"; Neotestamentica 2:1 (1968): 122-130.

Jerome Murphy-O'Connor "John the Baptist and Jesus. History and Hypothesis."; New Testament Studies 36 (1990): 359-374.

E.A. Russell "The Holy Spirit in the Fourth Gospel. Some Observations."; Irish Biblical Studies 2.2 (1980): 84-94.

Walt Russel "The Holy Spirit's Ministry in the Fourth Gospel"; Grace Theological Journal 8.2 (1987): 227-239.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-01-22; 2010-02-16; 2013-03-15; 2014-03-24; concluding version 2017-09-04)

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1:34 And I have beheld (and behold) and have been (and am) a witness, that this one is the chosen one (P5,א*) of God.

Word for word (11 words in the Greek text): and-i/I have-beheld-(and-behold) and have-been-(and-am)-a-witness that this-(one) is the chosen-(one) (of)-the (of)-god.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Moses said to Israel:) "You are a holy people to your God. And the Lord Your God has chosen you to become a people to Him ‘around from’/’more than’ all the nations of the ones (being) upon the face of the earth." (Deut 14:2, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said: “The Lord) dispatched out Moses, His slave, (and) Aaron, whom He had chosen.” (Ps 105:26, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) “Behold, I throw/lay in, into the bases of Zion, an expensive stone, a chosen, noble top cornerstone into its bases, and the one believing on/in it will not/certainly not be put to shame.” (Is 28:16b, Greek OT)

(God said:) "You, Israel, My boy Jacob, whom I have chosen, a seed of Abraham, whom I have welcomed, whom I have taken ‘in stead’/’part with’ from/’away from’ borders of the earth and called you out of its look-outs and spoken to you: 'You are My boy. I have chosen you and have not left you entirely in (a place).'" (Is 41:8-9, Greek OT)

(The Lord said:) “I shall take ‘in stead’/’part with’ My boy Jacob: ‘Israel, My chosen one, I have received him towards My soul. I have given My Spirit against him.’” (Is 42:1a, Greek OT)

(God) has for His chosen descent made/done cheerfulness in stead of destruction. (Esther 8:12tb/E21b)


The Latter Revelation:

(When Jesus was glorified) it became/came a voice out of the cloud, saying: "This is My Son, the One having been (and being) chosen, hear Him!" (Luke 9:35)

(The leaders said about Jesus:) “Is this One the christ/'anointed one' of God, the chosen one.” (Luke 23:35b)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

The choice of God reaches its climax in Christ. The Son himself didn't choose to come into the world and become man. At the two occasions when the Father witnesses before the world about his son - at the baptism in the Jordan and on the mountain of glory - the voice from heaven says: "You are my chosen one." The choice of Christ, which is done for the sake of the whole world, constitutes the archetype for the choice of God. God chooses someone, not to reject another, but in order that the choice of the one will become to salvation for others. (Peter Halldorf "Andens folk" p 253 in comment to Acts 16; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Was not Thure-Gabriel himself an aspiring man straining after effect? No, the blood cried in his veins, no and no again! You are the chosen one. ... Chosen ones of life the Silfverstååhl family had been - the Silverstååhl family of the episcopal bransch. No great happiness and no great pain had never hesitated to step over the threshold of their home. And this night Carl Silfverstååhl knows that he is the worthy descendant and heir of his fathers: a chosen one and a peculiar one. (Sven Lidman "Thure-Gabriel Silfverstååhl" p 219 and Sven Lidman "Carl Silfverstååhls upplevelser" p 140; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

(Calvin) connected predestination with the Christ and his work, in order to show more clearly that it is in Christ that election takes place. ... As it is in him that the promises of salvation find their guarantee, so it is in him that election is sealed. ... ‘Of those whom God has chosen as his children it is not said that he elected them in themselves, but in his Christ, because he could not love them except in him, and could not honour them with his heritage without having first made them participants in him.’ (François Wendel "Calvin" p 268,274-275; The Theological Doctrine of Calvin)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Leo Baeck, Ingmar Brohed, Bo Giertz, Carl Grimberg, Pär Lagerkvist, Vilhelm Moberg, Gabriel Mützenberg, Fredrik Nielsen, Harald Rasmussen, Joanne Kathleen Rowling, Viktor Rydberg, Karin Sennefelt, Isaac Bashevis Singer, Håkan Sjögren, Eva Spångberg, Einar Thomassen, N.P. Wetterlund, Carl Fr. Wislöff.


My own comments and speculations:

Among all the nations on the earth Israel is the chosen one of God. Jesus is Israel in the restoration time. All who believes in Him are in Him chosen to agelong life, which is perfected in the new Jerusalem. Also other persons/places are described as chosen by God, for instance Abram (Neh 9:7), Moses and Aaron (Num 16:5,7; Ps 105:26), Saul (1 Sam 10:24), David (2 Sam 6:21), Jerusalem (1 Kings 11:13), Zion (Ps 132:13), Solomon (1 Chron 28:6), (the tribe of) Judas (Ps 78:68), the twelve (Luke 6:13, Acts 1:2), Paul (Acts 9:15).

But Jesus is much more than what is in the expression ”the chosen one of God”. He is “the Christ, the Son of God” (cf. John 20:30-31) and the Prototype of the very first man (cf. John 19:5,34).


Peter said: "It surrounds/stands in a writing: 'Behold, I put/ lay in Zion a stone, a top cornerstone, chosen (and) noble/honoured, and the one believing on/in it will not/certainly not be put to shame.'" (1 Pet 2:6)


Greek words:

eklektos (chosen) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Esther 8:12t(E 21); Luke 23:35; John 1:34; 1 Pet 2:6 – Judith 2:15; 1 Macc 4:1; 15:26; 2 Macc 1:25; Wisdom of Solomon 3:9,14; 4:15; Sir 24:15; 46:1; 47:22; 49:6; Baruch 3:30; Matt 22:14; 24:22,24,31; Mark 13:20,22,27; Luke 18:7; Rom 8:33; 16:13; Col 3:12; 1 Tim 5:21; 2 Tim 2:10; Tit 1:1; 1 Pet 1:1; 2:4,9; 2 John v 1,13; Rev 17:14.


Additional studies: Matt 3:17; 17:5; Rev 1:2.

Jerome Murphy-O'Connor "John the Baptist and Jesus. History and Hypothesis."; New Testament Studies 36 (1990): 359-374.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-01-23; 2010-02-19; 2013-03-19; 2014-03-25; concluding version 2017-09-05)

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1:35-37 Again on the following day John stood (and had stood) (there) and out of his disciples two, and having seen/’fixed his eyes’ in Jesus walking about he says: "Behold, the Lamb of God!" * (א*) the two disciples heard him talking, and they followed Jesus.

Word for word: 1:35 (12 words in the Greek text) (On)-the on-following day again stood-(and-had-stood) the John and out-of (of)-the (of)-disciples his two 1:36 (11 words in the Greek text) and having-seen-in the Jesus walking-about (he)-says: behold the lamb (of)-the (of)-god 1:37 (10 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus prima manus) heard the two disciples his talking and (they)-followed the Jesus.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The Lord spoke to Moses, saying:) "You shall speak towards (the sons of Israel): 'These (are) the fruit offerings, as many as you shall lead towards to the Lord; two unblemished lambs, one year old, into a bringing of burnt offering the/every day." (Num 28:3, Greek OT)

(Moses said to Israel:) "You shall not go behind the other gods, from/after the gods of the nations encircling you around, because the Lord your God in/among you (is) ‘a zealous’/’an envied’ God." (Deut 6:14-15a, Greek OT)

The Lord spoke towards Samuel (about Eliab): "Do not see against, against his sight but/and not into the condition of his great size, because I have treated (and treat) him despicably. Because/for God will not behold as a man 'sees in'/'fixes his eyes upon', because a man will behold into a face, but God will behold into a heart." (1 Sam 16:7, Greek OT)

The king (Josiah) ... put asunder/’in order’ a covenant in the very eyes of the Lord to go behind the Lord and to watch/keep His commandments ... and every/all the people stood/’stood firm’ in the covenant. (2 Kings 23:3, Greek OT)

(The prophet said: ”In) that day ... the eyes (of a man) will see/fix in, into the holy One of Israel.” (Is 17:7; Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) “Hear me, the ones pursuing the righteous thing and seeking the Lord. See in, into the firm rock ... See in, into Abraham, your father.” (Is 51:1-2a, Greek OT)

As a lamb (is) voiceless/soundless opposite the one shearing it, in this way (the slave of the Lord) does not open His mouth. (Is 53:7b, Greek OT)

(The Jews were) invulnerable, because of the thing to follow the laws having been (and being) determined beforehand by (God). (2 Macc 8:36b)

Seeing/’fixing his eyes’ in the ones ‘falling asleep’/deceasing in company with reverence (Judas) ... (2 Macc 12:45a)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “'See in'/’fix your eyes’ into generations of beginning/’the first time’ and behold.” (Sir 2:10a)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “Learn before talk/'you talk'.” (Sir 18:19a)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “Sacrifices (of Aaron) will (be burnt) … ‘according to a day’/’every day’ twice continually.” (Sir 45:14)


The Latter Revelation:

Walking about to the side of the Sea of the Galilee, (Jesus) beheld two brothers, Simon, the one being said/called Peter, and Andrew his brother, throwing a casting-net into the sea, for they (continually/-) were fishermen. And He says to them: "Come here behind Me and I will make you fishermen of men." (Matt 4:18-19)

Jesus spoke to (Simon and Andrew): "Come here behind Me, and I will make you become fishermen of men." And straight/’straight off’ having let the nets be they followed Him. (Mark 1:17-18)

(Jesus) dispatches away two of His disciples. (Mark 11:1b)

(John sent two of his disciples) towards Jesus (א,*א, A), saying: "Are You the coming One, or may we wait for ‘the (א,* א) other’/’en annan’?" (Luke 7:19)

In this day two out of (the disciples) (continually) were going into a village (with) the name Emmaus, ‘holding off’/lying a hundred (א,*א) sixty stadia from Jerusalem. (Luke 24:13)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

On the following day (John the Baptist) sees Jesus coming towards him, and he says: “Behold, the Lamb of God, the One lifting/’taking away’ the miss (of the mark of God) of the adornment/’adorned world’!” (John 1:29)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

In a profound sense, Israel never stops “wandering,” being “homeless” (Lev 25:23; Heb. 3-4). Each generation must in a sense emigrate once again; the israelite cannot faithfully live in the “now” without squarely recalling the “when”. (Michael E. Williams “Exodus-Joshua” p 161)

The Prophets and Apostles ... all preached (Christ) absent; the Prophets before His coming according to the flesh, the Apostles after He was taken up; John alone proclaimed Him present. Wherefore he calls himself the “friend of the Bridegroom” (iii. 29), since he alone was present at the marriage, he it was that did and accomplished all, he made a beginning of the work. And “looking upon Jesus walking, he saith, Behold the Lamb of God.” (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers XIV:63-64)

I exhort you, let us lay aside all (other) things, and look to one only, how we may obtain the prize, (how we may) be crowned with the Chaplet. (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers XIV:438)

(The Lord) manifested Himself to be the Son of God. For if He had not come in the flesh, how could men have been saved by beholding Him? (Epistle of Barnabas, The Anti-Nicene Fathers Vol I, p 63-64)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Johannes Gossner, Bo Frid, Krister Hanell, Efraim Palmqvist, Martin P:n Nilsson, Lewi Pethrus, Harald Rasmussen, Henryk Sienkiewicz, Jesper Svartvik, Einar Thomassen.


My own comments and speculations:

Again on the following day John talks about the Lamb of God, who day by day takes away sin (miss of the mark of God). See My own comments and speculations to John 1:29.


Peter said: "Into/to this you have been called, because and/also Christ died (P81,א,*א) in favour of you, leaving from under to you a copy, in order that you might follow on/after (in) His footsteps." (1 Pet 2:21)

But if we – according to the circumstances – may walk about in the light, as He is in the light, we have communion in company with one another, and the blood of Jesus, His Son, makes us clean from every miss (of the mark of God). (1 John 1:7)


Greek words:

akoloutheô (follow) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) 2 Macc 8:36; Matt 4:20; Mark 1:18; John 1:37 – Judith 2:3; 5:7; Matt 4:22,25; 8:1,10,19,22-23; 9:9,19,27; Matt 9:35(א*); Matt 10:38; 12:15; 14:13; 16:24; 19:2,21,27-28; 20:29,34; 21:9; 26:58; 27:55; Mark 2:14-15; 3:7; 5:24; 6:1; 8:34; 9:38; 10:21,28,32,52; 11:9; 14:13,54; 15:41; Luke 5:11,27-28; 7:9; 9:11,23,49,57,59,61; 18:22,28,43; 22:10,39,54; 23:27; John 1:38,40,43; 6:2; 8:12; 10:4-5,27; 11:31; 12:26; 13:36-37; 18:15; 21:19,22; Acts 12:8-9; 13:43; 21:36; 1 Cor 10:4; Rev 6:8; 14:4,8-9,13; 19:14.

emblepô (see in) (in the NT + examples in the OT) 2 Macc 12:45; Sir 2:10; John 1:36 – Sir 33:15,22; 42:12,18; Matt 6:26; 19:26; Mark 8:25; 10:21,27; 14:67; Luke 20:17; 22:61; John 1:42; Acts 22:11.

mathêtês (disciple) (in the OT) Jer 13:21(A); 20:11(A).

peripateô (walk about) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Matt 4:18; John 1:36; 1 John 1:7 – Esther 2:11; Sir 13:13; 38:32; Susanna v 7-8,36. Matt 9:5; 11:5; 14:25-26,29; 15:31; Mark 5:42; 6:48-49; 7:5; 8:24; 11:27; 12:38; Luke 5:23; 7:22; 11:44; 20:46; 24:17; John 5:8-9,11-12; 6:19,66; 7:1; 8:12; 10:23; 11:9-10,54; 12:35; 21:18. Acts 3:6,8-9,12; 14:8,10; 21:21; Rom 6:4; 8:4; 13:13; 14:15; 1 Cor 3:3; 7:17; 2 Cor 4:2; 5:7; 10:2-3; 12:18; Gal 5:16; Eph 2:2,10; 4:1,17; 5:2,8,15; Phil 3:17-18; Col 1:10; 2:6; 3:7; 4:5; 1 Thess 2:12; 4:1,12; 2 Thess 3:6,11; Heb 13:9; 1 Pet 5:8; 1 John 1:6; 2:6,11; 2 John v 4,6; 3 John v 3-4; Rev 2:1; 3:4; 9:20; 16:15; 21:24.


Additional studies:

1 Kings 14:8; 18:21; Matt 2:16; 4:19-20; 11:2-3; Luke 2:24; John 1:40; Rev 5:6-13; 6:1; 7:10,14,16; 13:3.


Majella Franzmann - Michael Klinger "The Call Stories of John 1 and 21"; Saint Vladimir's Theological Quarterly 36 (1992): 7-15.

Andreas J. Köstenberger "Jesus as Rabbi in the Fourth Gospel"; Bulletin for Biblical Research 8 (1998): 97-128.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-01-23; 2010-02-23; 2013-03-20; 2014-03-25; concluding version 2017-09-06)

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1:38-39 *(א*) Having turned and viewed the ones following Jesus says to them: "What do you seek?" But they spoke to Him: "Rabbi" - which being interpreted (א*) ‘is said’/means teacher - "where do you stay?" He says to them: "Come and behold!" They so came and beheld where He stays; and they stayed by the side of Him that day. An hour (continually) was as a tenth.

Word for word: 1:38 (22 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus prima manus) having-turned the Jesus and having-viewed them following (he)-says (to)-them: what seek-you? 'the-(ones)'/they but spoke (to)-him: rabbi, which is-said being-interpreted teacher, where stay-you? 1:39 (22 words in the Greek text) (he)-says (to)-them: come and behold. (they)-came so and beheld where (he)-stays and by-the-side-of him (they)-stayed the day that. (an)-hour was-(continually) as (a)-tenth.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

Israel spoke to (Joseph): ”Go (and) behold if your brothers and the sheep are healthy.” … A man found (Joseph) ‘being led’/going astray in/on the plain. But/and the man asked Him, saying: "What do you seek?" But/and he spoke: "I seek my brothers." (Gen 37:14a,15-16a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Moses:) "You shall make a holy place (a tent; cf. Ex 26:9) to Me and I will be beheld in/among you." (Ex 25:8, Greek OT)

(The king in Aram said to his slave:) "’Come here’/’go there’, behold where (Elisha is), and having dispatched away I will take him." And it was brought up a message to him, saying: "Behold, (he is) in Dothan." (2 Kings 6:13, Greek OT)

A writing (in) Syriac and being interpreted. (Ezra 4:7b, Greek OT)

(The king) spoke to His teacher to ‘carry into’/bring in’ "letters (of the alphabet) of the recollection of the days" to read for him. (Esther 6:1b, Greek OT)

(Elihu said to Job:) “Stay (with) me a small/little (while) longer, in order that I may teach you.” (Job 36:2a, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said:) “Come here, behold the works of the Lord.” (Ps 46:8a or Ps 46:9a, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said:) “Come here and behold the works of God.” (Ps 66:5a, Greek OT)

(David said:) “The ones welcoming the name (of God) will pitch a tent in (Zion).” (Ps 69:36b or 69:37b, Greek OT)

(David said:) “My eyes (are) against/towards the faithful ones of the earth 'the thing to'/'to let them' be seated together in company with me.” (Ps 101:6a, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said to the Lord:) “The propitiation is by the side of You.” (Ps 130:4, Greek OT)

(Solomon said:) “Wisdom has built a house to herself.” … (She calls:) “The one who is thoughtless, let him ‘lean out’/’bend aside’ towards me!” (Prov 9:1a,4a, Greek OT)

"Amuse yourself and be cheerful, daughter of Zion; for the reason, behold, that I come and will pitch a tent in your middle", says the Lord. (Zech 2:10, Greek OT)

(Solomon said:) “Being one (wisdom) is able all things, and staying/remaining in herself she makes all things new.” (Wisdom of Solomon 7:27a)

(Solomon said: “God welcomes nothing ‘if not’/except the one inhabiting (wisdom) together with (her).” (Wisdom of Solomon 7:28)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said: “Wisdom) will turn to you into/’for the purpose of’ cheerfulness.” (Sir 6:28b)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “Happy a male ... who ‘loosens down’/’makes halt’ together/quite near the house (of wisdom).” (Sir 14:20a,24a)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “Draw near towards me, (you) uneducated, and camp in the open air in a house of education/teaching. ... Let your soul show on/forth education/teaching. It is near to find (wisdom).” (Sir 51:23,26b)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "Where two or three having been (and being) led together into My name, there I am in their middle." (Matt 18:20)

(Jesus said to His disciples: "Teach the future disciples) to keep all things as many as I have enjoined you.” (Matt 28:20a)

Having come into, into Capharnaum ... it was heard that/: “(Jesus) is ‘in a house’/’at home’.” (Mark 2:1)

(Jesus) said to (His disciples): “Come here you yourselves 'according to the own thing'/'by yourselves' into a desolate place and ‘be brought’/come to rest few/’a little’.” … And they went away in the boat into a desolate place 'according to the own thing'/'to be by themselves'. (Mark 6:31a,32)

… Peter says to Jesus: “Rabbi, it is fine for us to be here, and 'we may'/'let us' make three tents.” (Mark 9:5a)

(James and John said to Jesus:) “Teacher! …” (Mark 10:35)

It became darkness against/over the whole earth/land till a ninth hour. (Mark 15:33b)

(The youth said to the women:) “You seek Jesus, * (א*) the One being (and having been) crucified... ” (Mark 16:6b)

(Jesus' parents) (continually) sought out/for Him ... Not ‘having find’/finding (Him), they returned into Jerusalem, seeking (א*,A) Him. And it became/’came about’ after three days (that) they found Him in the sanctuary, sitting still in (the) middle of the teachers and hearing them and questioning them. But/and all hearing Him (continually) ‘stood out of’/’were beside’ themselves on/’for the sake of’ (His) understanding and His answers. ... And He spoke towards them: "What (is it) that you seek (א*) Me? Did you not know, that I must be in the things of 'the Father My'/'My Father'?” (Luke 2:44b-47,49)

Having heard these things Jesus wondered ... and having turned to the crowd following Him ... (Luke 7:9a)

Having turned towards the disciples ‘according to’/concerning the own thing (Jesus) spoke: “Happy the eyes seeing which/the things you see.” (Luke 10:23)

Having turned the Lord saw/’fixed His eyes’ in Peter. And Peter reminded the word of the Lord, as He had spoken to him that/: “Before a rooster ‘raise its voice’/crows today, you will deny away me three times.” (Luke 22:61)

It (continually) was * (א,* א, A) as if (it was) a sixth hour and it became darkness against/over the whole earth/land till a ninth hour. (Luke 23:44)

On (the women's) leaning the faces into/to the earth (the two men) spoke towards (them): “What/why do you seek the living One in company with the dead (bodies)?” (Luke 24:5b)

Having begun from Moses and from all the prophets (Jesus) and/also (went on) to throughout/carefully interpret (א*) for (the Emmaus disciples) what (continually) was(א,* א) in * (א,* א) the writings, the things on account of Himself.” (Luke 24:27)

(Paul and the ones being with him) stayed by the side of (the brothers) one day. (Acts 21:7b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

And the Saying became flesh and dwelt in a tent in/among us. (John 1:14)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

A rabbi had around himself a circle of disciples, who he regularly taught. His education was aimed at explaining and deepening what the disciples before had learnt. ... By him conversations and discussions were found, but the gist always became summed up in some concentrated themes, which ... were learnt by heart. It was not customary that they indirectly or with own words rendered what the teacher had said. (Bo Giertz "Evangelium enligt Matteus" p 8; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

The use of “menein” (stay) is so characteristic of John's theology (e.g.15:4) that a deeper meaning may be intended. (C.K. Barrett "The Gospel according to St John" p 181)

In the Jewish society of his time Jesus found his place, to begin with, as a teacher of religion and morals. He was addressed as ‘Rabbi’ (Master), and not only by his immediate followers, but also by strangers, including some who would themselves have claimed the same title. It is true that the title had not yet become (as it did by the end of the century) something rather like the equivalent of a university degree, conferring licence to teach, but even as a courtesy title it implied public, if informal, acceptance as a teacher. It was as such that Jesus was at first regarded. It was as such that he attached ‘disciples’ – the word used was a technical term for those who attended upon a rabbi and formed his ‘school’. (C.H. Dodd “The Founder of Christianity” p 65)

The expression ‘Come and see’ is among the most common Rabbinic formulas, although generally connected with the acquisition of special and important information. (Alfred Edersheim "The Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah Part I" p 346)

Authority (was formerly) given (the Rabbi) to teach and to act as Judge (to bind and loose, to declare guilty or free). ... Rabbinic writings lay down elaborate directions, what place is to be assigned to the Rabbis, according to their rank, and to their disciples (Horay. 13b), and how in the College the most learned, but at feasts the most aged, among the Rabbis, are to occupy the ‘upper seats’ (Babha B. 120a). So weighty was the duty of respectful salutation by the title Rabbi, that to neglect it would involve the heaviest punishment (Ber. 27b). ... It was said that, according to Prov. viii. 15, the sages were to be saluted as kings (Gitt. 62a); nay, in some respects, they were higher – for, as between a sage and a king, it would be duty to give the former priority in redemption from captivity, since every Israelite was fit to be king, but the loss of a Rabbi could not easily be made up (Horay. 13a). (Alfred Edersheim "The Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah Part I" p 382,409)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Henry Daniel-Rops, LarsOlov Eriksson, Bo Frid, Bo Gerhardsson, Dick Harrison, René Kieffer, Lars Levi Laestadius, Martin Luther, D.L. Moody; Fredrik Nielsen, Anders Nohrborg, Eva Norberg, Agne Nordlander, John Ortberg, Björn Ryman, Bo Setterlind, Milton Steinberg, Jesper Svartvik, Lennart Tegborg.


My own comments and speculations:

Jesus stays in His Father's welcome. If we stay in the welcome of Jesus, we stay in His Father's welcome. See John 15:10.

We can compare the first recorded words by Jesus in the Synoptics respectively in the Gospel of John. In both cases we meet two persons, who are seeking and finding the teacher Jesus. In Luke the two parents find Him after three days among the teachers in the temple. In the Gospel of John the two disciples find Him on the third day after the coming of the priests, the Levites and the Pharisees from (a disgraced) Jerosolyma/Jerusalem.


Greek words:

dekatos (tenth) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) John 1:39 – Tobit 1:6-7; Judith 11:13; 1 Macc 3:49; 10:31; 11:35; 2 Macc 5:27; Sir 25:7; 35:8(11); Baruch 1:8; Heb 7:2,4,8-9; Rev 11:13; 21:20.

didaskalos (teacher) Esther 6:1; Mark 10:35; John 1:38 – 2 Macc 1:10; Matt 8:19; 9:11; 10:24-25; 12:38; 17:24; 19:16; 22:16,24,36; 26:18; Mark 4:38; 5:35; 9:17,38; 10:17,20; 12:14,19,32; 13:1; 14:14; Luke 2:46; 3:12; 6:40; 7:40; 8.49; 9:38; 10:25; 11:45; 12:13; 18:18; 19:39; 20:21,28,39; 21:7; 22:11; John 3:2,10; (8:4;) 11:28; 13:13-14; 20:16; Acts 13:1; Rom 2:20; 1 Cor 12:28-29; Eph 4:11; 1 Tim 2:7; 2 Tim 1:11; 4:3; Heb 5:12; Jas 3:1.

(h)ermêneuô (interpret) Ezra 4:7; John 1:38 – Esther 10:3l(F11); John 1:42; 9:7; Heb 7:2.

zêteô (seek) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Mark 16:6; Luke 2:49; 24:5; John 1:38 – Esther 1:1r(A17); 6:2; 8:12c(E3); Tobit 1:18-19; 4:18(BA); 5:3-4,14(BA); 14:10; Judith 7:27; 1 Macc 2:29; 4:5; 6:3,18,56; 9:32; 11:10; 12:39-40,53; 2 Macc 2:27; 14:32; Wisdom of Solomon 1:1; 6:12,16; 8:2,18; 13:6; 19:17; Sir 2:16; 3:21; 6:27; 7:4,6; 21:17; 24:7; 27:1; 28:3; 33:18,32(33); 51:3,13; Baruch 4:28; The Prayer of Azariah v 18. Matt 2:13,20; 6:33; 7:7-8; 12:43; 13:45; 18:12; 21:46; 26:16,59; 28:5, Mark 1:37; 3:32; 8:11-12; 11:18; 12:12; 14:1,11,55; Luke 2:45(א*,A); Luke 2:48; 5:18; 6:19; 9:9; 11:9-10,16,24,29; 12:29,31,48; 13:6-7,24; 15:8; 17:33; 19:3,10,47; 20:19; 22:2,6. John 4:23,27; 5:18,30,44; 6:24,26; 7:1,4,11,18-20,25,30,34,36; 8:21,37,40,50; 10:39; 11:8,56; 13:33; 16:19; 18:4,7-8; 19:12; 20:15. Acts 9:11; 10:19,21; 13:8,11; 16:10; 17:5,27; 21:31; 27:30; Rom 2:7; 10:3,20; 11:3; 1 Cor 1:22; 4:2; 7:27; 10:24,33; 13:5; 14:12; 2 Cor 12:14; 13:3; Gal 1:10; 2:17; Phil 2:21; Col 3:1; 2 Tim 1:17; Heb 8:7; 1 Pet 3:11; 5:8; Rev 9:6.

rabbi - an Aramaic word (rabbi) (in the NT) Matt 23:8; Mark 9:5; John 1:38 – Matt 23:7; 26:25,49; Mark 11:21; 14:45; John 1:49; 3:2,26; 4:31; 6:25; 9:2; 11:8.

strefô (turn) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Sir 6:28; Luke 7:9; 10:23; John 1:38 – Esther 4:17h(C10),17q(C22); 9:22; Tobit 2:6; 1 Macc 1:39-40; Matt 5:39; 7:6; 9:22; 16:23; 18:3, 27:3; Luke 7:44; 9:55; 14:25; 22:61; 23:28; John 12:40; 20:14,16; Acts 7:39,42; 13:46; Rev 11:6.

(h)ôra (hour) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Mark 15:33; Luke 23:44; John 1:39 – Esther 10:3h(F8); Judith 13:4; 2 Macc 8:25; Sir 11:27; 12:15; 32:11; 39:33; Susanna v 13(Theod). Matt 8:13; 9:22; 10:19; 14:15; 15:28; 17:18; 18:1; 20:3,5,9,12; 24:36,44,50; 25:13; 26:40,45,55; 27:45-46; Mark 6:35; 11:11; 13:11,32; 14:35,37,41; 15:25,34; Luke 1:10; 2:38; 7:21; 10:21; 12:12,39-40,46; 13:31; 14:17; 20:19; 22:14,53,59; 24:33; John 2:4; 4:6,21,23,52-53; 5:25,28,35; 7:30; 8:20; 11:9; 12:23,27; 13:1; 16:2,4,21,25,32; 17:1; 19:14,27. Acts 2:15; 3:1; 5:7; 10:3,9,30; 16:18,33; 19:34; 22:13; 23:23; Rom 13:11; 1 Cor 4:11; 15:30; 2 Cor 7:8; Gal 2:5; 1 Thess 2:17; Philemon v 15; 1 John 2:18; Rev 3:3,10; 9:15; 11:13; 14:7,15; 17:12; 18:10,17,19.


Additional studies:

Matt 8:19-20; 13:1; 27:45; Mark 10:51; John 1:38,49; 3:2; 4:31; 6:25; 9:2; 11:8; 12:21; 15:10; 20:16; Rev 2:13; 6:1-3,5,7; 22:17.


Majella Franzmann - Michael Klinger "The Call Stories of John 1 and 21"; Saint Vladimir's Theological Quarterly 36 (1992): 7-15.

John Christopher Thomas "The Fourth Gospel and Rabbinic Judaism"; Zeitschrift für die neutestamentliche Wissenschaft 82 (1991): 159-182.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-01-24; 2010-03-03; 2013-03-25; 2014-03-25; concluding version 2017-09-06)

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1:40-41 Andrew, Simon Peter's brother, (continually/-) was one out of the two having heard from the side of John and followed Him/Jesus. This first one (א*) finds his own brother Simon and says to him: "We have found (and find) the Messiah", which ‘is being’/is translated christ/anointed.

Word for word: 1:40 (17 words in the Greek text) Was-(continually) Andrew the brother (of)-Simon (of)-Peter one out-of the two (of)-the-(ones) having-heard from-the-side-of John and having-followed him. 1:41 (18 words in the Greek text) finds this first the brother the own Simon and says (to)-him: (we)-have-found-(and-find) the Messiah, which is being-translated christ/anointed.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The Lord God said to the male Adam:) "Because you heard the voice of your woman and ate from the wood, which I enjoined you: 'Alone/only this (you may) not eat from it', on/’under the rule of’ the cursed (is) the earth in your works. In/with sorrows you may eat it all the days of your life." (Gen 3:17, Greek OT)

The priest, having been (and being) anointed shall … ‘bring towards’/offer … on account of his miss (of the mark of God), which he has ‘missed (the mark of God)’/done. (Lev 4:3, Greek OT)

(Elijah) finds Elisah ... in/with cattles/oxen – twelve pairs of cattles/oxen in the very eyes of him ... and (Eliah) came against, against him and tossed his sheep's skin against, against him. And (Elisah) left the oxen entirely. (1 Kings 19:19b-20a, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said:) "The kings of the earth stood ‘by the side of’/near and the leaders were led together ... ‘down from’/against the Lord and ‘down from’/against His Anointed (Christ)." (Ps 2:2a, Greek OT)

Simon beheld his son John, that he is a male, and he put him being in command of all the abilities/’military forces’. (1 Macc 13:53a)

(Solomon said: “The wisdom) is easy to be ‘looked at’/perceived by the ones welcoming her and (easy) to be find by the ones seeking her.” (Wisdom of Solomon 6:12b)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said: “As a friend of hard work) I translate/translated what is this book.” (Sir Prologue)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “Happy a male ... who ‘loosens down’/’makes halt’ together/quite near the house (of wisdom).” (Sir 14:20a,24a)


The Latter Revelation:

Out of (Mary) was begotten Jesus, the One being said/called christ/anointed. (Matt 1:16b)

(The Lord said to the prophet:) “Behold, the virgin will ‘arrive in a womb’/’be with child’ and bring forth a Son, and they will call His name ‘Emmanuel’” (which, being translated, is/means 'God in company with us'). (Matt 1:23)

(Herod said to the soothsayers:) “As soon as you – according to the circumstances – may have found (the king) bring away a message to me, in that way (that) having come and/also I may prostrate before Him (in honour of Him, cf. Rev 13:8).” (Matt 2:8b)

The names of the twelve apostles are these: First Simon, the one being said/called Peter; and Andrew his brother; * (א*) James, the one (being son) of Zebedee, and John his brother. (Matt 10:2)

(God) has out of one made every nation of men ... to seek God if ... they hopefully might find Him. (Acts 17:26a,27a)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

And (John) confessed and did not deny * (א,*א) that/: "I am not the christ/'anointed one'." (John 1:20)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

Of the two disciples of John who were named in the beginning of the section the name is mentioned only of the one: Andrew. ... The other of the two remains anonymous, and obviously it was not important to name him. (LarsOlov Eriksson "För att ni skall tro. Johannesevangeliet" p 36; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

The author of the Gospel of John was a cultivated man and a great poet writing admirable Greek. ... In John (Jesus) is a god who appears. Everything he says and makes amounts to establish that he is Messiah. (Alf Henrikson "Biblisk historia - Nya Testamentet" p 385; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

While in the Fourth Gospel Andrew confesses Jesus as Messiah, that privilege in the Synoptic tradition falls to Simon. (Raymond E. Brown "The Gospel according to John" p 79)

Brother Loo! Heureka! (... which is interpreted: I have found it.) ... Heureka, however, the pale-faces did not cry out, when they saw the Pacific, but Pythagoras did it when he had got hold of the so-called hypotenuse. And I take the liberty of roaring forth the same thing! ... Here (in the Alps) is summer! Cowslips flower in the hills. Laurels, cypresses and boxes are green, but upon the alps is snow. (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev IV 1884" p 26-27; letter in the end of January 1884 to Claës Looström; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Of great importance . . . is to know, what was proclaimed in the synagogues and what among the people was thought of Messiah at the time, when Jesus appeared. When Andrew said to his brother Simon: "we have found Messiah" (John 1:41), and this one at once followed him to Jesus, for what was it Simon then searched and thought himself to find? What did the word Messiah mean for him? What conceptions did this awaken in his soul? . . . A special chapter of this treatise presents . . . the fruit of a study of the idea of Messiah among the Jews before and at Jesus' appearance. The knowledge of this is, as already having been pointed out, the forecourt to the doctrine of Christ in the new testament, necessary to go through to come to this doctrine. (Viktor Rydberg "Bibelns lära om Kristus" p 11-12; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

(Luke) still mentions Barnabas first: for Paul was not yet famous. (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers XI:174 commenting Acts 12:25)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Augustinus, Ragnar Blomqvist, Lennart Crusner, Sven Danell, Johan Hagner, Martin Luther, Carl Henrik Martling, Michael Nazir-Ali, Lewi Pethrus, Viktor Rydberg, Henrik Sjögren, Milton Steinberg, Mario Vargas Llosa.


My own comments and speculations:

The name Andrew means "male". In the Gospel of John Andrew has a more prominent place than in the Synoptics. In Sinaiticus, prima manus, he even is the “first one”. We can see this as an allusion to the first male Adam but also as a restoration of the punished male Adam. To as a male be near the Man Jesus and to be the first to confess Him as Messiah is a special favour.

Usually it is regarded probable that the unnamed disciple is John, the brother of James. These two ones, however, usually are named together. An alternative interpretation is given in My own comments and speculations to John 13:23-25.


Paul said to Timothy: "Adam was formed first." (1 Tim 2:13a)


Greek words:

(h)euriskô (find) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Wisdom of Solomon 6:12; Matt 2:8; John 1:41; Acts 17:27 – Esther 2:9,17; 6:2; 8:12p/E15; Tobit 1:18; 2:2; 5:9; 7:1; 8:13; Judith 8:14; 10:6; 14:3,15,17; 1 Macc 1:23,56-58; 2:46,52,63; 4:5; 5:6; 6:13,24,63; 10:16,60; 11:24; 12:21; 2 Macc 1:20; 2:5-6; 12:40; Wisdom of Solomon 1:2; 3:5; 5:11; 6:14; 8:11; 9:16; 13:6,9; 16:9; 19:5; Sir Prologue; 3:18,31; 6:14,16,18,28; 12:5,17; 15:6; 16:14; 18:20,28; 19:28; 22:13; 25:9-10; 27:16; 28:1; 29:3; 31:22; 32:14,16; 33:26; 36:8(11); 38:33(34); 40:18; 44:17,19; 51:16,20,26-27; Baruch 1:7,12; 3:15,30; Susanna v 14(Theod); Bel and the Dragon v 11(12)(Theod). Matt 1:18; 7:7-8,14; 8:10,13(א*); 10:39; 11:29; 12:43-44; 13:44,46; 16:25; 17:27; 18:13,28; 20:6; 21:2,19; 22:9-10; 24:46; 26:40,43,60; 27:32; Mark 1:37; 7:30; 11:2,4,13; 13:36; 14:16,37,40,55; Luke 1:30; 2:12,45-46; 4:17; 5:19; 6:7; 7:9-10; 8:35; 9:12,36; 11:9-10,24-25; 12:37-38,43; 13:6-7; 15:4-6,8-9,24,32; 17:18; 18:8; 19:30,32,48; 22:13; 23:2,4,14,22; 24:2-3,23-24,33; John 1:43,45; 2:14; 5:14; 6:25; 7:34-36; 9:35; 10:9; 12:14; 18:38; 19:4,6; 21:6. Acts 4:21; 5:10,22-23,39; 7:11,46; 8:40; 9:2,33; 10:27; 11:26; 13:6,22,28; 17:6,23; 18:2; 19:1,19; 21:2; 23:9,29; 24:5,12,18,20; 27:6,28; 28:14. Rom 4:1; 7:10,21; 10:20; 1 Cor 4:2; 15:15; 2 Cor 2:13; 5:3; 9:4; 11:12; 12:20; Gal 2:17; Phil 2:7; 3:9; 2 Tim 1:17-18; Heb 4:16; 9:12; 11:5; 12:17; 1 Pet 1:7; 2:22; 2 Pet 3:10,14; Rev 3:2; 5:4; 9:6; 12:8; 14:5; 16:20; 18:21; 20:11,15.

methermêneuô (translate) Sir Prologue; Matt 1:23; John 1:41 – Mark 5:41; 15:22,34; Acts 4:36; 13:8.

Messias – an Aramaic word (Messiah) John 1:41 – John 4:25.

Simôn (Simon) (in the NT) Matt 10:2; John 1:40-41 – Matt 4:18; 10:4; 13:55; 16:16-17; 17:25; 26:6; Mark 1:16,29-30,36; 3:16,18; 6:3; 14:3,37; 15:21; Luke 4:38; 5:3-5,8,10; 6:14-15; 7:40,43-44; 22:31; 23:26; 24:34; John 1:42; 6:8,68,71; 13:2,6,9,24,26,36; 18:10,15,25; 20:2,6; 21:2-3,7,11,15-17; Acts 1:13; 8:9,13,18,24; 9:43; 10:5-6,17-18,32; 11:13.


Additional studies:

Gen 3:23-24; 1 Sam 16:6; Ps 105:15; Matt 4:18-22; Mark 1:16-20; 3:16-18; 13:3; Luke 5:1-11; John 1:44; 12:22; Rev 17:3.


Bertil Albrektson "Är översättning också tolkning?"; Svensk Exegetisk Årsbok 51 (1986): 13-22.

Majella Franzmann - Michael Klinger "The Call Stories of John 1 and 21"; Saint Vladimir's Theological Quarterly 36 (1992): 7-15.

J. Jervell "Den omskårne Messias"; Svensk Exegetisk Årsbok 37/38 (1972/1973): 145-155.

Marinus de Jonge "Jewish Expectations about the Messiah according to the Fourth Gospel"; New Testament Studies 19 (1973): 246-270.

R. Leivestad "Var det noe alternativ till Messias?"; Svensk Exegetisk Årsbok 37/38 (1972/1973): 21-34.

R. MacKenzie "The Messianism of Deuteronomy"; Catholic Biblical Quarterly 19 (1957): 299-305.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-01-24; 2010-03-07; 2013-03-28; 2014-03-26; concluding version 2017-09-06)

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1:42 He led him towards Jesus. Having seen/’fixed His eyes’ in him Jesus spoke: "You are Simon, the son of John; you will be called Cephas, which is interpreted Peter (= rocking-stone)."

Word for word: (22 words in the Greek text): (he)-led him towards the Jesus. having-seen-in-him the Jesus spoke: you are Simon the son (of)-John, you will be-called Cephas, which is-interpreted Peter.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(God said to Abram:) "Your name shall not any longer be called Abram, however/but your name shall be Abraham, because I have put (and put) you a father of many nations." (Gen 17:5, Greek OT)

(The man) spoke to (Jacob): "What is your name?" But/and he spoke: "Jacob." But/and (the man) spoke to him: "Your name shall not any longer be called Jacob, however/but Israel shall be your name, because you have been stable in, in company with God and able in company with men." (Gen 32:27-28, Greek OT)

(Jacob said to his sons:) "Simeon and Levi (are) brothers. They brought unrighteousness to a consummation out of their ‘taking for themselves’/choice. Let not my soul come into their council. Let not my livers/liver ‘prop on’/support their standing/stand together, because in their passion they killed men and in their desire they cut off sinews (of) a bull. On/’under the rule of’ the cursed (is) their passion, because (it is) self-satisfied, and their offence, because it is hardened. I will divide them asunder in Jacob and sow them asunder in Israel." (Gen 49:5-7, Greek OT)

The inheritance of a tribe of sons of Simeon (was taken) from the share of inheritance of Judas, because it was become a greater portion of sons of Judas (than) theirs. And the sons of Simeon inherited in a middle of their share of inheritance. (Joshua 19:9, Greek OT)

(David said: “The Lord) led me up out of a den of wretchedness and from a clay/slime of mud and caused my feet to stand against a rock.” (Ps 40:2a or 40:3a, Greek OT)

(The prophet said: “The righteous one) will inhabit a high/’highly situated’ cave of a stable rock. Bread will be given to him, and his water (is) faithful.” (Is 33:16a, Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) “The Lord has become my succour. Because of this ... I have put/made my face as a firm rock.” (Is 50:7a, Greek OT)

(The prophet said:) “Hear me, the ones pursuing the righteous thing and seeking the Lord. See in, into the firm rock ... See in, into Abraham, your father.” (Is 51:1-2a, Greek OT)

(Daniel said to the king: “The Highest One) will cause the one despising of men stand up against/over (the kingdom of men).” (Dan 4:14b or 4:17b, Greek OT Theod)

(Tobit said to his son Tobias:) “Lead (the beggarly) and he shall eat in common in company with me. …” (Tobit 2:2b, S)

… John of Simeon. (1 Macc 2:1a)

Simon beheld his son John, that he is a male, and he put him being in command of all the abilities/’military forces’. (1 Macc 13:53a)

Simon called his two sons, the elders Judas and John. (1 Macc 16:2a)

(The Highest One) has seen in, into a sign of a (coming) age. (Sir 42:18b)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "Every/everyone whoever hears these My sayings, and makes/does them, will be likened (to) a sensible male, whoever built his habitation against the rock. … And the rivers came … and it did not fall, for it was (and had been) based against the rock." (Matt 7:24-25)

(Jesus said to Simon Peter:) "Happy are you, Simon, a son of Jona, because flesh and blood have not revealed (it) to you, however/but My Father, the One (who is) in the heavens. But I and/also say to you, that you are Peter (= rocking-stone), and on this rock I will build My (assembly) of called out, and the gates of Hades shall not be entirely stable (with regard to) it." (Matt 16:17b-18)

Jesus (became/appeared) in Bethany, in (the) habitation of Simon, the leprous. (Matt 26:6b)

The rocks were split ... . (Matt 27:51b)

(Jesus) put/laid on Simon a name, Peter. (Mark 3:16b)

(The mother of John said about him:) “He will/shall be called John.” (Luke 1:60b)

(Simeon was) a righteous and reverent (א*) man ‘receiving towards’/’waiting for’ a calling to the side of Israel, and holy spirit (continually) was against/over him. (Luke 2:25b)

Simon, the one being called Zealot (was one of the disciples). (Luke 6:15b)

Having turned the Lord saw/’fixed His eyes’ in Peter. (Luke 22:61a)

Barnabas ... led (Paul) towards the apostles. (Acts 9:27a)

(The messenger said to Cornelius:) “And now send males into Joppa and ‘send after’/dispatch for’ Simon * (א,* א), who is ‘called upon’/called Peter.” (Acts 10:5)

(Jacob said:) “Simeon has ‘been in command out’/explained ... (that) God has inspected/’cared for’ to take a people out of nations for His name.” (Acts 15:14)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 - about 1500

Peter appears in all the Gospels as anything but a rock. He is impulsive, volatile, unreliable. (Leon Morris "The Gospel according to John" p 141)

In John Simon Peter withdraws in favour of his brother Andrew, who together with the anonymous disciple meets Jesus before him. In a similar way the beloved disciple arrives to the tomb before Simon; he sees and believes. Here there is some criticism of Simon Peter, who is not the first one to meet Jesus or to understand what has happened at the tomb. (René Kieffer "Johannesevangeliet" p 53; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

And so (Katla) nevertheless was there! Not on the rock, but her terrible head stuck out behind a big block of stone by the path up towards Tengil's castle. There we saw her. And she saw us. (Astrid Lindgren "Bröderna Lejonhjärta" p 167; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

In those days nearly all Jews had two names. One was a Jewish name, by which they were known in their own circle; the other was a Greek name, by which they were known in the wider world. Sometimes the Greek name translated the Hebrew. (William Barclay “The Acts of the Apostles” p 100 commenting Acts 13:4-12)

On a steady rock in the sea even the weakest child is protected from the breakers as safe as the strongest man, provided that the child remains on the rock and does not deliberately precipitate himself into the sea. ... To believe in God and Christ is to be up on a firm rock reaching wide up over the waves. On this rock is not only protection but also help - help to remain on it. The love of God has raised the rock, and the same love has given the spirit, who leads us poor, shipwrecked beings up on it and then urges and strengthens us to remain. (Karl Palmberg "Ur livskällan. Första årgången." p 165-167; Karl Palmberg /1842-1920/ was from 1883 a Lutheran clergyman in Månsarp in the diocese of Växjö and president in Jönköpings Missionsförening (Missionary Society) 1886-1911; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


about 1500 and time before

(In the Gospel of John) Andrew calls Peter, but (in the Gospel of Matthew) Jesus calls both. And John saith, Jesus seeing Simon coming, saith, “Thou art Simon, the son of Jona, thou shalt be called Cephas, which is by interpretation, a stone.” But Matthew saith that he was already called by that name; for his words are, “Seeing Simon, that was called Peter.” (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers X:88)

In many instances there is a Providence in the giving of names, as we have often told you. (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers XI:137)

It is possible even from bare names to find a great treasure. If, for instance, you were shown why Sarah, why Israel, why Samuel, you would find even from this a great many real subjects of research. (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers XI:553)

Moses recalls (Deut 33:8) the curse against Levi, or, rather converts it into a blessing, on account of the subsequent zeal of the tribe ... but that against Simeon he did not recall. Wherefore it also was fulfilled in deed. For Simeon did not obtain an inheritance like the other tribes, for he dwelt in the midst of Judah. Yet his tribe was preserved, although it was small in number. (Hippolytus, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol V, p 164)

Is our hope upon a stone? Far from it. But (the language is used) inasmuch as (the Lord) laid His flesh (as a foundation) with power; for He says: “And He placed me as a firm rock.” (Epistle of Barnabas, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol I, p 140)

Is it a meaningless and accidental thing, that the positions of names, and the elections of the apostles, and the working of the Lord, and the arrangement of created things, are what they are? – we answer them: Certainly not. (Irenaeus, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol I, p 396)

Those who do not partake of (the Spirit) ... alienated from the truth, they ... never (attain) to a well-grounded knowledge, being more anxious to be sophists of words than disciples of the truth. For they have not been founded upon the one rock, but upon the sand, which has in itself a multitude of stones. (Irenaeus, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol I, p 458)

‘Petros’ is used in Greek for ‘stone,’ and also sometimes for ‘rock’, while ‘Petra’ always means a ‘rock’. ... The Aramaic word “Kepha” meaning, like (‘Petros’), both ‘stone’ and ‘rock.’ ... The name ‘Peter’, or rather ‘Petros’, is Jewish, and occurs, for example, as that of the father of a certain rabbi (José bar Petros) (Pesiqta, ed. Buber, p.158a, line 8 from bottom). ... According to Jewish ideas the world ... required a moral, before it could receive a psyical foundation. Rabbinism here contrasts the Gentile world with Israel. It is so ... (according to Yalkut on Numb. xxiii. 9, vol. i p. 243, b, last 6 lines, and c, first 3 lines), as if a king were going to build a city. One and another site is tried for a foundation, but in digging they always come upon water. At last they come upon a Rock (Petra, פטרא). So, when God was about to build his world, He could not rear it on the generation of Enos nor on that of the flood, who brought destruction on the world; but ‘when He beheld that Abraham would arise in the future, He said: Behold I have found a Rock (Petra, פטרא) to build on it, and to found the world,’ whence also Abraham is called a Rock (Tsur, צור) as it is said: ‘Look unto the Rock whence ye are hewn (Is. li. 1).’ (Alfred Edersheim "The Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah Part II" p 82-83)

Throughout antiquity, and in the East to this day, proper names are regarded as significant of a deeper meaning. (Alfred Edersheim “Old Testament” I:24)

(God) blessed the “hated” wife (Leah) with children. ... (She) bore in rapid succession four sons, whom she significantly named ... Simeon (“hearing”), “Because Jehovah hath heard that I was hated.” (Alfred Edersheim “Old Testament” I:126)

Through millenia (the Israelites) have defended their hereditary names. . . . (Nevertheless) they once were near annihilation. . . . For a time they were under Greek influence, and against the gentle usages and customs of the Greeks they had difficulty to get along. The Greeks set the fashions for the world, and there was a whole crowd of Israelites, who wanted to be modern. To this belonged to have Greek names. An Israeli dandy that time, who had received the honourable name Joshua, changed it to Jason, for it was Greek and fine. . . . (At last) the classes of the people, who were counted among "the uncultivated", raised themselves under the command of Judas Maccabaeus, and used up a movement, which had begun as a foolery and out of the fool's cap had developed into an act of treason to faith and native country. (Viktor Rydberg "Om förnamn i allmänhet och de nordiska i synnerhet" s 243-244; Göteborgs Handelstidning 1874-09-14; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Ann-Charlotte Alverfors, Samira Azzam, David Bellingham, Harry Bergenblad, Gösta Bergman, Erik Bernspång, Enid Blyton, Marcus Birro, August Bondeson, Magnus Jacob Crusenstolpe, Sven Danell, Jan Danielson, Bob Dylan, Abd el-Qadir es-Samihi, Emilie Flygare-Carlén, Emilia Fogelklou, Gillis Gerleman, Nikolaj Gogol, William Golding, Rune Gustavsson, Stefan Gustavsson, Torsten Holm, Erland Johansson, Karl Knutsson, Selma Lagerlöf, Sven Lidman, Sigurd Lindgren, Torgny Lindgren, Claes Lindskog, Emil Malm, Henning Mankell, Frederick Marryat, Tryggve Mettinger, Wult Metz, Vilhelm Moberg, Patrick Modiano, Fredrik Nielsen, Bertil Nordenstam, Olaus Petri, Hilding Pleijel, Ellery Queen j:r, Harald Rasmussen, Paul AT Robinson, Jerker Rosén, Viktor Rydberg, Gösta Sandberg, Jaroslav Seifert, William Shakespeare, Jens Erik Skydsgaard, Rikard Sterner, Sven Stolpe, Herbert Storck, Rune Storck, Einar Thomassen, Anton Tjechov, Edith Unnerstad, C.A. Wetterbergh, Gustaf Wikner, Sigurd Wildte, Virginia Woolf, Per Wästberg, Emile Zola.


My own comments and speculations:

The names ”Simon”, ”the son of John”, ”Cephas” and “Peter” all they lead the thoughts to the disciple's denial of his Lord.

In a restoration perspective we see how “John, (the son) of Sim(e)on” (1 Macc 2:1; 13:53) has become “Simon, the son of John”.

The name Simon is associated with the tribe of Simeon (cf. Acts 15:14). This tribe is humilated in the OT. At the first census the greatest tribe in every camp gave the camp its name, all except the tribe of Simeon, which must stand back for the less tribe of Reuben (Num 2). And at the second census the result was, that the tribe of Simeon had been the least of all the tribes. It had also been reduced most of all and was not even half as great as at the first census (Num 26). And when Moses blessed the tribes of Israel, he omitted the tribe of Simeon (Deut 33). When Jesus saw/’fixed His eyes’ in Simon, He saw the humilated tribe of Simeon in Him (cf. also the leprous Simon in Matt 26:6). The text in John 1:40-41 shows a person who comes second. He is not seen as the first one of the disciples but rather as a person who is found by his brother Andrew.

In the light of the Greek OT (2 Macc 1:16; 4:41) the name ”Petros” should be translated by (a loose) “rocking-stone” rather than by (a firm) “rock” (= petra). Cf. Matt 16:18, where Jesus speaks about the rocking-stone Petros/Peter and “this rock”. We can observe, that Jesus calls Himself “this One” in John 5:38; 6:27,46 and 7:18. Furthermore, both Paul (Rom 9:33; 1 Cor 10:4) and Peter (1 Pet 2:8) compare Jesus with a rock. See also Is 50:7 where the prophet compares his face/person with a firm rock.

The Greek word ”Kêfas” (Cephas) usually is understood from the Aramaic. Another, and perhaps better, possibility is to connect to the Hebrew word “kep” (rock, ledge), which occurs in plural in the Hebrew OT (Job 30:6; Jer 4:29), och to this word add the Greek masculine ending –as. The word “kep” is in the OT used to describe the places to which the faithless friends try to get away. The word is never used to describe the rock which is the Lord Himself. In the light of the Holy Jewish Scriptures the word “Cephas” has a negative meaning in comparison with other Hebrew words for “rock”. We can also note, that like the word “petros” only is used twice in the Greek OT, so nor “kep” is used more than twice in the Hebrew OT. Cf. also King James Version of John 1:42b: “Thou art Simon the son of Jona: thou shalt be called Cephas, which is by interpretation, A stone.”

As a ”male” Peter can never entirely represent Jesus Christ being the ”Man” who is both male and female. Peter is an honoured rocking-stone and a part of the glorified Rock who is Jesus Christ. Cf. My own comments and speculations to John 7:45-46 and 19:33-37.


Paul said to the believers in Corinth: “The rock (continually) was the christ/'anointed one'.” (1 Cor 10:4b)


Greek words:

agô (lead) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Tobit 2:2; John 1:42; Acts 9:27 – Esther 2:8; 8:12u(E22); 9:17-19,21-22; Tobit 7:16; 8:19; 11:17; 14:15; Judith 2:9; 5:14; 6:11; 10:17; 11:19; 12:5; 1 Macc 4:59; 5:23; 7:2,48-49; 9:26,37; 14:3; 2 Macc 1:9,18-19; 2:12,16; 4:18; 6:7,11; 7:7,18; 8:33; 10:6,8; 12:35; 13:4; 15:3; Wisdom of Solomon 8:9; Sir 33:31(32); Baruch 1:9. Matt 10:18; 21:2,7; 26:46; Mark 1:38; Mark 11:7(א*,A); Mark 13:11; 14:42; Luke 4:1,9,29,40; 10:34; 18:40; 19:27,30,35; 22:54; 23:1,32; 24:21; John 7:45; (8:3;) 9:13; 10:16; 11:7,15-16; 14:31; 18:13,28; 19:4,13. Acts 5:21,26-27; 6:12; 8:32; 9:2,21; 11:25(26); 13:23; 17:15,19; 18:12; 19:37-38; 20:12; 21:16,34; 22:5; 23:10,18,31; 25:6,17,23; Rom 2:4; 8:14; 1 Cor 12:2; Gal 5:18; 1 Thess 4:14; 2 Tim 3:6; 4:11; Heb 2:10; Jas 4:13; 5:1.

kaleô (call) (in the Synoptics, John, the Acts, 1-3 John, Rev + examples in the Apocrypha) Luke 1:60; 6:15; John 1:42; Acts 13:1 – Esther 2:14; 3:12; 4:11; 5:10,12; 6:5; 8:9; 9:26; Tobit 2:13; 4:2-3; 5:9-10,17; 7:12-13(13-14),15; 8:9(10),11,20; 9:1,5; 12:1,5; 14:3; Judith 2:4,14; 5:2; 10:2; 12:10; 14:5-6; 1 Macc 1:6; 2:3-5; 3:1; 6:10,14,17; 10:20; 11:7,47; 12:31,37; 16:2,15; 2 Macc 1:36; 10:12; Wisdom of Solomon 11:25; 13:10; Sir 5:14; 36:11(14); Baruch 3:33,35; Epistle of Jeremiah v 29; Susanna v 52; Bel and the Dragon v 8. Matt 1:21,23,25; 2:7,15,23; 4:21; 5:9,19; 9:13; 20:8; 21:13; 22:3-4,8-9,43,45; 23:7-10; 25:14; 27:8; Mark 1:20; 2:17; 3:31; 11:17; Luke 1:13,31-32,35-36,59-62,76; 2:4,21,23; 5:32; 6:46; 7:11,39; 8:2; 10:39; 14:7-10,12-13,16-17,24; 15:19,21; 19:2,13,29; 20:44; 21:37; 22:3,25; 23:33; John 2:2. Acts 1:12,19,23; 3:11; 4:18; 7:58; 8:10; 9:11; 10:1; 13:1; 14:12; 15:22,37; 24:2; 27:8,14,16; 28:1; 1 John 3:1; Rev 1:9; Rev 2:22(א*); Rev 11:8; 12:9; 16:16; 19:9,11,13.

Kêfas – (Cephas) John 1:42 – 1 Cor 1:12; 3:22; 9:5; 15:5; Gal 1:18; 2:9,11,14.


Additional studies:

Gen 2:19; Num 25:14; 1 Macc 16:1-2; Luke 6:14; Acts 10:32; 1 Cor 3:21; Gal 2:7-9,11-14.


Majella Franzmann - Michael Klinger "The Call Stories of John 1 and 21"; Saint Vladimir's Theological Quarterly 36 (1992): 7-15.

P.J. Hartin "The role of Peter in the Fourth Gospel"; Neotestamentica 24.1 (1990): 49-62.

Charles F.D. Moule "Some Reflections on the 'Stone Testimonia' in relation to the Name Peter"; New Testament Studies 2 (1955-1956): 56-59.

W.S. Vorster "Characterization of Peter in the Gospel of Mark"; Neotestamentica 21.1 (1987): 57-76.

Leon J. Wood "Simeon, the tenth tribe of Israel"; Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 14.4 (Fall 1971): 221-225.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-01-25; 2010-03-12; 2013-04-01; 2014-03-26; concluding version 2017-09-07)

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1:43-44 On the following day (Jesus) wanted to come out into Galilee, and He finds Philip. And Jesus says to him: "Follow Me!" But/and Philip (continually/-) was from Bethsaida, out of the city of Andrew and Peter.

Word for word: 1:43 (17 words in the Greek text): (On)-the on-following-day (he)-wanted come-out into the Galilee and (he)-finds Philip. and says (to)-him the Jesus: follow me. 1:44 (12 words in the Greek text): was-(continually) but the Philip from Bethsaida, out-of (of)-the (of)-city (of)-Andrew and (of)-Peter.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The Lord said to Moses: “Come/go into Pharaoh and speak to him:) 'If you so indeed do not wish to dispatch out (My people), however/but still get/have power in/over it, behold, a hand of the Lord will stand on/near (with) an extremely great death in/among your domestic animals in the plains, both/and in/among the horses and in/among the “beasts of burden”/asses and the camels and the cattles/cattle and the sheep.’” (Ex 9:2-3, Greek OT)

(Mariam sang:) "Horse and rider (the Lord) has tossed into a sea." (Ex 15:21b, Greek OT)

(David said: "Some make themselves great) in/with wagons and (some) in/with horses, but we will make ourselves great in/with a name of the Lord, our God." (Ps 20:7 or 20:8, Greek OT)

(The Lord) will not want/'have His mind' in/to the sovereignty/strength of the horse. (Ps 147:10a, Greek OT)

(God) will make a district ... on the other side of the Jordan, Galilee of the nations, the parts of Judea. (Is 8:23b or 9:1b, Greek OT)

(The king) called Philip, one of his friends, and ‘caused ... to stand’/set him down upon/over every/all his kingdom. (1 Macc 6:14)


The Latter Revelation:

Walking about to the side of the Sea of the Galilee, (Jesus) beheld two brothers, Simon, the one being said/called Peter, and Andrew his brother, throwing a casting-net into the sea, for they (continually/-) were fishermen. And He says to them: "Come here behind Me and I will make you fishermen of men." (Matt 4:18-19)

The names of the twelve apostles are these: First Simon, the one being said/called Peter; and Andrew his brother; * (א*) James, the one (being son) of Zebedee, and John his brother, Philip. (Matt 10:2-3a)

Jesus came into Galilee, proclaiming the good little message of God. (Mark 1:14b)

(Jesus said:) "Woe to you, Chorazin, woe to you, Bethsaida, because if the abilities/’works of ability’ having become/’come about’ in you had been become/made in Tyre and Sidon, they had - according to the circumstances - changed their minds long ago, being seated in sack and ashes.” (Luke 10:13)

Philip was found. (Acts 8:40a)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

Galilee was by the people in Jerusalem and Judea regarded as an out-of-the-way spot, where there lived an unreliable mixed race with a strange dialect. (Bo Giertz "Evangelium enligt Matteus" p 29; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Following Origen, Boismard ... suggests that Bethsaida has been introduced into John's account because it means "place of hunting (fishing)" and thus we have a symbolic reference to the theme of Matt 4:19: "Follow me and I will make you fishers of men. (Raymond E. Brown "The Gospel according to John" p 82)

Galilee was to Judaism ‘the Court of the Gentiles’ – the Rabbinic Schools of Judea its innermost Sanctuary. ... There was a general contempt in Rabbinic circles for all that was Galilean. Although the Judaean or Jerusalem dialect was far from pure, the people of Galilee were especially blamed for neglecting the study of their language, charged with errors in grammar, and especially with absurd malpronunciation. ... ‘Galiean-Fool!’ was so common an expression, that a learned lady turned with it upon so great a man as R. José, the Galilean, because he had used two needless words in asking her the road to Lydda. (Alfred Edersheim "The Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah Part I" p 225-226)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Svetlana Aleksijevitj, Fredrik Böök, Henry Daniel-Rops, Sven Fagerlund, Carl Grimberg, Lennart Gustavsson, Bror Kugelberg, Vibeke Olsson, Lewi Pethrus, August Strindberg, Per Johan Svensson, Anton Tjechov, P.G. Vejde.


My own comments and speculations:

Philip - the name means "friend of horses" - is a disciple and a witness to Jesus. In Egypt the horses were killed by God's punishment. In the Gospel of John "the friend of horses" has a place of honour near his Lord. The name of Philip is found twelve times in this gospel but only once in each of the other gospels. We can see this as a sign of the restoration of the killed horses. That Philip was from Bethsaida in Galilee can be seen as a dark background to his restoration.

Concerning “Philip”, see also Rev 6:2a (“hippos”).


Greek words:

Bêthsaida (Bethsaida) Luke 10:13; John 1:44 – Matt 11:21; Mark 6:45; 8:22; John 12:21

Galilaia (Galilee) (in the NT + examples in the OT) Is 8:23(9:1); Matt 4:18; Mark 1:14; John 1:43 – Joshua 20:7; 21:32; 1 Kings 9:11; 2 Kings 15:29; 1 Chron 6:76; Tobit 1:2,5; Judith 1:8; 1 Macc 5:55; 10:30; 12:47,49; Matt 2:22; 3:13; 4:12,15,23,25; 15:29; 17:22; 19:1; 21:11; 26:32; 27:55; 28:7,10,16; Mark 1:9,16,28,39; 3:7; 6:21; 7:31; 9:30; 14:28; 15:41; 16:7; Luke 2:4,39; 3:1; 4:14,31; 5:17; 8:26; 17:11; 23:5,49,55; 24:6; John 2:1,11; 4:3,43,45-47,54; 6:1; 7:1,9,41,52; 12:21; 21:2; Acts 9:31; 10:37; 13:31.

exerchomai (come out/out of) (in John, 1-3 John, Rev + examples in the Apocrypha) John 1:43 - Esther 5:9; 8:14-15; Tobit 5:4,10,17; 6:1(2); 7:17; 8:4,14; 11:16; 14:9-10; Judith 2:5-7,14,19; 7:13; 8:33; 10:6,9,20,22; 11:18; 12:6,13; 13:3,9; 14:2,8,11; 1 Macc 1:10; 2:27,33-34; 3:11,16; 4:13; 5:33,59,65,67; 6:21,31,49,61; 7:1,33,35,39,41; 9:36; 10:2,74,86; 11:2,60; 12:41; 15:10; 16:3; 2 Macc 2:4; 5:26; 6:26; 12:26,33; 13:13; Wisdom of Solomon 16:14; Sir 14:22; 24:3,30; Baruch 5:6; Susanna v 13,18-19(Theod); Bel and the Dragon v 14(Theod); John 4:30,43; 8:(9),42,59; 10:9,39; 11:31,44; 12:13; 13:3,30-31; 16:27-28,30; 17:8; 18:1,4,16,29,38; 19:4-5,17,34; 21:3,23; 1 John 2:19; 4:1; 2 John v 7; 3 John v 7; Rev 3:12; 6:2,4; 14:15,17-18,20; 15:6; 16:17; 18:4; 19:5,21; 20:8.

thelô (want) (in the Synoptics, John, the Acts, 1-3 John, Rev + examples in the Apocrypha) John 1:43 – Esther 1:8; 4:17b(C2); 5:3; 6:6,11; Tobit 3:17; 4:19; 12:18; 13:8(Theod); 1 Macc 4:27; 2 Macc 4:16; 7:16; 12:16; 13:25; 14:42; Wisdom of Solomon 9:13; 11:25; 12:18; 13:6; 14:5; Sir 6:32; 15:15; 23:14; 39:6. Matt 1:19; 2:18; 5:40,42; 7:12; 8:2-3; 9:13; 11:14; 12:7,38; 13:28; 14:5; 15:28,32; 16:24-25; 17:4,12; 18:23,30; 19:17,21; 20:14-15,21,26-27,32; 21:29; 22:3; 23:4,37; 26:15,17,39; 27:15,17,21,34,43; Mark 1:40-41; 3:13; 6:19,22,25-26,48; 7:24; 8:34-35; 9:13,30,35; 10:35,43-44,51; 12:38; 14:7,12,36; 15:9; Luke 1:62; 4:6; 5:12-13,39; 6:31; 8:20; 9:23-24,54; 10:24,29; 12:49; 13:31,34; 14:28; 15:28; 16:26; 18:4,13,41; 19:14,27; 20:46; 22:9; 23:8,20; John 3:8; 5:6,21,35,40; 6:11,21,67; 7:1,17,44; 8:44; 9:27; 12:21; 15:7; 17:24; 21:18,22-23. Acts 2:12; 7:28,39; 10:10; 14:13; 16:3; 17:18,20; 18:21; 19:33; 24:27; 25:9; 26:5; 3 John v 13; Rev 2:21; 11:5-6; Rev 13:5(א,*א); Rev 22:17.

Filippos (Philip) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) 1 Macc 6:14; Matt 10:3; John 1:43-44; Acts 8:40 – 1 Macc 1:1; 6:2,14,55,63; 8:5; 2 Macc 5:22; 6:11; 8:8; 9:29; 13:23; Matt 14:3; 16:13; Mark 3:18; 6:17; 8:27; Luke 3:1; 6:14; John 1:45-46,48; 6:5,7; 12:21-22; 14:8-9; Acts 1:13; 6:5; 8:5-6,12-13,26,29-31,34-35,38-39; 21:8.


Additional studies:

Deut 17:16; Ps 32:9; Is 31:1; Matt 4:12; 8:22; 9:9; 10:3; Mark 2:14; Luke 4:14, 9:10,59; John 21:19,22; Rev 6:2,4-5.


Majella Franzmann - Michael Klinger "The Call Stories of John 1 and 21"; Saint Vladimir's Theological Quarterly 36 (1992): 7-15.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-01-25; 2010-03-14; 2013-04-03; 2014-03-26; concluding version 2017-09-08)

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1:45-46 Philip finds Nathanael and says to him: "We have found (and find) the One of whom Moses in the law and/’and also’ the prophets wrote, Jesus from Nazareth, a son of Joseph." * (א,*א) Nathanael spoke to him: "Is it able to be any good thing out of Nazareth?" Philip says to him: "Come and behold!"

Word for word: 1:45 (24 words in the Greek text) finds Philip the Nathanael and (he)-says (to)-him: whom wrote Moses in the law and the prophets we-have-found-(and-finds), Jesus son (of)-the Joseph the-(one) from Nazareth. 1:46 (15 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus) spoke (to)-him Nathanael: out-of Nazareth is-able any good be? says (to)-him Philip: come and behold.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

Israel spoke to (Joseph): ”Go (and) behold if your brothers and the sheep are healthy.” … A man found (Joseph) ‘being led’/going astray in/on the plain. But/and the man asked Him, saying: "What do you seek?" But/and he spoke: “I seek my brothers; bring up me a message where they tend (the sheep).” But/and the man spoke to him: "They have gone (and go) away from here, for I heard them saying: 'Let us go into/to Dothan.'" And Joseph went entirely behind/after his brothers and found them in Dothan. (Gen 37:14a,15-17, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Moses:) “These (are) the names of the males whoever shall stand by the side of in company with you … of Issachar: Nathanael, a son of Zoar (which means ‘littleness’).” (Num 1:5a,8, Greek OT)

(The king in Aram said to his slave:) "’Come here’/’go there’, behold where (Elisha is), and having dispatched away I will take him." And it was brought up a message to him, saying: "Behold, (he is) in Dothan." (2 Kings 6:13, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said:) “Come here, behold the works of the Lord.” (Ps 46:8a or Ps 46:9a, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said:) “Come here and behold the works of God.” (Ps 66:5a, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said:) "Confess out/frankly the Lord, because (He is) good. (Ps 118:1a, Greek OT)

Judith (was) a daughter of Merari, a son of Os, a son of Joseph. … (Judith 8:1b)

(Maccabaeus) encouraged (the Jews) out of the law and the prophets. (2 Macc 15:9a)

(The Lord) enjoined Moses to write (His) law … (Baruch 2:28b)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “You may not adopt as a law that I came to loosen down/up the law or the prophets. I did not come to loosen down/up however/but to complete.” (Matt 5:17)

(Jesus said to His discipels:) “Every good tree makes/gives fine fruits, but the rotten/decayed tree makes/gives evil/bad fruits.” (Matt 7:17b)

The names of the twelve apostles are these: First Simon, (the one being) said/called Peter; and Andrew his brother; * (א*) James, the one (being son) of Zebedee, and John his brother, Philip. (Matt 10:2-3a)

(In Nazareth Jesus) did not make many (works of) ability because of their unbelief. (Matt 13:58)

Jesus spoke to (the rich man): ”Why do you ask Me on account of the good thing? One is the good One.” (Matt 19:17a)

Jesus came from Nazareth of the Galilee and was baptized by John into/’down to’ the Jordan. (Mark 1:9b)

Jesus says to (His disciples): “How many loaves do you have? Withdraw, behold!” (Mark 6:38a)

Jesus spoke to (the rich man): “What/why do you say/call Me good? No one (is) good ‘if not’/except One, God.” (Mark 10:18)

(Some Sadducees said to Jesus:) “Teacher, Moses has written to us.” (Mark 12:19a)

(Jesus, son) of Natham, of David. (Luke 3:31b)

All (in the synagogue continually) were witnesses to (Jesus) and (continually) wondered on/at the sayings of the joybringing (grace), (sayings) going out, out of His mouth. And they (continually/repeatedly) said: "Is by no means this One a son of Joseph?" (Luke 4:22)

Having sat still by the side of towards the feet of the Lord (Mariam) (continually) had heard His saying. But Martha (continually) had pulled/bustled round about, around/’with regard to’ much service. But having stood on/near (Him) she had spoken: “Lord, do You not care for, that my sister entirely has left to me alone to render service? Speak so to her in order that she in stead may take (it) together with me.” But having answered the Lord had spoken to her: “Martha, Martha, you care (about) and are distracted around/’in relation to’ many things. But it is (a matter) of few things or one thing (א*), for Mary has chosen the good portion, whichever/which shall not be taken off/from her." (Luke 10:39b-42)

Joseph … a good and righteous male. (Luke 23:50b)

Having begun from Moses and from all the prophets (Jesus) and/also (went on) to throughout/carefully interpret (א*) for (the Emmaus disciples) what (continually) was(א,* א) in * (א,* א) the writings, the things on account of Himself.” (Luke 24:27)

(Jesus said to His disciples): ”All the things having been (and being) written on account of Me in the law of Moses and in (א,*א) the prophets and psalms must be completed.” (Luke 24:44b)

The eunuch ‘having answered’/'answered and' spoke to Philip: “I ‘am in need of’/ask you, on account of whom does the prophet say this? On account of himself or on account of ‘the other someone’/’someone else’?” But/and Philip ... brought from this writing to him a good little message (about) Jesus. ... And (Philip continually) brought a good little message to all the cities till ‘the come him’/’he came’ into Caesarea. (Acts 8:34,35b,40b)

(Peter said: "You know) Jesus, the One (being) from Nazareth, as/how God anointed Him (with) holy spirit and (with) ability, who ‘came through’/’went about’ ‘treating well’/’showing kindness’ and healing all the ones being ‘had (under) sovereignity down’/tyrannized by the slanderer, because God (continually) was in company with Him." (Acts 10:38)

Having throughout/solemnly ‘been a’/born witness Paul (continually/repeatedly) ‘put out’/explained the kingdom of God (to the leading men of the Jews) persuading both/- them on account of Jesus, from both the law of Moses and the prophets, from early in the day till evening. (Acts 28:23b)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(Jesus) says to (the two disciples): "Come and behold (א,* א, A)!" (John 1:39a)

Andrew, Simon Peter's brother, (continually/-) was one out of the two having heard from the side of John and followed Him/Jesus. This first one (א*) finds his own brother Simon. (John 1:40-41a)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 - 1500

Sadducees only regarded the five books of Moses, the Pentateuch, as normative writing, while the Pharisaical movement also accepted books of prophets, Psalms and a continued oral tradition of interpretation. (Håkan Bengtsson "Tro och liv inom judendomen" p 119; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

“Agathos” is the common Greek word for “good”. “Agathos” is that which is practically and morally good. ... When a thing or a person is “agathos”, it or he is good in the moral and practical sense of the term, and in the result of its or his activity. (William Barclay ”New Testament Words” p 154)

It was in the autumn of (1902) ... when I became the author of the collection of short stories "Krigsmän". No, I could not be interested in my mother and her family. It could not come any good thing from Nazareth. ... All what (her family) was for my consciousness signified something inferior and worthless. (Sven Lidman "Lågan och lindansaren" p 62; krigsmän = members of the armed forces; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Why and how have I been driven to settle down in this little university town (Lund), notorious as a place of expulsion or penance for Uppsala students having feasted too much detrimental to their cash or their health? ... There are here even relatives having denied me, friends having ceased to be friends with me and having become my enemies. ... I offer my thanks to Providence having sent me to this despised country town in order to there atone for my guilt and become saved. (August Strindberg "Inferno" p 123-125; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Inasmuch as Jesus Christ is the fulfilment of the Law and the Prophets and is the substance of the Gospel ... we incline towards no other end but to know him. Fruitfully to read the Scriptures, thereby to find the divine revelation, they must be approached with the firm intention of finding Jesus Christ in them. All else is but human wisdom or mere fantasy. And the reason for this is that Christ is the one and only mediator through whom God makes himself known to us. We therefore cannot know God as we ought and as he wishes to be known, unless we seek him in Christ; that is why the aim of all study of the Scriptures must be the Christ. ... In short, Jesus Christ is at the centre of the whole of the Bible, of which he is the vivifying spirit, since God, hidden from sinful man, has been revealed only in Jesus Christ, and it is the Bible that bears witness to that revelation. (François Wendel "Calvin" p 154-155; The Theological Doctrine of Calvin)


about 1500 and time before

At what time did (the Word) cease to be among men? Was He not in Isaiah, when He said: “The Spirit of the Lord is upon me, because He hath anointed me”, and “I became visible to those who sought me not.” … (And was He) not in David when he said not from himself: “But I was established by Him a king in Zion His holy hill” and the other words spoken in the Psalms in the person of Christ? And why should I go over the details of this proof, truly they are hard to be numbered, when I can show quite clearly that He was always among men? (Origen, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol X, p 369-370)

The study of the Bible (for a Jewish child) commenced with that of the Book of Leviticus. Thence it passed to the other parts of the Pentateuch (and) then to the Prophets. ... We know that the ‘rolls’ on which the Law was written were distinct from those of the Prophets. (Alfred Edersheim "The Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah Part I" p 232,452)

So far as inspiration or ‘revelation’ is concerned, (the Rabbins) said that Moses ‘saw in a clear glass, the prophets in a dark one’ – or to put it otherwise: ‘he saw through one glass, they through seven.’ ... It was somewhat contemptuous remarked, that the Prophets uttered nothing as regarded practice that had not already been told in the Pentateuch (Taan. 9a). It was but natural for Rabbinism to declare that the Law alone fully explained its meaning ... while the Prophets left much in obscurity. ... Of all the prophets Isaiah was greatest, and stood next to Moses. (Alfred Edersheim "The Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah Part II" p 686)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Werner Aspenström, Honoré de Balzac, Bo Bergman, Colin Brown, Fredrik Böök, Donald A. Carson, Stig Dagerman, Gunnar Dahmén, Louis de Geer, Ylva Eggehorn, Per Ericsson, Gunvor Eriksson, Peter Fjellstedt, Elisabeth Franklin, Birger Gerhardsson, Nikolaj Gogol, Johannes Gossner, Paulus Mar Gregorius, Bertil Gärtner, Hermann Hartfeld, Alf Henrikson, Christmas Humphreys, Carl Hårleman, Irenaeus, Kazuo Ishiguro, Eric Jansson, Amy Le Feuvre, Lars Levi Laestadius, Tony Lane, Lars-Olof Larsson, Johan Henrik Lidén, Emanuel Linderholm, Arnold Lindman, Martin Luther, Vilhelm Moberg, Hilding Nordström, Magnus Nyman, K.G. Ossian-Nilson, Efraim Palmqvist, Olof Petersson, Lewi Pethrus, Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan, Sigrid Rosell, Einar Rudberg, Viktor Rydberg, Henry Sannar, Henrik Schartau, Erik Sollerman, "Pelle Stick", John Stott, Svend Erik Stybe, Anton Tjechov, Leo Tolstoj, Stig Tornehed, Gustaf Ullman, P. Waldenström, Cecilia Wassén, Albert Wiberg, Sigurd Wildte, Virginia Woolf, Birgitta Yavari, Göran Åberg, Wilhelm Åkerblom.


My own comments and speculations:

"any good thing". What is good (Greek: agathos) is what characterizes God Himself. Compare with the creation separated from God, a creation which in Gen 1 is characterized as "fine" (Greek: kalos). Compare also with the use of "agathos" in Mark 10:17-18.

As the king in Aram tells his slave to go and behold Elisha, so Philip tells Nathanael to come/go and behold Jesus. The slave goes to take Elisha, Nathanael to take Jesus. Cf. John 1:12.

Dothan is the place of Elisha (2 Kings 6:13) but also the place of Israel's sons (Gen 37:15-17). It is the place where Jesus and His true disciples are staying. The name Dothan can mean "spring" or "well". Dothan in its first syllable sounds as the Greek word “dôtôr”, which means "giver". And the name Nathanael means "God has given" (compare the name of the disciple Matthew, a name which means "the gift of the Lord"). Compare also John 4:4-15 where we have such words as "well", "give" and "gift".

Probably Nathanael is the apostle, who in the Synoptics (Matt 10:3; Mark 3:18; Luke 6:14) is named together with Philip, but not with his own name but only as “son of Tholomew”. Nathanael is the fifth of the apostles recorded in the Gospel of John. He is restored from having been in the Synoptic gospels the sixth apostle, Bartholomew. Cf. My own comments and speculations to John 6:70-71 about Judas of Simon, the sixth of the apostles in the Gospel of John.

In a restoration perspective we can observe, that the place Nazareth was so slight, that it is not mentioned in the OT. Furthermore its name can mean “rich in branches or twigs” and implicitly a place without fruit (cf. Nathanael's question to Jesus and Zoar=littleness in Num 1:8).

Concerning “Philip”, see also Rev 6:2a (“hippos”).


Greek words:

agathos (good) (in the Synoptics, John, the Acts, 1-3 John, Rev + examples in the Apocrypha) Matt 7:17; Luke 10:42; 23:50; John 1:46 – Esther 9:19,21-22; Tobit 4:11(BA); 5:14,22; 7:6(7); 9:6; 10:12; 12:6-8; 14:2,4; Judith 5:17; 8:28; 11:23; 13:20; 15:10; 1 Macc 4:45; 10:55; 14:9; 16:17; 2 Macc 5:4; 7:20; 11:6,19; 15:12,23; Wisdom of Solomon 2:6; 3:15; 7:11; 8:9,15,18-20; 12:21; 13:1; 14:26; 18:9; Sir 2:9; 6:11,19; 7:13,19; 11:25,31; 12:1,3,5,7-9; 13:24; 14:5,14,25; 16:29; 17:7; 18:8,15,17; 20:16; 26:1,3-4,16,26; 29:14; 30:18,25; 31:11; 32:13; 33:14; 35:7(10),9(12); 37:18; 39:4,25,33; 41:13; 42:14,25; 44:11; 51:18,21; Epistle of Jeremiah v 33. Matt 5:45; 7:11,18; 12:34-35; 19:16-17; 20:15; 22:10; 25:21,23; Mark 3:4; 10:17-18; Luke 1:53; 6:45; 8:8,15; 11:13; 12:19; 16:25; 18:18-19; 19:17; John 5:29; 7:12; Acts 9:36; 11:24; 23:1; 3 John v 11.

grafô (write) (in the Synoptics, John, the Acts, 1-3 John, Rev + examples in the Apocrypha) Baruch 2:28; Mark 12:19; Luke 18:31; John 1:45 – Esther 1:1p(A15),19; 3:10,12;13f(B6); 8:5,8-10; 9:20,23,29; 10:1-2; Tobit 1:6; 7:13; 12:20; 13:1(BA); Judith 4:6; 1 Macc 1:41,51; 7:16; 8:20,31; 10:17,24,56,59,65; 11:22,29,31,57; 12:22; 13:35,37,40,42; 14:18,43; 15:19,22; 16:24; 2 Macc 1:7; 2:16; 8:8; 9:18,25; 14:27; Sir Prologue; Baruch 1:1. Matt 2:5; 4:4,6-7,10; 11:10; 21:13; 26:24,31; 27:37; Mark 1:2; 7:6; 9:12-13; 10:4-5; 11:17; 14:21,27; Luke 1:3,63; 2:23; 3:4; 4:4,8,10,17; 7:27; 10:26; 16:6-7;19:46; 20:17,28; 21:22; 22:37; 24:44,46; John 2:17; 5:46; 6:31,45; 8:(8,)17; 10:34; 12:14,16; 15:25; 19:19-22; 20:30-31; 21:24. Acts 1:20; 7:42; 13:29,33; 15:15,23; 18:27; 23:5,25; 24:14; 25:26; 1 John 1:4, 2:1,7-8,12-14,21,26; 2 John v 5,12; 3 John v 9,13; Rev 1:3,11,19; 2:1,8,12,17-18; 3:1,7,12,14; 5:1; 10:4; 13:8; 14:1,13; 17:5,8; 19:9,12,16; 20:12,15; 21:5; Rev 21:12(א,*א); Rev 21:27; 22:18-19.

Iôsêf (Joseph) (the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Judith 8:1; Luke 4:22; John 1:45 – 1 Macc 2:53; 5:56; Sir 49:15; Matt 1:16,18-20,24; 2:13,19; 27:56-57,59; Mark 6:3(א,*א); Mark 15:43,45; Luke 1:27; 2:4,16; 3:23-24,30; 23:50; John 4:5; 6:42; 19:38; Acts 1:23; 4:36; 7:9,13-14,18; Heb 11:21-22; Rev 7:8.

Nazaret (Nazareth) Mark 1:9; John 1:45-46; Acts 10:38 – Matt 2:23; 4:13; 21:11; Luke 1:26; 2:4,39,51; 4:16.

Nathanael (Nathanael) John 1:45-46 – John 1:47-49; 21:2.


Additional studies:

Ps 40:7(8); 1 Macc 6:14-15; Matt 5:18; 7:12; 11:13; 13:55-56; 22:37-40 Mark 3:18; 6:2; Luke 3:23; 6:14; 16:16,29,31; 18:19; 24:44-46; John 5:39; 7:41,52; 11:34; 12:21; Acts 13:15; 17:2-3; 26:22; Rom 3:21; Rev 6:1-3,5,7; 10:7; 22:17.


Majella Franzmann - Michael Klinger "The Call Stories of John 1 and 21"; Saint Vladimir's Theological Quarterly 36 (1992): 7-15.

Charles E. Hill "The Identity of John's Nathaniel"; Journal for the Study of the New Testament 67 (1997): 45-61.

Craig R. Koester "Messianic Exegesis and the Call of Nathanael"; Journal for the Study of the New Testament 39 (1990): 23-34.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-01-26; 2010-03-21; 2013-04-05; 2014-03-26; concluding version 2017-09-08)

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1:47 Jesus beheld Nathanael coming towards Him and says on account of him: "Behold, truly an Israelite, in whom it/there is not (any) deceit!"

Word for word (20 words in the Greek text): beheld the Jesus the Nathanael coming towards him and (he)-says on-account-of him: behold truly (an)-Israelite, in whom deceit not is


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Isaac said to Esau:) "Having come in company with deceit your brother took your blessing." And (Esau) spoke: "His name was righteously/rightly called Jacob, for he already this a second time had struck (and struck) me with the heel. Both/furthermore has taken (and takes) my birthright, and now he has taken (and takes) my blessing. (Gen 27:35-36a, Greek OT)

(The man) spoke to (Jacob): "What is your name?" But/and he spoke: "Jacob." But/and (the man) spoke to him: "Your name shall not any longer be called Jacob, however/but Israel shall be your name, because you have been stable in, in company with God and able in company with men." (Gen 32:27-28, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to Moses:) “These (are) the names of the males whoever/who shall stand by the side of in company with you … of Issachar: Nathanael, a son of Zoar (which means ‘littleness’).” (Num 1:5a,8, Greek OT)

(Moses said to Israel: "It was) not because you were a much/many-headed multitude ‘to the side of’/'in comparison with' all the nations (that) the Lord took you for himself before (them) and took you out, for you are only a few persons ‘to the side of’/'in comparison with' all the nations.” (Deut 7:7, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to His people:) “The entirely/whole rest of Israel will and/also not make/do unrighteousness and talk vain things, and it may not/certainly not be found a deceitful tongue in their mouth. ... (The) King of Israel, the Lord, (is) in a middle of you. You will no longer behold bad things. (Zeph 3:13a,15b, Greek OT)

(Solomon said:) “A holy spirit of education will flee deceit.” (Wisdom of Solomon 1:5a)


The Latter Revelation:

(The priest leaders and the elders of the people) took counsel together, in order that they might get power over Jesus (with) deceit and kill Him. (Matt 26:4)

(The leader of the toll collectors Zaccheus, who was small in bodily growth, said to the Lord:) "Behold, Lord, half of my ‘things beginning under’/properties I give to the beggarly, and if I have been a fig-informer/’false accuser’ to anyone of anything, I give back fourfold." But/and Jesus spoke towards him that/: "Today it has become/come saving to this house, in so far as and/also he is (א*) a son of Abraham." (Luke 19:8b-9)

(Peter said:) “Males, Israelites, hear these sayings.” (Acts 2:22a)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

'Dolos' (deceit) in fact means bait (is due to the Greek word "deleazô" which means to fish with bait). It also can mean snare. In a figurative sense it is used about fraud and cunning. (Studiebibeln V:358; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

In view of the use in v. 51 of Gen 28:12 it seems probable that there is here a reference to the cunning of Jacob in robbing Esau of his blessing (cf. Gen 27:35). (C.K. Barrett "The Gospel according to St John" p 185)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Henry Daniel-Rops, Lars Magnar Enoksen, Agne Hamrin, Aug. E. Lernberg, N. Odenvik, Harry Sjöman, Anfin Skaaheim.


My own comments and speculations:

Nathanael, son to ”littleness” (Num 1:8) , is a type of the small Zaccheus at the fig tree, he who is seen by Jesus. As Zaccheus was a son of Abraham, so Nathanael is a true Israelite. He belongs to the people which is the least of all nations.


Paul said to the believers in Corint: "Since many boast ‘according to’/after flesh, I will boast and/also. ... Are they Hebrews? I and/also. Are they Israelites? I and/also. Are they seed of Abraham? I and/also." (2 Cor 11:18,22)

Greek words: alêthôs (truly) (in the NT + one example in the Apocrypha) John 1:47 – 2 Macc 3:38; Matt 14:33; 26:73; 27:54; Mark 14:70; 15:39; Luke 9:27; 12:44; 21:3; John 4:18(א,*א); John 4:42; 6:14; John 6:55(א*); John 7:26,40; 8:31; 17:8; Acts 12:11; 1 John 2:5.


dolos (deceit) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Wisdom of Solomon 1:5; Matt 26:4; John 1:47 – Tobit 14:9(10); 1 Macc 1:30; 7:10,27,30; 8:28; 11:1; 13:31; 16:13; 2 Macc 4:34; Wisdom of Solomon 4:11; 14:25; Sir 1:30; 19:26; Bel and the Dragon v 18; Mark 7:22; 14:1; Acts 13:10; Rom 1:29; 2 Cor 12:16; 1 Thess 2:3; 1 Pet 2:1,22; 3:10.

Israêlitês (Israelite) John 1:47; Acts 2:22; 2 Cor 11:22 – Acts 3:12; 5:35; 13:16; 21:28; Rom 9:4; 11:1.


Additional studies:

Ps 32:2; Rom 2:29; 9:6; Rev 14:5.


Majella Franzmann - Michael Klinger "The Call Stories of John 1 and 21"; Saint Vladimir's Theological Quarterly 36 (1992): 7-15.

Craig R. Koester "Messianic Exegesis and the Call of Nathanael"; Journal for the Study of the New Testament 39 (1990): 23-34.

Paul Trudinger "An Israelite in Whom There is No Guile: An Interpretive Note on John 1:45-51"; The Evangelical Quarterly 54.2 (Apr.-June 1982): 117-120.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-01-26; 2010-03-24; 2013-04-06; 2014-03-27; concluding version 2017-09-11)

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1:48 Nathanael says to Him: "From where have You knowledge of me?" Jesus answered and spoke to him: "Before Philip ‘to raise’/raised his voice (towards) you being underneath the fig tree, I beheld you."

Word for word (22 words in the Greek text): says (to)-him Nathanael: from-where me have-you-knowledge-of? answered Jesus and spoke (to)-him: before the you Philip raise-(his)-voice being underneath the fig-tree beheld-i/I you.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

The woman beheld that the wood (of the thing to know/'have knowledge of') (is) fine into/’for the purpose of’ consumption and that (it is) pleasing to behold for the eyes, and that it is a seasonable hour of the thing to understand entirely, and having taken its fruit she ate. And she gave and/also to her male (being) in company with her, and he ate. And the eyes of the two were opened throughout, and they gained knowledge, that they (continually) were naked. And they sewed leaves of a fig tree and made themselves (clothes) girded (them) around. (Gen 3:6-7, Greek OT)

(Job said:) "From where was the wisdom found/obtained?" (Job 28:20a, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to the priest leader of His people:) "In that day (when I lead My slave Upsticking) ... everyone will call together his neighbour below a vine and below a fig tree. (Zech 3:10, Greek OT)

Having come into/in (Tobias) spoke to the father: “Behold, I have found (and find) the one who will go together with me.” But/and (Tobit) spoke: “Raise your voice (towards) him (that he may come) towards me, in order that I may gain additional knowledge (from) what kind of tribe he is and if (he is) faithful to go in company with you.” (Tobit 5:9, BA)

Everyone sat down underneath his vine and his fig-tree. (1 Macc 14:12a)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “The eyes of the Lord (are) against/over the ones welcoming Him.” (Sir 34:16a or 34:19a)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said: “The Lord) has traced out abyss and heart (of a man) ... for the Highest One has had knowledge of every knowing, and He has seen in, into a sign of a (coming) age.” (Sir 42:18)


The Latter Revelation:

... (Jesus) beheld a man being said/called Matthew being seated against the toll-house. (Matt 9:9a)

Having (א*, B*) 'led up on'/returned into the city early in the day (Jesus) was hungry. And having beheld one fig tree (alone) upon the way, (Jesus) came against it and did not find anything in it, ‘if not’/except leaves only, and He says to it: “Oh that (א,* א) it may not become fruit out of you any longer into the (coming) age.” And immediately the fig tree was dried. (Matt 21:18-19)

(Many in the synagogue said about Jesus:) “From where (are) these things to this One, and what (is) the wisdom having been given to this One … ?” (Mark 6:2b)

Jesus spoke: “Raise your voices (towards the blind one).” And they raise their voices (towards) the blind one, saying to him: “Be confident, raise, He raises His voice (towards) you.” (Mark 10:49b)

(Jesus) knew the ‘countings throughout’/considerations of (the scribes and the Pharisees). (Luke 6:8a)

(Jesus) '(continually) said'/'went on to tell' this parable: "A certain one (continually) had a fig tree being (and having been) planted in his vineyard. And he came seeking fruit in it and he did not find. But/and he spoke towards the vinedresser: 'Behold, three years from/after which (time) I come/”have come” seeking fruit in this fig tree, and I ‘do not find/’have not found’. Cut it out, ‘in order that what’/why does it and/also make the earth inactive/barren?' But/and 'having answered'/answering he says to him: ‘Lord, let (the fig tree) be and/also this year, till (the time) whichever/’in which’ I may dig around it and throw/put (on) dung. And if – according to the circumstances - it indeed may make/bear fruit into the ‘(year) being about’/’future (year)’, (fine); but if not, you will/may cut it out/down at any rate.’” (Luke 13:6-9)

As (Jesus) came against/’up to’ the place, having seen up (He) spoke towards (Zaccheus): “Zaccheus, 'having hasted'/'haste and' descend, for today I must stay in your house.” And having/he hasted and descended and received him underneath/familiarly rejoicing. (Luke 19:5-6)


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

(The Saying which is the true light) (continually) was in the adornment/’adorned world’, and the adornment/’adorned world’ had become through Him, and the adornment/’adorned world’ had not knowledge of Him. (John 1:10)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 - about 1500

In the story of Susanna Daniel asks the old men ”under what tree” they saw Susanna sin. Add t Dan 1:54,58. By this question the prophet Daniel revealed them. (René Kieffer "Johannesevangeliet" p 49, translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask))

Concerning Nathanael under the fig tree Raymond E. Brown ("The Gospel according to John" p 83) mentions J Jeremias, who thinks of the symbolism of the tree of knowledge in Paradise, a tree which the late Judaism thought was a fig tree.

In the outline The fig (in the book Vallfart och vandringsår) Heidenstam by the way had expressed his sympathy for the socialists, "the ones wishing that no man shall possess an own fig." (August Strindberg "August Strindbergs brev VII febr 1888-dec 1889" s 75; note to letter 1888-04-14 to Verner von Heidenstam; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

God might now put every man to his own test at the new test-tree, Christ; for now eternal life or eternal death will not depend on participation in Adam's guilt (which with the sin of the whole generation is taken away by the Lamb of God), but of the relation of everyone to Christ, of faith or of lack of faith. (Carl Olof Rosenius "Nytt och Gammalt från Nådens Rike" Fjerde Årgången p 11; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


about 1500 and time before

As he who was made a living soul forfeited life when he turned aside to what was evil, so, on the other hand, the same individual, when he reverts to what is good, and receives the quickening Spirit, shall find life. (Irenaeus, The Ante-Nicene Fathers Vol I, p 538)

Nathanael (Theodore, ‘the gift of God,’) had, as we often read of Rabbis, rested for prayer, meditation, or study, in the shadow of that wide-spreading tree so common in Palestine, the fig-tree. (Alfred Edersheim "The Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah Part I" p 349)

Fig-trees ... were regarded as so valuable, that to cut them down if they yielded even a small measure of fruit, was popularly deemed to deserve death at the Hand of God (Baba K. 91b). ... The fig-tree was regarded as the most fruitful of all trees (Shebh. i,3). ... Allegorically, the fig-tree served ... in the Talmud (as emblem) of Israel's lore. (Alfred Edersheim "The Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah Part II" p 246-247)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Dag Sebastian Ahlander, David Bellingham, Amanda M. Blankenstein, Harald Elovson, Jan Fridegård, Bo Giertz, Homeros, Juan Ramon Jiménez, Harry Lenhammar, Sven Lidman, Watchman Nee, Wulf Metz, Fabian Månsson, Stephen Neill, Efraim Palmqvist, Viktor Rydberg, Et-Tayib Salih, Margareta Strömstedt, Thomas a Kempis, P. Waldenström, Anders Österling.


My own comments and speculations:

The fig tree was the tree of knowledge, a tree for God Himself. When Jesus comes looking for fruit on the fig tree, this is a sign pointing to who Jesus is. The vinedresser accepts to cut the tree down, if it doesn't bear fruit the fourth year. But Jesus had said that it never more will bear fruit, and on the fourth day (cf. John 1:29,35,43) Nathanael leaves the fig tree (compare Zaccheus who left the sycamore fig) to go to Jesus, the vine (John 15:1). The old deadly fig tree, forbidden for men, in a middle of the Paradise is substituted by a new quickening vine, offered for men, standing in their middle (John 1:26). And this tree gives knowledge of the only true God and His Son.

Contact in disbelief with the forbidden fig led to an expulsion from the fig out of the Paradise. Contact in faith with the ordered vine leads to a union into the vine and at last into a new Jerusalem.

As Matthew (the name means "the gift of the Lord") was being seated towards the toll-house, so Nathanael (the name means "God has given") was being seated underneath the fig tree. Probably Nathanael in the Gospel of John is the same person as Matthew in the Synoptics. He can also be compared with Zaccheus, the other toll collector in the Synoptics. Both toll collectors left their "forbidden" places to follow Jesus and become true Israelites. See My own comments and speculations to John 1:47.

Concerning “Philip”, see also Rev 6:2a (“hippos”).


Greek words:

pothen (from where) (in the NT + examples in the OT) Job 28:20; Mark 6:2; John 1:48 – Gen 16:8; 29:4; 42:7; Num 11:13; Joshua 9:8; Judges 13:6; 17:9; 19:17; 1 Sam 25:11; 30:13; 2 Sam 1:3,13; 2 Kings 5:25; 6:27; 20:14; Job 2:2; Ps 121:1; Is 39:3; Jonah 1:8; Tobit 7:3; Judith 10:12; Matt 13:27,54,56; 15:33; 21:25; Mark 8:4; 12:37; Luke 1:43; 13:25,27; 20:7; John 2:9; 3:8; 4:11; 6:5; 7:27-28; 8:14; 9:29-30; 19:9; Jas 4:1; Rev 2:5; 7:13.

sykê (fig tree) (in the NT + one example in the Apocrypha) 1 Macc 14:12; Matt 21:19; Luke 13:6-7; John 1:48 – Matt 21:19-21; 24:32; Mark 11:13,20-21; 13:28; Luke 21:29; John 1:50; Jas 3:12; Rev 6:13.

fôneô (raise one's voice) (in the NT + examples in the OT) Tobit 5:9; Mark 10:49; John 1:48 – 1 Chron 15:16; Is 38:14; Jer 17:11; Zeph 2:14; 1 Macc 9:12; Matt 20:32; 26:34,74-75; 27:47; Mark 1:26; 9:35; 14:30,72; 15:35; Luke 8:8,54; 14:12; 16:2,24; 19:15; 22:34,60-61; 23:46; John 2:9; 4:16; 9:18,24; 10:3; 11:28; 12:17; 13:13,38; 18:27,33; Acts 9:41; 10:7,18; 16:28; Rev 14:18.


Additional studies:

Gen 2:17; 16:13; 1 Kings 4:25; Hos 9:10; Micah 4:1,4; Mark 11:13-14; Luke 19:4-5; John 2:24-25; 15:1; 21:17; Rev 4.6; 5:6; 7:13-15.


Majella Franzmann - Michael Klinger "The Call Stories of John 1 and 21"; Saint Vladimir's Theological Quarterly 36 (1992): 7-15.

Craig R. Koester "Messianic Exegesis and the Call of Nathanael"; Journal for the Study of the New Testament 39 (1990): 23-34.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-01-26; 2010-03-29; 2013-04-10; 2014-03-27; concluding version 2017-09-12)

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1:49-50 Nathanael answered * (א,* א) and spoke (א,* א): "Rabbi, You are the Son of God. You are the (P66, א,* א) King of Israel." Jesus answered and spoke to him: "Because I spoke to you that I beheld you below the fig tree, you believe. You will behold greater things than these."

Word for word: 1:49 (17 words in the Greek text Sinaiticus): answered Nathanael and spoke: rabbi, you are the son (of)-the (of)-god, you are the king (of)-the Israel. 1:50 (18 words in the Greek text) answered Jesus and spoke (to)-him: because i/I-spoke (to)-you that i/I-beheld you below the fig-tree you-believe; greater-(things-than) (of)-these you-will-behold.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(The Lord said to Moses, the leader of Israel:) "I will dispatch you away towards Pharaoh, king of Egypt, and you shall lead/bring out My people, the sons of Israel, out of the earth/land of Egypt. ... You shall speak to Pharaoh: 'This is what the Lord says: "Israel (is) My first-born son.'" (Ex 3:10b; 4:22, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to David, the king of Israel and Judas:) "I have caused a King by (Me) to stand down against Zion, (My) holy mountain." (David brought a message throughout about) the command of the Lord: “He spoke towards me: ‘You are My son. Today I have begotten (and beget) you.’” (Ps 2:6-7, Greek OT)

Proverbs of Solomon, (the) son of David, who was king in Israel. (Prov 1:1, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to His people:) “The entirely/whole rest of Israel will and/also not make/do unrighteousness and talk vain things, and it may not/certainly not be found a deceitful tongue in their mouth. ... (A) king of Israel, the Lord, (is) in a middle of you. You will no longer behold bad things. (Zeph 3:13a,15b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to the priest leader of His people:) "In that day (when I lead My slave Upsticking) ... everyone will call together his neighbour below a vine and below a fig tree. (Zech 3:10, Greek OT)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “A great man and a judge and a sovereign will be glorified, and/but not any of them is greater than the one fearing the Lord.” (Sir 10:24)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “To everyone/every nation (the Lord) ‘caused to stand’/set down (one) being in command, and/but Israel (is) the portion of the Lord.” (Sir 17:17)

(Jesus, the son of Sirach, said:) “Many things hidden away are greater than these (described) things, for we have beheld (and behold) few of the works (of the Lord).” (Sir 43:32)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples: “A scarlet kernel of mustard) is indeed smaller than all (other) seeds, but when – according to the circumstances - it may have increased, it is greater than the vegetables and becomes a tree.” (Matt 13:32a)

Simon Peter 'having answered'/'answered and' spoke (to Jesus:) "You are the christ/'anointed one', the Son of the living God." (Matt 16:16)

(The priest leaders, the scribes and the elders ‘jested with’/mocked Jesus and said:) “He saved others. He is not able to save Himself. He is a king of Israel! Let Him now descend from the cross and we may (א,* א) believe against Him.” (Matt 27:42)

(One of the scribes questioned Jesus:) "Of what kind is a first commandment of all?" Jesus answered that/: "First is 'Hear, Israel! The Lord our God is one Lord. And you shall welcome the Lord your God out of whole/all your heart and out of whole/all your soul and out of whole/all your mind and out of whole/all your stability.' A second oneis (א,* א) this: 'You shall welcome your neighbour as yourself.' Greater than these ones is not another commandment." (Mark 12:28b-31)

Pilate questioned (Jesus): "Are You the King of the Jews?" But ‘having answered’/answering him 'the One'/He says: “You say (it).” (Mark 15:2)

All (the elders of the people) spoke (to Jesus): "So You are the Son of God?" But 'the One'/He (continually/-) uttered towards them: "You say that I am." (Luke 22:70)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

Compare Third Baruch 1:6; 2:1a: ”And again the angel of hosts said to me, ‘Come and I will show you greater mysteries.’ ... And taking me, the angel of the Lord led me (from the first heaven) to a second heaven.” (Leif Carlsson “Round Trips to Heaven p 358)

In some connections in the Hellenistic world of the NT men could be called sons of god. Above all this was the case in the cult of the emperor, where for instance August could be called son of Gud. In legends about prominent philosophers these were given divine origin, but this did not cause that they directly were called "the son of God". So this background can hardly, as it is sometimes believed, explain how Jesus has come to be called the son of God in the NT. In the OT the people of Israel is called the son of God. ... Furthermore the king, the anointed one (hebr. Messiah!), is called the son of God. ... When primitive Church uses the express designation the son of God about its Lord, this probably has a double background, the one of the Old Testament-Jewish messianic and the one of the claim of Jesus such as it is expressed in the address abba. (Lars Hartman "Ur Markusevangeliet" p 30-31 in comment to Mark 1:1-13; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

Mrs Gordon now told Ingmar, how she in the night had seen him and what he had said to her. When she had told him all, Ingmar said that this was the most wonderful thing he had experienced. "If not all things fail, we will before evening have seen still greater things", mrs Gordon said, "for now I certainly feel that God wants to help us." Now she was calm and in good spirits and spoke with Ingmar, as if no danger menaced. (Selma Lagerlöf "Jerusalem II" s 417-418; In days of poverty; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

By mentioning both the place where (Nathanael) was when adressed by Philip, and the name of the tree, and the time of conversation, (Jesus) showed that His foreknowledge was unquestionable. ... When (Nathanael) had received an unquestionable proof of His foreknowledge, he hastened to confess Him, showing by his previous delay his caution, and his fairness by his assent afterwards. (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers XIV:71)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Elisabeth Beskow, Martin P:n Nilsson, Mats Åmark.


My own comments and speculations:

Jesus is not only a son of Joseph (John 1:45) or a son like the Jesus who is a son of Sirach (Sir 50:27). Nathanael, having left the fig tree, comes before the vine with the right confession, that Jesus is the Son of God. Cf. John 15:1 and 1 John 4:15.


You are out of God, little children, and you have conquered (and conquer) them, because the One in you is greater than the one in the adornment/’adorned world’. (1 John 4:4)


Greek words:

meizôn (greater) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Sir 10:24; 43:32; Matt 13:32, Mark 12:31; John 1:50; 1 John 4:4 - Esther 8:12c(E2); Matt 11:11; 12:6; 18:1,4; 20:31; 23:11,17,19; Mark 4:32; 9:34; Luke 7:28; 9:46; 12:18; 22:24,26-27; John 4:12; 5:20,36; 8.53; 10:29; 13:16; 14:12,28; 15:13,20; 19:11; Rom 9:12; 1 Cor 12:31; 13:13; 14:5; Heb 6:13,16; 9:11; 11:26; Jas 3:1; 4:6; 2 Pet 2:11; 1 John 3:20; 5:9; 3 John v 4.

(h)ypokatô (below) (in the NT + one example in the Apocrypha) John 1:50 – Baruch 2:2; Matt 22:44; Mark 6:11; 7:28; Luke 8:16; Heb 2:8; Rev 6:9; 12:1.


Additional studies:

Num 24:17; 2 Sam 7:13-14; Ps 29:1; 82:6; Sir 4:10; Matt 2:2,15; 3:17; 14:33; 23:7-8; 27:43,54; Mark 1:11; 8:29; 15:32,39; Luke 1:32-33; 3:22,38; 4:41; John 11:27,40; 12:13; 14:12; 20:31; Acts 13:33-34; Rom 1:3-4; Rev 1:7; 6:13; 17:3.


Majella Franzmann - Michael Klinger "The Call Stories of John 1 and 21"; Saint Vladimir's Theological Quarterly 36 (1992): 7-15.

Craig R. Koester "Messianic Exegesis and the Call of Nathanael"; Journal for the Study of the New Testament 39 (1990): 23-34.

Andreas J. Köstenberger "Jesus as Rabbi in the Fourth Gospel"; Bulletin for Biblical Research 8 (1998): 97-128.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-01-26; 2010-04-03; 2013-04-13; 2014-03-27; concluding version 2017-09-12)

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1:51a And He says to him: "Amen, amen, I say to you."

Word for word (7 words in the Greek text): and (he)-says (to)-him: amen amen i/I-say (to)-you


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Joseph said to Pharao:) "On account of the thing to make the dream of Pharaoh a second time, twice, (it means) that the word from the side of God will be truthful, and God will make, make it quick." (Gen 41:32, Greek OT)

Sometimes a single "Amen" or "Genoito" is used (Deut 27:15-26; Neh 5:13, The Prayer of Manasseh v 15), sometimes a double "Amen, amen" or "Genoito, genoito" (Num 5:22).

(All the people said:) “Amen”. And they praised the Lord.” (1 Chron 16:36b, Greek OT)

(David said:) “Once God has spoken, two/twice I heard these things, that the power (is) of God and (with) You, Lord, the mercy.” (Ps 62:11-12a or Ps 62:12, Greek OT)

(The psalmist said: “Let all the people say:) ‘Amen. Hallelujah.’” (Ps 106:48b, Hebrew OT)

(The psalmist said: ”Let all the people say:) ’Oh, that it may become, oh, that it may become.’” (Ps 106:48b, Greek OT)

(The Lord said to His people:) "I am, I am the One calling you to the side of (Me)." (Is 51:12a, Greek OT)

I will give darkness against your earth/land,” says the Lord, the Lord (to Egypt). (Ezek 32:8b, Greek OT)

(Tobias) spoke in company with (Sarah): “Amen.” (Tobit 8:8b, BA)

(Tobias and Sarah) spoke in company with themselves: ”Amen, amen.” (Tobit 8:8b, S)

And every/all the people spoke: “Oh, that it may become, oh, that it may become.” (Judith 13:20b)

(Solomon said to the Lord:) “You have arranged every thing throughout (with) measure and number and standing-place/balance.” (Wisdom of Solomon 11:20b)


The Latter Revelation:

(Jesus said to His disciples:) "Let your saying be 'Yes, yes', 'Not, not'. But (what is) over and above these things is out of the evil." (Matt 5:37)

(Jesus said to His disciples:) “When you so – according to the circumstances – may make/give alms, you may not sound the trumpet in front of you just as the hypocrites ... Amen, amen (א*), I say to you, they hold off their wage.” (Matt 6:2)

The Synoptics always use the single "Amen" with the exception of Matt 6:2(א*). See Matt 5:18,26; 6:2,5,16; 8:10; 10:15,23,42; 11:11; 13:17; 16:28; 17:20; 18:3,13,18; 19:23,28; 21:21,31; 23:36; 24:2,34,47; 25:12,40,45; 26:13,21,34; Mark 3:28; 8:12; 9:1,41; 10:15,29; 11:23; 12:43; 13:30; 14:9,18,25,30; Luke 4:24; Luke 7:28(א,*א); Luke 12:37; 18:17,29; 21:32; 23:43.


The Apostle, the eighth and one of the seven:

John always uses the double "Amen, amen". (John 1:51; 3:3,5,11; 5:19,24-25; 6:26,32,47,53; 8:34,51,58; 10:1,7; 12:24; 13:16,20-21,38; 14:12; 16:20,23; 21:18)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 and time before

In (the Hebrew) OT ”amên” occurs 25 times. ... The Septuagint transcribes the Hebrew “amên” 8 times. (Studiebibeln V p 100; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

The single "amen" occurs 31 times in Matthew, 13 times in Mark, 6 times in Luke. Only John uses the double "amen" and this occurs 25 times. (Raymond E. Brown "The Gospel according to John" p 84)

The usual Hebrew word for "faith" at the same time means "make firm", and a derivative form of the same word is the "amen", by which we use to end our prayers. The rabbis taught, that man can become blessed by say amen in a right way. In reality it is true. For to say amen in the literal sense of the word, it is to hold the promises of God and believe in his word. (Sven Danell "Kyrkoårets vardag" p 20 in comment to Hebr 10:35-39; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

"I promise you that we meet again", (Oskar said to Rasmus). "Is it quite sure, Oskar?" "Sure as amen in church." (Astrid Lindgren "Rasmus på luffen" p 146; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

When Emil read for (Stolle-Jocke in the poor-house) that it would become a great ball at the principal hotel in Eksjö coming Saturday, then Stolle-Jocke devoutly folded his hands saying: "Amen, amen, yes, yes, it shall so happen!" (Astrid Lindgren "Än lever Emil i Lönneberga" p 116; Stolle-Jocke = "Fool-Jocke"; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Carl Jonas Love Almqvist, Per G Ekström, Hasib Kayali, Selma Lagerlöf, Severin Larsen, Martin Luther, Viktor Rydberg, William Shakespeare.


My own comments and speculations:

Compare the double use of the words "joybringing (grace)" in John 1:16 and My own comments and speculations to John 18:15-16.

In the Synoptics (the manuscript Sinaiticus prima manus) the single word "amen" in the mouth of Jesus occurs 51 times (31 times in Matthew, 13 times in Mark and 7 times in Luke). In Matt 6:2 "amen" is doubled, at the other places it is mentioned with one single word. In the Gospel of John the double word "amen, amen" occurs 25 times (as many times as the single "amen" occurs in the Hebrew OT), which makes that the word occurs totally 50 times, once fewer than in the Synoptics. We can see it so, that the 51st "amen" in the Synoptics comes in Rev 1:6 as a marking that a new time has begun after the 50th year of jubilee in the Gospel. In the Revelation (Sinaiticus prima manus) the word "amen" occurs twelve times, the number associating to the chosen people Israel. We can also observe also that the word "amen" in the manuscript Sinaiticus is the last word in the Revelation. Compare with My own comments and speculations to John 2:19-22, 6:16-21 and Rev 22:20-21.


Paul said to the believers in Corinth: "As many as the promises of God (are) the Yes in Him, therefore (is) and/also through Him the Amen to God towards/to glory through us." (2 Cor 1:20)


Greek words:

amên (amen) (see above concerning the OT and the Gospels; here Bible passages in other parts of the NT are recorded) John 1:51; 2 Cor 1:20 – Rom 1:25; 9.5; 11:36; 15:33; 16:27; I Cor 14:16; I Cor 16:24(א,*א,A); Gal 1:5; 6:18; Eph 3:21; Phil 4:20; Phil 4:23(א,*א,A); I Thess 3:13; I Thess 5:28(א,*א,A); 1 Tim 1:17; 6:16; 2 Tim 4:18; Philemon v 25(א,*א); Heb 13:21; I Pet 4:11; 5:11; I Pet 5:14(א,*א); II Pet 3:18; Rev 1:6-7; 3:14; Rev 4:10(א,*א); Rev 5:14; Rev 7:10(א*); Rev 7:12; Rev 11:15(א,*א); Rev 15:7(א,*א); Rev 19:4; Rev 22:21(א,*א).


Additional studies:

Rom 1:25; 9.5; 11:36; Gal 6:18; Upp 1:6-7; 3:14; 5:14; 7:12; 15:7; 19:4; 22:21.


Majella Franzmann - Michael Klinger "The Call Stories of John 1 and 21"; Saint Vladimir's Theological Quarterly 36 (1992): 7-15.

Craig R. Koester "Messianic Exegesis and the Call of Nathanael"; Journal for the Study of the New Testament 39 (1990): 23-34.

Christopher Rowland "John 1:51, Jewish Apocalyptic and Targumic Tradition"; New Testament Studies 30 (1984): 498-507.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-01-26; 2010-05-01; 2013-04-16; 2014-03-27; concluding version 2017-09-13)

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1:51b You will behold the heaven being (and having been) opened and the messengers of God ascending and descending against the Son of the Man.

Word for word (17 words in the Greek text): you-will-behold the heaven being-(and-having-been)-opened and the messengers (of)-the (of)-god ascending and descending against the son (of)-the (of)-man.


The Former Revelation (preliminary translation):

(Jacob) dreamt, and behold, a ladder being set fast in/on the earth, which head/top overcame/reached into the heaven, and the messengers of God (continually) ascended and (continually) descended upon it! (Gen 28:12, Greek OT)

(Isaiah said to God:) ”If – according to the circumsstances – You might open the heaven.” (Is 64:1a, Greek OT)

The heavens were opened, and (the prophet) beheld beholdings of God. (Ezek 1:1b, Greek OT)

“I will veil you entirely in the thing to be quenched, and I will let heaven and its stars grow dark, I will veil sun in a cloud and moon may not/certainly not ‘be brought to’/give its light. All the things ‘bringing to light’/giving light in the heaven will grow dark against you, and I will give darkness against your earth/land,” says the Lord, the Lord (to Egypt). (Ezek 32:7-8, Greek OT)

(Daniel said:) “I (continually) looked at in a vision of the night. And behold, (One) as a son of a man (continually) came upon the clouds of the heaven. And He (continually) was by the side of (One) as an Old of Days and the ones standing by the side of (Him) (continually) were by the side of Him." (Dan 7:13, Greek OT)

(The prophet said to Israel:) “Who has ascended into the heaven and taken (the wisdom) and precipitated it out of the clouds?” (Baruch 3:29)


The Latter Revelation:

Having been baptized Jesus straight/’straight off’ ascended from the water; and behold, the heavens were opened, and (John) beheld a (א,* א, B) spirit of God descending as if (it was) a pigeon * (א*, B) coming against Him. (Matt 3:16)

Behold, messengers came to/forward and (continually) rendered service to (Jesus). (Matt 4:11b)

(Jesus said to some Pharisees:) “In the resurrection ... (the seven brothers) are as the messengers of God (א,* א) in the heaven. (Matt 22:30)

And behold … having descended out of heaven and come to (the grave) a messenger of the Lord rolled off the stone, and he (continually) was seated above it. (His) form (was) (א*) as a ray of light. (Matt 28:2-3a)

(Jesus was a son) of Adam (= man), of God. (Luke 3:38b)

(Jesus said to the Pharisees and the scribes:) “It becomes joy in the very eyes of the messengers of God on/’on the ground of’ one misser (of His mark) changing his mind.” (Luke 15:10b)

(Zaccheus) (continually) sought to behold Jesus, who He is ... and having run forward into the/what (being) in front of (him) he ascended against/into a fig-mulberry in order that he might behold Him. (Luke 19:3a,4a)

Having come into (the memorial tomb) (the women) did not find the body of the Lord Jesus. And it became/’came about’ to them in the be/being in a puzzle on account of this, and behold, two males stood on/near them in a flashing clothing. (Luke 24:3-4)

(Stephen) spoke: “Behold, I look at the heavens being (and having been) opened throughout and the Son of the Man standing out of the right (parts) of God.” (Acts 7:56)

(Peter) looks at the heaven being (and having been) opened and descending ... something as a great linen garment. (Acts 10:11a)


Exegetes, evangelists and others:

about 2000 - about 1500

Compare Third Baruch 1:6; 2:1a: ”And again the angel of hosts said to me, ‘Come and I will show you greater mysteries.’ ... And taking me, the angel of the Lord led me (from the first heaven) to a second heaven.” (Leif Carlsson “Round Trips to Heaven p 358)

The messengers going up the steps (Gen 28:12) were singing the praises of Jacob, while those who were coming down were leaping and dancing and saying terrible things about him, said some rabbis. Some said that these were just two places from which to view the sleeping Jacob, one close by and the other far away. Others said that in God's realm those who praise Israel (Jacob's new name, given later) are “lifted up,” while those who speak against are “brought low.” On earth, unfortunately, just the opposite is true. (Michael E. Williams “Genesis” p 143; Genesis Rabbah 69.2)

In fact "angel" - both the Greek and the Hebrew word - quite simply means messenger. (Bo Giertz "Apostlagärningarna" p 47 in comment to Acts 5:17-21; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

When Big Ingmar and Strong Ingmar had come down here and were going to pass the raft bridge, it was as if anyone had told them to see upwards. They did so, and they saw heaven opened above them. The whole vault of heaven was drawn to the side as a curtain, and the two men stood hand in hand seeing into the glory of the whole heaven. Have you ever heard such a thing, mother Stina, and you, Storm? the rector said. The two men, Big Ingmar and Strong Ingmar, stood there on the bridge and saw heaven opened! They have really never told anyone what they saw, but they have only said so much to children and near relatives, as that they once had stood there on the bridge and had seen heaven opened. No stranger has got to know it, for it has been their greatest treasure and most holy gift, that they had seen the glory of heaven. ... The rector again saw down for a while. So he sighed deeply. - I have never heard such a thing be told, he said. His voice quavered a little, when he went on: I had gladly wanted to stand there on the bridge with Big Ingmar and Strong Ingmar seeing heaven opened. ... Big Ingmar lay and was anxious he would not see (Strong Ingmar) before his death. ... So they had at last found the crofter, and Big Ingmar ... smiled, when he heard the heavy steps of Strong Ingmar in the big room. When the man stood by the side of his bed, he took his hand and patted it slowly. So he asked him: "Do you recollect, you Strong Ingmar, when we went down on the church bridge and saw heaven opened? - "Yes, indeed, certainly I remember it, when we two saw into heaven", Strong Ingmar said. Then Big Ingmar wholly turned towards him. He smiled and was radiant as he had the sweetest news to tell. "I, I go there now", he said to Strong Ingmar. Then the crofter bent forward seeing him deeply in his eyes. . "I, I follow you", he said. Big Ingmar nodded to him. "But you know, that I cannot come before your son comes home from the pilgrimage." - "Yes, certainly, I know", Big Ingmar said and nodded. After this he only took some deep breathes, and so he was dead. (Selma Lagerlöf "Jerusalem I" p 53-55; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

There two policemen are coming with a drunk man between themselves. . . . (I) am seeing his face . . . directed upwards, towards heaven. . . . He looks so happy, as if heaven was open and he saw into the middle of it, forgetting men, earth and sounds from carriages, forgetting policemen, poverty, overpopulation and prisons. Seldom I have seen such a happy man! (August Strindberg "Pantomimer från gatan" p 44; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)


about 1500 and time before

Over the last days of (Karl Palmberg) in Nävelsjö (in the beginning of 1882) a blue sky with brilliant sunshine vaulted. He felt it as if from his office a ladder was raised against an open heaven, on which ladder the angels of God ascended and descended. (Efraim Palmqvist "Karl Palmberg och hans samtida" p 199,204-205; Karl Palmberg /1842-1920/ was from 1883 a Lutheran clergyman in Månsarp in the diocese of Växjö and president in Jönköpings Missionsförening (Missionary Society) 1886-1911; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

All power is spiritual and streams out from one single spiritual spring: from God, and is communicated to the heavens and to the earth and to all things, which are there, through incorporeal, spiritual and personal beings. Such ones fill the universe. The elements themselves get their powers from them. These beings are called intelligences or angels. . . . The innumerable hosts of these form nine choirs or orders, distributed among three hierarchies, which correspond to the three worlds: the one of the prototypes, the one of the movable heavens and the one of the earthly one. . . . All hierarchies and choirs form a continuous chain of activities playing into one another, and the world building resembles a Jacob ladder, on which "powers of heaven wander up and down handing golden pails to one another". (Viktor Rydberg "Medeltidens magi" p 6-8; The ideology of the Middle Ages; translation from the Swedish text: BG Ask)

“What wilt thou (Nathanael) say, when thou seest the Angels ascending and descending upon (Christ)?” ... For on (Him) the royal ministers ascended and descended, once at the season of the Crucifixion, again at the time of the Resurrection and the Ascension. (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers XIV:73)

In the first things we were found unfaithful, and (God) hath committed to us greater; we could not refrain from a single tree, and He hath provided for us the delights above; we kept not our place in Paradise, and He hath opened to us the doors of heaven. (Chrysostom, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers XIV:90)


Examples of other quoted authors in the Swedish version: Bo Brander, Pär Lagerkvist, Jonas Lie, Gabriela Mistral, Fredrik Nielsen, Tite Tienou.


My own comments and speculations:

In a dream Jacob saw how a ladder was set on the earth with its top reaching to heaven and the angels of God ascending and descending on it. But there were scribes who interpreted the text in such a way that they meant that the angels ascended and descended on the body of Jacob (Israel). (The Midrashim Genesis Rabbah LXIX:III).

Jesus said that His disciples would see the messengers of God ascending and descending on the Son of the Man. And Mariam (P66,א,*א) looked at *(א*) messengers in white, sitting down whereat the body of Jesus had been laid down, one at the head and one at the feet (John 20:12). Furthermore see "My comments and speculations" to John 20:11-13. Jesus can also be seen as the ladder between heaven and earth with its top (in Greek “head”) reaching into heaven.

In a restoration perspective we can see how “the Lord, the Lord”, who veiled all the lights in the heaven (Ezek 32:7-8), now, as the One who is both the Lord and the Amen (Rev 3:14), says “Amen, amen” and opens the heaven.

Concerning "The Son of the Man" we find this name of Jesus in both the Synoptics and in the Gospel of John (Matt 8:20; 9:6; 12:8,32,40; 13:37,41; 16:13,27-28; 17:9; 19:28; 24:30; 26:64; Mark 8:38; 13:26; 14:62; Luke 12:8; 18:8; 21:36; John 1:51; 3:13-14; 5:27; 6:27,53,62; 8:28; 9:35; 12:23,34; 13:31). Furthermore we find this expression in Acts 7:56. John beholds, that Jesus is the Son of the Man, begotten by God, and not a male, begotten by a male.


Greek words:

angelos (messenger) (in John, 1-3 John, Rev + examples in the Apocrypha) John 1:51 - Esther 5:2a(D13); Tobit 5:4,17,22; 6:3-4(4-5),7,11(BA),16(BA); 8:15(BA); 11:14; 12:15,22; Judith 1:11; 3:1; 1 Macc 1:44; 5:14; 7:10,41; 2 Macc 11:6; 15:22-23; Wisdom of Solomon 16:20; Sir 48:21; Epistle of Jeremiah v 6; Susanna v 55,59; The Prayer of Azariah v 26; The Song of Praise of the Three Men v 36; Bel and the Dragon v 34,36,39; John 12:29; 20:12; Rev 1:1,20; 2:1,8,12,18; 3:1,5,7,14; 5:2,11; 7:1,2,11; 8:2-6,10,12-13; 9:1,11,13-15; 10:1,5,7-10; 11:15; 12:7,9; 14:6,9-10,15,17-19; 15:1,6-8; 16:1,5; Rev 16:8(א,*א); Rev 17:1,7; 18:1,21; 19:17; 20:1; 21:9,12,17; 22:6,8,16.

anabainô (ascend) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Baruch 3:29; Matt 3:16; Luke 19:4; John 1:51 – Tobit 3:10; 12:20; Judith 5:20; 7:18; 12:8; 14:11; 1 Macc 1:20; 3:15; 4:36-37; 5:31,54; 7:1,33; 9:8,66; 10:1; 13:2,45; 16:1; 2 Macc 2:4; 5:12; Wisdom of Solomon 19:12; Sir 48:18. Matt 5:1; 13:7; 14:23,32; 15:29; 17:27; 20:17-18; Mark 1:10; 3:13; 4:7-8,32; 6:51; 10:32-33; 15:8; Luke 2:4,42; 5:19; 9:28; 18:10,31; 19:28; 24:38; John 2:13; 3:13; 5:1; John 6:24(P75,א*); John 6:62; 7:8,10,14; 10:1; 11:55; 12:20; 20:17; 21:11. Acts 1:13; 2:34; 3:1; 7:23; 8:31,39; 10:4,9; 11:2; 15:2; 18:22; 20:11; 21:6,12,15,31; 24:11; 25:1,9; Rom 10:6; 1 Cor 2:9; Gal 2:1-2; Eph 4:8-10; Rev 4:1; 7:2; 8:4; 9:2; 11:7,12; 13:1,11; 14:11; 17:8; 19:3; 20:9.

anoigô (open) (in the NT + examples in the Apocrypha) Matt 3:16; John 1:51; Acts 10:11 – Tobit 8:13; 11:7,16(17); Judith 10:9; 13:11,13; 1 Macc 3:28; 5:48; 10:76; 11:2; 2 Macc 1:16; Wisdom of Solomon 10:21; Sir 24:2; 26:12; 43:14; 51:25; Baruch 2:17; Susanna v 25,39; Bel and the Dragon v 18. Matt 2:11; 5:2; 7:7-8; 9:30; 13:35; 17:27; 20:33; 25:11; 27:52; Mark 7:35; Luke 1:64; 3:21; 11:9-10; 12:36; 13:25; John 9:10,14,17,21,26,30,32; 10:3,21; 11:37. Acts 5:19,23; 8:32,35; 9:8,40; 10:34; 12:10,14,16; 14:27; 16:26-27; 18:14; 26:18; Rom 3:13; 1 Cor 16:9; 2 Cor 2:12; 6:11; Col 4:3; Rev 3:7-8,20; 4:1; 5:2-5,9; 6:1,3,5,7,9,12; 8:1; 10:2,8; 11:19; 12:16; 13:6; 15:5; 19:11; 20:12.


Additional studies:

Mark 1:13; 16:5; Luke 22:43; John 20:12; Acts 1:10-11; 10:3; Gal 4:14; Heb 1:6; Rev 1:7; 5:14; 6:2; 8:2; 7:12; 14:14; 17:3.


Majella Franzmann - Michael Klinger "The Call Stories of John 1 and 21"; Saint Vladimir's Theological Quarterly 36 (1992): 7-15.

Craig R. Koester "Messianic Exegesis and the Call of Nathanael"; Journal for the Study of the New Testament 39 (1990): 23-34.

J.C. O'Neill "Son of Man, Stone of Blood"; Novum Testamentum 45.4 (2003): 374-381.

John W. Pryor "The Johannine Son of Man and the descent-ascent motif"; Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 34.3 (Sept. 1991): 341-351.

Christopher Rowland "John 1:51, Jewish Apocalyptic and Targumic Tradition"; New Testament Studies 30 (1984): 498-507.


(Original version 2007-12-01; revised version 2009-01-27; 2010-05-02; 2013-04-19; 2014-03-27; concluding version 2017-09-13)

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